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Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide

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The Institute of Plumbing
Compiled and published by

The Institute of Plumbing
64 Station Lane, Hornchurch, Essex RM12 6NB.
Telephone: +44 (0)1708 472791 Fax: +44 (0)1708 448987 www.plumbers.org.uk www.registeredplumber.com

Project Co-ordinator Stan Tildsley Secretary & ProjectManager Dale Courtman lEng FlOP RP

loP Technical

Manager

EmmaTolley LorraineCourtman Janice Grande Jenni Cannavan

AdministrationSupport

Technical Editors & Designers -TarotMilibury Printers- Saunders & Williams Printers Ltd

ISBN 1 871956 40 4
Published 2002

©The Institute of Plumbing
The Instituteof Plumbing cannot accept responsibility for any errors and omissionsin this publication

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thëliiiihite
ofPlumbing

TheInstitute of Plumbing
64 Station Lane, Hornchurch, Essex RM12 6NB. Telephone: +44 (0)1708 472791 Fax: +44 (0)1708 448987
www.pIumbers.org.uk www.registeredplumber.com

Amendments

This documentincorporates the followingamendments
Ref Amendment

Date

1O

Corrynáum

vt

10/02
0L4/o3

2

Corrtcurii

'2

DTLR
TRANSPORT LOCAL GOVERNMENT
REGIONS

Foreword
It is my pleasure to provide the foreword for this edition of the Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide. For many years now, the Institute of Plumbing has supported the construction industry on the wide range of issues that are concerned with plumbing engineering services and this design guide has been key to the success of that support.

Dr Alan Whitehead MP
Ministerfor Building Regulations
Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions May 2002

Note: On 29 May2002 the Department ofTransport, Local Government and the Regions (DTLR) was disbanded and responsibility for Building Regulations in England and Wales was transferred to the Office of the DeputyPrime Minister.

As with other sectors of the construction industry, plumbing engineering services is an area that is rapidly developing with new, improved and innovative technologies and the role of the Institute of Plumbing in this is an important one. The Guide has needed to evolve with the advances in industrypractice and techniques. Since the guide was first launched in 1977 it has continued to be an indispensable reference source for designers, engineers and trades-persons and this is reflected by the constant demand for it, both from home and abroad. This new edition will provide additional information and guidance on current technologies and practices and will, no doubt, continue to be a valuable source of information for those engaged in the design, approval, and installation of plumbing engineering
services. I commend

it to the plumbing industry.

Dr AlanWhitehead MP

FlOP. FCIBSE. MIEE N Howard BEng(Hons).MCIWEM D E Huckett S Ingle MSc. FlEE. FIDIagE. AR J C Lane AlP.MIP.FIP. MASH. FCIWEM. who has acted as project co-ordinator. hard-cover printed format. MIP. talented volunteers are hard to come by. They can be justifiably proud of their efforts.CEng. RP . lEng.FIDHE. MIHEEM. FIHEEM. The Institute is most fortunate in having benefitted fromthe expertise of a number of such people who have stepped forward to make contributions to the contents of this Design Guide.Acknowledgements In today's fast moving world. We greatly appreciate the assistance received from contributing organisations. FlOP 0 Harper EngTech. He has been helped by several loP head office staff members.ACIBSE. MIM. MCIBSE. Saunders and Williams and technical editors.AR P Lang FISPE J K Love CEng. MIlE. this is probably the last time the Guide will be available as a complete work in bound. We pay tributeto all those who have contributed.ACIBSE I 0 Boyd lEng.CEng. research establishments and commercial companies. an engineer of distinction in plumbing engineering services. FlOP.FWMSoc. COMPIP S Tildsley Eng Tech. Seymour & Rooley EnergyEfficiency Best Practice Programme Grundfos Pumps Ltd Hepworth Plumbing Products Her Majesty's Fire Service Inspectorate (DTLR) Marley Plumbing and Drainage Spirax — Sarco Ltd The Council for Registered Gas Installers The Institution of ElectricalEngineers UponorLtd Vernagene Resource Efficient Design: Energy Efficiency (excluding section on Plate HeatExchanger): this has been contributed by the government's Housing EnergyEfficiency Best Practice Programme.MIP.CEng. ContributingAuthors G F Baker L C Bassett lEng.AR P Cook CEng. MIP. AP C P Topp M Vint J S Walley Eng Tech. RP B F Whorlow lEng.ACIBSE AR M Bates AIR.LCG. MCIBSE A J Goodger BSc. MIHEEM. MCIBSE. These includeGovernment Departments and Agencies.MIP.MAE. Dale Courtman and Emma Tolley who deserve special mention for their hard work and commitment to the project.MInstR.AP S AWalsh CEng. MIC0rrST J C Griggs FlOP R A Hanson-Graville MA. They have been ably led by Institute Past President. RP G Bell MCIM. As a result. MWMSoc. AP. E Blundell AlP. Stan Tildsley. MIHEEM M C Shouler BSc. MSc. LCGI. it will becomecommonplace for the dissemination of up-to-date technical information to take placethrough fast broadband connections to the Internet accessible via either static computers or wireless handheld devices. RP P M Williams lEng. Food & Rural Affairs Department forTransport. FlOP. FlOP. AndyWatts MBE EngTech MIP RP Chief Executiveand Secretary Onbehalf of the Board of Trustees of The Institute of Plumbing June 2002 ContributingOrganisations ARUP British Standards Institution Brook WaterManagement Building Research Establishment Ltd copper Development Association Department for Environment. FlOP. MAE.MIOSH. Local Government and the Regions Donald Smith. MSc. We also thank printers. FlOP. and Crown Copyright isreserved. in particular. MASEE N Hay BSc(Hons) G Henderson MSc. FlOP. FlOP. AP G L Puzey lEng. MEWI P J White Eng Tech. During the lifetime of this Guide. Tarot Milbury for their co-operation and professionalism. MIP. MASH. HON FlOP. EngTech.FConsE A J Malkin EngTech. sister professional bodies.

along with completely new sections on resource efficientdesign and swimming pools. I'm especially grateful to the Institute's full time head office technical team. The piped gases sectionhas undergone a major review and the section on steam now includes condensate recovery information. as the most widely used heating medium. The sanitary plumbing and drainage sectionhas changedsignificantly to reflect the requirements of BS EN 12056. Throughout the publication. I acknowledge the unstinting voluntary work of the many people associated with its production. As co-ordinator of this Guide. on new technologies. Many BS/EN Standards have now been brought togetherwithin the standards. several British Standards have been replaced by European Harmonised Standards. The Guide has been considerably enhanced utilising an easier to read three-column format. Finally. Information on the design and installation of residential sprinklersystems is included for the first time. It also includes information on systems and heating appliances currently in use. bound within a silver cover to celebrate the 25th Anniversary since the original Data Bookwas published. the Guide reflects as many of the changes related to UK plumbing technology of which we are aware. consisting of Dale Courtman and Emma Tolley. The heating section has been completely re-written to concentrate on gas. Stan Tildsley EngTech HON FlOP MIP RP Design Guide Project Co-ordinator Past President The Institute of Plumbing June 2002 . Technology in the plumbing industry has changed considerably in the 14 years since the guide was last published. Indeed. manufacturers and professional organisations who have contributed to this publication. This edition seeks to include as much information as possible.Preface This Design Guide 2002 replaces the previous edition published in 1988. my thanks also go to the authors. including condensing boilers and wet under floor heating systems. which replaced BS 5572. The object of the Guide is to advance knowledge of plumbing technology to those engaged in plumbing design and systeminstallation. This section has also been extended to include information on the technologies involved in vacuum drainage and syphonic rainwater disposal systems. codes and miscellaneous data section. Their essential participation should be appreciated by all who adopt the Guide as a source of reference for the design of plumbing engineering services. The water services sectionhas been greatly expanded to includemany additional design considerations and to take account of the statutory requirements of the Water Supply (Water Fittings) Regulations 1999 in England and Wales and the Water Byelaws 2000 in Scotland.

codes and miscellaneousdata 227 .Contents Hot and cold water services Legionnaires disease Heating Resource 1 41 47 efficient design 67 81 Piped gas services Sanitary plumbing and drainage Pumpsand pumping 105 161 fire protection services Steam and condensate Pipework expansion Mechanical ventilation Designing for the disabled Domestic swimming pools Electrical earihing and bonding 169 179 191 197 205 215 of building services 221 Standards.

Hot and cold water supplies Sources of water 2 2 3 3 Waler supply companies Water demand Waler storage Water distribution 4 6 8 9 10 10 11 Hot waler production Hot water generators Control of Legionella Safe waler temperatures Water conservation Water regulations Distribution pipe sizing Hard water treatment Water supply installations Disinfection Water quality Corrosion Effects of corrosive environments Prevention of corrosion 12 24 24 27 28 29 32 36 1 .

0/100 ml (95%) Comparison against average 3. peak flow rate (Its). 5 mg/I 0. Erroneous measurement. treatment and distribution to consumers within their region.Hot and cold water supplies Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Sources of water The source of water varies dependant on which area of the British Isles a supply is required. and micro-organisms to specified parameters. The water supply companies have the authority to applyto the Regulator for of Water Services (OFWAT). 2 day Colony count. Riverextraction. Misuse 3. which generally incorporates a watercompany meter. benzo 3. The quality of water supplied for distribution to. Water supply companies are responsible for the catchment or abstraction of raw water. single or multiple. benzol. These sources providewater for supply purposes. inclusive of any alterations. undesirable and toxic substances. or is likely to cause: 50 ug/l 10 ug/l Comparisons 100 ug/l 3 ug/I 30 ug/l 10 ug/I 10 ng/l Individual testing of these substances to provide total 0. who regulate a wide range of key elements to attain and maintain the water supplyquality.2 ug/I 200 ug/l 5 ug/I total 1.4 pyrene Fluoranthene. worn or otherwise faultythat it causes. i. connected.e. 2200 ug/l 250 mg/I 50 mg/I 200 ug/l 50 ug/l 200 ug/I 250 mg/I 12 mg/I 150 mg/I 3000ug/l 5000ug/l 50 ug/I 10 ug/l 10 ug/l 50 ug/l 1000 ug/l Water supply companies The water supply companies operate under the requirements of the Water Industry Act 1991. The regulations require that no water fitting shall be installed. All taste investg Dilution No 3 at 25 lSOOus/cm20°c Consumers'rights Every consumer has the right to be supplied with waterfor domestic purposes fromthe watersupply company's distribution network. it's conditioning. The watersupplycompanies are required to be notified of certain proposed installations. Minerals. each witha wide range of physical. which maybe subjectto inspection and acceptance prior to receiving the water company's supplyconnection. Undueconsumption 4. Upland catchment (reservoir) Table 1 Drinking waterstandards Temperature PH Colour Turbidity Qualitative odour Qualitative taste Dilution odour Dilution taste Conductivity Total hardness Alkalinity Free chlorine Total chlorine Faecal coliforms Clostridia Faecal streptococci Total coliforms Colony count. Contamination 5. alkalinity. Hardness Appliesonly if softened 2.5 20 Hazen units 4 Formazin units All odourinvest From this connection. extreme droughtor flooding. Bacteria count 3. which is supported by an interpretation of the regulations. and bacterial quality differences. These regulations are enforced by the water company that supplies water to the consumer. 11. and subsequent amendments. 12 perylene indeno (123cd) pyrene Total PAH's Anionicdetergents Pesticides & Comp'ds 25°C 5.e. and for use by persons and properties is controlled by an Act of Parliament. New or modified existing connections can incur a charge by the water company for the following services 2. taste. to all the draw-offfittings. All these charges relate to the anticipated daily demand(m3). and numberof draw-off fittings being served from the supply.5 mg/I 0. enforced by the Office 2000ug/l 50 ug/I 5 ug/g 50 ug/l 1 ug/l The regulations govern the wholeof the consumer's installation from the connection to the water company's communication pipe and meter termination. the Water Supply (Water Comparison against average 0/100 ml 1/20 ml 0/100 ml 1. arranged or used in such a manner. Newor replacement supply 2. i. Water regulations Consumers watersupplyinstallations are required to complyto the Water Supply (Water Fitting) Regulations 1999. or by reason of being damaged. with relaxation only considered under emergency situations. 1. odour. the consumer is responsible for all aspects of the supply and distribution of water. The enforcement of the Act is undertaken by the Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI). The standards are called'Prescribed Concentrate values' (PCV's) to either maximum. Supply network reinforcement 4. Groundwater (borehole/artisan) 3. The types are: 1. and the level of treatment provided in orderto attain the prescribed quality at the point of connection to the customer's supply. The characteristics of the water supplied varies. Meter installation Infrastructure charge. These standards are imposed on all watersupplycompanies.1 mg/I 50 mg/I 400 mg/I 1500 ug/l Quality) Regulations 1989.5-9. but under no circumstances if there is a risk to public health. 12. Waste 2. minimum. and The Water Supply (Water Fitting) (Amendments) Regulations 1999 (2) (the Water Byelaws 2000 (Scotland)). fluoranthene. SeeTable 1. 3 day Oxidisability Ammonia Nitrite Nitrate Chloride Fluoride Phosphorus Sulphate Magnesium Iron Manganese Aluminium Calcium Potassium Sodium Copper Zinc Lead Silver Antimony Arsenic Barium Boron Cyanide Cadmium Chromium Mercury Nickel Selenium Total organiccarbon Trihalomethanes Tetrachloromethane Trichloroethene Tetrachloroethene Benzo 3. 2 . average or percentage levels. The regulations are a statutory instrument. The standards covercolour. 4. region to region and within regions dependant uponthe actual source.

Sportshall. and any inadequacies during the hours of building use 5.Restaurant 7 Person Person Person Person Pupil Pupil Pupil Pupil Pupil Bed Bed Bed Bed Bed Person Person Person Person Person Person Person Person Person Person Person Cover 3.Elderly sheltered . 1. Period and hours 210 130 100 100 90 120 135 120 135 150 Water demand The water demand for a building is dependant on a numberof factors. 3.Student en-suite . including BS 6700. A typical percentage break down provided by the Environment Agency is: 1. . Where a building is occupied by elderly or infirmed people then avoiding any disruption of the water supplyis an important consideration as they would be unable to easily leave the building shouldwater become unavailable. permanentor transitional systems.Prison Hotels Litres Criteria/Unit Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Bed space Bed space Bed space Bedroom Bed space Inmate Water regulations guide The Water Regulations Advisory Scheme (WRAS) publish a guide which provides formal guidance and recommendations on how the regulations should be applied to the actual water installations and include the Water Byelaws 2000 (Scotland).Medical ward 220 .All weather pitch 35 Places of Assembly (excl. In general. Clients.Geriatric ward 140 Sports Changing . communal . Available mains pressure. 7.staff . For guidance on the total waterdemand for typicaltypes of buildings refer to Table 2 for daily waterdemand.without canteen 40 Factory .Swimming Pool 20 . However manywater supply companies only recommend that storage be provided in accordance with the BS 6700. thereby extending the time of occupancy beyond that anticipated under normal usage rates. Water storage The storing of water has a numberof purposes.Surgical ward 250 . 1. Accommodation peak demand 3.2 bedroom .Library 6 . Health & Safety. If water ceases to be available within a building then the occupiers will eventually leave as toilet facilities will become unusable. WC suite 32% 12% 15% 15% 9% 5% 3% no. within the term of their supply agreement with a consumer. Number of occupants. Overall consumption increases by around 10% during warmermonthswhen out door usage increases to over 25%.with canteen 45 Person (1) . in orderto maintain a watersupplyto the building. account needsto be takenof the building and its location.DistrictGeneral 600 .Student.without canteen 40 Person (1) Shops with canteen 45 . Swimming pool.Nurses Home .NightClub (3) 4 . It is likelythat whenan interruption of supply occurs then the water available would be conserved as much as possible. In designing storage capacities. Landscape and waterfeatures.Cinema 3 .Field Sports 35 .SportsHall 35 . 6.Art Gallery 6 . placing the responsibility and decision firmly on the consumers. SUPPORTING INFORMATION If the numberof building occupants are not accurately knownthen as aguide the following criteria can be used. Table 2 provides guidance on typical water usage within buildings over a 24 hour period. Washing machine Kitchen sink Bath Basin Shower Outside supply Miscellaneous 2. 4. onepersonper 14m2 ofthe gross building floorarea. Providing a pressure (head) for gravity supplies. consumption per person decreases with an increase in dwelling size given the shared facilities.6 fordiversity.Boarding 90 Hospitals . Requirement for fire protection 4.Elderly Care Home . Offices. onepersonpercubicalper hour open.Travel Inn/Lodge . maximum.without canteen 40 Schools . fourpersonsper badminton court area perhour open. Field sports changing.with canteen 45 .Secondary 20 . /0 of occupation 2.Paediatric ward 300 . personsper teams per numberofpitches. which mayonly be occupied for eight to ten hours. Industrial clients maywell require storage to ensure their business and/or production is not interrupted. prevention of bacteria.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Hot and cold water supplies relaxation of any part of the regulation considered inappropriate to a particular case.Children's Home . then an interruption of supply will have a greater impact than that for say an office.Nursery 15 . Type of building and it's function 2.Budget .3+ bedrooms . Providing for an interruption of supply 2. such as the National Health Service. The figures stated have been assembled froma number of sources. including the volume or period of storage. perday 3 . Potential for an interruption of supply 4. require their buildings to be provided withstorageto safeguard against an interruption of the mains supply.Museum 6 .Primary 15 .6th Form College 20 . 5. Water supply companies are empowered to insiston specific terms. with a factorof0. 8. Table2 Daily water demand Typeof Building Dwellings .Bars 4 .1 bedroom .Theatre 3 . In dwellings the resident's water consumption is divided between the manyappliances. including legionella. Design Codes recommend that storage is provided to coverthe interruption of an incoming mains supply.4/5 Star Luxury 135 Bedroom l5Oav Bedroom 200 Bedroom Offices & general work places . Pattern of water usage 3. 1. Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) and Environmental Agencystudies and can be used as a basisfor good practice. If a building is occupied 24 hoursa day.

Potentially a one or two storeybuilding in a locality where an interruption of water supply is very infrequent and causing little inconvenience. Bars. 4 . in parallel When the water supply companies. Storage can comprise of two compartments or cisterns/tanks in order that maintenance can be carried out withoutinterrupting distribution. See Figure 2. The inlets require to be positioned at the same level to ensurethey supply the cisterns/tanks in unison. One personper 1. Art Galleries Cinema. Hostels Offices Shops Library. Type of system The type and style of water distribution needed for a particular building will depend mainly on the building heightand its use. Table3 Period ofstorage Type of Building Hospitals Nursing Homes Dwellings Hotels. also to provide. in which case a low level location will be needed. Above 4000 litres storage twin cisterns/tanks maybe considered appropriate. Option of gravity tank at high level Cisterns.from opposite corners of inlet. a. For storage of 2500litres or more. In calculating the storage capacity a free board allowance is necessary to accommodate the floatvalve. and drop to draw-off points — — Ground level Utility Co.25% 0 . Thelocation of the inlet andoutlet connections is important.8m2ofthe public bar/seating area. rectangular. Museum. Depending on pipe sizes. The use of a delayed action float valve may also be considered to ensurea greaterturn over of water.. Storage tanks A building requiring a largewater storage provision may not be ableto accommodate it at high level. sectional panel tanks maybe considered more appropriate with a centredivide. See Figure 1. The building use will determinethe amount of storage that will be required. Pumped from a break cistern or storage provision. One personper30m2 of thegross building floor area. The type of water system will needto be one or a combination of the following: a. The water supply companies are required to delivertheir waterto the boundary with a minimum pressure of 1. in conjunction witha pumpeddistribution system. and strictly balancedin length and configuration Valves to be providedto enableone cistern/tankto be isolated whilstother remains open. or client requirements do not specifically dictatethe period to cover an interruption of a mains supplythen Table 3 provides recommendations for reasonable periodsof storage. commonly a 250 — 300 mm free board depth is required on ciserns/tanks having a capacitygreaterthan 2500 litres. Directmains fed b. or power supplyto the pumps. Raised ball (float) valve housings in conjunction with a weir overflowcan provide an increased depthof water stored over the main areaof the cistern/tank(s).50% 0 . however at timesof highdemand. The mains pressure can provide the initial means of delivering water into the building. Often their delivery pressure can be higher. A storage ratio of 2: 1 low/high level is a typical arrangement. This has an advantage of providing some storage in the eventof an interruption of the watersupply. If the provision of storage is possible at high level then the system couldbe enhanced to providestorage coupled with it becoming a gravitydown feed system. One personper O. which generally are of a low height construction. Museums. being internal or external. regulations. over flow installations and any expansion from the hot watersystem. including legionella. without further draining of any entrapped water between flanges. expressed as a percentage of the daily water demand.50% 50% 0 .25% 50% 50% Rising main. twin and multiple cisterns/tanks ideally should be installed in parallel to each other. NOTE Figure 2 Storage cistern/tank layout Sectional tankscommonlyhave flanges.0 bar.25% 0 . as far as is possible a balanced flowfrom the tanks. Art Galleries. A crossflow through the cistern/tank needsto be achieved to assist the complete regular turn over of water throughout the storage period. _____________ mains 0 Figure 1 Supplyto a two storeybuilding Water distribution The water distribution installation requires to be ableto deliverthe correct flow and volume of hot and cold water when and whereit is needed. Subdivided. there is an option for the water supply to be direct from the mains without storage being provided. For smallstorage quantities one piece cisterns can be used. persons perteamsper hours used. The building heightwill determine whether pumping will be required to deliverwaterto the highest level b. the pressure will be closer to the minimum provision. Such a feature reduces maintenance and assists the prevention of waterstagnation which can leadto harmful bacteria growth. and as far as possible the sameflow rate to assist a balanced throughput.Hot and cold water supplies Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide All Weather Field. A combination of high and low storage can be considered if a gravity distribution is preferred for all or part of the building.0m2 of the dining area. Libraries. Colleges.25% 0 . Restaurants. night-club SportsFacilities Schools. The outlet connections and manifold pipe work needs to be arranged with symmetrical and equal lengths. Outlets. Theatre Bars. Universities Boarding Schools % of the daily demand 50% 50% 0 . External flanges permit tightening withoutneeding to enterthe tank.25% 0 .and on the base permit the tank to be self draining througha single drain point. High level storage with gravitydown feed Incoming supply (balancedpipes not critical) c.

accommodation for water storage has an significant impact. more oxygenated supply for taste purposes. The advantage of this is to providea proportion of the daily water usage in a cisterns/tank(s) at roof level. The available head is the dimension between the bottomof the storage cistern/tank(s) and the highest draw-off point. each having 100% system duty Cisterns/tank(s) on roof or roof plant room level 2 metre 18m2 23m2 40m2 60m2 80m2 10m2 3 metre — — 50m3 60m2 80m2 Low level break orstorage tank Gravity supplies For gravity supplies to be effective.000 10. See Figure 6. Pump set d. Whilstall watersupplied for domestic uses has to be suitable for drinking purposes. allowing beams to intrude Below. supplying drinkingwater points direct from incoming mains or pumped mains provides a cooler. The delivery flow rate and pressure demanded by the systemare met entirely by selecting the correct dutyfor the pumps. then eitherof these can be supplied fromthe incoming main up to the numberof floors that the available mains pressure will reach. See Figure 4. If a mains'watersupplyis required to be Table4 Accessto storage cisterns/tanks Location Around Between.5 metre 18m2 31m2 50m2 72m2 — — TankHeight used. a pressure limiting or variable control flow device needs to be fitted on the outletfrom the pumps. To prevent high pressure overrun when demandis less than the design demand. An incoming main b. The use of multistage variable duty and/or inverters is an advantage. The disadvantages are: a. No pump running costs e. Generally a minimum of two pumps are and controlled to enable them to be a stand by to each other. The pump set is required to delivera constantly varying flow rate as draw-offpoints are randomly used by the occupants. The low level pump set can be sized to provide a low volume. between supports For outletpipe work. High level cistern/tank(s) to drinking Pumped'mains' Figure 4 Pumpedsupplylayout Dutyofpumps =staticlift plus distribution loss and delivery pressure. Potentially less noise due to lower pipeflow velocities.000 60.in metres points and drinks machines Utility mains' to drinking points and drinks machines Head of water pressureavailable in metres Low level cistern/tank Incoming main 5 .000 40. more frequent operation and highhead to deliverthe waterto the tanks at roof level. Such a system would comprise of: a. or entirely fromthe pumped rising main. See Figure 3. See Figure5. md. Larger pipe sizes due to limited available head. or draw-off point with the greatest head/pressure loss. Availability of waterin the event of water mains or powerfailure Figure 3 Gravitysupplies available head Figure 5 Combined pump and gravity Figure 6 'Mains'waterfordrinking Low level breakor storage cistern/tank c. For large buildings.000 20. provided specifically for drinking water points or drink making equipment. Table 4 is a guide.000 100. and continue to providewater in the eventof a failure of the pump. cisterns/tanks Access for installation and maintenance is required. which would provide a gravitydown feed service. 800 dia Table5 Water storage plant room area Storage (Litres) 5.000 1. the storage requires to be at a sufficient heightto deliverthe water to the draw-off point at the required flow rate and pressure. For high buildings a combination of pumped and gravitymay be appropriate. Greaterstructural support b. c. access Tank construction thickness Insulation (may form part of tank) Raised float valve housing Entryto tank (mm) 750 750 1000 600 1500 100 25 300 Pumped supplies The delivery of water by pumping will provide flexibility in the positioning of the storage cisterns/tanks. when compared to pumps c. The advantages of gravity supplies are: a. tanks Above. and from the pumpedrising main above that level.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Hot and cold water supplies Access to storage b. Table 5 provides an outline guideto the space that may be required. Cold waterand hot water cold feed gravity distribution. Lower deliverypressures.

ilbraries. Offices.Elderly sheltered 70 25 . 25 50 Hospitals 50 50 70 40 20 20 35 35 Sports changing .with canteen .Cinema 1 1 Person . energy readily available. Store <65°C HWSsecondary circulation >50C Hotwater cold feed <20C Selection of hot water production In the selection of the type of hot water production. Having determined the peak demand the volume of hot water needing to be stored can be selected. Restaurants.Bars 2 1 Person .Prison Hotels . Fourpersons perbadminton court areaper houropen.Primary . Convex ends to vessel d.Travel Inn/Lodge 115 35 . The HSC 'Control of Legionella' Code L8 states that 50°C should be achieved within 60 seconds at all outlets. One personper cubical per hour open.Geriatric ward . Fieldsports changing.0m2 of the dining area. The buildings total daily hot water usage is relevant to the assessment of the peak 6 . with a minimum secondary return(if provided) temperature of 50°C. the rate of recovery and the associated energyinput needed can be established. governed by their occupants and the activities taking place. One personper O. personsper teams per numberofpitches.6 fordiversity. the time available for reheating is an important consideration. One person per30m2 of the grossbuilding floorarea. Hot water demand When assessing the hot water production requirements for a building it is necessaryto determine the peak demand.Secondary .Swimming Pool .Elderly care home 90 25 .Nursery . Provide a 'shunt'pump to movethe hot water from the top of the vessel to the base to avoid stratification. This demands a minimum storage temperature of 6000to be attained. The storage figures statedare basedon a reheatperiodof two hours.Budget 115 35 . Onepersonper 1. with a factorof0. Museums. If a high volume or rapid re-heat rate is required then it would be necessary to ensure that a sufficient energy capacity is available. For example: Office buildings will require small quantities frequently and regularly throughoutthe 'normal' workingday.with canteen 15 5 .Restaurant 6 6 Cover SUPPORTING INFORMATION b.with canteen .Night Club 1 1 Person . The peak demandis the volume of hot water required during the building's period of greatestusage. Dwellings . One personper 14m2 of the gross building floorarea. an inlet temperature of 10°C anda storedtemperature of 65°C.Nurses home 70 20 .Student. whenever theyoccur. A factory witha production line will require sufficient hot water to meetthe demand at breaks in the shift when the workforce mayall wishto wash hands etc. See Figure7.Student en-suite 70 20 .Library 2 1 Person .and never less than 50°Cthroughoutthe distribution system. or shorterperiod dependant on the occupants and activities taking place. art galleries. and availability at other times as and when occupant's 'overtime' working hours demand. and the selection will depend mainly on the quantities of hot water required and the typesof Table 6 Hot waterdemand Type of building Daily Stored (litres) (litres) Unit Sports hall.withoutcanteen 10 5 Shops . personsper teams per hours used. If the numberofbuilding occupants are not knownthenasa guidethe accurately following criteria can be used.2 bedroom 75 115 . This may be over an hour. The demand for hot water will vary considerably between typesof buildings.4/5 Star Luxury 135 45 Offices & general worK places .Paediatric ward .Museum 1 1 Person .Field Sports . Bars.Hot and cold water supplies Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Hot water production Hot water can be generated by a differing numberof methods.8m2ofthe public bar/seating area. To overcome this situation the storage vessel shouldincorporate the following features: a.Medical ward .Boarding .6th formcollege . maximum.3 + bedrooms 55 115 . Therefore in calculating the hot water demand for a building it is necessary to ensure that the output water temperature fromthe hot water production plant is never less than 60°C.Children's home 70 25 .All weather pitch Figure 7 Hotwatertemperature protocol When a conventional bulk hot water vessel is used it is necessaryto ensure that the contents of the wholevessel achieves the correctstored water temperature as stratification can occur.withoutcanteen Schools 15 10 15 10 15 15 15 15 114 200 110 110 125 70 20 20 35 35 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Bedspce Bedspce Bedspce Bedroom Bedspace Inmate Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Person Person Person Person Person Person Pupil PupilI Pupil Pupil Pupil Bed Bed Bed Bed Bed Person Person Person Person All weather field. Places of assembly (excLsta__ . Swimming pooi. . A sports pavilionwill need to be able to provide largequantities of hot waterfor team's showering needsover a short period of time following games.Surgical ward . comm 70 20 . Top outlet hot water outletflow c.DistrictGeneral . perday. If the energycapacity needed is not available then a greater volume of water storage would have to be provided to ensure hot water is available during the slower re-heat period.Art Gallery 2 1 Person .withoutcanteen Factory .Theatre 1 1 Person .1 bedroom 115 115 .SportsHall Base inlet hot watercold feed supply Hot water production and storage temperatures are required to comply to the Health & Safetyrequirements for the minimisation of legionellabacteria.

e. Measured quantities of hot water consumption should not standalone as a sizing guide. and are based on the period of individual draw. the type and level of activity and any other factors that mayaffect hot waterdemand. should that demandoccur. The established two hour peak usage figurescannot simply be evenly subdivided into shorter periods withoutthe risk of seriously under estimating the actual hot water volume that will be required during that shorter period. This is because 1750 litresof 65°Chot water is notionally available at the start of the notional peak draw-offperiod. The recommended storage volumes are based on a 65°C storage temperature and a two hour reheat period. approximately a 3. the recommended two hour re-heat period storage volume for a budget hotel is 35 litresper bedroom. although detailed secureinformation about peak period demands during periods of less that 1 hourare not sufficiently available. The same hot water output couldalso be achieved by the use of low volume/rapid reheat 'semi-storage' types of hot water generators. its occupancy and the type of Figure 8 Typical demandpatternhistogram 3500 3000 2500 E. These potential peak demands could be considered as being extreme examples. with additional categories added as considered useful. length of time to fill a basin. each using50 litres of 60°Cstored hot water. assuming an initial stored volume capacityof 500 litres. Therefore it can be seen that the stored water is there to provide for a peak 1750 litre draw-offoccurring over any period from. so that the implications of the system not meeting the buildings hot water requirements can be recognised. and therefore a design risk margin will be required. However. an hourby houranalysisof likely hot water usageshould be made. which have not given rise to complaints of inadequacy. For consideration purposes 1750 litres equates to 35 baths. whentaking accountof the maximum simultaneous usage that is imposed on draw-offfittings by the building occupants. The shorterthe period. Dependant on the bath usage ratio of either 1200. The hot water usage will be directly related to the building function. the hot water stored could be used up aftera 45 minute period. or 4800 seconds frequency of use (see simultaneous demand data) the hot water stored could be used up after a 63 minute period. Typically the peak hour is between 15-20% of the day's total usage. Typical examples of daily demandin various typesof buildings are illustrated in Figures 8 and 9. For example. Traditionally hot waterpeak usage was based on a two hourstorage re-heat period and this has generally proved to be a satisfactory benchmark for peak demands for that period. 1800. the likely pattern of hot water usageshould be assessed and considered. In determining the pattern of usage. activitythat is likelyto take place.e. and whilstthe stored hot water is being drawn off it is also being re-heated at a rate of 1750 litresper two hours. Table 6 schedules a compilation of figures currently recommended by the water industry's designcodes.3 litre per second flow rate of 65°Ccontinuous hot wateroutput. taking into account the numberof occupants. or less.Dependant on the shower usage rate of 900. Alternatively 1750 litres could provide for 73 persons having a shower. The shortest of these peak drawoffs is the 'maximum' simultaneous demand litre per second flow rate figure calculated fromthe sumof the draw off 'demand' or 'loading' unitsused for pipe sizing. 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 6 12 18 24 Period 7 . a bulk storage vessel. if the energy input capacity is available. and the maximum requirements designed for wherenecessary. it is important to differentiate between a maximum daily demand and an average daily demand. For a 50 bedroom hotel the stored volume would need to be 1750 litres. By establishing a hot waterdemand histogram a representative peak demand volume can be established. To project the demand pattern over the operating period of the building.e. i. lessthe loss (25%) of hot waterdue to the mixing effectof the incoming cold waterfeed. The rate at which these amounts are drawn off must also be considered. is capableof providing a notional 2625 litres.off. However they clearly demonstrate the demands capable of being put on hot watergeneration. 2400. or 2700 seconds frequency of use. and accordingly has to be considered for design purposes. Whatever the building. periodsof time that these flow rates occurare very short. 1 hour. Thisdata should be considered as representative of capacities. less the loss through the mixing of incoming cold water and the stored hot water (25%). i. each lasting 5 minutes using 24 litres of 60°C of stored hot water (mixed with cold). say ten minutesupwards. When selecting a 'semi-storage' hot waterproduction unit(s) it needs to be recognised that the small stored volume is thereto meetthe short period peak draw-offs that occur in any water supply system.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Hot and cold water supplies demand. The projected pattern of demand should be recorded in the form of a histogram profile. The 'semi-storage' typeof hot water heaters can meetshorterpeak demand periods i. which when supplemented by the re-heated water during the envisaged peak two hour draw-off period. Once the daily usage is determined then the more critical peak demand can be assessed. Two hour re-heat The two hourre-heatstorage volume figures can providea guide to the peak watervolume used duringa peak two hour usage period. A 'semi-storage' hot water generator requiring to meet the same demand for baths would needto be capableof providing. the greaterthe disproportion of the two hour peak storage figure will be required. These two examples are based on a peak statistical usage which wouldlikely not reoccur during the remaining time of the two hour re-heat period.

plus alleviating the need for secondary circulation pipework and pumpto maintain distribution temperatures. Offices: Electric. or bath. This maybe considered particularly suitable for office and school toilets. where relatively little hot water is required then a local heaterpositioned adjacent to the draw-offfittings would be appropriate. Rot water cold feed 1. 0 t. Solar heating.e. or more. and the number of timesthe draw-offis used during the peak demand period. i. For toilet wash basin'hand rinse' purposes only.or indirect by a dedicated circulator Local or central plant The adoption of local or central plant is generally dependant on the type of building. Gas. in addition to Hot water generators The production of hot watercan be achieved by a varied number of energy sources.e. energy consumption. where hot water is needed and the volume required. electric and gas in particular. or 20 minutes. every 5. Steam. when available and viable is an excellent supplementary heat source and effective in reducing annual energytariffs. Electric. which provide a direct means of heating hot water. when available from a central plant facility. generally with direct immersed elements 2. Figure 10 Vented hot watergenerator Figure 11 Unvented hot watergenerator HWS distribution 3. The 'maximum simultaneous demand'must not be applied to periodsgreater than the period and frequency of 'maximum simultaneous demand.Hot and cold water supplies Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide 500 400 School 3000 Service 0 E . Sharing hot water generation with space heating plant can decrease the energy efficiency through the Checkvalve Pressure relief valve 8 . 10. Option of combined cold feed and open vent Larger premises and sportsfacilities: Gas directfired water heaters. Vented or unvented generators A vented hot water generator is supplied by a gravity hot waterdownfeed and expansion pipe and having an open vent pipe over the feed cistern/tank to provide for pressure relief. Low Temperature Hot Water (LTHW) boilerplant. are the most effective in teçms of efficiency because of leastloss of heat during the heat transfer process. permission ofthe Chartered Institution ofBuilding Figure 9 Examples ofdaily demand patternsforcommercial premises sink. or gas combination (HWS & Heating) boilers. have a shower. and maintenance costs. Energy forms. Commonly used formsof hot water heatingare: Dwellings and small buildings: Electric. by ServicesEngineers. additional transferprocessand less efficient operation when space heating is not needed. local or 'point of use'water heaters.1 U U 18 12 Time (hours) Reproduced from CIBSE Guide G:PublicHealthEngineering.. The advantages of this type of installation can be low installation.2 2000 •Catering 0 ¼) 5 81000 100 0 6 fl - I 12 0 18 24 Time (hours) 1OC — w 06 I 24 Time (hours) 'a60 80 Restaurant 0 E ¼) 0 40 20 6 r Time (hours) 24 12 '? E C 0 0. dedicated or more likely forming part of the space heating plant 4. eitherdirect. E Hotel 300 200 . i.

if the energy input capacityis available.e. with additional categories added as considered useful. each using 50 litres of 60°C stored hot water. Alternatively 1750 litres could providefor 73 persons having a shower. should that demand occur. or less. an hour by hour analysis of likely hot water usage should be made. it is important to differentiate between a maximum daily demandand an average daily demand. or 2700 seconds frequency of use. Dependant on the shower usage rate of 900. Whatever the building. say ten minutes upwards. and therefore a design risk margin will be required.e. In determining the pattern of usage.e. assuming an initial stored volume capacity of 500 litres. E. when taking accountof the maximum simultaneous usagethat is imposed on draw-offfittings by the building occupants. and are based on the period of individual draw-off. Once the daily usageis determined then the more critical peak demand can be assessed. a bulk storage vessel. the likely pattern of hot water usage should be assessed and considered. A 'semi-storage' hot water generator requiring to meetthe samedemandfor bathswould needto be capableof providing. The shortestof thesepeak drawoffs is the 'maximum' simultaneous demandlitre per secondflow rate figure calculated from the sum of the draw off 'demand' or 'loading'unitsused for pipe sizing. The recommended storage volumes are based on a 65°C storage temperature and a two hour reheat period. lessthe lossthroughthe mixing of incoming cold water and the stored hot water (25%). 2400. 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 6 12 Period 18 24 7 . Measured quantities of hot water consumption should not standalone as a sizing guide. length of timeto fill a basin. which have not given rise to complaints of inadequacy. approximately a 3. each lasting 5 minutesusing24 litres of 60°C of stored hot water (mixed with cold). the hot water stored could be used up after a 45 minute period. The rate at which these amounts are drawn off must also be considered. or 4800seconds frequency of use (see simultaneous demanddata) the hot waterstored could be used up after a 63 minute period. the recommended two hour re-heat period storage volume for a budget hotel is 35 litres per bedroom. The projected pattern of demand should be recorded in the form of a histogram profile. so that the implications of the system not meeting the buildings hot waterrequirements can be recognised.and whilstthe stored hot water is being drawn off it is also being re-heated at a rate of 1750 litres per two hours. The hot water usage will be directly related to the building function. Typically the peak houris between 15-20% of the day'stotal usage. which when supplemented by the re-heated water during the envisaged peak two hour draw-offperiod. Table 6 schedules a compilation of figurescurrently recommended by the waterindustry's designcodes. For a 50 bedroom hotel the stored volume would need to be 1750 litres. Dependant on the bath usage ratio of either 1200. although detailedsecure information aboutpeak period demands during periodsof less that 1 hourare not sufficiently available. i. and the maximum requirements designed for where necessary. These potential peak demands could be considered as beingextremeexamples. However they clearly demonstrate the demands capableof being put on hot water generation. activity that is likelyto takeplace. When selecting a 'semi-storage' hot water production unit(s) it needs to be recognised that the small stored volume is there to meet the short period peak draw-offs that occur in any water supply system. Typical examples of daily demand in various typesof buildings are illustrated in Figures 8 and 9. The shorterthe period. Therefore it can be seen that the stored water is there to provide for a peak 1750 litre draw-offoccurring over any period from. i. less the loss (25%) of hot waterdue to the mixing effectof the incoming cold waterfeed. its occupancy and the type of Figure 8 Typical demandpatternhistogram 3500 3000 2500 The established two hour peak usage figures cannot simply be evenly subdivided into shorter periods without the risk of seriously under estimating the actual hot watervolume that will be required during that shorterperiod. This is because 1750 litres of 65°C hot water is notionally available at the start of the notional peak draw-offperiod. To project the demand pattern over the operating period of the building. periods of time that these flow ratesoccur are very short.These two examples are based on a peak statistical usage which would likely not reoccur during the remaining time of the two hour re-heat period.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Hot and cold water supplies demand. By establishing a hot water demand histogram a representative peak demand volume can be established. The 'semi-storage' type of hot water heaters can meet shorter peak demand periodsi. 1 hour. Two hour re-heat The two hour re-heat storage volume figurescan providea guideto the peak water volume used during a peak two hourusageperiod. is capable of providing a notional 2625 litres.However. For example. This data should be considered as representative of capacities. The same hot water output could also be achieved by the use of low volume/rapid reheat 'semi-storage' types of hot watergenerators. the type and level of activity and any otherfactors that mayaffect hot water demand. For consideration purposes 1750 litres equates to 35 baths. Traditionally hot water peak usagewas based on a two hourstorage re-heat period and this has generally proved to be a satisfactory benchmark for peak demands for that period. 1800. and accordingly has to be considered for design purposes. taking into accountthe numberof occupants.3 litre per second flow rate of 65°C continuous hot wateroutput.the greaterthe disproportion of the two hourpeak storage figurewill be required.

Maintain stored hot water between 60-65°C Full thickness burns 3. All Where difficultto attain an adequate bathing temperature 43°C 44°C Leak detection landscape watering 6. Limited needfor garden and . The key aims being: 1. and anywhere where there is a 'duty of care' by the building owner's landlord. Urinal Controls 3. contained 1 Safe water temperatures Safe watertemperatures need to be considered for hot watersupplies to appliances used by the elderly. sufficientto cause burnsin thin areas ofskin 80 — 2. Type 3 — a thermostatic mixing valvewith enhanced thermal performance compilingwith the NHSEstates Model Engineering Specification D08. etc Bath Type Application Max Temp Bidet Shower Wash basin Wash basin Bath Bath All All Hand rinse only underrunning water. Industrial Injuries and Burns Unitproduced data which illustrates the time and temperature relationship which result in partial and full thickness burns. i. elderly.e. Avoid supplies to littleor unused draw-offfittings 7.46°C Type3 10 .) c0 a. The Medical Research Council. Water conservation The efficient management of water usage and supplies is necessary to comply with National and 'International environmental conservation 'best practice'aims and is covered in detail within the Resource Efficient Design section. i. The Health Codes also extends to elderly care homes and sheltered dwellings. See Figure 13. which are under the responsibility or licence of the Local Authority. are: Type 1 — a mechanical mixingvalve. section'. or tap including those complying with BS 1415part 1. i. Type2 — a thermostatic mixing valve. and preferably at 55°C 4. Clothesand dish washing machines 5. The type of valvescan vary dependant on their application. Table 9 Recommended applicationfor mixingvalves Application Bidet Shower Wash basin. bathroom 38°C 41°C 41°C Type 3 Type 3 2. schools. 50 — I I 10 I 100 Time in seconds 1000 10000 NOTE: Forfurtherdetailsplease see 'legionella withinthis guide. 6° a' C 60 a. as defined by the Health Guidance Note. The temperature control is achieved by the deployment of singlecontrol mixer taps or valves. Maintain balanced use and flows through multiple cold water cisterns/tanks and hot watervessels. hand rinse. and undue consumption. and also the specification for reduced capacityof WC flushing cisternsand limitto automatic urinal flushing cisterns. Low volume flushWC's The types of mixing valve. Maintain hot water distribution above 50°C. Type1 Type 3 Draw-off tap controls 4. Maintain cold water below 25°C Graph 1 Temperature and durationofexposure. Table 8 NHSestates healthguidance for Safe hot watertemperatures Appliance Design Codes for Health buildings require that all draw-off points that can be used by patients have the temperature of the hot water limited to a safetemperature. Other buildings that require consideration are nurseries. The Legoinalle requirements for 60-65°C stored hot water and a minimum 55-55°C distributed hot water means that consideration is needed to provide temperature control at the drawoff fittings use by persons at risk of being scalded.e. infirmed. and/ormanagement. Insulate all cold and hot water storage vessels and distribution pipework 5.Hot and cold water supplies Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide The Codeidentifies specific practical guidance on how this is to be achieved in watersupply systems. Minimise the length of un-circulated and nonetrace heated hot water pipes 70 C. See Graph 1. The key waterconservation areaswithin a water supply installation are 1. The Water Regulations incorporate this requirements under their prevention of'waste.e. infirmed and young. complying with BS 1415 part 2. toilets For an integral part of ablution. or B55779 incorporating a maximum temperature control stop device. young.misuse. E 6. for persons not being at risk Wash basins for persons at risk.

Table 10 Office waterconsumption Activity The erection ofa building or other structure. now DEFRA) Guidance and Water Industry recommendations. 6 6 6 1. of more than 230 litres A bidet with an ascending sprayor flexible hose Asingle shower unit (which may consist of one or more shower heads within a single unit) not being a drench shower installed for reasons of safety or health. and a correctly provided air gap protects against all fluid categories from 1 up to 5. or which requires the use of waterfor regeneration or cleaning A reduced pressure zone valve assembly or other mechanical device for protection against a fluid which is in Air gaps are the most effective means of protecting against backflow and the resulting risk of contamination. Who requiresthe work 2. or watersystemlaid outside a building Any and either less than 750mm or more than 1350mm below ground level The construction of a pondor a swimming pool with a capacity of more than 10. Referto Table 13. not being a pond or swimming pool 2 3 4 (a) The extension or alteration of a water system on any premises other than a % water used Anticipated %saving The Guide interperates the Regulations and identifies how water supply systems shall be installed to comply with the Statutory Regulations.which shall not begin withoutthe consent. To Protectagainst Backflow thereare a range of mechanical and non-mechanical devices. as measured to the centreline of overflow. Referto Table 13. rain watercollection and waterefficientgarden and landscape.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Hot and cold water supplies 7. incorporating the Department of the Environment. fluid category4 or 5 (h) (i) designed A garden watering system unless 5 to be operated by hand. The degree of contamination is as defined by the Water Regulations Guide. WC flushing Washing Urinal flushing Miscellaneous 43% 27% 20% 10% 30% .80% 20% (b) (c) Significant additional waterreductions can be made byincorporating leak detection systems. The risk of contamination is made present throughbackpressure and/or backsyphonage. and the Regions (DETR. grey waterrecycling. and an 'excellent' for 490 points. and the identification of risks is one of the main changes between the previous Water Bylaws and the Water Regulations. The DTER (now DEFRA) Water Water regulations The Water Regulations Guide is published by the Water Regulation Advisory Scheme (WRAS). Location of premises 4. The risks are categorised into five Fluid Category definitions. All othermeans of protection. taps. connected directly or indirectly to a supply pipe A unit whichincorporates reverse osmoses A watertreatment unit whichproduces a waste waterdischarge. Transport. if an approved contractor is to carry out the works. categorised as Fluids 1 to 5. Rainwater reuse 8. Grey water recycling. An example the document proposes is the potential water savings that could possibly be made in an office building. Design procurement assessments. termedas Backflow beingthe source of risk into the water distribution system.60% 50% . Where predicted water consumption is 1O-20m3 per person per year Where predicted waterconsumption is 5-9m3 per person per year Where predicted waterconsumption is <5m3 per personper year Where a watermeter is installed to all supplies in the building Where a leak detection system is installed covering all mains supplies Where proximity detection shut off is provided to watersupplies in WC areas Where there are established and operational maintenance procedures covering all watersystem. Table 12 Notifiable installations Ref Installation Conservation in Business document (2000) provides proposals and examples for water savings. Name of the approved contractor.000 litres which is designed to be replenished by automatic means and is to be filled with watersupplied by a water undertaker. The contaminated water is any water that has been delivered to the draw off point and has left the water supply system. 14 The other assessment criteria for the building are Building performance. Backflow prevention It is necessaryto protect against the likelihood of the backflow of contaminated water backinto the water supplyinstallation. which overall represents 62 points out of the total BREEM score. Notice of the work shall include detailsof: Crowncopyright1999 with the permission ofthe Controller HerMajesty's Stationery of Office. The Building Research Establishment provide an assessment method called 'BREEM' which provides a range of performance criteriato assesswater economy in buildings. Who is to carry the work out 3. Table 11 shows the importance of water conservation design and management. 11 . The prevention of contamination is the overall main aim of the Water Regulations. connected directlyor indirectly to a supply pipe which is of a type specified by the regulator A pump or booster drawing more than 12 litres per minute. and shall comply with any conditions set by the water undertaker (company). A description of the work 5.60% 50% . Reference to the Water Regulations is required for the selection of the appropriate device to match the fluid category risk. andmanagement and operational assessments. For an office building the BREEM design and procurement performance scoring gives a 'pass' for 200 points. Table 11 BREEM98 foroffices water assessment prediction checklist Item Score (d) (e) (f) (g) house A material changeof use of any premises The installation of: A bath having a capacity. will protect between Fluid Categories 1-4. sanitarytiftings and major water consuming plant Where waterconsumption monitoring is carried out at leasteveryquarter using historical data Where storm waterrun off is controlled at source 6 Notification 12 18 6 6 The Water Regulations requires that notice shall be given to the water undertaker (company) of work intending to be carried out.

The listofexamples of applications shownabove foreach fluid category not exhaustive. A change in its temperature. Fluid Category 4: Fluid whichrepresents a significant health hazard because of the concentration of toxic substances. basins andshowers in medical premises. Medical: Any medical or dental equipment with submerged inlets. baths and showers. is based on the likelihood of situations occurring and therefore its predictions may on occasions be at variance with the actual demand. Catering: Commercial dishwashing machines. Commercial softening plant. Sinks. radioactive or very toxic substances. Permeable pipes in other than domestic gardens laid below or at ground level with or without chemical additives. 1%. or environmental organisms of potential health significance. baths. Domestic wash basins. Faecal matter orother humanwaste. coppersulphate solution or similar chemical additives. COMMENTS: 1. Commercial clotheswashing plants. Fluid Category 5: Fluid represents a serioushealth hazard because of the concentration of pathogenic organisms. Fluid Category 3: Fluid whichrepresents a slight health hazardbecause ofthe concentration of substances of low toxicity. dairies. including any fluid which contains: a. as the nameimplies. Industrial and commercial installations: Industrial and chemical plant. Commercial clotheswashing plant in health care premises. Hospital dialyses machines. 3. Bed pan washers. Sewage treatment and sewercleansing. Catering: Dishwashing machines in health care premises. including any fluid which Watersupplied directly from a waterundertaker's main. sodium hypochlorite (chloros and common disinfections). Mixing of hot and cold watersupplies. Drink vending machines having ingredients injected. or c. Watercooled air conditioning units (without additives). The actual numberin use. Drink vending machines having no ingredients injected into the distribution pipe. Commercial hydroponic systems. than the waterwithinsinks. The Categories distinguish between domestic use. This has been established to be reliable in that it has not led to an under assessment of simultaneous demand calculation. pathogens from any other source. Food processing: Food preparation. Chemicals. Fire sprinkler systems using anti-freeze solutions. Brewery and distillation plant. Car washing degreasing plant. ie hospitals. Vegetable washing. including waterin a hot waterdistribution system. m eaingdweiings. Industrial disinfecting equipment. Laboratories. Laboratories. 2. as probability theory. or b. Mortuary and embalming equipment. Watertreatmentplant or softeners using other than salt. Grey water recycling systems. (The incoming watersupply). General: Industrial cisterns. Home dialysing machines.Hot and cold water supplies Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Table 13 Water regulation fluid categories and examples Fluid Category 1: Wholesome watersupplied by a waterundertaker and complying with the requirements of regulations made undersection 67 of the Water Industries Act 1991. The probability of a particularnumberof draw off's occurring at any one time is determined by dividing the time for the appliance to be filled. tankers and gully emptiers. b. or b. General: Primary circuits and central heating systems in other than a house. Pressurised fire tighting systems. in litres per second (Its) taking account of the diversityof use of all the varioustypesand numbers of appliances. and equipment requiring a water supply connection. Vegetable washing. others willpresentthemselves and require to be is matched to a Fluid Category. Non-domestic hose union taps. basins andshowers in domestic premises is a lesserFluid Category risk. Drain cleaning plant. Probability theory The use of probability theory in assessing simultaneous demandis only fully applicable wherelarge numbers of appliances are involved. Industrial and commercial installation: Dyeing equipment. In practical terms all the water draw-off points are not in use at the same time. baths. Food processing: Butchery and meattradesslaughterhouse equipment. washbasins and otherappliances. Fluid Category 2: Waterin fluid category 1 whose aesthetic qualityis impaired owing to: a. Domestic softening plant. Fire sprinkler systems withoutanti-freeze. butchery orother animal waste. Crown copyright 1999 withthepermission oftheController HerMajesty's Stationery Office of Distribution pipe sizing The sizing of a water distribution pipe system is achieved by establishing the anticipated flow rates. (including insecticides and herbicides). meaingcommercial buildings. WC pans and bidets. Ethylene glycol. possiblybyseeking guidance fromthe WaterRegulations AdvisoryScheme. Hand held fertilizersprays. Waterin primarycircuitsand heating systems in a house. Printing and photographic equipment. carcinogenic substances or pesticides b. the presence of substances or organisms causing a change in its taste. Water storage for agricultural purposes. urinals. The criteriafor this occurrence is deemedto be reasonable if it is taken as factor. refrigeration equipment. Irrigation systems. Mobile plant. Waterstorage for fire fighting purposes. The Fluid Categories define that the waterwithin sinks. in relation to the total numbercapableof being used 12 varies dependant on the occupational use in the varioustypesof building. Domestic clothes and dishwashing machines.andnon-domestic uses. including anyfluid which contains: a. Ice making machines. by the time between successive usageof the appliance to arriveat the probability = t — time in seconds of appliance filling T — time in secondsbetween successive usage of the appliance . Domestic handheld hoses. contains: a. baths. Commercialagricultural: Commercial irrigation outlets below ground orat ground level and/or permeable pipes with or withoutchemical additives. Insecticides or fertiliser applications. Non-domestic sinks. bottlewashing apparatus. etc. House and gardens: Mini-irrigation systems without fertilizeror insecticide application suchas pop-up sprinklers or permeable hoses. odourorappearance. bottle washing apparatus.

067 0.08 0. 15mm sep.2 0.030 8.533 1. V 2 / C a.52 figure 1.-. 200 500 1000 Numberof appliances a. 15mm mix tap Hand spray.017 0.27 3.67 1.100 0.5 7.111 0.3 0. 0.000 0. — — - —— -- — v - 0 a.167 0.08 0.33 1.15 0.64 2.64 7.282 0.33 2.067 1.53 1. Draw-off tap sizes and flow rates differ between appliances.08 0. 6 litre cistern Flow rate (litres/sec) 0.067 2.200 0.125 0. The frequency of Table 14 Simultaneous demand— base data Type of appliance Capacity (litres) Basin .33 Demand 80 80 80 80 4. All of these factors can vary.1 5 0.00 2. then out of the 100 appliances being supplied.22 1.848 2. taps Basin.061 16.028 0.08 0.53 1.232 6.00 2.20mm sep/mixtap Bath. 15mm head Urinal.00 1.03 8.030 —— a.727 0.33 1.5 4.00 4.055 0. sinks and otherappliancesall vary in capacity.5 6 6 6 0 0 0 0 0. . then: t = 300 = P= 0. C 0 0 __ ___ 5 2 0. 7 100 The factors.55 3. only 7 would be in use at any one time.055 0.848 2.003 0.5 0.050 0. C a E C a.1 Shower..040 An example of this application which utilises the probability graph is if 100 appliances each take 30 seconds to be filled.00 1.121 10.015 0.e. time takento fill appliance d.08 0.15 0. .333 1. 15mm sep/mix tap Bath. ratio ratio 0.82 3.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Hot and cold water supplies Graph 2 Probabilitygraph Probability ofdischargefactor P a 0.00 1.00 3.100 0.53 0.030 4.08 0.67 0.273 4. cistern/taps Clotheswashing m/c. Capacity of appliance in litres b.424 4.53 0. The capacity of wash basins. Use frequency in seconds.5 0.04 6.27 4.055 0. Draw-off period in seconds. time between each use of the appliance. // // 7- —7 / iaiu 0.27 0. Draw-off flow rate in litres per second c.33 0. and are used at 1200 seconds (20 0.00 0.212 0. 0 7.050 0. 15mm Bucket sink.53 0.111 0.12 36.1 0.53 0.0 0 . 15mm sep/mixtap Sink.33 1.200 0.08 0.00 2.1 0.100 0.67 0.020 Demand unit 1 2 4 1 1 3 2 5 10 7 4 8 16 11 1 2 5 2 3 6 1 1 1 1 1 3 5 2 13 .06 12.06 3.64 1.042 Propof base appl.110 0.697 7.53 0.00 4.133 2.00 2.000 2.00 1.000 4.61 4.747 1.82 3. 0 0.3 0.15 0.64 7.2 Demand (seconds) Frequency (seconds) Usage Propof base appl.110 0.00 2.8 Simultaneousdemand The numberof draw-offpoints that may be used at any one time can be estimated by the application of probability theory. are: 11211111 20 50 .089 0.08 0.5 4.533 1.848 9.3 0.02 4. 2 x 8mmmix tap 5 5 5 5 5 5 12 12 12 18 Sink.0 0 0.100 0.e.222 0.53 0.15 0. single bowl/stall Bidet.2 0. / .53 0.3 0. 77 --::.36 1. which have to be taken into account.055 0.67 0.00 2. : 0.155 3.2 33 33 33 33 33 33 60 60 60 60 266 266 266 266 60 60 60 300 300 300 1500 33 33 75 60 75 60 25 1200 600 300 1200 600 300 1200 600 300 600 4800 2400 1200 3000 1200 600 300 2700 1800 900 1500 1200 600 1200 3600 600 600 600 1. and the probability factor in this example.2 0. cistenr only Slop hopper.02 0. i.00 0.424 4.010 • minutes) frequency intervals. dom.08 0. 20mm sep/mixtap WC Suite. flowrate 1.212 2.000 0. i.465 0.606 3. 15mm taps Slop hopper.028 0. '10 2 .00 2.025probability T 1200 Using the Probability graph.

