World War I

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This article is about the major war of 1914–1918. For other uses, see World War One
(disambiguation) and Great War (disambiguation).

World War I

Clockwise from top: trenches on the Western Front; a British Mark IV
Tank crossing a trench; Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistiblesinking after
striking a mine at the Battle of the Dardanelles; aVickers machine gun crew
with gas masks, and German Albatros D.III biplanes

Date

Location

28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918 (Armistice)
(4 years, 3 months and 1 week)
Treaty of Versailles signed 28 June 1919
Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye signed 10
September 1919
Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine signed 27 November
1919
Treaty of Trianon signed 4 June 1920
Treaty of Sèvres signed 10 August 1920
Europe, Africa, the Middle East, the Pacific

Result

Islands, China and off the coast of South and
North America
Allied victory
End of the German, Russian, Ottoman,

and Austro-Hungarian empires
Formation of new countries in Europe

and the Middle East
Transfer of German

colonies andregions of the former Ottoman
Empireto other powers
Establishment of the League of

Nations. (more...)

Belligerents
Allied (Entente) Powers

Central Powers
Germany

France
British Empire

Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire

Australia

Canada

Bulgaria (1915–18)

Various co-belligerents

India

Newfoundland

New Zealand

South Africa
Russia (1914–17)
Italy (1915–18)
United States (1917–18)
Romania (1916–18)

Japan
Serbia
Belgium
Greece (1917–18)
and others

Commanders and leaders
Leaders and commanders

Leaders and commanders

Raymond Poincaré

Wilhelm II

Georges Clemenceau

Paul von Hindenburg

Ferdinand Foch

Erich Ludendorff

H. H. Asquith

Franz Joseph I

David Lloyd George

Karl I

Douglas Haig

Conrad von Hötzendorf

Nicholas II

Mehmed V

Nicholas Nikolaevich

Enver Pasha

Victor Emanuel III

Mustafa Kemal

Antonio Salandra

Ferdinand I

Vittorio Orlando

Nikola Zhekov

Luigi Cadorna

and others

Woodrow Wilson
John J. Pershing
Ferdinand I
and others

Strength
Entente[1]

Central Powers[1]

12,000,000

13,250,000

8,841,541[2][3]

7,800,000

8,660,000[4]

2,998,321

5,615,140

1,200,000

4,743,826
1,234,000

Total: 25,248,321

further details.000 Total: 42. WIA or 16.800. It involved all the world's great powers.000 250.500 KIA.. MIA. including 60 million Europeans.477. Italy did not enter into the war). were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history.[5] which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies(based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom.500 8. without .343 380.959. and the First World War or World War I thereafter.850 Casualties and losses Military dead: Military dead: 5. as Austria–Hungary had taken the offensive against the agreement.. thanks to new technology.further details. France and Russia) and the Central Powers (originally centred around the Triple Alliance of Germany.000 4. [show]  V  T  E Theatres of World War I World War I (WWI) was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918..000 3.525. but.386.403.000 Total: Total: 22.[6] These alliances both reorganised (Italy fought for the Allies).. It was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until the start of World War II in 1939. Ultimately more than 70 million military personnel.629. and expanded as more nations entered the war. WIA or MIA. largely because of enormous increases in lethality of weapons.000 Military missing: Military missing: 4.[7][8] More than 9 million combatants were killed.831.000 Military wounded: Military wounded: 12.000 KIA.000 707. Austria-Hungary and Italy.121.388.

In the East. It resulted in a Habsburg ultimatum against theKingdom of Serbia. Theassassination on 28 June 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. the British Empire. The Russian Empire collapsed in March 1917. agreed to a cease-fire on 11 November 1918. and Italy.Luxembourg and France. and a Russian attack against Germany. four major imperial powers— the German. the French Republic.[12][13] followed by the German invasion of Belgium. Additional fronts opened after the Ottoman Empire joined the war in 1914. the Russian Empire. Russian. By the end of the war. while the latter two were dismantled entirely. so within weeks the major powers were at war. The successor states of the former two lost a great amount of territory. The European nationalism spawned by the war and the breakup of empires. [9] Long-term causes of the war included the imperialistic foreign policies of the great powers of Europe. the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary. as the participants tried to mobilize their manpower and economic resources to fight a total war. the Western Front settled into a static battle of attrition with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On 28 July. Bosnia and Herzegovina was the proximate trigger of the war. by a Yugoslav nationalist in Sarajevo. the Ottoman Empire. The war had ended in victory for the Allies.[10][11] Several alliances formed over the previous decades were invoked. [14] The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict. later known asArmistice Day. Austro-Hungarian and Ottomanempires—ceased to exist. the Allies drove back the German armies in a series of successful offensives and United States forces began entering the trenches. and Russia left the war after the October Revolution later that year. which had its own trouble with revolutionaries at this point. the repercussions of Germany's defeat and problems with the Treaty of Versailles are agreed to be factors contributing to World War II. theAustro-Hungarian Empire. the conflict soon spread around the world. It was the sixth-deadliest conflict in world history. the conflict opened with the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia. After a 1918 German offensive along the western front. Germany. Events on the home fronts were as tumultuous as on the battle fronts.corresponding improvements in protection or mobility. including the German Empire.[15] Contents [hide] 1 Names 2 Background . The map of central Europe was redrawn into several smaller states. via their colonies. Italy and Bulgaria in 1915 and Romania in 1916. subsequently paving the way for various political changes such as revolutions in many of the nations involved. After the German march on Paris was brought to a halt. the Russian army successfully fought against the Austro-Hungarian forces but was forced back from East Prussia and Poland by the German army.

1 War in the Balkans  3.5.1 Opening hostilities o  3.4 Romanian participation  3.3 Theatres of conflict 3.1.1 Trench warfare begins (1914-1915)  3.1.5 Eastern Front o  3.1.4.1 Confusion among the Central Powers  3.5 Asia and the Pacific 3.2.5 The role of India 3.1 Initial actions .4.2 Trench warfare continues (1916-1917) o 3.2 Western Front o  3.1.3 Italian participation  3.2 African campaigns  3.4.4 Southern theatres  3.4 German forces in Belgium and France  3.4.2 Ottoman Empire  3.3 Serbian campaign  3.3 Naval war o 3.4.2.1.

June 1919 4 Technology o 4.7 New states under war zone  3.1 Non-intervention  3.1 Developments in 1917  3.6 Ottoman Empire conflict 1918  3.3.3 Entry of the United States  3.7.3.7.3.S.S.5 German Spring Offensive of 1918  3.9.8 Treaty of Versailles.7.5. November 1918  o 3.4 Austrian offer of separate peace  3.7.7.1 Aviation .6 Central Powers proposal for starting peace negotiations o 3. participation  3.7.7.2 Russian Revolution  o 3.7.3 First active U.9 Armistices and capitulations 3.7 1917–1918  3.7.7.7.2 Ottoman Empire conflict in 1917  3.7.1 Allied superiority and the stab-in-the-back legend. declaration of war on Germany  3.7.3.2 U.8 Allied victory: summer and autumn 1918  3.

2 "Rape of Belgium" o 6 Soldiers' experiences o 6.1 Russian Empire  5.1 Support o 7.2.2 Peace treaties and national boundaries 9 Legacy o 9.o 4.1 Genocide and ethnic cleansing o 5.1 Prisoners of war o 6.1 Health and economic effects o 8.4 Flamethrowers and subterranean transport 5 War crimes 5.2 Improvements in naval technology during World War I o 4.1 Memorials .2 Military attachés and war correspondents 7 Support and opposition to the war o 7.1 Conscription  8 Aftermath o 8.2 Opposition 7.1.3 Improvements in ground warfare technology in World War I o 4.

with British and Canadian historians favouring the First World War.1 Animated maps Names In Canada. and Americans World War I..4 Discontent in Germany o 9. This is the Great War.5 Views in the United States o 9. "Some wars name themselves.o 9. Background .7 Economic effects 10 See also 10. will become the first world war in the full sense of the word.2 Cultural memory o 9. Maclean's Magazine in October 1914 said.6 New national identities o 9. Both of these terms had also been used during the Interwar period. in English-speaking countries. the war was most often called the World War and the Great War. the terms World War I or the First World War became standard. After the onset of the Second World War in 1939."[16] During the Interwar period. who claimed that "there is no doubt that the course and character of the feared 'European War' .1 Media o 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links o 13.3 Social trauma o 9. The term "First World War" was first used in September 1914 by the German philosopher Ernst Haeckel."[17] The First World War was also the title of a 1920 history by the officer and journalist Charles à Court Repington..

He especially worked to hold Russia at Germany's side to avoid a two-front war with France and Russia. and in 1907. resulting by 1900 in a complex network of political and military alliances throughout the continent. with the Holy Alliance between Prussia.[6] In 1882. in October 1873. and neutral countries in grey In the 19th century. leaving Germany and Austria–Hungary in an alliance formed in 1879. they made British entry into any future conflict involving France or Russia probable. In 1904. this alliance was expanded to include Italy in what became the Triple Alliance. Central Powersin orange.[6] . the Entente Cordiale. the United Kingdom signed a series of agreements with France. the major European powers had gone to great lengths to maintain a balance of power throughout Europe. When Wilhelm II ascended to the throne as German Emperor (Kaiser). the Franco-Russian Alliance was signed to counteract the force of the Triple Alliance. This was seen as a method of countering Russian influence in the Balkans as the Ottoman Empire continued to weaken. While these agreements did not formally ally the United Kingdom with France or Russia. the Kaiser refused to renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia in 1890. and the system of interlocking bilateral agreements became known as the Triple Entente. For example. This agreement failed because Austria–Hungary and Russia could not agree over Balkan policy. Bismarck was compelled to retire and his system of alliances were gradually deemphasised. German ChancellorBismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors (German: Dreikaiserbund) between the monarchs of Austria–Hungary.[18] After 1870.[6] These had started in 1815. the United Kingdom and Russia signed the Anglo-Russian Convention. European conflict was averted largely through a carefully planned network of treaties between the German Empire and the remainder of Europe orchestrated by Bismarck. Russia and Germany. and Austria.Main article: Causes of World War I Map of the participants in World War I: Allied Powers in green. Russia. Then. Two years later. called the Dual Alliance.

the British Empire expanded on its significant advantage over its German rival. established by Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz. the military spending of the European powers increased by 50 percent.[19] As a result. German industrial and economic power had grown greatly after unification and the foundation of the Empire in 1871. the Pan-Slavic and Orthodox Russian Empire. each nation strove to outbuild the other in terms of capital ships.[19] The arms race between Britain and Germany eventually extended to the rest of Europe. This angered the Kingdom of Serbiaand its patron. the government of Wilhelm II used this base to devote significant economic resources to building up the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy). From the mid-1890s on. a Bosnian-Serb student. in rivalry with the British Royal Navy for world naval supremacy.[21] Gavrilo Princip. With the launch of HMS Dreadnought in 1906.[22] .[22] Russian political manoeuvring in the region destabilised peace accords that were already fracturing in what was known as "the powder keg of Europe". which it had occupied since 1878. [20] Between 1908 and 1913. was arrested immediately after he assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Austria-Hungary precipitated the Bosnian crisis of 1908–1909 by officially annexing the former Ottoman territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. A naval arms raceexisted between the United Kingdom and Germany. with all the major powers devoting their industrial base to producing the equipment and weapons necessary for a pan-European conflict.HMS Dreadnought.

Germany. Germany declared war on Russia on the same day. Franz Ferdinand was not the sort of personality who commanded popularity. Austria-Hungary delivered the July Ultimatum to Serbia. resentful of the German conquest of Alsace-Lorraine during the FrancoPrussian War. Bosnia. intending to provoke a war with Serbia. ordered a partial mobilisation one day later. "Whether an equivocal and early response by Serbia would have made any difference to Austria-Hungary's behaviour must be doubtful.In 1912 and 1913 the First Balkan War was fought between the Balkan League and the fracturing Ottoman Empire. a Bosnian-Serb student and member of Young Bosnia. Montenegro. ordered French mobilisation on 1 August. unwilling to allow Austria–Hungary to eliminate its influence in the Balkans. France.[24] This began a month of diplomatic manoeuvring among Austria-Hungary. further destabilising the region. [27] The United Kingdom declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914. creating an independent Albanian State while enlarging the territorial holdings of Bulgaria. [26] The Russian Empire. Russia.[18] When the German Empire began to mobilise on 30 July 1914. Strachan argues. a series of ten demands intentionally made unacceptable. France. Serbia. following an "unsatisfactory reply" to the British ultimatum that Belgium must be kept neutral. Wanting to finally end Serbian interference in Bosnia. it lost most of Macedonia to Serbia and Greece and Southern Dobruja to Romania in the 33-day Second Balkan War. When Bulgaria attacked both Serbia and Greece on 16 June 1913. 1910 On 28 June 1914. and Greece. Gavrilo Princip. The resulting Treaty of London further shrank the Ottoman Empire. assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne.[23] Ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary.[25] When Serbia agreed to only eight of the ten demands. and in support of its longtime Serb protégés.[28] Theatres of conflict . Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria inSarajevo. Austria-Hungary declared war on 28 July 1914. and Britain called the July Crisis. and his demise did not cast the empire into deepest mourning".

