Unit 2 Notes

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Basics, Cells & Organization

(1) Function
• • • • Respond to stimuli Process information Communicate Maintain homeostasis

• Basic Pathway: Sensory Input  Integrate & Process  Motor Output

(2) Structure
• Made of:
– Brain – Spinal cord – Neurons – Junctions

• Has a complex organization (hierarchy) of sensory and motor levels.

(3) Brain & Spine
• Brain divided into lobes • Spinal cord = communication highway • All nerves communicate through Spine

• Example: Paralysis

(4) Neuron
• Neuron = Nerve Cell • Types: Multipolar + Unipolar • Basic Structural Components:
– Dendrites (Incoming) – Cell Body (Integrate + Process) – Axon (Outgoing) – Myelin Sheath (Insulation + Speed) – Axon Terminal (Final Destination)

(5) Unipolar Neurons
• Use: Afferent Input (Sensory Input) • Dendrites connected to sensory organ • Message sent to cell body  Out Axon • Message sent out of axon terminal • FOCUS:
– Get message to CNS – Let CNS process and decide (NO need to have cell body right by dendrites)

(6) Multipolar Neurons
• Use: Efferent Output (Motor Output)

• Multi = Lots of extensions coming from cell body • Cell body directly connected to dendrites • Dendrites coming from CNS / Efferent path  effected organ
• FOCUS:
– Organize messages by importance – Make organs do things (Important to have cell body right next to dendrites)

(7) Neuroglia
• Function: Support, insulate and protect neurons.
– Cannot transmit nerve impulses – Can continuously divide through mitosis

• Types: – Astrocytes – Microglia – Ependymal – Oligodendrocytes – Schwann Cells & Satellite Cells

(8) Astrocytes
• Star-Shaped glia cells • Connect neurons to capilaries • Transfer blood-nutrients to neurons (and neuron waste to blood)

(9) Microglia
• Spider-Shaped glia cell • Phagocytize neuron debris and infectious agents. • Phagocytize??  Eat or Engulf

(10) Ependymal Cells
• • • • Pillow-Shaped cells Line brain and spinal cord cavities Beat cilia + Circulate cerebrospinal fluid Provide Shock Absorption

(11) Oligodendrocytes
• Flat, Straw-Shaped cells • Wrap around a neuron’s axon • Fatty insulation for axon (myelin sheath)

(12) Schwann & Satellite Cells
• Schwann Cell: – Form Myelin Sheath around axons – Cover Oligodendrocytes

• Satellite Cell: – Protective Cushioning – Surround Cell body of neurons

(13) Junctions
• Junction = Meeting of Neuron + Neuron or Neuron + Organ
– A.K.A.  Synapse, Synaptic Cleft

• Nerve Impulse  Axon  Axon Terminal  Release Neurotransmitter
– Neurotransmitter = Chemical Message – Causes an effect – Binds with cell membrane on other side

(14) Nervous System Organization
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (SENSORY / AFFERENT INPUT)

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (MOTOR / EFFERENT OUTPUT)

BODY (INITIAL STIMULUS / IMBALANCE)

AUTONOMIC (INVOLUNTARY)

SOMATIC (VOLUNTARY)

SYMPATHETIC (FIGHT / FLIGHT)

PARASYMPATHETIC (REST & DIGEST)

(15) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
• Organizes messages sent TO and AWAY from the CNS. • 2 Divisions:
– Sensory/Afferent Input – Motor/Efferent Output

(16) Sensory vs. Motor
• SENSORY: (INPUT)
– Afferent Input (toward from body) – Sends message from body part  Brain – Response to initial stimulus or Imbalance

• MOTOR: (OUTPUT)
– – – – Efferent Output (away from body) Sends message from CNS  effector organ *Effector Organ = Organ which responds Includes 2 Divisions… • Autonomic • Somatic

(17) Somatic vs. Autonomic
• SOMATIC:
– Voluntary Actions (Conscious Decisions) – Skeletal Muscle

• AUTONOMIC:
– Involuntary Actions (Happens w/o Thought) – Includes 2 Divisions…
• Parasympathetic • Sympathetic

(18) Parasympathetic vs. Sympathetic
• PARASYMPATHETIC:
– “Rest & Digest” – Regular body functions (digestion, blinking, gas exchange, sleep, etc.)

• SYMPATHETIC:
– “Fight or Flight” – Body functions ONLY during heightened emotion (change in heart rate, perspiration, change in blood flow, etc.)