Hot and cold water supplies

Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide

the use of the appliances are differentin varying locations, both within a building, and within differentbuildings.

Frequency of use
This is the time between each use of the appliance. Referto Tables 14 and 15. Low use is deemedto have 1200 seconds (20 minutes) between each use, and is appropriate for dwellings, and in otherbuildings where appliances are dedicated for use by a single person, or a small group of people, as a private
facility. Medium use is deemed to have 600 seconds (10 minutes) between use, beingappliances that are available to be used by a larger group of people, as and when they require on a random basis with no set timeconstraint, typically associated with 'public use'toilets. High use is deemedto have 300 seconds (5 Minutes) between each use for appliances to be used by large numbers of persons over a short period, as would be the case within buildings such as theatres, concerthalls and fixed period sports events.

considered as representative of flow rates, which have not given rise to complaints of inadequacy. Care is required with the 'loading unit' method of calculation where usage may be intensive. This is particularly applicable to field sports showers, theatretoilets, and factorywash rooms, etc. where it is necessary to establish the likelyperiod of constant usage and provide the flow rate to suit.

Flow rates
To determine the design maximum simultaneous flow rate for a specific water distribution systemthe following process is necessary: a. Identify the type and position of all the appliances and equipment requiring a water supply. b. Determine the pipe routes and location for the incoming mains, cold & hot water distribution, andthe
locations of storage cisterns/tanks and hot watergenerators.

Figure 14 Pipe sectionloading

of the provisional calculation is a 'head loss in metres, per metre run of pipe.'

This figurecan be used withthe pipe sizing charts to establish the assumed or provisional pipe size. As the loading unit for each pipe section is established enter the figures into the calculation sheet. See
Figure 15.

Pipe sizing chart definitions
Pipe reference

c. Sketch

a scaled plan and a schematic or an isometricof the pipework distribution and plant layout.
(isolation, service, check, double check, pressure reducing) all cisterns/tanks and vesselentry and exit arrangements.

Loading units
To accountfor these variations, a 'loading unit'system has beendevised which takes accountof the appliance type, it's capacity, flow rate, period of use, and frequency of use characteristics, to

d. Identify type, position of all fittings, i.e. couplings, elbows, tees; all valves,

Numbered or lettered sections of the system identifying the start and finish.
Loading units

Simultaneous maximum demandfigure being carried by that sectionof pipe. Flowrate (l/s)

establish a calculation method which satisfactorily reflects a 'maximum simultaneous designflow rate,' in litresfor any part of a pipeworkdistribution system. This method of calculation should be Table 15 Loading units
Type of appliance Frequency of use

attached to appliances and equipment. f. Establish the mains pressure available, in metres, and the cistern/tank headavailable in metres.

e. Identify all typesof draw-offfitting

Litres per second derived fromthe loading unit figure.
Assumed pipe diameter (mm)

Nominal internal diameter established

g. Identify the index run, ie. the furthest and/orhighest outlet, and greatest
draw-off volume. Having established itemsa-g, proceed to add the sanitaryand appliance loading units, loading each section of pipewith the numberof loading unitsthat it is required to carry. This is bestachieved on eithera plan or isometric of the system. A useful technique is to use a four-quarter frame. See Figure 14. The pipesize at this initial stage is provisional in orderto enable the calculation to proceed. The provisional pipesize can be established by calculating the available head or pressure, in metres head and dividing it by the overall length of the indexcircuit, i.e. the longest piperoutewith the greatest dutyand least heador pressure, plus a 30% factorfor, at this stage an assumed lossthroughfittings.The result

from the available head divided by the index circuit length plus 30% for loss throughfittings.
Length (m)

Low
1 1

Med High
2
1

Basin, 15mm sep. taps Basin, 2 x 8mm mix. tap Sink,15mm sep/mix tap Sink,20mm sep/mix tap

4 2 10

Length of pipe, in metres of the pipe section beingsized, measuring its total route length.
Pipe losses (mh/m)

2
-

5 7 8
11

16

Bath,l5mrnsep/mix/tap Bath, 20mm sep/mix tap WC Suite, 6.litrecistern
Shower, 15mm head Urinal, single bowl/stall Bidet, 15mm mix tap Hand Spray, 15mm Bucket sink, 15mm taps Slop Hopper, cistern only Slop Hopper, cistern/taps clothes washing m/c, dom. Dishwasher rn/c domestic

4
1

5 6

2 3
1 1 1 1

In metres head per metre of pipe, taken from the pipe sizing charts.
Velocity (m/s) Velocity, in metres per second of the water flowing throughthe pipe being sized, taken from the pipe sizing charts.
Pipe loss (mh)

2
1

-

3 5

2

2

-

-

of the pipe length andthe metres head loss per metre run of pipe length.

In metres head, being the multiplication

14

Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide

Hot and cold water supplies

wc

Pipe Ref

Loading

units

Flow Assumed Length rate pipe dia.
(m)

Pipe loss

Velocity

Pipe loss
E

I
.08

Fittings headloss (rn/h)
SV
IV

BV

DO

Other

Total System Total Final head head head pipe loss loss available size

1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-8 8-9 9-wc
5-11

(l/s) 10+tank .45 5 + tank 35 Tank 15 29 .56 16 .42 12 32 10 .3

20 20
15

10

2
3

5
1

.2

25 25 20 20 20
15

2
3 2 4 2
1

(mm/h) .15 .09 .17 .06 .035 .07 .066 .32
16

(mis) 1.3
1.1

(mh)
.5

2
.01

.15 0.75 .02 .16 .015

.18
.51

(mh) .6 .26

(mh)

(mh)

(mm)

15.0

15
35 35 .32
.3 .3

1.0 1.0 .75 .9 .85 .65 1.0 .6 .6 .9 .9 .9

1
.07

56

Less static

20 20
15

.12 .105 .14 .264 .064 .16 .075 .025 .14 .28 .07

.07

.08

.09 .065 .12 .065

.02
.04 .06 .04

.355 .155 .295 .449 .084

25 25
20

20 20
1.718 2.0
15

.02 .005 .03

16
.03

38

11-12 12-13 13-14 14-bath 6-10 10-basin

13 13
11

9 (inc bath)
Bath

25 25 20 20 20

3
1

2 4
1

.25 .025 .07 .07 .07

.07
.5

.17 065 .17 .35 .507 1.262

25

25 20 20 2.0
20

continuefor the remainder of the system Figure 15 Pipeworkisometric and calculation sheet Fittingsheadloss (mh) In metres head, for each pipefitting and valveon the sectionof pipebeing sized.
Total head loss (mh)

Totalheadavailable(mh)

In metres head, being eitherthe mains or pump pressure and/orthe heightof the gravity feed cistern/tank. SeeTable 16.
Final pipe size (mm)

and terminal outlets, against a range of flow ratesand sizes. Loss of head through Tees should be assumed to occur at the changes of
direction only. For fittings not identified reference shall be madeto the respective manufactures literature.

In metres head, beingthe total sum of the pipe head lossand the fittings head
loss,
System head loss (mh)

In mm, nominal internaldiameter, confirming the pipe sizefor that section of pipe.

In metres head, beingthe totalsum of all the sectionsof pipe relevant to the source of head available,

Loss of head through fittings
Referto Table 19 lossof head, in metres throughvarious pipeline fittings

Wherethe flow rate falls between the statedfiguresthen the proportional flow rate difterence between the higherand lower figureshall be equallyapplied to the higher and lowerhead loss figure.

15

Hot and cold water supplies

Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide

Table 16 Headand pressure
Metres
1

ofwater
Bars Bars 0.1 kN/m2/ orkPa 10 Metres

kNm2 or kPa 9.81 19.61

Pipe sizing by velocity
Wherethere is ample head available, or the water supply is by a pump or pump set, then pipesizing can bestbe achieved by using an optimum pipe
velocity.
In a gravitydown feed system wherethe head available is a limiting factor, pipe velocities are generally low, often in the range of 0.4 to 0.8 metres/second. Wheredeliveryis to be a pumped supply, then the pipevelocities can be allowed to increase to 1.0 to 1.5 metres/second, and possibly higherwhere pipesare routed in non occupied areas. SeeTable 17. Pipe velocities, ultimately are limited by eitherof the following: a. b.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100

29.42 39.23 49.03 58.84 68.65 78.45 88.26 98.07 107.87 117.68 127.49 137.29 147.10 156.91 166.71 176.52 186.33 196.13 245.17 294.20 343.23 392.37 441.30 490.33 588.40 686.47 784.53 882.60 980.66

0.098 0.196 0.294 0.392 0.490 0.588 0.686 0.785 0.883 0.981 1.08 1.18 1.27 1.37 1.47 1.57 1.67 1.77 1.86 1.96 2.45 2.94 3.43 3.92 4.41 4.90 5.88 6.86 7.85 8.83 9.81

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
1.1

1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000

1.02 2.04 3.06 4.08 5.10 6.12 7.14 8.16 9.18 10.20 11.22 12.24 13.26 14.28 15.30 16.32 17.34 18.36 19.38 20.40 25.49 30.59 35.69 40.79 45.89 50.99 61.18 71.38 81.58 91.77 101.97

Noise Erosion/corrosion

c. Cavitation.
Noise is a majorconsideration, and velocities above 1.5 metres/second in pipework passing throughoccupied areas, in particular bedrooms should be avoided.

The use of various unitsto describe pressure can causeconfusion. The calculation of 'Headloss' in this Guide Section is declared in 'Metreshead' as a readily usable means of measurement. Metresheadcan be easilyconverted to Bar, kN/m2 and/or Pascals pressure figures as there is a closecorrelation between all of them. The table above provides the comparative figuresfor eas of
reference. 1 litre of waterweighs 1 kilogram, or 1000grams. 1 cubicmetreof water= 1000 litres. 1 metre headof water= 9810Pa or kN/m2, or 9.81Pa or kN/m2, or 0.1 bar.

Erosionand corrosion are lessof an issue. If velocities are being set to limit noisethen erosion and corrosion will not generally be a problem. Where velocities exceed 2.5 metres/second erosion and/or corrosion can result fromthe abrasive action of particlesin the water. This type of water would normallybe associated with a 'raw'water ratherthan a water supply for domestic use purposes where filtration has taken placeas part of the treatment processby the Water Companies who have a duty to provide a 'wholesome' supply for domestic
purposes. Cavitation caused by velocity is not considered an issuewith watersupply systems as velocities should always be belowthe 7.0 to 10.0 metres/second wherevelocity cavitation can occur. Having determined the appropriate velocity for the location of the distribution pipes, using the pipe sizing chartsyou can determinethe pipesize by cross reference to the design flow rate, and recordthe pipe head loss per metre. Fromthereonthe pipe sizing schedule for the wholesystem can be completed.

Table 17 Pipeworkvelocities
Location Noise

Pipe material Metal: copper, stainless steel, galvanised (mis)
Plastic UPVC, ABS, CPV, Pb

rating
NR

(mis)

Service duct, riser, shaft, plant room Service enclosure, ceiling void Circulation area, entrance corridor Seating area, lecture/meeting room Bedroom Theatre, cinema Recording studio

50

2.0
1.5 1.5 1.25 1.0 0.75

2.5
1.5 1.5 1.25 1.0 0.75

40 35 30 25 20
<20

0.5

0.5

Otherfactors than velocity need tobe considered with regardto noise generated bywaterflows in pipework. The pipe supportandbrackets required to secure the pipework sufficient to restrain itandpreventcontact with otherelements. Where pipework passesthrougha hollowstructure ie or wall or floor, then itneeds to be separated sleeved so as not to be in contactwith the structure, to avoid resonance, and resulting amplified noise to occur.

16

Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide

Hot and cold water supplies

Table 18a Heatemission from insulated pipes (40°C temperature difference)
Value of pipeworkinsulationthermal conductivityW/mK

0.040

0.055 Thicknessof pipeworkinsulation (mm) 12.5
14 16 19

0.070

12.5 10
15

19

25

38

12.5
12

19

25

38

19 12 14 16 18

25 10 12

38 9
11

9
11

7
9

20 25 32 40 50 65 75

12 14 17 19

10
11

6 8 9
10 12 13 15 18

4
6 7 8 9 10 12

14 16 19

13 15 18 21

22 24
30 35 40

23 •27
31

14
15

10 12 13 15 18 20 23 28
31

8
10 12 13

7 9
10
11

5
17 20 23 26

12
13 16 18

24

20

20

22 26 29 34 42 48

22 24 28 33 38

14 16 19
21

12 14 15 17 19

24
28 32

22 25

Table lBb Heatemission from uninsulated pipes (W/mrun)
Pipesize
10 15

steel Copper/stainless 22
31

Plastic

Steel

42 Refer to manufacturers data
51

20 25 32 40 50 65 75

43 53 64 75 93
112 125

62 75 84
102 125 143

Pipework takento be shinysurface, individual, with zero airmovement, and a 40°C temperature difference between the pipe contentandsurrounding airtemperature.

Figure 16 Secondary circulation pipework isometric and calculation sheet
Bath

5 Vent 7

Sink

Basin

Pump HW generator

Pipe Ref

Heat loss
load (W)

Flow Assumed Length rate pipe dia. (l/s)
.09

Pipe loss

Velocity

Pipe

loss
E

I

Fillings head loss (m/h) ..__
SV

IV

BV

DO

Other

Total System Total Final head head head pipe loss loss available size

(m)

(m/mh) .0025 .003 .003 .003
.02

(m/s)

(rn/h) .0025 .002 .006 .012 .001 .003 .002
.02 .001

(m) .02
.001

(m)

(m)

(rn) 25 20 20 20
15 15

1-2 (flow) 2-3 (flow) 3-4 (flow) 4-5 (flow) 5-6 (flow)
6-1 (return) 7-1 (return)

400 200 200 200 200 200 400

.05 .05 .05 .05 .05 .09

25 20 20 20
15 15 15

1

2 4
1 1

<.5 <.5 <.5 <.5
<.5

.0045 .007 .013 .005
.021

7
3

A2
.05

<.5 0.6

.14 .15

.045 .045

.02

.0185 .195 .264

15

17

Hot and cold water supplies

Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide

Hot water secondary circulation
In order to maintain the correct temperature of hot waterwithin the hot water distribution system, provision of a 'return' pipe to enable the waterto be circulated back to the hot water generator is required. Hot watercirculation can be achieved by gravity or pumpcirculation means, although in nearly all instances a pumped system is provided.

The total heat loss from each section of pipe is converted to a flow rate necessary to replace the lost heat. kg/s = 4.187 (shc of water) x 1000 The pipework heat loss is that which is emitted throughthe pipewall and insulation material. SeeTablesl8a and 18b for pipes with and without insulation. A 'Rule of Thumb' method of sizing pumpedHWS secondary circuits is to initially select a return pipe sizetwo sizes lowerthan the flow. As a guide select smaller sizes over larger pipe sizes, and maintain a checkon the HWS return pipe
velocities. Watts

which permit an accurate 'low flow' setting to be achieved and retained when the valve may be shutoff and re-opened during maintenance of the system. The use of ordinaryisolation valvescan achieve a crudeform of restricting the flowfor balancing purposes, but these rarelyremaineffective, or returnto their initial settingafter being shut off.

The over-riding purposeof the balancing valve is to maintain the correct
temperature within the pipework distribution system to minimise the potential for bacterial growth, in particular legionella. The Health & Safety Approved Code of Practice Guidance L8 should be applied (see earlier).

Secondary circulation

pipe sizing
The formal method of sizing the secondary circulation pipework is to calculate the heat lossfrom all of the 'flow' and 'return'pipe circuits throughout the system. Calculating the heat loss allows a comparable flow rate to be established, and thereafter the head loss throughout the system is determined, and the duty of the circulating pump.

Pipe circuitbalancing valves will be needed where the HWS return has a numberof branches and loops to serve the various parts of the circulation system. Thesevalvesrestrict the flow to the circuits nearest the pump where thereis greater pump pressure, forcing the HWS returnto circulate to the furthestcircuit. Commonlythe circuit valves are a double regulating pattern

Table 19 Loss of head through pipe fittings (expressed in millimetres, ic 1mm = 0.001 m unless otherwise stated)
Pipe size nom. ID 0.02 0.04 0.08 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.5

rate litres/second 2.0 3.0 4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

11.0

12.0

10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 75
Pipe size nom. ID

2
1

10 3
1

35
15 5
1

150

300
100 190

45
10 5
1

15 10 3
1

45 15 5 2
1

120

270
100 180

45
15 5

420
130

30 15
5 2

2
1

60 25 10
3
1

230
100

60 20
5 3

35 10
5


0.02 0.04 0.08 0.15 0.2

540 250 85 20 10

440
150

40 20

220 60 35

320

450 115 150 190

85 50

240
140

290
170 200

70
y)

90 110

Tees—flowrate mlitres/second(applicable tochangeof direc lion on
0.3 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

11.0

12.0

10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 75
Pipesize

3 2

15 5
1

50 20 5
1

220 60
15

450
150

20
15

5
1

3
1

280 65 20 5 2
1

180

400
150

65 20
5

2 2

45 20 5 4

270 95 40 15 5 2

600 210
100

370
160

870

400
135

30 10 5

50 20 10

40 20
in

700 240 80 40

350
120

520 170 100

720 230 140

300
180

70

380 220

480 230

580 340

400

Globe valve/S top tap —Flow rate
0.02 0.04 0.08. 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0

litres/second
4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0

nom.ID 10 15 20 25 32

30 20

135

430
190

1800
570 1200 2400 125 290 110

45 10

20

80 25

50
15

40
50 65 75

1890 690 1340 2950 45 125 290 530 1150 2010 4720 20 40 90 180 380 660 1570 2750 4020 30 60 130 230 530 940 1400 2030 2850 50 90 220 400 570 870 1170 1570 1900 2530 2920 50 100 180 280 420 560 730 920 1120 1400 1710
840 315

18

Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide

Hot and cold water supplies

Table 19 Lossofhead through pipe fittings — continued(expressed in millimetres, ie 1mm = 0.001 m unless otherwise stated)
Pipe size fern. ID 0.02 0.04 0.08 0.15
10 15 Gate valves/Service valves—Flow rate in litres/second

0.2 50 10 2

0.3
100

0.5

0.75

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.11

10.0

11.0 12.0

2
1

5
1

15 5
1

75 20
5
1

20 25 32 40 50 65 75

20 5
1

60
10 5
1

135

30 10 5

90 20
10 2

125

50 20 5
1

85 40
10 3

200 90 20 10 2 3.0

165

35 15
5

250 55 25 7 5.0

80 35 10 6.0

110

150

45 15
7.0

60
18

75 20 9.0

95

115

25
10.0

35

40

Pipe size nom. ID 0.02

Check valve —Flow rate in litres/second

0.04 0.08 20 5
70

0.15 300

0.2 200 45
15

0.3 400 80 30
10

0.5

0.75

1.0

1.5

2.0

4.0

8.0

11.0 12.0

10
15

5 3

20 25 32 40 50 65 75 Pipesize fern. ID 0.02
10 0.04

30 5

95 20 5

240

85 35
15

540 200 80 35

360
150

840 330
150

570 1350
260 630 1100 210 370 160 1720 610 810 250 350 140 210 1140 1500

70 25

50

90 40

90 50 3.0

90 4.0

460 280 7.0

620

830

360 460
8.0

1010 1170 580 700 850
10.0

0ouIIecheckv alve
0.08 0.15
750

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.75

1.0

1.5

2.0

5.0

6.0

9.0

11.0 12.0

15 20 25 32 40 50 65 75
size Pipe

450
300

650 1400 3000 500 550 900 1800 3000 450 500 600 800 1100 2400

RPZ valves (reducedpressure zonevalve) excluding 0.15

filters(expressedin metres)
4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0
8.0

fern. ID 0.02 0.04 0.08
10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 75
Pipe size


9.0


10.0 11.0 12.0

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.75

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

8.2 8.1

8.8
8.5 8.3
8.2

8.9 8.7 8.4
8.3

8.8 8.6
8.3

9.2 10.0 9.3 8.9
8.6

11.2 14.0 9.7 10.2 9.2 9.5
8.8 9.0

11.8 16.0 10.2 11.0 13.8
9.3 9.7 10.8 12.0 15.0 11.3 9.7

8.4

8.1

8.2
8.1

8.0

8.2

8.6 8.4

8.8

8.5
8.0

9.0 8.7 8.05

9.1

8.8
8.1

9.2 9.7 10.0 8.9 9.1 9.3 8.18 8.3 8.35 8.0 8.15 8.23 2.0 3.0 4.0

11.9 13.0

10.0 10.3

8.5 8.35 5.0

8.7
8.5 6.0

8.9 8.6
7.0

9.2 8.9 8.0

9.0 9.0

9.1

Balltloatvalves—Flowrate in litres/secon d
0.04

fern. (0 0.02
10 15 20 25 32 40 50

0.08 0.15
120 160

0.2
350

0.3
700 145

0.5

0.75

1.0

1.5

10.0

11.0 12.0

40
10

80 25

55 20

420 155

340
140

65 30

60

670 1470 250 540 950 115 250 430 40 85 150

2220
1030 1810 2840 350

620 1010 1330 1880

19

Hot and cold water supplies

Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide

Table 19 Loss ofhead throughpipe fittings — continued
Pipesize nom. ID 20 25 32 40 50 65 75
Pipe size nom. ID 0.02

0.2 20

0.3 40

0.5

0.75 270 100 40 20

Vesselentry 1.0 2.0 4.0 180 80 35
10

6.0

8.0

10.0

0.2
10

0.3 15 10

0.5 50 15
15

0.75

Vesselexit 1.0 2.0 70 110
15 5

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

120

20 5

40
20 10

280 130 50 20

1

5

100 40 30
10

550 190 80

5
400 175 770 315 1200 500

50

20
10

220 70 30

160 70

300 120

480 200

Vessel inlet

—ant ball va ye)
2.0 3.0
4.0

0.04 0.08

0.15

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.75

1.0

1.5

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0 11.0

12.0

10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 75
Pipe size nom. ID 0.02

ddffi

ne ampi

tabi

sffr

q
4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0

o bion tee
0.04 0.08
0.15

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.75

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

10 15

20
25 32 40 - 50 65 75
Pipe size nom. ID 0.02

dditi

ne pl

tabi

sifr

qe
Bib tap draw-offtitting 0.08 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.5 185 520 210 750 330 1800 750 1500 450 1000 0.3 4.0 1.5 0.5 10.0 0.75 1.0
1.5

Pillartap draw-offfitting
0.04 0.08 0.15 240 520 240 0.2 700 300 0.75 1.0
1.5

2.0

3.0

0.75

1.0

1.5

2.0

10 15 20

500

25
Pipe size nom. ID 0.02 15 20 25

Manua mixer yalve (only) (metres)

Tbermostatic mixer valve (only)(metres)

0.04 0.08 0.15

0.2 3.0

0.8

1.5

0.5 0.75 0.3 10.0 30.0

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

0.08 0.15

0.2 2.0

2.0

0.7

1.2

4.3 10.0 16.0 2.0 4.0 9.0

12.0

20

Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide

Hot and cold water supplies

Table 20 Water supplysystem —pipe sizing table
Pipe Ref Loading Flow Assumed Length

units

rate pipe dia.
(Ws)

Pipe loss

Velocity

Pipe loss
E

Fittingsheadloss (rn/h) T
SV IV BV DO Other

Total System Total Final head head head pipe loss loss available size

(m)

(m/mh)

(mis)

(rn/h)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

21

15 ioo \iiiiiI° 30 20 \ —1.- - — - .50 Head loss in metres permetre run 22 .2 0.- ——...- j -i — ..10 -- 11/9 0.._/ -4— uuu 5000 'S ' 2O—— t 15 — — -———— 8— C a) U). \.— ) 400 ———. — •1 — .' — — — \_ .' ou _L ___ —' ii3__DIII \i_iE —\* — — —'----—_—-— —— .05 0.— ._% —.002 0... \ r4 — —4' .30 0.ø — — - - - - V— 0 — 3000 S S Iuuu 800 0.01 0. I — — - ——— — •_.d_ — — ——-————-—---—d . a) a. 2—— 4' -\——--- .—Iu /t .. a) E —: — \ - — .001 0. .-1 .08 .c—— — 60 .005 0...02 0.20 0. —————-:-—-— --ø_' . r' S U) 1 --- 08 . ' ' \ / i t ' 0.___ —.Hot and cold water supplies Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Graph 3 Pipesizing chart — copperand stainlesssteel.—— —— — I.03 0.s —. .J 't 0.—( -##-.- ' •iq — — - - WJ. - •1 54 — . (I. ioo——\——-*-— ———s---——— —'." II1 0.

IIILiII \ 0.40 .ii \ 1E'T - \ 20 0 C-) a) a) a) a) 1oE \ - :: -.02 5 3 1/2 0.01 0.4 0.3c 1500 • 1000 • 800 Cl) U) 0. -8000 .50 Head loss in metres per metre run 23 .15 -WH / 0..06 LE2T 0.I :iii.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Hot and cold water supplies Graph 4 Pipesizing chart— plastic 200 100 80 60\ 'J'J 'IIII IIII.30 0.20 0. L#_•ç 400 200 - 100 .6 \}2\z< / / ____\ L.c 0.3 0.50 .8 0.08 0.002 I. U) U- 0 / 0.70 .5000 .20 10 0.1 0.2 0.05 0.30 .10 NLh.001 0.005 0. 0.03 0.

The metals are widelyapart on the 'galvanic' scale 10. Appearance (if to be seen) d. the water in contact with the two metals is warm or hot. the selection of components and materials the main considerations are: a. For water above l5Oppmtreatmentwill be needed to protect the condition and maintain the expected life of the water supply system. Suitability b.Hot and cold water supplies Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Hard water treatment Hard wateroccurswith the presence of calcium and magnesium salts in solution in the water. but known to occur in watersupplysystems.5 — 7 7—10. increased maintenance and operating costs. It will be required to be installed on the cold watersupplyto the hot water generator. Compatibility with existing Userchoice h. enabling themto passthroughthe water system. There are manydifferenttypesof the installation materials is extensive. For 24 .5 a. Therefore within largewater distribution systems the placingof a water conditioner immediately priorto the hot water generator. To prevent.and they do not have a close Galvanic relationship. g. Either a 'watersoftener'or a 'waterconditioner' can be used for protecting the system. and otherplant. then the installation of an intermediate metal link is appropriate to reduce the likelihood of corrosion occuring. or minimise the effect of Bradford Bristol Cardiff Edinburgh Glasgow Hartlepool Hull Leeds Leicester London Manchester Middlesbrough Newcastle Norwich Nottingham Reading Sheffield Southhampton Southport Sunderland Warrington York <100 250-350 100 <50 <50 400-580 250-400 120-220 250-320 250-320 <60 145-165 150-165 300+ 220-300 260-300 <100 280 220-300 80-420 70-250 200-300 Water supply installations The installation of the water supply system components requires planning and co-ordination priorto commencement of work to achieve the bestpossible integration within the building and the areasto be served. Where thereis a mix of metal materials. in particularhot water plant and thermostatic valves. Wheredissimilar metals are in direct contact. This 'potential' can increase to a 'likelihood' where: of hardness Clarks Mg/I 0-50 50—100 100-150 150-200 200-300 Over 300 Soft Moderately soft Slightly hard Moderately hard Hard Very hard under3. prime concern. NOTE: Materials The correct selection of the component materials is of paramount importance. therefore the shorter the period water is retained in the system after conditioning the better. The 'Galvanic' relationship of metals is as shown in Table 30.5-14 14-21 Over 21 Table 22 Typical waterhardness levels Location Hardness ppm b. or to all the water draw off points exceptthe draw offs used specifically for drinkingwater. and more often than not represent the best discounted cost component(s). the water has a greateracidityor alkalinity above or belowthe neutral pH valueof 7. Pseudomonas bacteria Pseudomonas bacteria is a potential risk to water supplysystems. corrosion through 'Galvanic' action then the selection of compatible materials for the type of water is required. More common in the closedwater circuits of heating and chilledwater systems.5 c. Some materials are more suited to particular applications than others. then waters having a hardness level of below l5Oppm. This occursnaturally in the water but its extent varies considerably throughout the British Isles. reducing their ability to adhere to the internalsurfaces of the system. or a combination of both. However. All watercontaining salts will. will provide the best resultspossible. The available range of water supply For a greaterappreciation ofcorrosion referto the later part ofthis section. Hard water can lead to widespread damageincurring expensive replacement. when heated deposit scale to a varying amount dependant on the level of hardness and heat applied. When the water temperature is raised within a water supply system the salts change to solids and theyare deposited as a hard rock-like scale in vessels and pipes. and includes numerous types of components made from metals and plastics. stainless steel. oftenfor similar purposes. The range of materials and components available from merchants held or readily available stocksare an excellent guide as to the most used and suitable in any particularregional area. Spares. If the protection of the water supply installation apparatusis the Table 21 Classification Category Plumbosolvent (dissimilar materials) Plumbosolvency covers the compatibility of the materials within the watersystem. and generally not being heated above 65°C. such as copper.5 3. to assist in extending the life of the hot water generating plant a 'Water Conditioner' fitted to the cold water supplywould be beneficial where the hardness level is above lOOppm. If softer wateris desiredby the user for washing. Water conditioners are effective for the protection of the hot watersystem because they alter the mineral crystals. Availability c. The definition or a 'hardwater'is generally measured in either parts per million(mg/I as calcium carbonate) or 'Clarks' scale. or manufacturing production purposes then a base exchange 'salt regeneration' water softenerwill be necessary. Durability f. The effectiveness of this process is limited by time. generally will not require treatment. and galvanised steel then there is the potential for corrosion to occur. Cost e.

building's accommodation c. then it is a worthwhile method of protection. lined Polybutylene Stainless steel Plastic Plastic Ductile iron.035 This tableis reproduced fromBS 6700. or burstdue to the increase in the internal pressure by the expanding volume as the water turns to ice. To minimise the risk of bursts' pipework and associated components should always be located within areaswhere the ambient temperature will remain above freezing. Pseudomonas Bacteria can grow more when it has access to a higher level of oxygen and temperatures between 20°C and 40°C.055 0. Avoiding the above circumstances will greatly reduce the likelihood of pseudomonas bacteriabecoming prevelent within the water supply installation. e. unless part of the Table24 Minimum thickness of insulating materialto delayfreezing Thermal conductivity(W/mK) Nominaloutsidediameterof pipe 0.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Hot and cold watersupplies Table23 Commonly used materials Component Options Underground mains Storage tanks Pipework Soft copper Polypropylene Copper Copper Chromed brass Chromedbrass Hot watervessels Drawoff fittings Valves Polyethylene Glass reinforced plastic Stainless steel Steel. Storage cistern and pipework in roof spacesare considered as indoorinstallations in this context.020 to 0.055 0. Non-disinfected hoses used for filling c. Outhouses.07 Indoor installations (mm) 0. Problems occur due to a greasybrown slimeor biofilm that coatsstrainers. but only slowdownthe lowering of the temperature of the water. unless a minimum of 750mm below ground <0. Locations to avoid are: Table25 Thermalconductivity of insulating materials Material Rigid phenolic foam Polisocyanurate foam Rigid polyurethane foam PVC foam Thickness. Cross linked polyethylene foam. unless part of the building's accommodation d. Pseudomonas has greaterchance of occuring under the following circumstances. All insulation requiresto be vapoursealed to remain effective. and garagesetc.04 to 0. mm. An enhanced and very effective method of frost protection is the provision of trace b.035 to 0. sheds. or anywhere subject to external drafts of air.07 25 . In practical terms this would be 3°Cand above.055 0. All external locations. up to and including 76 Over 76. up to and including 22 Over 22. If ambient temperatures are high.020 0. Reference shouldalso be made to the guidance provided within the Water Regulation Guide.035 0. However if a suitable type and thickness of insulation is used. enclosures. pipework. and lists the thermal conductivity value with an air materialthat willafford worthwhile temperature of0°C. supply installations. Ultra-violet water treatmentis an effective method of killing the widest range of micro-organisms. and flat surfaces 22 22 22 16 13 13 32 32 32 25 25 19 50 50 50 44 32 25 89 75 75 63 50 38 27 27 27 19 16 16 38 38 38 32 25 25 63 63 63 50 44 32 100 100 Expanded polystyrene.5. Underfloor voids. brass alloy UPVC Steel. systems. air bricks. Any excessive growth may require repeated disinfecting and flushing to effect a reduction. Improved polyethylene foam.040 0.04 0. or are partiallyor fully drained down and then left for long periodswith wetted surfaces.03 b. However both ultra-violet and disinfection will only provide a temporary respite unless the causesare identified and removed. copperor glasslined Brass.07 Outdoor installations (mm) Up to and including 15 Over 15.035 0. creating corrosive conditions which can discolourthe water and can exude a noxious smell. and the minimum thickness ofinsulating protection againstfreezing duringthe normaloccupation ofbuildings. lined CPVC Pseudomonas bacteria that once in a watersystem can be difficultto eradicate. Cork board Exfoliated vermiculite (loose fill) 0. Standard polyethylene foam Expanded synthetic rubber Cellularglass 89 75 63 50 0. If the above.03 to 0. Insulation alone will not ultimately prevent freezing. as this will likelycause components to fail.K) a. brass alloy Brass. d. and it is protected from damage or moisture. Extruded polystyrene. and similar locations cannot be avoided then protection will need to be provided by insulating the pipework and components.025 0. tanks etc. Pipework installed on site where thereis substantial amounts of debris. Infected systemsmust be disinfected and flushed. Pipes in the airspacebeneath a suspended groundfloor orin a detached garage should beprotectedas outdoorinstallations. Adjacent to ventilators. Expanded nitrile rubber. Systems that are filled and then left for long periodswith stagnent untreated water. If not completely destroyed the bacteria can reappear and grow at a fast rate to forma biofilm within the system. W(m. a. up to and including 42 Over 42.025 to 0. Roof spaces.04 0. and possibly providing heating to the spaces that contain water Frost protection Precautions are required to be takento prevent the watercontained within the water supply distribution system freezing. e. up to and including 54 Over 54. Water used for temporary works and filling/testing of pipework coming from dirty cisterns/tanks or temporary mains with dead legs and areasof low use.055 to 0. although it can grow outside this range if the water has a pH valueof 7-8.

5 0.5 deg 11.2 1. Pipework requires supporting throughout its length at regular and specific positions to maintain its stability.17 1.4 3. For the supportof plant and components. capableof beingwrapped around pipework and componants.2 1. and a maximum of 1350mm.8 1. branches.0 3. SeeTable 27. General insulation Pipework and plant componants throughoutthe distribution system should be provideto keep hot waterhot and cold water cold.5 0.9 1.55 0.0 2.0 3.6 4.6 4.5 1.5 1.9 1. 26 Nominalinternal diameterofpipe 50 75 100 125 150 End thrust 0.Withoutinsulation a hot water distribution system wouldloose heat wastingenergy.66 2.2 Intermediate supports will be required atchanges ofdirection. and increasing the opportunity for bacteria growth and potentially failingto comply withthe Legionella Codes.to provide a suitable means of bedding the barrel and joints of the pipe.5 0.9 0. Table 28 Thrustperbarinternalpressure(kN) Pipework and plant supports Water supplypipework.15 0.29 0. . level and to the correct depth.Hot and cold water supplies Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Table 26 General pipe insulation Pipe size (mm) od Glass fibre O.0 3. Recommended typesand thicknesses of insulation are scheduled in Table 26. unless in a duct. requiring a larger generating plant.72 1.15 0.3 0.0 1.8 1.6 3.07 0. Where water pipes are laid in a service stripclose to other services. This comprises of self regulating electrical heating elements in a tape form.2 1. certainlyfor sizes up to 50mm ID (65mm MDPE OD).0 3.4 2.6 2. Trace heatingis used in conjunction with insulation and weathering protection.2 2.7 3.5 1. heating.2 1. Where pipes are located below a road the depth shouldincreaseto 900mm and be ducted.018W/mK 15 15 location. A bedding of sand is appropraite having a minimum depth of 50mm.8 0.0 3. with straps to secure thepipe to the bar. and therefore the incoming mains connection to the building will also be belowground until it used is polyethylene.0 3.5 0. and connections to plant. The depth of pipesrequired to comply with the Water Regulations is a minimum of 750mm from ground level to the top of the pipe barrel.0 3. The minimum distance between the water pipework and other sevices is recommended as being350mm.8 0.0 3.5 0.50 Radial thrust on bends of annIe 45 deg 22. The insulation for cold water components requires them to be vapoursealedto prevent condensation forming on the coolersurfaces within the higher ambient areas.4 2. and enable servicesto cross each other.8 0.0 1.6 2.6 3.4 2.4 3. whilstenabling sufficient movement for pipework expansion and contraction. By the selection of the appropriate type and rating of heating tape the water within pipework and componants can be kept above the freezing temperature.24 0.28 0. the National Joint Utilities guidance documents recommends that the depth of the water serviceis at 900mm throughoutto coordinate withthe depth of the otherservices.035W/mK Pipes laid belowground require to be of a suitable material. The impacton the cold water system would be to unneccessarly gain heat from the warmerambiant temperature and any adjacentheat sources making the water less palatable for drinking.8 2.2 2. the respective manufactures requirements and recommendations shouldbe fully adhered to.5 0.5 0. and again increasing the opportunity for bacteria growth and a failureto complyto the Legionella Codes. Nitril rubber O.35 1. avoid movement which could result in noise or vibration. which would become a nuisance and/or leadto damage to itself and other elements of the building. Polybutylene andCPVCpipe supportscan benefitfrombeingprovidedwith a continuous tray.47 90 deg 0.0 3. consolidated to resist subsequent Table 27 Pipe supports — maximumspacing Pipesize nominal id (mm) 15 Copper Horizontal Pipe material —spacing ofsupports in metres Stainlesssteel CPVC Polybutylene Horizontal Vertical Horizontal Vertical Horizontal Vertical Vertical 1.89 The kNthrust figures statedare the forceexerted by the pipe on it's end orradialarea.6 3. The pipe trenches should be keptto the minimum width that is practicable and retain the trench wall to minimise ground loadings transfering onto the pipe. The trench bottom requiresto be firm.8 20 25 32 40 50 65 75 2.0 3.4 2.6 3.040W/mK can enter in to the building in its desired Insulation material and thickness Phenolic foam O.0 1. Underground pipework The Water SupplyCompany mains are located belowground.0 2.0 3.46 0.02 1.4 2.8 1.35 0. The most commonally 15 22 25 32 40 50 65 75 100 25 25 32 32 32 32 32 32 38 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 13 19 25 32 32 32 32 32 32 Where the insulation materialis locatedin areas requiring fire protection in accordance with the Building Regulations then itshall have a 'Class 0'classification.2 0.69 0.25deg 0. rigidbarorrail spanning between supportbrackets at centressimilarto copper.96 0. The trench back filling should be of a suitable material such as selected excavated or imported material.49 3.38 0.53 1. plant and components require to be adaquately supportedto be functional and prevent noise.76 2.0 3.49 0.7 3.5 2. vibrationand general movement.

(often referred to as 'chlorination') but stabilised chlorinedioxide is rapidly gaining in popularity as an alternative without the problems associated with hypochlorite's use. designed and maintained as part of an overall risk control strategy. Oncethe pipework is installed then the openings between the external and internal parts of the building require to be sealed. It is therefore essential that the system is properlyassessed. Otheroxidising disinfectants like bromine and ozone. and valves the provision of thrust blocks will be required and must be placedin a position that is in the line of the thrust developed in the pipeline due to internalpressures. Temperature. or'on-line'. For the greaterpart of the pipework this should be achieved by the weight of the backfill material but at bends. If entry can be Pipeentries to buildings may be made by made into a basement or under floor area then the pipe can pass through a pipesleeve constructed into the section of wall below ground. Chemicalscontinuously dosed to domesticwater systems will require approval for use in drinking water. It is important that the terminology is understood and used correctly. Water containing disinfectant at concentrations greater than that approved for drinking water is classedas fluid category 3 under the Water Regulations so suitable backflow prevention is required.off line This method. with a temperature between 60-70°C being maintained at all times in all parts of the system. or reduced section of floor will be required to pass the pipe into the building in a mannersimilarto a basement arrangement. as It may be difficultto maintain a hightemperature in all parts of the system for the time required. Table 29 Bearingcapacityofsoils kN/m2 Soil type Soft Clay Sand Sandstone & Gravel Sand & Gravel Bondes with Clay Shale Sate bearing load Sterilisation is to render sterile. tee's. the thrust can be calculated by multiplying the values given in the Table 28 for thrust in kN for a one bar internal pressure. Ij i I Hot and cold water supplies Chemical disinfection . involves raising the water temperature in the calorifierand circulating throughthe entire systemfor at leastan hour.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide +11 I__I Figure 17 Direction of thrusts developed in a pipeline due to internalpressure movement of the pipes. Chemical dosing . Thermal disinfection . as a disinfectant. then a pit. especially by chemical means. or the releaseof copper and silver ions from electrodes. Good insulation is vital. If the incoming pipe size is larger than can be passed througha pipe sleeve bend.off line The use of oxidising disinfectants is still the most commonlyused method of disinfecting both new and existing domestic hot and cold watersystems and is highly effective when carriedout correctly. The pit can be filled with sand and toppedoff with a floor screed. For a building having no basement or under floor void then a pipe duct incorporating a 900 bend. running each tap and outlet for 5 minutes. Chlorination refers to the use of chlorine. and non-oxidising disinfectants are commonly used for disinfecting industrial process and coolingwater systems. Entry to buildings a numberof methods. pH. To combat the thrustof the internal pressure and flows. All can be equally effective if delivered and managed correctly and if the water conditions required for them to operate effectively are maintained. For standard fittings. 96 240 27 . 24 48 72 Disinfection and control methods Disinfection is carried out whilstthe system is not in use. but then rising vertically to the building ground floor level. into the building. Control methods are used to kill bacteria and prevent their growth whilethe system is in use. Scalding maybe a significant risk. in particularsodium hypochlorite. Disinfection The process of disinfection is sometimes misunderstood and described as 'sterilisation' or 'chlorination'. due to the hightemperatures and risk control methods needto be in place. defined as completely free of living microorganisms. The internal pressure can be deemedto be the maximum working pressure of the below ground pipesystem. No large stones or sharp objects shall be allowed to be in contact or nearthe pipematerial. often referred to as pasteurisation. blank ends. Referto Table 29 for the bearing capacity of soils for horizontal thrust. The most common oxidising disinfectant used is sodium hypochlorite % Below ground pipework requires to be restrained throughout it's length. Thrustblocks for the restraintof below ground pipework will require an adaquate bearing areato resist the thrust. It is also a hazardous wasteso suitable disposal procedures for used disinfectant solution must be followed and if necessary consentto discharge must be obtained from the Environment Agency. dissolved solids — these may all have an effect on the efficacy of some of these systems. Thermal disinfection does not addressthe need to disinfect the cold-water storage and feed system to the calorifiers. hardness/alkalinity.on line The most commonly used methods are the continuous dosing of chlorineor chlorine dioxide. or 'off-line'. Disinfection describes the processof killing reducing or inactivating microorganisms.

Hot and cold water supplies Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Temperature control . for example ultraviolet light (UV) or ozone. For hot water systems these temperatures present a risk from scalding. The logarithmic natureof pH can be confusing. flushed and where necessary disinfectedbefore it is first used'. pH is a numerical indication of the intensity of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. the pH value decreases. However. not to the system as a whole and as a consequence are not alwaysas effective. Please Note Schedule 2 paragraph 13 of the Water Supply (WaterFittings) Regulations 1999 requires that'Every watersystem shall be tested.The exhausted resins are periodically replaced or regenerated with acid and alkalineregenerates. Purity 28 + ZEOLITE exchanges to CHLORIDE ZEOLITE + CHLORIDE Because the base exchange system produces water of zero hardness. gases and suspended matterwhich necessitate some formof treatmentbefore water can be used in activities suchas food and pharmaceutical preparation. the resultant hydrogen and hydroxyl ions combining to formtheoretical H20. local units.e. It should complywith recognised standards to ensurefreedom from harmful bacteria. It is definedas — log 10 (Hi). can producewater up to the megohms at 25°Cwhich is closeto theoretical maximum. The NHS Estates Health Guidance note on safehot water temperatures. high total dissolved solids contents.there are a numberof factors to be considered before attempting the disinfection of any watersystem and approved training is required before Softenedwater Water softening in large quantities for commercial use and distribution is usually carried out usingone or more of the lime or lime/soda processes. Base exchange softening operates on a similar principle to the ion exchange describedin the ionised water and functionsby the process of exchanging sodium salts for those of calcium. the base exchange systemof softening is more commonly used and only this method is described. industrial and commercial uses.gram equivalents per litre of hydrogen ions is said to have a pH of 7. In neutral waterthe acid concentration equals the hydroxyl concentration. their effect is closeto the point of application. The action of softening can be expressed chemicallyas follows: SODIUM CALCIUM CALCIUM SODIUM + ZEOLITE exchanges to CARBONATE ZEOLITE + CARBONATE And that of re-generation: CALCIUM SODIUM SODIUM CALCIUM Deionisedwater Where water is required to a higher biological and chemical puritythan that supplied by the local water company. They maycontain levels of trace elements. Cold water storage and distribution is recommended to be at 20°C or below. the hydrogen ion (Hf) and the hydroxyl ion (OH). Totally delonised water has zero conductivity (as thereare no ions present to carry current). nonpathogenic bacteria. Waters that satisfy the quality standards for human consumption are not always suitable for certain medical. A neutral solution exhibits pH of 7. odourless. The operation of deionisation is based on using twin bed or mixed bed columns of positive and negative charge ionised resins so that the incoming water disassociates into positively chargedions such as magnesium and calcium which exchange with the hydrogen ions of the acidic resins. As the name of the processimplies. Purewater exists of an equilibrium between the acid species. The International Standards for Drinking Water produced by the World Health Organisation define the toxic limitsfor substances frequently found in water supplies. Water quality The qualityof water is definedby chemical and bacterial analysis and wherethe end usage is directly or indirectly for humanconsumption. recommends maximum outlet temperatures for different appliances. Low numbers are acidic and high numbers are alkaline. . only ionisable dissolved solids and gases can be removed and the treated water is not necessarily pure or sterile. For domestic application however. but these are considered to be non-dispersive. and at room temperature they are both present at gramequivalents (or moles) per litre. as the acid concentration increases. medicine and in many areas where heat generation and transfertake place. brewing. and both in combination whereterminal polishing is required. is usuallymeasured by a conductivity monitor that measures the conductivity in microsiemens. i0 undertaking eitherrisk assessment or the disinfection of water systems within buildings. it is oftenonly necessary to soften part of the total water requirement and blend the raw and softened water together. research. single or mixed bed deionisers are capable of producing pure and ultra pure waterapproaching theoretical H2O. The purest water contains no ions at all. acute and long term toxic substances and in addition.on line This requires the storage of hot water at 60°C and distribution so that a temperature of at least 50°C is attainable at all outletswithin 30-60 seconds of running. Figure 18 shows a two bed recirculation system suitable for providing 3m3/hr of deionised water up to 1 microsiemen centimetre quality. Where a significantscalding risk has been identified the use of thermostatic mixing valvesat the point of use to appliances shouldbe considered. e. tasteless and wholesome. i. A solution of pH5 is 10 times more acidic than one of pH6 and 100 times more acidic than one of pH7. The scale is logarithmic and runs from 0-14. Other methods Otherdisinfection methods for domestic systems are available. Likewise the negative ions of sulphate and bicarbonates are exchanged with the hydroxyl ions of the alkalineresins.g. where (H) is the hydrogen ion concentration. It is also essential to remember that disinfection and control methods are not a substitute for maintaining a high degree of water systemcleanliness and carrying out good plumbing and engineering practices. the water should be clear.Centralised recirculating systems. Water that has 1o.

A measured amountof salt brine is drawn fromthe brine tank through the brine injector and rinsed slowly down through the mineral bed to remove the hardness. At the same time. NaCI) is formed by the replacement of acidic hydrogen in an acid by a metal 2Na + H2S04 — Na2SO4 + H2l metal acid a salt hydrogen 29 . 13. Integratingwater meter 9. Pressurerelief valve 8. Break tank for raw water 3. Regeneration of the softening material is then necessary and the threestage process is as follows: Backwash Brinerinse Ordinary salt (sodium chlorine) has the ability to fully restore the softening capacity of the mineral. Rateof flow meter 10. 15. which is rinsed to drain. can increase running costs. Non-return valve 7. 14. Clear soft water leaves the bottom of the tank into the water distribution system. Corrosion may be defined as the reaction of a metalwith its environment resulting in damagethat impairs the functionof a component or system.A backwash controller is necessary to limitthe water flowand thus prevent washing out the mineral bed. 12. A salt (not to be confused with common or basic group. methods of control and/orprevention have to be tailored to suit that particular environment. Flushing Corrosion Corrosion is one of the majorcausesof premature failures in plumbing services. The water flow is again reversed to repackthe mineral bed and any traceof sediment not removed by the backwash is flushedto drain. Causes of corrosion — Reverse the waterflow through the mineral bed to remove accumulated sediment and washto drain. 0. Whilstthe mechanism's of corrosion are common to differentplumbing applications. particularly in heatingsystems. basic theory Before discussing the causesof corrosion in detail it is useful to define and clarifyin simple terms some of the nomenclature used in the text. Water condition alarm 19. Low level float switch 5.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Hot and cold water supplies Ring main return 20 Recirculationpump by-pass Drain 1. Pump motor start 6. Not only is it responsible for increased maintenance cost but losses in efficiency. Pressureregulating/reliefvalve Figure 18 Recirculation deionisation system Operation of a base exchange water softener The raw/hard water supply is connected into the top of the softenertank and flows downwards under pressure through the bed of softening material (zeolite) wherethe hardness is removed by the process of 'ion exchange'. Two bed automatic deioniser 11. salt. Solenoid valve Breaktank for recirculation water Recirulation pump Deioniser cylinder Line cell 16. sediment in the water is filtered out and retained by the mineral bed. Conductivitycontroller 17. Hand isolation valve 2. The softening mineral eventually becomes saturated with hardness and no longer softens the water.2 Particle filter 20.The softenercan now be returned to normal service. Conductivity meter 18.

a salt Corrosion is electrochemical in nature and can occur by oxidation (dry corrosion) or wet corrosion. As the rate of corrosion of steel is partly 2Na + SO4 positive ion negative ion Some salts are much moresolublethan others and their solubility in wateroften depends to a largeextenton solution temperature. Sincethe deposition of a carbonatescale can stifle corrosion. Typical examples are copper pipework upstream from galvanized cisterns and run-off from copper roofs into aluminium gutters. Most corrosion problems in plumbing applications are caused by wet corrosion which requires the presence of an electrolyte to allow the passage of an electriccurrent and someagencyto maintain a difference in potential. Solution potential If a metal is placed in an electrolyte. Dissolved salts The influence on corrosion of salts dissolved in natural or supply waters is determined both by their concentration and more importantly. with additional sourcesof chloridebeing fluxes. Sulphate ions also supportthe growth of anaerobic bacteria. nonadherent product is formed. This results in localised corrosion. With othermetals. the corrosion rate is low. for example mill scale. The high acidity of rainfall in certain areas. where they reactwith otherions or oxygen. The higher the concentration. Where the oxygen availability is low. which can occur particularly in crevices and also underneath surface deposits. a discontinuous layer providing relatively little protective value. corrosion in the form of a chemical reaction may occuraccompanied by the passage of an electric current. are aggressive as they interfere withthe development of protective films and also allow passive films to be broken down more readily. However.e. Values range from0-14. and malfunctioning water softeners. ratesof chemical reaction and therefore corrosion. which is approximately 4 timesthat at ambient temperatures. In practical terms. the more cathodic the metal becomes. depends greatly on the form in which the scale is laid down. rapid corrosion will ensue. Na2SO4 maybe controlled by the solubility and diffusion rate of dissolved gases that vary appreciably with temperature. If therefore. if conditions favour it. In the corrosion processit is always the anode that is dissolved. 30 . In the absence of aggressive ions. for example zinc. can be protective due to their scaleformingability on metal surfaces. for example carbonates. Many corrosion processes also require the presence of oxygen.Hot and cold water supplies Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide When most salts are dissolved in water theyform ions which are atoms or groupsof atomscarrying positive or negative charges. some corrosion reactions. positive chargesin the form of metal ions.g. when a granular.the corrosion rate increases considerably. resulting in increased corrosion.a high dissolved solids contentwould be expected to exacerbate corrosion. temperature. a positive Langelier index or a Ryznarindexof lessthan 6 indicating that the water is scaleforming. a metal surface is in contact with an electrolyte that varies in concentration. Otherions. it is found that this rate has a maximum in the range 75-85°C. Their behaviour however. the corrosion rate continues to increase with increasing oxygen availability. This mayform a bimetallic couple and if the deposited metal is cathodic to the substrate. i. the cathode. Natural and supply waterscontain dissolved salts that make them into electrolytes and therefore capableof carryingan electriccurrent. pH is used to measure the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. electrolyte concentration and the surface or metallurgical condition of the metal. it can take up traces of that metal. Theseare called the Langelierand Ryznarindices respectively. The difference in potential between the anodeand the cathode at equilibrium is termedthe solution potential. Ion concentration As discussed above. The resulting solution is calledan electrolyte because of its ability to conductan electrical current. Two indices have been developed to predict whether a carbonate scalewill be deposited from a supply waterof given composition. however. those areas of metal in contact with dilutesolution will become anodicto those areas in contact withthe more concentrated solution and corrosion will be accelerated. Both ions occur naturally in source waters. Differences in surfacetemperature on the same metal component can createareas differing in potential. The factors which maycause and will affectthe rate of corrosion are as follows: determined by the availability of oxygen at the surface. However.those lessthan 7 being acid and those greaterare alkaline. the corrosion rate of steel at Surface effects Certainsurfacefilms are cathodic to steel and under wet conditions where there are breaks in the film. dueto the dissolved sulphurand nitrogenoxide pollutants has generally resulted in reducedservice life of exposed metal surfaces. for example the corrosion of steel in aerated solution. due to the increase in conductivity. which are later deposited on anothermetal. Temperature In general. Differential aeration If part of a metal surface is shielded from air. In general. however. the variation of corrosion rate with temperature is related to the nature of the corrosion product. where appreciable levels of chloridesare present (>200mg/litre). the natural oxide film can break down. washing up liquids (sometimes misguidedly used to quieten noisy boilers). That part of a metal systemwhere current. has a profound effecton corrosion. the attack may be more localised and therefore corrosion pits tend to be deeper. different oxygen concentrations reaches a maximum. by the type of ion produced in solution. Some ions. the solution potential is affected by the concentration of ions in the electrolyte. Although in certain conditions the overall rate of corrosion may not be increased. When natural water runs over a metal surface. At temperatures that producea continuous/adherent corrosion product. Thistype of corrosion is called differential aeration. increase with a rise in temperature. these areas become anodic to those areasto which there is greatersupply. it often follows that these watersare less corrosive than those that tend to dissolvecalcium carbonate. This potential has different values for differentmetals and conditions. the underlying steelsurfacebecomes the anodeand will corrodepreferentially. e. leaves and enters the solution is called the anode while the resulting electrons (negative charges) migrate to an areaof higher potential. in particular chlorideand sulphate.

particularly those derived from deepwells and has the effectof lowering the pH. which will increase the risk of corrosion. The increased potential for calcium carbonate deposition with higher pH causes the corrosion rate to decrease slightly from 4-10. Carbon dioxide is present in some supply waters. The second is the conductivity of the electrolyte. some plastics on heating or degradation also give off acids and/or 31 . iron becomes increasingly passive. attack will be confined adjacent to the joint area and maybe relatively intense. although some corrosion will be localised adjacent to the contact area. for example zinc. Bleach and some soldering fluxes contain high level of chloride ions. The third factorconcerns electrical contact between the dissimilar metals. If the area of the cathodic metal is large compared with that of the anodic (corroding) metal. Manynon-metallic materials found in or around buildings can be responsible for corrosive attack on metals. in particularaluminium and stainlesssteel. the attack will spread out moreand the level of general corrosion will be greater. In the absence of dissolved oxygen. zinc and lead. films in air which are non-conductive. after a period of time each will attain a characteristic potential.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Hot and cold water supplies Table 30 Galvanic series ofmetalsand alloys in naturalwaters EFFECT OFOXYGEN 12UF -4 — — — — — / Metal Normalelectrodepotential (vs standard hydrogen electrode.613. othermetals. Corrosion occurring when two differing metals/alloys are in electrical contactis termed bimetallic corrosion. are permeable closed systems where plastic pipework is used for distribution or under floor heating. Furthermore. aluminium and leadwill be attacked. __ — -— — — 7 — — — :7 — — — — — - OXYGEN —- Graph 5 The effectofpHon mild steel corrosion rate in an open recirculating cooling system Graph 6 Effectof oxygen concentration on corrosion at different temperatures pH Waters with a pH below7 will dissolve most metals to an appreciable extent. Oxygen is the main driving forcefor corrosion of steel in water. Table 30 givesthe galvanic series for metalsand alloys when in contact with natural waters. Thiscan exacerbate oxidative corrosion of iron/steel components in materials.7 — . corrosion would be concentrated resulting in rapid attack. If they prevent a currentflow between the metals then bimetallic corrosion will be prevented. ie corroded end 0 —100 —200 —300 —400 —500 —700 —800 —1300 Dissolved gases The significant gases are oxygen and carbon dioxide. Other materials The first is the relative areas of the two metalsin contact. which will cause rapid attack on many metals including copper and stainless steel. but it can produce undesirable amounts of dissolved metal Contad with dissimilar materials Metals in the water. This will cause any protective scales to dissolve. le protected end +200 c' -—.5) and whilethis is responsible for protecting steel reinforcement against corrosion. The increase in corrosion with temperature for a given oxygen concentration is due to more rapid oxygen diffusion occurring at higher temperatures.. In an electrolyte of low conductivity. If the wood has been treated with a copper/chrome arsenate preservative. corrosion can be accelerated and in particularaluminium alloys and zincare attacked. Somewoods are acidic and under damp conditions can cause attack on steel. most corrosion will be distributed over the remaining area and the relative thickness losswill be less. the iron oxidefilm is continually dissolved. cadmium. In this wayit is possible to arrange metals in what is termed a galvanic series. bimetallic contact will not cause iron and steel surfaces to corrode. Conversely with a largeanode connected to a small area of cathodic metal. however the precise order maydiffer slightlydepending on the particular metal/alloy composition and the nature of the electrolyte. Within the acid range (pH<4). phosphor bronzes and tin bronzes 60/40 brass Chromium Tin Tin-lead solder Lead Steel Cast iron Cadmium Aluminium and aluminium alloys Galvanised iron Zinc Magnesium and magnesium 'Base'or anodic. It must be borne in mind that plastic to gases. form coherent oxide Fresh concrete is very alkaline (pH 12. unlike metals. Graph 5 shows the effect of pH on the corrosion of iron. If differentmetalsare immersed in an electrolyte.mV) 'Noble' or cathodic. Some concrete also contains chlorides.. This will not necessarily cause serious deterioration of the metal structure concerned. Above pH 10. Some metals. Graphite (carbon) Titanium Silver Nickel Monel Austenitic stainless steel (types 304/316) Copper Ferritic stainless steel (type 416) 67/33 Nickel copper Martensitic stainless steel (type 431) Aluminium bronze 70/30 Brass Gunmetals. Where the electrolyte conductivity is high. . There are threeotherfactors that can influence corrosion at a bimetallic junction.

aluminium is very sensitive to bimetallic corrosion.Hot and cold water supplies Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide chlorides. The most commonly encountered form of aluminium corrosion is pitting but the rate of propagation is very dependent on the alloy composition and nature of the solution with which it is in contact. for example ashes and clinker. Although corrosion rates are similarto those of steel. A wide variety of compositions are available and additions of silicon. thus exposing the underlying surfacesto corrosive attack. This type of corrosion is responsible for the smell of 'bad eggs' (hydrogen sulphide) sometimes observed when venting radiators. Cadmium The mainapplication of cadmium is as a protective coating on steel. Stray current corrosion Strayearthcurrents. significantquantities (Duralumin). The overall rate will be controlled both by the rate of reaction and how quickly reactants and products can approach and leave the metal surface. the impingement of gas. preferential attack at the boundaries between the grain structure that is termed intercrystalline corrosion. However. low-pressure liquid. This is facilitated by anaerobic bacteria (calledsulphatereducing bacteria. pumphousings and pipe fittings (malleable iron). Aluminium alloys. This mechanism is responsible for water hammer. Aluminiumand its alloys have very good resistance to atmospheric corrosion providing the surfaces are regularly washedby rain etc. for example. It is convenient to look backat the various metalslikelyto be encountered in plumbing applications and the environments that can be detrimental to their service life. which in the presence of moisture will cause corrosive attack. erosion. liquid or solids or a combination of any threecan cause mechanical damage. In all environments. This can result in catastrophic failures in underground pipeswheresoil or ground movement causes large sections where Wherethe flow is turbulent. Aluminium and aluminium alloys Althoughaluminium is a very reactive metal. for example acidic sulphates are allowed to build up on sheltered surfaces. When in contact with somenatural waters. should be avoided. Although not strictlycorrosion. Effects of corrosive environments Corrosion can manifest itself in numerous ways. oils. Pure aluminium is generally stable in the pH range 4. iron and iron alloys. disulpho-vibrio disulphoricans) that are ableto use cathodic hydrogen in their livingprocess and convertsulphate to sulphide. can produce cathodic and anodicareas wherethey enterand leave buried pipelines or other metallic structures causingsevere corrosion. Aluminium alloys mayalso suffera Organic mailer Bacteria In the absence of oxygen. high strength steelswherezinc finishes can heighten the risk of cracking due to hydrogen embrittlement. localised attack of the surfacewill occur. Cavitation is a particulartype of attack that occurswhen a metal surface is exposed to a highvelocity. The shockgenerated is sufficient to cause Someof these metals are also used as protective coatings and their performance together withthat of the substrate is also considered. aboveground corrosion is not normally a problem due to the thick sections used for cast iron components. In areas where the pressure is sufficientlylow. Its corrosion behaviour is similarto zinc and although it is lessprotective to steel. Most of these factors can have a profound effecton corrosion ratesand highlight the difficulties in predicting corrosion behaviour and time to first maintenance or failure. It is particularly useful as a platedfinish on Flow. many techniques are now available for identifying. Where deposits of.7 but outside this range. If the metalor alloy is corrodible in that environment. While manyneutralor weaklyalkalinesolutions allow self-passivation. pockets of vapour form. and to a lesser extent. chromium and nickel can be used to improve corrosion resistance. Other problems are caused by acidic conditions due to natural constituents or contamination by industrial waste. which is present in most soils and natural waters. particularly thosecontaining copper in 32 . unlikezinc.The most widespread form of corrosion is due to sulphate reducing bacteria. which maysuddenlycollapse when they passto an area of higher pressure.5-8. cast iron maysuffera form of attack called graphitisation. tar. monitoring and controlling corrosion to acceptable limits. Contacts withcopper and copper alloys. They may also attack protection on metal pipework. Bacteria are also often present in organicmatter and these may be responsible for fouling and increased corrosive attack under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. are less resistant to corrosion. which removes or prevents formation of a protective film. The iron corrodesleaving weak. attack. at that point and exacerbate corrosive mechanical damage to the metal surface Soils are complex in nature and therefore are extremely variable in corrosive activity. Typical applications include boiler sections. These are termedchemical and diffusion control respectively. impingement and cavitation Corrosion can be aggravated by the natureof water flow across a metal surface. attack can be rapid. corrosion may continue by the cathodic reduction of sulphate. Organic matter. Cast iron Cast ironsare ferrous alloys containing generally 2-4% carbon and frequently have high silicon contents. can cause failures in buried plasticpipeworkdue to environmental stress cracking. in particularDC. laminaror turbulent which will affect the rates of diffusion. inert oxide film that forms on the surface. porous structure composed of graphite and iron oxides. others particularly those containing chlorides or copper ions. maylowerthe pH and increase corrosion ratesas well as preventing scale deposition. it is stable in alkali solution. moisture from condensation is sufficient to give an increased rate of attack. derived from their natural or industrial sources. it has a high resistance to corrosion because of the tenacious. Flow maybe stagnant. depending on the metal or alloy and particular environment in which it is in contact. it is worth mentioning that other industrial wastes. It can be seen fromthe forgoingthat corrosion phenomena are very complex in nature and are affected by many factors. cause rapid propagation of corrosion pits in somealloys. particularly those that are slightly acidic or contain chlorides(salt).