French. a possible plan which detailed Germany's specific war aims and the conditions that Germany sought to force on the Allied Powers. French and British troops invaded the German protectorate of Togoland. but the replacements had never been tested in exercises. [30] Serbian campaign Main article: Serbian Campaign (World War I) . On 7 August. It was never officially adopted. fought a guerrilla warfare campaign during World War I and only surrendered two weeks after the armistice took effect in Europe. The German colonial forces in German East Africa. German forces in South-West Africa attacked South Africa. Germany had promised to support Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia.Opening hostilities Confusion among the Central Powers The strategy of the Central Powers suffered from miscommunication. envisioned Austria-Hungary directing most of its troops against Russia. however. Austro-Hungarian leaders believed Germany would cover its northern flank against Russia. and German colonial forces in Africa. but interpretations of what this meant differed. On 9 September 1914. African campaigns Lettow surrendering his forces to the British at Abercorn Main article: African theatre of World War I Some of the first clashes of the war involved British. the Septemberprogramm. This confusion forced the Austro-Hungarian Army to divide its forces between the Russian and Serbian fronts. was outlined by German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg. [29] Germany. On 10 August. led by Colonel Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck. Previously tested deployment plans had been replaced early in 1914. while Germany dealt with France. sporadic and fierce fighting continued for the rest of the war.

only one field army defended East Prussia. By 12 September. halted the German advance east of Paris at the First Battle of the Marne (5–12 September). launched on 7 August with the Battle of Mulhouse. weakening its efforts against Russia. and initially the Germans were successful. but this diversion aggravated problems of insufficient speed of advance from rail-heads not foreseen by the German General Staff. which marked the first major Allied victories of the war and dashed Austro-Hungarian hopes of a swift victory. early in the war all sides expected the conflict to be a short one. Despite this. [31] Serbia’s defeat of the Austro-Hungarian invasion of 1914 counts among the major upset victories of the last century. A message on the car spells out "Trip to Paris". Germany defeated Russia in a series of battles collectively known as the First Battle of Tannenberg (17 August – 2 September).[10] The plan called for the right flank of the German advance to converge on Paris. had limited success. designed to quickly attack France through neutral Belgium before turning southwards to encircle the French army on the German border. with assistance from the British forces. The Central Powers were denied a quick victory and forced to fight a war on two fronts.000 more French and British troops than it had lost itself. Austria invaded and fought the Serbian army at the Battle of Cer and Battle of Kolubara beginning on 12 August. Austria had to keep sizable forces on the Serbian front. communications problems and questionable command decisions cost Germany the chance of early victory.[32] German forces in Belgium and France German soldiers in a railway goods van on the way to the front in 1914. The German army had fought its way into a good defensive position inside France and had permanently incapacitated 230. the German army (consisting in the West of seven field armies) carried out a modified version of the Schlieffen Plan. Main article: Western Front (World War I) At the outbreak of the First World War.Serbian troops artillery positions in theBattle of Kolubara. particularly in the Battle of the Frontiers (14–24 August).[10] The French offensive into Germany. As a result. and when Russia attacked in this region it diverted German forces intended for the Western Front. The last days of this battle signified the end of mobile warfare in the west. Over the next two weeks Austrian attacks were thrown back with heavy losses.[33] . the French. In the east.

made crossing open ground extremely difficult.Asia and the Pacific Main article: Asian and Pacific theatre of World War I New Zealand occupied German Samoa (later Western Samoa) on 30 August 1914. Within a few months. only isolated commerce raiders and a few holdouts in New Guinea remained. On 11 September.[37] Commanders on both sides failed to develop tactics for breaching entrenched positions without heavy casualties. the Allied forces had seized all the German territories in the Pacific. Barbed wire was a significant hindrance to massed infantry advances. which out-of-date military tactics could not break through for most of the war. however. In time. technology began to produce new offensive weapons. both Entente and German forces began a series of outflanking manoeuvres.[36] The Germans introduced poison gas. such as the tank. Britain and France soon found themselves facing . in the so-called "Race to the Sea". vastly more lethal than in the 1870s. after the Siege of Tsingtao. coupled with machine guns. These advances allowed for impressive defence systems. though it never proved decisive in winning a battle.[38] After the First Battle of the Marne (5-12 September 1914). Artillery. Its effects were brutal. causing slow and painful death. Japan seized Germany's Micronesian colonies and. the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force landed on the island of Neu Pommern (later New Britain). the German coaling port of Qingdao in the Chinese Shandong peninsula.[34][35] Western Front Main article: Western Front (World War I) Trench warfare begins (1914-1915) Sir Winston Churchill with theRoyal Scots Fusiliers. which formed part of German New Guinea. and poison gas became one of the most-feared and best-remembered horrors of the war. it soon became used by both sides. 1916 Military tactics before World War I had failed to keep pace with advances in technology.

965 mi) of trenches. the French introduced the revolving turret of the Renault FT in late 1917. placed in a trench (1915) Both sides tried to break the stalemate using scientific and technological advances. Consequently.[39] Sunlight Soap ad. Anglo-French trenches were only intended to be "temporary" before their forces broke through German defences.[10] Britain and France sought to take the offensive. [41] A thousand battalions.2 million soldiers from the British and Dominion armies were on the Western Front at any one time. The front contained over 9. before Canadian soldiers closed the breach. the Germans employed captured Allied tanks and small numbers of their own design. operated on a month-long four-stage rotation system. . occupying sectors of the line from the North Sea to the Orne River. On 22 April 1915 at the Second Battle of Ypres.entrenched German forces from Lorraine to Belgium's coast. Trench warfare continues (1916-1917) Neither side proved able to deliver a decisive blow for the next two years. Each battalion held its sector for about a week before moving back to support lines and then further back to the reserve lines before a week out-of-line.600 kilometres (5. German trenches were much better constructed than those of their enemy. Algerian troops retreated when gassed and a six-kilometre (four-mile) hole opened in the Allied lines that the Germans quickly exploited. the Germans (violating the Hague Convention) used chlorine gas for the first time on the Western Front.[40] Tanks were first used in combat by the British during the Battle of Flers-Courcelette (part of the wider Somme offensive) on 15 September 1916 with only partial success. taking Kitcheners' Wood. unless an offensive was underway. Around 1. while Germany defended the occupied territories. often in the Poperinge or Amiens areas.1 to 1.

1917. France. 1914 . the British Empire and France suffered more casualties than Germany. A French assault on German positions. Officers and senior enlisted men of theBermuda Militia Artillery's BermudaContingent.Canadian troops advancing behind a British Mark II tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge. The British Grand Fleet making steam forScapa Flow. Throughout 1915–17. Royal Garrison Artillery. while the Germans only mounted a single main offensive at Verdun. Strategically. Champagne. the Allies made several attempts to break through German lines. in Europe. because of both the strategic and tactical stances chosen by the sides.

and in the fact that ours did not do enough damage to the hostile infantry as they were assembling.On 1 July 1916. Most of the casualties occurred in the first hour of the attack. [42] A battleship squadron of theHochseeflotte at sea Protracted German action at Verdun throughout 1916.. especially during the Nivelle Offensive (April and May 1917). and above all. The power of the attack lay in the artillery. The costly August battles in Flanders and at Verdun imposed a heavy strain on the Western troops. Futile attempts at frontal assault came at a high price for both the British and the French poilu and led towidespread mutinies in 1917. Our wastage had been so high as to cause grave misgivings. suffering 57. and had exceeded all expectation.. including 19. This defence had a lightly defended forward position and a more powerful main position farther back beyond artillery range.[43] combined with the bloodletting at the Somme (July and August 1916). The 25th of August concluded the second phase of the Flanders battle. At some points they no longer displayed the firmness which I. It had cost us heavily . the British Army endured the bloodiest day in its history. Its strength did not consist in the tanks... on the first day of the Battle of the Somme. but put them out of action all the same. which proved the superiority of the attack over the defence. The state of affairs in the West appeared to prevent the execution of our plans elsewhere. The entire Somme offensive cost the British Army almost half a million men.470 casualties. The enemy managed to adapt himself to our method of employing counter attacks . in common with the local commanders. [47] On the battle of the Menin Road Ridge.[44] Tactically. The enemy's onslaught on the 20th was successful. [45][46] Ludendorff wrote on the fighting in 1917. Ludendorff wrote. brought the exhausted French army to the brink of collapse. we found them inconvenient.. I myself was being put to a terrible strain. In spite of all the concrete protection they seemed more or less powerless under the enormous weight of the enemy's artillery.240 dead. Another terrific assault was made on our lines on the 20 September .. had hoped for.[48] . German commander Erich Ludendorff's doctrine of "elastic defence" was well suited for trench warfare. from which an immediate and powerful counter-offensive could be launched. at the actual time of the assault.

outmanoeuvred by the larger British fleet. and Germany changed its rules of engagement. The engagement was a stand off. most of the German East-Asia squadron—consisting of the armoured cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. light cruisers Nürnberg and Leipzig and two transport ships—did not have orders to raid shipping and was instead underway to Germany when it met British warships. The strategy proved effective. with only Dresden and a few auxiliaries escaping. some of which were subsequently used to attack Allied merchant shipping. Britain began a naval blockade of Germany. [53] Since there was limited response to this tactic. Germany expected a similar response to its unrestricted submarine warfare. the only significant British military success was the capture of Vimy Ridge by the Canadian Corps under Sir Arthur Currieand Julian Byng. part of the East-Asia squadron stationed at Tsingtao. It took place on 31 May – 1 June 1916. For example. and the bulk of the German surface fleet remained confined to port for the duration of the war.[54] The 1916 Battle of Jutland (German: Skagerrakschlacht. or "Battle of the Skagerrak") developed into the largest naval battle of the war. as the Germans. seized or destroyed 15 merchantmen. but was almost destroyed at the Battle of the Falkland Islands in December 1914. the German Empire had cruisers scattered across the globe. After the sinking of the passenger ship RMS Lusitania in 1915.[55] German U-boats attempted to cut the supply lines between North America and Britain. the German detached light cruiser SMS Emden. managed to escape and inflicted more damage to the British fleet than they received. However. rapidly reinforce. although this blockade violated accepted international law codified by several international agreements of the past two centuries.[51] Soon after the outbreak of hostilities. giving the crews of the merchant ships little hope of survival. the only full-scale clash of battleships during the war. The German flotilla and Dresden sank two armoured cruisers at the Battle of Coronel. The Kaiserliche Marine's High Seas Fleet. however. but at the Battle of Más a Tierra these too were destroyed or interned. [56] The nature of submarine warfare meant that attacks often came without warning.[56][57] The United States launched a protest. led by Admiral Sir John Jellicoe. and hold the ridge defending the coal-rich Douai plain.In the 1917 Battle of Arras. as well as sinking a Russian cruiser and a French destroyer. and one of the largest in history. in the North Sea off Jutland. cutting off vital military and civilian supplies. commanded by Vice Admiral Reinhard Scheer. [52] Britain mined international waters to prevent any ships from entering entire sections of ocean. though not without some embarrassment from its inability to protect Allied shipping. The British Royal Navy systematically hunted them down. squared off against the Royal Navy's Grand Fleet. The assaulting troops could – for the first time – overrun.[49][50] Naval war Main article: Naval warfare of World War I At the start of the war. the British asserted their control of the sea. Germany promised not to target passenger . causing danger to even neutral ships. Strategically.

since ships had to wait as convoys were assembled. accompanying destroyers might attack a submerged submarine with some hope of success. placing them beyond the protection of the "cruiser rules" which demanded warning and placing crews in "a place of safety" (a standard which lifeboats did not meet). with HMS Furious launching Sopwith Camels in a successful raid against the Zeppelinhangars at Tondern in July 1918. to limited effect. while Britain armed its merchant ships. at a cost of 199 submarines. in early 1917 Germany adopted a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare. [61] World War I also saw the first use of aircraft carriers in combat. and Macedonian front (World War I) . This tactic made it difficult for U-boats to find targets. Convoys slowed the flow of supplies. when merchant ships began travelling in convoys. as well as blimps for antisubmarine patrol. realising the Americans would eventually enter the war. Serbian Campaign (World War I). [58]Finally. The U-boat threat lessened in 1917.S. could transport a large army overseas. which significantly lessened losses. The solution to the delays was an extensive program to build new freighters. Troopships were too fast for the submarines and did not travel the North Atlantic in convoys. after the hydrophone and depth charges were introduced. but could maintain only five long-range U-boats on station. escorted by destroyers.000 Allied ships.[56][59] Germany sought to strangle Allied sea lanes before the U.liners. [56] U-155 exhibited near Tower Bridge in London after the First World War. [60] The U-boats had sunk more than 5.[62] Southern theatres War in the Balkans Main articles: Balkans Campaign (World War I).

Austrian troops executing captured Serbians.[64] Serbia was conquered in a little more than a month.[66] The friction between the king of Greece and the Allies continued to accumulate with the National Schism. Austria-Hungary could spare only one-third of its army to attack Serbia. scored a coup by persuading Bulgaria to join in attacking Serbia. Montenegro allied itself with Serbia. a Franco-British force landed at Salonica in Greece. A Serbian counter attack in the battle of Kolubara. fighting on two fronts and facing certain defeat. retreated into northern Albania (which they had invaded at the beginning of the war). German and AustroHungarian diplomats. Montenegro covered the Serbian retreat towards the Adriatic coast in the Battle of Mojkovac in 6–7 January 1916. the pro-German King Constantine I dismissed the pro-Allied government of Eleftherios Venizelos.[65] In late 1915. a quarter of its pre-war population. now unified.000 troops. before the Allied expeditionary force could arrive. sent in 600. to offer assistance and to pressure the government to declare war against the Central Powers. Unfortunately for the Allies. The Serbian army.000 people. and his second son Alexander took his place. however. The surviving 70. however. invading Serbia as well as fighting Russia and Italy. too. Belgrade. After intensive diplomatic negotiations and an armed confrontation inAthens between Allied and royalist forces (an incident known as Noemvriana) the king of Greece resigned. which effectively divided Greece between regions still loyal to the king and the new provisional government of Venizelos in Salonica. the Austrians briefly occupied the Serbian capital. succeeded in driving them from the country by the end of 1914. Croatia and Bosnia provided troops for Austria-Hungary. Austria-Hungary used most of its military reserves to fight Italy. The Serbs suffered defeat in the Battle of Kosovo. now including Bulgaria.000 Serbian soldiers were evacuated by ship to Greece. After suffering heavy losses. For the first ten months of 1915. [63] Faced with Russia. Venizelos returned to Athens on 29 May 1917 and Greece. The AustroHungarian provinces of Slovenia. Serbia lost about 850. The entire Greek army was mobilized and began to participate in military operations against the Central Powers on the Macedonian front. as the Central Powers. but ultimately the Austrians conquered Montenegro. . officially joined the war on the side of the Allies.

