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NANOPARTICLES

A.Anvesh Kumar M.Pharmacy(Pharmaceutics).

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Contents:
• • • • • • Introduction Advantages and Disadvantages Methods of Preparation Characterization Evaluation Applications

3 INTRODUCTION • Nanoparticles are sub-nanosized colloidal structures composed of synthetic or semi-synthetic polymers.Nanocapsule .Nanospheres 2. • Its size ranges from 1-100nm. • One can distinguish two types of nanoparticles 1.

matrix systems. . • Nanocapsules .which are reservoir systems composed of a polymer membrane surrounding an oily or aqueous core.4 • Nanospheres .

5 ADVANTAGES : • Reduction in the frequency of the dosages taken by the patient • More uniform effect of the drug • Reduction of drug Side Effects • Reduced fluctuation in circulating drug levels • Avoids hepatic first pass metabolism .

.6 DISADVANTAGES : • • • • • • High cost Productivity more difficult Reduced ability to adjust the dose Highly sophisticated technology Requires skills to manufacture Difficult to maintain stability of dosage form.

2)chemical crosslinking. B : Polymerization Methods 1) Emulsion polymerization 2) Dispersion polymerization 3) Interfacial condensation polymerization 4) Interfacial complexation C : Polymer precipitation methods 1) Solvent evaporation method 2) Solvent displacement 3) Salting out .7 Methods of preparation A : Amphiphilic Macromolecules Cross Linking 1)Heat crosslinking.

8 A : Molecular crosslinking in emulsion Surfactant Aqueous protein Aqueous phase. stabilizer Emulsification using highpressure homogenization or high frequency sonication O/W emulsion Dilution with preheated oil (100oC) (Heat cross-linking) Or Addition of crosslinking agent (Chemical cross-linking) Centrifugation and isolation of nanoparticles . Distilled water.

9 B : Polymerization Methods Emulsion polymerization : It consists of a) Micellar nucleation and polymerization : Monomer is insoluble in continuous phase. .(O/W phase) Aqueous phase b)Homogenous nucleation and polymerization : Monomer is soluble in continuous phase.(W/O phase) Organic phase.

Micellar nucleation and polymerization Drug Monomer Catalyst Monomer droplet monomer supply Catalyst Monomer bearing nanospheres Nucleated micelle Stabilized polymeric micelle (micelle) (nanospheres) .

11 Homogenous nucleation and polymerization .

12 Dispersion polymerization: .

13 Interfacial polymer condensation Core + Drug Polymer phase Core dispersed polymer phase (O/W emulsion) Non solvent which precipitates out polymer from either of phases Nancapsules 30-300nm .

Salting out . Solvent evaporation method 2. Isopropanolol) They are 3 types 1.14 C : Polymer Precipitation Methods: The polymer precipitation occurs as a consequence of solvent evaporation which can be brought about by increasing solubility of organic solvent in external medium by adding alcohol (Eg. Solvent displacement 3.

15 Solvent Evaporation Method .

organic solvent. polymer+drug .16 Solvent Displacement Method Organic phase. Polarsolvent. Oil+polymer+drug Organic phase.

17 Salting out of Polymer stirring .

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) : Easier method & Permits differntiation among nanocapsule & nanoparticle .18 Evaluation of nanoparticles : 1. Laser diffractrometry : For larger particle. Electron microscopy (EM) : Required coating of conductive material such as gold & limited to dry sample. Atomic force microscope Laser force microscope Scanning electron microscope High resolution microscope . Particle size : Photon correlation spectroscopy(PCS) : For smaller particle.

4.Density : Helium or air using a gas pycnometer Density gradiant centrifugation 3. .19 2. 1) Differential scanning calorimetry 2) Differential thermal analysis 3) Thermogravimetry 5. Molecular weight : Gel permeation chromatography using refractive index detector. Structure & Crystallinity : X-ray diffraction Thermoanalytical method such as. Surface charge: Surface charge of particle can be determined by measuring particle velocity in electrical field.

Invitro release : Diffusion cell Recently introduced modified Ultra-filtration tech. Drug entrapment efficiency : .20 6. Media used : phosphate buffer 7. Nanoparticle yield : 8.

.21 Recent Advances in Nanoparticles Solid lipid nanoparticle: • SLN are submicron colloidal carriers (50-1000nm) which are composed of physiological lipid.

.22 Dry Powder Aerosol: • L ung cancer treatment can be achieved by using nanoparticles in dry powder aerosol form .

Material Polyalkylcyanoacrylate with anticancer agent Poly alkyl cyanoarylate Intra cellular targeting Vaccine adjuvant Poly methyl metha acrylate nanoparticles with vaccines DNA gelatin nanoparticles. Reduced toxicity. antiinflammatory agent DNA delivery Ocular delivery .23 Applications: Application Cancer therapy Purpose Targeting. Enhance immune response Enhanced bioavailability and significantly higher expression level Improved retention of the drug and reduced washed out. DNA chitosan nanoparticles Poly alkyl cyanoacrylate nanoparticles . enhance uptake of antitumor agent Target reticuloendothelial system for intracellular infection Prolong systemic drug effect.

2011. CBS publisher & Distributers.org/wiki/Nanoparticle • http://www.K. “Advances in controlled and novel Drug Delivery”.K. VYAS and R. 408 • Indian Drugs Journal. Pg. KHAR • Jain N.wikipedia.24 References: • Targetted and controlled drug delivery by S. • http://en.net/reviews/nanoparticles-review . Edition 1st 2001.pharmainfo. Edition Nov.P.

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