The phenomenon is so namedbecause the corroded copper has the characteristic appearance of petal shapes etched on to its surface. Although not directly associated with corrosion. which are used in a wide varietyof plumbing applications.This form of corrosion remains a majorarea of research. Type 3 Copper Copperis used extensively in the form of tube for pipework and the manufacture of hot watercylinders. The bicarbonate/sulphate ratio is often less than 1 withthe pH lessthat 7. Changes to the design of cylinders to inhibit the formation of stable areasof colderwater (lessthan 30°C) will prevent manyearly failures. overheating can cause a changein the cast iron structure to a weaker 'undercooled' form.6. probably due to the permeation of nitrate based fertilisersdownto the aquifers providing all or part of the mains supply water. Coppercylinders can be prone to pitting attack. flue gases or certain bacteria. Most problems occur whenthese materials are in contact with water or steamcontaining dissolved oxygen or carbon dioxide and/oracids or chlorides. rosette corrosion. causing a massive build up of oxide sludge. Normally such oxide debris would form around the extremities of the anode and be carried away by the waterflowing throughthe vessel. Oftenthe total hardness of the water is greaterthan 100mg/I and is usually greaterthan 150mg/I but corrosion can occur in soft waters. It occurs in soft waters at temperatures above 60°C. which corrodepreferentially whilsta uniformly thick protective film builds up on the surfaceof the copper. although corrosion can also resultfrom contact withaggressive atmosphere e. Pitting corrosion of copper is divided into threecategories: Type 1 to fulfil its purpose. Not only will this eventually resultin failure of the component. It is thoughtthat in surface derivedwaters. the concentration of nitrate has risen significantly over the last few years. The modern use of abrasive cleaning of the tube minimises the problem. but also dissolved copper can cause accelerated corrosion if it is deposited on other metals that are moreanodic. Copperis used extensively for pipework and heat exchanges due to its excellent ductility and thermal conductivity. it is worthwhile mentioning a common cause of premature failure in gas-fired sectional boilers. by installing only units correctly sized for the job. were found to arise in two ways from one cause. thus allowing corrosion to proceed. Type 2 Type2 pitting is characterised by narrow/deep pits. the incorporation of aluminium anodes. It is virtuallyunknown in England but is prevalent in Scotland whereit is associated with moorland waters. In the United Kingdom it is thought that the presence of manganese is contributory. In regions of the countrywhere pitting failure is known to be a problem. A wide range of copper alloys are available and in addition to the aforementioned applications. Type 1 pitting needs initiation and used to be caused by carbon film in coppertube remaining afterthe drawingprocess. If hard-water scale is allowed to build up inside the cast iron sections. Subsequent thermal stress can resultin fractureand consequent leakage fromthe boiler. it remains unproved that this is the main factorresponsible for the apparent increase in rosette corrosion. it appearsthat the standard of tubing is not important. was included in a British Standard and soon became commonplace. A major factor in the corrosion of copper is dissolved oxygen. Temperature is a significant factor with corrosion more likelyto occur in cold and lukewarm water than in hot water. whereupon it fell to the base of the cylinder. It is most usually associated with borehole watersor watersthat have beentreated by flocculation. These environments cause a breakdown in the protective oxidefilm formed on the surface by contact with oxygen and water.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Hot and cold water supplies graphitisation has occurred to crust withoutwarning. Standards include a test to ensurethat water in the base of the cylinderis heated appropriately. which have been generally confined to cylinders not fully complying with BS1566 (for indirect) or BS699 (for directs). the presence of extremely low levels of organics such as polyphenols acts to inhibit this form of attack. Such waters are called cuprosolvent. pipefittings. so eliminating largevolumesof unused waterfrom residing in the vessel. however. Waters given rise to the highest rates of Type 3 pitting is characterised by pepper pot holes under a crust. This might well be applied to cylinders filled and left in non-use 33 . they are used for valve and pumpcomponents. a significant increase in the copperconcentration will occur. However. Specifiers and installers can also take sensible steps to help themselves. particularly in the base sections where nearstagnant conditions exists in crevices or underneath debris. which it is thought. The cause is uncertain however.might be contributory. Research is concentrating on finding methods of analysis for the detection of microscopic quantities of organicacids. When in contact with natural waters corrosion can occur by a variety of mechanisms. the absence of the anode from its proper position allowed corrosion by the mechanisms it was originally installed to prevent. Type 1 pitting is characterised by broad/shallow pits. The higher the temperature of the waterthe less dissolved oxygen it can contain. but factorsknown to contribute to its occurrence include nitrate and the presence of an aluminium anode. Here the role of dissolved oxygen is lesssignificant and corrosion is most marked when the water has been heated. within a short period of time the corrosion rate will fall to an acceptable level due to the formation of protective films or scaleson a metal surface. Rapid failure could occur. whetherthey are due toType 1 pitting. remain intact for approximately 3 months Copper and copper alloys Copperand its alloys comprise a versatile range of materials. Poor insulation of the connection point resulted in early detachment of the anode. under-deposit corrosion of the baseof the cylinder was initiated due to differential oxygenation. however. There is also evidence that rosette corrosion is favoured when a coppervesselfitted withan aluminium anode has been allowed to stand full of water for an extended period. consequently cold water is more corrosive to copperthan hot water. In some parts of the country. or by elimination of the aluminium anode.g. where sludge built up. end users should be encouraged to periodically draintheir cylinder completely. Typically whencopper is first exposed to a water. and flame impingement occurs on the outside. In an attemptto control the problem. If failure didn't occur in this way. In most casesit wasnecessaryonly for the anode to Problems. Research into the causes continues. corrosion are those drawn from wells and springs (usually privatelyowned) which are often soft and contain dissolved carbon dioxide. Rosette corrosion is anotherformof coppercorrosion. etc. There are no reported instances of copper otherthan that associated with cylinders being affected.

or pressure variations and a corrosive environment. both phases are termed a + or duplexbrasses.0 — 12. Wherebrasseshave a high degree of internalstress.3 2. This maycause particular problems down stream fromvalves that whenproperlyopen. the pits formed having a water swept appearance.0 1. Alloys containing 39-47% zinc content. Where dissolved gases are absent. Brassesmay be inhibited against dezincificaiton by small additions of arsenic. this type of attack is not a problem. This maybe prevented by electrically insulating the shell and heater. low temporaryhardness. In general the risk and/or rate of dezincification is increased by higher proportions of zinc in the alloy. Thismaterial is termed DZR (dezincification resistant) brass and fittingsare marked by the Water Research Centre recognised symbol CR.which may be induced during manufacture. Brasses The common brasses consist of a range of copper alloys containing from 10-50% zinc and otherminoralloying elements. Where leakage or breakage of a fitting has occurred. poorly supported tubes. in soft waterswith a low carbon dioxide content. Occasionally. andfrom fertilisers eitheras residues in aggregate or airborne pollution. Alloys containing up to 39% zinc froma single-phase alloy withcopper is termed containing ammonia or ammonium compounds (in-organic or organic) can cause failure by a mechanism called stress corrosion cracking(season cracking). sometimes in the shape of horseshoes and being free from corrosion products. including those containing chlorides. They are more stable than brasses under flow conditions.0 egtaps 16. copperyappearance. for example in closed heating systems. Lead is generally resistant to In common with copper. cause a pressure drop sufficient to create air bubbles from dissolved gassesand initiate attack. new unoccupied properties.0 10. Table 31 gives recommended maximum water velocities for copper pipework carrying fresh aerated water of pH not lessthan 7. It is important therefore that valves are carefullypositionedin plant so that possible damage from this type of attack is minimised. This is termed 'meringue'dezincification. In general.g. but in practice a varietyof copper alloys are termed bronzes. Table 31 Maximum recommended water velocities for copper tube at differenttemperatures (metres/second) Temperature °C a brassand in the range 47-50%zinc is 13 anothersingle-phase alloy termed brass. impingement attack and cavitation erosion. It should be noted that brazing alloys containing zinc can suffer from similar forms or attack to brasses. This may be between a coil carrying steam. low pH.0 1. Lead Lead and leadalloys have a good corrosion resistance due to the formation of insoluble adherent carbonate or sulphate corrosion products. lesssusceptible to stress corrosion and are used in heat exchanger applications. phosphor bronzes and tin bronzes) Technically the term 'bronze' should refer to copper-tin alloys.. in rubberlattices used as cementadditives or for bonding floor tiles. These films are protected and maybe formed over a wide range of pH values (3-11) in most natural and treatedwaters. brasses can 34 .5 2. However. low water speed and the presence of surface deposits or crevices. this type of attack does occur. Bronzes (gunmetals.Hot and cold water supplies Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide situations. Where the zinc corrosion products are not washed away. sufferattack by impingement or cavitation. 3. The latter alloys are moresuitable for hot pressing or diecastingsmall components.0 2. The corrosive environment is normallyexternal and may resultfrom an ammonical compounds used as light weight concrete foamingagents. An alloy has been developed having a controlled composition so that it is suitable for processing as a duplex brass but heat treatedto attain the dezincification resistance of inhibited brass (see below). a lessprotective oxide film is formed which allows corrosion to proceed slowly. Brassescan suffera form of selective corrosion called dezincification. They are however. which may be caused by expansion and contraction in restrained pipework.Withduplexbrassesthe phase which contains a higher proportion of zinc is preferentially attacked. Aluminium bronze These materials generally have a high resistance to corrosion. copper-tin alloys have a good resistance to corrosion when in contact with both water (natural and sea) and steam and rarelysufferfrom the selective attack (dezincification) that brasses do.5 1. surprisingly prone to pitting corrosion in natural waters and can suffer selective corrosion analogous to dezincification. in particular those Cupro nickel alloys Alloys containing copper and nickel have excellent resistance to corrosion and many environments. Zinc is preferentially removed form the alloy leaving a porous massof copper having little strength. e. irrespective of whether they contain tin. vibration of equipment. copper generally has a lower resistance to impingement attack in waters containing oxygen and/orcarbondioxide. This wide variation in composition makes corrosion behaviour of a component difficultto predictunless the specific composition is known. high chloridecontentof the water. high temperature.differences exist.The large differences in temperature are sufficient to generate a potential difference and cause preferential attack on the hotter surface. 10 4. (see brasses) and corrosion fatigue results from the conjointaction of fluctuating stresses. Duplex brassescannotbe inhibited in this wayand where there is a risk of dezincification. In closed heating systems wherethe oxygen content is low.0 50 70 90 Pipes that can be replaced Pipes that cannot be replaced For short connections which are used intermittently. high temperature water under pressure or immersion heater sheath and the calorifiershell. Compared with its alloys. eitherDZR brass or gunmetal must be used.0 8. dezincification maybe suspected if the defective areas have a dull.0 —— Impingement attack has a distinctive appearance. In the singlephase brasses the whole of the metal is corroded either uniformly over the surface or more commonly on the form of a 'plug'. they may form bulky hollow shells which readily blockwaterways. Copper can fail by stress corrosion cracking(the combination of constant stress togetherwitha specific corrodent. corrosion can result in copper calorifiers where large temperature.

corrosion often occurs in watersof high conductivity. The greaternegative potential in relation to steel and compared to zincor aluminium makes magnesium alloys efficient for protecting the interior of steel (either unprotected. the 35 . paintedor galvanised) water cisterns or the exterior of buried steel structures and pipelines. Austeniticstainless steels Oftentermed 18/8 stainless steels. 6-11% nickel and 0. Othersurface contaminants such as oil. however. They are used for applications requiring high strength and wear resistance combined with considerable corrosion resistance. which confers hardenability and controls the mechanical properties. corrosion can occur in waterswheresulphate-reducing bacteria are active. antimony. Steel can exhibit two entirely different types of corrosion behaviour depending on the nature of the environment with which it is in contact. certain environments may cause thesefilms to breakdown and allowcorrosion rates comparable to those of mild steel. Most problems with capillaryjoints may be attributed to the use of soldering fluxeswhich leave aggressive residues at. They are not hardenable and are used for flue and sinkcomponents. for example when in contact with neutral or alkalinenatural water free from bacteria and oxygen. organicacids resulting from decomposition of vegetation can increase corrosion ratesby loweringthe pH. The presence of chlorides can cause rapid pitting. Magnesium •The only plumbing application in which magnesium is likelyto be met is that of cathodic protection. Smallconcentrations of organicmatter can improve the protective qualitiesof carbonatefilms.e. Although carbon dioxide has no specific influence on the corrosion of steel. It maybe applied by a varietyof methods.1-2 % carbon. Ions such as chloride and sulphate can interfere with the development of protective films and lead too more localised attack whereas otherions such as calciumand bicarbonate have inhibitive properties. Soft solders (tin alloys) Soft solders (i. Under atmospheric conditions. iron oxides can cause contamination leading to complaints of 'red water'. acetic acid derived fromwood and fresh cement. in the activestate widely differing ratesof corrosion. an unsightly white corrosion product may be formed. In hard. the corrosion rate is negligible. due to the nature of the protective film formed. Stainless steelsowe their highcorrosion resistance to the presence of self-healing oxide films on the metal surface. is susceptible to creep and fatigue failures induced by thermal movement. This resistance is due to the protective layers of zinc oxide and hydroxide. or adjacent to the joint area. This is termed Alloys containing 16-18% chromium and having a low carbon contentare termed ferritic stainless steels. In the absence of oxygen. In the passive state. alloying additions. Undercertain conditions. In severe cases. lead has poor mechanical properties and withoutsmall common austenitic alloys contain 15-22% chromium. The addition of molybdenum (2-4%) confers even greater corrosion resistance (grade 316). are used in a wide variety of plumbing applications. Wherethe pH is reduced to values below 4 as a result of acid contamination. The most common environments to cause attack are those containing chlorides and in crevices or underneath surface debris wherethe absence of oxygen prevents repair of the protective oxide film. The most common cause of corrosion is exposure to water containing dissolved oxygen.05-0. Run off from roofs bearing organic growths. The main applications in plumbing services are for pipework. Where new zincsurfaces are stored under damp conditions. Water may also contain a varietyof otherdissolved material present in the supply or as a result of subsequent contamination. However. Ferritic stainless steels Zinc Zinc is used almostexclusively in plumbing applications as a protective coating on steel.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Hot and cold water supplies atmospheric corrosion but may be attacked by organic acidsor free alkali. When compared with othermetals in most environments. neutral or slightly Steel pipes are not normally suitable for use in wet soils unless protected against external corrosion. but can localise the attack causing pitting and pinhole corrosion. However. Stainlesssteels The term 'stainless steel'covers a variety of alloys which may be simplyand conveniently dividedinto the following threecategories: Martensiticstainless steels These alloys generally contain 12-14% chromium and from 0. 304). tin alloyed with lead.15% carbon and have the highest resistance to corrosion (grades 302. boilerflues. They are non-magnetic and not hardenable unless heavily cold worked. due to their ease of fabrication and the range of mechanical properties attainable by alloying additions. alkalinewaters. can occur depending on the many factors that have been discussed earlier. The rate of attack is greatest when the water is soft and/oracidic and the corrosion products oftenform bulky mounds in the surface calledtubercies. sinksand urinals. which give widely varying coating weightsand consequent degreesof protection. In its pureform. calcium carbonate (lime scale) can deposit on steel surfaces and providea protective coating. for example those containingchlorides. it will increase the corrosion rate by lowering the pH and also preventing the formation of protective calciumcarbonate films. chromium and nickel improve corrosion resistance but the overall effectis often small and variable. These overlie areas where localised attack is occurring and can seriously reducethe carryingcapacityof pipes. theyare found to have a much lower corrosion resistance. The effectof dissolved gases and calcium carbonate in fresh waters has already been discussed. smalladditions of copper. silverand/orcopper)are anodicto copper and therefore corrosion of solder used in capillaryjoints could be expected. Both zinc and zinc alloys have good resistance to corrosion under conditions of exterior exposure and when in contact with most natural waters. Steels (low alloy) Low alloy steels. Heavily polluted industrial areas containing sulphurdioxidecan increase the rate of corrosion by a factor of up to 10 as compared with rural areas. Corrosion of stainless steelsis often localised. the rate of corrosion depends on the degree of pollution. or other basicsalts depending on the natureof the environment. which are formed on the metalsurface. can all cause corrosive attack. However. then the corrosion rate will progressively increase with a further decrease in pH. either general or localised. mill scale or deposits may not increase the overall rate of corrosion. particularly at grain boundaries and can initiate intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking.

Problems can arise when thereare excessive water losses. Wherewaters which are cupro-solvent (e. and these maybe identified from the measurement of voltage differences in the soil. but the wide range of materials and compositions available makespecific guidance impossible. Using this index. Primaryand secondary heating waters chilled water systems Thesesystems. the corrosion rate increases in the range of 55°C to 95°C. calorifiers and pipesshould not be used at temperatures above 65°Cor downstream from copper pipework. Where metal surfaces may be exposed to natural waters. givinga maximum increase of some 100 timesat 70°C. In conclusion. measure the likelihood of oxidative corrosion and redox-potentials to indicate the risk of bacterial corrosion. pH — Aluminium A pH lessthan 5. Internalsurfaces The nature of the water in contact with the metalsurfaces may be most conveniently assessed or monitored by chemical analysis of representative samples. heat.g. The presence of carbon dioxide togetherwith calcium and magnesium salts will form a basic carbonate film that is protective to the base metal. condensation or rainfall.0 or greaterthan 8. If the pH is lower than 36 . galvanised tanks/cisterns. a reversal of potential occurs above 65°C.5 is liable to be detrimental to aluminium. however. it is often beneficial to assess the natureof the environment to which the metal will be exposed or the rate at which corrosion will occur. galvanised pipework is best protected using proprietarytape wrap systems. should use little or no make-up. the Langelierand Ryznar indices indicate whether a particularwater will dissolve or deposit a protective scale. etc. Zinc is anodicto steeland will provide protection in the formof a coating even if small areas of substrate are exposed due to damage or in fabrication. The likelycorrosivity of these environments can be assessed using a variety of electrical and electrochemical techniques. Accelerated corrosion mayalso be caused by the presence of stray electrical earth currents fromfor example. It must be stressed thatconclusions from analytical results should be drawn very carefullyand expertconsideration needs to be givento the manyfactors involved. The zincthen becomes cathodic to steel. air ingress. As described earlier. Plastic and rubber components Although polymeric materials do not corrodein the accepted sense. corrosion can be severe particularly if salts or otherpollutants are present. Wholesome(supply). the rate of corrosion is governed by the presence of dissolved salts and gases. where corrosion has occurred. then the hardness value will determine the needfor chemical treatment/softening to minimise scale deposition. Brass fittings on galvanised steel tanksand cisterns. they may degrade when exposed to certain environments. 'Treatmentof waterin domestichot watercentral heatingsystems'(the advice is equally suited to chilled systems). hot and cold domestic waters The ability of these watersto deposita protective film of calcium carbonate scale on internalmetal surfaces can play an important part in controlling corrosion. organic compounds and inorganic and metallic ions. The data given should only be used as a guide and no indications have been givenas to the relative importance of the differentfactors. if any. It is only then possible to formulate the most appropriate treatment to control corrosion and also scale deposition. DC railway systems or rectified induced AC from highvoltage transmission systems. Furthermore. Prevention of corrosion Before deciding on the most suitable course of action required. A pH outside these limits is unlikely to have occurred naturally. which mayaffect the efficient operation of a system. a water is considered to be corrosive whenthe indexexceeds approximately 6 and scale forming when it is less that 6. The external surfaces of pipework. Belowground. to control or prevent corrosion. In certain cases. may be assessed using resistivity data to A negative Langelierindexindicates that the water will tend to dissolve scale and promote corrosion while a positive index indicates that a protective film will be deposited. Temperature has a marked effect on the corrosion of zinc in natural waters. Where unprotected galvanised pipesare used below ground the most severe attack occurs in soilswhich are poorly aeratedand/or have high acid and solublesalt contents. These environments include ultraviolet light. Flushing will be necessary to reducethe risk of corrosion. spray.400 volts (standard hydrogen scale) when corrected to pH = 7 (+0. particularly ferrous.Hot and cold water supplies Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide white rust' and can be prevented by oiling or a chromate treatment. In natural waters. rarelycause problems due to the relatively small area of brassto zinc.those containing free carbondioxide) flow throughcopper pipework. traces of copperare dissolved which can subsequently deposit as metalliccopper on zincsurfaces and stimulate attack due to bimetallic corrosion. or where exposed to rain. etc. In some naturalwaters wherezinc is used as a protective coating on steel. Analytical data can be used to assess the waterside condition. Guidance on systemcleansing is given in BS 7593: 1992. whetheropen vented or sealed. either due to immersion. The aggressiveness of soils to buried metals.430 volts if the soil is predominantly clay). to a certainextenton the particular situation in which the supply or circulating water is beingused. Assessing the corrosivity of the local environment External surfaces In general zinc and copper or copper alloys are not compatible when used in natural water systems. stimulating attack which results in localised (pitting) corrosion and subsequent perforation. may suffer attack if buried in soil. located in ductwork subject to condensation or flooding. Due to a changein the nature of the protective films. Wherethe water is used to feed heating plant. Soils may be considered aggressive if the resistivity is less than 200ccm at the specified depth or the mean redox-potential is less than +0. metal loss due to corrosion may be economically acceptable providing the required service life or life to first maintenance is exceeded. there are now several nondestructive techniques that may be used to quantifythe extent of the attack and metal loss. and aggressive residues from fabrication or cleaning operations. The analysis required depends The Ryznar index is a modified form of the Langelierindex that is claimed to be morereliable.

heat exchangers. water above 120°C (HTHW). 37 . which will exacerbate corrosion. Central and Southern areas of England) and to varying degrees in the rest of the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland. maybe subject to corrosive attack. Care should be taken to ensure that the suspended solids are representative of the overall system conditions. including 'coil' and 'hairpin'types.3mg/I or more in the systemwater than in the supply water indicates that some corrosion has taken place. diffusion or in the case of zinc. a high conductivity is likely to be associated with high levels on the othertests. Anothermethod of protecting underground pipelines is that of cathodic protection. Comparison withthe system waterwill indicate if scale has been formed. Conductivity If the test sample contains rust particles. Internal surfaces Steam boilers and Towns mains supplies are categorised in Table 22 Generally speaking. Aluminium Corrosioncontrol and prevention External surfaces Chloride is naturally present in all supply waters. Water tube boilers operating up to critical pressure e. the aluminium surfaces will be passive and further corrosion will not be occurring. iron will dissolve or form corrosion debris and hydrogen gas will be generated. e.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Hot and cold water supplies 5. A variety of methods are available for protecting pipework etc. Iron water heaters BS 2486: 1997 'Treatment of waterfor steamboilersand waterheaters'gives recommendations for the control of waterside conditions of steam boilers and waterheatersand also for the preparation of feed waterfor such plant. concentrations above 0. waterat 100-120°C inclusive (MTHW) b.g. The iron reading will then be the dissolved iron plus the iron due to the particles. with an increase of morethan 3mg/I very high. In termsof dissolved iron. water below 100°C (LTHW). an increase of 0. Hardness Where aluminium radiators are concerned. this indicates that the water has been treated withan inhibitoror contaminated. an acid is present. the water is alkaline. When their external surfaces are exposed to a corrosive environment. normally1-1. a level morethan 25 mg/I greater or 50% greaterin the system. graphite.5mg/I over that in the supplywater is significant. however. for example chlorides.5% of the circulation rate being used to cause a All internal surfaces that store or carry water. Copper conductivity than the supplywater. Sulphate Wherealuminium components are present. leador platinised titanium. eitherdue to the presence of an alkaline treatment. Organiccoatings such as paints. for example zinc and aluminium. the most common being either magnesium. Thesemetalswill corrode. operating up to critical pressure. application of a suitable primer. tanks. Hot water systems i. Electrode boilers c. or in some circumstances due to alkali generated within the system naturally. Cooling waters Coolingfor air conditioning systems is most commonly achieved by evaporation of water. Shell (fire tube) boilers operating at pressures up to 30 bar d.2mg/I more in the systemthan in the supply water is significant. causticsoda.e. is strongly suggestive of flux contamination. in the formof sacrificial anodes which are connected electronically to the metal requiring protection. Oncethroughboilers. The amount of any debris present (visible as suspended solids) is a factorin determining the seriousness of a corrosion problem. In severe cases. The levels of concentration to be expected in the otheranalyses can be estimated from this comparison. the thickerand more resistant the coating needs to be. an aluminium concentration of 0. Both tanks and pipescan be repaired and protected usingeither glass reinforced plastic (GRP) or specially formulated concrete linings. Any given concentration of aluminium is not a problem in itself. theywill be dissolved whenthe test is carried out. A high level may indicate the presence of residues from acid descaling or chloridebasedfluxes. albeitat a rate much slower than steel and therefore the coating thickness required depends on the aggressiveness of the environment. In additionthe cooling water may become contaminated by atmospheric pollution resulting in acid corrosion due to the reduced pH. Metal coatings. Most calcium salts forma scale when heated. If a high level of hardness is present in the system water after it has been heated.5 mg/I do not present any special problem. steel. provided there is no deterioration. This evaporation leaves behind both dissolved solids that build up until deposition occurs and aggressive ions.5. If higher than 8. These typesof coatings can be very susceptible to mechanical damageand this should be borne in mind during installation. Categories covered are: a. aluminium or zinc.0. More significance should be attached to the aluminium concentration when an aluminium heat exchanger is fitted. hard water is present in 60% of the country(especially in the Eastern. may be applied to steel surfaces by hot dipping or spraying. but an increase over a period should be noted and would require corrective action. The second usesan impressed current from a generator in conjunction with auxiliary anodes of iron. The first uses a more electro-negative metal. In general the more severe the conditions of service. electro-deposition.0 and 8. If the pH lies between 5. Two methods are available each of which produce a counter current sufficiently large to neutralise the currents responsible for corrosion.g. calorifiers. It should be noted that the chlorideconcentration in a towns mains supply water is liable to fluctuate. As a heating system corrodes. A low level (<10 mg/I) in the system may indicate the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria. an additional paint coating may be applied. Chloride If the system water has a higher temperature drop of 5-8°C. which givesthe thickest coating.5. plastic coatings or tape wrap systems maybe applied to the metalsurfacewhich has been prepared by grit blasting and/orthe Sulphate is naturally present in all supply waters. for example pipes. The water for somenorthern cities is supplied from naturally soft water reservoirs in Wales and the Lake District. it may be because of water lossand subsequent make-up. e. radiators etc. A dissolved copperconcentration of 0.

are connected to and suspended in the tank. Cooling waters Corrosion may be controlled by dosing the system with a suitable inhibitor. or inhibitors which slowdown the corrosion reactions to acceptable levels. the chemicals most commonlyused being catalysed sodium sulphite. actually intensifying corrosion outside this range. certain selected tannins or hydrazine. Maintaining the total dissolved solids belowthe maximum level applicable to the particular boiler and operating conditions (usually below3500mg/I) by 'blowing down'. iv. Primaryand secondary heating waters chilled watersystems — Thereare many different possible joints and causing leaks. the natureof the deposits shouldbe determined to ascertain the best method of removal. particularly wherethere has beenwater lossesor air ingress. normally magnesium for steel or aluminium for copper. Some inhibitors may reduce corrosion in one environment while increasing it in another. Even if carried out in accordance with recommended procedures. tasteless. In addition. Cleaning the boilerwhen shut down.Hot and cold water supplies Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide approaches to preventing corrosion and it is of utmost importance thatthe correct method is chosen to suit each particular situation. it can be beneficial to use softened waterfor make-up to reduce the needfor frequent scale removal. Both polyphosphates and sodium silicates may be used as a non-toxic. maybe treated witheither oxygen scavengers. because they are essentially closed recirculating systems. metalfilings and otherbuilder's debris by flushing. sludge and scale deposition also needs to be carefullycontrolled to maintain efficiently and steam purity. the level of chlorideions needs to be limited to In older systems. maintaining the ratio of sodium nitrate maintaining the ratio of sodium sulphate to caustic alkalinity (in terms of calcium carbonate) at a minimum valueof 2. This maybe prevented by either: i. Whilealuminium anodesin coppertanks only have to last for sufficient time to form a permanent protective film. Inhibitors needto be chosen carefullyto suit the system under consideration. or form a protective film on the metalsurfaces. Otherfactors may also needto be considered for example toxicity when treating wholesome watersor if there is a risk of crossover between primary heating and domestic supplies. the cost of water and treatment chemicals can be high and therefore consideration should be given to using a softened make-up supply. In additionto treatmentfor the prevention of corrosion. magnesium anodesin steel tanks need to be replaced whenconsumed. organicsludgeconditioners may be added to ensure that the precipitated salts are non-adherent and mobile. odourless and colourless treatment for domestic waters. With the currenttrendtowardsvery low contentboilers. In brief. They are dosed either in liquid form using a proportional dosing pumpor as slowly dissolving crystalsfrom a suitable dispenser. Disposal of bleed-off water also needsto be considered as sometreatment chemicals are toxic and cannot be drained into local sewerage systems. In most cases. scale and sludge may have deposited. Precipitation of hardness salts as a mobile sludge in the boiler by maintaining a controlled reserve of eithercarbonateor phosphate in solution in the boiler water. Table 32 indicates chemicals that maybe used to remove the most 38 . These systems. iii. The treatment should also include sludge conditioners to prevent localised scale deposition and biocides to control bacteria and algae (slime) growth. They both prevent iron corrosion discolouring the supply water (commonly known as 'red water') and inhibit the deposition of scale by forming a thin film on the metal surfaces. particularly as the trend in modernboilers is towards a lower water contentand higher heat transferrates. ii. In newly installed systems. Condensate corrosion may be controlled by the addition of volatile amines which eitherneutralise the acidity caused by the presence of carbon dioxide. In addition. Caustic cracking. which used to be a fairly common phenomenon particularly in riveted boilers.the concentration of solids in the boilerwater maybe controlled by the following methods depending on the quality of supply water: i. particularly where low water contentboilers are used. If inspection indicates that de-scaling is necessary. Blowdown maybe eitherintermittent or continuous. for example using nonaggressive fluxesand cutting ratherthan sawing coppertubes. Wherelarger systems suffercontinuous water loses due to the presence of leaks. overheating will lead to eventual failure of sections or splittingof tubes. treatment mayalso be necessary to prevent corrosion in condensate lines. which will affect the efficiency. Loosedeposits maybe removed manually or mechanically but hard deposits will normally require chemical removal. Sacrificial anodes. it is often to totalalkalinity (in terms of calcium carbonate) at a minimum value of 0. sometimes in conjunction with pH control. which act by the removal of oxygen responsible forthe corrosion process. for example flux residues. Cleaning and descaling of boilers and associatedplant necessary to remove internal contaminants. Softening and filtration of the feed water to remove dissolved and suspended solids. These materials should be used with caution in older systems as they may dislodge scale and corrosion products highlighting weaknesses at Steam boilers are treated by ensuring that the boilerwater is alkaline at all timesand by removing dissolved oxygen to maintain a protective film of magnetite (magnetic iron oxide) on steel surfaces. In the worstcase. which is most commonly caused by the presence of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide gases. In high-pressure boilers. it is also advisable to use sludge conditioners to prevent scale deposition insideboiler sections and tubes.32 at all times ii. In hard water areas. Steam rising plant minimise corrosion. This needs to be carried out continuously at a rate proportional to the bleed-off required to prevent scale deposition and excessive levels of aggressive ions building up. Dissolved oxygen in boilerwater maybe removed by means of a physical deaeratoror oxygen scavenger. which acts as a barrier. This highlights the needto adopt working procedures that negatethe need for flushing. Sulphate reducing bacteria may be controlled by maintaining a specified level of biocide in the system. Storagetanks/cisterns may be protected internally usingcathodic protection. whileothers only work effectively in a certainconcentration range. can occur if concentrations of sodium hydroxide greater than 5% exist. it is unlikely that all will be removed due to eithertheir insolubility or the internal geometry of the system.0 at all times. proprietary blendsof chemicals are available which fulfil someor all of the required preventative treatment.

steps needto be taken to prevent damage due to internal corrosion. then treatment should be isolated to that part of the system. ISBN 09539708-0-9. References Water Regulations Guide. they should be left completely filled with water containing oxygen scavengers or corrosion inhibitors and a biocide maintained at a high pH. can occur resulting in premature failure.good practiceguide for plumbers. x x I') a) .) c. BS6700:1 997 — Specification for the design. 0 a) a) C. Throughout the treatment.. The Department of Health's code of Plant shutdown When plant and associated equipmentis taken out of service for any length of time. Newport. Depositx indicateseffectivetreatment a) .' 2 x x x x 5 x X — x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x common typesof deposit.= — 0 -a.Legionaire's Disease . — C. including the Water Byelaws 2000 (Scotland). a. testingand maintenance of services supplying water for domesticuse within buildings and their curtilages. adequate safety precautions need to be observed and the effluent disposed of in accordance with statutory and otherrequirements. treatment with suitable biocides is recommended to control bacteria. — a) C. The Institute of Plumbing . 39 . care beingtaken to ensure that all aggressive chemical residues are removed after completion of the de-scaling operation. installation. Cooling towers needto be drained and wherenecessary dismantled to prevent seizure of pumps etc. Pen-y-Fan Industrial Estate. Fern Close. for example the boiler. otherwise rapid localised attack. Water Regulations Advisory Scheme. When theyare broughtback on line. The HSE'sACOPand Guidance document— L8 2001. particularly in for example steel panel radiators.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Hot and cold water supplies Table32 Cleaning and descalingtreatments Treatment a) o Hydrochloric acid (inhibited) Hydrochloric/hydrofluoric acids(inhibited) Sulphuric acid (inhibited) Sulphamic acid Citric adic Ammonium citrate with oxidising agent (pH 9. In the caseof heating and chilled water systems. In this situation. practice HTM2O4O — the control of legionella in healthcare premises. Progress of the cleaning should be strictly monitored. precautions mayalso need to be taken to prevent frost damage. If scaling is present in a confined part of the system. NP11 3EH. Plant should only remain in a drained down condition if left and maintained completely dry internally.. Oakdale.5) Formic acid Tetra sodium salt of EDTA (ethylene diamine-tetra acetic acid) Tetra-ammonium salt of EDTA Sodium hydroxide/sodiuim phosphate x x x x a) .

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Legionnaires' disease Introduction Systems associatedwith outbreaks Factorsshown to increase susceptibility Cold water storage systems and tanks Continuous chlorination plant Thorough testing of all outlets 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 44 44 45 45 45 45 Walersoftening and hot water storage system Stagnant water positions — unoccupied Domestic hot waler calorifiers Cooling towers Humidifiers Practical preventionand solutions Summary 41 .

This can happen from contaminated water or from aerosolised water droplets containing Legionella. which has a similar mode of action to Erythromycin. Biofilm formation in water systems provide protection from adverse conditions like biocide concentration and shearforces of water. The micro-organisms can grow at temperatures between 20-45°C. For example F/avobacteriumwill provide nutrients for the Legionella to grow on. to understand the mechanism of entry into the water system and the various means by which Legionel/a survive disinfection. which halts biosynthesis in Legione/la. As the humidity increases the ability of Legione/la to survive increases. increase the ability of Legionella to survive. Legionella can surviveat temperatures below20°C but it can't grow. Factors shown to increase susceptibility Various sections of the population are more susceptible to Legione//a infection than others. L. Although there are many sporadic casesof Legionnaires' disease associated with domestic water systems. The strain must then be able to multiplyin the water system. Legionnaires' disease is curable. It would be noted that L. The term legionellosis is given to the disease caused by these. Legione//a infection in humans involves inhalation of the micro-organism in water droplets or aerosols. wasfound in over 20% of these systems. The water containing the microorganisms has then to be aerosolised and the aerosol carriedto susceptible humans. to Pontiac fever. Amoebae can encyst and this makes them very resistant to environmental stress and biocides and so if the Legionel/a are inside the amoebae they will also be more resistant to these factors. it is well documented that Legionella can grow inside amoebae. as described previously. a mild non-pneumonic. natural spa baths. If detected quickly. Humidity is also an important factor considering the ability of Legione/la to survive in aerosols. fountains and potting compost. with outbreaks Systems associated Legionella infection There are two routes of Legionella infection. The amoebae provide a protective environment for the Legionel/a. outbreak Events leading to an An outbreak of sporadic infection of Legionel/a can occur if a viable pathogenic strain of Legione/la is introduced into the water systems. The use of another antibiotic Rifampicin. Treatment should continue for 3 weeks. The severity of the disease ranges from Legionnaires' disease. an acute severe pneumonia with low attack rate and relatively high death rate. The droplets must be small enough (<5pm) to get down into the lung bronchioles wherethe Legione/la become lodged/deposited and can subsequently cause infection. One involves Legione/la getting into the planktonic phase of the water system and then onto surfaces or inside amoebae and the other is infection into humans which involves aerosolisation of Legione//a-infected waterfollowed by water droplet inhalation by a susceptible host. The micro-organism can then infect variouscells in the body. hot water systems. in conjunction with Erythromycin is advocated where patients with Legionel/a pneumonia are criticallyill.To knowwhere Legione/la mayexist in the environment. Parameters which influence the growth and survival of Legionella in natural and man-made water systems Temperature is the most important factor in the survival and growth of Legionella. Legionella preventative measures To effect control on Legione//a infection it is necessaryto understand aboutthe events leading to an outbreak. Moreover the presence of other micro-organisms will. Patients who have a mild infection are treated orally and those who are moderately or severely ill require intravenous treatment. Epidemiological investigations have associated outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease with coolingtowers. whirlpool spa baths. A studycarried out a few years agoby the Public Health Laboratory Serviceon the presence of Legionella in man-made water systems found Legionella in 60% of all water systems examined and the most virulent type. The nutrients available in water systems from plumbing materials or organic mattermayalso increase the capacity for Legione/la growth. severely immunocompromised or have lung abscesses. micro-organisms. The elderly.Legionnaires' disease Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Introduction Over 16 speciesof the genus Legione/la have been shown to be associated with respiratory tract infections in Man. pneumophlla serogroup 1. Erythromycin. and at temperatures above 60°C Legionella are rapidlykilled. We also needto knowthe mechanisms enabling Legione//a to grow 42 . in Britain almost all of the major Legionella outbreaks have been associated with cooling towersand large domesticwater systems. is the recommended antibiotic therapyfor Legionel/a. males. Moreover. the optimum temperature for growth and virulence being36°C. pneumophila serogroup 1 is the most common cause of human infection. clinical humidifiers in respiratory equipment. depending on the type present. people with existing respiratory illness and people with illness which reduces the body'sdefence systems. flu-like infection with highattack rate but no fatalities. supermarket vegetable sprays. smokers because of impaired lungfunctionand people on immunosuppressive drugs which again reduces the hostdefences are all moresusceptible to Legione/la infection.

Any outlet which fails these test conditions should be recorded and details submitted to the engineer who must rectify the fault. tested and disinfected where necessary before bringing into use as required by 'The Water Supply (water fitting) Regulations 1999'. The Responsible Person should eliminate the possibility of any conditions which produceabnormally high temperature rises. orina warm place.. Where water is distributed to water outlets at the recommended distribution temperatures i. flushed. (In the National Health Servicethis is recommended in HTM 2040). If connected to a dosing pump. The use of chlorinegas is potentially hazardous so it is recommended that sodium hypochlorite solution be used for chlorination. It if Thorough testing of all outlets It is recommended that during one week in each year. such as administrators. A continuous systemof disinfection should be constantly maintained. a thorough test of very hot and cold water outlets. f. In the case of hot water outletsthese should indicate temperatures of between 50-60°C within one minute of running to waste. c. shower heads and spray taps etc. production personnel. then running cold to waste. 6700and other appropriate documents. An official log book should be maintained by the Responsible Person and the readings of disinfection effectiveness in the cold water storage system recorded daily. In conjunction with otherstaff. All cold water storage cisterns tank system. g. rooms and areasin the building. modifications to pipeand storage systems should take place so that only d. Part 2 Regulation 4(5) and Schedule 2 Paragraph 13. maintained and disinfected in the manner specified. chemical etc. e. should be scheduled and a detailed system of cleaning and disinfecting by chlorination carried out at regular intervals. should be thoroughlytested before one unit for continuous disinfection need be installed. It is essential that all cold water storage systems and all storage tanksshould be thoroughly cleaned out at leastannually. All cold water supplied (other than drinking water) and water storage should be disinfected to ensurethat waterdeliveryto everycold water outlet in the building complies with the requirements of the disinfection control technique to be used. 55600C a warningnotice should be displayed at each such outlet because there is a risk of scalding at these temperatures. should be tested by first running hot water to waste without recording temperatures for a minimum of one minute. Cold water storage systems and tanks for wholesome water supply.The Responsible Person should also order and obtain all spare parts. Recording of test results should be carriedout by the supervising engineerto the approved schedule. shall be installed and maintained in a workmanlike mannerand.S. NOTE: should be noted that sodium hypochiorite solution will lose its strength storedfora long time. cleaners etc.B. At least once a weekthe Maintenance Team should examine and sign the log book and in the eventof the disinfection level falling below the minimum effective levels take appropriate action. if left unoccupied for a weekor more. All equipment should then be drained to wasteand the system refilled. b. coolingtowers etc. bringing back into service. when necessary. The Responsible Person should ensure regular testing and inspection. when a chlorinestrength of between 1-2mg/I chlorinestrength should be achieved. Outbreak control: duties of the responsible person The permanent duties of the responsible person and the maintenance team need to eliminate the recurrence of Legionnaires' disease in buildings are summarised as follows: a. All drinking water mains in the building must be connected directlyto the mains waterto ensure that they are not fed throughany storage or The cold water storage system is sometimes associated with pressurised vessels and storage tanks. systems and tanks It is intended that. Continuous chlorination plant The continuous chlorination plant should be located in a suitable position and this should be permanent.e. Special attention to itemse and should be observed concerning shower equipment and spray taps. seniorofficers. It has been determined in the United Kingdom that no chlorination or form of disinfection is required for existing drinking water mains or outlets exceptfor initial disinfection in the commissioning of a new building or pipework. All thermostatic mixing valves. All apparatus likelyto produce contaminated aerosolssuch as humidifiers. In the case of cold water outlets these should indicate between 1-2mg/I chlorine strength within one minute of running the waste. Wherever possible the cold water storage systemand storage tanks should store water at below20°C. For drinking water — all drinking outlets in the buildings should have beenchecked that they are connected to the drinkingwater mains and have beenclearlylabelled. Testing should be carriedout using the appropriate testing equipment and the Responsible Person should ensure that all members of his staff are trained to carry out this test efficiently. the maintenance staff shouldcheckthat connections are in fact madeto drinking water mains and that the outletsare labelled as such.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Legionnaires' disease in watersystems and how it survives in aerosols. All suchtestingshould be recorded in an agreed manner. 1-2mg/I chlorine strength should be achieved. including all thermostatic mixing valves etc should take place and a suitable log retained. a system shouldbe initiated which ensures that any department. which should be disinfected as appropriate.All new pipework should be disinfected before being put into use. the Responsible Person should arrange for the inclusion in his Planned Preventive Maintenance system of daily inspections of the chlorination plant. necessaryto ensurethat the equipment can be rapidlyreturned to service in the event of breakdown. Advice should be soughton the method to be used to control any temperature rise. It is important that when requests for additional drinkingwateroutletsare received. Cold water storage (commonly known as tanks) should be regularly inspected. Many of these issues have yet to be resolved but with existing knowledge a set of guidelines for the control of Legionella in man-made water systems have been set up. 43 .

existing pipework should be altered so that mains water is connected directlyto the water softening plant and then to the continuous chlorine injection unit to provide the softened waterwith chlorineto approximately 1-2mg/I at the outlets. Make sure the domestic hot waterflow valve remains closed. It will be noticed that the temperature will fall very slowly owing to the lagging. Isolate the calorifier from the system. The primary heating source. Domestic hot water 4. 44 . It is essential that a policy be devised so that accommodation cannot be returned to general use until a full test of hot and cold water outlets has been carriedout. Remove or disconnect any 'over temperature control stats'. shouldalso be similarly chlorinated each year. as before. Wherethese conditions cannotbe obtained. Chlorine levels. this should be modified so that one compartment. putting them on or off line. hot and cold watertemperatures shouldbe tested once weeklyto maintain observation on the currentsituation. Raise the temperature of the water in the calorifier by turning on the primary heat source so that a temperature of 70°C is reached all over the casing of the calorifiers. insurance requirements and calorifiers Where Legionella pneumophila has been identified. have been tested in the mannerpreviously specified. The engineerwill be required to certify that all hot and cold wateroutlets. all associated pipework. which will be determined by a responsible body of people. then let the calorifier standfor a minimum of 24 hours or longer if possible. Attach a clear PVC hose pipeto the drain cock ensuring that the end of the hose is right in the drain.e. The softened water storage compartment should be cleanedand chlorinated to 50mg/I everyyear in the first week of April in a similarmannerto that specified for the raw water compartments. including thermostatical outlets. This is to enable the heat to penetrate throughthe scale and sludge and kill of any Legionella. Each shower fitting should be run for five minutes during which. should be carried out in a similar manner. NOTE: The watersoftenerunit itself shouldnot be subjected to chlorination. the temperature control to be set at approximately 60°C. b. (this is to prevent the and drain off as muchwater as is required to make room for the disinfection solution to be added. if possible. cold chlorinated water. refill withcleantreatedwater and then decidewhich of the following techniques is to be applied. The softened and chlorinated watershould be delivered to the appropriate compartment of the central storage tank prior to distribution to calorifiers. In addition. Drain to waste. with the hose pipe inserted right into the drain. in the first two minutes hot water should be passed.Legionnaires' disease Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide It is intended that in addition to the testingproposed above. it is recommended that the calorifiers should be thoroughlycleansed and the following guidelines should be followed: 1. flow and return must be closed. If morethan one is involved. Othertechniques suchas U. select the one that is most infected. and for the remaining time. i. a scheduleof calorifiers should be prepared. iron deposition and irradiation should be dosed to the requirements of the manufacturers Instructions. If it is proved that bacterial growth can still be found at the tap and showeroutlets. This schedule should identifythe remedial action required to bringthe system to the approved standard and given to the Responsible Person for immediate action. This should be measured accordingto the amount of water in the system to achieve 50inhalation of infected aerosol). Remove primary heating (coil(s) for thoroughlymechanically clean out. 3. then washers should be changed on the taps to a Water Regulations Advisory Scheme approved type. Makesure the domestic hot water flow valve is closed (DHWF). 2. pumps and equipmentwhich can be segregated from hot water calorifiers etc. more frequent testingof selected outlets.V. 6. 60mg/I dependent on the requirements of the chemical user.. All shower positions in the building should be regularly run to wasteweekly. is allocated to contain soft wateronly for the hot water supply system. If the site contains only one main central positions — unoccupied Fromtime to time casesarise where departments or individual rooms in the building are left unoccupied for various reasons. Refix all heating coilsetc. the cold water supplymake up valve (CWS). and any outlets which fail the test conditions should be recorded and brought to the attention of the engineer. one of the following maybe undertaken: a. Drain and cleanthe calorifier to be treated. 5. leave the remaining valves open. 7. Any showers found to be infrequently used should be taken out of use. If necessary. At eachof the calorifiers the water should be stored at a temperature high enough to give a flowtemperature of 60°C and suitable thermometers installed in flow and return pipework and aim for a maximum temperature deviation of 5°C. clearly indicating Do not disturb the othercalorifiers i. discrepancies and their effect on hot wateroutlet temperatures.e. Reconnect the high limits stats and turn the heat backon. To make the calorifiers safe. the domestic hot water return valve (DHWR). both hot and cold. This procedure should be the responsibility of a nominated person in each department and a list of staff nominated keptby the Administrator. Water softening and hot water storage system Stagnant water storage tank. in the calorifierand fill up with water. Recording of testresultsshould be carried out by the supervising engineer to an approved schedule of outlets.

i. the manufacturers' advice should be sought for maintenance cleaning purposes. steam. However. overflow Dead legs Sprays scale Scale Hotwater services Calorifiers Taps Showers Dishwashers Annual clean Washers Mixers/strainers Flexible handspray 45 . and simple 'pouring water' humidifiers. Up until now noneof these humidification systems has been implicated as the source of Legionella infection. battery-spray. capacity.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Legionnaires' disease Cooling towers It is highlyrecommended thatwet cooling towers should be replaced by air to water or otherapproved typesof coolers. cleaning Filtration Cleaning. If any existing wet coolingtowers are to be refurbished. spinning disc. lids. use watertreatment techniques and ensurecorrect and safe operation and maintenance of the waste systemand plant. locked access Lead-lag. particularly in operating theatreareas. water treatment —Tundish Chill coil/driptrays/ drains Humidifiers There are a number of different types of humidifiers. Summary To minimise risk of Legionella infection: avoid releaseof water sprays. computer rooms and sometimes in hospitals. avoid water temperatures which may encourage the growth of Legionella and other micro-organisms. Major plant Cooling towers Air handling units Humidifiers Water treatment. maintain cleanliness throughout the systems. avoid water stagnation. don't use materials which can harbourbacteria or provide nutrients for growth. specialist cleaning advice shouldbe sought and applied.e. These are normally found in the heating and ventilation systems of big office blocks. Practical prevention and solutions Wholesome water Drinking fountains Vending machines check mains supply Mains supply/disinfection Drinking water taps Mains supply — label Cold water services Breaktank (pressure set) Storage tanks Down services Taps Showers Air vent.

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Heating Introduclion Building design/construciion Calculation of heatingloads 48 48 48 49 49 51 Heal transfertheory Heatloss calculations and 'U' values Types of healing system Heatsources Alternativeheat sources Combustionair Boiler sizing Heater emitter selection Piping system design and sizing Pipe layout and sizing Domestic hot waler — typesof system Piping installation Controls 52 53 54 54 54 55 56 57 59 59 60 62 63 Underfloorhealing systems Design considerations Design criteria 47 .

positions of windows. Increase insulation levels within roof voids to 200mm thickness. the heating engineer should. such as 48 . internal layout. However. Calculation of heating loads The heating load of a building is dependant uponfabric heat loss and ventilation heat lossdue to air infiltration. outlets. window size and type of glazing wall and roof — construction. flue requirements — conventional! balanced and fan assisted balanced flues — condensate drainage provision (condensing boilers). Occupancy Details of pattern of occupancy — preferred temperatures. Alternatively. For a greater understanding of efficiency requirements reference should be made to the Resource efficientdesign section. burning the fuel used in the most efficient way possible and switches off the boiler when the demand is satisfied. a. ceiling height. Insulate external walls. b. Heaters Client preference fortype of system! components and reasons? constructional details. With an existing building. taking into accountpossible pipe routes.g. c. equipment. or do they need improving? Existing levels of insulation and draught that there is still adequate ventilation un-used chimneys closed off. Existing buildings with existing buildings. insulation levels maybe far from satisfactory and the design engineershould determine what cost effective insulation measures can be taken in order to reduceheat losses and therefore the size and capital cost of the installed heating system. leave just sufficient ventilation to protectthe internal fabricof the chimney from deterioration. Possible locations for any envisaged equipment. domestic hot water loading and provision for plant installation. For each room. doors and major items of furniture — party and external walls (load bearing ?). An efficient system is one that provides the correct amount of heat at the correct place at the correcttime. although muchof the contentwill also be applicable to larger systems. open chimneys) and/orventilation fans. natureof occupancy/use. which should providethe necessary information for the heat loss calculations and for the system preliminary design. but this is only taken into accountif it is continuous during the pre-heat and heating periods. Adequate. Ensure windowand door openings are adequately draught proofed and Insulation proofing(if any). Adequacy Building design! construction New buildings In designing a new building. lighting. etc. To maximise the desirable influences and ameliorate those that have an undesirable effecton the building operational efficiency. ideally. Electrics Surveying an existing building Source of electrical supplyand position for controller. thereare manyconsiderations which will have a direct impact on the design of the heating system and its operational efficiency. floor dimensions. It is not cost effective to install double-glazing simply to reduceenergy consumption. thermostats. Equipment/lighting loads? Pipe routes Possible/acceptable pipe routes (concealed/exposed?) including drops for between floor connections. reinforced concrete. In commercial installations there may be offsetting internalgainsfrom people. Position of socket requisite of a successful heating system design is the carrying out of a detailed survey.Heating Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Introduction Modern central heating systems have to be capableof meeting the user's expectations of providing an adequate level of heating in an efficient manner. floor/wall d. F & E cistern Position for F & E cistern— routes for cold feed and safety ventpipes and location of rising main for float valve supply. orientation. Achieving this objective will require correct system design. and the use of appropriate controls. although the choice of method needscareful evaluation. skirtingand cill — height. have an early involvement in the design of the building. Details of any natural ventilation shafts (e. The following details the various aspectsthat should be covered by the surveyand could form the basisof a check list. fuel (location of nearest supply— storage). beamand pot). direction and depthof floor joists and position of any steelbeams— if solid. the more sophisticated the system the greater the potential for problems and so good design often requires a compromise between what is the ideal solution and what is advisable in terms of operational and maintenance considerations. possibly using low emissivity glass wherethereare potential solar radiation gains. suchas fabric selection.type of construction (e. etc. the pre- of existing earthing. as are solar radiation gains.. Possible locations (including any ancillary equipment). cavity wall insulation and solid walls can be insulated internallyor externally. access & maintenance. space for sealed system expansion vessel and pressurisation set. glazed units. Ensure to prevent odour/moisture build-up and if closing off a chimney. Floorconstruction if suspended. The recommendations in this Guide relateprimarilyto domestic and small commercial installations with boiler input ratings not exceeding 60kw. avoiding inefficient oversizing of plant. Boiler Preferred type of boiler— combined primarystorage unit (cpsu). Such gainsare normally ignored in domesticsituations. Building layout Orientation. taking access for installation! maintenance into consideration. Insulate flat roofs by the application of insulation on top of the existing roof waterproofing membrane.g. conventional/balanced flue. etc. There are several types of material used for e. Consider replacing windowframesin poorcondition with sealed double- mounted.