Serbia was divided between Austro-Hungary and Bulgaria. Bulgaria capitulated on 29 September 1918. preparing to fire against an incoming airplane After conquest. avoiding occupation. they decisively defeated British and Greek forces at the Battle of Doiran. The Macedonian Front in the beginning was mostly static. In 1917 the Serbs launched the Toplica Uprising and liberated for a short time the area between the Kopaonik mountains and the South Morava river. during a meeting with government officials. French and Serbian forces retook limited areas of Macedonia by recapturing Bitola on 19 November 1916 as a result of the costly Monastir Offensive which brought stabilization of the front.000-strong army of generalFranchet d'Esperey as the Bulgarian surrender deprived the Central Powers of the 278 infantry battalions and 1.[69] The German high command responded by sending only seven infantry and one cavalry division but these forces were far from enough for a front to be reestablished. [67] Hindenburg and Ludendorff concluded that the strategic and operational balance had now shifted decidedly against the Central Powers and a day after the Bulgarian collapse. After Serbian breakthrough of Bulgarian lines.[68] The disappearance of the Macedonian front meant that the road to Budapest and Vienna was now opened for the 670. after most of the German and Austro-Hungarian troops had withdrawn. Serbian and French troops finally made a breakthrough. [69] Ottoman Empire Main article: Middle Eastern theatre of World War I The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in the war. This breakthrough was significant in defeating Bulgaria and Austro-Hungary. The Bulgarians suffered their only defeat of the war at theBattle of Dobro Pole but days later.[70] It threatened Russia's Caucasian territories and Britain's communications with India . insisted on an immediate peace settlement.500 guns (the equivalent of some 25 to 30 German divisions) that were previously holding the line. which led to the final victory of WWI. the secret Ottoman-German Alliance having been signed in August 1914.Bulgarian soldiers in a trench. The uprising was crushed by joint efforts of Bulgarian and Austrian forces at the end of March 1917.

via the Suez Canal. The British and French opened overseas fronts with the Gallipoli (1915)
and Mesopotamian campaigns. In Gallipoli, the Ottoman Empire successfully repelled the British, French,
and Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs). In Mesopotamia, by contrast, after the
disastrous Siege of Kut (1915–16), British Imperial forces reorganised and captured Baghdad in March 1917.

A British artillery battery emplaced onMount Scopus in the Battle of Jerusalem.

Main article: Sinai and Palestine Campaign
Further to the west, the Suez Canal was successfully defended from Ottoman attacks in 1915 and 1916; in
August a joint German and Ottoman force was defeated at the Battle of Romani by the Anzac Mounted and
the 52nd (Lowland) Infantry Divisions. Following this victory, a British Empire Egyptian Expeditionary
Force advanced across the Sinai Peninsula, pushing Ottoman forces back in the Battle of Magdhaba in
December and the Battle of Rafaon the border between the Egyptian Sinai and Ottoman Palestine in January
1917.

Russian forest trench at the Battle of Sarikamish

Russian armies generally had the best of it in the Caucasus. Enver Pasha, supreme commander of the
Ottoman armed forces, was ambitious and dreamed of re-conquering central Asia and areas that had been lost
to Russia previously. He was, however, a poor commander.[71] He launched an offensive against the Russians
in the Caucasus in December 1914 with 100,000 troops; insisting on a frontal attack against mountainous
Russian positions in winter, he lost 86% of his force at the Battle of Sarikamish.[72]
General Yudenich, the Russian commander from 1915 to 1916, drove the Turks out of most of the southern
Caucasus with a string of victories.[72] In 1917, Russian Grand Duke Nicholas assumed command of the

Caucasus front. Nicholas planned a railway from Russian Georgia to the conquered territories, so that fresh
supplies could be brought up for a new offensive in 1917. However, in March 1917 (February in the prerevolutionary Russian calendar), the Czar was overthrown in the February Revolution and the Russian
Caucasus Army began to fall apart.

German soldiers in Jerusalem

Instigated by the Arab bureau of the British Foreign Office, the Arab Revolt started with the help of Britain in
June 1916 at the Battle of Mecca, led by Sherif Hussein of Mecca, and ended with the Ottoman surrender of
Damascus. Fakhri Pasha, the Ottoman commander of Medina, resisted for more than two and half years during
the Siege of Medina.[73]
Along the border of Italian Libya and British Egypt, the Senussi tribe, incited and armed by the Turks, waged a
small-scale guerrilla war against Allied troops. The British were forced to dispatch 12,000 troops to oppose
them in the Senussi Campaign. Their rebellion was finally crushed in mid-1916.[74]

Italian participation
Main article: Italian Campaign (World War I)
Further information: Battles of the Isonzo

Austro-Hungarian mountain corps in Tyrol

Italy had been allied with the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires since 1882 as part of the Triple Alliance.
However, the nation had its own designs on Austrian territory in Trentino, Istria, and Dalmatia. Rome had a
secret 1902 pact with France, effectively nullifying its alliance. [75] At the start of hostilities, Italy refused to
commit troops, arguing that the Triple Alliance was defensive and that Austria–Hungary was an aggressor. The
Austro-Hungarian government began negotiations to secure Italian neutrality, offering the French colony of
Tunisia in return. The Allies made a counter-offer in which Italy would receive the Southern Tyrol, Julian
March and territory on the Dalmatian coast after the defeat of Austria-Hungary. This was formalised by
the Treaty of London. Further encouraged by the Allied invasion of Turkey in April 1915, Italy joined the Triple
Entente and declared war on Austria-Hungary on 23 May. Fifteen months later Italy declared war on Germany.

a Hungarian soldier on the Italian front

Militarily, the Italians had numerical superiority. This advantage, however, was lost, not only because of the
difficult terrain in which fighting took place, but also because of the strategies and tactics employed. Field
Marshal Luigi Cadorna, a staunch proponent of the frontal assault, had dreams of breaking into
theSlovenian plateau, taking Ljubljana and threatening Vienna. Cadorna's plan did not take into account the
difficulties of the rugged Alpine terrain, or the technological changes that created trench warfare, giving rise to a
series of bloody and inconclusive stalemated offensives.

towards Verona and Padua. the Italians captured the town of Gorizia. however. the Austro-Hungarian troops received large numbers of reinforcements. including German Stormtroopers and the elite Alpenkorps. All eleven offensives were repelled by the Austro-Hungarians. In the autumn of 1917. After this minor victory. Sebenico. The Austro-Hungarians counterattacked in the Altopiano of Asiago. it declared its neutrality. the Italian military had seized control of the entire portion of Dalmatia that had been guaranteed to Italy by the London Pact. in a series of battles on the Piave River.[77] Austria-Hungary surrendered in early November 1918. In the summer of 1916. and were finally decisively defeated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in October of that year. [78][79] Romanian participation Main article: Romania during World War I Marshal Joffre inspecting Romanian troops Romania had been allied with the Central Powers since 1882. In 1918. fought in August 1916 between the Italian and Austro-Hungarian army. who held the higher ground. and other localities on the Dalmatian coast. [76] By the end of hostilities in November 1918. [77] In 1918. Beginning in 1915. They achieved a victory at Caporetto. Admiral Enrico Millo declared himself Italy's Governor of Dalmatia. all males who were 18 years old. the Austro-Hungarians took advantage of the mountainous terrain. the Italian Government called to arms the so-called '99 Boys (Ragazzi del '99): that is. Since in the Battle of Caporetto the Italian Army had heavy losses. northeast of Trieste. but made little progress.Depiction of the Battle of Doberdò. From 5–6 November 1918. in the spring of 1916 (Strafexpedition). Lagosta. thanks to the improving situation on the Eastern front. arguing that because Austria-Hungary had itself declared war on Serbia. while Austrian Kaiserschützen and Standschützen engaged Italian Alpini in bitter hand-to-hand combat throughout the summer. the front remained largely unchanged. the front remained static for over a year. The Central Powers launched a crushing offensive on 26 October 1917. After an initial strategic retreat. On the Trentino front. which favoured the defender. The Italian Army was routed and retreated more than 100 kilometres (62 mi) to reorganise. When the Entente Powers promised Romania large territories of eastern Hungary . Romania was under no obligation to join the war. stabilising the front at the Piave River. Italian forces were reported to have reached Lissa. the Italians under Cadorna mounted eleven offensives on the Isonzo front along the Isonzo River. the Austro-Hungarians failed to break through. spearheaded by the Germans. When the war began. despite several Italian offensives.

The next day.000 in the Middle East. military and civilian.(Transylvania and Banat) that had a large Romanian population in exchange for Romania's declaring war on the Central Powers.126 wounded during World War I. Casualties of Indian soldiers totalled 47. within contemporary borders. Romanian forces established control over Bessarabia as the Russian Army abandoned the province. Fighting in Moldova continued in 1917. As a result of the Battle of Bucharest the Central Powers occupied Bucharest on 6 December 1916.000. TheIndian Army in fact outnumbered the British Army at the beginning of the war. In exchange. money. about 1. [84] The role of India Further information: Third Anglo-Afghan War and Hindu-German Conspiracy Contrary to British fears of a revolt in India. Africa. and the Middle East. Romania was obliged to end war with the Central Powers and make small territorial concessions to Austria-Hungary.[82][83] Total Romanian deaths from 1914 to 1918.[80][81] Russian withdrawal from the war in late 1917 as a result of the October Revolution meant that Romania was forced to sign an armistice with the Central Powers on 9 December 1917. The treaty was renounced in October 1918 by the Alexandru Marghiloman government. on 27 March 1918 Romania attached Bessarabia to its territory. ceding control of some passes in the Carpathian Mountains. with limited Russian support. In all. formally based on a resolution passed by the local assembly of the territory on the unification with Romania.3 million Indian soldiers and labourers served in Europe. and ammunition. [87] The suffering engendered by the war as well as the failure of the British government to grant self-government to India after . and Romania nominally re-entered the war on 10 November 1918. the Treaty of Bucharest was nullified by the terms of the Armistice of Compiègne. were estimated at 748. and on 27 August 1916 the Romanian Army launched an attack against Austria-Hungary. The Romanian offensive was initially successful. pushing back the Austro-Hungarian troops in Transylvania. the Central Powers recognised the sovereignty of Romania over Bessarabia.746 killed and 65. the Romanian government renounced its neutrality.[85][86] Indian political leaders from theIndian National Congress and other groups were eager to support the British war effort since they believed that strong support for the war effort would further the cause of Indian Home Rule. In January 1918. Under that treaty.000 men served on the Western Front and nearly 700. Romania officially made peace with the Central Powers by signing the Treaty of Bucharest on 7 May 1918. the outbreak of the war saw an unprecedented outpouring of loyalty and goodwill towards the United Kingdom. Although a treaty was signed by the Romanian and the Bolshevik Russian government following talks from 5–9 March 1918 on the withdrawal of Romanian forces from Bessarabia within two months. resulting in a costly stalemate for the Central Powers. and grant oil concessions to Germany. but a counterattack by the forces of the Central Powers drove back the Russo-Romanian forces. 140. while both the central government and the princely states sent large supplies of food.

[88] [89] Russia's less developed industrial base and ineffective military leadership was instrumental in the events that unfolded. Russian troops awaiting a German attack Eastern Front Initial actions Main article: Eastern Front (World War I) While the Western Front had reached stalemate. and in May the Central Powers achieved a remarkable breakthrough on Poland's southern frontiers. it was driven back from East Prussia by Hindenburg andLudendorff at Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes in August and September 1914. Although Russia's initial advance into Galicia was largely successful. the war continued in East Europe. By the spring of 1915. the Russians had retreated into Galicia. Initial Russian plans called for simultaneous invasions of Austrian Galiciaand German East Prussia. Russian Revolution Main article: Russian Revolution (1917) Further information: North Russia Campaign .the end of hostilities bred disillusionment and fuelled the campaign for full independence that would be led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and others. [90] On 5 August they captured Warsaw and forced the Russians to withdraw from Poland.

The successful armed uprising by the Bolsheviks of November was followed in December by an armistice and negotiations with Germany. unrest grew in Russia.[90] Signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (9 February 1918) are: 1. German forces came to the aid of embattled Austro-Hungarian units in Transylvania. as the Tsar remained at the front. led by Vladimir Lenin. and 3. and Bucharest fell to the Central Powers on 6 December. at the end of 1916. Allied and Russian forces were revived only temporarily by Romania's entry into the war on 27 August. The army became increasingly ineffective. Empress Alexandra's increasingly incompetent rule drew protests and resulted in the murder of her favourite. The offensive's success was undermined by the reluctance of other generals to commit their forces to support the victory. which demanded an immediate end to the war. 2.Vasil Radoslavov Discontent and the weaknesses of the Provisional Government led to a rise in popularity of the Bolshevik Party. At first the .[91] dissatisfaction with the Russian government's conduct of the war grew. This arrangement led to confusion and chaos both at the front and at home. Meanwhile. demonstrations in Petrograd culminated in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the appointment of a weak Provisional Government which shared power with the Petrograd Soviet socialists. In March 1917. Richard von Kühlmann. Rasputin. Count Ottokar von Czernin.Vladimir Illyich Lenin Despite the success of the June 1916 Brusilov Offensive in eastern Galicia.

While the Allies debated a response to Wilson's offer. complete with sanctions. signalling that the U. [92] Despite this enormous apparent German success. asking in a note for both sides to state their demands. Central Powers proposal for starting peace negotiations On the way to Verdun.[93]Allied troops landed in Arkhangelsk and in Vladivostok. Czecho-Slovaks. With the adoption of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.S. Russia and Romania. the Germans chose to rebuff it in favour of "a direct exchange of views". the new government acceded to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918. but when German troops began marching across the Ukraine unopposed. Romanians. In December 1916.[94] The negotiations failed and the Entente powers rejected the German offer. This included the liberation of Italians. They sought restoration of damages. The treaty ceded vast territories. to a lesser extent. was on the verge of entering the war against Germany following the "submarine outrages". they took Wilson's note as a separate effort. the Allied governments were free to make clear demands in their response of 14 January. the manpower required for German occupation of former Russian territory may have contributed to the failure of the Spring Offensive and secured relatively little food or other materiel. Soon after. Slavs. Lloyd George's War Cabinet considered the German offer to be a ploy to create divisions amongst the Allies. because Germany did not state any specific proposals. the evacuation of occupied territories. Learning of the German response. and the creation of a "free and united Poland". after ten brutal months of the Battle of Verdun and a successful offensive against Romania. and a recognition of the principle of nationalities.Bolsheviks refused the German terms. the Germans attempted to negotiate a peace with the Allies. The Allied powers led a smallscale invasion of Russia.S. After initial outrage and much deliberation. the Baltic provinces. the Entente powers stated that they would not start . as a condition of any peace settlement. partly to stop Germany from exploiting Russian resources and. On the question of security. President Woodrow Wilson attempted to intervene as a peacemaker. including Finland. U. To Wilson. the Allies sought guarantees that would prevent or limit future wars. parts of Poland and Ukraine to the Central Powers. "They shall not pass" is a phrase which for all time will be associated with the heroic defense of Verdun. reparations for France. the Entente no longer existed. to support the "Whites" (as opposed to the "Reds") in the Russian Civil War.

driving back the Germans. although their effects were not fully felt until 1918. In reality. The General Staff acknowledged that the policy would almost certainly bring the United States into the conflict. After July. with their machine guns amongst the ruins of a cathedral near the Marne. the newly re-introduced convoy system became extremely effective in reducing the U-boat threat. before American intervention could make an impact. The British naval blockade began to have a serious impact on Germany. German planners estimated that unrestricted submarine warfare would cost Britain a monthly shipping loss of 600. In response. but calculated that British shipping losses would be so high that they would be forced to sue for peace after 5 to 6 months. and the United States troops joined the war in large numbers far earlier than Germany had anticipated. It peaked at 860. German film crew recording the action. in February 1917. with the goal of starving Britain out of the war. 1918 Developments in 1917 Events of 1917 proved decisive in ending the war. theGerman General Staff convinced Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg to declare unrestricted submarine warfare.000 tons.000 tons per month from February to July.[95] 1917–1918 French troopers under General Gouraud.peace negotiations until the Central powers evacuated all occupied Allied territories and provided indemnities for all damage which had been done. tonnage sunk rose above 500. . Britain was safe from starvation while German industrial output fell.000 tons in April.

Previously. Thus.[96] However. With German reinforcements and new American troops pouring in. mutinies afflicted an additional 54 French divisions and saw 20. the outcome was to be decided on the Western Front.000 men desert. Furthermore. replaced by General Philippe Pétain. Then. veterans of the Battle of Verdun. The Central Powers knew that they could not win a protracted war. France. during the Nivelle Offensive. 1917 In December.[97] Robert Nivelle was removed from command by 15 May. The victory of Austria–Hungary and Germany at the Battle of Caporetto led the Allies at the Rapallo Conference to form the Supreme War Council to coordinate planning. The other Allied forces attacked but sustained tremendous casualties. Haut-Rhin. although the French soldiers refused to participate in further offensive action. when General Edmund Allenby's XXth Corps.On 3 May 1917.[98] Ottoman Empire conflict in 1917 Main article: Sinai and Palestine Campaign In March and April 1917 at the First and Second Battles of Gaza. both sides urgently sought a decisive victory. refused their orders. At the end of October the Sinai and Palestine Campaign resumed. and harsh measures were not immediately implemented. as well as mass arrests and trials. who suspended bloody large-scale attacks. Their officers lacked the means to punish an entire division. appeals to patriotism and duty. XXI . arriving drunk and without their weapons. the Central Powers signed an armistice with Russia. the leaders of the Central Powers and the Allies became increasingly fearful of social unrest and revolution in Europe. British and French armies had operated under separate commands. encouraged the soldiers to return to defend their trenches. but they held high hopes for success based on a final quick offensive. German and Ottoman forces stopped the advance of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force which had begun in August 1916 at Romani. the weary French 2nd Colonial Division. This released large numbers of German troops for use in the west.

About this time Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressensteinwas relieved of his duties as the Eighth Army's commander. When a German U-boat sank the British liner RMS Lusitania on 7 May 1915 with 128 Americans among the dead. He argued that the war was so important that the U.[101] President Wilson before Congress. announcing the break in official relations with Germany on 3 February 1917. In January 1917.[100] Wilson released the Zimmerman note to the public. However. Erich von Falkenhayn. Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare.[99] Wilson was narrowly reelected in 1916 as his supporters emphasized "he kept us out of war". by winning this one and eliminating militarism from the globe.S. invited Mexico to join the war as Germany's ally against the United States. Wilson called on antiwar elements to end all wars. Former president Theodore Roosevelt denounced German acts as "piracy". U. and Arizona. would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare. was replaced by Otto Liman von Sanders.Corpsand Desert Mounted Corps won the Battle of Beersheba. Wilson unsuccessfully tried to mediate a settlement. and a few months later the commander of the Ottoman Army in Palestine. New Mexico. President Woodrow Wilson insisted that "America is too proud to fight" but demanded an end to attacks on passenger ships. in violation of international law. realizing it would mean American entry. and Americans saw it as casus belli—a cause for war. The German Foreign Minister. in the Zimmermann Telegram.A. Two Ottoman armies were defeated a few weeks later at the Battle of Mughar Ridge. he also repeatedly warned that the U. In return.S. avoiding conflict while trying to broker a peace. Germany complied. Entry of the United States Main article: American entry into World War I Non-intervention At the outbreak of the war the United States pursued a policy of non-intervention. declaration of war on Germany .S. replaced by Djevad Pasha. and early in December Jerusalem was captured following another Ottoman defeat at the Battle of Jerusalem (1917). had to have a voice in the peace conference. the Germans would finance Mexico's war and help it recover the territories of Texas.

units to be used as reinforcements for British Empire and French units.S. refused to break up U.S. earning a unit Croix de Guerre for their actions at Chateau-Thierry. the U. [106] Austrian offer of separate peace In 1917.S. The United States was never formally a member of the Allies but became a self-styled "Associated Power". citizenship to Puerto Ricans when they were drafted to participate in World War I.[102]which the U.S. as part of the Jones Act. In 1917. First active U. participation Two Allied soldiers run towards a bunker.After the sinking of seven U. destroyersto Queenstown.000 fresh soldiers to France every day. [107][108] . merchant ships by submarines and the publication of the Zimmerman telegram. Marines were also dispatched to France. it drafted 2. with his wife's brother Sixtus in Belgium as an intermediary. Several regiments of U.S. American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) commander. Wilson called for war on Germany.8 million men.S. believing it would be many more months before American soldiers would arrive and that their arrival could be stopped by U-boats. General John J. and Sechault. resulting in a diplomatic catastrophe. Congress gave U. [104] The United States Navy sent a battleship group to Scapa Flow to join with the British Grand Fleet. Pershing. When the negotiations failed. [103] and by summer 1918 was sending 10. his attempt was revealed to Germany. rejected the first proposition and accepted the second. The United States had a small army. after the passage of the Selective Service Act. The British and French wanted U.S. Belleau Wood. Congress declared on 6 April 1917.S. As an exception.S. but. and submarines to help guard convoys. Germany had miscalculated. The U. units used to reinforce their troops already on the battle lines and not waste scarce shipping on bringing over supplies. without the knowledge of Germany. Ireland. he did allow African-American combat regiments to be used in French divisions. [105] AEF doctrine called for the use of frontal assaults. Emperor Charles I of Austria secretly attempted separate peace negotiations with Clemenceau. which had long since been discarded by British Empire and French commanders because of the large loss of life. The Harlem Hellfighters fought as part of the French 16th Division.

German Spring Offensive of 1918 Main article: Spring Offensive German General Erich Ludendorff drew up plans (codenamed Operation Michael) for the 1918 offensive on the Western Front.[109] British and French trenches were penetrated using novel infiltration tactics. However. Pershing sought instead to field American units as an independent force. These units were assigned to the depleted French and British Empire commands on 28 March. Previously. forces arrived. Many Germans thought victory was near. General Foch pressed to use the arriving American troops as individual replacements. [111] The sudden stop was also a result of the four Australian Imperial Force (AIF) divisions that were "rushed" down. the offensive was halted. however. The German leadership hoped to strike a decisive blow before significant U. The Spring Offensive sought to divide the British and French forces with a series of feints and advances. 10 April 1918. The operation commenced on 21 March 1918 with an attack on British forces near Amiens. thus doing what no other army had done: stopping the German advance in its tracks. German success relied greatly on the element of surprise. The initial offensive was so successful that Kaiser Wilhelm II declared 24 March a national holiday. attacks had been characterised by long artillery bombardments and massed assaults.[112] General Foch was appointed as supreme commander of the allied forces. Lacking tanks or motorised artillery. Ludendorff used artillery only briefly and infiltrated small groups of infantry at weak points. After heavy fighting. They attacked command and logistics areas and bypassed points of serious resistance. causing many Parisians to flee. During that time the first Australian division was hurriedly sent north again to stop the second German breakthrough. also named Hutier tactics. after General Oskar von Hutier. [110] The front moved to within 120 kilometres (75 mi) of Paris. A Supreme War Council of Allied forces was created at the Doullens Conference on 5 November 1917. German forces achieved an unprecedented advance of 60 kilometres (37 mi). Three heavy Krupp railway guns fired 183 shells on the capital. British 55th (West Lancashire) Infantry Division troops blinded by tear gas during the Battle of Estaires. the Germans were unable to consolidate their gains. .S. More heavily armed infantry then destroyed these isolated positions. This situation was not helped by the supply lines now being stretched as a result of their advance. in the Spring Offensive of 1918.

and U. Foch assumed a coordinating rather than a directing role. and the British. including many highly trained storm troopers.S. starting theHundred Days Offensive. Anti-war marches became frequent and morale in the army fell. New Zealand mounted rifles. During several months of reorganisation and training during the summer. most of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force's British infantry and Yeomanry cavalry were sent to fight on the Western Front as a consequence of the Spring Offensive. British West Indies and Jewish infantry captured the crossings of the Jordan River. They were replaced by Indian Army units. Arara and theSeventh Army (Ottoman Empire) headquarters at Nablus. the continuous trench lines at Tabsor. British mounted Yeomanry. The reorganised Egyptian Expeditionary Force. Operation Marne was launched on 15 July. Jenin. [112] Following Operation Michael. German casualties between March and April 1918 were 270. Following this last phase of the war in the West. following the First Transjordan and the Second Transjordan attack by British Empire forces in March and April 1918. Petain. [113] having achieved nothing. with an additional mounted division broke Ottoman forces at the Battle of Megiddo in September 1918. These pushed the front line north to more advantageous positions in preparation for an attack and to acclimatise the newly arrived Indian Army infantry. pushing broadly towards Paris. Industrial output was 53 percent of 1913 levels. Es Salt. a number of attacks were carried out on sections of the Ottoman front line. Amman and . the German Army never regained the initiative. It was not until the middle of September that the integrated force was ready for large-scale operations. In two days the British and Indian infantry supported by a creeping barrage broke the Ottoman front line and captured the headquarters of the Eighth Army (Ottoman Empire) at Tulkarm. By 20 July the Germans were back across the Marne at their Kaiserschlacht starting lines. were captured on the way northwards to Damascus. Samakh and Tiberias on the Sea of Galilee. The Desert Mounted Corps rode through the break in the front line created by the infantry and during virtually continuous operations by Australian Light Horse. Indian Lancers and New Zealand Mounted Rifle brigades. Germany launched Operation Georgette against the northern English Channel ports. The German Army to the south then conducted Operations Blücher and Yorck. On the Jezreel Valley they captured Nazareth. Afulah and Beisan. Germany was falling apart at home. Indian. During March. along withHaifa on the Mediterranean coast and Daraa east of the Jordan River on the Hejaz railway. attempting to encircle Reims and beginning the Second Battle of the Marne. Meanwhile Chaytor's Force of Australian light horse. into the summer. and Pershing retained tactical control of their respective armies.Haig.000. The Allies halted the drive after limited territorial gains by Germany. Meanwhile. Ottoman Empire conflict 1918 Main article: Sinai and Palestine Campaign Early in 1918 the front line was extended into the Jordan Valley which continued to be occupied. marked the first successful Allied offensive of the war. French. The resulting counterattack. commands operated largely independently.

began on 8 August 1918. known as the Hundred Days Offensive. They advanced 12 kilometres (7. But the French Third Army lengthened the Amiens front on 10 August. Solidarity was briefly maintained when theTranscaucasian Federative Republic was created in the spring of 1918 but collapsed in May. France. signed at the end of October ended hostilities with the Ottoman Empire when fighting was continuing north of Aleppo. the three major republics braced for an imminent Ottoman advance. the Centrocaspian Dictatorship and South West Caucasian Republic (the former was liquidated by Azerbaijan in the autumn of 1918 and the latter by a joint Armenian-British task force in early 1919). a battle that was the beginning of Germany's downfall. South of the French Third Army. Armenia was left to fend for itself and struggled for five months against the threat of a full-fledged occupation by the Ottoman Turks. and Democratic Republic of Georgia In the late spring of 1918. [115] Allied victory: summer and autumn 1918 Main articles: Hundred Days Offensive and Weimar Republic The Allied counteroffensive. which commenced in the early months of 1918. three new states were formed in the South Caucasus: the Democratic Republic of Armenia. and the Australian and Canadian Corps spearheading the offensive in the centre through Harbonnières. German resistance stiffened.at Ziza most of the Fourth Army (Ottoman Empire). the French First Armyon the right. liberating Lassigny in fighting which lasted until 16 August. [48] helped pull forward the British armies to the north and the French armies to the south.000 men. On the British Fourth Army front at Amiens. and the Aisne . 1918 The Australian-Canadian spearhead at Amiens.[116][117] It involved 414 tanks of the Mark IV and Mark V type. GeneralCharles Mangin (The Butcher) drove his French Tenth Army forward at Soissons on 20 August to capture eight thousand prisoners. and the battle there concluded. Erich Ludendorff referred to this day as the "Black Day of the German army". which declared their independence from the Russian Empire.[116][118] Aerial view of ruins of Vaux-devant-Damloup. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.5 mi) into German-held territory in just seven hours. Democratic Republic of Armenia. two hundred guns. and 120. New states under war zone Main articles: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. and the Democratic Republic of Georgia. when it was thrown in on the right of the French First Army. after an advance as far as 14 miles (23 km). The Armistice of Mudros.[114] Two other minor entities were established. when the Georgians asked and received protection from Germany and the Azerbaijanis concluded a treaty with the Ottoman Empire that was more akin to a military alliance. The Battle of Amiens developed with III Corps British Fourth Army on the left. and advanced 4 miles (6 km). With the withdrawal of the Russian armies from the Caucasus front in the winter of 1917–18. the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.

the French First and Third Armies had slowly fought forward while the Tenth Army. and the Australians. then broke them off when each attack lost its initial impetus. Further south. reporting that the enemy on his front was thinning in a limited withdrawal. [119] Another "Black day". still leading the advance of the Fourth Army. Siberia. They began to undertake attacks in quick order to take advantage of successful advances on the flanks. [119] On 26 August the British First Army on the left of the Third Army was drawn into the battle.[119] The British Third Army's 15-mile (24 km) front north of Albert progressed after stalling for a day against the main resistance line to which the enemy had withdrawn. The Canadian Corps.[48] Allied leaders had now realised that to continue an attack after resistance had hardened was a waste of lives. straightening the line between the advanced positions of the Third Army and the Amiens front. neared the Alberich position of the Hindenburg Line. [121] During the last week of August the pressure along a 70-mile (113 km) front against the enemy was heavy and unrelenting. which had by now crossed the Ailette and was east of the Chemin des Dames. breaching them on the 28 and 29 August.[120] Rawlinson's British Fourth Army was able to push its left flank forward between Albert and the Somme. extending it northward to beyond Arras. fought its way from Arras eastward 5 miles (8 km) astride the heavily defended Arras-Cambrai area before reaching the outer defences of the Hindenburg Line.heights overlooking and menacing the German position north of the Vesle. "Each day was spent in bloody fighting against an ever and again on-storming enemy. and it was better to turn a line than to try to roll over it. [121] American troops in Vladivostok. From German accounts. with specific orders "To break the enemy's front. which resulted in recapturing Albert at the same time. were again able to push forward at Amiens to take Peronne and Mont Saint-Quentin on 31 August. and nights passed without sleep in retirements to new lines. as described by Erich Ludendorff. taking prisoners and positions that had previously been denied them. in order to outflank the enemy's present battle front" (opposite the British Fourth Army at Amiens). Meanwhile General Byng of the British Third Army. already back in the vanguard of the First Army. August 1918 . opening the Battle of Albert. Bapaume fell on 29 August to the New Zealand Division of the Third Army. was ordered to attack with 200 tanks towards Bapaume." [119] Even to the north in Flanders the British Second and Fifth Armies during August and September were able to make progress.