9 — 0. It can be written as: 1 Heat loss calculations and 'U' values Calculation of the rate of heat loss (0) froma building is straightforward. it will also depend upon pressure. Radiation is the transferof heat between two bodies at different temperatures due to electromagnetic radiation waves passing through the intervening space and the rate of radiant heat transfer depends upon their shape. The thermal conductivity for a material can vary. roof. with the temperature difference being that between the inside and outside design temperatures. Tabulated 'U' values for specific constructions.05. temperature differences are often quoted in degreesKelvin (°K). depending upon its mean temperature. t2. if they are at significantly differenttemperatures (say 3°C or more) — an example would be a bathroom at 22°C with an adjacent bedroom or hallway at 18°C. Providing lightingsystems with lamps and controls that use energy efficiently. orientation and their relative emissivities and absorptivities. U=Rsi+++. All three processes require a temperature difference for heat transferto occur. in additionto the above. Providing space heating and hot water systems which are energy efficient Convection is a processwhereby heat is transferred as a resultof the actual movement of the fluid molecules within the medium. Good insulators have low thermalconductivity. This can be calculated. X = thermal conductance — its reciprocal = thermal resistance 'R' Convection a. Limiting heat lossthroughthe building fabric. The lower the 'U' value of a material. Conduction is a processwhereby heat is transferred without an appreciable movement of the molecules within the medium concerned. Building Regulations The Building Regulations (reference Approved Documents Li and L2). t1.95 — shiny/reflective surfaces have a low emissivity of around 0. Radiation c. then 2°C may be more appropriate. that apply to replacement and new systems stipulate that 'reasonable provision shall be made for the conservation of fuel and powerin buildings. The constructional elements considered are usually those which formthe boundary between the insideand outside of the building. such as the wall. X2. Building Regulations Section Li.. not millimetres) and X. from hot water pipesand hot air ducts and from hot water vessels b. are the thicknesses of each of the structural elements (in metres. such as a garage beneath a bedroom. It involves calculating the area (A) of each constructional element of the building through which heat is going to flow.Ra+Rso X1 X2 = ?A(t — t2) 0 = heat transferrate in Watts A = area in m2 = thickness in metres = temperature in °C (or Kelvin) = thermal conductivity nW m°C where and R0 are the internaland external surface resistances. In some cases it may also be necessary to calculate the heat lossfrom one internal space to another. Q = UA(t — t2). manufacturers' literature and many othersources. the better its thermal insulating properties — do not confusewith electrical insulation. Consideration must also be given to the additional heating load resulting from air infiltration. moisture contentand density. but they are not the same for actual temperatures: 0°K is —272°C' 'U' value The 'U' value is a measurement of the rate of heat flowacrossone square metre of the element of the structurein consideration. but in most instances it is sufficient to make a reasoned 'guess'. etc.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Heating Heat transfer theory Heat is a form of energyand its transfer occursthrough threebasic processes — conduction and convection. this requires: The reciprocal of the conductivity gives the resistivity of the material Dividing the conductivity of a specific material by its thickness gives its thermal conductance and its reciprocal gives the thermal resistance 'R'. It is worth noting that whilsttemperatures are usually quoted in degrees Centigrade (°C). the rate of heat transferis directly proportional to the area (A) acrosswhich the heat is beingconducted and the temperature gradient(t1 — t2). Insulation Industry Handbook. as covered by Li. air conditioning. Ra is the resistance of any airspace. The temperature in an unheated garage within the envelope of a house is likelyto be some 5°C to 8°C aboveoutside design temperature — if it has an exposed roof and walls. floor and windows — different areas of the same element may be of different construction and so the heat loss across each area must be separately calculated. One degree difference in the Centigrade scale is the same as one degree difference in 49 . thereare requirements relating to the provision of mechanical ventilation. and so the likely temperature of the unheated space has to be determined.. Guide. as covered by L2. are the conductivities of the respective materials. which both require a medium throughwhich the heat Emissivity Factor (E) is transmitted. lighting systems and more. Emissivity Factor (E) is the ratio of heat emitted by a unit surfacearea of a material to that emittedby a unit area of a perfectblacksurfaceat the same temperature — most building materials have an emissivity of 0. For a solid material. the Kelvin scale. and radiation which occurs from one body to anotherand does not require a medium. the adjacent area may be unheated. For domestic dwelling designs. For liquids and gases. For buildings otherthan dwellings. HVCA/CIBSE/loP Domestic Heating Design guide. Alternatively. etc. It is inversely proportional to the thickness of the material (I). The area is then multiplied by the temperature differential across each element(t1 — t2) and the 'U' value. or Thermal Conductivities for variousmaterials can be found in a variety of sourcesincluding the CIBSE. witha 1°C temperature differential acrossthat element and assuming steady state heat transfer conditions.

18 Resistances Walls R1 Inner surface Outer surface Airspace R R0 Ra 0.84 Thermalite 0.16 0. Empirical values of air change rates for various situationsare given in the HVCNCI BSE/loP Domestic Heating Guide. calculated in accordance with the Government's Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) and which has to be declared for Building Regulations approval.84 —+—— 0. which take into accountboth air and mean surface temperatures. so either 'environmental' or 'dry resultant' temperatures are normally used. temperature and variations in structural thickness and/ordensity.035 Polystyrene ConcreteBlock 0. Air change rates Roofs 0. 13mm 150mm 50mm 50mm 105mm Plaster Celcon Rockwool Airspace Brick The environmental temperature is weighted in favour of the mean surface temperature and is generally used in dynamicheat transfercalculations. If considering the dynamicperformance of a structure (normallyin relation to heat gain calculations) then it is necessary to take into accountthreefactors in addition to the 'U' value: Surface Factor (F).19 Wood 0. someform of mechanical extract and/or supply ventilation should be considered. bath/shower rooms and some toilets is now mandatory under the Building Regulations (reference Approved Document F) and literature from domesticfan manufacturers gives guidance on requirements.06 = 3.04 0.013 0. In domestic situations it is necessary to consider whether designing for adjacent areas to be at considerably varying temperatures is reasonable. wherethe heat exchange between the surfaces and the enclosed space is considered. For otherbuildings. togetherwith example calculations.035 Brick (outer) 0. communicating doors are frequently left open. depending upon the age of the building. the use of through-wall heat recovery ventilator units. the Building Regulations (Section L2) detailsthree methods of demonstrating that the Regulations have beencomplied with in respect to the building heat loss — the Elemental method.18 0.18 ÷— ÷— ÷— -i--— 0.33W/m3°C) and the inside/outside temperature difference. NHBC Guide and Modernbuildings are increasingly being constructed with higherstandards of insulation and draughtproofing and as a result.050 0.04 Fibreglass 0. in reality the heat flow rate will vary in response to fluctuations in internal temperature. Actual infiltration rates may vary considerably.06 0. In a building of normal construction there will be air infiltration occurring at various points throughthe building structure (e. is 5—8I/s per person. the air changerate can dropto considerably lessthan that required to adequately control moisture and odour build-up.12 m2K/W 0.16 W/mK Celcon Solar 0. and so to calculate on the basisof one room beingat 21°C and an adjacentcommunicating room beingat 16°C maybe unrealistic — with the door openthe adjacent room temperature is likelyto stabilise at around 18°C-19°C.57 BS5449. However. For normal situations. the Building Regulations (Section Li) details three methods of demonstrating that the Regulations have been complied with in respect to the building heat loss— the Elemental method. level of insulation and exposure. The calculated heat flow rate basedon the 'U' value is for steady-state conditions and for the majorityof situations. Target U-value method and Carbonindex method. The procedure for calculation is straightforward — the volume of the room is calculated (V) and multiplied by the air changerate (N). window and doorframes)and this has to be allowed for in the heat loss calculations. . Design temperatures The temperature sensed by a body depends upon the surrounding air temperature and the mean radiant temperature (MRT) of all the surrounding surfaces — a similar level of comfortcan be achieved with a high air temperature and low MRT. Wherever mechanical ventilation is used. will give a perfectly adequate indication of the mean rate of heat lossfrom the structure. The recommended fresh air supplyrate in offices.298 W1m2°C Figure 1 'U' value calculation All new housing and conversions must have an energy rating. or with a lowerair temperature and higher MRT.11 Rockwool 0.36 Therefore U = 1 3.035 + 0. where air movement is low. Alternatively.1 Om2KIW 0. Admittance Factor (Y-value) and Decrement Factor (f).Heating Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide 'U' value calculation Thermal Conductivity ()) Plaster 0.g.12 0. and recommended values for various situationsare given in the CIBSE Guide.11 0.105 0. the dry resultant temperature is used. could be considered.14 0.36 = 0. For domestic dwellings.15 0. Full details of the methods of calculation are given in Section Li. external 50 In commercial properties it is also necessary to take into account the number of occupants and ensure that an adequate supply of fresh air is available. the specific heat of air (0. wherethere is minimal or no smoking. In practice. To only consider air temperature when carrying out heat loss calculations may give unsatisfactory results. Installation of a fresh air ventilation system maybe required. Underthese circumstances. The provision of mechanical extract from domestic kitchens. a Whole building method and Carbonemissions calculation method.

The actual reduction allowed will be dependant upon the building configuration — if a domestic property has a throughlounge.5 bar above the static head from the fill point to the highestpoint in the system. Wet systems can be either openvented or sealed.The cooled water then returns to the boiler for reheating. compared to normal wet heating systems. will have alreadybeen heated by its passage throughthe rooms on the windward side.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Heating its effect on the heat loss must be considered and allowed for. whilst the individual room heat losses all include for the effect of air infiltration. Water is heated in the boiler and then pumped via a piping distribution systemto the heat emitters. Using 'rule of thumb'methods or a simple disc calculator will invariably result in system oversizing. a pressure reducing valve. dry (warm air). then a 50% reduction in respectof this room would not be appropriate. Air will infiltrate into rooms on the windward side. The calculated heat loss for each room forms the basisfor the sizing of the heat emitters and the total of all the calculated heat losses formsthe basisfor sizing of the primary heat source. This gives a very even level of heating. Heat loss calculations Accurate heat losscalculation is essential for efficient operation. the heat source is invariably a boiler burning gas. with increased capital and running costs. the rooms into which air will be infiltrating at any given time will depend uponthe wind direction. Wetsystemsare adaptable. thus the air infiltrating into the leeward side rooms.The fact that the air enteringthe leeward side rooms has been pre-heated cannot be taken into accountin the sizing of heat emitters for the rooms — a changein wind direction may reverse the situation — but it can be considered when sizing the primary heat source. or underfloor heating maybe installed. wherethe heat is given out. natural or fan assisted convectors. if only to do 'spot checks'. With an open vented system a feed and expansion (F & E) cistern is Figure 2 Typical openventedsystem Cold feed and expansionpipe With an open vented system the positioning of the pumpin relation to the safety open vent and cold feed connections is very important if problems of pumping over. Heatemitters are usually radiators or located at least 1m above the top of the highest heateror section of circulating pipework and connected to the system by a cold feed and expansion pipe. It must be remembered that the calculation of heat losses is not an 'exact' science. extendable (subject to capacity) and fully controllable and in domestic situations they usually also provide domestic hot water heating via an indirect cylinder. pass through the building and exit the building from the rooms on the leeward side. cold feed or safety open vent pipe. The heat lossesare calculated a room at a timeand for rooms over 5m height a percentage additionis made to the calculated heat loss. With a property having two or more exposed elevations and internally partitioned. to a pressure of approximately 0. and the cold feed pipeshould ideally be sized to contain the expansion volume of the system (usually means 22mm minimum size) and connected to the circulating part of the system with an anti-gravity loop. with no heaters to occupywall space and the maintenance requirement and potential leakage risk is reduced. but it may well be in respect of bedrooms at first floor.g. in which hot water is circulated througha network of underfloor pipes. oil or solid fuel. isolating valveand. since there are manyvariables involved. bricks) Types of heating system Heating systems generally fall into one of four categories — wet. dependant upon the type of system (convective/radiant). The installation is usually carried out by specialist contractors. radiantand electricstorage and a building could have a combination of any of these. the primary heat source basic load can be reduced by up to 50% of the calculated ventilation heat loss. Terminating over the F & E cistern is the safety open vent pipewhich must have an unobstructed path backto the heat generator and the function of which is to ventany air liberated from the heat generator and provide a relief for any steam produced as a resultof a boiler thermostat failure. However. position the pump on the flow afterthe safety open vent connection. A sealed system has no F & E cistern. or an electric storage boiler. Underfloor heating can be installed within new floors and over all types of existing floors and offers proven energyconsumption reductions in the orderof 15-20%. exposed at both ends to the outside. Examples of design calculation worksheets can be found in the HVCNCIBSE/loP Domestic Heating Design Guide. The purpose of the cistern is to keep the system topped up withwater and to accept the increase in systemwater volumeas it heats up. The system is usually filled directfrom the mains via a filling loop incorporating a double check valve. provided the boiler has a high limit safety thermostat. ideally. but it is essential to understand the 'manual' method of calculation. A number of radiator manufacturers now offerfree of charge heat loss programmes which can be run on a PC. (natural or LPG). In low headsituationsa combined safety open vent and cold feed is permitted. 51 . The F & E cistern capacity to waterline should be not less than 18 litres plus 1/20th of the water contentof the system. Wet system In a wet system. Alwaysfit a diaphragm type safety valve if thereis a risk of freezing. open vent aeration or suctionleaks are to be avoided. such as variations in standard of construction and in the constructional materials and their moisture content(e. As a general rule.

to realisethese savings it is essential to correctly control the heaters (non-adjustable blackbulb type thermostat) and consideration of access to the heaters for maintenance purposes must alwaysbe considered when evaluating the economics.Thereare limitations in the siting of conventionally flued boilers. to be re-heated. but usually much more expensive to operate for heating the domestichot water only during the summer— use electric heating for summerDHW. maypass back to the heater. Warm air systems give rapid heat up but maylack control flexibility(particularly Gas fired boilers Gas fired boilers. due to cost limitations. into the areas requiring heating. plus fuel storage facilities and.g. toilet extract system) and fresh outside air supplied to the heater. Figure 3 Typical sealed system Solid fuel boilers domestic) and ducted systems maybe difticult to extend without major building works. Depending upon the application.200°C if any tar deposits catch fire) — suitable typesare twinwall S/S insulated (some with additional ceramiclining) and refractory blockflues. However. which must also be fitted with a non-adjustable safety valve (diaphragm type) set at 3 bar. as thereare in relation to the manner and positioning of flue terminations. they only offera limited degree of control and separate provision has to be made for domestic hot water heating. Solidfuel boilerscan be quite economical. Balanced flue boilerscan be located in any room. an expansion vessel is connected to the system. associated pipework. with running costs of between 20% and 40% lower than alternative types of system. although solid fuel boilers maybe found in areas withouta natural gas supply. unless large quantities required. or it maybe discharged to outside (e. via a ducting system or by natural ventilation paths. as well as radiocontrolled charging periods. They needfrequent maintenance. especially the 'smokeater' type units. the air having given up its heat.g. They are suited to very well insulated properties with a heat lossaround 4kW or lessand re-furbishment in properties wherethe installation of gas could present a potential hazard (e.high-rise flats).g. There are also restrictions on under stairs installation of boilers. Most modernheaters incorporate 52 . A sealed system avoids the risk of freezing of the F & E cistern and Radiant heating Radiant heatingsystems are suited to situations with very highceiling levels. The suitability for use of an existing chimney must be checked. but in domestic situations. To accommodate the expanded water volume as the system heats up. Electric storage Electric storage heating is possibly the cheapest to install. both natural gas and LPGfired. and fan assisted balanced flue boilers do not have to be located on outsidewalls— someflues can be extended by up to 30m. or very high air change rates. Dry (warm air) system With a dry (warm air) system. shower rooms and sleeping accommodation and reference must be made to the currentGas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations. particularly in relation to bathrooms. unless used only for 'background' heating. ducted systems can be zoned. with the expansion vessel. are available as floor or wall mounted models with conventional or balanced flues. Heat sources With wet heating systems the heat source is invariably a gas or oil fired boiler. Flue gas temperatures from solid fuel boilers will be considerably higherthan with gas boilers and flues must be capable of withstanding these temperatures (around 1. which can burn bituminous coals in smokeless zones. Gas-fired radiantheatingsystems can be highly efficient and economical. Commercially. overcomes problems associated with positioning of the cold feed and openvent connection to the system— a particular problem with low watercontentboilers— and drastically reduces the corrosion problems due to oxygenation of the system. eitherdirectly or via a ducting system. with heaters usually of the gas fired 'radiant plaque' or 'tube'type. The potential savingsin running costscould be negatedby the cost of installing a tower to give access for maintenance/repair. All boilersconnected to sealed systems must have high limit thermostats. the pipework requiresprotection from damage/frost. air is heated by passing througha heater. With any wet heating system. they must have 'heat-sink'. sincethe heat cannotbe turned on and off in the same wayas with gas or oil.Heating Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide charge and output controls and some Safety valve electricity supply companies have tariffs which providea mid-afternoon boost. but lacks the inherent control flexibility of wet systems and is therefore invariably lessefficient. gas or oil fired) or indirectly heatedby a heater batterythroughwhich hot water is circulating. They are not suited to fully automatic control. safety valve and high limitthermostat all built into the unit and a number of ordinaryboilers are now available as 'system boilers'withall necessary sealed system components built in. All gas combination boilers are of the sealed type. Existing chimneys must be checked for suitabilityfor use — can be lined with insulating refractory concrete liners of 'cast-in-situ' refractory liner — single skin flexible liners must not be used. The heatedair is discharged. possibly with individually controlled heaters for each zone and/or motorised zone dampers and mixing boxes.Consulta specialistif in doubt. which can be directlyheated (e.

Direct fired air heaters Direct fired air heaters are available as balanced flue gas fired room heaters. System design is to normal parameters. They require the provision of an oil storage tank (accessible for filling) plus connecting pipework to the boilerand safety controls. the only additional requirement being a plasticdrain pipeto a suitable drainconnection. and a condensate collection and drain point. operating on normaltariff rates. the increased capital cost can be quicklyrecovered through reduced running costs. connecta new appliance to an existing flue liner— the liner should always be renewed at the same time.combinedheat and power(CHP) units and solar heating. with a very high heat exchange surface area. as with a conventional boiler. and it is essential to obtain independent and unbiased professional advice if any of these options are being considered. although they may be the ideal solution in certain areas requiring localised and intermittent heating. check with boiler manufacturer for correct type. Heat pump A heat pump operates in the same way — heat as a domesticrefrigerator. For conventional flues. or connectit to copper or lead piping. Electric quartz radiant heaters. although economical to run. Oversizing of heat emittersis not economically justified— 50% oversizing only improves efficiency by 2. Oil fired boilers Oil fired boilersare available as conventional or balanced flue units. but incorporate a pump.The annual efficiency of a conventional boilerwill be around 67% (with a badlycontrolled system this can easily drop to well below60%) compared to 87% for a gas fired condensing boiler. outsideair. the boilerwill still achieve an efficiency of around 87% compared to around 77%for a modern floor standing unit. Solar heating Although fairly high levels of solar radiation are available in the UK. Condensing boilers are also available for operation with LPG (Propane). Electric boilers Someelectric boilers are similar to a normal night storage heater. since the condensate is mildly acidic and will corrode copperand lead. The choice of system depends on location and it is advisable to seekthe manufacturers advice relating to design/installation requirements. will be very expensive to run. ground water) and discharged into the heating system. heat exchanger and pipework for connection to the central heating distribution system.To complywith the Gas Safety Regulations. where flue gas temperatures can be up to 540°C. Sinceall the heat is stored in one unit the distribution of the heat output is far more flexible than with individual storage heaters and. Whenthe condensing boiler is working at its most efficient. flues must be twin wall insulated or of refractory block/liner. 'flue pluming' is most prevalent. generally.4%. Condensing boilers Conventional boilerefficiencies are limited to around 80%to 83%.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Heating For domestic and commercial boilers with atmospheric burners (flue gas temperatures up to 260°C). and oil. For a client with a fairly constant electrical and heating demand. Even without entering the condensing mode. rising to at least94% when fully condensing. All the above alternatives offer a variety of permutations and combinations. theycan be quite bulky and heavy. both floor standing or wall mounted. this can be an extremely efficient method of electrical generation.flues can be of single wall or flexible stainless steel type. There are numerous variations to suit different applications and they are usually quite efficient.to keep the flue gas temperatures around 220°C and prevent condensation occurring in the boileror flue. Alternative heat sources Three alternative primary heat sources which could be considered are: heat pumps. commercial boilers with pressure jet burners and certain DEE fires. such as is suitable for pre-heating domestic hot water and for heating of swimming pools.Withthe cost of boilerssteadilyreducing. solar heatingwill only provide what is generally termed a 'low grade'heat source. one shouldnever. givingan operational efficiency in excess of 85%. conventional or balanced flue gas fired unit heaters. For solid fuel boilers. CHP units are usually gas-firedand See Building Regulations (Part J) and BS 5410for detailedinstallation requirements. in the same waythat heat is removed from the icebox and given out at the condensercoil at the backof the refrigerator cabinet. 53 . Installation is no more difficult than for a conventional boiler. oil fired conventionally flued heaters and radiant gas heaters. The only majordifference between a condensing boilerand a fan assisted balanced flue boiler is that the condensing boilerhas a corrosion resistant aluminium or stainless steel heat exchanger. as this will depend on flue gas temperature — aluminium/ceramic/ clayware are not normally suitable.g. A high percentage of the energy that would otherwise be wasted as heat from the engine unit can be used to powerthe heatingsystem. but in reverse is removed from some 'inexhaustible' source (e. due to them being individually controlled. (HP units comprise of a gas driven internal combustion engine linked to an electrical generator. Do not run the condensate piping in copper. Note that in garages/workshops the combustion air supply to the burners should be ducted from outside. In commercial situations a Monodraught' type flue or fan diluted flue systemcan overcome problems of boiler location and fluing. provided any 'boost'consumption at the highergeneral tariff rate can be keptto an absolute minimum. even in cloudy winter days.

005 0.l8kJ/kg°K. it is the installer's responsibility to ensure that the complete gas installation and connected appliances are safe to use. infirmor young children. unconsciousnesswithin one hour. but they are more expensive than the steel panel type. particularly with gas fired appliances. 1 administer oxygen if possible. — 40)°C H2 = boileroutput(kW) x x 4. Carbon monoxide poisoning causes cherry red appearance in victimsface — remove victim from contaminated area and ensure continued breathing — hot waterheating margin is unnecessary.) x (storage temp. butwith a well insulated domestic dwelling this could represent around 30%of the total load and Assumed cold water supply at 10°Cand mixed watertemperature at 40°C. unconsciousness. cooling and flue dilution air.i8kJ/kg°K. it is necessary to use low surface temperature radiators. Required energy (H3 kJ.): draw off duration (mm. death within 10—15 minutes Immediate symptoms.l8kJ/kg°K. A contractor working on a gas installation would be committing a criminal offence if he does not belong to a classof persons approved for the time being by the Health and Safety Executive. beneath suspended or intermediate floorsor passing through unheated voids or cupboards) an additional allowance must be included.08 0. Ifthereis a great amount of pipework which is not giving off useful heat (e. Vents through cavity walls must be sleeved. In the average domestic situation.) 60 mm < 3. nausea and sleepiness after 2—3 hours Frontal headache and nausea after 1—2hours. Calculation of DHW storage capacity is therefore a matterof achieving an economic balance between storage capacity and boiler reheat capacity. or by mechanical ventilation with airflow safety interlock. convulsions after 45 minutes. the domestic hot water heating load will be greater and is likely to constitute the largest element of the totalboilerheating load. dizziness and nausea within 20 minutes. Unflued appliances The concentration of carbon dioxide must not exceed 2800ppm where people may be present and ventilation must be provided by natural ventilation via permanent openings at high and low level. and must not be positioned wherethey could be blocked by leaves. 80% of their outputby convection and 20% by radiation.04 0. There should be at least 100mm clearance fromthe top of the radiator to 54 . See Table 1. Inadequateventilation can be lethal.) H3= Drawoff volume (litre = kg. Re-heat potential from boiler (H2kJ.Heating Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Combustion air With any fuel burning appliance it is vital that there is an adequate provision for combustion. assuming a very high recovery cylinder with heat transfer capacity >boiler outputcapacity. etc. 1kW/h Open flued appliances These require permanent ventilation openings. eitherdirectlyto outside or via adjacentroom(s). dizziness. cast iron and even plastic.16 0. etc.600kJ. risk of death after3 hours Severe headache. dizziness. as are ones manufactured from aluminium.28 Threshold value Slight headache in 2—3 hours Mild headache. To correctlysize the grilles. To meet load. if the appliance is located in a compartment — some appliances do not ventilation — see require compartment manufacturers' requirements. insects.01 0.g. Full details of requirements are given in the Building Regulations. Boiler sizing Boiler sizeis normally based upon the calculated heat loss plus 10%(or 15%).The only ventilation requirement maybe for cooling purposes Table seriously reduce the boiler efficiency. must not incorporate any screensthat could be blocked by dirt. In domestic situations an additional 2 or 3kWis often added to the boilerload for domestic hot waterheating. Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations and relevant British Standards — the following summarises the basicrequirements. risk of death after 15 minutes Severe symptoms after 2 minutes.02 0.) x (40— 10)°C x 4. Radiators manufactured from steel are also available in a variety of shapes and designs. checkthe manufacturers' information on the percentage of 'free area'. In certain circumstances. death within 1 to 3 minutes ito The common steel panel radiators are available with singleor double panels and with fins welded to them to further increase output.): Hi = storage volume (litre = kg. =3. With the full boileroutput switched to hot waterheating. risk of death after 1—2hours Headache. Useful energystored in cylinder(Hi kJ. Joule = 1 Watt for 1 sec. snow. Always checkeffectof any extract ventilation fanson the operation of the flue. dizziness and nausea in 5—10 minutes. Where there is a requirementfor a high performance shower.32 0. H3 = Hi + H2 Balanced flue (room sealed) appliances The design of these appliances places the air inlet and flue discharge in the same pressure zone. the inclusion of an additional Heat emitter selection Types of heat emitters I Symptoms % Saturation of haemoglobin with carbon monoxide 0. Vents must be noncloseable. witha well controlled system and with a low capacity very high recovery cylinder (at least20kW heat transfer capacity) and hot waterpriority. the shortperiod of loss of space heating will not be noticed.64 1. such as with the elderly. Radiators give approx. risk of death after 2—3 hours Headache. The following can be used to evaluate requirements: Specific heat of water = 4.600kJ. copper. but with intermittentlyoccupied buildings a margin of 20—25% maybe more appropriate.

Prior to 1-7-97. Two-pipe system The two-pipe system will have separate flow and return pipes withthe flowand returnconnections to each heater connected to the respective flow and returnpipes. thus requiring a deduction of 8-9% from quoted outputs to allow for bottom opposite end connections — the normal in the UK. Natural convectors will give a quicker heat-up than a radiator and can be eitherwall mounted or of the skirting or under floor type. the figures shown in their catalogues being adjusted from the 50°C difference at which testing is carried out.93 0. It is not normal in domestic situations to consider internal heat gains from people and equipment. With highly insulated buildings. significant savings(5—10%) can be achieved by putting reflective foil faced insulation behind the radiators. as it circulates around the room. A long. With the variations in the UKWinterclimateduring recent years. ensure the path of the airflow is not obstructed by any furniture. such as people. If using a fan convector.95 0. testing has to be carried out. With radiant heating. that quoted outputsare based on a mean water to room temperature difference of 50°C — this will result in the quotedoutputsbeing reduced by around 20%. Two-pipe systemsare always pumped and have the advantage of a positive (pumped) flow of waterthrougheach heater.. The 'conventional' temperatures for low pressure systems are 82°C flow and 71°C return (1 80°F/i60°F) giving a mean water temperature of 76. low radiatorwill give better heat distribution than a tall one (note emission penalty) and avoid locations covered by furnishings.90 16 18 20 22 Connections top bottomsameends (TBSE) Connections bottom opposite ends (BOE) Radiator length greaterthan 5 x its height Radiator in openfronted recess Radiator in recess with front grille Radiator shelfabove Metallic paint finish from 0.metres. and walls. Ensure the path of the airflow is not obstructed by any furniture. and warm them up — these surfaces then in turn heat the surrounding air. Significant savings can resultif the operation of the fan convector can be linked to a touch activated timercontrol or occupancy detector. or quotedoutputsadjusted.00 0.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Heating any ciii above and 150mm clearance belowfor the pipework and connections.90 0. a faster responding convective heater maybe moreappropriate. Choice and positioning of heaters Heatis given out in two ways— by radiation and by convection. furniture.85 x 0. Table 2 Correction factorfor radiatoroutputs Room temperature Correction factor for radiator outputs 1.8 55 . Fan convectors will give an even faster heat up and can be time/temperature controlled. although there are many oldersinglepipesystemsstill in existence. radiator outputswere basedon BS 3528:1977 which specified a mean waterto room temperature difference of 60°C and pipe connections at top and bottomoppositeends(TBOE).5°C for heaters on a two-pipe system. to equate to pipe connections at top and bottom same ends (TBSE). in order to reducepipe sizesand flow rates. With normal system flow and return temperatures of 82/71°C the outputswill therefore be lower. Occupancy pattern/use of area will influence selection of emitter type. plus othercorrection factors for varying methods of installation. Withconvective heating the heat warmsthe air which in turn heatsthe surfaces it comes into contactwith. As a general guide one heaterwill satisfactorily cover up to 2Osq. Avoid obstructing any electrical socket outlets. The generally accepted method of sizing radiators is to add 10%to the calculated room heat loss and select the nearest sized radiator.04 0.9 x 0. especially if heating is very intermittent.85 0. its output will reduceto 1500 x 0. Oversizing will result in reducedsystem efficiency due to temperature overshoot. Around 20% of the heat output from a radiator is by radiation and the remaining 80% is given out by convection — a reasonable balance for most domestic situations.9 to 0. Copperpiping systems of 15—28mm sizeare referred to as 'small- All the correction factors below are cumulative. the heat rays given out strike any surfaces in their path. it is worth considering basing the design on 82°C/68°C flow and return. Comfortdepends not only on the air temperature but also the average radiant temperature (Mean Radiant Temperature — — MRT) of all the surrounding surfaces the lowerthis average temperature the higher the air temperature must be to give comfortable conditions. radiatoroutputs have had or stairways. and the saving in pipe sizing maybe offset by the necessary increase in radiator size. where the radiant level will balancethe effectof colder external wall surfaces.90 0. Table 2 givesthe correction factors withwhich the manufacturers figures must be multiplied for 82/71°C flow and return temperatures and varying room temperatures.87 1. temperature differential cannot be even higher. since these can be intermittent.80 and lower down to 0. but attention must be given to any limitations imposed by the boiler manufacturer.90 = 1032W. mounted at high level or recessed into floors. so for a radiatorwith a rated output of 1500W installed in an open recess in a room at 20°C with BOE connections. Also. There is no reason why the to complywith EN-442 which requires From 1-7-97. Virtuallyall UK radiator manufacturers still quoteoutputsbased upon60°C temperature difference. If radiators are positioned on outside walls. Piping system design and sizing The most common type of heating distribution system is a two-pipe system. bench seats Heat emitter sizing To sizea heaterit is first of all necessary to decide on the system flow and return watertemperatures. a 15% margin maybe considered more appropriate. They are very compact and can be built into fitted units.

If most of the heaters can be picked up on one or two pipe loops. Being flexible. water circulates aroundone or more single pipe loops withthe radiatorflowand return connections connected from the same pipeloop. A variation on the basic single pipe system is the 'loop-in'system whereby the pipework loops in and out of a single The procedure for this can be summarised as follows: 1. Thereare several variations for commercial installations.. system temperature drop and also shows the heat loss from uninsulated and insulated pipe. it is necessary to decideupon the position of heaters etc. Having determined the piping layout. including 'ladder'or 'reverse return' configurations. in orderthat pipe routes can be decided. Mixing microbore and smailbore is quite permissible. a single-pipe system must be carefullydesigned and it cannot be used with convectors. so avoiding having to use fittings. Although there is less pipework to install.Heating Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Pipe layout and sizing Before sizing a piping system. Sincethe water temperature around the pipe loop(s) will progressively dropas it passeseach radiator. Heaters will have to be sizedto take accountof the reducing water temperature. and 56 two connection valve on each radiator— the valve incorporates a by-pass so that someof the water enters the radiator whilst the remainder goes throughthe by-pass and is joined by the coolerwater leaving the radiator— and the mixed water leaves the valve through the second connection and passesto the nextradiatoron the circuit. For domestic systems it is generally unnecessary to carry out a detailed pipe sizing. provided the pipework and pump are correctly sized. at leastone heatermust be connected on a separate gravitycircuitfrom the boilerto provide a 'heat sink'. in orderto check the adequacy of the pipe sizing and checkthe pump duty. which is basedon a flow rate corresponding to an 11°C. although it can be aided by the use of divertertees. which must have a pumped flowof water through them to achieve the rated output.entry' radiator valves. Single pipe systems With single pipe systems. in muchthe sameway as electrical cables. with proportioning of mains losses. and they must be connected top bottom opposite ends and alwayswith the return connection downstream of the flow. with due regard to the constructional details of the building and any client requirements. connectto manifolds from which the radiators are individually connected by 8mm or 10mm pipes. If installing a heaterin a bathroom. Always connecta hot watercylinder primary return to the combined heating and DHWreturn pipedownstream of the last heating return connection.problems. etc. If installing a solid fuel boiler. the return connection being downstream of the flow. Installation is simplified. An option (usually for domestic situations) is a 'microbore' system in which the main flow and return from the boiler. the heatingload on each section can be calculated and the provisional pipe sizecan be determined fromTable 3. connections must be top/bottom opposite ends (TBOE). where therewould be little variation in flowtemperature from one end of the system to the other. Correctpipe sizing is essential if problems of insufficient water flowto the farthest radiators on the system are to be avoided. However. Whilst circulation is usuallypump assisted. as one woulddo for a commercial situation. it is a goodidea to connectit from the outlet side of the pump before any control valves. This gives a more positive flowthrougheach radiator. the pipescan be threaded' between floor joistsetc. Figure 4 Two pipe circuit circulating temperatures °C Figure 5 Single pipe circuit circulating temperatures °C bore'. It will then heat up whenever the boiler comes on and not be dependant on the remainder of the house requiring heating. it is a good ideato carry out an accurate pressure drop calculation. the radiators towards the end of the circuitwill have to be larger than they would be for the same output on a two-pipe system. the circulation of water through each radiator is primarilyby gravity. then it maybe worth considering a single pipe system. Convectors and hot water cylinders cannotbe put on a single pipecircuit. The following conversion formula can be used: . to avoid possible reverse circulation. Total heatingloads in each pipe section and convert to flow rate in I/s (same as kg/s). but the system has to be very carefully designed and a more powerful pump is needed to circulatethe water throughthe small pipes as well as specially designed 'twin.

The efficiency of such a system will vary considerably — it is essential that the cylinderis very well insulated Building Regulations require the use of factory applied insulation. Total all calculated pressure drops from the boilerto the radiator at the end of each of the distribution circuits.These figureswill vary dependingupon room and water temperatures. adding the resistance of the boilerand any control valve— some circuits may have common sections of piping. The efficiency of a fully pumped system can be considerably increased by installing a cylinder with a low storage capacitywhich has a very high recovery rated coil cylinder.23825 Design temp drop K = flow in I/s Gas and oil piping installations Measure length of each section of pipe and add allowance for equivalent length of fittings. then increase pipe size. will further increase the system efficiency. Disadvantages i. even lower efficiency will result. gravitycirculation to the cylinder coil. Oil supplysystems should be in accordance with BS 5410:Part 1:1977 — CoP for Oil fired installations up to 44 kW output or Part 2 for above 44kW. The use of a high recovery cylinderenablesthe boilerinput to be taken into accountwhen calculating domestichot water storage requirements. Space required for storage cylinder. Requires cold waterstorage cistern. and 18 minutesif starting from cold. the normal method of providing domestic hot water is via an indirect hot water storage cylinder. With low storage capacity and very high heating coil surface area (heat exchange capacityup to 30kW or more). heat is transferred to the stored water as fast as the boilercan provide it.the entire contentswill be heatedfrom cold to 60°C in around 15 minutes if the boileris hot to start with. Once heated. (mm) (watts) (watts (9mm thick)) 6 8 10 15 650 1300 2100 5500 11000 18000 28000 20 27 32 46 63 78 95 4 6 7 10 12 14 15 22 28 35 LoadinkWx 2. The inclusion of a pump over-run thermostat to transfer residual boiler heat to the cylinder. Determine pressure drop in Palm for the flow rate in the pipe size concerned and multiplyby the total lengthfrom 2 x 2 (flow & return) — this givesthe pressure dropin that section of pipe. Domestic hot water — types of system Vented (storage) systems In domestic premises with a heating system. etc.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Heating Table3 Heat losses Pipe diameter Maximum load (watts) Heatloss/rn Bare Insulated uninsulated. may have an efficiency as low as 30% during 'hot wateronly' heating. even during a relatively short draw-offperiod. Water pressure maybe inadequate for a good shower Considerable re-heattime once hot waterdrawn off (unless a high recovery cylinder) A very basicsystem. 57 . far in excess of a normal BS cylinder. by around 1/21% Advantages i. withconsequent frost protection problems if located in a roof void iv. NOTE: This is a simplification ofthe procedure of multiplying the pipe equivalent length ata particularflowrate bythe fitting velocity pressure lossfactor. based on the outputs in the preceding table. availability of water unaffected by gas or electricsupply failure. Wasteful heat loss from stored hot waterwhen no demand v. If the resultant velocity >lm/s or pressure drop >400Palm. withthe cold water supply from a cold waterstorage cistern. Primary heatingpipework between the boilerand cylindermust also be insulated. 3. The efficiency will improve with the additionof full thermostatic control. intervals. but use with a 'hot water priority'control system. these times reduce to 10 minutesand 17 minutes The very fast recovery means bathscan be run at around 10-l5mins. of hot water available quickly ii. the efficiency of the system control could be adversely affected. Gas piping systems must be designed and installed in accordance with the requirements of either BS 6891:1998 'Installation of low pressure gas pipework up to 28mm. The boilerdoes not cycle 'on' and 'off' during the heating period and a hot wateronly system efficiency of well in excess of 75% can be achieved. in domestic premises' or Institution of Gas Engineers publication IGE/UP/2 'Gas installation Pipework. The requirements for LPG is covered in the CITB Study Notes Publication ME 210. If the primary heating pipes are iii. Large quantities 4.With a 22kW boiler. If the pipe emission is too high. 0. With a typical 60 litre cylinder and a gas fired boilerof 17kW output. ii. but are sufficiently accurate to be used with the normal range of water and room temperatures. The circuitwith the highest resistance is the Index Circuit and gives the required pump headat the system flow rate — the pump selection can then be made. and no controlling thermostat on the cylinderto shut off the boilerwhenthe temperature of the stored water is hot enough. withtime switch control. Boosters and Compressors on Industrial and Commercial premises'. A reduction can be made in the heater sizing for each metre run of exposed copper pipe. since it will be re-heating the waterto a significantextent.

In a large dwelling. Advantages in conjunction with a suitable thermostatic mixer. with an en-suite bathroom remote from the main area of demand at the kitchen and main bathroom. If the high demandis on a very intermittent basis (e. ensure the gas supply is adequate — input can be >35kWfor DHWheating. of all safety controlsby qualified plumber Requires annual maintenance check ii. so all the safety devices of an 'unvented system'can be omitted. Electric mains fed instantaneous water heaters are generally restricted to supplying a single outletand small electricallyheated 'point of use' storage units of 7 litre capacity. A thermal storage system provides Cold waterstorage cisternnot required ii. and have a resultant energy saving potential. capacity can be installed above or belowa working surface — they require special tapsto providea ventand prevent pressure build-up. Hot water always available at the turn of a tap iv Possibly cheaperinstallation cost than a storage system (except thermalstorage) v No wasteful heat loss from stored hot Cold water storage cistern not required (unless for c/w outlets) No space required for hot water water vi High water pressure available at outlets. For a gas multipoint heater an adjacent outside wall and a gas supply is required Mains fed instantaneous systems Usuallysupplied by a wall mounted multipoint gas fired water heater or combination gas fired boiler. ii. consideration could be givento the installation of two independent low storage/high recovery cylinders. Such a system may give improved boiler part load efficiency and the thermalstore provides rapid response to both hot water and heating system demand. Possible cheaperinstallation cost i. ensure you compare like with like — DHW output claims may be based on 25°C. as is a thermostatic mixing valve. The heating circuit is separately pumped. Some multipoint units have fan assisted flues and can be located up to 3m fromthe outside wall. eitherfrom the shell side. although these would normally be used for larger installations. Advantages i. Water is heateddirectlyor indirectly in a purpose designed insulated storage cylinder. then another optionwould be to install a non-storage system with a plate heat exchanger. Disadvantages i. Removes problems of freezingof roof mains pressure hot waterto all points of use. It is also advisable to insulate any long runs of hot water supply pipework to reduce heat loss between the heater and taps. Electricheaters are expensive to run if quantities of water are required — they needa separate electrical ii. which can be cistern or mains fed. and can be met by local point-of-use heaters. 30°C or 35°C temperature rise. In the majorityof small commercial situationsdemandis low. The inclusion of a pumpover-runthermostat will further increase the system efficiency. or demand is of a low level. Reduced running costs v. a dedicated gas fired water heater maybe the answer. storage (except thermal storage) iii. The primary circuit pump will be of a low headtype and the potential for system aeration problems will be reduced. whilst the boilerremains on a low head open vented system. Electric water heaters Anotheroption wouldbe to install a single cylinder with a self-regulating electric trace heating cable on the very long dead-legs. iii. supply. or via the second coil. but occasionally one is involved in a project requiring large quantities of water. Suitable cylinders with expansion tankand safety controlsare available as packaged units to servejust a few basin taps or a complete dwelling. storage or instantaneous.Heating Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Unvented (mains pressure) systems All cold water outletsand the hot water storage system are fed directlyfrom the mains. which is heated on a prioritybasis by the boiler plant.See below. 58 Inletwatertreatmentshould be considered in hard water areas. When designing any mains-fed system.showering) and there is a heating system installed. Slowerdelivery rate of hot waterthan with a storage system iii. The heating circuit could be a completely separate sealed system with its own expansion vessel and safety valve. If installing a combination boiler. Heating waterfrom the boiler is passed through the shell side of the cylinderand the mains water is passed throughthe coil to supplyall the taps — the volume of heated water is small. Very good water pressure at outlets and better shower performance. Theyavoidhaving to heat a large quantityof stored water at a time whenonly a small amount is required. Thermal storage system Alternatives and design considerations Where the points of demand are a considerable distance apart. The latest packaged units combine both a condensing boilerand thermal store in one insulated unit. in the same wayas a multipoint heater. multipoint water heaters (gas or electric) and point-of-use electric heaters. In hardwater areasa water treatment unit shouldalwaysbe installed on the mains supply to the heater. Outputscan be up to 35kW and most units will also supplya shower. consideration should be given to the installation of individual 'point of use' heaters. Disadvantages i. although the installation of a small expansion vessel to actas a 'shock arrestor' is advisable.g. Mains pressure hot watercan also be provided by combination boilers. Under these circumstances. togetherwith purpose designed controls. giving very goodoutlet pressures. May show up defectin existing piping installations when converted to the higher pressure un-vented operation. with consequent reduced running costs. pipework etc iv. suitable for high resistance terminal fittings. it is essential that the adequacy of the cold water main supply is checked for maintenance of . Expansion is accommodated in a small expansion tank and a numberof special safety controls are fitted. When comparing differentmakes. although the majority of electricheaterelements are easily removed for de-scaling. eitherof copperor linedsteel. Direct gas fired units are also available. suchas single lever operation taps — balanced hot and cold pressures will result in improved mixing and less wastage of water.

19. and must not feed any other 14. Whenan existing system cannot be drained. withthe centre line between 0. 6.4 of the joist depth down from the top. The maximum diameterfor a holedrilled through a joist is 0. Suchflexibility offers greater potential for energysaving.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Heating adequate flow/pressure under periods of high demand/drought. a self cutting tee can be used to provide a drain point. 12. specification. 16. Use good quality lever operated quarter turn ball valves rather than 17. 13. thermostats to control the space and. as this can cause cavitation under certain conditions. At leasttwo 15mm valved full bore drainpoints should be provided at low points in the system to enable it to be adequately flushed through. Do not use softened waterto fill a system (or add washing-up liquid !!) — the high salt content can result in serious corrosion problems. such as via a bathroom radiator(without hand-wheel valve). a by-passis required — use an automatic pressure operated by-pass valveto avoid lossof boileroperating efficiency. Consider the requirement for a strainer on the return to the boiler. whilst others offer three or moreswitching cycles a day. Do not install a new boiler or equipment into an existing system withoutcleansing it thoroughly. avoiding short circuiting. Ensure all highpoints are adequately vented and that air vent points. Always fusethe control system at 3A and markthe plug/connection unit accordingly. Some are very basic in operation. with a maximum width of 1.Fit valves each side and do not position at system low point. 21. but consideration of the occupants ability to operatethe unit must be taken into account. but checkwith boiler manufacturer. and a maximum of two pipes in a single notch. Generally. The main components of a control systemwill usually be a programmer to enable selection of system operating times. andto ensure that the boiler is switched off when thereis no system demand for heat. 5. Modern programmers are of the electronic type (rather than electromechanical) and either batteryoperated or mains operated with a batteryreserve (alkaline or rechargeable). Avoid fabricated or aluminium heat exchangers if the system is not chemically cleaned. Note that microbore pipesare vulnerable to damageand blockage and there may also be noiseproblems due to high water velocities at any restrictions. If there is a risk of the installation being left switched off during freezing conditions. to selfpurge of air. Indicate on the floorboards with a felt marker pen the route of pipes under suspended floors. Use reflective radiator film over pipeswhich are immediately below floor boardsto avoid degradation of floor covering. space heatingand domestic hot water heating). If all circuits can be closed off by motorised or thermostatic valves. and therefore offera higher resistance to flow. 59 . aim for a 450mm length of straightpipe both sides of the pump. Fittings which offera high resistance to the flow of water can give rise to noise generation and problems of inadequate flow. the maximum safedepth for notching a floor joist is 0. compression elbows and end feed elbows have a far tighter radius than integral solderring elbows.g. 1. installation and maintenance of domestic watersystems must ensurethat theycomplywith the requirements of the various legislative documents relating to the prevention of Legionella. If the system has a three-port motorised control valve. its ultimate efficiency will depend uponthe method of control.5 x the pipe width. Install temporary equipotential bonds if breaking electrical continuity of existing pipework.25 and 0. Only use the very minimum amounts of flux when making soldered joints and use a precommissioning cleanser. By-pass connection For boilersfitted withpumpover-run thermostats it is essential that there is always an open circuit for the waterto be pumpedaround. 4. Install pumps vertically. there is generally no requirement for a by-pass connection. 2. 15. 8. and with the shafts horizontal (not below) to reduce bearing load and wear. Controls However well designed a system. gate valves for ease of future maintenance. Generally. 20. 9. after any heating return connections to avoid reverse circulation problems. Piping installation 10. positioning with regard to flushing paths.The basic requirement of any control system is to providethe correct amount of heat in the right place at the required time.15 x the joist depth. leakage are not positioned over any electrical equipment. to protectoperatives and third parties. Water Regulations are very explicit in their requirements to avoid wastage or contamination of watersupplies and everyone who is involved with the design. in order to comply with British Standard 5449:Ptl:1990the boiler must be fitted with a high limitsafety thermostat. where applicable. or if there is some other permanently opencircuit. compression joistsand any otherpotential sources of water 11. Use pipeclips that completely enclose the pipe and metal strapping for suspending pipes belowfloor joists. Always connectthe DHW cylinder primary return as the last connection on the return pipeto the boiler. 7. If possible. Use non-dezincifiable fittingson domestic waterservices. Always considerrequirements for venting and pre-commissioning cleansing and maintenance. The electrical supply to an immersion heater must be run directlyfrom the distribution board. domestic hot water storage temperature and motorised valve(s) to control the circulation of heating water to the different circuits (e. equipment.25 x the joist depth. use an antifreeze as well as a corrosion prooferor provide frost protection controls. and include adequate provision for drainage. 3. If installing a combined cold feed and openvent. Avoid placing bendsor otherfittings close to the inlet or outlet of pumps. 18. with separate times for heating and hot water plus separate programming for each day of the week or weekdays and weekends.

each at a different temperature setting. The 'off' periodsare determined by selecting a timed period at a reduced temperature (e.Heating Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Thermostats Modernroom thermostats can be either of the electro-mechanical type. The Building Regulations require the installation of a room thermostat. optimising time control. are common to all systemsand needto be understood. They are often used where the boilerdoes not provide domestic hot water storage (e. The basicprincipleof operation is that you programme the occupancy period and required temperature and the controller then calculates the latestswitch 'on' time. This is achieved by either varying the temperature of the water flowing around the heating circuit.See Figure 6. (with eithera bi-metallic strip or vapour-filled keeping at reduced temperature for long periods (e. the 'combi'type). The design principles. they give closetemperature control and offer programming on a daily basis with as manyas six timed periods a day. Modern polymers do not corrodeor attract scale and are in many casescapableof outliving the useful life of the building. Compensated control is a method whereby the amount of heat that is put into the building is automatically varied. commercial/industrial sector. requiring no electrical supply. or for zone control. . and delays the boilerfiring for a timed period. Underfloor heating systems There is available a complete range of low pressure hot water underfloor heatingsystems suitable for all typesof buildings. There may be a boiler requirement for by-pass. Some are simplyelectronic delay timerswhich delayboiler firing for a timed period. as required by the controlling programmer/thermostat — Boiler short cyclingcontrolsoperate in conjunction with a normal room thermostat controlled system. overriding the boiler thermostat. or by varying the length of the boiler'on' periods. and boiler shortcyclingcontrol. or areas which require 60 Optimising control is well proven in the Underfloorsystems operate by means of embedded loops of pipe connected via a manifold to the flow and return sidesof the heat source. Two-port valves are also called'zone valves' and can be used to control the flowof wateraround individual circuits (space heating or domestichot water heating). withthe valveshaving closed. Optimising time control Their use should be limited to selected locations which are subjectto external heat gains. Three-portvalves have one inlet port. Cylinder thermostats are invariably of the electro-mechanical type with a differential of around 6-10°C to prevent excessive boiler cycling.5°C. effectively giving frost protection. This includes different floor constructions such as screed. Modern electronic room thermostats achieve much better control. to ensure that there is always an open path for watercirculation.g. Being of the electronic type. with water circulating via a continuously openor automaticby-pass valvecontrolledby-passloop. typically. Systems will normally be designed to operate at low water temperatures of between 40°Cand 60°C and a temperature drop of between 5 and 10°K acrossthe system. particularly where it has a pump-over-run thermostat.The outlet ports will.g. and can be installed to give temperature control in individual rooms. to shut the boileroff whendemandis satisfied. and now coming into the domesticsector. By laying modern polymer plastic pipe in continuous coils withoutjoints it is possible to avoid many of the problems associated withsystems in the past.g. Each loop or circuitcan usually be controlled and/orisolated on both the flow and return. or are battery operated. A diverting valve is driven by its motor to allowwaterto flowto one or otherof the two outlet ports. They should not be installed on all radiators as there wouldbe no means of automatically stopping the boiler and pump when the demand in all areas is satisfied.The energysaving potential of the valvescan be completely lost due to the continued operation of the pump. however. priorityto the hot watercylinderheating. The thermostat must be located in an area that is representative of the temperatures in the propertyand there must be no thermostatic radiatorvalves in that area. based on the preceding ambient temperature. Use of a three-port valve ensures that one port will always be opento maintain a flow path for the water and may avoid the needfor a boiler by-pass. The valves are either of the diverting(twoposition) or midposition type. witha differential of around 0. regardless of level or frequency of demand. concrete and timber suspended. although they could both connect to two different zone heatingcircuits. sparebedrooms). or both at the sametime. usually give Electronic controllers There is an increasing use of more sophisticated electronic controllers in domestic systems and these fall into threecategories: compensated control. bellows) or electronic type. Electromechanical typethermostats often incorporate accelerator heaters (requiring a neutral connection) to reduce the temperature overshoot with radiator systems and some also have a night setbackfacility. They have little energy saving potential and their use with certain types of systems may actuallyincrease energyconsumption. This method of control is more efficient than a simple room thermostat control. Compensatedcontrol Thermostatic radiator valves Thermostatic radiatorvalves are simple to install. whilstotherstake into account demandfrequency. depending uponthe outside temperature and therefore the rate of heat loss from the building. 14°C). Theyall have batteryback-up. Systems are also available for the refurbishment marketusingspecial thin screedsand dry construction techniques. Can also provide optimum 'off' control. connectto the hot water cylinderheating flow and the radiator circuitflow. Virtuallyall systems today use nonferrous plastic pipe instead of ferrous or coppermaterial. cqnnected from the boilerflow (usually via the pump) and two outlet ports. the energysaving potential of the electronic thermostat is readily apparent. and inefficient cycling of the boiler under the control of its thermostat. Since each 1°C rise in temperature above that required will increase fuel consumption by about 7%. Programmable thermostats Motorised valves Motorised valves will eitherbe of the twoport or three-porttype. Boiler short cycling Programmable room thermostats comprise a single channel electronic programmer and a room thermostatin one casing. and overcomes the problem of sitingthe roomthermostat in a position that is truly representative of the average conditions in the house. A mid-position valveallows the water to flow to eitherof the outlet ports.

Undertloor heating pipes e. This means that for most buildings the installation of the underfloor heating will be no more difficult than any otherformof heating. The following are typical floor sections of the three most common types. Pre-grooved insulation fitted with heat emission plates d. Concrete slab c. There are many different waysin which various underfloor heating manufacturers designtheir systems and it is only possible to deal with some of the standard methods of construction in this publication. The use of heat emission plates ensures that the floor temperature will be even across the whole floor area. is designed for full floor loading. Final floor finish. Better insulation standards in our buildings have meant that most floors are now insulated as standard. Oversite b.See Figure7. Figure 8 Floating floorsconstruction 61 . On some buildings. The above construction is used for both ground bearing and suspended slabs. the insulation will be fitted below the slab in which case the pipes can be installed within the concrete slab. This design is often used on pot and beam construction where the finished floor is flooringgrade chipboard laid over the underfloor heating system. The specially adapted insulation. Oversite b. Concrete slab c. Insulation d. If the heating system is not fully protected by a corrosion inhibitor then rapidcorrosion of any steel components within the heating system can occur. Underfloor heating pipes e. f. The purpose of the barrier is to reduce the amount of oxygen that can migrate throughthe pipe wall. Figure 7 Solidfloor construction The most common materials in use todayare: PEX: Cross linked Polyethylene PP: Co-Polymer of Polypropylene PB: Polybutylene All pipes should ideally incorporate a diffusion barrier. Floating floor construction Figure 6 Typical manifold Typical floor makeup: a. See Figure 8.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Heating Solid floor construction Typical floor makeup: a. which can be either integral or applied to the outside of the pipeas a coating. Floorscreed f. Floor boarding Final floor finish. The basicform of floor construction in most buildings is solid concrete. which is usuallypre-grooved to acceptthe pipe and heat emission plates. floating or suspended. Pipes without a diffusion barrier will pass much higher rates of oxygen therebyproviding a highly oxygenated water circulation around the heating system.

It must be remembered that with underfloor heating a solid screed or concrete floor will have a higher mean temperature than a floor constructed = U value of un-insulated slab W/m2K without underfloor heating. Final floor finish. Heatemission from the floor will begin to decrease as soon as air temperature rises. Low temperature floor systemsprovideinherent. floor heatingsystems should stay within this band. P A = External Perimeter of Building m = Total Areaof Floorm2 Otherlimiting factors to the surface temperature maybe the particularfloor covering and for some materials such as timer the maximum manufacturers temperature should be observed. the calculations are morecomplexsince an enclosed air space is introduced below the slab. bathrooms and the first metre of space adjacent to walls with high fabriclosses. Insulation would be fitted to most floors irrespective of the construction method and this would need to meetthe requirements of the Building Regulations.Heating Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide ——-——. Research shows that a basic temperature of 21°C on the floor surface will give an ideal sensation of comfort. Given an air temperature of 20°C and a floor temperature of 23°C. As this temperature difference decreases the heat emission from the floor reduces. Timberjoistsor battening 2. The downward heat transmission can be calculated in several ways. = Where: Uslab {o. Floortemperatures generally needonly be 3—5°K higher than room air. Thisdesign is suitable for most types of joisted or battened floors. Most areas are permitted with design floor temperatures up to 29°C. For an insulated slab the formulawould be: Uinsulated = 4.— ——- Design considerations The human foot is a highly effective thermostat forthe wholebody. changing rooms. Floorboarding 7.65 + >< )}_ {o. Any rise in air temperature due to solar gain or increased occupancy means the air will beginto approach the floor temperature. Cross battens calculated. Temperatures up to 35°C are acceptable for specific areassuch as pool surrounds. Rinsutation = The thermal resistance of the insulation W/m2K The selection of a suitable insulation material will normally be made in conjunction withthe architect to ensure the material will meetthe floor loading requirements in addition to the level of insulation required. In the colderareas of the world human kind has been keen to 'takethe chill off the floor' since ancient times. The techniques used to achieve this range from the simplestrugs and skinsto the more sophisticated hypocaust system of the Greeks and Romans. This particularsystem also avoids any notching of the joists. passive self regulation. Undertloor heating pipes 6. the 'U' value 1. Modern well insulated buildings no longer need high surface temperature in orderto provide sufficient output to meet the heat lossesof a typical building. This process is rapidand precise. which can often have a high infiltration rate.o5 (1. heat emission from the floor will decrease by abouta third for each degree of temperature that the air temperature rises. International Standards indicate that the comfortable range is between 19—26°C and dependant upon the required air temperature. Insulation between joists 3. This may occur whereyou have for instance extensive floor to ceiling glazing where it is necessary to offset as much as possible the cold down draught that occurs. There are manyvariations on all the standard floor sections and thereare systems available todaywhich can be adapted in a variety of ways to meet the building design. Average floor emissionsof between 50 and 75 watts per m2 will often be more than sufficient. For this reason most floors will require a degree of insulation to be fitted to offset any downward losses. Heatemission plates fittedto cross battens 5. For ground bearing slabsthe most common formulae used is: ' (1 Uslab) + Rinsuiation Where: Uinsulated = U value of an insulated slab W/m2 K The sensitivity of the human foot will perceive a temperature above 29°C as Uslab = U value of un-insulated slab W/m2K 'uncomfortable' at normal room temperatures of 18—22°C and should be avoided. _____ :ii iiij r•ii :i ii Figure 9 Suspended floors Suspended floor construction Typical floor make up: of the un-insulated slab can be By using the above formula. The cross battening fitted at 900 to the joists means that a consistent pipe centre can be maintained irrespective of the joist centres. A threedegree rise in 62 . For suspended floor slabs. Once this value is known the amount of insulation required to bring the floor up to the standard required can be calculated.

If the pipe pitch is kept constant. Surface temperature required 2. Rate of air movement 4. which cannotbe. switched from tiles to wall-to-wall carpet. Water temperature required can differ by more than 15°C between the floors and such a temperature difference is difficult to meet usingconstantwater temperature. surface emmisivity and temperature. for example. the pipe pitch cannotbe altered retrospectively and heat transfermay not be sufficient to achieve design temperatures. Wet Bulbtemperature 2. Alteringthe pitchof pipes to meet requirements from area to area also presents potential future problems when floor covering materials are replaced e. The waterflow temperature required to achieve a givensurface temperature is dependant upon the following: 1. it's area.e. This method leads to easierdesign and installation. Where K is the difference between surface and air temperature. All of these determine the totalthermal resistance above the pipe. the dry resultant temperature and is not so affected by the rate of fabric loss. suspended floors. For general purposes. Typeof floor construction 3. The difference between a 15mm and a 20mm pipe result in only a 2% increase in flow temperature for the 15mm pipe. The temperature drop acrossthe pipe loopsshould be kept low i. These will give a more accurate reflection of the steadystate heat losses. equivalent. Three main types of loop configuration are used for underfloor heating.5tai + 0. Watts!m2K. the air temperature will always be higher than the dry resultant temperature and this difference can be as much as 5°K in buildings with highfabric losses such as glasswalled structures. Clearly there are an unlimited numberof combinations of construction methods and floor finishes. each of which will give a differentoverall thermal resistance. the heat required is within the design parameter of 11 Withconvective systems. heatedwithin the permitted design limits of the maximum floor surfacetemperature. There are various accepted methods for the measurement of temperature 1. For example: Room area 10m2 Constantwater temperature is sometimes introduced into the design by choice but moreoften is a function of only 'one' watertemperature being available regardless of different floor constructions. environmental. In the above example. This means that the floor radiant systems lower dry resultant temperature can safely be used for the calculation of heat losses.1 rn/s then the above equation can be simplified as follows. Manyof the modern computer programs allow for the use of resultant temperatures in conjunction with floor radiant systems.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Heating air temperature will thus be sufficient to neutralise the system. which will determinethe drop in temperature between the pipe and the surface of the floor. the ground floor being concrete and the upper storeys wooden tres t+T1V10V 1+v'lOv Where the internalrate of air movement v is less than 0. treS = 0. In orderto prepare a design for a building it is necessary to calculate the heat losses in an acceptable form. The dry resultant temperature is defined as: Oncethe heat lossesare known and tabulated then the underfloor heating system can be designed. a figureof 11 Watts/rn2 K can be used to determinethe maximum floor emission. Depth of pipe belowfloor surface 4. The construction techniques used for the building will effectselection of the most 63 . Since there is an upper limiton the surface temperature the maximum output fromthe floor is restricted. The most commonly used measure of comfort for heating systems is the dry resultant temperature which in the absence of high rates of convection can give accurate indications as to the level of comfort thatcan be anticipated. it will resultin varyingwater temperatures. This difference can accountfor a reduction of 5-10% for most types of Design criteria To evaluate comfort purelyin termsof temperature requires consideration of the following: buildings. this inherent self regulation makes it possible to design an underfloor heatingsystem with no otherform of room temperature control. Different pipe sizesalso require equivalent adjustments to water temperatures however this adjustment is very small. it is not necessaryto allow any margins for heightfactors in buildings when considering the use of radiant floor heating systems. In addition. Dry Bulbtemperature 3. Many projects— especially domesticones — feature differentfloor structures with. To achieve a set outputfrom a floor means that we can eithervary the pitch of the pipe andoperateat a setwater temperature or we can fix the pipe pitch and operateat different water temperatures. In such circumstances.5tr where: tres Heatloss Heatrequired 540 Watts 54 Watts/rn2 20°C Air temperature Outputrequired tai tr = dry resultant temperature °C = inside air temperature °C = mean radiant temperature °C Floor temperature 26°C 54/(26-20) = 9 Watts/mK The insideair temperature can be assumed to be the dry bulbtemperature withthe mean radianttemperature as a calculation derived fromthe shape of the room. effective. It must be borne in mind that there is always an upper limitto the desirable water temperature and in extreme casesdifferentpipe pitchesand loop configurations may needto be considered. Theoretically. dry and wet bulb. The radianttemperature is significant to a feeling of comfort since it is the exchange of radiation with our surrounding that has the most effect on our perception of thermal comfort'. Conversely in floor radiantsystems the air temperature will always be lowerthan The calculation should be repeated for each of the rooms or areas to determine whetherthereare any areas.g. Mean radianttemperature. Floor covering. including globe. The main disadvantage of this approach will be encountered during installation when the installer will have to create different pipe pitches. radiant. approximately 5—10°K in order to maintain even floor temperatures.

wind direction etc. or internal influences including open fires. Maximum comfort requires room temperature control. attention should be paidto routing the supply flow to the external wall or otherpotentially cold areas. This configuration is the most suitable for underfloor heatinginstallations serving domestic premises.g. meet all of these requirements. Whilstthis is satisfactory for small building such as domestic housing heat demandfor a building will vary principally 64 . churches.including the orientation of the building. Figure 10 Serpentine coil layout Spiral coil layout Supply and return pipes are run parallel. but in the form of a spiral in this variation. number of occupants etc. a disadvantage beingthe possible rapid changes in the outside air temperatures. but is lesssuitable for installation in association with wooden floor structures. with the right controls. This provides an even mean temperature. so that no variation in floor temperature can be detected. However. In general when pipe layout plansare formulated. This type of circuitworks by mixing some of the return water fromthe underfloor heating with the water from the boiler to maintain a fixed supplywater temperature. Different areasof the building will have differing heat requirements depending upon external factors.Heating Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide suitable typefor the individual project. Undertloor heating Figure 11 Doublecoil layout Figure 12 Spiralcoil layout installations can. Oneof the simplest means of control is to maintain a constant supply water temperature from the boiler to the system by means of self-regulating control valveand mixing circuit. The main advantage of this configuration is that it is adaptable to all kinds of floor structures and can be easily modified for differentenergy requirements by altering the pitch of the pipes. It is suitable for heating larger areaswith higher heat demands e. A serpentinelayout with a pipe pitch of 250—300mm keeps the temperature comfortably within this range. or even for external use under paths and driveways. The lowerthe watertemperature is in the system the smallerthe heat sink effect of the floor and the quicker the response. Water circulation in each loop of the underfloor system can be controlled individually by means of actuators and room A numberof differentapproaches may be applied to the control of water temperature in underfloor heating systems. Studies showthat a naked human foot cannot detecta temperature variation of less than 2°C. as a functionof outdoortemperature. hangers. Serpentine coil layout Temperature variations within local areas are keptto a minimum. Double coil layout The characteristic of this configuration is that supply and return pipes in the layout run in parallel. a flexible pipe is required. but will result in a higher variation of temperature within small areas. This approach is suitable for buildings with a higher heat demand. Oneof the main advantages using outdoortemperature compensation is the shorterreaction time particularly for systems installed in concrete floors.

Floor structure also affects response time. can be used safely in association with otherheatingsystems and air conditioning. The manifolds can be concealed in cupboards. Underfloor heating systems.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Heating Alternativepump position Clock Programmer Room stat Figure 13 Control circuitfor fixedsupplytemperature thermostats. to ensure that the manifolds are located in such a wayas to provide easyaccess for further maintenance. If the building is poorly insulated energy will be wasted and response timeswill be affected by the undesirable heat losses. This givesthe end user individual control over each room or area. 65 . however by comparison a wooden suspended floor has littlethermal store potential and therefore reacts much quicker. with an oxygen diffusion barrier. In buildings with concrete screeded floors. the screed will serve as an energy store. Care should be taken however. so aesthetics are not a major issue. or suitable voids. which serves it. They should be located as centrallyas possible within the building so that the length of pipe routing between manifolds and the individual heating zones is keptto a minimum. The U value of a building directly relates to the performance of the underfloor heating system. This will helpto balance the system and improve the temperature control of individual rooms. Careful consideration should be given to the location of the manifolds at the outset of the project. Complementary heating systems should be set up in sucha waythat they do not interfere with temperature control of the underfloor heating system.

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OR HOUSING ENERGY EFFICIENCY Resource Efficient Design: Energy Efficiency (excluding sectionon Plate Heat Exchanger): this has beencontributed by the government's Housing Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme. and Crown Copyright is reserved 67 .Resource efficient design Introduction Energy efficiency Water efficiency and conservation 68 68 73 76 Waler conservation measures VR4<.

Better insulation will improve comfort and clientsatisfaction and maylead to opportunities for a more competitive quotation. e. Professional responsibility TheloP's Code of Professional Standards requires members to safeguard the environment. The energyefficiency of a building depends upon how well it is insulated and how well the heating is controlled. It should be noted that thereare also energy overheads associated withthe production. also contributes to unnecessary heat loss. succeeding 15 years. more efficient heatingand hot watersystemsand electrical appliances. The heatingof buildings accounts for around a third of all UK CO2 emissions and is expected to contribute a similar proportion of the necessary reductions. helping to achieve that all-important Resource Efficient Design.2% relative to 1990 levels overthe . This section of the Guide has been compiled to give a broad view on aspects of installations where these valuable resources can be saved. As greenhouse gas emissions are one of the principal environmental concerns of the present time. Following an agreement reached between the member states of the European Union. If it is badly insulated.Resource efficientdesign Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Introduction Conservation has been described as the careful management and preservation of natural resources and the environment. It is essential to complywith requirements for ventilation and supplyof combustion air to heating appliances andfor the ventilation of kitchens and bathrooms. The energy used overall to provide1 kWh of delivered electricity is therefore considerably greaterat around 2. the heating installer should always be aware of opportunities for improved insulation and bringthem to the client'sattention.. well-controlled heating system uses less fuel to producea given amount of heat. under floors or in garages. The fabric of the building has an important influence on the amountof energyrequired to keep it comfortable. the customer relies on the installerfor advice both on compliance withthe Regulations and on options for reducing environmental impact. regulations are in placeto help in the designof space heating and hot and cold water services. heat outputfrom them may contribute to space heating requirements in the winter but in summerit is wastedand may makethe building uncomfortably warm. suchas gas. The benefits of energy efficiency Energyefficiency produces benefitsboth for building occupantsand for the environment. The total energyused to provide the supplyis known as the 'primary energy'. lights and electronic circuitswithoutfurther conversion. Some of these aspects are covered elsewhere throughout the Guide. but this section has greaterdetailto give the designer/installer a better understanding. but opportunities to reduce draughts around windows and doors should 68 The environmental rationale The combustion of fossil fuels. Hot watersystems should also be insulated to minimise heat loss from storage cylinders and primary circuits. including those in existing buildings. refining Energy efficiency What energy efficiency means 'Energyefficiency' is a measure of the benefit obtained fromthe consumption of a unit of energy. For Building Services. Electrical energyis alreadyin a form that can be converted to heat with 100% efficiency and can operate motors. the benefits are lowerfuel bills and more comfortable conditions. Both these attributes combine to reduce the total amount of fuel needed and hence the cost. Professional responsibility must thereforerest on awareness of legislation and an appreciation of the widerfactors contributing to energyefficiency. Environmental Issues such as climate change. as does the Engineering Council's Code of Practice Engineers and the Environment. The concentration of CO2 in the global atmosphere has risen by about30% since the start of the industrial revolution. particularly the high emissions associated with electricity use. it was agreed that developed nations should achieve an overall reduction of 5. as well as the efficiency with which its heatingand hot water systems can convertfuel to heat. In manycases. caused by air leakage through the building fabric. the United Kingdom is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions to 12. following the Code means that members must take all reasonable steps to pursueenergy efficiency in the work they undertake.5kWh. For the occupants of buildings. Although it may not always be possible to improve building fabric insulation. oil and coal. contractors working for housing associations and local authorities needto pay particular attention to energyefficiency. which applyto all material alterations to heating systems.g. Savings can be achieved from better insulation in new and existing buildings. Energy efficiency contributes to reduced environmental impact throughthe use of lessfuel and lower emissions of atmospheric pollution. which increasingly caters for households with low incomes. Aspects of heating system designand installation are subjectto the legal requirements relating to energy efficiency set by the Building Regulations. climatologists have reached a consensus view that the 'greenhouse effect' arising from CO2 and other man-made gases in the atmosphere is likelyto cause global warmingand consequent changes on climatesaround the world. And an efficient.5% belowthe 1990 level by 2010. This has led to agreements under the auspices of the United Nations Organisation to limit further emissions of greenhouse gases. the USA 7% and Japan 6%. Most notably. In recent times. Consequently. which takes accountof the energy overhead required for generation and distribution. with the European Unioncontributing 8%. is responsible for a large proportion of all carbon dioxide (C02)emissions to the atmosphere. Draught sealing around loft hatchesis particularly important as warm moisture-laden air fromoccupied rooms can cause condensation in lofts. at the World Climate Conference in Kyoto in 1997. Pipework for heating must be insulated wherever it runs outside the heated living space. A well-insulated building needs less heat to bring it up to a comfortable temperature and cools down more slowlywhenthe heating system is turned off. ozone layer destruction along with air and water pollution are having a greater impact on building designs than in the past.Affordable heating is of particularimportance in the social housing sector. But that versatility comesat a price: electricity has been generated from fuel consumed at powerstations with an average thermal efficiency of around 40%. even the most efficient heating system will require a greatdeal of energyto keep it warm. But it is also important to remember the difference in emissions between fuels. always be taken. Excessive ventilation. The Institute of Plumbing (loP) supports all initiatives that seekto reducethe use of energyand to rely wherepossible on renewable energy sources.

which are broadlyanalogous to those for dwellings. Standard tariff electricity is generally very expensive. intended to give information on the relative energyefficiency of different houses. Approved DocumentL givesdetailed practical guidance showing how the requirements may be met. its thermal insulation.Other requirements of particular relevance to heating installers are that space and water heating systems should be energy efficientand that building occupiers should be provided with sufficient information to allow them to operate their heating and hot water services efficiently. In Part Li. UnderPart L. operating and maintenance instructions.7 1. The SAPprocessalso delivers a carbon index. including electricity. three alternative ways of demonstrating compliance with the insulation requirements are shown.0 Advice given by installers on the choice of fuel for heating should be basedon both relative costsand CO2 emissions. respectively) requires that 'reasonable provision shall be made for the conservation of fuel and power' in buildings.106 0. as calculated by the SAP 98 method. The requirement for commissioning of heating systems was introduced for the first time in the year 2000 revision. in which the level of insulation required depends on the choice of fuel and the heatingsystem efficiency. gas and solid fuels. as an increasing proportion of clientsare now concerned aboutenvironmental impact. It specifically requires limiting heat lossthrough the fabric of the building. typically around 5%. and should be supplemented by at least one room thermostat. as shown in Table 3. designers. the most relevant requirements for heating system installers are those concerning controls. is the appropriate seasonal efficiency maybe obtained fromTable 4b of the SAP For oil-firedcombination boilers a SEDBUK value of82%.In practice. Gas (mains) LPG (bulk) Heating oil Solidfuels Electricity (standard) Electricity (7 hour on-peak) Electricity (7 hour off-peak) penceper kWh 1. The requirement for control of heating systemsin dwellings may be met by zone controls. and from hot water storage vessels. The distinction between 'delivered energy' (as metered and paidfor by the consumer) and primary energyis important when considering environmental impact. Responsibility for commissioning rests with the person carrying out the work and includes the recording of system settings and performance test results. in the range 0-10. SAP ratings are expressed on a range of 1-120.4 7. and there are minimum standards for cylinders and controls. A certificate must be madeavailable to the client and the building control body. LPG is generally expensive and tends to follow oil price trends rather than the price of natural gas. including VAT but not standing charges (SAP2001) Fuel Ireland. The SAP rating is based upon running costs for space and waterheating. They allow comparisons of energyefficiency to be made. Table 1 givesCO2 emissions per unit of delivered energy for electricity and heating fuels in the UK. Table 2: Typical fuel costs.4 3. and can showthe scope for improvements.068 0.9 3.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Resource efficient design and distribution of oil. the higher the better.The relative price of fuelsfor heating maybe obtained from Table 12 in the Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP). from being the most economical fuel at times to considerably more expensive than gas at others. Table 1 (above) maybe used to providea comparison between alternatives in terms of CO2 emissions. Building Regulations Part L of the Building Regulations (Part J and Part F in the corresponding legislation for Scotland and Northern Gas (mains) LPG Heating oil Solidfuels Electricity 0. Fuel price is generally the most important factorfor consumers in making a choice of fuel. Commissioning and Servicing of Central heatingsystems is considered suitable for this purpose. boiler Table3: Minimum SEDBUK efficiencies to be used with elemental U-values in Part L I Centralheatingsystem fuel Mains natural gas LPG SEDBUK % 78 80 852 Oil For boilers for which SEDBUK notavailable. developers.079 — 0. although these are much smallerthan for electricity. The interlock requirement will be satisfied if the boilercan only operate when eithera space heating thermostat or a hot water cylinder thermostat is calling for heat. The main difference is in the calculation methods specified.7 — 2. and applies to both new and existing buildings.8 7. which is updated periodically: an abbreviated version is shown here in Table 2.113 Fuel choice Space and water heatingcan be provided using a range of different fuels. The Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) A homeenergy rating is a measure of the energyefficiency of a dwelling.074 0. which arises from primary energyconsumption.1 1. depending on type and fuel used. A minimum heatingsystem efficiency is required for othercases. there are also three alternative waysof showing compliance. Heating oil has variedconsiderably withthe price of crudeoil over the past3 decades. from hot water pipes and hot air ducts used for space heating. and provision of 69 . with new requirements in force fromApril 2002 (Part Li dealswith dwellings. which take accountof the different building services systems used. wouldbe acceptable. Comparisons of both running cost and CO2 emissions must take accountof the Apart from boiler efficiency. this means that thermostatic radiator valves alone are not enough. So heating installers must takeaccountof the Regulations not just in new buildings but also when renewing systems in existing buildings: failure to do so will leave them exposed to action from aggrieved customers and Building Control authorities. including a 'Carbon IndexMethod'. and for the first time the provisions applied to 'material alterations' carriedout to existing heating systems. heatingbecame a 'controlled service'from April2002. to indicate carbon emissions. at around 5 times the price of gas in delivered energyterms. Part L was revised during 2001. the certificate issued under the Benchmark Codeof Practice for the Installation. Boilers should meetspecified SEDBUK efficiencies. Using energy ratings. Table 1: CO2 emission factors for delivered energyin the UK Fuel CO2 emissionsin kgC/kWh efficiency of the heating system.053 0. commissioning. Part L2 with other buildings). for dwellings. which fuel is used and the performance of the heating system. which are calculated taking accountof the form of the building. timing controls and boiler interlock. SAP is the UK Government's standard methodology for home energy rating. For nondomesticbuildings. which has the effect of reducing the relative disadvantage of electricity to some extent.

systemwith combi boiler Best practice. The type of burnercontrol (on/off. which in the UK is the Boiler (Efficiency) Regulations 1993 (UK legislation implementing the European Union Boiler Efficiency Directive).which causeswater vapourto condense on the surfaces of the heat exchanger. When the carbon index is used to show compliance with Part L of the Building Regulations. The size (powerrating) of the boiler in relation to the design heat loadand radiatorsizes b. At present (CHeSS in year 2000) thereare four.The method used in SEDBUK was developed under the Government's EnergyEfficiency Best Practice Programme with the co-operation of boiler manufacturers. climate. Flue shapeand length. a schemehas beencreated with bands on an 'A' to 'G' scale. particularly for oil fired boilers. system with regular (i. It can be applied to most gas and oil domestic boilers for which data is available from testsconducted to the relevant European standards. system with combi boiler Boiler efficiency The efficiency of the boiler is the main factor affecting the energy efficiency of gas and oil-fired wet central heating systems. summarised in Table 5. which is described below. It is intended that purchasers should refer to CHeSS when seeking quotations for installation work: as well as calling for good or bestpracticethis is an aid to making quotations comparable. gas of the liquid As a simple guide to boiler efficiency for consumers.boilers.e. The specifications cover the efficiency-critical components of domestic wet central heating systems (boilers. controls). hot water system.uk. Guidance on boiler types (especially the relative advantages of regular and combi boilers) and system design is given in Good Practice Guide 284 Domestic central heatingandhot water:systems withgas and oil-fired boilers. making reasonable assumptions about pattern of usage. the temperature of the flue gases mayfall below the dew point. as it will be withdrawn when a European directive on boiler energy labelling is introduced. Installation and commissioning are also important to the realisation of the designer's intentions. internal store size. and knowledge of the UK climate and typical domestic usage patterns. Flowand return water temperatures.Resource efficientdesign Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide house-builders. and home owners can take energyefficiency factors into consideration both for new dwellings and when refurbishing existing ones. the performance of the heating systemcan contribute significantly. the method of ignition. General Information Leaflet 59. Table5: CHeSS (2000) reference systems CHeSS reference HR1 Type of system Goodpractice.Energy ratings can be used at the design stage as a guide to energyefficiency and the potential reduction of future fuel bills and CO2 production. and provides a basisfor fair comparison of different models. and controls. non-combi) boiler Best practice. leading to lessstringent requirements for insulation. HC1 HR2 HC2 Goodpractice. non-combi) boiler Condensing boilers The heat exchanger in a condensing boiler is designed to extract maximum heat fromthe flue gases. Boiler design features affecting efficiency include: a. with an emphasis on ensuring good levels of energyefficiency using well proven and cost-effective techniques and products. (see Table 4) The band maybe used on product literature and labels. SEDBUK figures for most boilers currently on sale can be seen on the website www. SEDBUK is the average annual efficiency achieved in typical domestic conditions. It wasspecifically designed to provide efficiency values for use in SAP calculations. temporary.e. F G Specifying efficient systems Howcan purchasers specify efficient heating systems? To helpthem Central HeatingSystem Specifications (CHeSS) have been published under the Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme as SEDBUK SEDBUK is an acronym for 'Seasonal Efficiency of a Domestic Boiler in the UK'. cylinders. Boiler efficiency depends on the design of the boiler and the conditions under which it operates. Minimum standards of efficiency for most typesof boilerare imposed by law. which is updated monthly.boilers. ignition arrangement. The SEDBUK method is used in SAP.The schemeis Condensing boilersare always more efficientthan non-condensing boilers. which must be displayed in the form of a notice. The heating system controls c. Even the 70 . Whether or not the boiler is designed to operatein condensing mode f. boiler. All three are at least in part within the control of the designer. and otherinfluences. Water contentof the heat exchanger c. The presence of condensation in large quantities means that the heat exchanger must be made of corrosion-resistant materials and that a drain must be provided to dispose condensate. Size (surfacearea) of heat exchanger Table4: SEDBUK efficiency bands Band SEDBUK range A B C D E 90% and above 86%-90% 82%-86% 78%-82% 74%-78% 70%-74% below 70% The heating designer has an important opportunity to influence the SAP rating and the carbon index throughthe choice of fuel. Regularservicing and maintenance are also necessaryto ensurethat efficiency is sustained. can be seen on the Boiler Efficiency Database at www. and has been used in SAP assessments since July 1999.org. The Building Regulations require that everynew dwelling be given a SAPenergy rating. Information on the efficiency of both current and obsolete boilers. Operating conditions affecting boiler efficiency include: a. b. systemwith regular (i.uk. It is calculated from the results of standard laboratory tests together with otherimportant factors suchas boilertype. For estimating annual fuel costs SEDBUK is a better guide than laboratory test results alone. As a consequence of doing so. gas modulating or gas/airmodulating) e. which must be designed to operatewith flue gas temperatures high enough to avoid the accumulation of condensate that would cause corrosion. especially whether or not it relies on a permanent pilot flame d. a situation that is deliberately avoided in otherboilers. control.org. and oil. They have beenwrittenwith assistance from the relevant tradeassociations and the manufacturers of heating products. fuel used. though there is no legal requirement for manufacturers to do so.

Condensing boilersare most efficient whenoperating with low return watertemperatures. particularly where sunshine is plentiful and fuel is relatively expensive. there are two particularconsiderations to be taken into account when specifying condensing boilers: the provision of a drainfor the condensate and the acceptability of 'pluming'—the production of a visible cloud of waterdroplets .from the flue. rely on gravitycirculation but systems designed for a typical UK climate require a pumped primary circulation. 'High performance' cylinders. the designer should alwaysspecify hot watercylinders that complywith BS 1566 or BS3198. The efficiency of solar collectorpanels depends on numberof factors. 6 and 7). From the installer's point of view. As a minimum. the greatmajority of installed systems are in dwellings. equal to the outside diameter of the pipe (up to a maximum of 40mm) with insulation material having a thermal conductivity not exceeding 0. particularly in response to external temperature. field trials have shown it to be not costeffective. Solar water heating Solarwater heatingpanels are widely used around the worldto provide domestic hot water. Pipesconnected to hot waterstorage vessels.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Resource efficient design least efficient condensing gas boiler is about3% more efficient than the best non-condensing boiler. A typical solarwater heating installation consistsof one or more roof-mounted panels. including thosewhere littleor no additional heat is required. a slow response reduces boiler efficiency and increases heat losses fromthe primary circuit. Apart from providing poorservice to the household. system energy efficiency will be impaired if the boiler has to be called upon frequently to reheat the cylinder. The selection of appropriate controlsalso playsa key part in the overall running costs of a heating system. as poor heat exchanger performance causesthe boiler to be on for long periods at low loads. It is also important to ensurethat cylinders from the inconvenience caused by lackof capacity. which is also heated by a central heating system or by an electric immersion heater. The circulation pump is usually controlled by a differential temperature sensor. Controlscontribute significantly to the efficientoperation of a heating system. which causesthe pump to operate whenever the temperature of the collectorexceeds 71 . should be similarly insulated for at least 1 metre from their points of connection. plumingor connection to a drain. including the type of collector. For example. apart extent to which the building is insulated. a hot waterstorage cylinder and a means of transferring heat from the panelsto the cylinder. whenthe flue discharges into an area closeto neighbouring property. Pipework located outside the insulated building fabricshould be insulated with a thickness. including the vent pipeand the primary flow and return to the heat exchanger.K. Pluming maybe perceived as much less acceptable than the less visible and morebuoyant combustion products froma noncondensing boiler. used where sunshine is abundant. Firstly. Some systems used in the UK have separate storagecylinders for solar heatedwater. theyshould be well insulated. and the difference is typically about 13%. the heat exchangers in indirect cylinders should have sufficient surface response of the absorbing surface. Guidance for the insulation of pipesand ductsis given in Section 1. Efficiency declines sharply as paneltemperature increases above air temperature. and do not complywith Building Regulations. Secondly. as heat lost to their surroundings cannot contribute usefully to space heating requirements when no heat is required in summerand may cause uncomfortably hightemperatures. area to providerapid warm-up. condensing boilers have less of an advantage over noncondensing types and until recently the marketfor them has not been developed to the sameextentas for gas. BS5918 givesguidance for the design and installation of such systems. Pluming can be a real problem. which induce high levels of condensation. Controls for heating systems The output required from a heating systemvaries considerably. Firstly.035W/m. however. and the surface finish of the collectoris important. For gas installations. as noted above. Secondly. Evacuated tube collectorsare ableto maintain their efficiency at high temperatures.52 of Approved Document Li. Additional insulation may be required to prevent freezing of pipes passing throughunheated areas. For oil installations. have sufficient storage capacity. as well as energycost savings throughoutthe life of the installation. are recommended (see CHeSS (2000) notes 5. There is littledifference in complexity and the only additional maintenance task is to ensure that the condensate drain is clear. the extent to which the panel is insulated and the temperature difference between the panel and the ambient air. Controls are needed to ensurethat the system provides the appropriate output for all conditions. although care must be takento ensure that it can be kept clear. by allowingthe desired temperatures to be achieved in each room at the times required. Others rely on an additional heating coil in the main hot water cylinder. Although it is possible to increase the proportion of time boilers operate in condensing modeby installing larger radiators and using lowerflowand return temperature. In the UK. Seealso General Information Leaflet 83 Domestic boileranti-cycling controls— an evaluation concerning claims made for boileranti-cycling devices. Consequently. Guidance on suitable protection measures is given in the BRE publication Thermal insulation: avoiding risks. upgrading controls on older heating systems can saveup to 15%on energybills. condensing boilers shouldbe specified unless the additional costs outweigh the benefits or where thereare serious difficulties withterminal siting. the extentto which the fabric of a building is insulated affectsthe design heating load. it is neither necessary nor to be recommended. which can be keptat an intermediate temperature to maximise the amountof heat collected.The condensate drain does not normally cause a problem. which have fast recovery heat exchangers and are usually also better insulated. Very simple systems.The recommended minimum set of controlsis given in Good Practice Guide 302 Controlsfor domestic heating and hot water systems. Insulation is especially important if the cylinderis located in an unheated space. although they maybe no moreefficient at low temperature rises.'Medium duty'cylinders shouldalwaysbe avoided as they are usually badly insulated and have poor heat exchanger performance. the spectral Insulation Insulation is relevant to the heating installer in two different contexts. for opportunities improving insulation should be explored before undertaking heating system design — the cost of the insulation may well be offsetby reductions in the cost of the heating system. But they remain more efficient than otherboilers even while not condensing. parts of the heating system itself require insulation. Condensing boilers are thought by some installers to be moredifficult to maintain and less reliable but there is no reason whya condensing boilershould be different from any othermodernboilerin these respects. regardless of the Hot water cylinders Two points require consideration to ensurethe energy efficiency of hot water storage cylinders.

storage volume and usage patterns. taking accountof climate. arrangements for dealing with expansion and the control strategyfor coupling the storeto the rest of the system. panel orientation and collector performance. Connection sizes will have an effect on pressure drops. Plate heat exchanger sizing b. Thermalstores maycontribute to the installation of a smaller heat source that can operatecloser to its maximum load and hence with improved efficiency. As for the two types described above. Each waterway can operate typically up to 10 bar pressure. Optimum tilt forthe UK is around33° but there is little difference within ±15°. it possible to achieve. then any gains in efficiency fromthe sizing effect can be cancelledout. A set of European Standards is currently under development. however they are usually sized to suit the internal arrangement of the plates. The two sets of water are keptseparate by numerous stainless steel plates through which the heat is conducted. and must also be largeenough to ensurethat pressure drops acrossthe heat exchanger are not too high. we know the shower flowrate to be about 8 litres per minute. Increasing the size of the heat exchanger will allowreducedprimaryflow rates. A plate heat exchanger allows the two systems to operate separately. Integrated thermal stores also provide both space and water heatingfrom within a single appliance. theydiffer from CPSUs in that a separate boileris used to heat the primarywater.92kW= Power In Assuming the temperature of the primary water being used to providethe heat is 75°C. the domestic hot water is provided by a heat exchanger working at mains pressure. however one mayfind that the flow rate requirement or pressure drop on one side of the heat exchanger is too high. The relationship between power. which includes most pitched roofs in the UK.Resource efficient design Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide the temperature of the stored water in the cylinderby a pre-set margin of 2 or 3°C. Hot-water-only thermal stores use An Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme report' on solar hot water systems in new housingwas published in June 2001. flow rate and temperature rise of waterflowing througha plate heat exchanger can be calculated from the equation: Power (kW) = 4. in which a burner heatsa thermal store. Example Thermal storage Energy storage may be used eitherto cope with peak loads or to take advantage of lowerenergy prices at certain times of day. Threegenerictypes are recognised: a. to a low pressure circuit makes them the perfect choice for applications wherethe operating pressures vary through a system. c. although models are available to takefar higher pressures.42 I/s The ability of plate heat exchangers to transfer heat from a high pressure circuit This is generally enough information required to selecta heat exchanger. A typical example would be the use of a vented boilersystemto heat mains pressure water. withaccordingly lower return 72 . Other design parameters that must be considered are insulation of the storage vessel. including the collector efficiency. The most common application of thermal storage is in dwellings. Guidance for the design of such systems is contained in the Electricity Council (later the Electricity Association) publication Designofmixed storage heater/direct systems. the incoming mains water temperatureto be 10°C. thermal storage only for production of domestic hot water. Solar panels are also well suited to heating swimming pools. The water in the thermal store is circulated to radiators to providespace heating. some models of combination boiler contain a small thermal storeto overcome the limitation on flow rates for domestichot water. Isolation Power (4. while a heat exchanger is used to transfer heat to incoming cold water at mains pressure to provide a supply of domestic hot water. appliance. they must be large enough to provide the required rate of heat transfer. Gas fired systems relying on hot water storage vessels are also available for use in dwellings. Theyare also useful if there is a need to isolate chemically treated water in one circuit from separate systems. Heat is stored using either solid cores or hot water vessels. and we would like to aim for a temperaturedropof 10°C.2 x Temperature change (°C) x Flow rate (us) Although the temperatures and flow rates will be differenton the primary side of the heat exchanger to those on the secondary. which will yield around a l000kWh per year of heat and meet around half of annual hot water requirements.92 (4. Typical installations in the UK (covered by BS 6785) have a panel area of around half of the pool surface area and producean average temperature rise above ambient air temperature of around 5°K provided the pool is covered at night or indoors. improved energy efficiency by allowing When selecting plate heat exchangers. in which solid core storage is chargedwith heat at offpeak ratesfor a 7 or 8 hour period.3 x (75 — 65)) = 0.2 ><Temperaturechange) 17. However. The low temperature required and the very large thermal capacityof the poolwater makes collector efficiency using simple unglazed panels. and the required water temperature is 42°C: Power Out = 4. A typical plate heat exchanger measuring only 20 x 7 x 12cm can transferheat at over 100kW — enough to heat 45 litres per minute of hot waterfrom 12-42°C.relatively high Thermalstorage for larger buildings must rely on purpose-designed storage vessels with capacity and storage temperature optimised for the heat load.2 x (42 — 10) x (8/60) = 17. Also. Combined primarystorage units (CPSU) provide both space and water heating from within a single To work out the basics for a heat exchanger required to feed a shower with hot water. A rule of thumb is that a house requires 2-4m2 of panelarea. we can work out the requiredflowrate by reversingthe previous equation: Flow Rate = — — Plate heat exchanger A plateheat exchanger is a device used to transferheat from one liquid (or gas) flowing in one direction (primary) through the heat exchanger to cold water flowing the opposite direction (secondary). BS 5918 givesa method for sizing solar hot water systems for individual houses. while providing sufficient heat transferfor correct operation. at the desiredtemperatures. However. It shows that the optimum panel orientation is just Westof South but that there is little effecton output within 45° of the optimum. if insulation is not of a very high standard. The energycontentof the hot water produced annually per unit area of solar water heating paneldepends upon several factors. heat lossesfrom the energy store need to be taken into account. the powerwill be the same (energyout = energyin).

Heat pumps Heatpumps are available in a numberof differentformsand exploit different sourcesof low grade heat. the CoP obtainable in practice (of around 1 . To size jobs accurately requires access to various pump curves as well as heat exchanger software — both of which can be obtained from manufacturers and often free on the Internet. Water efficiency and conservation Water is a precious resource. Absorption cycle heat pumps have a much lowerCoP but have the advantage that theycan be powered directly by gas. Swimming poois heat pumps Ground or water source heat pumps extract heat from the ground. air-to-airheat pumps have a relatively low CoP (in the range of 2. such as sports centresor hotels. which wouldotherwise have goneto waste.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Resource efficient design temperatures. but oft-the-shelf and hence relatively cheap. it is required to sustain life and is used extensively in modern lifestyles. Chlorineand bromine both attack metals.They have the advantage over air sourceheat pumps in that their heat source has much greaterspecific heat than air and. This requires periodic defrosting. As CoP declines with outside temperature. 73 . provided it has sufficient mass. the coefficient of performance declines as the air temperature drops. The correct balancehas to be found between heat exchanger size and primary pump size. Smallerunits are suitable for individual buildings. and then into the sea. Domestic sized absorption heat pumps are currently being evaluated in field trials in the Netherlands.4) still offersa considerable advantage over a boiler. When outside air is used as a heat source. Providing flow ratesare reasonable. which is frequently the case in the UK. The hydrological cycle is the processby which water moves from the atmosphere to surface waters (by precipitation) and acquifers. if the unit were sized to meetthe base electrical load. Alternatively. it is not economic to sizeair-sourceheat pumps for the coldestconditions. there are problems in matching short-term heat and electricity demand that could inhibit commercial exploitation. If a copper brazed plate heat exchanger is used on treated waterthen the copperis open to attack and may result in the failure of the heat exchanger. Smallground source heat pumps have a seasonal CoP of around 3. Because of those factors. whilesmall units are more likelyto use reciprocating engines. the slight flexing of the plates during operation helpsto breakup any deposits that do form. Ground or watersource The plates within the heat exchangerare embossed with a corrugated pattern. Therecan also be problems with icing of the heat exchanger wherethe outside air is of high humidity. However. Micro CHP Combined heat and power (CHP) is the name given to systems designed to generate heat and electricity simultaneously. under 100kW.0-2.5 in a typical UK climate. silent in operation and offeroutput equivalentto that from a boilerof 140% efficiency. often relying on a Stirlingengineto drive the generator. On small output systems. The CoP figures givenaboveare for electricallydriven vapourcompression cycle heat pumps.5) when used for heating in a typical UK climate. it maybe far easierand more economical to choose a heat exchanger that is slightlyoversized. designed to maximise turbulence and heat transfer.with the effect that theycan produce significantly greaterenergyoutput than is supplied to them by fuel or electricity input. Thissection examines methods of water conservation within and around domestic. as well as groundwater from aquifers. wherebyan electricity In the UK. the turbulent flow prevents scaledeposits from sticking to the plates. MicroCHP describes very small units designed to operatein an individual house or other small building. a good CoP is required to overcome the primary energy ratio of the electricity. Limescale Air source heat pumps Air source heat pumps may be used to extract heat eitherfrom outside air or fromventilation exhaustair. Manyheat pumps used for heatingin commercial buildings in the UK are reversible and also provide cooling in summerat no additional capital cost. Heating swimming pools poses additional problems due to the levels of chlorides and bromides often added to kill germs and bacteriain the water. which is the ratio of the heat output to the power input. In particular. they should be considered in terms of primary energy if an overall gain in energy efficiency is to be established. including copper.or from bodiesof water eitherat ambient temperature or withtemperature raised by the outflowof waste heat. rivers. such as a hospital or industrial complex. The only otheralternative is to increase the size of the primary pump and/or pipework. if the unit were sized to replacea boiler. lakes and reservoirs. An alternative is to use Nickel brazed plate heat exchangers that are far more resistant. When used for heating. there would be a significant surplus of electricity that would need to be exported and sold at a reasonable price. which is often achieved by temporary reversals of the heat pump and reduces the CoP. but to include some supplementary heating by electrical resistance coils. varies much lesswith outside temperature. is distributed to buildings nearby. Water is consumed in the sense that it is transformed from a drinkingwater to a lowergrade wastewater containing pollutants. water supplied by the public supply main is abstracted from streams. Although heat pumps clearly reduce requirements for delivered energy. theyare compact enough to be considered as a replacement for a boiler. are currently expensive but offer a promising long term alternative form of generation. Large CHPsystems tend to be based on gas turbine technology. A similarapproach may be adopted on a largecampussite. the heat produced would not match the needsof the household and a separate boiler would still be required. which generate electricity directly from gas passed over electrodes. In addition. MicroCHP is technicallyfeasible and is currently undergoing field tests in the UK and elsewhere. Fuel cells.This may be done on a large scale. generating station is located in an urban area and heat. For heat pumps driven by electricity. such as using a heat exchanger to transferheat from a boiler systemat 75°C to a radiator circuit at 50°C will also require larger heat exchangers. commercial and industrial buildings.The performance of a heat pump maybe characterised by its coefficient of performance (CoP). These are fed by an average rainfall of 1000mm of water each year of which half returns to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration by plants. iron and steel. which has a continuous need for both heat and electric power. Applications required to work with lower temperature differences acrossthe heat exchanger.

as is shown in Figure 3. Maintaining the availability of the watersupplyduring droughtperiods 2. socioeconomic groupandfrom region to region. Clotheswashing machine 12% Bathing and Miscellaneous 35% showering 17% Water supply in the UK In England and Wales. such as clothes washing machines and dishwashers. 0303 CO 03 0) CD 03 03 0) 0) NOTE: Non-drinking wateriscleanbutnot drinkable which isdistributed to largeindustrial users. N. waterabstracted to provide a public watersupplyis provided by the ten regional water service companies and around seventeen water companies as well as 'Luxuryappliances 1% Figure 3 Typical household wateruse in the UK NOTE: 1.Resource efficient design Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Water conservation has become increasingly important in the UK as demand for water has increased and shortfalls in supplyhave occurred. 0 _________________________ CD N. 18% of households were metered. 35 >.5%and other factors. . Since 1950the use of water has more than tripledto about4340km3 each year. Reduced pumping and treatment costs(with associated energysavings) 3. An alternative new approach to the problem is to reducethe demandfor water. = ox = CO CD ! 0 = E = I! U- 03 C. The largest single use of water in homes is for WC flushing. The benefitsof conserving water include: 1.N. The protection of the environment and the possible reduction in coststo the consumer. Domestic water consumption Presently domestic waterbills are based either on the rateable value of a building or the volume of water consumed for metered buildings. CO 2 = 0) — = CS 0) CD .. in recent years in the UK there have been regular shortfallsin supply resulting in 178 droughtorders being issued between 1989 and 1991. By 2000. There is considerable variation in wateruse between household size. However. Also. Wastewater reduction 4. 300 250 I2iiiJJiiiiiiIII ' E 53 small private abstractors. C 0 3 CS — = "C C) _C C. which include: — 03 . In 1991 only 2% of households in England and Wales were metered. In the UK. Building new reservoirs is expensive and can have significant effectson the environment. 2.N. N.03 03 03 C') 03 03 U) 03 N. They supply water eithermetered or unmetered.) Figure 1 Comparison of waterconsumption ratesin Europe (1989/90) Figure 2 Volume ofpublic water suppliedin the UK a.E CS C. water consumption in households has risen by 70%over the last 30 years to around 140 litres/person /day of which only about2. = = . The increasing use of waterusing appliances. which gives a breakdown of water consumption in a typical household in the UK.5 litres is used for drinking purposes. Throughout the world the use of wateris increasing. This has been alongside the population increase by 2. 74 . (as the numberof occupantsin a dwelling decreases the waterconsumption for each personof that dwelling increases) b. External use includes waterused for gardening and car washing. In order to match these increases in demandnew sources of water have to be created. 03 0) CD C'.) CS N. Figure 2 shows usesof abstracted public water supplies in the UK. Domestic demandfor water has increased over the past decade. The increase in low occupation 18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 density dwellings. publicawareness of the scarcityof water in someareasof the UK and the economic value of water has increased.

Shortterm . inadequate reserves. Other usesof waterin offices are shown in Figure 4. O a 0.I a C C c'4 to 0. 24000 22000 20000 18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 — Present requirements for reducing waste of water The Water Supply (Water Fittings) Regulations 1999 and the Water Byelaws 2000 (Scotland) are in place to prevent waste.4 Projected ————— Projected Projected estimate(tow) estimate(base) estimate (high) 75 . Urinal hushing 20% Identifying scope for water conservation Currentand future water supply and demandshould be estimated so that the long term water conservation techniques have a sound basis. Programmesfor water conservation To identify the need for water conservation a review of currentwater using practices and current conservation measures should be undertaken. Any watersupplyproblems should be identified. b. Previous Water Byelaws and now Water Regulations. supply contamination supplied on an unmetered basis many consumers are unaware of the volumeof water they use. e. The evaluation of existing waterconservation techniques should considerthe volume of waterconserved and if this can be improved. Cooling c.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Resource efficient design a. Thiscould be based upon a publicinformation scheme that includes the education of school childrenin the importance of water. Theyset a fine for each non-compliance plus a fine each day until it is rectified. e_J N C'J 0. is not accounted for in Figure 4. inadequate source of supply. Figure 4 Typical wateruse in offices Office wafer consumption Most water used in commercial buildings is chargedon a metered basisand therefore there is a financial benefit in reducing consumption. cJ Actual use 0. Existing water and energy e. The type of problems that may occuron a watersupplynetworkinclude: a. Since. C a c O ') C N a. a.g. traditionally water has been a. Water Supply(Water Fittings) Regulations d. for landscape irrigation purposes. Sanitation d. The projected forecast of population increase or decrease and the use of a region for residential. agricultural or commercial purposes should be used to predict future waterdemands. The Regulations that are relevant to waterconservation cover waterfittings that are used to convey wateras well as water using appliances. The main uses of water are: Figure User education and co-operation For a water conservation programme to be successful the co-operation of water consumers is required. In industrial processes b. A programme of promoting water efficiency and conservation and the benefits it can bring togetherwith an awareness of water consumption couldinstil a conserving ethic amongst water users. The single most common use of water in offices is for WC flushing (43%) followed by urinalflushing. c.s. This is important for new developments. undue consumption. — tfl a. stating that new flushing cisternscan only be in operation when the building is in use. and can also be used for the renovation or upgrading of water supplysystems. considerations programme: Legal and statutory The following will have a bearing on any long term waterconservation Industrialwater-use Most of the water used in industrial buildings is metered. inadequate distribution capacity or pressure c. have recently addressed the frequency of flushing urinals. industrial. misuse contamination or erroneous measurement of watersupplied by the water undertakers. 5 Water demand (withprojections to 2021) conservation programmes BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method). Seasonal shortcomings . Codes of practice for water supply suchas British StandardsBS 6700 c. Longterm . Building Regulations f.such as summerhigh demands.drought. External use of water. Water conservation should not only be justifiedon an economic basis (although it is likely that initial conservation measures needto be cost effective) but on a complete cost-benefit analysis which takes an holistic view. Landscape irrigation. N C 0 — r C C cJ In C C e. Water Industry Act 1991 b. This information can be used to match the water system sizing withthe predicted demand. O a.leakage. This means thereis already a financial incentive for water conservation. In 0 .

The Regulations apply only to England and Wales. products which relate to items. imposes similar requirements. the customercan appeal to DEFRA as to whetherthe action was reasonable. i. or applies conditions to the consent. However. They also include procedures for pressure testing and disinfecting systems before they are used. wherethere is a material changeof use of a building. Fittings should be installed as intended. the Water Regulations Advisory Scheme (WRAS) assesses compliance of fittings with the Regulations. This allows for the introduction of new methods to prevent backflow. Products necessary to use a siphon. The use of dual flush mechanisms for This includes all types of device that can be used to save water ranging fromthe simple flow restrictor. Installation mandatory scheme whereby a contractor maychooseto become a member of an Approved Contractor Scheme. including retrofitting and new construction within domestic. Some of the notification requirements are waived for Approved Contractors. Note:The Water Supply (Water Fittings) Regulations 1999 came into force in July 1999. such as. the Regulations do not introduce manychanges to the requirements of the Byelaws that they replaced. The requirements of the Regulations are based largelyon performance standards. as well as othertechniques that would require further research to exploit there full potential. new Byelaws have been introduced in Scotland that. a performance based approach).e. WC5 can be flushed using any mechanism that passesthis performance standard. Mechanisms are in place to updatethese standards to reflectchanges in technology and permit innovation. using air to move wasteproducts instead of water and water pressure reduction c. The Regulations embrace this ideaand impactupon all water fittings. Such schemes are administered by water authorities or otherorganisations including the loP's own scheme.taps and automatic car washes b. The two main exceptions are (a) backflow prevention and (b) requirements for waterclosets(WCs). Such WCs must meet the requirements specified in DEFRA's WC Suite Performance Specification. They are not retrospective. Compliance is primarily based uponsatisfying relevant British and European Standards. In addition. the maximum flushvolumefor newly installed WCs was reduced to 6 litres. The Regulations recognise risks associated withfive fluid categories. Where high water consumption fittings are to be installed. commercial and industrial plumbing systems. Water-efficient WCs 1 January 2001. It is the responsibility of the system designer to selectthe backflow prevention device appropriate to the fluid risk (i. Technically. Disagreement and disputes techniques. subjectto compliance with Scottish law. changes are required in the waywater is used. Examples of these measures are given in the following sections. Notifications Types of conservation measures To achieve water conservation. throughlow-wateruse washing machines to fully recycling automaticcar washing equipment. ratherthan the prescriptive approach adopted in the Byelaws. WCs is now permitted. which means that they do not applyto any fitting lawfully installed with regard to the Byelaws before July 1999. The simplest distinctionthat can be drawn between measures is to dividethem into those that are: a. it will no longer be There are new notification requirements in the Regulations. alternatives to traditional external overflow arrangements for WC cisterns will be permitted. In addition. such as. The Water Regulations reflect the approach being adopted in draft European Standard EN1717. An example of the application of European Standards is the introduction of new backflow prevention requirements. WCs. Wherea water authority will not endorse an application for a relaxation. now DEFRA) used powers under the Water Act to replace the individual water companies' Water Byelaws with Water Regulations. An Approved Contractor will issuea certificate for the work. Performance based requirements Installation issues are similarto those covered previously in the Byelaws. the fittingshouldoperateas required by the Standards withwhich it is required to comply. that are appointed by DEFRA or National Assembly for Wales. Backflow prevention Approved Contractors The Regulations include the conceptof Approved Contractors.Resource efficientdesign Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide addition. there is a procedure for resolving disputes. Water conservation measures A numberof waterconservation measures have been identified that would be applicable in the UK. but their use has to be appropriate. Similar Regulations have been introduced in NorthernIreland. In addition.e. Therefore. services that cover water-use audits and water-use labelling. Also. notifiable work includes appliances that consume high volumes of water for discretionary uses. the Regulations include requirements for not connecting materials that might leadto contamination throughgalvanic action or leaching. by the installation of efficientappliances or a combination of the two. i. This is a non- The Water Supply (Water Fittings) Regulations 1999 The Secretary of State for the Environment. the waterauthority mayconsider metering the customer. The examination of water conservation methods was based on variousattributessuch as: The efficient use of public water supplies and their prevention from contamination are crucial to the protection of public health as well as water resources. The reduced flush must be not more than two-thirdsof the maximum flush volume and clear operating instructions must be provided. by altering the patternof use. Transport and the Regions (DETR. or refuses consentfollowing a notification. 76 .This allows the selection of water fittings that will comply withthe requirements and minimise the possibility of contamination or waste of water. Flowrestrictors are readilyavailable and can be fitted to manyappliances. for example swimming pools. The type of work that is required to be notified includes the extension of plumbing systems in nondomestic premises. From Water companies are still responsible for enforcing the Regulations.

If all the volume of water in the cisternwas necessary to clearthe WC pan. However the questions of adequate handwashing facilities if there is no available water supply and the safety of children using toiletswith open chutes needs to be considered. Anothertypeof waterand compressed air toilet. instead of reducing it. water is becoming increasingly valuable and in some circumstances it is very wasteful to use water of drinking quality to flush toiletsand drains. Presently. iii. Others use passive infra-red (PIR) detectors to detect movement of persons in the room. a more effective. Although these are relatively inexpensive they can interfere with the correct and efficient operation of the cistern. x. Theseproducts are viii. about 12% of domestic water. Automatic closure iii. The ownership of these previously luxury goodsare increasing. require no drainage pipework and produce compost that can be used in the garden. Theselevels are above currentconsumption of about 100 litre and 25 litre respectively). The most common type in the UK is the composting toilet. This equates to an energy saving in hot water of 444kWh (1.Thesedevicesare fitted into the incoming mains and closewhen a leak is detected. This type is used in manytypes of buildings in the USA. Some such cisterns use the pressure of the mains water supply to compress a volume of air above the stored water. The cheaperalternative to low-flow showerheads is to fit a flow restrictor to the supply to an existing showerhead. In most drainage systems in the world water is used as the transport medium. To be used efficiently these cisterns need to be matched to WC pans that can use the higher velocity water effectively. This usesair as the main transportmedium. Also pumped and multi-head showers are not as efficient as conventional showers. Techniques A technique is definedas the application of a collection of associated products (e. vi. between 150and 180 litre for a washing machine (depending on drum size)and about 196 litre for an average dishwasher.Since 1989new cisterns are required to be refilled only whenthe urinal is in use. In its domestic form this toilet is usually electricallypowered heating the wastematerial to enable composting action to occur. Some use changes in water pressure to identify operation of taps and therefore by association the use of urinals. which are inserted into cisterns. Automatic leak detectors are becoming increasingly available in the UK. consuming. xi. whilst a bath requires about 80 litres. However.6>< 109 J) each person each year for water heatedby gas (or 388kWh for water heatedby electricity). Thiscan minimise the wastein urinal flushing and that caused by taps being left on. WCs can be flushed withwater using compressed air assistance. iv. The essence of these devicesis they all obviate the flushing of urinals when the premises are not being used and are usually an improvement overthe use of the traditional petcock' that has to be set to drip water at the required rate into the cistern. solution would be to install taps operated by proximity sensors. Otherproducts includedrip-proof taps and drip feed irrigation systems.The use of an occupancydetectorto isolate the watersupplyto a washroom when unoccupied is anotherapplication of PIR technology. ix. Whenthe water is released into the bowl it has a much greatervelocity than from a conventional gravity operated cistern. a vacuum drainage system). 85%of households possess a washing machine and 10% a dishwasher. v. the vacuumWC and urinal. Urinal flushing cisterncontrollers have beenwidely used in the UK for some time. education or legislative policies. Education of all ages is needed but education programmes in schools help produce a new generation with an awareness of the problem. Water Regulations govern the maximum permissible volume of water used for a wash.2 litre/sec depending on the supply pressure. The average amount of water used for a conventional shower is approximately 30 litres. taps can produce water savings in commercial and public buildings where there is a risk of taps being left on accidentally. It initially not readily available in the UK but are used in parts of France and the USA. as the aerobic decomposition is sufficiently exothermic to be self-sustaining. appears showering is more energy and water efficient. are available to reduce the volume of water flushed.3-0. There are various methods of sensing use and operation. a reduced flush volume maynot be effective and the user will flushthe cistern again and hence increase the use of water. Education programmes to changethe public's usesof waterhave been used at various times in most developed countries of the world. Large (greater than 1 5m3) composting toilets do not usually require the external input of energy for the process.5 I/s. some sense the temperature of urine in the urinaltraps and many use various forms of proximity detector. This is mainly due to historical reasons as most drainage systems involved removal of waste into rivers. Some systemsalso use special appliances that use littlewater. Low-flow showerheads can reduce this to below 0. such as. vii. Large composting toilets maybe environmentally acceptable as they consume only a small volume of water. An established alternative is the vacuum drainage system. The Water Regulations maximacould be brought in line with the water consumption of current production models. Toilets that use no waterfor flushing are available. the smallest domestic model is about twicethe size of a conventional WC suite. Households whosewater use is metered could use suitable showering products as a method of reducing total water consumption. ii. although this may increase the showering time.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Resource efficient design ii. They do not fit easily into UK cisterns with a syphon flush mechanism because theyare designed primarily for use in cisterns fitted withflap valves. but more expensive. WC cistern waterdisplacement devices. However. The majorproblem with this type of toilet is its size. Conventional showerheads can discharge waterat between 0. called dams. in total. Research conducted in the USA has shown that the use of low-flow showerheads can save approximately 27 litre each day each person (for a personwho mainly showersrather than takes baths). useswater to rinse the bowl and compressed air to evacuate the contents.g. Metering of suppliesis a technique 77 . Water Regulations state the maximum rate at which cisterns maybe filled. changes in cultural habits or the use of alternative fluids for various processes. but the fact is that households with showers use them more frequently than non-shower households use their baths. Someoperate by sensing a high flow rate and others use conductivity detectors to activate valves. preventing both the waste of water and damageto property. Wheretaps can be left on by careless users and where items are washed under running waterthey are a cheap wayof reducing water wastage.