75. and Germany appealed to the Netherlands for mediation. Austria and Hungary warned that they could only continue the war until December. with the breaching of the Wotan Position.000 by the BEFand the rest by the French. Prince Rupprecht warned Prince Max of Baden: "Our military situation has deteriorated so rapidly that I no longer believe we can hold out over the winter. to which the Kaiser responded by instructing Hintz to seek the mediation of the Queen of the Netherlands. On 14 September Austria sent a note to all belligerents and neutrals suggesting a meeting for peace talks on neutral soil. made it possible for the Third Army to advance. replying. and Foreign Minister Hintz agreed that the war could not be ended militarily. over 100. but we must not lose it either." On 13 August at Spa. it is even possible that a catastrophe will come earlier." On 10 September Hindenburg urged peace moves to Emperor Charles of Austria." [123] Close-up view of an American major in the basket of anobservation balloon flying over territory near front lines In nearly four weeks of fighting beginning 8 August. [122] According to Ludendorff "We had to admit the necessity . "I see that we must strike a balance. The war must be ended. the Chancellor. the German High Command realised the war was lost and made attempts to reach a satisfactory end.000 German prisoners were taken." On 11 August he offered his resignation to the Kaiser. This ceded without a fight the salient seized the previous April. who refused it. and on 15 September Germany . The day after that battle Ludenforff told Colonel Mertz: "We cannot win the war any more. Ludendorff. Hindenburg. behind the Canal du Nord on the Canadian-First Army's front and back to a line east of the Lys in the north. which sent repercussions all along the Western Front. and on the following day the German Crown Council decided that victory in the field was now most improbable. We have nearly reached the limit of our powers of resistance. and Ludendorff recommended immediate peace negotiations.. That same day Oberste Heeresleitung (OHL) had no choice but to issue orders to six armies to withdraw back into the Hindenburg Line in the south. As of "The Black Day of the German Army".to withdraw the entire front from the Scarpe to the Vesle..On 2 September the Canadian Corps' outflanking of the Hindenburg line.

Men of U. The threat of mutiny was rife. Both peace offers were rejected. 64th Regiment. With the Wotan position of that line already breached and the Siegfried position in danger of being turned from the north. included U. begun on 26 September. villages. On 24 September a final assault by both the British and French on a 4-mile (6. It was evident that Germany could no longer mount a successful defence. 7th Infantry Division. Further small advances eastward would follow the Third Army's victory at Ivincourt on 12 September. Knowing the government of Prince Maximilian of Baden would veto any such . and closing towards the Belgian frontier. Quentin. the Fourth Army's at Epheny on 18 September. heights. soldiers. [124] The following week cooperating French and American units broke through in Champagne at the Battle of Blanc Mont Ridge. forcing the Germans off the commanding heights. 11 November 1918 When Bulgaria signed a separate armistice on 29 September.[126][127] The German army had to shorten its front and use the Dutch frontier as an anchor to fight rear-guard actions. and trenches in the screening positions and outposts of the Hindenburg Line continued to fall to the Allies. news of Germany's impending military defeat spread throughout the German armed forces.made a peace offer to Belgium.[125] The last Belgian town to be liberated before the armistice was Ghent. Ludendorff. the Allies gained control of Serbia and Greece.2 km) of St. [121] September saw the Germans continuing to fight strong rear-guard actions and launching numerous counterattacks on lost positions. Contested towns.4 km) front would come within 2 miles (3. but only a few succeeded. having been under great stress for months.S. celebrate the news of the Armistice. Admiral Reinhard Scheer and Ludendorff decided to launch a last attempt to restore the "valour" of the German Navy. with the BEF alone taking 30. [128][129] Meanwhile. suffered something similar to a breakdown. and on 24 September OHL informed the leaders in Berlin that armistice talks were inevitable. which the Germans held as a pivot until the Allies brought up artillery. The still-green American troops suffered problems coping with supply trains for large units on a difficult landscape.[121] With the outposts and preliminary defensive lines of the Siegfried and Alberich Positions eliminated. The Allied attack on the Hindenburg Line. the Germans were now completely back in the Hindenburg Line. the time had now come for an Allied assault on the whole length of the line. and the French gain of Essigny-le-Grand a day later. and then only temporarily.S.441 prisoners in the last week of September.

[131] Armistices and capitulations The signing of the armistice. The carriage seen in the background. Its reserves had been used up. Many. was later chosen as the symbolic setting of Pétain's June . Germany moved towards peace. Telegraphic negotiations with President Wilson began immediately. The collapse of the Balkans meant that Germany was about to lose its main supplies of oil and food. rebelled and were arrested. Prince Maximilian of Baden took charge of a new government as Chancellor of Germany to negotiate with the Allies.S. even as U. refusing to be part of a naval offensive which they believed to be suicidal. in the vain hope that he would offer better terms than the British and French. In the forest of Compiègne after agreeing to the armistice that ended the war.[130] Having suffered over 6 million casualties. Instead Wilson demanded the abdication of the Kaiser. Nonetheless. a new Germany had been born: the Weimar Republic. Ludendorff took the blame. the Kaiser dismissed him on 26 October. Ludendorff decided not to inform him.action. Imperial Germany was dead. troops kept arriving at the rate of 10. There was no resistance when the Social Democrat Philipp Scheidemann on 9 November declared Germany to be a republic. Foch is seen second from the right.000 per day. word of the impending assault reached sailors at Kiel. where the armistice was signed.

The Kaiser fled to the Netherlands. arranged by telegraph with the Allied Authorities in Paris. but because of Allied bombing was eventually moved to Crawinkel. The terms. November 1918 In November 1918 the Allies had ample supplies of men and materiel to invade Germany. Lieutenant Thomas.[132] The collapse of the Central Powers came swiftly. the imperial authorities asked Italy for an armistice. This resulted in the stab-in-the-back legend. Bulgaria was the first to sign an armistice.[133] On 24 October.400 km) from Berlin. and Trieste. Following the outbreak of the German Revolution of 1918–1919. reaching Trento. Opposing armies on the Western Front began to withdraw from their positions. declarations of independence were made in Budapest. the Ottoman Empire capitulated at Moudros (Armistice of Mudros). Canadian Private George Lawrence Price was shot by a German sniper at 10:57 and died at 10:58. On 29 October.[136] The occupation of the Rhineland took place following the Armistice. on 3 November. On 3 November Austria–Hungary sent a flag of truce to ask for an Armistice. and the Kaiser's armies had retreated from the battlefield in good order. and Zagreb.[137][138] which attributed Germany's defeat not to its inability to continue fighting (even though up to a million soldiers were suffering from the 1918 flu pandemic and . were communicated to the Austrian commander and accepted. who. It was moved to Berlin as a prize. This culminated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. after 11 am. Belgian.[133] On 30 October. The offensive also triggered the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The occupying armies consisted of American. near Padua. Austria and Hungary signed separate armistices following the overthrow of the Habsburg Monarchy. [134] American Henry Gunther was killed 60 seconds before the armistice came into force while charging astonished German troops who were aware the Armistice was nearly upon them. no Allied force had crossed the German frontier. on 29 September 1918 at Saloniki. Udine. Yet at the time of the armistice. At 11 am on 11 November 1918 — "the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" — a ceasefire came into effect. Prague. The Armistice with Austria was signed in the Villa Giusti. Allied superiority and the stab-in-the-back legend. the Western Front was still almost 900 mi (1. On 11 November an armistice with Germany was signed in a railroad carriage at Compiègne. During the last week of October.[135] The last British soldier to die was Pte George Edwin Ellison.1940 armistice. was walking towards the line to inform Americans who had not yet been informed of the Armistice that they would be vacating the buildings behind them. the Italians began a push which rapidly recovered territory lost after the Battle of Caporetto. British and French forces. The last casualty of the war was a German. where it was deliberately destroyed by SStroops in 1945. which marked the end of the Austro-Hungarian Army as an effective fighting force. But the Italians continued advancing. a republic was proclaimed on 9 November. These factors enabled Hindenburg and other senior German leaders to spread the story that their armies had not really been defeated. Thuringia.

Socialists. the major armies. the Allied forces divestedConstantinople on 23 August 1923. had modernised and were making use of telephone. Under its terms. by contrast. with the inevitably large ensuing casualties. however. was signed. the negotiation of the latter treaty with the Ottoman Empire was followed by strife (the Turkish War of Independence). By the end of 1917.[139]armoured cars. now numbering millions of men. but to the public's failure to respond to its "patriotic calling" and the supposed intentional sabotage of the war effort. until the signing of the Treaty of Versailles with Germany on 28 June 1919. at Lausanne. However. Treaty of Versailles.[140] and . which was when many of the troops serving abroad finally returned to their home countries. and Bolsheviks. particularly by Jews. June 1919 A formal state of war between the two sides persisted for another seven months. the Treaty of Lausanne. most commemorations of the war's end concentrate on the armistice of 11 November 1918. Legally. Later treaties with Austria. Some war memorials date the end of the war as being when the Versailles Treaty was signed in 1919. Technology See also: Technology during World War I and Weapons of World War I Armoured cars The First World War began as a clash of 20th-century technology and 19th-century tactics. Bulgaria. and a final peace treaty between the Allied Powers and the country that would shortly become the Republic of Turkey was not signed until 24 July 1923. tanks. wireless communication. the formal peace treaties were not complete until the last. and the Ottoman Empire were signed.unfit to fight). Hungary.

By 1917. Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time. Counterbattery missions became commonplace. when typical French and British guns were only 75 and 105 mm.[146] though they captured the public imagination. The use of chemical warfare and small-scale strategic bombing were both outlawed by the 1907 Hague Conventions.[141] Much of the combat involved trench warfare. The large number of head wounds caused by exploding shells andfragmentation forced the combatant nations to develop the modern steel helmet.. Many of the deadliest battles in history occurred during the First World War. Few war casualties were caused by gas. despite the British naval blockade. The Germans employed the Haber process ofnitrogen fixation to provide their forces with a constant supply of gunpowder. also. [142] Artillery was responsible for the largest number of casualties [143] and consumed vast quantities of explosives.". These were nicknamed Big Berthas. And flound'ring like a man in fire or lime.. and Gallipoli. Artillery also underwent a revolution. Infantry formations were reorganised. The German Army employed 150 and 210 mm howitzers in 1914. were favoured. using new techniques for spotting and ranging. a design. though shells were relatively light at 94 kilograms (210 lb). Such battles include Ypres. But someone still was yelling out and stumbling. such as gas masks. mustard gas and phosgene. While the Allies also had railway guns. still in use today.[147] The most powerful land-based weapons were railway guns weighing hundreds of tons apiece..[145] as effective countermeasures to gas attacks were quickly created. notably aircraft and the often overlookedfield telephone. cannons were positioned in the front line and fired directly at their targets. German models severely out-ranged and out-classed them. boys!. led by the French. Cambrai. through the misty panes and thick green light.Wilfred Owen. and in 1916 by the distinctive German Stahlhelm. the Somme. under the command of a junior NCO. Germans also fielded Austrian 305 mm and 420 mm guns. the Marne. even though the namesake was not a railway gun. instead. indirect fire with guns (as well as mortars and even machine guns) was commonplace. with improvements.. In 1914.S. "Gas! Gas! Quick. I saw him drowning. so that 100-man companies were no longer the main unit of manoeuvre. and both proved to be of limited effectiveness.aircraft. Germany was far ahead of the Allies in utilising heavy indirect fire. Gases used included chlorine. DULCE ET DECORUM EST. and already by the beginning of the war had inventories of various calibers of Minenwerfer ideally suited for trench warfare. Aviation . squads of 10 or so men. Verdun. worn by British Imperial and U. The British had a 6 inch (152 mm) howitzer. Dim. able to bombard Paris from over 100 kilometres (62 mi). who introduced the Adrian helmet in 1915. 1917[144] The widespread use of chemical warfare was a distinguishing feature of the conflict. As under a green sea. Germany developed the Paris Gun. in which hundreds often died for each yard gained. but it was so heavy it had to be hauled to the field in pieces and assembled. and sound detection was used to locate enemy batteries. troops. It was quickly followed by the Brodie helmet.

equipped with parachutes. Strategic bombers were created.) [152] .[148] Fixed-wing aircraft were first used militarily by the Italians in Libya on 23 October 1911 during the ItaloTurkish War for reconnaissance.[151] so that if there was an enemy air attack the crew could parachute to safety. reporting enemy movements and directing artillery. were used as stationary reconnaissance platforms. In April 1917. To shoot down enemy planes. They were initially used for reconnaissance andground attack. who feared they might promote cowardice. principally by the Germans and British. parachutes were too heavy to be used by pilots of aircraft (with their marginal power output). By 1914 their military utility was obvious. withHMS Furious launching Sopwith Camels in a raid to destroy the Zeppelin hangars at Tondern in 1918.Main article: Aviation in World War I RAF Sopwith Camel. the average life expectancy of a British pilot on the Western Front was 93 flying hours. (At the time. [149] Towards the end of the conflict. they were also opposed by British leadership. floating high above the trenches. aircraft carriers were used for the first time. [150] Johnson's Nieuport 16 armed with Le Prieur rockets for attacking observation balloons. anti-aircraft guns and fighter aircraft were developed. though the former used Zeppelins as well. Manned observation balloons. Balloons commonly had a crew of two. soon followed by the dropping of grenades and aerial photography the next year. and smaller versions were not developed until the end of the war.

they were heavily protected by antiaircraft guns and patrolled by friendly aircraft. the Germans proposed supply submarines (1916). Approximately 10. to attack them. hydrophones (passive sonar. 1917). the reconnaissance value of blimps and balloons contributed to the development of air-to-air combat between all types of aircraft. and to the trench stalemate.[153] To extend their operations. The Germans conducted air raids on England during 1915 and 1916 with airships. Improvements in ground warfare technology in World War I . because it was impossible to move large numbers of troops undetected. Recognised for their value as observation platforms. [149][152] Improvements in naval technology during World War I Germany deployed U-boats (submarines) after the war began. hunter-killer submarines (HMS R-1.000 German troops were killed when the 19 mines were simultaneously detonated. theKaiserliche Marine employed them to deprive the British Isles of vital supplies. and dipping hydrophones (the latter two both abandoned in 1918). The deaths of British merchant sailors and the seeming invulnerability of U-boats led to the development of depth charges (1916).German trench destroyed by a mine explosion. To defend them against air attack. blimps. Thus. 1917). hoping to damage British morale and cause aircraft to be diverted from the front lines. unusual weapons such as air-to-air rockets were even tried. and indeed the resulting panic led to the diversion of several squadrons of fighters from France. Most of these would be forgotten in the interwar period until World War II revived the need. forward-throwing anti-submarine weapons. Alternating between restricted and unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic. balloons were important targets of enemy aircraft.

such as theLewis Gun. 1914 . and the Bergmann MP18. and modern artillery with fragmentation shells helped bring the battle lines of World War I to a stalemate. as its heavy weight made operators vulnerable targets. demoralising weapon that caused terror on the battlefield. Assyrian Genocide. but the experiment proved its worth. Although not of high tactical value. Mechanical reliability was an issue. the flamethrower. while combined arms teams captured 8000 enemy soldiers and 100 guns. The first tanks were used during the Battle of the Sommeon 15 September 1916. Flamethrowers and subterranean transport Another new weapon. barbed wire. by breaking the Hindenburg Line. air reconnaissance. machine guns. The conflict also saw the introduction of Light automatic weapons and submachine guns. War crimes Genocide and ethnic cleansing Main article: Ottoman casualties of World War I See also: Armenian Genocide. and ammunition required to support large numbers of soldiers in areas where conventional transportation systems had been destroyed. water. Greek genocide. and they showed their potential during the Battle of Cambrai in November 1917.Mačva. Internal combustion engines and improved traction systems for automobiles and trucks/lorries eventually rendered trench railways obsolete. was first used by the German army and later adopted by other forces. the British were fielding tanks by the hundreds. It was a dangerous weapon to wield. and Genocide denial Austro-Hungarian soldiers executing Serb civilians during World War I occupation. the flamethrower was a powerful.British Vickers machine gun Trenches. the Browning automatic rifle. Trench railways evolved to supply the enormous quantities of food. The British sought a solution with the creation of the tank and mechanised warfare. Within a year.

[156] In early 1915. Volhynia.500 French and Belgian civilians between August and November 1914.[154][158] The government of Turkey has consistently rejected charges of genocide. and published in 1918. during the final years of the Ottoman Empire is considered genocide. arguing that those who died were victims of interethnic fighting. usually in near-random large-scale shootings of civilians ordered by junior German officers.The ethnic cleansing of the Ottoman Empire's Armenian population.000 buildings—most famously the university library atLouvain—and generated a refugee wave of over a million people.[154] The Ottomans saw the entire Armenian population as an enemy[155] that had chosen to side with Russia at the beginning of the war. written byHenry Morgenthau.[163] Russian Empire Main article: Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire See also: Russian occupation of Eastern Galicia.000 civilian Jews were killed in the atrocities throughout the former Russian Empire. and shot the offenders and burned buildings in retaliation. The exact number of deaths is unknown: while Balakian gives a range of 250.[159] Other ethnic groups were similarly attacked by the Ottoman Empire during this period. The German Army destroyed 15. This authorized the deportation of the Armenians from eastern provinces of the Empire to Syria between 1915 and 1917. Over . or disease during the First World War. including mass deportations and executions.5 million for the deaths of Armenians. including Assyrians and Greeks.000– 200. and the Ottoman government used this as a pretext to issue the Tehcir Law (Law on Deportation). [157] the International Association of Genocide Scholars estimates over 1 million. The German army executed over 6. 60. 1914-1915. and some scholars consider those events to be part of the same policy of extermination.000 to 1. [160][161][162] Picture showing Armenians killed during the Armenian Genocide. a number of Armenians joined the Russian forces. Sr. [164] "Rape of Belgium" Main article: Rape of Belgium The German invaders treated any resistance—such as sabotaging rail lines—as illegal and immoral. Image taken fromAmbassador Morgenthau's Story. famine. and Volga Germans Many pogroms accompanied the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the ensuing Russian Civil War.000–20.

. edited by military author Max Arthur. and American Battle Monuments Commission The First Contingent of the Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps to the 1 Lincolns. The two BVRC contingents suffered 75% casualties. The Museum believes that historians have not taken full account of this material.S. but increasingly were conscripted into service. Britain's Imperial War Museumhas collected more than 2. and selected transcripts. training in Bermuda for the Western Front. while Berlin said it was legal and necessary because of the threat of "franctireurs" (guerrillas) like those in France in 1870.half the German regiments in Belgium were involved in major incidents. Grouping together. World War I casualties. British propaganda dramatizing the "Rape of Belgium" attracted much attention in the U.. [166] The British and French magnified the reports and disseminated them at home and in the U.S.[167][168] Soldiers' experiences Main articles: List of surviving veterans of World War I. often found that they could only discuss their experiences amongst themselves. winter 1914–1915. where they played a major role in dissolving support for Germany.500 recordings of soldiers' personal accounts. and accordingly has made the full archive of recordings available to authors and researchers. returning home. Prisoners of war Main article: World War I prisoners of war in Germany . Commonwealth War Graves Commission. [165]Thousands of workers were shipped to Germany to work in factories. they formed "veterans' associations" or "Legions". except for those of Italy. have been published. The soldiers of the war were initially volunteers. [169] Surviving veterans.

The most dangerous moment was the act of surrender.-3. for Britain 7%. All nations pledged to follow the Hague Conventions on fair treatment ofprisoners of war. [170] Individual surrenders were uncommon. Most were captured just prior to the Armistice. However.[174][175][176] . for France 12%.5[clarification needed] million men as prisoners. Over half of Russian losses (as a proportion of those captured.9 million.000. about 15–20% of the prisoners in Russia died. In Germany. which lost 2. some 20. in general. conditions were terrible in Russia: starvation was common for prisoners and civilians alike. About 8 million men surrendered and were held in POW camps during the war.[171] Germany held 2. POWs' rate of survival was generally much higher than that of their peers at the front.000 Russians became prisoners.S. thanks in part to the efforts of the International Red Cross and inspections by neutral nations.4 million (not including Russia.3 million men became prisoners. for Italy 26%. food was scarce. 1918.German prisoners in France. wounded. The U. while Britain and France held about 720.5 million prisoners. for Germany 9%. When the besieged garrison of Kaunas surrendered in 1915. Russia held 2. for AustriaHungary 32%. Prisoners from the Allied armies totalled about 1.000. conditions were. large units usually surrendered en masse. satisfactory (and much better than in World War II). [172][173] Once prisoners reached a camp.) From the Central Powers about 3. held 48. or killed) were to prisoner status. but only 5% died. when helpless soldiers were sometimes gunned down.000 Russians surrendered. At the Battle of Tannenberg 92.

These military attachés and other observers prepared voluminous firsthand accounts of the war and analytical papers. Ottoman officers forced them to march 1. A survivor said: "We were driven along like beasts. to drop out was to die. [178] Although many were in very bad condition when captured. when the prisoners from the Czech Legion of the Austro-Hungarian army were released in 1917..250 died in captivity. Many were able to report on events from a perspective somewhat akin to modern "embedded" positions within the opposing land and naval forces.[177] Some 11.g.[180]German prisoners were still being held in Russia as late as 1924. 4. The Ottoman Empire often treated POWs poorly.800 British Empire soldiers. became prisoners after the Siege of Kut in Mesopotamia in April 1916. .100 kilometres (684 mi) to Anatolia.[181] Military attachés and war correspondents Main article: Military attachés and war correspondents in the First World War Military and civilian observers from every major power closely followed the course of the war. They were released only after many approaches by the Red Cross to the Allied Supreme Council. e.This photograph shows anemaciated Indian Army soldier who survived the Siege of Kut."[179] The survivors were then forced to build a railway through the Taurus Mountains. In Russia. most of them Indians. in France until 1920. many of whom served as forced labor. the same treatment was not granted to Central Power prisoners of the Allies and Russia. they re-armed themselves and briefly became a military and diplomatic force during the Russian Civil War. German prisoners in a French prison camp While the Allied prisoners of the Central Powers were quickly sent home at the end of active hostilities.

For example.[183] In-depth observer narratives of the war and more narrowly focused professional journal articles were written soon after the war. and these post-war reports conclusively illustrated the battlefield destructiveness of this conflict. sustaining wounds at Forest of Argonne in theMeuse-Argonne Offensive. as Fortescue immediately re-enlisted. it is now apparent that a range of tactical lessons were disregarded or not used in the preparations for war in Europe and throughout the Great War. and his report was passed through Turkish censors before being printed in London and New York. self second 1916 In the Balkans. September 1918. but. desiring the freedom of Yugoslavs fromAustria-Hungary and other foreign powers and the creation . Yugoslav nationalists such as the leader Ante Trumbić in the Balkans strongly supported the war. war correspondents and other observers.[184] Support and opposition to the war Main articles: Opposition to World War I and French Army Mutinies (1917) Support Old England first. this observer's role was abandoned when the U. former U. The Russo-Japanese War had been closely observed by military attachés. This was not the first time the tactics of entrenched positions for infantry defended with machine guns and artillery became vitally important. [182] However.S. from a 21st century perspective.S. entered the war. Army Captain Granville Fortescue followed the developments of the Gallipoli Campaign from an embedded perspective within the ranks of the Turkish defenders.

[195] In April 1918 the Rome Congress of Oppressed Nationalities met. a syndicalist who supported the war on grounds of irredentist claims on Italian-populated regions of Austria-Hungary. Polish.[188] A number of socialist parties initially supported the war when it began in August 1914. One of the most prominent and popular Italian nationalist supporters of the war was Gabriele d'Annunzio. the Arab Revolt began in Ottoman-controlled territories of the Middle East in an effort to achieve independence. including Benito Mussolini and Leonida Bissolati. French. with Arab nationalist leaders advocating the creation of a pan-Arab state.[185] The Yugoslav Committee was formed in Paris on 30 April 1915 but shortly moved its office to London.[191] Italian socialists were divided on whether to support the war or oppose it.[187] The Italian Liberal Party under the leadership of Paolo Boselli promoted intervention in the war on the side of the Allies and utilised theDante Aligheri Society to promote Italian nationalism. the origin of fascism. German. formed the pro-interventionist Il Popolo d'Italia and the Fasci Riviluzionario d'Azione Internazionalista ("Revolutionary Fasci for International Action") in October 1914 that later developed into the Fasci di Combattimento in 1919. British. resulting in a general strike called Red Week. [189] But European socialists split on national lines.[185] In the Middle East.[190] Once the war began.[194] Mussolini's nationalism enabled him to raise funds from Ansaldo (an armaments firm) and other companies to create Il Popolo d'Italia to convince socialists and revolutionaries to support the war.[186] In 1916.[186] Italian nationalism was stirred by the outbreak of the war and was initially strongly supported by a variety of political factions. Austrian. Italian. Transylvanian. and Yugoslav representatives who urged the Allies to support national self-determination for the peoples residing within Austria-Hungary. who promoted Italian irredentism and helped sway the Italian public to support intervention in the war.[192] However. the Italian Socialist Party decided to oppose the war after anti-militarist protestors were killed. [193] The Italian Socialist Party purged itself of pro-war nationalist members. [193] Mussolini. Trumbić led the Committee.[189] Opposition .of an independent Yugoslavia. including Mussolini. including Czechoslovak. and Russian socialists followed the rising nationalist current by supporting their countries' intervention in the war. with the concept ofclass conflict held by radical socialists such as Marxists and syndicalists being overborne by their patriotic support for war. some were militant supporters of the war. Arab nationalism soared in Ottoman territories in response to the rise of Turkish nationalism during the war.

which they argued would mean only that workers would kill other workers in the interest of capitalism. Anti-war cartoon depicting Jesus facing a firing squad made up of soldiers from five different European countries.Shortly before the war. Once war was . British GeneralHorace Smith-Dorrien predicted a catastrophic war which should be avoided at almost any cost. 1917 – Execution at Verdun at the time of the mutinies. The trade union and socialist movements had long voiced their opposition to a war. 1916. The Deserter.

that the whole of Europe and more besides would be reduced to ruin. was concerned with this subject. [198] Voicing these sentiments did not hinder Smith-Dorien's career. the publication of Benedict's proposed seven-point Peace Note of August 1917 was roundly ignored by all parties except Austria-Hungary. the Espionage Act of 1917 and Sedition Act of 1918 made it a federal crime to oppose military recruitment or make any statements deemed "disloyal". Benedict XV.[196] five days after his election he spoke of his determination to do what he could to bring peace. and many of us. elected to the papacy less than three months into World War I. Consequently. Benedict XV found his abilities and unique position as a religious emissary of peace ignored by the belligerent powers.. but during the next four years. Among the exceptions were the Bolsheviks. In stark contrast to his predecessor. however. Head of the British Army Lord Kitchener was to review the cadets. and their followers in Germany. that war would solve nothing. that war should be avoided at almost any cost. There were also small anti-war groups in Britain and France. the Socialist Party of America. Seen as being biased in favour of the other and resented for weakening national morale. and that the loss of life would be so large that whole populations would be decimated. the Public Schools Officers' Training Corps annual camp was held at Tidworth Pennings. a Bermudian cadet who was present).[197] In Britain. His first encyclical. or prevent him from doing his duty in World War I to the best of his abilities. and individuals such as Karl Liebknecht. [101] and many served long prison sentences for statements of fact deemed unpatriotic. those of us who survived the holocaust—probably not more than one-quarter of us—learned how right the General's prognosis was and how courageous he had been to utter it. in 1914. Many countries jailed those who spoke out against the conflict. given 1 November 1914. many socialists and trade unions backed their governments. but the imminence of the war prevented him. Publications at all critical of the government were removed from circulation by postal censors. and the Italian Socialist Party. felt almost ashamed of a British General who uttered such depressing and unpatriotic sentiments. In our ignorance I. He surprised the two-or-three thousand cadets by declaring (in the words of Donald Christopher Smith. In the U. Rosa Luxemburg. near Salisbury Plain. These included Eugene Debs in the United States and Bertrand Russell in Britain. .declared.S. made the war and its consequences the main focus of his early pontificate. The 1915 Treaty of London between Italy and the Triple Entente included secret provisions whereby the Allies agreed with Italy to ignore papal peace moves towards the Central Powers. Ad Beatissimi Apostolorum. General Horace Smith-Dorrien was sent instead.