Toilet rebateprogrammes Toiletrebateprogrammes have been used to great effect in parts of the USA. Domestic garden equipment. Services The majority of metered householders (59%) in the studyattempted to reduce their water consumption by some means. In the UK. If the initial coolerwaterwas utilised reductions could be achieved. Clothes washing machines vi. Water efficient showerhead. Water metering Metering trials have been conducted in twelveareas in England. It is common practice to run water from hot taps to waste until it is up to temperature and then add cold water. Experience in San Simeon.570 households. Water efficient dishwasher viii. although trends showan increase in unmetered water consumption. Low volume baths iv. USA has shown a 39% reduction in total water-use after a toilet rebate scheme had been implemented. These sites cover a range of geographical areas and social groups. Efficient watering systems that monitor wind speed and air temperature can vary irrigation ratesso water is morefully utilised and evaporation is reduced. a total of approximately 56. Using washing machines less frequently v. This was achieved by a number of methods including: i. A charge based on the volume of water consumed is an alternative to the rate method. political and financial implications. Taking showersinstead of baths iv. this requiressome formof metering. One of the most popular techniques presently used for saving water is to use rainwater for tasks where drinkingwaterwould normally be used. USA. there are hidden benefits. This scheme would require the testingof appliances to an agreed standard and wouldadd to the cost of the product. the use of a voluntary water audit in 5200 buildings has shown potential water savings of 28 million litres per year. Large areas are also given over to recreational uses. may reveal many areas wheresavingscan be made. especially in large organisations. To help in the selection of water Economical products economical products. baths and basins may be used for irrigation purposes but if it is used for WC flushing the cisterns mechanism may suffer due to deposits of soap and othercontaminants. Wastewater from sinks. bath water. Sharing baths. Currently. Otherproblems associated with recycling wastewater are storage. contamination and separation from the existing drinkable water supply. Companies that offer these services usually market devices such as WC dams. Even though installation of metersmay be costly in existingbuildings. many new buildings are automatically fitted with a water meter or provided with suitable connections for installation later. BRE water efficiency specification: i. have extensive landscaped areas. Urinals viii. This required the replacement of the existing 1198WCs for low-water-user WCs (lessthan 7. In NewYork City. garden and window box watering. or showers. Presently the external use of water for gardening runs at between 2% and 3% of total water consumption for domestic properties. Long pipe runs are to be avoided because water contained in them mayhave to be run off before the water reaches the desired temperature. Low transpiration plants native to the Mediterranean can be used for ornamental gardening. A surveycarriedout by Ofwat indicated that therewas a high level of acceptance of water metering by 72% of those questioned. vi. Efficient landscaping can reducethe amountof water required for irrigation and the watering of plants. vii. Efficientlandscaping Theseare not product based but involve knowledge that can be applied or utilised. Flowrestrictors iv. Commercial and industrial buildings are generally metered. Many commercial and public buildings v. The installation of water metersand their use for the charging of wateron a volume used rather than on a flat rate basis could be used to encourage water conservation. The audit consisted of a leak and waste inspection with free replacement of showerheads. products that are covered in the Australian schemeinclude: i. A prospective purchaser is ableto compare the relative amounts of water that differentappliances use. California. Other waysof reducing waterwasted in pipe runs would be to use point of use waterheaters. These includeWC flushing. The insulation of hot water pipescan reduce this problem.2 litre). suchas detecting existing leaks during installation.Water efficient washing machine ix. the majorityof domestic waterused in the UK is charged on a tariff that was related to the rateable value of a building. Lesstoilet flushing iii. BRE has developed a water efficient specification for new housing which meetsthe Water Regulations requirement and is given below. tap flow restrictors and are ableto offerthe audits at negligible cost to the clients. Evidence fromthe USA suggests that water savings fromthe installation of water meters produced savings in the 78 . such as golf courses. WCs vii. Dual flush WCs (6/4 litre) or (6/3 litre) iii. the Bathroom Manufacturers Association. Presently. Not only does this result in watersavings but also increased WC and bathroom suit sales and is an incentive to the industry. Water butts (for garden irrigation) v. water-use labelling of appliancesis being adoptedin Australia. A rebateschemefor gas-fired condensing boilers is alreadyoperated in the UK by the Energy Savings Trust. It is analogous to fuel consumption figures for motor cars. WCs (6 litre) ii.Resource efficientdesign Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide that has social. The actual tariff system adoptedfor metered dwellings will affectthe potential water savings that can be achieved. and to use unvented hot water systems which operateon higher water pressures than traditionalvented water heaters and can be used with smallerbore piping. aerating taps and WC cistern dams. The relative contributions to the total waterbill from standing charges and charges related to the volume of water used are important for creating financialincentives for water conservation. Lessplant watering ii. Recycling of wastewater is possible but may give rise to problems. Dish washing machines v. iv. ii. Presently. They involve offering payments to users who exchange their existingWC for a low-water-use WC from a specified list. Spray taps on handwash basins vi. represents many sanitaryware manufacturers. Reduced flowrate taps on handwash basins Shower heads Taps iii. Audit An audit of water usingappliances.

BS 3198:1981 Specification for copper hot waterstorage combination unitsfor domestic purposes. BS 6785:1986 Codeofpracticeforsolar heatingsystems for swimming pools. Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme. General Information Report 88 'Solarhot watersystemsin new housing— a monitoring report'.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Resource efficientdesign Since coolingwater is a highcomponent of water used in industryit should be targeted for reuse. The Water Supply (Fiftings) Regulations 1999and Water Byelaws 2000 (Scotland). BS 1566-2:1984 Copperindirect purposes. . Also in the USA. it can be reused for processes.. such as cleaning. The use of efficient cleaning processes which utilise less-clean waterfirst. BS 6700: 1997 Design.! c — 0 = . Therefore there is more scope to conserve water used externally for domestic purposes. Reductions in industrialwaterusage The methods to reduce water consumption in industry will be similar to those for domestic and commercial buildings. SERI Engineering principlesand concepts for activesolar systems Solar Energy Research Institute 1988 ISBN 0801 16 855 9 (Hampshire Publishing Corporation).. 1980 (revised 1984 79 . The waterused in industrial processes can be reduced by various methods: i. Electricity Council. Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme. Good Practice Guide 302 'Controls for domesticheatingand hot watersystems'. Figure 6 Uses ofabstractedwatersupplies in the UK region of 13%to 45% of supplied water. DD ENV 12977: 2001 Thermal solar systems and components — Custom built systems. Thiscan reduce overall waterconsumption for a processas well as reducing sewerage charges. Thermal Insulation: Avoiding risks. a .' — 0 a. 2002 edition. . BRE report BR 262. General Information Leaflet 83 'Domestic boiler anti-cycling controls'. The use of a water audit to locate leaks and any process which uses morewater than it may require The reuse of water(or reclaiming wastewater) iii. The Governments Standard Assessment Procedure forEnergy Rating of Dwellings BRECSU 2001. References ccc . ii. Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme. GeneralInformation Leaflet 59 'Central Heating System Specifications (CHeSS)'. Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme. testingand maintenance ofservices supplying waterfor domestic use within buildings and their curtilages. which do not require drinking water. On-site treatment of wastewater could also be beneficial in aiding this procedure (also matching output fromthe watertreatment plant to water demand thereby avoiding excessive peaks and the requirement for make-up water fromthe mains). and 1989). cylinders fordomestic Specification for single feed indirect cylinders. These trialswere carried out between 1955 and 1975 and were basedon water susceptible to differences and variations due to particularseasonal requirements. . This allows effluentfromone operation to be matched to a demand for lower-grade waterfor anotheroperation. Technical Information DOM-8. An audit of processwater requirements should also examine the quality of water that is needed for each operation. BS 1566-1:1984 Copperindirect cylinders fordomestic purposes. Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme.g . BS 5918:1989 Code ofpracticeforsolar heatingsystems for domestic hot water. .the proportion of the water used for external purposes (37%) is greaterthan in the UK (3%). The Building Regulations 2000 Approved DocumentL Conservation of Fuel and PowerHMSO 2001. As cooling water is not normallydegraded (except for mineral content). EN 12976: 2000 Thermal solar systems and components — Factorymade systems. EN 12975: 2000 Thermal solar systems and components — Solar Collectors. The use of a closed circuitcooling system instead of a once-through system iv. installation. Design ofmixed storage heater/direct systems. Good Practice Guide 284 'Domestic centralheatingand hot water: systems withgas and oil-firedboilers'. Specification for double feed indirect cylinders.

80 .

Piped gas services Natural gas Conversion examples Liquefied petroleumgas installations Compressed 82 85 85 91 air Vacuum 98 81 .

0071 x 296.0071)2 = 0.699 253.58 52.716 507.2 1.646 1.737 67.692 125.15 26.510 0.23 73.00 38.00 36cm/sec 704°C 995.332 35.184 166.5 2.577 9.250 282. 6 9 12 15 20 25 30 40 50 0. Pole Formula (SI units) It can be seenthat a pressure drop of h.7 0.290 12. 15b and 1Sc to solvepracticalproblems.253 18.610 7. Feed stockscommonlyused are liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and naphthas.221 0.12 10.511 22.905 9.263 102.046 717.93 129.022 1.755 68.494 39.582 177.56mm.791 52.452 1.2 1.00 10.952 10.00 (mm) 4.154 0. The following example is based on using 15mm coppertube to Manufacturers Reference (EN 1057-250 — 15 x 0.822 4.469 607.411 16.073 393.273 16. = length of pipe (m) s = specificgravityof gas I Example Factors affecting pressure loss By re-arranging the metric version of the Poleformula: H Table 1 Efficiency ratingfigures Miscellaneousdata Naturalgas 1065.369 0.44 9.957 12.906 0.411 3.416 102.80 154.810 6. 4.54 51.277 77.9 0.914 37.664 10.60 36cm/sec 704°C Gas flow tables When using Tables 2.00 133.924 95.791 1.611 1.013 235. for ignition 704°c 1000.905 79.482 0.896 14.166 730.592 60.981 122.0071 Vd5 x h sxl where 0 = flow (m3/hr) d = diameter of pipe (mm) h = pressure drop (millibar) The pipefriction is assumed to be constantand the specific gravity can also be assumed constant.64 39.457 51.567mm.323 88.80 0.522 0.799 7.76 13.061 429.54 64.00 37.893 2.565 x 1 0.00 159.76 8.143 621.114 400. The properties of these gases compared with their methane contentare given in Table 1.550 59.6 (air = 1) Naturalgas coppertube to EN1057— R250 Previous designation BS2871 Part 1 TableX 1971 82 . Table2 Pipesizing table Size oftube Naturalgas Lengthof tube in metres Discharge rate in m3/h in mm Wall thickness (mm) Nominal size (mm) I/O 3 .500 0.555 51.473 0. 15a.143 43. with additional suppliesfrom otherfields.044 1.581 20.133 0.299 0. the pressure drop allowed for must include the losses of the measured pipe run plus an addition for fiffings in the line from Table 5. 3.587 109.10 108.175 0.154 8.9 1.356 = 2.0 6 8 10 12 15 22 28 35 42 54 66.085 (Discharge in a straighthorizontalcoppertube with lUmbardifferential pressure between the ends.54 39.647 72.491 28.637 350. sxl 2<s x I = 0.711 271.180 2. It can be madefrom a range of feed stocks in a number of different types of plant.6 0.969 326.559 1604.222 0.460 56.00 0.998 2.111 48.867 18.00 0.091 148.417 14.56 49.102 5.76 6.899 555.298 0.58 o = 0.248 0.6 0.756 30.156 0. Substitute naturalgas (SNG) is manufactured as a directsubstitute for natural gas and as a means of providing additional gas to meet peak loads.320 0.630 4.387 8.15 32.250 11.733 32.844 2.104/m3/h Methane CV BTU/ft3 CV mJ /m3 Specific gravity Wobbe No mJ/m3 Air/Gas volume/volume Flame speed Temp.0071 v1d5 x h Find 0 (m3/h) when d = 13.648 84.664 45.0071 v'13.487 596. It is a simplification of the Darcy fluid flowformula.266 0.5 1.76 10.470 0.528 23. varies with length 1 =0 varies with quantity varies with specific gravity = s varies with (ie.00 36cm/sec SNG — h=1 mb.838 245.Piped gas services Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Natural gas The pipedgas provided for domestic purposes and for commercial and industrial utilization is currentlysupplied primarily from gas fields in the British sectors of the North Sea.639 0.547 0.119 0.262 3. eg.354 0. The friction coefficient (f) applied in the Darcy formulais taken as a constant ie.944 439.70 76.914 1.387 0. forgas of relative density0.5 1.58 x 9 D5(0.I=9m.7mm) with an internal diameterof 13.0065for gas pipesof the diameter used for domesticsupplies.672 0.499 926.982 210.937 18.558 61.2 1.423 0.2 1.686 5.309 32.961 25. = 0.763 1134.705 1.708 1.152 3.6 0.445 3.822 13.257 1033.578 191.381 0.56 20. inversely as diameter) o = 0.202 0.03 104.530 516.522 173.393 6.739 0.559 0. Morecambe Bay.188 0.403 4.6 0.292 357.70 0. The flow of gas in pipes The Pole formula is used in the gas industry for determining the flow rate of gas in pipes.486 462.104 5.644 2.661 303.583 802.s=0.243 26.747 141.

00 35.907 158.431 12.884 1.94 62.173 0.10 1.797 2.357 119.301 6.079 118.273 0.2 3.101 40 50 (mm) 2.058 0.122 5.954 0.776 42.745 388.039 54.505 289.2 1.719 614.950 7.5 1.616 9.251 10.6 3.3 0. ofBS 1387: 1967) with 1.2 3.024 0.274 0.878 12.979 45.70 154.642 32.838 501.583 11.519 0.105 29.600 1.627 4.5 22 28 35 42 54 66.813 16.190 0.55 25.072 0.740 64.0 (It) 1 1 Up to 25 Up to 28 0.916 29.771 26.426 5.424 74.863 8.010 578. I/O 3 (mm) 8 10 15 6 9 12 15 20 25 30 0.475 23.874 23.591 108.586 0.6 2.994 258.350 7.998 52.943 36. (d = 13.620 107.003 103.93 3 0. tees orbends inerted in a run ofpipe [expressed as the approximate additionallengths to be allowed]) Referring to Table 2.228 4.615 3.643 319.0 1.1 11/4to11/2 2 3 2 3 2.749 146.2 1.830 80.811 37.509 0.70 12.455 4.0 409.212 0.341 0.753 0.067 207.055 141.656 of relative density0.5 5.55 31.447 12.039 14.891 2.704 231.60 52.147 167.498 13.929 94.712 5.549 1.130 0.070 0.467 136.073 119.878 22.404 54.from which pressure loss mb/rn = 1 0.3 2.0 1.417 20.605 6.714 CopperTube to EN 1057-R250 half hardstraightlengths and EN 1057-R220 Soft Coils.150 350.485 3.067 7.477 247.481 108.374 154. (Discharge in a straighthorizontal Steel tube medium grade— BS 1387 General purposetube to the qualityassurance requirement of(ISO 9002/BS 5750Part 2) forgas Naturalgas Lengthoftube in metres Dischargerate in m3/h in mm N.63 72.102 200.083 2.537 1.864 167.260 3.301 92.Ombardifferential pressure between the ends.082 0.516 25.60 68.0 5.099 9. 83 .366 178.6 (air = 1)) Table4 Pipesizing table Size oftube steelpipe (to Table2.432 83.5 1.294 0.414 71.376 0.03 102.455 0.941 916.414 0.947 25.343 0.441 0.491 4.194 20.542 118.2 3.388 40.978 5.601 12.738 189.600 391.5 2 3 5 8 0.132 6.30 128.329 2.734 0.548 8.8 0.245 0.429 452.0 2.6mm) is 2.880 82. Wall thickness (mm) l/D (mm) 4.708 793.0 2.244 9.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Piped gas services Table3 Pipe sizing table Size of tube in mm Naturalgas Lengthof tube in metres Dischargerate in m31h Wall thickness N.70 41.7 76.062 14.S.075 218.067 0.5 2.486 0.1 0.150 0.769 1.707 146.760 31.837 334.0 2.371 206.685 1.952 0.929 1.416 0.074 0.073 1.793 224.222 267.758 64.127 3.20 80.966 715.961 18.693 1.949 182.896 15. Previous designation BS2871 Part 1 Table (Y) 1971 Table5 Pipe sizing table Cast iron ormild steel (mm) (in) 1 Nominalsize Stainlesssteel orcopper (mm) (in) 1 Approximateadditional lengthsto be allowed Elbows (m) Tees 90° bends (It) 2 (tt) (m) (m) 0.096 17.643 75.90 21.876 5.S.927 58.998 34.087 1.683 1121.549 597.831 1.766 1.995 505.36 10.3 2.36 12.237 40.063 14.029 2.720 1.10 104.712 91.40 27.455 50.194 309.880 15.018 19.224 16.150 6.583 11.715 3.664 34.3 0.078 42.588 1.982 60.531 0.36 8.379 0.969 1.0 1.461 138.319 709.151 0. In the example given.421 0.20 15.425 3.987 434.251 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150 2.836 11.837 74.314 2. medium.723 105.364 549.879 5.493 30.012 67.094 0.179 1586.94 38.297 0.281 163.1111 mb/m.558 21.213 0.266 0.547 6 9 12 15 20 25 30 40 50 (mm) 0.620 84.750 17.330 26.388 0.994 10.96 19.644 1.94 49.152 10.862 57.5 32to40 50 80 (The effects 11/4to11/2 35to42 54 76.859 3.032 50.095 0.8 0.766 276.445 343.416 7.085 237.5 3 5 8 2 3 ofelbows.701 10.006 76.379 97.5 6 8 10 12 15 1.867 48.198 20.402 8.052 0.793 4.464 47.453 29.686 62.990 422.5 1.5 2.798 1.879 3.317 0.118 18.578 56.6 3.520 6.0 4.8 1.10 m3Ih agreeswith the calculated result to 2dp. h 1 mb and I = 9m.8 0.250 583.987 28.201 0.329 0.465 1.716 26.849 2.106 0.268 41.770 96.123 0.399 2.6 4.627 1.0 (mm) 8.942 13.154 65.725 36.254 17.843 1011.101 4.537 296.543 0. it will be seen that the flow rate at this pressure loss and at the internal pipe diametergiven.36 6.

0 2.l 16/1 75kg I 100mm flanged 165lb 20.5 Interval for horizontalruns (m) 1. working 7smbar 1.5 (mbar) <1.0 3.8 2.7 3. Table 7 Pipe supports Interval for vertical runs (m) 2.5 3. can be converted to energy input rates usingone or moreof the listed conversion calculations from 1-8 and 9 for thermalefficiency.Opsi .0ff3 loft3 2.0 (if) 6 8 8 9 10 10 10 10 Up to 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 4 6 6 8 8 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 12 12 12 2 21/2 108 3 4 Maximum intervalforcast iron.4dm3 100dm3 0.Opsi 353ff3 1. cv Btu/ft3 = 1065.7 50 50 <0.8kg I 80mm flanged BS4505.0 3.5"wg 0.5 2.0 3. cv MJ/m3 = 84 39.142ft3 0714ff3 lOft3 lOft3 50dm3 100dm3 2.5 3.0 psi) —meterscan be supplied forhigher working pressures.0 3. The wobbe number can be derived usingthe following formula:Wobbe No = (cv) Therefore if using natural gas witha cv of 39.5 3. The gas discharge rate tables expressed as m3/h. The wobbe number will give an indication of the heat output from burnersusingany of the three familygases.5 3.751b 61.0 2.70 76.5 <1.1 .Opsi Pressure Mean pressure l.36mbar 25dm3 100dm3 2296ff3 1 .0 (in) (II) 6 8 8 (ft) (mm) 15 (mm) (in) 1/2 3/4 1 (if) 8 20 25 32 15 22 28 35 1¼ 11/2 3. 1 1/4 screwed to BS746 9.0 3.5 Interval for horizontalruns (m) Nominal size (mm) Up to 15 22 28 35 42 54 66.70) (v'0.5 2.2 1.22mbar 0.7 (mbar) at capacity (wg) <0.32mbar 0.0 3.0 3.0 3.22 per revolution (if3) . The relevant cv mayvary seasonally slightly from region to region.8 1.5 141 Capacity per hour I Standard Pressure loss Capacity Proving Meter connections (dm3) 10 10 1'screwed to BS 746 working pressure (psi) 0.53"wg 2.1 108 80 100 2 2 4 2.64 = (39.0 3.071 1.58 Heatenergyrates The rate at which gas is used and heat produced in gas appliances may be expressed in several ways.1 16/1 70kg I BS4505.70 .5"wg loss Capacity per revolution Proving circle (1 pulse =) Standard connections Shipping weight 4dm3 100dm3 25m3 7smbar l. The heat input rate can be calculated by multiplying the gas rate in m3 or ft3 by the relevant calorificvalue (CV).353ft3 lOft3 20dm3 100dm3 0.40kg 833ft3 1. .22mbar 0.58) = 52.5 2.0 3.95"Wg l.70 and a sg of 0.l 16/1 41. that the heat output of appliances are keptreasonably constant and the gas quality maintained within close limits. Capacity per 16m3 565ff3 hour Std.Piped gas services Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Table 6 Pipesupports Nominalsize Stainless mild steel steel Cast iron.5 3.Opsi 40m3 7smbar 1412ft3 1. mild steeland stainless steelpipes Maximum interval forlight gaugecopperpipes Domestic properties Normal gas usage would be satisfied by the following meter size: Table 8a Meter characteristics Model type (ft3) U4/G2.12 b.5 2. It is essential however.22 .5ff3 lOft3 itt3 . Intervalfor vertical runs (m) 2.Opsi 65m3 75mbar 2.65"wg 1.5lb 921b 154lb Standard working pressure is shownat 75mbar(1.glmbar l.5 10 10 10 12 12 12 12 40 50 42 54 76.43kg I loft3 2"screwed to 36lb 2" screwed to B5746 28kg I 65mm flanged BS4505.62mbar 10dm3 100dm3 BS746 16.0 Commercial properties Usage will vary but the following Table wouldgenerally give a meter sizeto suit requirements: Table 8b Meter characteristics U16 U25 U40 U65 U100 lOOm3 U160 160m3 5650ff3 1 .12 WobbNo = 52.043 I dial/circle (ft3) 1 1 I (m3) (dm3) 4 U6/G4 212 6 0.7 3.17wg 71.25 2.5 2.0 3. The current CV'sare generally expressed as follows: a.5 3.Opsi 7smbar 7smbar 0.

70 MJ/m3.2 0.2 0.0 to 12.0 90 120 150 175 95 110 80 to 100 200 100 350 to 400 60 150 35 10 10 Heat input = 86399.3 0.25 = 87% 2.47 1.5m3/h and delivers 8 litres of water per minute raised 43°C assuming a cv = 39. kWtoMJ = ____ — — = kW/m3 MJ Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a generic term used to describe gases (predominantly C3 and C4 hydrocarbons) which exist as vapourat normal atmospheric temperature and pressure but which can be liquefied at only moderate pressure.7 3.0 2. examples 1.70 = 27.80 = 37628 37628 =lm 7.31 = ft3 3.04 0.08 0.5 3. the gas returns to its vapour state.57kWx3412 3.08 0.3 1.7OMJ/m3 = 99.6OMJ Btutoft3 =—=tt cv x cv = Btu 2. m3toft3 4.028kW kW x Btu/kW — 6.85 0.31 x 1065. both for their own safety and that of others in the vicinity.70 11.57kw/h Or =27. 39.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Piped gas services Table9 Typical equipment gasconsumption figures . based on Appendix 1 in LPGITA Codeof Practice No 1 are as Table 10 above: — 1m3x39.186kJ/kg/°C 45 litre boiling pan 90 litre boiling pan 135 litre boiling pan 180 litre boiling pan 1200mm hot cupboard 1800mm hot cupboard Steaming oven Double steaming oven 2 tier roasting oven Double oven range Roasting oven Gas cooker Hot cupboard Drying cupboard 2.60 = 11.7 0. including those involved in firefighting and control.75 to 3.47 to 0. both conforming with BS 4250.16 0. ft3 to Btu = = m3 x 35.64 = 37628 Btus 5.5m3/h and a calorificvalueof 39. Typical properties of commercial butane and propane gases.1 gas installations Introduction Liquefied petroleum 40 1.75 2.16 0.1 to 2. kWtom3 — cv x Btu/MJ — = 94069 Btu/h 10.95 1.31 Gas iron heater Washing machine Wash boiler Bunsen burner Bunsen burner.028 x 3412 39.9 0.6 to 0.399 MJ/h = 2.15 60 to 100 5 20 20 30 60 12 to 40 0.70 3.4 0.399x 100 99.85 1.7Omj/m3 The two main liquefied petroleum gases in general use are commercial butane and commercial propane.1 to 0. Health and Safety Executive and Fire Brigade.8 1.4 4.70 x 947.8 0.2 1.30 1. full on Glue kettle Forge Brazing hearth Incinerator 0.2 Conversion MJ/m3 8.275 0. 9.36 to 1.60 Building control and planning permission It is essential that the local Building Control and Planning Departments are consulted at an early stage in any proposal to site LPG storage vessels. Thermal efficiency example: Thermal efficiency — heat outputx 100 — 11.028 = 3.75 0. All persons involved with LPG installations should be familiarwith the properties of commercial butane and commercial propane and the potential hazards involved.6 0.m3x cv MJ/kW — — 2.23 0. kW to Btu = kW x Btu/kW = 1kWx 3412 = 3412 Btu heat input Therefore a gas water heater has a gas rate of 2.6 0.04 kJ/h = 86. ask — a telephone call to the local Planning Department couldsave considerable expense if the installation has to be changed later in order to complywith the Regulations. eithercylinders or tanks. Then: - — m3/h x cv MJ/kW m3tokW . Heat input rate example: Assuming an appliance has a heat input rate of 2.0 2.7 0.8 = 480 x 43 Gas consumption (m3/hr) (ft3/hr) x 4.5 x 39. Planning permission is required and the Planning Department will normally consultwith the Environmental Health Department.7 to 2. m3toBtu = m3 x ft3 x cv = lm3x 35.32 0.0 1. = 8 litres= 8kg/minute Heat output = 8 x 60 = 480kg/h 85 .9 5.6 0. Appliance Naturalgas (litres/sec) 0.3 5.47 0. If in doubt.5m3/h x 39. When the pressure is released.7 4.25MJ/h % Efficiency = 86.9 10.

6°C and 1015. ON NO ACCOUNT SHOULD A NAKED FLAME BE USED TO DETECT A LEAK mayshow as a 'whitefrost' at the point of escape and make it easierto detect leakage. the maximum percentage fill varying between 80-87% depending on the vesselsize. Leaks can sometimes be seen as a 'shimmering' due to the refractive index of LPG. installing pipelines externally. LPG may diffuse fromthe vessel to the atmosphere. If the air is still. Within the range of 2% (lower limit) to 10% (upper limit) of the vapourin air at atmospheric pressure. The liquid is colourless and is approximately half the weight of an equivalent volume of water. a lower flammable mixture is formed. wherethe odorising material is harmful to a processor does not serveany useful purposeas a warning agent. When LPGvapour is mixed with air in certain proportion. commercial and domestic installations would be expected to fully understand. particularly a leakageof liquid product. into basements or into drains without waterseals.5 7. commercial butane being abouttwice as heavy as air and commercial propane about one and a half times as heavy as air.1MJ/m3 86. LPG is normally stored at ambient temperature as a liquidin steel vessels (or special lightweight alloy cylinders for touring caravans) under pressure. provision of automatic flammable gas detectors etc. If LPG is spilled on water. LPG. refer to British Standards. inspections daily. The values of the physical characteristics of the product have been rounded' to facilitate remembering. LPGITA or the suppliers of the gas. can cause severe frost burns(for reasons similar to thoseoutlinedin the previous paragraph) if broughtinto contact with the skin. a leakage of a smallquantityof the liquidproduct can lead to large volumes of vapour/air mixtures and possible hazard. The boiling point of propane is around —45°C at atmospheric pressure. eg. There is no acceptable percentage or degree of leakage with LPG. doubling the pressure does not double the upper limit of flammability.0 240 —2°C secondpersonstationed outside the area to supervise.9mbar 0.2 to 10 93. For reference and further information.6°C and_101 5. extraprecautions and safety procedures must be taken in respectof marking storagevessels.1 MJ/m3 Calorific values (gross) (net) 12.8MJ/m3 1 2. In such applications. for exact values. There are special applications wherethe liquid is stored under refrigerated conditions at a lowerpressure but these applications do not normally applyto the type of projects beingconsidered here.9mbar Ratioof gas to liquidvolume at 15. the liquid boils to producemorevapour and restore the pressure.51 440 5. The space above the liquid level allows for liquid expansion (due to temperature changes) and for a supply of compressed vapourfor drawing-off by the consumer. LPG vapouris slightlyanaesthetic and may cause suffocation if present in sufficientlyhigh concentrations. the upper limit of flammability is increased but the increase with pressure is not linear. This cooling effect maycause condensation and even freezingof the watervapour in the air local to a leakage. any LPG vapourwill disperse slowly and could be ignited a considerable distance from the original leakage. LPG is normally odorised by the manufacture by the addition of an odorantsuchas ethyl mercaptan or dimethylsulphide which give LPG its characteristic odour and enable leaksto be detected by smell at concentrations downto 0. to store and transportthe product as a liquid under pressure than as a gas.6°c Litres/tonne Kgllitre Imperial gallons/ton lb/imperial gallon Vapour phase Relative density(to air) at 15. At pressures higher than atmospheric. alongthe ground to the lowest level of the surroundings. The notes in this Guide are not intended to coverall aspects of LPG installations but are a guideto the extent of information personnel engaged in small industrial.6 (psig) 130 283 Limitsof flammability at atmospheric pressure (% gas in air) 1.57 1750 0. It is morepractical therefore.57 390 5. Vessels are never completelyfilled with liquid. the Codes and Standards listed at the end of this Section should be consulted.51 1960 0.0 19. it will float on the surfacebefore vapourising. Outside this range.4% of the gas in air (ie onefifth of the lowerlimit of flammability). The liquid occupies about 1/250th of the volume needed if the product was stored as a gas. any mixtureis either too weakor too rich to propagate flame but it is important to understand that over-rich mixtures can become diluted with air and becomes hazardous.Piped gas services Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Table 10 Liquid and vapourphase comparisons Commercialbutane Commercial propane 0. There are special applications wherethe LPG is not odorised. A vesselwhich has contained LPG and An explosimeter. must be used for testing the concentration of LPG vapourin the air. This effect 1. there is a risk of explosion. for example. particularly liquid product. Alternatively. In this state.5 270 —45°C Boiling point at atmospheric pressure (bar) Vapourpressure (abs) (max) 20°C 50°C (psig) (bar) 2. The liquid takes heat (latent heat of vapourisation) from the liquid itself. the pressure in the vessel is approximately atmospheric and if the outlet valve is left open or is leaking.1 Liquid phase Relative density(to water) of liquidat 15. the metal of the vessel in contact with the liquid and from the surrounding air. gloves and protective clothingshould be worn if exposure to this hazard is likelyto occur.8 to 90 121 .7 2. However. The LPG supplier should be consulted if a leak is suspected.0 40 100 9. 86 . the flame travelling back to the source of leakage. Extreme caution must be takenwhentesting for leaksand there should always be a is 'empty' maystill contain LPG in vapour form. LPGvapour is denserthan air.9MJ/m3 General properties All personnel working with LPG should receive adequate initial and refresher trainingas appropriate. eg. When the pressure of the vapour in the space above the liquid falls. air can diffuse into the vessel forminga flammable mixtureand creating a risk of explosion. Leakage of LPG will therefore flow to low points. Goggles. properly calibrated for LPG.

bulk plants and large industrial plants. including rainwater and cooling waterapplied under fire-fighting conditions. Storage tanks should be sitedand located in accordance withTable 11. No LPG storage tank should be located in any bundwhere there is a permanent source of heat (eg. Tanks maybe installed underground but most LPG suppliers would prefernot to put tanks underground mainly because such installations have to be accessed for full internal visual examination and ultrasonic or hydrostatic testing every 5 years instead of every 10 yearsfor an above ground tank. an adjacent storage tank. No LPG storage tankshould be installed nearerthan: a.500 27.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Piped gas services LPG bulk tank location and safety distances This section covers LPG bulk storage installations at industrial. 6 metresfrom any tank containing a flammable liquid with a flashpoint between 32°C and 65°C c.00 to 60. For installations in refineries. should it be elected to erect a fence to prevent unauthorised interference. LPGstoragevessels should not be sited in locations known to be susceptible to flooding eg. unless it is a boundary fencewhenthe distances given in Table 12 will apply. beneaththe tanks b. LPG storage tanks should be installed well away fromtanks containing liquid Storagetanksshould normally be installed above ground in the open air in a well ventilated position and should NOT be installed in basements or open pits. If more than one group is required. Separation distances are intended to protect the LPG facilities from the radiation effects of fires involving other facilities as well as to minimise the risk of escaping LPG being ignited before being dispersed or diluted. verticaltank installations in the UK are not commonplace and are generally tank may solve a problem on a restricted site but the LPG suppliershould be consulted at an early stage. storage tanksshould be enclosed by an industrial type fence which is at least 1. If separation distancesare reduced.0 1.5 metres from the LPG tanks. Tanks should not be installed one abovethe other.00 4. The numberof tanksin one group should not exceed six.25 0.0 (metres) 1. Between tanks capacityof anysingle tank in a group capacity total water capacityof all tanks in a group (litres) 150 to 500 >500 to 2. building. To prevent tampering and possible vandalism.0 1. The cost of the associated attendances maymake underground tank installations prohibitive. commercial and domesticconsumers' premises wherethe LPG is stored in a tank or tanks larger than 150 litres watercapacity. For details see LPGITA publications. opening outwards to provide easy means of exit in an emergency situation.000 to 135. not adjacent to each other and preferably at diagonally opposite corners of the fenced enclosure.5 3. 6 metresto the bundwall of any tank containing a flammable liquidwith a flash point below 32°C b. No LPG storage tank should be installed within the bunded enclosure of a tank containing a flammable liquid. near riversand streams which could overflow their banks during abnormal weatherconditions. then any tank in one group should be at least7. It is preferable that the padlocks fitted to these gates should suit the masterkey systemoperated by most LPG suppliers as this can prevent problems and delays during deliveries.5 metres fromany tank in another group unless a radiation wall is erected between the groups or adequate fixed waterspray systems are provided. Around the immediate vessel area. propertyline etc).8 metres high and at a distance of not lessthan 1. Vertical cylindrical storage tanks are commercially available and although used extensively abroad. However. but specialist advice should be obtained.000 0.5 The provision of a fence need not apply to tanks of 9. of all the vessels within the enclosure) around LPGstorage tanks should NOT be used. However. Table 11 Minimum recommended safety distances for LPGstorage vessels Maximum watercapacity Maximum water Nominal LPG Maximum Minimum separation distance From building boundary. then the full provisions of the previous paragraph must be applied including the provision 87 . a. fuel oil tank).05 to 0. fencesshouldhave at leasttwo non-self locking gates.10 to 4. lockable coverto deny access to valves and fittings. The vicinity of LPG storage tanksshould be free of pits and depressions which mightform gas pockets and affect the safety of the tanks. Ensure a flowof any liquidawayfrom tanks so that othervessels or important areas are not affected. Radiation walls or adequate fixedwater drenching systems maybe provided to enable separation distances for above ground tanks to be reduced. *A fire wall may be used under certain circumstances to reduce (to approximately half) the minimum separation distances shown above. a vertical oxygen or othertoxic or hazardous substances (eg.0 1. subjectto the maximum totalcapacityof a group given in Table 11. Prevent the accumulation of any liquid. chlorine) — distances between 6 and 45 metresare not uncommon depending on the relative sizesof the vessels — but specialist advice should always be obtained.500 >2.500 to 9. The distances given are minimum recommendations and refer to the horizontal distance in plan between the nearest point on the storage tank and the nearest point of a specified feature (eg. The ground beneath storage tanksshould be either compacted or concreted and should be sloped to.000litres watercapacityor less which are provided with a hinged. more expensive.10 1. liquid oxygen or any otherhazardous or cryogenic (producing low temperatures) substances. 3 metresfrom the top of the bund wall of any tankcontaininga flammable liquid. The gates must be unlocked when the compound is occupied. pIus 10%margin. Notethat details for underground tanks have beenomiffed for clarity but details for thesecan be obtained from the LGPITA.25 to 1.5 15.500 7. reference should be madeto the publications issued by the Health and Safety Executive and the LPGITA.0 7.00 properly line (whetherbuilt or not) orfixed sourceof ignition* (metres) 2. Conventional bunds (an enclosure capableof retaining the totalcapacity. steam mains) or within the bunded enclosure of a heatedstorage tank (eg. It may be necessary to provide diversion walls or kerbs (maximum height500 mm)to ensurethat the path of leaking gas from a storage site to a specified feature is not less than that shown in Table 11.000 (tonnes) (litres) 1.000 450.000 >9.

5mfor vessels 500 to 2500 litres Figure 1 Small bulk vessel adjacent to building Vessel 1 tonne Hedge (one side only) Boundaryfence (ranch type orsimilar) Accessis required for delivering and positioning the tanks. weeds and combustible material should be kept clear froman domestic premises. The smaller domestic tanks may be off-loaded from the delivery vehicle usingthe onboard vehicle craneand then man-handled into position usinga tank trolley. A separate crane maybe required to off-load and position larger tanks. if these have not been provided.250 litres watercapacity should be electrically earthedas a protection against the accumulation of static electricity. Bulk LPG delivery tankersnormally carry a 30 metre long hose which means that the tank has to be within approximately 25 metres from the road or hard standing for the tanker. the noticesshall be attached to the tank.Piped gas services Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide 30 minute fire resisting and imperforate. Each storage tank shall be clearlyand boldlymarked: HIGHLY FLAMMABLE— BUTANE (or PROPANE as appropriate) Long grass. At leasttwo NON SMOKING OR NAKED LIGHTS notices in red on white 88 .3mfor vessels up to 500 litres 1 . Figure 2 Smallbulk vessel atdomestic premises Figure 1 shows the layout of a typical small bulk vessel adjacent to a building and Figure 2. AOTC Rules and other recognised pressure vessel codes.250 litresof water capacity and within 6 metres of larger vessels. Suppliers may charge more for the LPG if it is necessary to send a helper with the driverfor deliveries to awkward sites. in goods delivery yards. protection againstcorrosion. 0. 60 minute Should be 1 metre either side of pressurerelief valve area within 3 metresof any storage tank of up to 2. The earthingpoint for the bulk tanker vehicle and the earth for the storage vessel should have electrical continuity and shouldbe a common earth. Certain weed killers are a potential source of fire hazard and should not be used. testing and provision of tank fittingsall comply with the rules and regulations. Consumer vessels greaterthan 2. Storage tanks and fitfings Storage tanksare designed. Wherethere is a possibility of mechanical damageto LPG storage and associated equipment from vehicles(eg. of two means of exit. Access to the premises for a bulk tanker vehicle maybe required under somesite conditions. fabricated and tested in accordance with British Standards. it is usually advisable to arrange for the LPG supplier to make a 'dummydelivery' before any work commences. Storage tanks are normally purchased or hiredfrom the LPG supplier. Extended fill pipesare practicable but are normally used as a last resort in difficult commercial and industrial sites. The resistance to earthshould not exceed 1 x 106 ohms. the site perimeter fence maysufficefor security. If the bulk tanker vehiclehas to negotiate difficult bendsor steep gradients. for residentialproperly An effective earthingpoint and/or bonding connection should be provided at the consumer's storage site for discharging static electricity from bulk tanker vehiclesprior to commencing the delivery operation. The tankerdrivermust be ableto stand at the storage tank or filling pointand be ableto observe the vehicle whilst he is filling the tank. who should assumeresponsibility for ensuring that the tanks. nearsite roads etc.). a 1 tonne bulk vessel at background shall be fixedto the outside of the compound surrounding wall or fenceor. suitable protection must be provided by the use of crash barriers. tank supports. Where thereis surveillance at industrial premises. vehicle impact bollards or a noncontinuous wall not morethan 500mm in height. The sizeof the lettering shall be such that notices can be clearly readat the safety distances applicable to the installation and from points of access to the storage site.

On average. A suitable earthingconnection if the A filling connection. Drain or other means of removing the liquidcontents i. Tanks are sized in accordance with three main criteria: Vapour offtake capacity Table 12 Storagetank dimensions Nominal LPG Water capacity Diameter Overall length Approx. It should be noted that some LPG i. A first stage regulator. reduces the varying highpressure to O. A fixed maximum level device and preferably also an independent contents gauge iv. The change-over valve connects two cylinders to the pipework system and.62 *inc/uding p/atform and guardrails appropriate to the operating conditions in service: Pressure relief valve connected directly to the vapourspace ii.66 7.08 10. regulator and pressure gauge.000 litres watercapacity vessel is over 2. bunsen burners in laboratories etc. hospitals. the handwheel is turned anti-clockwise to openand clockwise to close. Table 13 gives details of the popular 89 . For permanently pipeddomestic installations with a low offtake rating.19 28. Sometimes two figures are quoted. Manufacturers of LPG mayhave different sizesand ranges of sizes of cylinders. An excess pressure relief valve is also provided. central heating boilersand fires. eg. consultthe references at the end of this section. overall Continuous off-take (m3/hr) capacity (kg) 200 600 1000 2000 7000 1200 (litres) 450 1400 2250 4500 16000 28000 (mm) 610 1000 1000 1220 1700 2172 (mm) 1675 1985 3042 4100 6782 8600 height (mm) 900 1310 1460 1685 3580° 3910° 2. It is normally quoted in cubic metres per hour (m3/hr) or in kilograms per hour (kg/hr). A second stage regulator reduces the intermediate pressure of O. Larger domestic and small commercial and industrial installations. of the surfacearea of the tank. the vapour pressure is about 7barwhen liquid product temperature is 15°C. Figure 3 and Table 12 showtypical LPG storage tankdimensions. amongst other things. The four cylinders. a relief valveto prevent pressure build up between the backcheckvalveand the manual shut-offvalveand a protective cap to prevent thread damageand ingress of foreign matter. °lI \I il I1I El I L The tank must be ableto boil-offliquid productfaster than the vapourproduct is being drawn-oft when all the gas appliances are operating at maximum capacity. A vapour off-take connection controlled by a diaphragm valve which can be fitted with a first stage For a detailed specification of tank fittings and piping. Each tank should be provided with at least one each of the following fittings suitable for LPG service over the range of pressures and temperatures For indoor applications. Storage capacity required A pressure gauge connected to the vapour space if the vessel is over 5. may require four 47kg propane cylinders.500 litres Figure 3 Storage tank dimensions v. Overall length —'=N iii. etc) and additional storage provided if necessary. two 19kg propane cylinders witha change-over regulator should be sufficient. LPG storage in cylinders The basicprinciplesdetailed in previous sectionsin respectof safety when handling and storing propane in tanks also apply to installations where the propane is stored in cylinders. single cooker. Each cylinder is fitted with a valve. To ensurecontinuityand security of gas supplies under adverse weather conditions. with a higherofftake rating. butane must be used. consult the LPG supplierof the tanks. at the container pressure of up to 9 bar. are connected to a change-over valve by means of pigtails (see Figure 4). For exact dimensions and a copyof a certified drawing. the larger the tank the larger the offtake capacity. portable domestic cabinet heaters wherethe cylinder is contained in or closeto the unit. The change-over valve incorporates a regulator to reducethe pressure to 37 mbar for the supply to the appliances. the valve automatically changes over to the two reserve cylinders and indicates that these have been brought into use.75bar downto 37mbarwhich is the industrystandard propane operating pressure for domestic appliances. (This allows for the tank beingpartiallyfull. can vary between 2 and 9bardepending on the liquid product temperature. storage should be sufficient for a minimum of six weeks gas supplyat maximum use. The consequences of the gas supply failingduringadverse weather conditions. old persons homes. etc should be considered (eg. suppliers providea combination valvefor certain sizes of tankswhich includes: A threaded filling connection incorporating a manual shut-off valve. a figure for intermittent offiakes and a lower figure for continuous offtakes. mounted on the tank at the vapouroff-take. vi. industrial action. Location for tank ii. A fixedliquid level gauge incorporating a replaceable control valve. Safety pressure relief valves protectthe vessel against excessive pressure due to exposure to heat in adjacentfacilities. eg.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Piped gas services The pressure of the vapourwithin a bulk storage vessel.30 39. The second stage regulator incorporates safety featuresto protect the appliances against excessive pressure.26 5. Tanks must be located in accordance withthe Codes of Practice and Regulations. This rate of gas production is known as the vapourofftake capacityof the tank and is a function. eg. someof the gas being used and for threeweeksadverse weatherconditions in the UK when it maynot be possible for delivery vehicles to get to the site).75bar. iii. when these two cylinders are empty. a spring loaded backcheckvalve. under normal UK weather conditions.

to BS 1387: 1987with screwed fittings to BS 143: 1968are also suitable for LPG installations.17 0. Existing joints on pipework beingconverted to LPG must be examined and if madewith general purposejointing materials and hemp.08 0. Galvanised screwedsteel pipe.0 15.5 mbar pressure drop.42 0.14 pressure drop due to friction losses. Polyethylene may be used for underground pipework but the manufacturer's instructions for jointing must be followed.9 13. All backfill shouldbe carefullyselected to remove all stones which could cause damage to the pipework due to settlement and compaction. These tables should be used to determine the diameterof the main run. with a 2. Consideration shouldbe given when sizing main runs of pipework to future extensions and/or appliances being added to the installation.5mbar between the second stage regulator and the appliance at maximum gas flow rates has been proven to give satisfactory results. medium weight. Table 14 gives recommended sizesfor short final connections to individual domestic appliances. PTFE tape or a jointing compound specifically madefor LPG must only be used.28 0.85 0. When installing Polythene pipework to convey gas it is recommended that advice from the pipe manufacturer is sought because therecould be a Figure 4 Cylinder storage sizesfor a range of fourpropane cylinders and threebutanecylinders.69 0. Trenches shouldbe dug deeper than 500mm and all stones should be removed from the bottomof the excavation beforebackfilling and compacting the bottom 75mm of the trench with sifted material. Polyethylene must not be exposed to strongsunlightduring transitand pending installation.0 Butane 4. The pipework should be supported withsifted material and a warningtape should be laid 150mm abovethe pipework to prevent possible damageduring future excavations.0 47.5 7. 15b and 15c give pipe sizes and flow rates in longer runs and higher rates of flow. Copperpipe to EN 1057 R250 with capillary and compression fittingsto EN 1254 Parts 1-5 are suitable for LPG.10 0.21 0. pipework must be of adequate diameter to pass the required rate of gas flow when all the applicances are operating at maximum output. Pipe sizing The industrystandard operating pressure for propane is 37mbarand in orderto obtain this pressure at the appliance. Pipework installations must be pressure tested and proved to be leak-free before connecting to the tank(s) or cylinder(s).Piped gas services Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Table 13 Cylindersizes Cylindercapacity (kg) Propane Overall height (mm) 337 584 800 1289 337 495 584 Maximum diameter (mm) 28 318 318 375 248 256 318 Cylinderofftakes Intermittent Continuous (m3/h) (m3/h) 3. Underground pipeworkmust be a minimum of 500mm belowfinished ground level. domestic Lights Portable fires Fixed fires Water heaters Single-point instantaneous Multi-point instantaneous Bath heaters Optional single or multi-point Sink storage Circulators Metric (mm) Imperial (in) 3/4 1/2 1/4 1/4 22 15 6 10 10 10 15 15 10 /s /8 1/2 1/2 3/ 1/4 1/4 6 6 90 . Pipework should be protected if installed in corrosive soil conditions.28 0.57 0.0 19. Tables 15a. A pressure drop of not more than 2. must be dismantled and remade or the pipework scrapped.17 0.0 0. without significant Table 14 Guide to pipe sizes for appliances Appliance Central heating boilers Cookers.28 0.General purposejointing materials with hempare not suitable for LPG.85 1.

927 14.3 2.573 23. the discharge air is normallyfree from pulsation.684 0.160 2.066 4.583 9.190 4.232 12.Again.588 3.848 3. The rotary-vane compressor consists of a rotor.105 0.635 1.431 3.532 0.462 0.746 4.6 2.289 0.090 0.60 0.763 0.370 0.410 0.822 9.311 0.313 8.76 8.201 22 28 2. rotating off centre in a cylindrical chamber.013 8.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Piped gas services Table 15a Steeltube medium grade — BS1387 Size of tube in mm Wall thickness NS LP gas Lengthoftube in metres Dischargerate in m3/h (mm) 8 10 15 ID (mm) 3 6 9 12 15 0. often at relatively low pressures.505 0.36 8.108 3.870 1.828 5.876 2.051 0.342 7.753 1.60 0.70 1.76 6.90 0.883 6.3 2.381 0.55 25.167 0.154 0. LP gas Lengthof tube in metres Discharge rate in m3/h ID Wall thickness NS (mm) 6 8 10 12 15 (mm) 4.8 0.607 0.072 0.550 0.871 General purposetube to the Quality Assurance requirements of1S09002/BS5750 Part 2 Table 15b Coppertube to EN1057-R250 Size of tube in mm .617 1.275 0.199 8.782 0.198 0.645 18.851 0.578 1.2 22 28 (mm) 4.36 6.023 20.269 0.314 0.416 0. having bladesfree to slide in radial slots.277 Coppertube to EN1057-R220 soft coils.820 13. A small amount of oil is admitted to the chamberto seal and lubricate the blades and to act as an internalcoolant.210 0.009 3.500 0.489 11. Available in lubricated and nonlubricated (oil-free) construction.539 1.478 0.599 4.528 1. The machine has a high rotation speed.151 0.409 0.187 0.341 6.241 0. screwand turbine compressors.449 4.The dischargerate for any manufacturers pipe can be ascertained when applying the specific internal diameter usingpolesformulaas shown earlier at the front of this section.373 0.953 1.945 3.96 19.252 15 20 25 30 40 50 0.046 40.2 3.181 2.116 0.036 0.323 0.261 0.0 1.835 1.545 6.362 4.90 21.772 7.641 5.080 6. The screw compressor is a rotary positive displacement machine in which two intermeshing rotors each in helical configuration.36 12.817 1.944 13.067 Previous designation BS2871 Part 1 Table X 1971 Table 15c Coppertube to EN1057-R250 half hardstraights Size of tube in mm LPgas Length of tube in metres Discharge rate in m3/h Wall thickness NS ID (mm) 6 8 10 12 15 0.828 3. There is no hardand fast rule aboutthe choice of single or multi-stage 91 .266 0.065 2.6 3.495 0.066 0.600 1.184 0.209 0.241 3.261 0.465 6.682 1.460 3. rotary-vane.306 2.914 1.163 10.471 8.230 2.147 0.743 40 50 2.217 0.339 12. This section will coverreciprocating and rotary vane compressors only.849 1.170 0.943 17.522 0.148 0.022 20 25 30 0.00 1.791 4.90 0.40 27.693 1.281 0.082 0.211 20.387 3.243 0.421 2.36 10.20 15.537 0.696 1.071 0.068 5.097 6.70 0.292 0.15 26.329 0.56 20. and is available in single or twin stages.465 0.55 3 6 9 12 15 20 25 30 40 50 0.686 3.959 0.130 0.239 3.093 0.085 0. Previous designation BS2871 Part 1 Table Y 1971 variance between the internal dimensions (ID) and various manufacturers.055 1.605 10.898 1.292 2. and are outside the scope of the normal industrial installation.363 0.60 0.149 0.492 0.457 1.011 2.60 0.533 6.590 1.00 35.778 1.964 18.673 1.847 5.298 0.turbinetypes are normally used only whereextremely large quantities of compressed air are needed.262 6.756 1.877 2.76 10. Compressed air Compressing the air There are manydifferenttypesof machines for compressing airreciprocating.347 0.294 0.380 0.064 0.101 0.2 1. there maybe one or morestages.121 0.667 5.763 15.783 2.731 0.8 0.375 2.334 11.057 0.414 0.809 0.602 4.049 0.8 1.633 1.174 28.628 1.069 1.568 10.132 0. displace and compressthe air.8 0.133 3.081 0.172 0. • The reciprocating compressor may have one or several stages.999 7.910 9.070 5.735 7.444 0.76 13.2 20 25 32 5.15 3 6 9 12 0.708 1.050 5.751 5.385 5.338 0.981 2.472 11.70 12.081 0.534 0.447 0. Rotation causes the bladesto be thrown out by centrifugal force and to sweep the compression chamber.

Cooling maybe either by air or water. however. It is essential that the flow and return pipes have a fall from the tank to the compressor to ensuregood circulation. Running cost f. Table 18 can be used as a rough guidefor compressors running at up to 7 bar (lOOpsi).2 92. the power required being appreciably lessas the pressure rises. Such compressors should not be run in a confinedspace. Type of compressor e.0 Nowadays. Preferably. A common method of compressor coolingis of course.0 95. the tank should be placed in the open-air and the top should be open to provide maximum cooling effect.0 97.1 (7 bar) 100. The watercirculatesfrom the compressor jacketto a holding tank wherethe heat is lost. But a multi-stage compressor can be morecostly to purchase and so there must be an economic balance beween the initial cost and the running cost. Even a horizontal pipewill reduce the flow rate and may induce air locks. A multi-stage machine will use less powerto compress a given quantityof air. whereas for pressures above this and for higherduties.5 93. The drawback of such a tank is that it is liableto freeze if the d. as shown in Table 17. Space h. Maximum and minimum pressures required in the system c. To avoid draining an overnight shutdown.Piped gas services Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Table 16 Final temperature (°C)ofadiabaticcompression from free airat 1. Oneof these points covers the effectof altitude on the volumetric efficiency of the compressor. There is also considerable difference in the air temperature leaving a single or two stage compressor asTable 16 will show. to provide a water jacket. Type of cooling required A tank havinga largewater surface area loses heat more quickly than a tall narrow tank. a. Pump assisted circulation For larger singlestage compressors.0 87.7 95.013 bar at20°C (SI metric units) Gauge pressure Single stage (°C) (bar) 3 4 5 6 8 Two stage (°C) 10 14 164 192 218 240 278 310 365 85 97 106 116 129 141 160 Table 17 Effect of altitude on compressor volumetric efficiency(SImetric units) Altitude Barometer pressure Percentage relative volumetric efficiency compared with sea level (m) (mbar) Sea level 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 1013 945 894 840 780 737 (4 bar) 100.0 98.7 97. or be rated on continuous duty up to 14 bar (200psi). but where information is not available. Initialcost A stop valveshouldtherefore be fitted in the cold water make-up line and on the tank outlet so that the compressor cooling jacket can be drained. although the colder the waterthe moreeffective the inter or after cooler. 92 .9 92. some form of coolingis required so that the temperature is not too high for satisfactory lubrication and to avoid excessively high thermal stressesin the machine structure. compressors having two or morestagesare used. The sizing of compressors is outside the scope of this Guide. The required water tank capacity should be discussed withthe compressor manufacturer. Typeof control to meetanticipated i. thermo-syphon circulation is too slowto dissipate the heat and a circulating pump must be installed to increase water velocity. Otheraspectswhich should be g. Air cooled cylinders are finnedand additional cooling is provided by arranging for the flywheelor a fan to direct a stream of air onto the cylinder. plant requirement Protection devices. Table 18 Coolingtank capacities Compressor (dm3/h free air) • Thermo-syphoncirculation (cfm free air) 25 50 100 150 200 300 450 600 800 Compressor capacity Tank Tank capacity capacity lo 25 50 70 100 140 200 280 350 (litres) 170 370 700 1020 1600 capacity (gallons) 40 80 150 225 360 480 700 850 1000 2200 3000 3800 4500 compressors. otherwise the high ambienttemperature will prevent adequate air cooling. air cooled compressors may have capacities up to 350dm3/s (75Ocfm).7 88. it is a good idea to fit a smallelectric immersion heaterin the tank. single stagecompressors are used for small duties and pressures up to about 7bar (lOOpsi). compressor is shutdown in cold weather. It should however be remembered that. cold water fed to the compressor jackets can be harmful. Compressor cooling Because of the temperature rise which takes place when air is compressed. Future expansion requirements b. considered include the following: Thermo-syphon circulation is satisfactory for smallsingle-stage compressors and relies on convection to circulatethe water which is heated by the compressor. It is thereforeusualto find thatfor simplicity and low initial cost. This is because it can cause watervapour in the compressed air to condense to the detriment of cylinder lubrication and also leadto possible corrosion. adequate protection of the tankfrom birds etc must be ensured. There are a numberof ways in which such a jacketcould be supplied with cooling water. but there are a numberof points which shouldnot be forgotten when sizing and choosing a compressor.

is much smallerthan the coolingtower and the elements are almosttotally enclosed offering less risk of freezing when shut down. two things will happen. particularly if the water is treated. So. poor performance particularly of items such as paint sprayequipment. The most efficient aftercoolers are usually water cooled and the lower the air temperature theycan produce. Although the compressed air discharge temperature is likelyto be on average. it is usually A furtheradvantage is that a closed C) = 0 0. the heat being dissipated eitherthrough a cooling toweror through a mechanical cooler. any ice which does form will usually melt within seconds of the compressor startingup. The use of the closed circuitdoes not mean that temperature control is unimportant. However. the line from the diversion control valve should be so valuedthat it can return the waterfrom the compressor direct to the sump instead of to the top of the tower in such low temperature conditions. the better.To prevent the towerbecoming a solid mass of ice. if allowed to pass to the nextcompression stage.the compressor must be shut down. the amount depending on the relative humidity. it also servesthe very useful purpose of condensing out the surplus water vapourwhich. If the pipework is lagged. The moisture carrying capacity of air increases with a rise in temperature. is this possible. and an automatic drain trap is the best way of ensuring that the systemoperates properly. approximately 6°C (10°F) higher than for a watercooled aftercooler. In Britain.It is also important to remember that in severe winter conditions. Withthe closed circuit. Rotary compressors Wherethe compressor is of the rotaryvane or oil lubricated screwtype it should be noted that oil is usually injected into the compression chamber to form a seal between the blades and the casing and to actas an internal coolant. its purposeis to cool the air between the stages and in cooling the air. E 0 = Cu 0. and this is best done automatically. Underaverage conditions. then there is likelyto be increased wear on tools. An intercooler is fitted between the stages of a multi-stage compressor. Ambient air is blownby an electric motor fan over a bank of finned tubes. the air blast aftercooler becomes the first choice. aftercooler or receiver). For those areaswherecoolingwater is either not available or is too expensive. Cooling the air The wholepurposeof the compressed air installation is to deliverair to the point of use in the best possible condition — clean. coil. It is important to note this latterpoint when installing compressors. The amount of waterwhich can be held by a givenvolume of air will depend on its temperature. commonly found in this first section of pipe.Should this be the case. it is a potentially bad practiceto lag the compressed air main between the compressor and the first major cooling plant (ie. Freezing of the sump in the cooling tower maybe prevented by fitting a heating lb of water per 1000 Cu ft of air Removing moisture Atmospheric air alwayscontains a proportion of watervapour. it is not uncommon for cooling towersto freeze solid. It is essential thatthe water is drained away from the intercooler and this can bestbe done automatically using one of the range of compressed air traps. the unit will still require automatic drainage by a trap. when'free air' containing water vapourunder average conditions enters the compressor. if ever. Although it is customary to lag steam mains to retain heat. throughwhich the compressed air flows. It will follow thatany coolingwhich then takes place must cause the air to shed its excess water vapourby condensing and this can be accelerated by introducing artificialcooling devices such as intercoolers and aftercoolers. An aftercooler should be fitted immediately following the compressor so as to remove as muchwater as possible before the air reaches the receiver. where mains water is used. and at this stage. Its moisture carrying capacity also fallsas the pressure is increased. possibly of greaterimportance. particularly with larger compressors. sufficient cooling can usually be maintained due to heat losses from the sump itself. to operatethem on a closed circuit. thereis a point of maximum efficiency so. Oncethe air has cooledto nearambienttemperature. If it failson any one of these counts. for reasons of economy. streamor otherdamparea. just able to carry its initial water content.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Piped gas services Closed cycle cooling It is usually better. it is well worth fitting a temperature control to the wateroutlet to keepconsumption within reasonable bounds. the high discharge temperature of the compressed air maybe sufficient to spontaneously ignite the deposits of oil. Rarely. The oil is removed from the air by a separator at the discharge and is then passed backto the sump by wayof a water cooled heat exchanger. Its ability to hold the water will decrease as the air is compressed to a smaller volume but will increase because of the higher temperature resulting fromthe compression. could condense on the cylinderwall with resultant damage to the compressor. this being highest in foggyor rainy weather or if the inlet of the compressor is adjacent or over a pond. danger will not arise. A mechanical cooler. the air will leave the compressor. dry and with the minimum lossof pressure. E preferable to use a 'three-way temperature control'. dirt. wherethe cascade of wateris cooledby forced or induced air draught. scale etc. Graph 1 Moisture contentofair (100% RH) Kg of water per 10m3 of air circuitcan eliminate jacketscaling. The water must be drained fromthe bottom of the aftercooler. Under these circumstances. Manual drainswill work only if they are attended to regularly. this 93 . this may be between 50 and 70% (RH). it decreases with a fall in temperature (see Graph 1). and the operating costswill inevitably be higherthan they ought to be. However.

The watervapour. thus making the receiver the point at which most condensed liquidwill be found.the compressordelivers 1m3/sec of free air compressedto 7 bar to the system at 25°C. Next. Being a pressure vessel and thus subject to regular inspection. 94 . The receiver also acts as a powerstorage vessel. To complywith Factory and Safety Acts.Piped gas services Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Example (SI metrió units) How much moisturewill separateout from air if the compressorinlet conditionsare 20°C and 70% relativehumidity. available pressure is lOOpsiand the minimum suitable pressure is 8opsi. available pressure is 7 bar and the minimum suitable pressure is 5.128m3 can carry: 0.24 kg of water 1 distance above the drain trap outlet.128x4 = 0. Drainage points should be provided by using equal tees and it assists in the separation of the water if these are arranged to changethe directionof the flowas shown in Figure 5. By using the formula to determine the receiver capacity. The receiver therefore acts as a pulsation damper. water taken in will be: _______ = 0. Compressortakes in 1m3/sec From Graph 1. 100 x 14. etc. The drain point is often in the centre of the dished end of the receiver or on the top. Equally. it performs two otherfunctions. it is important that the pressure pulses produced by a reciprocating compressor be eliminated as far as possible. It also makes the cu ft of free air required x 14. For some applications. all cooling and condensing should be carriedout beforethe air leaves the receiver. If excessive amounts of oil are being carriedover from the compressor. Onecompressor manufacturer recommends the following as a guideto receiver size: Receiver capacity (m3) m3 of free air required Allowable pressure drop(bar) It is useless to provide a compressed air gun to blow out particlesof swarfafter a machining operation if. Receiver capacity (cu ft) — — It is a good idea to form a distribution system as a ring main to help reduce pressure losses.5 cu ft Layout Although in an ideal system. a receiver is fitted with inspection coversand manholes. Further cooling almostalwaystakesplace in the receiver as well as fromthe distribution system.The whole of the compressed air mains therefore become additional cooling surfaces. the amount of condensing which takes placedepending on the efficiency of moisture extraction beforethe air leaves the receiver and the temperature in the mains system itself. Therefore. Apartfrom the receiver's ability to cool the air and hence deposit liquid (thatis why it is better to site the receiver where the ambienttemperature is low). By using the formulato determinethe receiver capacity. As the trap and its protective strainer will have to handle varying proportions of water. it would be On small horizontal receivers generally supplied withthe smaller industrial or garagetype compressor. 3 = 2m3 Example 2 A machinerequires 100 cu ft. If a manual drain cock is fitted to the receiver a short Important as aftercoolers are.0126 — 0. It is in fact impossible where aftercoolers are not fitted. pipe scale. dirt. In each case. an internal dip pipe is fitted to allow the air pressure to displace the collected liquidwhenthe manual drain is opened.00307kg Therefore. carry-over into the mains system is likely. (and oil mist. he squirts water all over the finishedjob. These also allowany solid contaminent build—up to be removed. rust etc. It is therefore.128rn 3 (273 + 20) Fromthe graph. 0. everytime the operator used the gun.00953kg/s Receivers very unusual for all the water vapourin the air to condense at this point. if the compressor is of the lubricated type)condenses in the receiver and collects at the bottom.0126kg/s Compression ratio at 7 bar = 7. allowingintermittent highdemandsfor compressed air to be met from a smaller compression set.91 (Table 19). the air is in the receiver for too short a time to cool down very much. important to ensure that and also. it generally indicates that maintenance of the compressor is required. On those installations wherethe compression plant is small.) are automatically removed as they collect. The general layout of the building will dictate the best positions for drainpoints but in general. oil.. This is usually sized on the actual output in 1 minute from the compressor. Whenever a branch line is takenoff the main. Example 1 A machine requires 3m3. oil and scum floating on the water surface (which mightfoul up the trap) can be periodically drained off. the storage capacity is obviously low and it is better to sizethe receiver on plant consumption ratherthan on compression output. this is not very often achieved in practice. it should leave the top of it. an aftercooler may not be fitted. 10m3 of airat 250°C can carry 0. regular cleaning is essential. the main should be given a fall of not lessthan 1 m in lOOm in the direction of air flow and the distance between draining points should not exceed 30m (lOOft). automatic drainagemay be more difficult. so that any water in the main doesn't fall straightinto the plant and the bottomof the falling pipeshould be drained as in Figure 5.5 bar. the amount of water which will separateout is: 0. There is also the possibility of corrosion of the receiver itself.we must find the volume of air after compression. these collected liquidsand solids (atmospheric dust. If these liquids are allowedto build up. Wherethis is so. a receiver must be fittedwith an adequately sized safety valve and generally a pressure gauge is also fitted. it can be very expensive to pass this water throughcompressed air operated tools. emulsion. An automatictrap can be used.7psi Allowable pressure drop (psi) alteration of extension of the existing system easier.Since its volume is proportionalto the absolute temperature and to compressionratio x 1m3 will occupy: X (273+25) = 0. carbon.7 20 = 73. Care must therefore be taken in the layout of the mains so that adequate fall is given to properdrainage points.00307 = 0. but where consumption is high and fairly constant. It is also worthwhile considering the capacityof the receiver.

but have a reduced dew point.9 so it we have 190dm3 of free air compressedto 8bar it will occupy a space of: = 21. one regeneration. Sizing compressed air mains The compressed air mains are the allimportant link between the compressor and the point of usage. All these units incur running costs of a kind. Refrigerant or chiller dryers These units are heat exchangers which will cool the air down to a theoretical dew point of 1 to 3°C (34 to 37°F) and thus precipitate out the moisture. In doing so. one operation. making it difficult to separate the waterfrom the air because much of the condensed vapourrunning Dryers There are applications where the air must not only be clean. Adsorption dryers In designing a new plant.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Piped gas services Separators Whilstautomatic drain traps will effectively dealwith any water which has collected at the bottom of the main or in a receiver of some kind.Thismay call for more sophisticated and expensive methods to lower the dew point of the compressed air. Absorption dryers as a streamof wateralong the bottomof the pipe. dry air is used to pre-cool the incoming compressed air supply. of pipe in mm Flow of free air in litres/sec 5000 Pressuredrop Air through pipe pressure in mbar/m in bar 11: 75©8O :2a0 5O 32©- : 100 iao Reference line 30 2310 :2bQ 4567-. whether it be compressed air for purging. a compressor has to work at 8bar (120 psi) to cater for pressure drop conditions whereas 7bar (100 psi) would normally meet the case. Thissolution has to be discharged periodically by a drain trap. it calls for an additional power input of as much as 10%. The system is a straightmechanical refrigeration unit with one extra facility included. install it to allowfor the normal direction of flow. the loss in each section of a system can be easily found by referenceto the Table 20. Mains which are too smallalso cause high velocity. Thereare three common systems used for this purpose. This requiresa systems and will allow moisture to precipitate out without re-entrainment. Wet compressed air is passed through one chamber until the chemical is saturated. A domestic salt cellaris typical of this type. This is a second heat exchanger wherebythe outgoing cold.35 dm3 By adding the equivalentlengths to the actual length of pipe. Sizing by velocity presents an easyform of determining pipe sizefor a given duty. or the replacement Graph2 Compressed airsizing nomogram Internal dia. it is common practiceto size compressed air mains on velocity and a reasonable figurefor all practical problems is 6-9m/s (20-3OWsec) which is sufficiently low to prevent excessive pressure dropon most At a gauge pressureof 8bar. Whilsta watchful eye must be kept on the pressure drop. The chemical absorbs the watervapour. This unit is somewhat differentfrom the small regulators used for individual items of plant. much of this watercan be removed by fitting a separator in the distribution mains as Figure 5. Main pressure reduction It is often necessary to reduce the mains pressure when supplying groups of plant or complete workshops. but it must be remembered that the duty of a compressor and the demandof the equipment is usually expressed in dm3/s of free air and that when compressed. When a separator is fitted in a ring main system. If for example. Many compressed air systems are working inefficiently because the demand has outgrown the supply — new pneumatic plant has been added from time to timewithout addition to the compressor plant or mains. they can do nothing for the mist of water droplets which maybe suspended in the air. the outgoing cold air is warmed up to around ambient temperature. will be whipped up by and carried along with the fast moving air stream. the volume will be less. These consist of a container of chemical through which compressed air passes. Table 19 shows that the ratio of compression and the actual volume occupied at any given pressure can be found by dividing the volume of free air by the rationof compression. It is thoroughly bad to install mains which are too small and cause high pressure drop. and the level of the desiccant then requires topping up. forming a solution which drainsto the bottom of the container. For most everyday applications. pressure reducing valve having quite a largecapacity and very good flow characteristics. Example 1 (SI metric units) These consistof two pressure vessels filled with wateradsorbing chemical. the second chamber is adsorbing moisture. An automatic control system alternates the chambers. 95 . Whilstthis first chamber is being regenerated by heat and/ora purge of the ultra dry air. somethought might be given to possible future demands and allowances made in the mains sizes. Table 16 shows the ratio of compressionas 8. 25 20©— -20 20— 4- 89— -10 © Mediumweight steel pipe to BS 1387 NB 1— of desiccant. steam or electrical power to reactivate chemicals.

300mbarin 125m is equivalentto 300 = 2.381ft2/lb (772 litres/kg).66 7.14 1.85 3. Weight 0.88 9.91 1. with special attention paidto periods of high load.20 1.58 50 65 75 100 125 Elbow 900 bend (long) Return bend Globe valve Gate valve Run of standard tee Through side outletof tee 0.18 0.in kg/cm2 0 = Cubic metresfree air 01 = Cubicmetres P1 = compressed air Compressed air pressure in Newtons/metre2 0 = Cubicft.37 1. 0 0 -J _ A 1 — — —— — I 12 1.70 0.66 2.64 0.Engineering Services Design Guide Table20 Resistance ofpipe fittings (equivalentlengthin m) I e of fittin g 15 20 25 0.36 0. 20 24 2 Number of laboratories Averageflow (2or more labs) 2outlets 1 litre/sec x 150% 2.37 0. air pressure is 9bar.14 0.7 q=q1 1. Table 22 showsthe amount of water which will accumulate every 8 hours in a compressed air system using 47 litres/sec of compressed air at different air temperatures and air pressure.Piped gas services Plumbing.6 5.46 1.46 0.49 0. 96 .52 6.32 0.2 1.74 1.07 0. a compressed air system would contain 7. determined by the devices requiring compressed air.7 q q1 p1 = Litresfree air = Litrescompressed air = Compressed air pressure . Graph 3 Compressed air.4mbar/m Join 9 bar on the air pressure line to 2. the estimated numberof people who will be drawingair from the system and the pattern of air use.38 1.45 1.— laboratories (1 lab) x 1 litre/sec x 150% =9 =9 litres/sec oer laboratory Peakload =6outlets Ca 0 C Co I 7 1- -A- J Rxd53.033 Q1(P + 101325 P1 + 14.98 3.8 litres/sec per laboratory . compressed air demand in a two-man laboratory may reach 9 litres/sec of free air per laboratory. P + 1.29g/litre). Pureairat 32°F(0°C)and 14.44 0. It is necessary to consider the probable use factors.76 1.91 32 Nominal size (mm) 40 0.40 0.7psi (1O1. depending on the numberof air outlets (1/8 inch orifices)in use.26 0.91 2.98 0.76 0. Pressure drop (bar) = Where KLQ2 Select pipe having a minimum bore of at least 61mm (a 65mm nominal bore pipe to BS 1387 has a bore of 69mm and would thereforebe suitable with some margin). It is basedon the following formulawhich can also be used for pipe sizes outside those shown in the table.61 1.40 1.18 0. 0.83 0. ofcompressed air P1 = Compressed air pressure psig Weight and volume ofpure air.24 0.. Join X to 300 litres/sec and produce to cut pipe size line at approximately61mm.68 3.07 0. 7e K = 800 L = length of pipe (m) o = volume of free air passing throughthe pipe (1/sec) R = ratio of compression d = internal pipe diameter (mm) a.38 1.76 1.419 litres of water in vapourform every 8 hours. offree air 01 = Cubicft.107 0.76 0.4 Table 21 Formula for converting volume of compressed air to volume offree air Air toolsare usually rated in cfm of free air.07 1. with a temperature of 32. at 5.52 2. ° ° x Example 2 Determinethe size of pipe needed to pass 300 litres/sec free airwithpressure drop of not more than 300mbar in 125m of pipe run.96 0.18 0.Where ratings of other air equipment are not given in terms of free air consumption. Volume 12.44 1.88 3.325Kn/m2absolute (atmospheric pressure).2 3.2°C(90°F).37 0.2 4.2 2.033 0=01 101325 0=01 14.08073 lb/ft2 (1.32 0.67 0. For example. Ascertainment of peak capacities for compressed air systems is largelya matterof judgement.4bar.4mbar/mon the pressure drop line and produceto cut referenceline at X.18 0.15 0.61 1.37 0.52 0.12 0. For example.24 0.52 4.49 0. The nomogram shown in Graph 2 gives a ready means for determining pressure drops through pipesoften found in industry.67 2. the following formulae may be used to convert.27 0.

892 12.176 10.413 7.188 16.779 2.929 7.8 0.249 1/817 2.385 3.908 1.5 1.548 8.6 97.33 0.6 91.803 97 .156 18.460 3.2 0.12 5.211 10 1.635 2.312 183 2.0 5.362 1.871 1.4 0.198 4.768 21.764 28.13 2.68 34 57 96 151 223 314 428 Table25 Vapour chart Temperature of air Compressed 2 0 air pressure in bars of water)________ °F (litres 2. of ofsteel tubes to BS 1387 Nominaldiameter of smaller pipe in in.121 48 54 60 66 1.92 1.905 7.287 1.25 0.977 15.369 4.3 1.963 1.678 7.88 5.0 7.5 5.92 (in) 14 13 24 30 36 42 (m) 1.681 1.05 3.38 9.5 11 0.980 8.315 8.548 8.176 10.807 6.76 0.643 0.1 — — 1 — — — 1 — — — — — — — 1 — — — — — — — — 1 — — — — /8 1/2 4.97 1.33 2.9 — — — — — 1 1.6 Table23 Discharge ofairthroughorifices Gauge pressure Dischargeof free air in litres/sec for various orifice diameters in mm 0.400 1.194 18.792 4 1.642 15.547 24. 706 11.520 4.66 4.086 20.046 12.524 20.5 3.2 43.355 0.769 6.8 — — 1 — — — — — — — 1 — — — — — — — — 1 — — — — — — — — ¾ 1 8 15 3.0 Table 24 Receivers for compressed air systems Compressor capacity Receiverdimensions Diameter Length (m) (ft) Volume 113/min m3/min 45 110 190 340 570 960 2115 3120 4400 6000 1.0 0.33 0.5 5.6 21.353 5. and mm 1/2 3/4 larger pipe (in) (mm) 1/8 1/4 /8 10 — — 1 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 4 3 8 — 1 15 40 65 20 25 32 50 75 100 number smallpipe flows served by larger pipe of Approximate — 5 125 6 150 (in) (mm) 1/ 1/4 6 8 10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 75 100 125 150 1 — — — — — — — — — — — — 1 2.570 9.0 202.5 8.6 5.893 4.4 152.871 1.570 10.082 3.22 1.4 10 15.914 3.104 4.7 5.7 8.5 35.31 0.8 2.5 — — — — — — 1 1.450 7.642 8.482 4.37 152 1.961 8.719 4.454 0.1 4 10 12.36 12461 169.5 1 (bar) 0.6 24.725 3.90 88.58 0.7 1.251 11.514 2.174 26.5 0.14 27.8 33.7 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 4 5 6 25 40 75 120 210 400 720 1130 7 10 20 30 55 100 180 300 100 190 330 530 1.9 2.6 22.901 14.276 6.127 0.164 5.980 8.2 38.980 8.614 2.984 1.44 3.060 1.993 11.2 32 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 2.795 1.0 2.628 2.419 9.8 3.33 3.381 9.1 26.558 4.921 6737 9.3 48.61 0.5 52.353 5.0 2 3 2.098 1.687 3.83 (ft3m) (m3) 0.765 12.892 2.8 1.7 32.9 5.098 1.271 3.4 32.883 6.5 8 15 2.050 5.5 9 15 1.4 6 9 2 3.703 2.160 12.530 0.514 2.082 3.433 5.899 5.110 6.958 3.839 4.415 16.5 129.548 9.431 15.438 2.495 35.628 2.6 58.946 1.213 10.92 5.63 16.066 4.3 7 1.27 4.33 0.22 1.5 10 16 27 55 90 150 2 2.841 12.540 6 0.06 0.22 0.899 5.353 5.447 13.7 4.8 1.19 5.628 2.795 1.07 1.216 6.964 8.7 3.48 19 0538 0.19 59.492 0.27 3.4 14.8 0.4 1.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Piped gas services Table 22 Relativedischarging capabilities Nominal dia.157 3.6 13 20 35 55 2 3.91 4 6 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 4.877 4.612 3.136 1.14 0.128 0.447 14.255 4.5 8 15 30 60 90 165 255 440 870 1500 2400 2.08 0.6 6.176 2.6 5 10 17 28 30 50 80 15 25 40 2.1 — — — — 1 3.709 5.8 0.8 11.

7 14.5 55.2 50. whereby atmospheric 98 .5 33.2 95.5 7.1 1.0 112.6 1.4 1.42 10.5 5.5 9.3 18.7 9.21 5.0 5.5 5.7 2.4 15.1 75mm 15.9 12.9 13. Vacuum specialist firms always measure the degree of vacuum withatmosphere at 3Oin or 760 torr.2 65.6 30.68 2.0 150.0 3.8 19.5 12.5 4.4 31.5 42.0 1.4 71.5 60.3 55.1 51.2 30.2 29. light Percussive.37 4.8 13.05 5.3 2.6 35.1 37.0 25.6 34. and ultimatevacuum as 0.2 3. heavy Rotary (eg drills.6 70.26 1.84 1.7 2.0 6.0 5.0 164.3 29.0 140.8 7.0 8.7 25.1 8.0 7. dentistry and x-ray bolus.6 1.4 45.5 98.) Spray guns 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 350 400 500 750 1000 1250 0. operating theatre.90 2.Piped gas services Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Table26 Volume ofcompressed air carriedby medium grade steel pipes.4 3.4 18.0 263.79 4.8 101.0 202. typical Laboratories.3 2.0 8.5-10 (bar) — 5.06 6.7 30.5 15mm 20mm 1.6 45.5 6.1 10.0 32.0 14.2 126. form the subjectof more specialized publications.0 210.0 4.05 6.8 23.0 3.7 0. It is written withthe object of familiarising the plumbing engineer withthe basicfacts relating to the design and installation of a pipedvacuum system.1 7.5 10.1 25mm 4.1 12.0 50mm 6.1 11.5 5.5 27. millimetres of mercuryor watergauge.1 16.01 2.0 181.1 32.4 6.53 3.8 65.2 17.3 1. ofminimum bore. and we also have the international term.2 25.03 4.0 252. breakers.0 21.9 1.2 20.5 65mm 10.9 67.8 9.5 6. should knowexactly what the client is goingto use the system for.1 1.0 Table 27 Equivalent volume of compressed airat common pressure Volume Table28 Typical equipmentconsumption of compressed air Appliance Consumption tree air Gauge pressure tree (litres) Equivalentvolume (litres) when comparedto gauge pressuresof 4bar 5 bar 7 bar 1.1 27.8 5.0 22.3 58. and is complicated further because vacuum can be identified in inches of mercury.1 (litres/sec) 16-22 2-35 0.04 5.5 115.6 8.5 6.63 1.6 103.0 2-5 16. blastclearers.06 7. It is also important that the consultant who is asked to plan initially what is loosely termed a vacuum system.3 40.7 80.2 28.3 84.1 100mm 125mm 150mm 200mm 31.08 10.4 19. we have the complex research and industrial systems whereby a vacuum of better than 10 torr is required. torr (which for the purposes of this Guide.58 8.1 32mm 3.32 7.02 3.5 15.0 158.3 35.1 1.1 Vacuum There are three elementary questions that are always asked in connection with this subject. In between these two extremes. etc. large Percussive.0 98. it can be described as a pipeddistribution systemfrom a prime mover (this generally takesthe form of an electrically operated vacuumpump). etc. bench outlets Workshop tools.0 4.0 11.42 5.0 1.1 42.8 3.4 8.1 6.2 1.5 2.5 8.2 38.0 2.6 59.6 20. Hospital personnel also refer to this type of serviceas the medical suction system.0 56.16 3.7 37.8 47.8 11. The uses for sucha service are vast and varied.9 42. Most hospitals also have a separatelaboratory system for pathology and pharmacy work. On the otherhand.8 2.3 4.5 1.0 278.89 6.4 50.3 1. small Workshop tools.1 15. diggers.1 4.0 25.2 4.0 159.8 21.0 91.5 1. and it must firstly be determined what degree of vacuum is expected at the outlet points.5 6. 46. what is it used for and by whom? In layman's terms.0 7.4 6.0 118. to BS 1387at given velocities Flowofair (litres/sec)throughmedium grade steel pipe to BS 1387.8 37.6 63.01 5-15 10-13 100-110 2-8 10-15 2-15 0.8 15.85 10.2 93.6 25.9 84.0 0.5 7.6 0. minimum bore Velocity M/s 3.6 16. is equivalent to the millimetre of mercury).0 126.0 Thissection does not cover in detail.2 68.8 3.7 5.8 77.5 9.8 2.9 44. terminating in a numberof outlet points which give facilities for obtaining a vacuum or negative pressure service. what is it.5 8.1 39.0 296.0 213. Controls.5-5.0 168.5 5.5 72.0 131.7 52.0 230.73 8.0 151.0 3.5 85.0 111. blastclearers.1 14.0 105.1 22.0 1.1 0.0 246.0 169.8 0.3 50.6 40.8 17.9 78.1 25.5 '3.0 197.5 58.005-0.2 18.2 45.7 4.5 40mm 4.8 11. there is the complete medical field for ward suction.0 131.5-5.5 4. This in itself is sometimes difficult to establish (very often because the user himselfdoes not know).0 16.0 147.0 34.2 20.6 2.9 64. whereas the engineer thinks of vacuumin reverse. the ratherspecialized highvacuumsystems (below 1 torr) which for reasons such as outgassing of line material and vapour pressure problems.52 3. There is the simple school laboratory system where students carry out elementary filtrations under reduced pressure to speed up the filtrationtime cycle.0 2.07 8.8 10.7 1.5 74.0 122.1 Air motors per kW contractors'tools.

and is not generally in use for long periods.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Piped gas services Drain tap Safetyvalve Strainer Pressuregauge Note: The isolating valves have beenomittedforclarity Figure 5 Typical layout ofa compressed air plant pressure is 0 and the ultimate is 760 torr or 30 inches of mercury. This guidetherefore uses0 as ultimate and 3Oin or 760 torr as atmosphere for the remainder of this summary. d. suction is required for quick removal of sputumetc. and the degreeof vacuumneed not exceed 150 torr. manufacturers of vacuum gauges produce scales calibrated in both ways. Also. and it is quite possible for the surgeon and anaesthetist to require suctionto be available at up to 80 litres per minute in the theatreat any one time. The free air displaced here is quite small once the initial evacuation has taken place. Ward suction The free air displacement required at the bedside outletvaries of course. the suction may be required for long periods of continuous duty. Theatre suction The free air displaced in the theatre is naturally much higher than for general ward usage. As any hospital engineerwill confirm. and on applying the suction. Theatresuction c. For instance. depending on the type of ward being served. the provision of an efficient central vacuum 99 . Wardsuction b. Dental suction e. The hospital system Apartfromthe scientific and industrial fields. Pathology and pharmacy laboratories. system will cut his maintenance work considerably.the main usage of vacuum is in the medical and medical research field which covers five main areas: a. in the respiratory ward. whereas in the post-thoractomy wards. X-ray bolus X-ray bolus This is a technique using the suction systemto evacuate bags filled with granules that are placed in position around the limb to be X-rayed. Therefore the outlet displacements can be anything from 1 litre per minute to an estimated maximum of 40 litres per minute (free air) at approximately 250 torr. from the throat. it is found that the limb will be held firmly in the pre-set position. and also at a pressure of 250 torr.

Noise carriedthroughthe wallsof the pipeline can be eliminated by interposing a simple rubbersleeve connection close to the prime mover. that the medical suction system should never be interconnected to the laboratory system. and sometimes thesetissuescan blockthe suction orifice and can both damage the mouth tissues and stop the water from being drawn away. For very low pressure or rough suction systems. and the two pumps will cut out in sequence. 10-15 torr. This should be run conveniently directto atmosphere but awayfrom windows. but this is only possible if weight of pumpsand availability of running servicespermit. Pathology and pharmacy laboratories Generally speaking. because the studentoften has to carry out longterm experiments at a controlled pressure and thereforecannottolerate the wide pressure differentials that can be allowed with absolute safety on the medical suction system. ie. both pumps will operate until the vacuum in the system builds-up.19 litres of water per second and the very suggestion of running a new 100 . the exhaustof gassesand perhaps equallyimportant. to the central vacuumsystem. On a multi-storey building. The second method. Laboratory systems The design of vacuum installations to serve university and college laboratory systems is far morecritical. When considering a pipeline installation to servethese typesof area. employs suction at a great velocity. Pipelines The actual pipelines that are provided must be designed to allow displacement of the required flow of air. There are at presenttwo techniques used.Piped gas services Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Dental suction The usage hereis mainly one of removal of saliva andwater. also they should preferably be of a design whereby they can be emptied without interference of the main vacuum line. Alternatively. It is therefore essential to establish which technique is being employed. so it is imperative that any noiseor vibration is not transferred to areaswheresuch inconvenience could not be tolerated. and it should always be borne in mind when planning hospital systems. In general. vacuum bellows with demountable vacuumunion connections are sometimes used but are naturally moreexpensive. liquids. such traps can be conveniently placed at the base of each riser. the latter being sprayed on to the dentist's drill and the site of drilling. but the degree of vacuum required is only about700 torr maximum. and the actual positioning of the vacuum units is important on three counts. Some of the modernmaterials such as uPVC pipe and stainless steel tube are also quite suitable for most systems. They are suspiciousof replacing the well-tried water jet pump with which they could control their vacuumby adjustmentto the water tap pressure. but if the exhaustcould only be piped to atmosphere via the roof at say 13m high. especially ward and theatresuctionand X-ray bolus. the pathology laboratory user and the pharmacist are the only case wherea fairly high degree of vacuum would be required ie. The formerrequiresafairly high flowat relatively moderate suction pressure. One of the most reliable and well tried materials is copper tube with capillaryfittings. and at the same time. The moderntrend of providing an efficient suction system for ward and theatre usage is to have what is known as a twin standbypumping set. coppertube is used by most vacuumspecialistfirms.8bar). in which case. the demand of the user calls for a much more accurate control of the line pressure. If the building is so designed that there are no main risers. the central vacuum pipeline pumping equipment should be grouped in one areato savethe hospital engineer and his staff precious time in maintaining hospital equipment at various points in the building. it must be borne in mind as a rough guidethat to remove 1 litre of liquid rapidly will require a free air displacement at atmosphere of approximately 4 litres per minute. known as the high flowtechnique. (This pressure should ideally be constant at between 2 and 2. The pumps will needto be positioned for accessibility of servicing and running of water coolinglines if necessary. If the client is likelyto pump over actual traps that would preclude such liquids from enteringthe pumping gear. Facilities are also provided by most manufacturers for alternating the duty pump. of the order of 50m/s. rarelybetter than 125 torr. and no damage to mouth tissues occurs. ie. Thereexists a resistance by some heads of departments in some of our premier academic establishments. then it is preferable that each branch should be individually trapped. singlestorey buildings. it is necessary to incorporate Siting of pumps Preferably. operateif eitherthe first pump failsor cannotmaintain the pipeline system within the predetermined pressure. This has one main disadvantage which is that the suction tube must be held veryclose to the tissuesof the mouth in orderto 'pick up' the fluid accumulating within the mouth.15 and 0. be leak-tight at better than the ultimate vacuum required by the user. whereas the latter requires a low flow rate at a relatively high degree of vacuum(10-15 torr). This generally consists of two primemovers interconnected to a common reservoir with all necessary cycling and safety gear. There is no reason why a series of pumps cannotbe interconnected in this way and linked in pairs to pressure switches to enable furthercapacity to be provided as and when the new extensions are added to the system. which enablesthe second pumpto The firstis the noise factor. and they will only be accepted where the risk of destruction by fire or heat does not apply. There is also the fear that bacteria from laboratory experiments couldfind their wayto patients if the systems were linked. then the boreof pipe could easily be increased to 42mm bore or greater. the pump exhaust system. The fact is that even the latest waterjet pumps will consume between 0. The 'pick up' bridge between fluid and suckerorifice in this case is approximately 12mm. the first involves a high degree of vacuum (30 torr) at low flowsand known as the aspiration technique. Oneanswer to this problem is to site the problem gearon the top floor. for example. it may be quite permissible to run a 15mm bore exhaust line direct to atmosphere at low level throughan exterior wall. The second is the case of maintenance. It must be remembered that any rising exhaust line must be trapped to avoid condensates from running down into the pumping gear and more important. The length of the exhaust line must be related to the bore of the exhaustpipe. fresh air intake or any areawhere ignition would be possible shouldflammable vapours be discharged. to prevent a backpressure. Thirdly. Not all vacuumpumps are silent. but this material will be quite unsuitable for systems where betterthan 200 torr is required. in the order of 450 torr. it is quite possible to obtain a satisfactory resultby usinggas-barrel tube with threaded fittingssuitablysealedon the threads. but one has to be careful that the vapours and condensates pumped over are not solvents of the line material. ie.

joints. then a vacuum of 15 torr can be expected. As withthe hospital system. then under-bench traps should be incorporated at a convenient position in each bench run. Even if the case is put that only a quarter of these outlets would be in use for say four hoursper day. and to find a small leak in an alreadycompleted vacuumsystem can be a very tedious and expensive business.then the problems increase considerably. This is not a convenient arrangement for most services. say for instance 1 torr. the degree of vacuumat which the whole installation is to undergo a pressure rise test. it is not at all satisfactory. the bench pipe run or the bench outlet? Such a situation could involve up to four different contractors. vacuum pump. some distillations etc. We are now at the stage where the pipelines and accessories should be discussed. the obvious solution is to first look at a water recirculation system. and provided the water is maintained at an ambienttemperature of 15°C. must be proved free fromvacuum leakage at The push-in or bayonet type of outlet is very practical provided that flowcontrol is not essential and is favoured on industrial projects. and the speed of evacuation found to be most suitable is about 6 litres per minute. only 50 torr vacuumcan be created at the bench outlet. the main distribution system. depend uponthe total number of outlets to be served. majorwork has to be carried out before the trap is exposed. If the system is to maintain a vacuumof 12-15 torr. then the ultimate vacuum would be in the orderof 100 torr as against the 15 torr at 15°C. isolation valves. causing the pumping unit to cycle at frequent intervals. ie. the distribution pipesand tanks need to be internally treated and unless the recirculating wateris filtered and cooled. but again. upon completion of the laboratory. and these cases will be discussed later. Bench outlets Thereare several goodvacuumbench valves on the market in this countryand the typesthat give a goodflow control and easy replacement of working parts are preferred.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Piped gas services university chemistry block with up to 400 laboratory places fitted with waterjet pumps is not permissible by with the Water Companies in most areas. the bench valves. the possible water consumption is goingto be about 270m3 per day. traps and most important. and on the general layout of the building. the third floor would only require a 28mm diameter floor run but the top floor would probably be best served by a 42mm main floor run. thus affecting the ultimatevacuum obtained. It is not essential thata twin standby unit The automatic unit is designed to provide a 'vacuum on tap' serviceat all timesof the night and day. many contracts are split into mains services and then benchfurnitureand services separately. The consultant or planning authority can generally base laboratory requirements on thesefigures.This riser must be suitablytrappedat the base. a 15mm copperline could serve up to four outlets on a 4 metre bench. a 22mm line would serve up to eight outlets and a 28mm line up to 16 outlets. coppertube with capillaryfittings has been found trouble-free in this pressure range. but it is essential to studythe vapourcontent likelyto be pumpedto makesure that the material chosen for the line will not be adversely affected by vapours pumped over. Its use in the teaching or research field is limited and its leak tightness in somecases is suspect. there is a tower blockof laboratories four storeys high. The laboratory steward would no doubt be responsible for emptying these traps. and all have meritsof their own. That it is designed to discharge.then the lines. because the vapours will quickly dissolve the grease and a pressure rise will takeplace. For instance. but in case of vacuum. having 50 outletson the first two floors. namelybetween 12 and 15 torr absolute. and is generally controlled by switches which operate 101 . A 15mm line to each benchvalve is preferred. for example. In seniorand research laboratories. c.but a close check should be madeduring discussion with the client and establish quite clearly what pressure is to be provided. having established that a standard system is wanted for normal filtrationthroughbuncher flasks and possibly. Due to this. 10 on the third and 40 on the top floor. However. Oneshouldcheckthat the specification states quite clearly. That it will achieve and maintain the pressure required b. traps are not considered necessary because this calibre of studentusingthe vacuum system would interpose his own trap on the bench top between the processbeing carried out and the bench valve. a rigid PVC line can be maintained at better than 10 torr. a suitable arrangement would be a 54mm diameter riser to the second floor and 42mm extending to the top floor. The sizing of the bench runs is not difficultin this pressure range. if the water temperature rose to 50°C. better than 10 torr. it must be decided whether the prime mover is to be automatically controlled or manually operated. which is a little faster than most waterjet pumps. Thesetraps should be designed to incorporate an isolation valve and an air admittance facility to enable the trap to be emptied without interference to the vacuum system. are to be carried out. but this has two main disadvantages. and as a guide. The sizesof the main runs do. It may be permissible to allow a minimum numberof waterjet pump positions which could be reserved for pumping reallycorrosive vapours that would otherwise be detrimental to the working mechanism of the central vacuum pump. If. If. and this compromise maybe accepted if it can be demonstrated that adequate protection is provided to prevent backflow in the watersystem. and it is most important that theyare not installed in inaccessible positions where Pumping units Vacuum pumpmanufacturers in this countrywhosepumps can achieve the desiredpressures are limited. The three most essential points to look for in a vacuum pumpto servelaboratories are: a. Nowadays. of course. or has facilities for dealing with corrosive vapours pumped over complaint. That its noise will not give cause for is provided. The ultimate vacuum obtainable is dependent upon the vapour pressure of water. and this trap wouldbe charged with a suitable desiccant to neutralize the particular vapourbeing pumped. the temperature will rise. and if elementary work is beingcarried out or the laboratory is to be used for a high densityof students. although many modern colleges are favouring this arrangement. Valves having a stuffing-box shaft seal are not considered suitable. and also the operating pressure at which the line will be maintained. never install metal-to-metal cone-type vacuum cocks with a grease seal where hydrocarbon vapours are present. Most laboratories will require a pressure at the bench The first two floors would have 42mm subsidiary mains reducing at the bench runs. the central vacuum pipeline system is hereto stay for sometime. outletsat least as good as a waterjet pump. However. and if a pressure of better than 12 torr is wanted. where is the fault? The To overcome the water shortage.

to run the pump exhaust to atmosphere at a convenient place. Thistype of controlled system is ideal for laboratories or research areas that have intermittent use. between their process and the bench outlet which will preclude any liquids being accidentally pumped over and also that the vapours being pumpedwill be partiallydried by the desiccant. This presents two problems. Graph 5 Pumpsizing 1000 —— — — — — — — — — — \ — 100 — — — — — — — —-y :1° O_1.5 torr. and each bench run would therefore have to be provided with its own pump and pipeline system. it will be necessaryto install the vacuumpump as closeto the outletsas possible and keeping the bore of the pipelines as wide as possible. produces very large quantities of vapourwhich obviously have to be handled by the mechanical pumpand pipeline systems. and speed of displacement required at any specific pressure. but the risk is very small because the temperature at which automaticignitiontakes place would be about 180°C which is at leasttwicethe maximum running temperature of most conventional vacuum pumps. The manually operated plant has to be turned on whenvacuumis required. no safety or cycling switches. and secondly. Although this pressure is still within the viscous flow range. As this type of systemwould generally consist of a small rotary oil-sealed high vacuum pump and motor and would be manually controlled. 160 127 60 0 6. 381 360 15 — 14. and this makes the whole question of accurately sizing pipelines a very difficult one to resolve.1 —-—- 1 — — — — — — -—. ie. When providing these smallsystemswith individual pumps. Thus. it will ensure that the small pump will not become contaminated by carelessness. then the problems are increased even further because at these pressures. and these problems would coveroutgassing of the line material. the pump only runs when a pressure rise takes place in the line.25 — 10 — 500 516 The question of explosion risk in small rotary pumps is sometimes raised.01 — — — — — — — — 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Time Single stage pump Two stage pump orcombination — 1 2 102 .. vapourcontent to be pumped. there is no real point in providing an automatic pumping unit.. — 18 20 0. it must be firmly established that the personnel using the system will interpose a desiccantflask If requests are madefor a central vacuumsystem calling for bench outlet pressures of better than 0. The main advantage withthis type of system. especially when ether-airmixtureis present. if soluble organicacids are to be pumped.37 — 600 633 —. it will be necessary to take great care in the planning and installation of the system. Certainly. we are moving from the viscous flowto molecular flow and such conditions are not generally accepted as economically practicalon a pipeline system. there may be a call for vacuum to be provided at better than 1 torr. these containing sodium hydroxide pellets mixed with indicating soda lime. the biggest hazard is to the working parts of the pump.25 5 2. the oil film in the pumpgives no protection at all to the working parts and formic and aceticacids will cause quite severe corrosion depending on the Graph 4 Comparative vacuum scale Absolute vacuum Hg Torr ins mm 760 737 711 30 29 28 27 26 25 —0 10 • 686 660 635 — 50 100 560 508 22 20 18.12 379 — 400 260 254 10. for example. It also means that a lower pressure can eventually be achieved provided that the line is leak tight. If this simple precaution is taken. the use of 90° elbows and sharp tees would not be permissible and the lines would possiblyhave to be in some othermaterial such as glass. It maybe that the systemwill be required to deal with high vapourpressure materials which even at the pipeline pressure. An example would be for a rotary evaporator in pharmaceutical research work.0 — — — — Pipe sizing The difficultyexperienced in trying to calculate pipeline sizesis bound up with the fact that is very rarelythat the designer really knows what materials are going to be pumped in a particular pipeline system. thereis sometimes a risk that because of frequent cycling of the pumps. the first is to make suitable arrangements to house the pump within the bench area without the noiselevel interfering with the user. this will add considerable life to the rotary pump.12 200 252 460 — 300 numberof outletsin use.Piped gas services Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide froma vacuum bellows. also the manually operated unit is most suitable for largeteaching laboratories wherethe vacuumservice is only required for a short period each day but because of the high percentage of bench valves in use simultaneously.This is a special requirement and to obtainsuch conditions. 0. as opposed to the automatic one is cost. 700 760 0 Atmosphere High vacuum systems In certainlaboratories. and this does mean that thereis a time delay (which varies depending on pumpspeed and line capacity) in pumping out the system. if automatic gear is provided in such areas. In fact. It is not practicable to try and obtain a 1 torr working systemfrom a central pumping set as previously described.The only wayto prevent such acidsfrom enteringthe pump is by the use of conical flasks on the bench tops. the starters and switch gear could become overloaded. The differential between the cutting-in and cutting-outpressure can be limited to about5 torr if necessary.

and this. and consideration must be taken of excess moisture that may be generated. the system is only going to handle clean. coupled with previous experience gained. say 10 torr.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Piped gas services Graph6 Vacuum pumpsizing. will not be Pump sizing for individual chamber work T = pump-down time (excavation time) F = pump-down factorfrom Graph 5 for given pressure Summary Figure 5 is indicative of air which is fairly dry. a gramme of water at. First establish usageand determine what pressures and displacements are required.FxV s 103 . To calculate the time taken to reach certain pressure in agiven systemwith a given pump: T. medical or laboratory.will evolve about 100 litres of water vapourin the system. the provision of an efficient exhaust system. ie. It has been found that the best approach is one basedon discussion with the user. Discuss the various types of outlets. copper tube to EN 1057-250 Pressureloss (mm Hgper metre) As a crude example. the case. and choose a line material which is both leak-tight at the desiredpressure and one that is functional in use. the sitingof the pumps. dry Clarifythese usages. in order that the possible vapourcontent can be considered. It must be remembered however that there is no straightforward scale on pipe sizing for vacuumsystemsunless of course. air. S = pump speed (free air displacement) V = systemvolume NOTE The suggestions alreadygiven for pipe sizing may form a useful guide for those persons who have to designor install a pipedvacuum system. which for 99% of the time. should enable a sensible sizing of the lines to be possible. VandS must be consistent units (ie. and other vapours will have a similaror even greatervolumetric effecton the system. litres and litres/mm).

Piped gas services Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide To calculate pump speed required given pressure in a given time: to reach a S= Example Oxygen and vacuumare used extensively throughout most hospitals and are usually required in the following areas: 1. 3 — Prevention and control of fire involving LPG. References ii Gas Association Codes of Practice In-patient departments of 60 litres to 1 torr in 3 minutes. — LPGCentral No. 24 —The use of LPG cylinders at residential premises. Nitrous oxide 5. 22 — LPG Piping systems — Design and installation. Medical compressed moisture free) 2. consultcurrentHealth Technical Memorandum. leak-tight rotary pumpedsystemdownto Graph 0. For recommended plant layouts. No. 2 — Small bulk installations for domestic premises. Nitrous oxide is required in operating suites. pump with displacementof 140 litres/mm and ultimate vacuum better than 1 torr is required. 5 enablespump-down time or pumpsizeto be evaluated for any clean. 1 — Installation and maintenance of bulk LPG at consumer's premises. No. Oxygen 4. 1 — Design and installation. No. Vacuum and compressed air are required in dental suites. Maternitydepartments 4. In addition.1 torr. Medical gases The term medical gases covers the following: 1. S = =140 litres/mm Therefore. Pt. and operating suitesfor patient ventilators and operating surgical tools. N20/02 is usually required in maternity delivery rooms. No. FxV Pump speed s T Pump size requiredto excavate a chamber 2. Vacuum suction air (oil and 3. Operating suites 3. FromGraph 5. F = 7 7 < 60 Hence. 3 — Periodic inspection and testing. consult specialized manufacturers and for medical vacuum. 25 storage and distribution systems for multiple consumers. Pt. Nitrous oxide/oxygen mixtureN20/02. Pt. Due allowance made for change of pump volumetricefficiency with reduction in pressure but impedance of connecting pipelines neglected. 104 . maternity units and accidents and emergency areas. Accidents and emergency areas including out-patients.

Sanitary plumbing and drainage Design of sanitarypipeworksystems Kitchen drainage 106 114 115 115 116 117 117 123 Laboratorydrainage Materials for above ground drainage systems Inspection and testing of discharge pipes Methods of waste collection Sanitary accommodation The design of building drainage systems Below ground drain renovalion Methods of renovation Rainwater systems Siphonic rainwatersystems Vacuum rainwatersystems within buildings Vacuum drainage systems 132 132 134 149 152 155 105 .

2. For primary ventilated systems thereare limits(see Figure 5) on the vertical distance between the invertof the drain connection and the centre line of the lowest discharge branch connection to the stack. although for buildings up to threestoreys it is permissible to place them externally. Single Appliances Wash basins Discharge pipe Sanitarydischarge pipework should therefore be kept as short as possible. At the base of any discharge stack. For the purposeof stacksizing. to enable the correctfunctionof each appliance. The new harmonised Standard is designed to be applicable in all EN member countries. and the 2002 editionof the Building Regulations Approved Document H. as shown in Figure 4. Annexe. withfew bends. or Secondary ventilated stack. this method is also used where recycling of grey water is required. and a second stack is used for grey water. which may be conveyed by a sanitary discharge system. Bath 'Black water' is wastewater containing faecal matteror urine. and (where permitted) rainwater. The contentof this Section is basedon System Ill. Belgium Scandinavia United Kingdom France Ill IV In addition to the genericSystem requirements. or a singleswept bendwith a centre line radius of not less than 2 times the pipe bore. A primary ventilated stack may require additional venting at the base of the stack wherethe sewer connection is likely to surcharge or where the stack is the only means of ventilating an interceptor trap.the drainconnection should be achieved by using two 45° bends.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Design of sanitary pipework systems A goodsanitarypipework system should be designed and installed to providethe following attributes: 1. kitchen. 4. 3. minimise the risk of floodingto any part of a building wherethe floor level is located below normal ground level. This section therefore incorporates these changes. branch ventpiping would be required. as shown in Figure 2. solid particles. suchas food. Therefore. and method of sizing previously used in BS 5572 has now been replaced by Part 2 of BS EN 12056. although some design engineers mayalso wish to exclude any macerated solids. The documented definition for 'grey water'is wastewater which excludes faecal matterand urine. Design basis The sanitarydischarge system. Provide efficientconveyance of dischargefrom sanitary. (see Figure 5). Figures 1-4 show the typical configurations in diagrammatic form. It includes condensate water. The additional vent stack. Minimise the frequency of any blockage. as shown in Table 1. laundry and wash-down facilities. there are essentially two piping methods: Primary ventilated stack. and with adequate gradient. Where any branch piping does not complywith the requirements for unventilated branches. Discharge stack Ventilating pipe Wash basins Table 1 System I II WC WC Cleaning eye — Ventilating stack acting Only as a common connectionto ventilating pipes Typical practicein Germany. Sink Washbasin Terminology The term 'domestic wastewater' refers to all the water. Multiple Appliances Figure 1 Primaryventilated system Discharge pipe systems Location Discharge stacksand discharge branches should be installed inside buildings. Austria. which each countryis allowed to incorporate in their own published version. Where any branch piping does not complywith the requirements for unventilated branches. whereone stack is used for blackwater. Switzerland. branch vent Figure 2 Modified primaryventilated system piping would also be required. incorporating a connection to the discharge piping on every storey. and provided with adequate pipeaccess to enable the effective clearanceof any such blockage. terminology. the design engineermust also comply withthe relevant National Annexe. (see Figure 3). and urine. Whereany sewer is likely to surcharge. Some countries have retained the two-pipe system. the effluentconveyed by a typical discharge stack in the UK is domestic wastewater. Prevent the transmission foul air in to the building. the UK National 106 The secondary ventilated system (previously known as the ventilated stack system)is used to increase the flow capacity of a given discharge stacksize. le Appliances I alleviates excessive pressure fluctuations by allowing air movement within the system. The design engineerhas a choice of four system types. . The primaryventilated system (previously known as the single stack system) is shown in Figure 1.

Offsets 671/2max Multiple. suchas when the stack connects to a septic tank. unless vent connections to every storey are included. Ventilation pipes should terminate outside the building. The bore of the vent pipeshould be not less than half the bore of the discharge stack. and can be used to terminate stack vent pipes inside the building. and no discharge branch connection should be madeto the offset between the ventconnection points.which is resistant to bird nesting and movement by vermin.Appliances Cross-connection as an alternativeto the connectionto the WC branch (not preferred) Figure 3 Secondary ventilated system In large buildings.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage Dischargestack— —Ventilating stack Washbasin Air admittanevalves Air admittance valves may be used in eitherprimaryor secondary ventilated systems. Vent piping to relieve the offset pressure fluctuation wouldbe required (see Figure 6) wheresystems are heavily loaded. or serving more than three stories. the vent pipe may be reduced to 75mm diameter. Each pipe should be fitted with a durable and secure domical cage. Whereoffset venting is used. Where offsetsare incorporated. the stack shouldstill be sizedas a primary ventilated system. it is often be necessary for the discharge stack to offset. and to prevent siphonage problems for branch discharge pipesor individual appliances. intercepting trap. on stacksserving 1 or 2 storey housing. providing theyare used within the application limits contained in the approval document issued by a Preferable Sink WC ing 67½0 max Single Appliances Bath eye arrangement Alternative arrangement tioss-connectionas Jan alternative to the connection to the WC branch (not preferred) -Ventilating stack Application (mm) Single dwelling up to 3 storeys in height 450mm 740mm Buildings up to 5 storeys in height 1 storey Buildings up to 20 storeys 2 storey Buildings over 20storeys I Ventilating pir Cleaningeye Figure 5 Requirements at the base of primaryventilated discharge stacks European Technical Approvals body. or where a sewer is prone to surcharge. if the termination point is not less than 900mm above the top of any window or natural ventilation opening if within a horizontal distance of 3m. These valves are available in a range of sizes. Offsetsabovethe highest discharge connection to the stackdo not require venting or the use of large radius bends. such as the BBA and WIMLAS. The valves open automatically on sensing negative air pressure within the system. Figure 6 Offsetventing Termination of ventilation pipes At the top of a discharge stack. the vent pipediametershould be equalto the stack's. the bends should have a centreline radius of not less than 2 times pipe bore. This is generally achieved. Consideration should also be made in relationto adjacent roof structures likely to cause ischarge stack Ventilating stack Ventilating pipe Sin WC 67½ max Single Appliances iCross-connection as analternative to the connectiontothe WC branch (not preferred) Cleaning eye )ischargestack Branch 67½0max Multiple Appliances Cross-connection as an alternativeto the connectionto the WC branch (not preferred) indicated unless vented Figure 4 Modified secondary ventilated system Extendto below if required Direct connectionto discharge stack Connectionto discharge branch (75mm branch or bigger) 107 . thus allowing air ingress only. However. positioned where the emission of foul air does not cause a nuisance.They should not be used where positive pressure ventilation is required.

then there is a risk of self-siphonage of the trap. and should be terminated withan accesscap. If these stacks are unavoidable. and bottle. or fitted in close proximity to the appliance. or attached directly to the appliance outlet. It is advantageous to connect otherappliances. as regular pipe access to clear deposition is usually necessary. then they should be located where regular access will not pose a threat to hygiene. then an air admittance valveshouldbe used instead of an access cap. spilloverhead There are essentially two types of trap.if the stub stack is located inside the building. preferably including hot waterdischarge. Kitchen sinks withtwo or three bowls may be provided with an outlet manifold and a singletrap.Sanitary plumbing and d!ainage Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide wind basedfluctuating pressure zones and mechanical ventilation inlets. but in additionthe water reservoir can act as a dilutionfeatureand to intercept small accidentally dropped objects. The minimum depth of trap seal for various applications is given in Table 2. and shouldbe connected to a drain. stub stack. but in any event not less than given in Table 3 and 4. If the configuration of a discharge pipefrom a single appliance does not complywith the requirements for unventilated branches. 9 or 10. not to a trapped gully.and thereare limitson the heightof branch connections. Waste traps Every sanitaryappliance should be provided witha trap. On showers. to allow flushing. and no outletplugs Appliances with an outlet bore of 50mm or larger All other appliances 50mm H Air gap 40mm 38mm 50mm 50mm 75mm 3m maximum I arrangements dishwashers 18-45mm/rn 40mmpipe to stack or gully — H =600-900mm depending on machine Unventilated branch discharge pipes The general requirements for unventilated branch discharge pipes are given in Table 3. sometypes are noisyin use. The minimum boreand gradientof the discharge pipe should be as recommended by the appliance manufacturer. but should be limited to a cumulative loadof 51/s. They may be installed either internally or outside the building. as deposition (particularly with soft water) and problems due to foaming detergents can occur. and it is not possible to complywiththe dimensional or flow limitations. and any bends should be swept(not the 'knuckle' type). which is adequately ventilated. If less than 75mm ensure that at least 25mm water sealis retained after every discharge. either as an integral part of the appliance. Stacks serving only kitchen sinks and/or washing machines Stacks serving only kitchen sinks and/or washing machines should be avoided. a ventpipe should be provided (see Figure 20 and 21). a trap may be positioned up to 750mm fromthe outlet. tubular. Resealing trapsand anti-vacuum traps are available where self-siphonage may be a problem. They are essentially a short vertical extension from a 100mm drain. 25mm (minimum) ventilating pipe (to atmosphere) do not connect to ventilation stack Machine hose Watertight connection Table2 Minimum depthof trap seal Use Seal Baths& showers which Machine hose Maximum limit to suit drair rodding access Figure 7 Stub stackverticallimits Stacks serving only urinals Stacks serving urinalsand no other appliances should be avoided. Ventilated branch discharge pipes The general requirements for ventilated branch discharge pipes are given in Table 4.There should not be more than one trap on the discharge pipework from any appliance. Kitchen sinks and macerators should only be fitted with tubulartraps. for ease of maintenance. In which casea resealing trap. and the avoidance of a stack connection on the bottom storeyis desirable. The length of the branch drain serving the stub stack should be limited as required for correct drainage accessibility. Alternatively. Stub stacks Stub stacks may be used as a method to connectdischarge branches from ground floor appliances to drain. Waste disposal units & macerators Branch dischargepipesservingwaste disposal units and macerators shouldbe connected to a discharge stack. Access cap above The purposeof the trap is to providea non-mechanical barrier to prevent the escapeof foul air into the building. but in any event not less than given in Table 3 and 4. discharge to a stack Baths& showers located at ground floor level which discharge to a gully having a grating Wash basins with spray taps. They can be used to connect the discharge froma group of appliances in a bathroom and kitchen. (see Figure7). Washing machines & dishwashers Branchdischargepipesservingwashing machines and dishwashers should be connected as shown in Figure 8. 40mmpipe to stack or gully 108 . Only tubulartrapsshould be used.The minimum bore and gradientof the discharge pipeshouldbe as recommended by the appliance manufacturer.or direct to drain. An alternative method to a trap is to use a proprietaryvalve (see Figures 22-26). anti-vacuum trap. Figure 8 Upstanddischarge pipe for washing machines and Figure 9 Discharge pipe arrangements for washing machines and dishwashers with low leveloutlets Note: The height of commercial dishwashing machine outlets may limit trap sealdepths. or small air admittance valveshould be used.

this mayresultin noisydischarge.02 3. 6. 18 mm. pipe length (m) 1. 18 mm.0 3.0 3. Bowl urinal4 Trough urinal Slab urinal5 Food waste disposal unit6 Sanitary toweldisposal unit Floor drain Branch serving 2 to 4 washbasins Branch serving several bowl urinals4 Branch serving 2 to 8WC's Up to 5 washbasins with spraytaps7 40 40 40 40 75 100 40 0. Bowl urinal4 Trough urinal Slab urinal5 Food waste disposal unit6 Sanitary towel disposal unit Floor drain Branch serving 2 to 5 wash basins Branch serving 6 to 10 washbasins8 Branch serving several bowl urinals4 Branch serving 2 ormoreWC's Up to 5 wash basins with spraytaps7 Diameter (mm) Max. Excluding Iflongerthan 3m. 13 and 14) Wash basin orbidet Diameter (mm) 32 32 32 Max.5 1. 18 mm. 13.0 453 2 No limit4 None 1.5 1. 18 to 44 1.5 1.02 3.0 10.5 1. 20 and 21) Wash basin or bidet Bath or shower Kitchen sink Domestic washing machine or dishwashing machine WC with outlet up to 80mm dia. No limit 1.longerslabsshould have more than one outlet.5 1.0 7.5 18 to 44 No limit No limit No limit No limit4 No limit4 No limit4 No limit4 No limit4 No limit4 No limit4 No limit None Nolimit4 3. 1. Table 4 Limitations for ventilated branches Appliance(SeeFigures 12.0 3. drop (m) vertical pipe 3. Everybasin mustbe separately ventilated. number of bends None1 None1 None1 21 Max.0 3. 18 mm.0 3. 50 to 100 50 50 100 32 15. Wash basins must not be fitted with outletplugs. 18 to 44 18 to 44 18 mm.5 1. 18 mm. For up to 7people. 54 mm. 18 mm.0 3.longerslabsshouldhave more than one outlet. 18 to 90 18 to 90 18 to 90 135 mm.not 'knuckle' bends.0 3.0 3Q3 No limit No limit3 18 mm. 7. 3. 135 mm.0 3. this mayresultin noisydischarge. For up to 7people.7 1. pipe length(m) 32 40 40 40 40 75 100 40 50 65 3. Includes smallpotato-peeling machines Wash basinsmustnot be fitted with outletplugs.0 40 mi 40 mm. 14. Max.0 4.5 3.0 3. 2.5 1. 18 to 44 0 l8to 90 9 to 902 1. 18 mm. num ber of bends 21 Max.not 'knuckle' bends. and there will be an increasedriskof blockage. 6. Excluding the 'connecting bend' fitteddirectlyorclose to the trap outlet. and there will be an increased risk ofblockage. drop (m) vertical pipe None None None None 1. Iflongerthan 3m. 8.1 Pipe gradient mm per m run Max.0 No limit None None No limit No limit None 9 mm. WC with outletover 80mm dia. 18 mm.7 3.0 3.0 3. the 'connecting bend'fitted directlyorcloseto the trap outlet.02 18 to 22 18 to 44 18 to 87 18 to 44 18 to 90 18 to 90 18 to 44 18 mm.02 Pipe gradient mm per m run 18 mm. Shouldideallybe as short aspossible to limit deposition problems. 18 mm. 5.0 No limit No limit 3. Sweptbendsshouldbe used.5 1.0 3.5 None 2. 18 mm. WC with outletover80mmdia. 4.0 3.5 1.0 3. 50 to 100 50 50 50 100 32 3. 5. 109 .0 3Q3 50 65 40 mm.5 1. Should ideallybe asshort aspossible tolimitdeposition problems.5 1. 7.0 3. 12.5 1. 54 mm. Includes smallpotato-peeling machines. 18 mm. No limit No limit No limit4 No limit No limit4 No limit3 No limit No limit 3. 40 mm.0 3.5 Bath or shower Kitchen sink Domestic washing machine or dishwashing machine WC with outletup to 80mm dia.0 No limit No limit No limit No limit No limit No limit No limit4 No limit4 No limit4 No limit4 No limit4 No limit4 No limit4 No limit. Swept bends should be used.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage Table3 Limitations for unventilated branches Appliance(SeeFigures 11.0 3. 3. 4.