Even after the war. [202] Some of them. In Milan in May 1917. with Germany sending 20.[199] The war began amid the Home Rule crisis in Ireland that had resurfaced in 1912.[200]Irish nationalists and Marxists attempted to pursue Irish independence. Almost 50 people (including three Italian soldiers) were killed and over 800 people arrested. and by July 1914 there was a serious possibility of an outbreak of civil war in Ireland. Bolshevik revolutionaries organised and engaged in rioting calling for an end to the war. particularly within states that the nationalists were hostile to. [205] The Italian army was forced to enter Milan with tanks and machine guns to face Bolsheviks and anarchists.[203] Many suffered years of prison. although once the immediate threat of revolution had dissipated the authorities did try to make concessions to nationalist feeling. when the Russian Empire government ended its exemption of Muslims from military service.000 rifles to Ireland in order to stir unrest in the United Kingdom. and managed to close down factories and stop public transportation. and its leaders executed. In Britain 16. in Britain many job advertisements were marked "No conscientious objectors need apply". who fought violently until 23 May when the army gained control of the city.[200] The UK government placed Ireland under martial law in response to the Easter Rising. a minority of advanced Irish nationalists staunchly opposed taking part.[205] . including solitary confinement and bread and water diets. a series of mutinies in the French army led to dozens of soldiers being executed and many more imprisoned. The Central Asian Revolt started in the summer of 1916.The revolt of Czech units in Rumburk in May 1918 was brutally suppressed.[204] In 1917. refused both military and alternative service. some religious – who refused to fight.[201] Other opposition came from conscientious objectors – some socialist. A number of nationalists opposed intervention. Although the vast majority of Irish people consented to participate in the war in 1914 and 1915. culminating in the Easter Rising of 1916.000 people asked for conscientious objector status. most notably prominent peace activist Stephen Henry Hobhouse.

with the call going up for "bread. who believed their true loyalty should be to Canada and not to the British Empire. however. because of the resistance of Italy. without the knowledge of his ally Germany. which helped foment the October Revolution of 1917. saw the beginning of the German Revolution of 1918– 1919.000 wounded. despite its harsh conditions. a sustained pro-conscription campaign by Prime Minister Billy Hughes caused a split in the Australian Labor Party. The sailors' revolt which then ensued in the naval ports ofWilhelmshaven and Kiel spread across the whole country within days and led to the proclamation of a republic on 9 November 1918 and shortly thereafter to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II. and members of the Anglophone majority. Emperor Charles I of Austria secretly entered into peace negotiations with the Allied powers. Conscription As the war slowly turned into a war of attrition. so Hughes formed the Nationalist Party of Australia in 1917 to pursue the . the peace of BrestLitovsk.000 Canadians who served.[206] Out of approximately 625. In the former it opened a political gap between French Canadians. large-scale operation in a war which they saw as good as lost. who saw the war as a duty to both Britain and Canada. Prime Minister Robert Borden pushed through a Military Service Act.German Revolution. Units of the German Navy refused to set sail for a last. He failed. provoking the Conscription Crisis of 1917.[208] In September 1917.000 were killed and another 173. opposition to the war led to soldiers also establishing their own revolutionary committees. [207] In 1917. November 1918 The Conscription Crisis of 1917 in Canada erupted when conservative Prime Minister Robert Borden brought in compulsory military service over the objection of French-speaking Quebecers. and peace". about 60. this initiated the uprising. land. Russian soldiers in France began questioning why they were fighting for the French at all and mutinied. The Bolsheviks agreed to a peace treaty with Germany. In Australia. This issue was particularly explosive in Canada and Australia.[209] In Russia. conscription was implemented in some countries. the end of October 1918. with his brother-in-law Sixtus as intermediary. In northern Germany.

six of ten million eligible.1% of its active male population. the Catholic Church. there were between 4. the Russian Civil War. No other war had changed the map of Europe so dramatically. Four empires disappeared: the German.4 million soldiers dead.000 German civilians died from starvation caused by the British blockade during the war. all fell after the war: the Hohenzollerns. Of the 60 million European soldiers who were mobilised from 1914 to 1918.1%. Of these. about 750.000 were wounded. . Nevertheless.[213] About 750. the Habsburgs. Belgium and Serbia were badly damaged. the Romanovs.5%. however. 8 million were killed.000 people in Lebanon. Germany and Russia were similarly affected.5 million and 7 million homeless children in Russia as a result of nearly a decade of devastation from World War I.[216] By 1922.000 Russians. and Irish nationalist expatriates successfully opposed Hughes' push. Ottoman. with 1. and France lost 10. and the Ottomans. the labour movement. and the subsequent famine of 1920–1922. and the United States.700. Germany lost 15. England. as was France.[218] Thousands more emigrated to France. Austro-Hungarian.matter.000 children lost fathers.[212] The war had profound economic consequences. Most deaths were to young unmarried men. which contains the remains of more than 130. and Russian. [210] Aftermath Main article: Aftermath of World War I Health and economic effects The French military cemetery withDouaumont ossuary. famine had killed approximately 100. which was rejected in two plebiscites. Austria–Hungary lost 17. Conscription put into uniform nearly every physically fit man in Britain. together with their ancillary aristocracies. and 15 million were seriously injured.000 unknown soldiers. by the 1930s the northern Chinese city of Harbin had 100. 160. 7 million were permanently disabled.[214] By the end of the war.[211] not counting other casualties. Four dynasties.[215] The best estimates of the death toll from the Russian famine of 1921 run from 5 million to 10 million people.000 wives lost husbands and 300.000 lost their lives and 1. [217] Numerous anti-Soviet Russians fled the country after the Revolution.

I much regret it.[225] A total of more than 1.052. the 1918 flu pandemic killed at least 50 million people. 1918 The social disruption and widespread violence of the Revolution of 1917 and the ensuing Russian Civil War sparked more than 2. In 1914 alone. and hope even now that some way may be found of securing agreement for demanding reparation commensurate with the tremendous sacrifices made by the British Empire and her Allies. mostly in the Ukraine.000 pogroms in the former Russian Empire. interest and sinking fund charges were ₤831.[231] . Greece fought against Turkish nationalists led by Mustafa Kemal. and by the mid-1930s repatriation pensions.947.[229] According to various sources. Kansas.[222] In addition.000 in Austria-Hungary and 450. endorsing creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. a major influenza epidemic spread around the world.000 Jewish soldiers served in the Allied and Central Power forces in World War I.000 civilian Jews were killed in the atrocities.571.[230] several hundred thousand Pontic Greeks died during this period. "You have assured us that you cannot get better terms.[223][224] Lobbying by Chaim Weizmann and fear that American Jews would encourage the USA to support Germany culminated in the British government's Balfour Declaration of 1917. a war which resulted in a massive population exchange between the two countries under the Treaty of Lausanne. Russia had about 25 million infections and 3 million deaths from epidemic typhus.[219] Diseases flourished in the chaotic wartime conditions. [226] Emergency military hospital during theSpanish flu pandemic.000 people in the United States alone.172. Overall. which killed about 675.[228] In the aftermath of World War I.5 million cases of malaria. its people suffered more than 13 million cases in 1923. war gratuities. louse-borne epidemic typhus killed 200.In Australia the effects of the war on the economy were no less severe."[219] Australia received ₤5. Camp Funston.280.[221] Whereas before World War I Russia had about 3.000 in Czarist Russia.720 war reparations but the direct cost of the war to Australia had been ₤376.[227] An estimated 60. including 275. The then Prime Minister Hughes wrote to the British Prime Minister Lloyd George.000 in Serbia.000–200.993.[220] From 1918 to 1922.

and Poland were carved from it. Bessarabia was re-attached to Greater Romania. Turkey. exploited with a conspiracy theory they called theDolchstosslegende (Stab-in-the-back legend). and the payment of reparations was suspended in 1931 following the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the beginnings of the Great Depression worldwide. The Weimar Republic lost the former colonial possessions and was saddled with accepting blame for the war. lost much of its western frontier as the newly independent nations of Estonia. which nationalist movements.[235] . The "Guilt Thesis" became a controversial explanation of later events among analysts in Britain and the United States. the Paris Peace Conference imposed a series of peace treaties on the Central Powers. 354. The details were contained in the Treaty of Saint-Germain and the Treaty of Trianon. Unable to pay them with exports (as a result of territorial losses and postwar recession). which had withdrawn from the war in 1917 after the October Revolution. Transylvania was shifted from Hungary to Greater Romania. especially the Nazis. as well as paying punitive reparations for it. Hungary. The Treaty of Versailles caused enormous bitterness in Germany. Between 1920 and 1924. the Treaty of Versailles also brought into being the League of Nations on 28 June 1919. Building on Wilson's 14th point. Lithuania.3 million Hungarians came under foreign rule. 1922 Austria–Hungary was partitioned into several successor states.[234] Germany did so by borrowing from the United States. Czechoslovakia.Peace treaties and national boundaries After the war. The Russian Empire. largely but not entirely along ethnic lines. Germany acknowledged responsibility for the war. Czechoslovakia. Runaway inflation in the 1920s contributed to the economic collapse of the Weimar Republic. Latvia.000 Hungarians fled former Hungarian territories attached to Romania. Greek refugees from Smyrna. The 1919 Treaty of Versailles officially ended the war. as it had been a Romanian territory for more than a thousand years. and Yugoslavia. 3. and agreed to pay enormous war reparations and award territory to the victors. only 32% of its territory was left to Hungary. and Yugoslavia. As a result of the Treaty of Trianon. including Austria.[232][233] In signing the treaty. Finland. Although the Hungarians made up 54% of the population of the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary.

Close to battlefields. such as the Menin Gate memorial and the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme. the American Battle Monuments Commission. — Wilfred Owen. . Many of these graveyards also have central monuments to the missing or unidentified dead. This treaty was never ratified by the Sultan and was rejected by the Turkish republican movement.."Strange.. and this process continued throughout and after the end of hostilities. The Ottoman Empire was to be partitioned by the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920. ultimately. Memorials The Beaumont Hamel Newfoundland Memorial in the Somme. to the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne. Strange Meeting. "Here is no cause to mourn.The Ottoman Empire disintegrated. "Save the undone years"." I said. friend. 1918[144] Main articles: World War I in popular culture and World War I memorials The first tentative efforts to comprehend the meaning and consequences of modern warfare began during the initial phases of the war. and much of its non-Anatolian territory was awarded to various Allied powers as protectorates. and Le Souvenir français. Memorials were erected in thousands of villages and towns. Legacy . leading to the Turkish Independence War and. those buried in improvised burial grounds were gradually moved to formal graveyards under the care of organisations such as the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. the German War Graves Commission. The Turkish core was reorganised as the Republic of Turkey..." "None." said the other.

during the Second Battle of Ypres. R. but . After three years of construction. Canada. Glory and England. Liberty Memorial is also home to The National World War I Museum. Ontario. and across Europe many regarded it as a watershed. disillusioned and embittered by their war experiences. Beatty of Great Britain. wrote the memorable poem In Flanders Fields as a salute to those who perished in the Great War. At his graveside. Those who survived were shocked. Marshal Ferdinand Foch of France. They were slaughtered in stupid battles planned by stupid generals. General Armando Diaz of Italy. his friendJohn McCrae. author of In Flanders Fields.000 people. went off to war to make the world safe for democracy.. Cultural memory The First World War had a lasting impact on social memory. especially onRemembrance Day and Memorial Day. their heads full of high abstractions like Honour. In attendance were Lieutenant General Baron Jacques of Belgium. is a United States memorial dedicated to all Americans who served in World War I. it is still recited today. and Admiral D. Missouri. died in 1918 of pneumonia. John McCraeof Canada. On 3 May 1915. and saw that their real enemies were not the Germans. Lieutenant Alexis Helmer was killed. Published in Punch on 8 December 1915.000 people in 1926. theLiberty Memorial was completed and President Calvin Coolidge delivered the dedication speech to a crowd of 150. Col. The site for the Liberty Memorial was dedicated on 1 November 1921. It was seen by many in Britain as signalling the end of an era of stability stretching back to theVictorian period. the supreme Allied commanders spoke to a crowd of more than 100. of Guelph.[238] Historian Samuel Hynes explained: A generation of innocent young men.Surgeon Lt. the only museum dedicated solely to World War I in the United States. On this day. It was the only time in history these leaders were together in one place.D. M. General Pershing of the United States.[236][237] Liberty Memorial in Kansas City.

the old men at home who had lied to them. the art of Paul Nash. John Nash. while war-time films including Camrades. In every respect. the war was much more complicated than they suggest.[240] Likewise. Paths of Glory and King & Country have perpetuated the idea. Christopher Nevison. Films such as All Quiet on the Western Front. cinema. perpetuated by the art. In . and Shoulder Arms indicate that the most contemporary views of the war were overall far more positive. Niall Ferguson and Gary Sheffield have challenged these interpretations as partial and polemical views: Siegfried Sassoon (May 1915) These beliefs did not become widely shared because they offered the only accurate interpretation of wartime events.[239] A village war memorial to soldiers killed in World War I. while popular war-time artists such as Muirhead Bone painted more serene and pleasant interpretations subsequently rejected as inaccurate. They rejected the values of the society that had sent them to war. This has become the most common perception of the First World War. and stories published subsequently. and in doing so separated their own generation from the past and from their cultural inheritance.[239] Several historians like John terriane. and Henry Tonks in Britain painted a negative view of the conflict in keeping with the growing perception. Flanders Poppies. poems.

Pacifism became increasingly popular. Book distributed by the U. Antimodernist views were an outgrowth of the many changes taking place in society. The many emotions other than horror experienced by soldiers in and out of the front line. they are common. although the losses were devastating. reflecting in the 1950s perceptions of the war as 'aimless' following the contrasting Second World War and emphasising conflict within the ranks during times of class conflict in the 1960s. historians have argued persuasively against almost every popular cliché of the First World War. boredom.[240] The majority of additions to the contrary are often rejected. Others had the opposite reaction. [242] Some people[who?] were revolted by nationalism and its results. The war is not now seen as a 'fight about nothing'. a struggle between aggressive militarism and more or less liberal democracy. feeling that only strength and military might could be relied upon in a chaotic and inhumane world. which have been the subject of subsequent historical debate. and that it was under their command that the British army played a major part in the defeat of the Germans in 1918: a great forgotten victory. but as a war of ideals. and even enjoyment.[240] Social trauma The social trauma caused by unprecedented rates of casualties manifested itself in different ways.recent years.[240] Though these historians have discounted as "myths" [239][241] these perceptions of the war.S. including comradeship. [citation needed] They have dynamically changed according to contemporary influences. It has been pointed out that. their greatest impact was socially and geographically limited. It has been acknowledged that British generals were often capable men facing difficult challenges. and began to work towards a more internationalist world. have been recognised. supporting organisations such as the League of Nations.War Department to veterans in 1919 .

Paul Fussell. it was common for Germans in the 1930s and 1940s to justify acts of international aggression because of perceived injustices imposed by the victors of the First World War. [242] Discontent in Germany The rise of Nazism and fascism included a revival of the nationalist spirit and a rejection of many post-war changes. the images of suffering and trauma became the widely shared perception. The optimism of la belle époque was destroyed. it is argued here. and the collapse of capitalism and imperialism. had a common origin.[243] For years afterwards. and the German populace came to see themselves as victims. mass mobilisation. in fact. Communist and socialist movements around the world drew strength from this theory and enjoyed a new level of popularity. the popularity of the Stab-in-the-back legend (German: Dolchstoßlegende) was a testament to the psychological state of defeated Germany and was a rejection of responsibility for the conflict. suffering from shell shock (also called neurasthenia.[246][247] World War II was in part a continuation of the power struggle never fully resolved by the First World War. the dissolution of governments and empires.The experiences of the war led to a collective trauma shared by many from all participating countries. The Dolchstoßlegende's popular acceptance in Germany played a significant role in the rise of Nazism. Adolf Hitler was able to gain popularity and power. the collapse of the elite structure and normal modes of government of much of central. Though many participants did not share in the experiences of combat or spend any significant time at the front. All these slaughters. and also the Armenian genocide of 1915. Many believed the war heralded the end of the world as they had known it because of the high fatalities among a generation of men. and the many disabled. [248][249][250] American historian William Rubinstein wrote that: "The 'Age of Totalitarianism' included nearly all of the infamous examples of genocide in modern history. A sense of disillusionment and cynicism became pronounced. with nihilism growing. and the collapse of the Edwardian era made a strong impression on society. Similarly.[245] Many more returned home with few after-effects. the missing. but also comprising the mass murders and purges of the Communist world. and Samuel Heyns have all published works since the 1990s arguing that these common perceptions of the war are factually incorrect. These feelings were most pronounced in areas directly or harshly affected by the war. large casualty rates. their silence about the war contributed to the conflict's growing mythological status. however. or had positive memories of their service. eastern and . headed by the Jewish Holocaust.[244]Many soldiers returned with severe trauma. and those who had fought in the war were referred to as the Lost Generation. people mourned the dead. other mass killings carried out by Nazi Germany and its allies. a condition related to posttraumatic stress disorder). [242] Such historians as Dan Todman. Out of German discontent with the still controversial Treaty of Versailles. [242] In the United Kingdom. This conspiracy theory of betrayal became common.

intervention in the war. became a new nation.[253] With the fall of the Ottoman government.[260] Further information: Sykes–Picot Agreement The announcing of the armistice on 11 November 1918. Czechoslovakia.[262][263][264] the Kingdom of Serbia and its dynasty became the backbone of the new multinational state. power vacuums developed and conflicting claims to land and nationhood began to emerge. But. Estonia. In many cases. and Latvia. became deeply unpopular. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East. .S. neutrality in any future conflict. In the interwar era. Philadelphia. including the Arab-Israeli conflict. a narrow plurality rejected the idea that the war had been a mistake. This was reflected in the U. public opinion changed dramatically and. which became independent countries. As a "minor Entente nation" and the country with the most casualties per capita.S.southern Europe as a result of the First World War. as well as the Wilson administration itself. these continue to be problematic in the 21st-century struggles for national identity. the Kingdom of Serbs. for the first time.[252] Prior to the end of the war. Polls taken in 1937 and the opening months of World War II established that nearly 60% regarded intervention in WWI as a mistake. [254] The political boundaries drawn by the victors of the First World War were quickly imposed.S. after more than a century. Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia). Lithuania. intervention had been a mistake. with only 28% opposing that view. without which surely neither Communism nor Fascism would have existed except in the minds of unknown agitators and crackpots". Views in the United States U. combining the Kingdom of Bohemia with parts of the Kingdom of Hungary. the Ottoman Empire had maintained a modest level of peace and stability throughout the Middle East. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland. in the period between the fall of Franceand the attack on Pearl Harbor. Senate's rejection of the Versailles Treaty and membership in the League of Nations.[255][256] While the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I was pivotal in contributing to the modern political situation of the Middle East. a consensus arose that U. sometimes after only cursory consultation with the local population. and the Congress passed laws in an attempt to preserve U.[261] New national identities Poland reemerged as an independent country.[257][258][259] the end of Ottoman rule also spawned lesser known disputes over water and other natural resources.S. [251] The establishment of the modern state of Israel and the roots of the continuing Israeli-Palestinian Conflict are partially found in the unstable power dynamics of the Middle East which resulted from World War I.

they were for the first time respected internationally for their own accomplishments. Canadians began to refer to theirs as a nation "forged from fire".[270] Economic effects Germany. although it emerged with a greater measure of independence. the dollar was at 4.Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I In the British Empire. by November 1923. Canada entered the war as a Dominion of the British Empire and remained so. In Australia and New Zealand the Battle of Gallipoli became known as those nations' "Baptism of Fire". [267] Having succeeded on the same battleground where the "mother countries" had previously faltered. Australia. Canada.2 marks. not just subjects of the British Crown. and it was one of the first times that Australian troops fought as Australians. the war unleashed new forms of nationalism. celebrates this defining moment. Millions of middle-class Germans were ruined by hyperinflation. Anzac Day. [268][269] When Britain declared war in 1914 the dominions were automatically at war. a dollar was worth 4.2trillion[271] marks. When the war began in 1914. at the conclusion. commemorating the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps.[265][266] After the Battle of Vimy Ridge.[272] . It was the first major war in which the newly established countries fought. and South Africa were individual signatories of the Treaty of Versailles. 1923: banknotes had lost so much value that they were used as wallpaper. New Zealand. where the Canadian divisions fought together for the first time as a single corps.

many have lasted to this day.S. Italy.S. New taxes were levied and laws enacted. which. funded by German reparations. in part. The shrinkage in GDP in Austria.4 billion[273] of World War I debt. such as in Austria– Hungary and Germany. In Austria. After 1919. any analysis of the long-term effects were clouded by the defeat of these governments. most pigs were slaughtered. demanded repayment of these loans. the U. This circular system collapsed in 1931 and the loans were never repaid. The repayments were. governments created new ministries and powers. Gross domestic product (GDP) increased for three Allies (Britain. and the Dominions of the British Empire. Russia. Britain cashed in its extensive investments in American railroads and then began borrowing heavily on Wall Street. however. in turn. France. in neutral Netherlands. Similarly. In order to harness all the power of their societies.). President Wilson was on the verge of cutting off the loans in late 1916. 1915 . government lending to the Allies. and U. for example. and in the three main Central Powers. but allowed a great increase in U. were supported by American loans to Germany. Britain owed the US $4. but decreased in France and Russia.S. the war strained the abilities of some formerly large and bureaucratised governments.[274] "The Girl Behind the Gun" – women workers. In 1934. To pay for purchases in the United States. and the Ottoman Empire reached 30 to 40%. In all nations the government's share of GDP increased. all designed to bolster the war effort.One of the most dramatic effects of the war was the expansion of governmental powers and responsibilities in Britain. so at war's end there was no meat. the United States. surpassing fifty percent in both Germany and France and nearly reaching that level in Britain. France.

from a little over four million to a little over eight million. however. This aided the struggle forvoting rights for women.[277] See also World War I portal War portal  Book: World War I Wikipedia books are collections of articles that can be downloaded or ordered in print. but not bread. rationing was finally imposed in early 1918.[276] Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles (the so-called "war guilt" clause) declared Germany and its allies responsible for all "loss and damage" suffered by the Allies during the war and provided the basis for reparations. and fats (butter and oleo). At the same time. outstanding German debt that the Weimar Republic had used to pay the reparations. and inadequate housing.Macro. limited to meat. pay disputes. The economic problems that the payments brought.  European Civil War  List of last surviving World War I veterans by country . Geologists such as Albert Ernest Kitson were called upon to find new resources of precious minerals in the African colonies.[275] In Britain. With the death or absence of the primary wage earner. After Germany's defeat in World War II. Kitson discovered important new deposits ofmanganese. used in munitions production. Work stoppages and strikes became frequent in 1917– 1918 as the unions expressed grievances regarding prices.and micro-economic consequences devolved from the war. The new system worked smoothly. alcohol control. which was far more than the total German gold or foreign exchange. in the Gold Coast. sugar. industry needed to replace the lost labourers sent to war. There was. women were forced into the workforce in unprecedented numbers. Britain turned to her colonies for help in obtaining essential war materials whose supply had become difficult from traditional sources. payment of the reparations was not resumed. are usually cited as one of the more significant factors that led to the end of the Weimar Republic and the beginning of the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler. The total reparations demanded was 132 billion gold marks. and German resentment at their imposition. Families were altered by the departure of many men. fatigue from overtime and working on Sundays. Germany finished paying off the reparations in October 2010. From 1914 to 1918 trade union membership doubled.

Perhaps it would have been better if my area of specialization was not the Spanish period but World War II or the martial law years. if only to have the opportunity to meet and interview people who went through the Philippine Revolution against Spain and the Filipino-American War. Some textbooks still ignore the stories of the comfort women or the graphic accounts of rape. Corregidor. These stories still make your stomach turn. noting that up to this day there are still many people who can tell me their stories from those periods and thus help us rethink history as we know it. but the boring fact-filled text needs to be supplemented by eyewitness accounts of veterans who could make the stench of death and the sound of gunfire in battlefields real to us. murder and pillage committed by the cornered Japanese soldiers in Manila. With the earlier wars. Leyte and other historic sites. . we only have history. World War II remains current in our memory because of official commemorations in Bataan. World War II is mentioned in our history books. I can only hope young historians are collecting oral history of these periods before the voices of and memories from those major events of the past fade away. 1918 Sometimes I wish I were born 50 years earlier. List of people associated with World War I  List of surviving veterans of World War I  List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll  Lists of wars  Lists of World War I topics  World War I medal abbreviations Media Allied bombing runs over German lines Allied tanks advance in Langres.

Stating that these ships were a typhoon hazard. and has so reported to Congress together with an expression of his hope that early independence will be conceded. Reading the annual reports of the governors-general of the Philippine Islands to the US secretary of war beginning with the one for 1917. it is generally conceded that the world conflict renders discussion of the immediate independence of the islands inopportune. so long the topic of almost exclusive interest at all public gatherings. the governor ordered the Philippine Constabulary to place an armed force on each vessel. should not be taken up actively again until the termination of the war. the US War Department required 15.” The following year. the Philippines was far from its battlefields. Many people are not told that after it lost the war. with the archipelago thrown in as a bonus. did not happen anywhere close to Washington or Madrid but right here in the Philippines where George Dewey blasted the Spanish fleet out of Manila Bay. from the Kailan Mining Co. which allowed the Philippines to keep seven small vessels for interisland trade and for transport of sugar and other goods to China and Japan. the German sailors together with “alien enemies guilty of propaganda in behalf of the German cause and utterances against the Government of the US.” . the 22 captured vessels were turned over to the US Shipping Board. which at the time translated into Uncle Sam buying all the Filipinos at roughly 50 cents per head. but as Interior Secretary Rafael Palma reported. on May 1. Francis Burton Harrison wrote: “With notable self-restraint. After their repair. On their return to the country. and there is general consensus of opinion that the Philippine question. and 22 German merchant vessels in Philippine harbors were confiscated following reports that their crews had damaged and made the ships useless in February 1917.I have long wondered why the Spanish-American War did not leap out of my textbooks. Yet Philippine Independence was put on hold: “Politically. and volunteering to serve in the US Army and Red Cross. “Such a manifestation carried on in the most peaceful and orderly manner had no parallel in any other war-afflicted country. I realized that the Philippines was dragged into World War I because it was then a US colony. The Philippines produced 25. Spain sold the Philippines to the United States for $20 million. While the war was felt in the islands. raising funds to construct a destroyer and submarine for the US Navy. The undersigned concurs in the belief of the Filipino people that they have now established the stable government demanded by Congress as a prerequisite for their independence.000. ordered by the government and the Manila Railroad Co. In November 1917. “Alien enemy residents” in the Philippines were put under surveillance. also several Germans out of employment whose presence here was thought to be a source of possible inconvenience to the community” were shipped to a US internment camp. When the US Congress enacted a law for the federalization of the Philippine militia. Yet expressions of Filipino loyalty included: subscribing to Liberty Loans.” The main concern related to the World War I was rising prices. when it is hoped that the US will present the claims of the Philippines to an independent existence to the congress of nations. in the 1918 report. when the national sentiment of the Filipinos again took form with the appointment by the legislature of a commission of leading citizens of the islands to present to the US Congress their request for independence. 1898. when the first shot in that war.000 volunteers. the people (Filipinos) during the war ceased all expression of their desire for independence. these ships carried coal. He also ordered the arrest of their crews who were subsequently brought to a Baguio internment camp. until after the signing of the armistice. which prompted a demonstration in front of the Ayuntamiento in August 1918.. in Chingwangtao.

How come I was never taught that the first Filipino casualty of WWI was Tomas Claudio. but we must look into what history our youth are learning today. who died in a battlefield in France in 1918? We often leave the debate over what goes in or what is left out of our textbooks to historians. .