Prevention of cross flow — large diameter pipes To prevent the discharge from a large branch (e. Figure 13 Combined discharge branchfora bath and wash basin Connecting bend For maximum length SeeTable Iventilating pipe (if required) 50mm pipe to 50mm above spill-over level of WC. the latter should not be connected to the stack within a verticalheight of 200mm belowthe larger branch.A horizontal bend may be included in the40mm horizontal pipe. Trap at 90°to discharge branch having Figure 11 Branchlimitations for unventilated brancheswhere no verticaldrop is permitted 1.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Inlet nozzleforfixing machine hose outlet and hose clip Sink outlet Washing machine or dishwasher manifold 25mm (minimum) branch ventilating pipe ifrequired Figure 10 Sink manifold connection for washing machines and dishwashers For maximum length See Table ink Discharge stack Plan view For maximum length See Table3 750mm maximum 18-45mm/rn trap Cross section view (every appliancevented) 750mm maximum 18-45mm/rn Cross section view •mumlengthseeTh3or4 For max Elevatio Figure 12 Combined discharge branch fora groupofwashbasins (or urinals) 25mmventilating pipe NOTE: l. 2. the maximum dropfrom the centre of discharge branchmustnot exceed 1 .WCbranches should not be opposing unless theyareat45° oruse proprietary fittingsknownto prevent crossflow. Appliance trap scharge no vertical drop branch schargestack Elevation Dischargestack For maximum length. See Figures 15 to 18.WC)from affecting a smaller opposed discharge branch connection. Trap aligned with discharge branch having no vertical drop fromthe limitations shown may cause selfsiphonageor backflow into the bath. 2. then reduce to 25mm (mm). Wherethis cannot be achieved. The wash basin may be fitted with a re-sealing or anti-vacuumtrap instead of installing the branch ventilating pipe.g. (see Figure 19). (see Figure 16). or a proprietary 'Collar Boss'could be used. see Table3 or4 Notes I b. a parallel branch can be used. 3. (see Figure 18). IfWCbranches aremounted vertically. Any deviation Appliance Lgebr:nc trap a. Whenbackto backWCarrangements areused. Figure 15 Example connection for smalldiameter branchpipes ofpermittedstack also Ut_ pcasible 110 .5m. Figure 14 Combined discharge branch for a groupofWC's Prevention of cross flow — small diameter pipes Opposed small diameter branch discharge connections to stacks (without sweptentries) should be arranged so that risk of the flow from one branch affecting anotherbranch is avoided.

2. Mm distA 200mm Figure 18 Restricted stackconnections for adjacent small& large diameter branch pipes Exceptwhere forming a secondary ventilated system. The boss inletscan be adapted for 32. 40 and 50mm connections. The angleof the shoulder atthelower end of the fittingdeflects water smoothlyinto the stack and prevents impingement bywater flowing down from above on the internalsurface of thestack. and only the bath DU should be included in the total. Cross-flow is prevented as the annularchamber protects the small diameter connections from the WC discharge. They should be connected to the discharge pipe no furtherthan 750mm from the trap. The - Figure 17 Restricted stackconnections for smalldiameter branchpipes Stack dia. or extended outside the building to form a ventterminal. and the ventilating pipe sloped downwards towardsthe ventilating stack. 1. mm 75-1 00 Centre line of branch not to be belowthis point maintain equilibrium of pressure within the sanitary discharge system.or32mm branches high underthe throat of a 110mmuPVC WC branch. The first task is to add up all the discharge units applicable to a discharge stack. the shower should be ignored. or used for offset venting. the maximum rating should be assumed. Table 5 givesthe discharge unit values (DU). pipesshould have a bore of not less than 25mm.and to allow multiple low level discharge pipes to be connected to the stack above floor level. in litres per second.Boss' (see Figure 19) was specifically designed to overcome the installation difficulty imposed by the 200mm restricted zone. Top of 'Collar Boss'is shaped to introduce 40mm. 9.Where a shower mixer is located over a bath. for common appliances. fitted with an air admittance valve. allowing wastewater to flow freely and merge below the critical zone. whilstthe discharge fallsdownwards around the internal surface of the vertical pipe. (see Figure 20). but if longer than 1 5m or includemorethan 5 bends. and the relevant manufacturer should be consulted. Where the type of WC is unknown at the design stage. and decision on whether a secondary ventilation stack is required depends on the peak designflow from the connected appliances. the pipe size should be increased to 32mm. Readers familiar withthe 'domestic group unit'included in BS 5572will notice that this approach has been discontinued. movement of air keeps pressure fluctuations to a minimum. The values for WC's are dependent on the designof the appliance. However. 3. mmin) parallel branch M = Maximum discharge branch length Figure 20 Branch ventilation 750mm maximum Figure 16 Example ofpermittedstack connections foradjacentsmall& largediameter branchpipes Stack dia. The purpose of this is to allowspace for a core of air within the centre of the stack. Dimensions selected for theannularchamber do not impede waterflowing fromthe bath. The sizeof a discharge stack. and is valid for System Ill. Alternatively a 'loop vent'arrangement could be used (see Figure 21). The top end of a ventilating stack may connectto the discharge stack above the spill over level of the highest appliance. mm 75 100 125 150 Mm dist A mm 90 110 210 250 Centre line of branch notto be below this M = Maximum discharge branch length Figure 19 'CollarBoss'fitting Figure 21 Branch 'LoopVent' it Ventilating pipes The purpose of ventilating pipes is to Centreline of branch not to be abovethis point Capacitiesof stacks The maximum capacity of a discharge stack is normally limited to aboutone quarterfull. and thus prevent the depletion of trap seals by siphonage. in orderto prevent any trappedcondensation interfering withthe free air movement. or likelyto change.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage 'Collar Boss' system The 'Collar. and extend upwards not lessthan 50mm above the spill over level of the WC pan before reducing in size. Theyshould be provided with a continuous back fall towardsthe branch discharge connection pipe. 111 . vent pipe connections to WC branches should be not lessthan 50mm. To reduce the risk of blockage. for most practical applications the method explained in this Section will yield similar results. or compression.

3= 2.3 0. Thesevalvesare particularly useful for situations where waterseals would be lost by evaporation — for example.4 7. e. so °tot = 4.7 1. Example 2 Q The Water Regulations & Byelaws in the UK do not allow the use of7.thereforethe bottom storey must connect separately to drain (see Figure 5).6 2bathsxl.2 1. office Frequent use.21/s. following equation explains further: + °tot = 0ww + Where: K = 0. For 10 storeys.0.2 + 0.The pipesizes relate to the pipe bores which have traditionally been used in the UK. 75mm* 100mm 150mm Litres/sec = Qtot: 5. so Table 7 MaximumcapacityofPRIMARY ventilated dischargestacks Mm.5 V78 = 4.2—1. Table 5 Appliance Wash basin or bidet Shower withoutplug Shower with plug Single urinal with cistern Slab urinal (per person) Bath Kitchen sink Dishwasher (household) Washing machine (6kg) Washing machine (12kg) WC with 6lcistern WC with 7. restaurant. dwelling.2L/s. hospital Congested use.) The valves are available in 32mm (11/4') and 40mm (11/2') body size. and by using the following equation: Qww = K v'DU Where: Table6 Usage ot appliances Intermittent use. guesthouse.3 This means that a system fitted with valves in place of waterseal trapswould be self-ventilating. >DU: 6. a 100mm primary ventilated stack has a limit of 5. The.51/s. Stack & vent Vent 75mm* 50mm 100mm 50mm 150mm 50mm 3.5 6.g. 75. 0. 100 and 150 sizes is 44. e.3 0. e.5 or9 litre WC flushing cisternson new installations.Both Table 4 and 5 are based on 'swept entry' equalbranches.3 1.2 2WC'sxl. comprising of bathroom. a decision about the stack size. and laundry equipmenton the 5th floor with a peak dischargeof 0. the information isprovidedforuse in connection with existingsystems. then closesautomatically when the flow stops or the pipework system pressure reaches eqilibrium with atmosphere. school.4 0. holiday homes.51 cistern WC with 91 cistern DV (L/s) Mm.6 0. 75. there will be air conditioning units on the roof with a peak dischargeof 0. so Q & O = zero.Secondaryventilation is not required. 0. and ventilation principlecan be made by referring toTable 7 and 8.6 — 2.4 1. en-suiteshower room and fully fitted kitchen. or a 100mm secondary ventilated stackand 50mm secondary vent.2 7. hotel. so this sizeis adequate.0 1.6 x 10 = 66 = Wastewater flow rate (l/s) = Frequency of use K DU = Sum of discharge units Before the stack selection can be made.4 2 wash basins x 0. together with 871/20 knuckle elbowand running adaptor.3 0.2 1.421/s K = 0.421/s FromTable 7.7 = 2 wash basins x 0. or to allowair to enterthe pipework system in the case of negative pressure.g.3 * No WC's allowedon 75mm stacks Example 1 opportunity to reconsider his system design.6 1.4— 1. As the namesuggests.8 x 10 = 78 to26.The each stack will serve one apartment per floor.7 + 0.8 Assume a primary ventilatedstack is adequate.5 0.7 /66= 5. DU: 7. these valves opento allow the flowof waterfrom the appliance.7= 3.3 = 1 bath = 1 shower = 1 kitchen sink = 1 washing machine= 1 dishwasher = 3.0 = 0. and 146mm respectively.4 0.2 0. Practical considerations would dictate the best choice.6 Assume a primary ventilated stack is adequate.6 6.3 0. a 150mm primary ventilated stack.g. stack & vent 1.4 * No WC's allowedon 75mm stacks Table8 Maximumcapacityof There are two options. toilets and/or showers opento the public Special use. whilst still meeting the mandatory requirement of Building Regulation ADH.therefore the bottom storey must connect separatelyto drain (see Figure 5).6 1. for example a proprietary fitting such as the collarboss (see Figure 19) is only available in the 100mm size. e. laboratory DU per typical floor: K 0. (See manufacturers' detailedinstructions.71/s 2.4 1.5. These valves and their function are described in Figures 22 Determine total design flowrate and stack requirementsfor an 11 -storey block of apartments.The theoretical minimum bore for 50.2 12. stack & vent 1. The peak design flow can be assessed by applying a frequency of use K factor (see Table 6) to the total sum of the discharge uiiits.3 18. 112 . °tot = Total flowrate(Its) = Wastewater flowrate(Its) = Continuous flowrate (Its) SECONDARY ventilated dischargestacks Litres/sec Self-sealing waste valves The recent introduction to the plumbing marketof wastevalvesto replace the waterseal trap offers the installeran = Pumped flowrate (Its) Once the Q0 value has been obtained. The valves are designed to open between 3 and 6mb and will remain sealed against 400+mb back pressure.41/s Q = 0.7. Determine total design flowrate and stack requirementsfor an 11 -storéy hotel. DU perflat: 2WC'sx 1.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Not all sanitaryappliances will be in simultaneous use.6 5. any othercontinuous or fixedflow must be added to the Qwwvalue. For 10 storeys. often reducing the amount of pipework required.1. condensate drainsfrom chillers and air conditioning units. which are required in the UK.7 1. 96.3 = 0.The stack will servetwo en-suite bathrooms on each floor. Universal compression outlets are used for making connections to either push fit BS 5254 or solvent weld BS 5255waste systems.0.g.8 1.

it is important that they carry performance certification by a third party approvals body acceptable to Building Regulations. then carry out a 38mm (50mm Scotland) watertest. c.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage Testing of waste valves 1 No40mmvalve 1 No 40mm valve Because these devices do not depend on a water seal in a trap. Urinal Pedestalbasin 1 No 32mm valve 1 No 32mm bent adaptor Standards As thesevalvesare not covered by British Standards. typically: a. eg WIMLAS or BBA. Soundness testing— First flush the appliances to ensure free flowof waterthroughthe valvesand clearance of possible site debris. No40mmvalve 1 No 40mmbent adaptor 1 Bidet Figure 25 Urinal& bidet Countertop basin j 1 No 40mm valve lNo4Omm bent adaptor Sink 1 No32mm valve 1 No32mm cap & lining 1 No32mm bent adaptor Bath or shower 1 No 40mm valve 1 No 40mm straight adaptor Figure 22 Bath orshower Q Washing machine Ducted basin Figure 24 Singlewashbasin Figure 23 A range of wash basins Figure 26 Sink & washing machine 32mm 32mm Accesscap 50mm 50mm 32mm 40mm Using32mmself sealing valves 40mm Using32mm water seal P traps 113 . b. Performance test for WC water seal retention should be carried out. Performance testingfor retention of water seal on applications fitted with the valveis of course irrelevant. manyof the guidelines related to prevention of seal loss contained in the previous pages need not be applied.

suitable to receive hightemperature discharges. to prevent grease coagulating. Vegetable paring machines should be fitted with a waste dilution unit and Branch discharge pipes In viewof the high proportion of solid matter and greasefrom kitchen appliances. The greaseseparator(or grease trap) should be designed and located to promote cooling. in Pumped installations Where kitchen drainage has to be pumped. e. It is an advantage if other appliances can be connected to the discharge pipe upstream of the macerator connection. Strainerbaskets can be included to retain vegetable matter. It is essential that pipework should be robust and. the waste should discharge over a suitable container which can be emptied as required. and any bendsshould be of a largeradius. bainsmarie. . It is recommended therefore that kitchen drainage systems should not be closely linked withthose of otherparts of the building complex and that separate drainage stacks be provided where kitchens are located otherthan on ground floors. coating of any electrodes or controlswithsiliconewill inhibitadhesion of grease to their surface. Provision should be made to facilitate the hygienic removal and disposal of the grease. coagulation and retention of the greasewithin the trap and sized to achieve maximum efficiency. The discharge pipe should connectdirectlyto a drain withoutan intervening gully trap. vegetable paring machines and wastedisposal macerators. 'flat' gradients should be avoided. d. items of kitchen equipment suchas steaming ovens. Consideration should also be given to the general natureof the waste matterto be discharged sincethe reduced flow velocity through the trap will allowsolid waste matter in suspension to settle and collect in the trap reservoir. The pipes from appliances which discharge wastewater containing heavy concentrations of solid matter. Thes valves must not be connected to a common waste pipe or drainwithout an intervening appropriate situations. provide a chemical drip feed of a greasedissolving type into the sump Specific requirements a. an adequate ventilated system of drainage is necessary. b. The temperature and velocityof flow of the wastewater should allow the grease to separate and collecton the surfaceof the waterin the trap reservoir. designed to ensurea natural flow of work and seldom permitthe grouping of the appliances to give the best conditions of drainage. The unit automatically skims off the grease into a containerfor removal and recycling. As it is of primary importance that there shouldbe no lossof water seal in traps on kitchen appliances. Sinksand washing up machines must be individually trapped and connected directlyto the building drainage/plumbing system. Backflow problems Backflow can occur and manifest itself in the kitchen system if a blockage occurs downstream at a point wherethe kitchen systemjoins the main system in a large complexor if effluentspass down stacks from floors above and throughthe kitchen system. it is essential that the pumps and sump are regularly maintained.Theseare retention units which maintain the wastewater at sufficient temperatures to allowthe grease to rise to the surface and remain liquid. in positions permitting effective use Floor drainage Floorchannels. Grease separators The Building Regulations Approved Document H requires that a grease separatoris provided for kitchens in commercial hot food premises. If an effective greasetrap is not installed prior to the sump. an open top gully with sediment bucket should be provided for dischargefrom mobilesinkswhere these are to be used in vegetable preparation areas. for the trap to be completelyemptied and cleaned periodically to limit the build-up of settled matter which inhibits the effctiveness of the greasetrap. the wasteshould be trappedand connected directlyto the building drainage/plumbing system. Drain-off valves on food containers should be of the full way plug-cock type with quick release bodiesfor easy cleaning.g. Ideally. Provision should also be made 114 Traps Traps up to and including 50mm diameter should be tubularwith a 75mm seal and preferably of a two piece type for easy access. to assist withthe discharge of the waste material. greasetraps should be located externally and siting of grease traps within kitchens shouldbe avoided if at all possible. should not be connected to the head of long runs of horizontal waste pipes. An hygienic alternative to greasetraps is a grease removal unit. In no circumstances should they be sited in food storage or preparation areas. c. Branch discharge pipesfrom macerators should be as short as practicable and connected directlyto a main discharge pipe or stacks. Access Access points should be above spill-over level of the appliances at risk and located without nuisance. However.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Kitchen Drainage Drainage (above ground) Kitchens are of necessity. boilersand cafesets shoulddischarge over a drip tray or fixedtundish having a trapped waste pipe connected to the discharge system. air break. e. open gullies and gratings in kitchens. Where practicable. food preparation and washup rooms harbourdirt and grease and if not properlyfitted can be hazardous to pedestriantraffic. The gradientshould be at least71/20 (135mm/rn) to the horizontal although steepergradients are advisable. They should be connected as closeas is practicable to the main drainor discharge stackso as to gain the maximum flushing advantage from appliances with highwastewater discharge rates. In situationswherethis is impracticable. Materials Only smooth bore materials should be used for any system of drainage pipework but particularcare is required when selecting materials for drainage from restaurant kitchens. This form of drainage is unhygienic and should be avoided. Similarly.

It is also important to knowwhetherany allowancefor future alterations or extensions is to be made. ISO/TR 10358 and ISOffR 7620 maybe consulted respectively. by other flowand allowed to dry out along the pipe line. If a holding tank is installed for monitoring purposes. Whetherthe pipematerial and pipe jointing method can withstand the chemicals and/ortemperature involved d. e. but each instance must be considered on its own merits. Discharge pipes must be sealed throughout their run to the sewer which shouldbe as short as possible. Vertical distribution is ideal for laboratory premises with repetitive planning on successive floors and also when dealing with alterations. Sanitary/laboratory appliances should be easyto clean. The type. discharges carrying a high proportion of paper or macerated materials should be kept separate. b. Selection When designing a laboratory drainage systemthe following factors require consideration: Design of stack layout There is divided opinion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of either horizontal or vertical stack layout but the latter is to be preferred for discharge systems and will generally permita large degree of planning flexibility. by similar fittings serving groupsof appliances or by dilution chambers constructed below ground level as part of the drainage system. The character of any added discharge should however be taken into account.g. the better. Borosilicate glass (primarily for laboratory waste) Heavy duty polyethylene (primarily for laboratory use) j. NOTES: When considering the chemical effects on any piping. so as to minimise possible damageto final drains and sewers. Dilution The greaterthe dilution of laboratory wasteobtained. and not to combine wastes by continuous branch discharge pipes passing througha numberof laboratories. Materials for above ground drainage systems General drainage system it is essential to have considerable knowledge of the materials that are available and their fixing and jointing techniques. Types of materials a. despite the fact that the best material for the job should be selected. Cost and availability of any nonstandard products. weight. UPVC (Unpiasticized polyvinyl chloride) h. quantity. f. Laboratory drainage General At the outset of any designof a laboratory wastesystem it is imperative to ascertain and receive written confirmation from the client as the type and probable quantities of effluents that will be discharged. itis advisable toseek written confirmation from the manufacturer. c. Obviously this will be easier where vertical stack layout has been adopted. mayhave a tendency to gel or produce an undesirable chemical effect and therefore will needto be kept separate until sufficient dilution has occurred in the system. PP (Polypropylene) i. sufficient dilution will occur. k. matterlikelyto turn septic must be excluded. particularly to avoid the risk of blockage. once the wastes discharge into a main stack. f. g. and temperature of chemicals. if combined in a common branch discharge pipe. flammability. The design must therefore take into consideration ease of replacement. The designer shouldconsultthe user about the pattern of usuageand monitoring procedures. also the disposal position b. For most practical purposes. and should be freely accessible for inspection and repair. intermittent radioactive discharges should be well flushed out to main drainage. d. Heavy duty polypropylene (primarily for laboratory use). For plastics and rubberseal rings. As a general rule it is preferable for each laboratory to have its own connection(s) to the main stack(s). the life expectancy may well be less than for ordinarydischarge systems. or whether treatmentis required c. expansion. etc. The routing of pipesmust take into accountareas which mightbe put in hazard by leakage. Ease equipment of future alteration and repair. Radioactive pipe runs must be labelled at points of access. Properties of piping. producing few problems on their own. The trappedgully should be fitted with a solid hinged flap set flush withthe floor and kept closed when not in use. Dilution may be achieved by individual dilution recovery traps (catchpots). chemicals each 115 . Boiling pans should be drained separately over removable tundishes into trapped gullies.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage f. Whether the effluentmay be conveyed direct to the sewer.g. but which. a. For a well designed above ground Incompatible wastes The designer should always bearin mind that chemical wastes maybe incompatible e. Cast iron Copper Galvanised steel ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) HDPE (High density polyethlene) MUPVC(Modified unpiasticized polyvinyl chloride) g. as their effect is invariably confined to the laboratory concerned. Any small or Replacement Due to the nature of discharges from laboratories. e. A secondary system of containment may be considered necessary. Whether the pipejointing process requires any specialist knowledge or e. dilution strength.

In practice. . everytrap must retain not lessthan 25mm of water seal. Each test should be repeated three times. Wherea stack services bathsonly. accessshouldbe provided at 3 storey intervals or less. sufficient access should be provided to enable complete systems to be tested. A smokeproducing machine may be used which will introduce smoke under pressure into the defective pipework. To test for the effectof self siphonage. branch.The seal remaining in the trap should be measured whenthe discharge is finished. one branch being connected by a flexible tube to a manometer. Traps and joints that are easily disconnected can be an advantage so additional access is required only under exceptional circumstances. Regular maintenance is therefore required and access shouldbe provided so that all parts of the stack. Defectsrevealed by an air test maybe locatedby the following: a. the water test should not be used. traps being recharged before each testand the maximum loss of seal in any one test should be taken as the significant result. the test then being carried out as previously described. Reference should be made to Local Authority and other enforcing authority Table 9 Numberof sanitaryappliances be discharged performance to for testing Type ot use Number 01 appliancesat each kind on the stack WC Numberat appliancesto be dischargedsimultaneously Wash basin Kitchen sink 1 1 1 Domestic commercialor public to 9 10to24 25to35 36to50 51to65 1 to 9 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 3 3 4 — 19to26 27to32 53to78 Congested lOtol8 2 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 — 7OtolOO 1 to 4 5to9 lOtol3 14to26 27to39 40to50 51to55 56to7 71to78 79to90 9ltolOO 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 These figures are based on a criterion ofsatisfactory serviceof99%. Smoke producing equipment should not be used where plasticpiping has been installed. Leakage can be observed as the smoke escapes. hence theseappliances neednot normally be discharged. forsystems servingmixedappliances. In general. under test. the pressure maybe applied by passing a flexible tube from a tee-piece attached to a manometer Performanceof testing systems In addition to a test for air or watertightness.8mbar (38mm) water gauge and should remain constant for a periodof not lessthan three minutes. with a valveon each branch. test plug inserted into open ends of the pipeworkto be tested. air is introduced into the system through the other branch of the tee-pieceuntil the desired pressure is shown on the manometer scale. baths are ignored as their use is spreadover a period and they do not normallyadd materially to the peak flow. everydischarge pipe installation should be tested for stability of the trap seals on the system. Soapsolution can be applied to the pipes and joints. the air test is used for soundness.Any defects revealed by the test should be made goodand the test repeated until a satisfactory result is obtained. but if the watertest is applied. it should be used only up to the level of the lowestsanitaryappliance connected to the system. requirements. In multi-storey domesticbuildings.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Inspection and testing of discharge pipes Workshould be inspected and tested during installation. Where the vertical discharge pipe has a long connection to a manhole. To applythe test. particularly where pipework passesthroughareas where blockages and leaks cannot be detected. accessshould be provided at ground floor near the foot of the stack. The water seals of all sanitaryapplianceswhich are installed should be fullychargedand a 116 c. the numberto be discharged simultaneously in a test should be the same as for sinks. For the purpose of this test. care beingtaken that all work which is to be concealed is tested before it is finally enclosed. The discharge from urinals can give rise to heavy deposits. especially in hard waterareas. Normally. The flow load fromurinals. one basin and one sinkfrom the top floor of the building with any other appliances to be discharged on the floor immediately below. spraytap basinsand showers is usuallysmallin most mixedsystems. wasteappliancesshould be filled to over flowing level and discharged in the normal way. One testingplug shouldbe fitted with a tee-piece. b. discharge pipe and trap can be readily cleaned. access should be provided at each floor level. each plug being sealed with a small quantityof water. The worstconditions occurwhen appliances on the upper floors are discharged. Leakage can be detected by foaming. throughthe waterseal of the trap of a sanitaryappliance. When subjected to the appropriate discharge tests. Alternatively. Air test An air test shouldapplya pressure equal to 3. the numberof appliancesto be discharged togetheris given in Table 9. A proprietaryaerosol leak detection spray. Accesspoints should be carefullysited to allowthe entry of cleaning and testing equipmentand consideration also be given to adjacent services. A reasonable testtherefore is to dischargeup to one WC. To test for the effects of probable maximum simultaneous discharges of sanitaryappliances. this slightlyoverestimates the probable hydraulic loading. leakage can be detected by the formation of bubbles. Final tests should be applied on completion of the installation both for soundness and performance. it may be necessary to limitthe pressure applied because of shallowtrap seals. When testing old systems. and then only in new systems. In publicand commercial buildings and morecomplex drainagesystems.

Bath/shower Wash basin Sink 1 1 1 NOTEI Where en-suite facilities are provided there shouldbe additional provision of toilets for visitors & staff. in some hardwater areasthe spray 6. limitations. 1 may be in the bathroom Dwellings on one ormore levels e. Compression systems are available which reduce the volume to between 1/3rd to 1/12th.g. Kitchen waste disposal units are a means of disposal of food waste and for commercial and industrial use. Table 10 Dwellings Type of dwelling Appliances Numberper dwelling 1 for up to 5 persons 2 for 6 or more Remarks Dwellings on one level e. It is advisable to consult specialist suppliers. Reference shouldalso be madeto BS 6465: Part 1. can affecteconomies and performance. Composting refuse in agricultural areas is considered the most economic method of disposal. 6. rollertowel iii. who should be advised of special requirements and where an alteration 7. Automatic waterflow for hand washing. where 1 WC is provided. to the layout. The planning in most instances is performed by the Architect. Hand drying facilities can eitherbe i. Soap solution dispensers. Sanitary accommodation 1. However. nozzles rapidly become blocked with lime scaleand in somesoft water areas. Refuse collection and disposal methods used should be determined in consultation withthe Local Authority. 2. 4. can be achieved (i) hydraulically (ii) pneumatically (iii) electrically. 5. disposable paper ii. The use of wall hung or concealed outlet typeWC pans makes for easier cleaning. Sanitary towel disposal can be carried out by incineration. Operation other than by hand can lead to removal of taps completelyfrom basins and this can lead to a reduction of cross-infection. Spray mixertaps produce savingsin water consumption. Refuse chutesprovidean economic solution in multi-storey and similar type buildings.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage Methods of waste collection 1. houses and maisoriettes Bath/shower Wash basin Sink WC 1 1 1 1 for up to 4 persons 2 for 5 or more Exceptfor single persons accommodation. 3.g. 4. hospital refuse should be disposed of by maceration (nearas possible to the disposal source) or by incineration. the WC should be in a separate compartment. within structural 2. Hand rinsebasins have founda ready use in general toilet accommodation. Owing to its varied nature. 1 may be in the bathroom. The additional maintenance costs may outweigh any savings made in water and fuel costs. economies in pipework and fuel costs. Where 2WC's are provided. Adequte precautions must be taken to prevent entry of rodents into the bin storage area and also to minimise the entry of flies. Where 2WC's are provided. 117 . the WC should be in a separate compartment. bungalows & flats WC Exceptfor single persons accommodation. maceration or by collecting bins for storing and bulk disposal. warm air electric. 3. gelling of soap residues occurs in branch discharge pipes. flushing etc. 5. where 1 WC is provided. fed from local reservoirs provide a ready alternative to the provision of bar soap.

Table 12 Residential homes and nursinghomesfor elderlypeople. Wash basin Sink WC Wash basin Sink Bath/shower An additional WC May be provided in the bathroom. NOTE 2 Attention is drawn to the Workplace (health. Type ofaccommodation Type of accommodation Appliances WC Bath Wash basin WC Wash basin WC Washbasin Sink Bucket/cleaner's sink Bed pan cleaning/disposal Wash basin Numberrecommended 1 1 1 Remarks Residents per 4persons per 10 persons1 An adjacent wash basin is also required Staff to each bedsitting room At least2 for non-residential staff2 1 1 1 In WC compartment In WC compartment Visitors Kitchen Cleaner's room Other As appropriate 1 In each cleaner's room Service area In each medical room. non-residential staff toilets and kitchen areas. Sitzbaths with handshowers (not fixedoverhead) and/orshowerunitssuitable for use by residents in wheelchairs orsani-chairs. approaches andaccesses shouldbe capable ofbeing usedby disabled persons. hairdressing. NOTE 3 Attention is drawn to the Department ofHealth and SocialSecurityLocal Authority Building NoteNo. As appropriate 1 NOTE 1 Where en-suite facilities are provided. chiropodist. Safety and Welfare) Regulations. sanitaryappliances shouldbe in accordance with table 11 118 . toilets for visitors and staffshouldalso be provided. Should be available for use by visitors. 2 and the National Assistance Regulations 1962. or grouped Appliances Numberper dwelling 1 Remarks WC Bath/shower . Adjacent to common room Additional provisions for communal facilities Common room for WC self-contained or grouped Wash basin 1 1 1 The pan try or kitchen for Sink self-contained or grouped apartments Laundry room forgrouped apartment schemes Cleaner's room Sink Washing machine Tumble drier Bucket/cleaner's sink 1 1 1 1 in each cleaner's room NOTE 1 Manypersonsusing this type ofaccommodation may have disabilities therefore the layoutofrooms. The numbermay varyin differentparts of the country. maybe suitable alternatives.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Table 11 Accommodation for elderlypeopleand sheltered accommodation Typeof accommodation Self-contained for 1 or2 elderly persons. apartments for 2 less-active elderly persons Grouped apartments for less-active elderly persons 1 1 1 1 1 1 Not less thani per 4 apartments Some may be Sitz baths or level access showers Minimum number required. 2 Where residential accommodation is providedfor staff.

factories and other non-domestic premises used as place of work Sanitary appliances for any groupof staff Numberof persons Numberof WC's at work Numberof washing stations 1 Table 14 Facilities for customers in shops and shopping malls Salesarea of shop bOOm2 to 2000m2 Male Appliances WC 1 1 Urinal Washbasin 1 Toilet for disabled people WC 1 Urinal 2 Washbasin 2 Toilet for disabled people In proportion to the size of the net salesarea Female 2 Nil 2 1 lto5 6to25 26to50 51to75 76to100 Above 100 1 2 2 3 4 5 3 4 5 2001m2 to 4000m2 4 Nil 4 1 One additional WC and washing station for every unit orfractionof a unit of 25 persons Alternative scaleof provision of sanitary appliances for use by male staff only Numberof men at NumberofWC's Numberof urinals work Greater than 4000m2 ltol5 16to30 31to45 46to60 61to75 76to90 92to100 Above 100 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 1 2 2 NOTE This table ofrecommendation scaleofprovision forcustomers appliesto shopshaving a netsalesarea in excess of 1000m2 NOTE2 In this table ithas been assumed thatthe customers will be 50% male and 50% female.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage Table 13 Staff toilets in offices. shops. I 3 3 4 One additional WC for everyunit or fraction of a unit of 50 men provided at leastan equal numberof additional urinals are provided. 119 . For differentproportions the accommodation levels will have to be adjusted proportionally. NOTE1 Where workactivities resultin the heavysoiling ofhands and forearms washing stations shouldbe providedfor staffas follows: 1 per 10peopleat work(orfraction of 10) up to 50people 1 additional washing station foreveryfurther20people (or fraction of20) NOTE2 For facilities fordisabledworkers andvisitors attention is drawn to the building regulations NOTE3 Where sanitaryconveniences providedforstaffare also used by the public the numberofconveniences specified shouldbe increased at leastone. foreach sex as necessary to by ensurethat staffcan use the facilities withoutundue delay NOTE4 In certainsituations where securitynecessitates separate provision for visitors. this should be sitedin oradjacentto the public area. NOTE3 For shopping mallsthe sum of the floor areas of the shops shouldbe calculated and used with the above table.

1973 and 1979 NOTE6 For Northern Irelandattention is drawn to the statutoryrequirements ofthe Department ofEducation (Northern Ireland). to include a wash basin sitednear toa WC. 1981 an 1989. NOTE2 Attention is drawn to the Workplace (Health. 1 per 10 boarding pupils May be provided as alternative to not more than 3/4 of the minimum numberof baths 1 NOTE1 For the purposeofthis table 'fittings'is the sum of WC's and urinals. NOTE3 Attention is drawn to the needfor facilities for the disposal ofsanitarydressings. Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992. NOTE7 Attention is drawn to the Education (SchoolPremises) Regulations. Wash basin Bath Shower per 3 pupils for the first 60 boarding pupils: 1 per 4 pupils for the next 40 boarding pupils. For boarding schools attention is drawn to the Education (SchoolPremises) Regulations 1981 and 1989. adviceshould be soughtforthe Department of Education NOTE5 For Scotland attention is drawn to the SchoolPremises (Scotland) Regulations 1967. NOTE10 For toilets fordisabledpeopleattention is drawn to the Department ofthe Environment Design Note 18 1984 (12) 120 . NOTE9 Medical accommodation should be providedcentraily in all schools.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Table 15 Schools Type of school Appliances Fittings Numberrecommended 1/10 ofthe numberof pupils rounded up to the next nearest whole number Girls: all fittings Boys: not more than 2/3 of fittings should be urinals Remarks Special wc only Urinals and WC Washbasin Shower As for secondary school Although not required by statute. school Although not required by statute. it is suggested that sufficient showers should be provided for physical education At leastone per floor 1/20 of the number of pupils. Not lessthan 4. these requirements may be reduced to suchan extent as may be approved in each case. At least 2 basins per 3 fittings Nurseryand play Boarding Shower Bucket/cleaner's sink/slop hopper WC Wash basins Sink WC Asfor primaryschool At leastone per floor 1 1 1 1 per 10 pupils (not less than 4) perWC per 40 pupils per 5 boarding pupils Where sanitaryaccommodation for day pupils is accessible to and suitable for the needs of boarders. 1 for every additional 5 boarding pupils. Rounded up to the nearest whole number Girls:All fittings 1 in each washroom. Not less than 4. Rounded up to the nearest whole number Primary Bucket/cleaner's sink/slop hopper Fittings WC only Urinal and WC Wash basin Shower Girls:All fittings Boys: not more than 2/3 of fittings should be urinals As forsecondary Bucket/cleaner's sink/slop hopper Secondary Fittings WC only Wash basin . it is suggested that sufficientshowers should be provided for physical education At leastone perfloor Aggregate of 1/10 ofthe numberof pupils under 5 yearsold and 1/20 of the number of others. NOTE4 For educational establishments notmentioned above. upon which this table is based NOTE8 Changing accommodation andshowers shouldbe providedforstaffengaged in PE where pupils have achieved the age of8years.

facilities should also be providedinaccordancewith Table 19. concerthalls and similarpremises without licensed bars: 2 for up to 40 females 3 for 41 to 70 females 4 for 71 to 100 femalesplus 1 for everyadditional 40 females or part thereof Urinal Wash basins Bucket/cleaner's sink concerthalls and similar premises without licensed bars: 2 for up to 100 males plus 1 for every additional 80 males or part thereof 1 per WC and in addition 1 per 5 urinals 1. Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992. Table 17 Hotels Type of accommodation Appliances/facilities En-suite Staff bathroom Bucket/cleaners' sink WC Wash basin Bathroom Bucket/cleaners' sink Numberrequired 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Remarks Hotel with en-suite Accommodation Hotels and guesthouses withouten-suite accommodation per residential guestbedroom Containing bath/shower. theatres. single-screen cinema 100% occupancy is assumed). wash basin and additional WC Tourist hostels WC Wash basin Bathroom Bucket/cleaners' sink per floor 1 per 9 guests 1 per bedroom or 1 for every 9 guests in a dormitory 1 per 9 guests 1 Containing bath/shower. NOTE 2 Attention is drawn to the necessity toprovide facilities for the disposal ofsanitarydressings. (For NOTE3 Where buildings forpublic entertainment havelicensedbars. plus 1 per 2WCs or part thereof or part thereof Adequate provision should be made for cleaning facilities including at least one cleaner's sink In single-screen cinemas. theatres. based upon the capacity of the bar(s) andassuming equalproportions ofmale and female customers. 121 . theatres.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage Table 16 Buildings used for public entertainment Appliances Males Females WC In single-screen cinemas. NOTE 5 Attention is drawn to the Workplace (Health. NOTE 1 In the absence ormore reliable information it should be assumed that the audience will be 50% male and 50% female NOTE 2 In cinema-multiplexes andsimilarpremiseswhere the use offacilities will be spreadthrough the opening hours the levelofprovision shouldnormally be based upon75% oftotal capacity andthe assumption ofequalproportions of male andfemale customers. WC and wash basin per 9 residential staff At least1 on everyfloor per 30 bedrooms 9 guests per per bedroom per 9 guests Containing: Bath/shower. NOTE 3 Forprovision offacilities associatedwith buildings usedforpubilc entertainment. 18and 19. NOTE4 Attention is drawn to the necessity toprovidefacilities for the disposal ofsanitarydressings. concerthalls and similar premises without licensed bars:1 for up to 250 malesplus 1 for every additional 500 males or part thereof For single-screen cinemas. Safetyand Welfare) Regulations 1992. wash basin and additional WC per floor NOTE 1 For stafftoiletsattention is drawn to the Workplace (Health. restaurants and ilcensed bars see Tables 16.

canteens andfast food outlets Appliances WC For male customers For female customers per 100 up to 400 males. Tables 10-20are extracts from BS 6465 Part 1: 1994 reproduced with the kind permission of BSI under licence number 2002SK101 40. singinganddancinglicences should be as for licensed bars. NOTE 3 Attention is drawn to the necessityto providefacilities for the disposal ofsanitarydressings. 122 . Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992. For over 400 males. singing anddancingshouldbe separated forcalculation ofoccupancy the provision oftoilets shouldbe in accordance with Table 16. add at the rate of 1 per 250 males or part thereof 1 1 2 per 50 up to 200 females. The licensedarea forpublic music. For over 200. cafés. add at the rate of 1 per 100 females or part thereof Urinal Washbasins Bucket/cleaner's sink per 50 males 1 perWC and in addition 1 per 5 urinals 1 perWC or part thereof Adequate provision should be made for cleaning facilities including at leastone cleaner's sink NOTE 1 In the absence ofmore reliable information itshouldbe assumedthat the customers will be 50% male and 50% female. NOTE 3 Forprovision oftoilets foremployees andstaffsee table 13 NOTE 4 Public houseswith restaurants shouldprovidefacilities as forlicensed bars but restaurants should have additional separate toilets in accordance with table 18. plus 1 per2 WC's or part thereof 1 per 10 males per 10 females NOTE I NOTE2 NOTE3 NOTE4 Toilets shouldbe providedforstaffin accordance with table 13 Toilets shouldbe providedfor spectators in accordance with table 16 Attention is drawn to the needto providefacilities for the disposal ofsanitarydressings In this tableit has beenassumedthatthe ratio ofswimmers using the pool(s)wiil be 50% male and 50% female. In manyother situations a ration of50% malesand 50% females may be appropriate. Table 19 Publichouses and licensed bars Appliances For male customers For female customers WC for up to 150 malesplus 2 for every additional 150 malesorpart thereof 1 for up to 12 females plus 1 for 13 to 30 females plus 1 for every additional 25 females or part thereof 1 Urinal Wash basins Bucket/cleaner's sink 2 for up to 75 males plus 1 for everyadditional 75 males or part thereof 1 perWC and in addition 1 per 5 urinals 1 per2 WC's or part thereof Adequate provision should be made for cleaning facilities including at leastone bucket/cleaner's sink NOTE 1 Occupancy should be calculated at the rate of4 persons per3m2 ofeffective drinking area (EDA) NOTE2 In publichousesa ratio of 75% male customers to 25% female customers maybe assumed. and Table 20 Swimming pools Appliances WC For male bathers Forfemale bathers 1 per 5 females for up to 50 females plus 1 for everyadditional 10 2 forup to 100 malesplus 1 for every additional 100 males or part thereof females or part thereof Urinal Wash basins Shower per 20 males per WC and in addition 1 per 5 urinals or part thereof 1 1 1 1. NOTE 2 Attention is drawn to the Workplace (Health. NOTE 4 For establishments with licensed bars see also Table 19.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Table 18 Restaurants. NOTE 5 Public houses with publicmusic.

However. Externalwall line All drainage systems shouldbe designed to be as simple and directas possible. All changes in gradientshouldbe at an inspection chamber or manhole. to facilitate ventilation of the system. 225mm x 100mm Inspectionchamber Manhole 22 22 45 45 Traditional WasteGully Rodding Point system gully 123 . thus minimising the problems associated with foul smells. togetherwithsome general commentary regarding larger drainage systems beyond those directly associated with a building development. installation required that all manhole branch inverts should be joined level with the horizontal centreline of the main stream drain. this is not Figure 28 Rodding Point Gulley Rodding point system Acomparison ofsystems Figure 27 Rodding Point Table 21 Maximum spacinqof access points Distance to 1 From access fitting 2 From junction or branch (m) - From inspection (m) 22 45 22 45 45 45 From manhole (m) 45 45 22 45 45 90 (m) (m) 12 Start ofexternal drain Roddingeye Accessfitting (1) mm. both in the horizontal and vertical planes. The drain soffit should invariably be level. if these can still be clearedof blockages. and drain runs between access points should be laid in straightlines.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage The design of building drainage systems The scope of this section is to provide guidance for the designof foul and surfacewater systems constructed in the ground under and around buildings. and changes in direction and gradient should be minimised and as easy as practicable. Historically. where it is unavoidable drains may be laid to slight curvesin the horizontal plane. However. gases and the creation of positive and negative pressures. l5OmmxlOOmm 12 22 — 22 — 22 12 22 22 45 or 159mm dia — — Accessfitting (2) mm. All vertical stacksshould terminate with long radiusbends. Access points should be provided only if blockages couldnot be clearedwithout them.

createsthe average and peak dry weatherflows found in the main publicsewers. There is no practical limitto maximum velocity. the method of dealing with the problem will depend uponthe capacity of the downstream receiving sewer under flood conditions. the initial vertical discharge energyis lost and the depth of flow flattens out. both for new and existing systems. and also that a roddable gully is used. Branches from individual gullies and sanitaryappliances may be square.1 9. but it is widely accepted that 3.75m/s to maintain self cleansing. drop. The reasoning behind this approach is extended as follows: 1. . All drainage systems shouldbe designed using an appropriate method. The rodding point system gully. whenthe manufacturing standards and quality of materials was much lowerthan it is today. 100% gradient= 300mm diameter drain laid at a gradient of 1:300. a hydraulic jump and a reduced flow rate. plus a long radius bend where necessary to minimise turbulence. Any rise in water level above this figure will cause increased frictionalresistance.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide relevant to one-piece chamber branches or chamber bases that are factory formed.3 15. such as from a WC. in which case a gradual rise or fall in the system velocity is relatively unimportant. This will allow for changes in site development. Table 21 shows the maximum spacing of accesspoints.3 (30%full) should be connected into the main streamwith a 45 degreebaron bend or 3/4 slipper bend. refer to CIRIA guidelines. close to the bottom of the stack or appliance. (for surfacewater drainage only) such as car parks or flood plains should be considered. the bottom of the slopingdrain may become surcharged causing flood water to issue from low level gullies and manholes.flow restrictors and temporary retention of flood water at the top of the ramp/s plus the sealingof low level manholes can be used to prevent or reducethe surfacefloodingof low lying areas. Where this cannot be achieved. allowthe horizontal drain to flowat an acceptable velocity and the increased velocity down the backdrop can be attenuated at the bottomof the 124 The popular myth of a self cleansing velocityin foul drains.0 >1 *Minimum of 1 WC Minimum of5 WCs If it is not possible or economic to achieve sufficient storage of storm water in the drainsystem. The maximum depth of flowfor stormwater in estate drainage generally should not exceed 75%. steep draingradients should be avoided. For guidance on Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. commonly known as a syphon bell gully is becoming more commonly available within the UK from both European and British manufacturers. In hilly districtsit is sometimes necessary to use ramp drains. Discharges in branch drains are intermittent and normallystart in the form of a short wave. Main surfacewater drains may be laid at a gradient equal to their diameterin millimeters e. larger drainage schemes may be calculated using computer programs and cross checked by a few long hand calculations. and are designed so that everyaspect of the system is roddable. the ingress of ground water. Most difficult site conditions can be overcome with backdrops. Here again.) (litres/sec) 4. manufactured prior to the 1950's.g. However. this attenuation occurs because at all normal gradients. It is imprtantwhen designing a rodding point systemto ensure that the maximum spacings of access points as given in the Building Regulations (Approved Document H) and BSEN 752 Parts 1-7 are observed. the local authority may require the design and installation of flow restrictors and temporary storage/retention of flood waters. Figure27 shows a 'traditional' UK design.. any continuous velocityshouldtheoretically not be lower than 0. which provide a considerable improvement by comparison to their predecessors. Modern drain pipes. Branch drains carrying low volume intermittent flows from individual fittings and stacksshould be laid to steeper gradients than main drains that carry the dischargefrom multiple stacks and buildings. which is not truly roddable..2 2. Wherever possible. Gradients and velocities should be kept low or reduced over the total length. volumeand transitional capacity/storage of the system. As the numbers of discharges from branches and buildings increase.8 6. vitrified clayand spun iron are made in longstraightlengths. Drainage systems should be designed to provideconstantor gradually changing velocities at the design proportional depth of flow. so does the diversity of use. Pipe gradients The maximum flow rate in a drainoccurs at a proportional depth of 82 to 83%. then suitable areas for surface flooding. With the exception of backdrops and ramps. with limited and lessaccurate hand calculated hydraulic formula. Understorm conditions. All have true and smooth bores. This improvement in standards and quality allow draingradients to be reduced whilststill maintaining an adequate velocity at the calculated depth of flow. flow (litres/sec) <1 Pipe size Minimum gradient 1:40 1:40 1:80 1:80* 1:15O Maximum capacity (mm) 75 100 75 100 150 (1 in . shows a very simplewayof sizing a scheme for small drainage systems. Unless there is a continuous discharge of waterto maintain the hydraulic depth of flow. thus leveling out the flow. and the same system designed using the rodding point principles. manufactured from plastics. Figure 28 shows a rodding point system gully against a traditional UK waste gully. was arbitrarily set in the earlyVictorian era. and a marginto allow the free ventilation of the system and spare capacity for infrequent peak storms. Some sewers surcharge under storm conditions and where this situation occurs. the top of the wavetravelsfasterthan the water in contact with the invert. which will tend to maintain the full surcharge condition. Some sewers have spare capacity.6 metres/second should not be exceeded. Both systems complywith Building Regulations (approved Document H) and BSEN 752 Parts 1-7. A relatively new development in the designof UK drainage systems is the adoption of the 'Rodding Point System'. and this will tend to increase the drain sizes. However. it is not possible to achieve a constant velocity. National standards of workmanship and supervision had not been established and muchdrainage work was beingdone for the first time. As the wave travels down the branch drain. togetherwith an extended time of travel. Table22 Recommended minimum gradientsfor foul drains Peak All drainage systems should be designed to flow at a constant velocity. This. which minimises the needfor manholes or inspection chambers within a building. Table 22 which is taken from the Approved Document H to the Building Regulations 2002 for England and Wales. all designs should avoid marked changes in velocity from one sectionof drain to another. provided the maximum capacities are not exceeded. but any branch that may run more than a proportional depth of 0.For small sites and individual buildings long hand calculations are invariably used.

This factoris only dependent on the geometry of flow. Germany. so that arithmetical checks can 125 . a uniform rate of rainfall intensity is not appropriate. Graphscan overcome the difficulties encountered with the older style charts. Unpaved areas are generally assumed not to contribute. Asia and some Scandinavian counties have for some years.75m/s as for foul drainsand sewers. The whole of the rainfall on impervious areas should be assumed to reachthe drains. A rate of 50mm/h is commonlyused for such areas. and is defined in terms of the angle (0) subtended at the pipe centre by the free watersurface. but higher rates maybe applicable in specific circumstances and reference should be made to BS EN 12056 in these cases.3m/s shouldbe allowed for in orderto avoid possible obstruction due to the build up of solid matter not beingcarried along by the water. maximum 2. andmodifications to the drainage design made where necessary. the use of the 'Wallingford Rational' method for the design of storm sewers is recommended and reference should be made to BS EN 752 Parts 1-7 and BS EN 12056-3 for further guidance. as a guidefor systems where grit is not anticipated to be a problem. drain laid ata gradientof 1:240. 3. The Colebrook-White equation has been selected to represent gradient (S) curves because of its sound basis in both theory and experimentation. Africa. Dr&nage pipe sizing calculations In calculating pipesizesfor drainage installations. treatmentand disposal. velocities and depthsof flow togetherwiththe invert levels at predetermined points. Discharge units The Water Regulations make provision for water savings in the UK particularly with WCs and urinals. V = —2'I(2gsD)log K5 [3. Design information which it is necessary alternatively. for all depths of flow. The general trend in the volume of water used by appliances both in the UK and abroadhas been downwards and it is now more important not to oversize foul drains. be easily made at the completion of the to record. The impervious areas should A number of other countries. The overall effectshould make substantial savings to water supply. e. The calculations In this form of the equation. 300mm diameter. it is essential to record in a clear and concisemanner all factors which determine the selected pipe size for the section of the drainage installation under consideration. Metered watersupplies are also required for all new connections and there is a general movetowards compulsory metering for all premises as a resultof the water shortages experienced in recent years. such as the USA. For areaswhich require a main surface waterdrain up to 200m in and minimum flow rates. For larger areaswhen a designbased on Theory Each chart has has been prepared for a particular combination of pipe diameter (D) and roughness (K) and is composed of two familites of curves (S and0) superimposed on a pair of orthogonal axes.g. pipegradient(S). with varying degrees of successto design pipes running part full under gravity. For surfacewater drainswhere larger quantities of grit are liableto be carried into the drain or sewer. Japan.71D ivD'I(2gswD)j + '12. then an absolute minimum flow rate of 0.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary Plumbing and Drainage Table23 Surfacewater drains Diameter (mm) Foul drains Main drain 80% gradient Branch drain Main drain 100% gradient 1:75 1:100 1:150 1:225 1:300 Branch drain 50% gradient 40% gradient 1:30 1:40 1:60 1:90 1:120 75 100 150 225 300 1:35 1:50 1:75 1:110 1:150 1:60 1:80 1:120 1:180 1:240 pipe sizing exercise. Gravity flow pipe design charts Chartsfor the design of circular pipes have been available from various sourcesfor manyyears and have been used. length. Branch drainswith low flow rates may be laid at 50% of their respective main drain gradients as follows in Table 23. proportional depth of flow (dID) and flowvelocity. Surface water flows The method adoptedfor the assessment of the peakdischarge flowrate of surface waterfrom a building development will varyaccording to the area and type of development. D has been modified by a correction factor(iii) to accountfor depths of flow lessthan full. include the horizontal projection of the roof areas. Mexico. to enable the implication of subsequent site variations to be assessed. which can be filed for future reference. and finally to providea source of design information for the designer or the building user.51v wherev = kinematic viscosityand g = gravitational acceleration The new lesswasteful low volume flush designs will makeit possible to utilise the capacity of existing drainage systems more efficiently and the demand for new sewage treatment works maybe reduced. paved areasconnected to the drainage systemand half the area of the exposed vertical face of towerbuildings. The intersection of these curves represents the relationship between flow rate (0). However. particularly at low depths of flow. the minimum velocity of flow should be 0. when modified for gravityflow. been using 3 and 4 litre low volume designs for matched pans and cisterns. 0—sinO where 0 = 2 cos(1) The continuity equation forms the basis of the flow (Q-) curveswhich. making it possible to read velocity and flow rate directlyfrom a single chart.10D2 should be recorded in an orderly manner. The above schedules is an example of what may be applied to a relatively flat site. otherpercentage values maybe usefully applied to suit differentsite surface slopes. can be written as: 8Q . a unifrom rate of rainfall intensity may be adopted. includes gradients.The UK now has a maximum flush volume of 6 litres for any new WC suite. main foul drains may be laid at a gradient equal to 80%of their diameter.

g. Step 4 Read along the 0-curve and: a. Proportionaldepth (e. 1:110). 0. Locate the gradient S-curvewhich intersects it at this point (e.75 c. more examples and a range of forty-four different two colourcharts. If it does not change the pipe diameter and go to Step (1).g. Determinethe pipe size and minimumgradient requiredto carrythis flow whilst ensuring that a velocity of 0. Butler 0 and Pinkerton BR. lOl/sec) to the intersectionwiththe chosen S-curve Read off: b. 1:40) d.g. b. Velocity (e. Maximumproportional depth of flow (dID) e.g. 126 . 0.g. a. 'Gravity flowpipe design charts'. the readerisreferredto the reference below. b.76m/sec. Minimumself-cleansingvelocity (V) e.5mm) relevantto this application A pipe diameter (e. Thomas Telford Limited 1987.C. 1. Velocity (e.g. 1:110).32mlsec).Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Example 1 Step 5 For other flows in a pipe laid at the gradient found in Step (4ii) (e. NOTES Itis recommended that a value ofK= 0. K5 = 1. Maximumavailable fall (e. This value representsthe minimum gradient at which the pipe can be laid whilst satisfying the velocity and proportional depth constraintsgiven in Step (2). For a fulleraccountofthe theory. 52 1/sec) and verify that it passes through the 'window'.28) c.g. Step 2 Sketch on the limitingfactors: a.6 is used when designing stormwaterdrains and K= 1. Note the point where it leavesthe 'window' b.g.g. developmentwill produce daily peak foul sewage flow of 521/sec. Graphs 1 to5have been reproduced bypermission of the authors and publishers.0.76mlsec is achieved and that a proportionaldepth of 0. D=250mm)which can carry the design flow(0).g.Confirm that a satisfactoryvelocity is also achieved before completion of the developmentwhen the flowis 10 I/sec.75 is not exceeded.g.5mm It is estimatedthat a new housing Locateand read along the new 0-curve (e.5 is used for foul drains. Minimum availablefall (e.g. Step 1 Selecta design chartby choosing: a. Assume K5 = 1.g.75) d. Proportionaldepth (e. Site conditions dictate that the maximum grade available is 1:40 and the ground surface falls at 1:240. Step 3 Locate the actual design flow 0-curve (e.89). This will define the allowablegradient 'window' (shownshaded in Graph 5) within which all combinationsof flowand gradient satisfy the constraints listed above. 0. 0 must lie within the range of flows on the right hand side of the chart.g. Also read-offfor this flowand grade: c. 0. A pipe roughness(e. 1:240).

.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage Graph 1 100mm diameterpipe — gravityflow (K2 = 0. It) 0 'I cu Cu (0 (D C- 20 - 25 - /1 LI) -I 30 - 35 40 45 50 U) 60 70 00 100 go120 140 150 180 200 250 300 .6) U) -l — 0 OUO InOInOInOU)OInOVO UO InO 0 rnrnCUNOOU)U)Ut)Jt)J .i________• •.- 0 0 0 0° 0 127 0 . In U) In It) 0 .________ 7________ 7________ _____ - E • 0 > '-I 2________________ 0 - 400 500 0 0) a 0 0 N ID It) Cu 0 0 0 0 0 S.

'-4 U) S.-.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Graph2 100mm diameterpipe — gravityflow (2 = 1.. oo tutu 0 — — I'.1 - E 0 > '-4 !___ p— 0 N c .1 a) to CCD N--.v//'//' It. \ '-I 0 0 -4 0 0 0 T 0 cn 0 0 0 0 0 128 . a 0 Cu v.5) U) a . 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 160 200 250 300 400 500 II.

C '-I o 0 (I) o N 0 N 0 CU 0 N N V 0000000000000000000N UV tfl N * —— * * * — — 0 — eq V CCD / o Cu 40 U. '-I 50 60 70 80 90 100 U.6) U.. 200 250 ________ 77________ 0 300 400 500 0 oI 0 1_EE CC) CT) C 0 0 0 c V 0 0 0 0 0 129 . 0 > '-4 • E 120 140 160 i80.l a. .Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage Graph 3 150mm diameterpipe — gravityflow (K2 = 0...

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. as the roots are oftendifficultto clear fromthe drainand only small sections of drain can be cut and cleared at a time. as the equipment can be located with the manhole. Trenchless replacement This method. clay or plastic are pushed into place to follow the line of the existing drain. The rootscan enterthe drainthrough very fine cracks and. it is then necessary to pressure jet cleanthe drain to remove the resulting debris. However. new sections of pipe manufactured from concrete. time and drain being surveyed shouldbe recorded on the videotape and the tape should be stored in a purposemadefolder. can be considered when the condition of a drain is such that it cannot be repaired. the drainwill require liningto prevent the rootsgrowingbackinto the drain. Where a drain has been cracked for some time. the drain could not be internally lined and the cost and disruption associated with traditional excavation and replacement would be prohibitive. the process can be very time consuming. particularly wherethere are only low flows. the egressof water from the cracked pipe will wash awaythe bedding material surrounding the drain. usage of the drain and the type of effluent beingdischarged. a vitrifiedclay drain. This has the effect of pulling the hose throughthe drain and forcing the flow of watercarrying any debris backalong the pipe. it will be necessary to carry out a Closed CircuitTelevision (CCTV) Survey. which should be in colourVHS format(standard play).5 I/sec. this system does require an excavation between 1000mm x 800mm and 2500mm x 1500mm. As the mandrill is moved alongthe drain. renovation The type of renovation will be dependent on the extent of defects. For example. particularly at joints. that the pressure jet cleaning and de-scaling has been fullycompleted and all the debris removed from the drain. The hose is then pulled back in stages and the resulting debris removed. There is electro mechanical equipment available for de-scaling works. often blocking the drain completely. also accompany the CCTVsurvey identifying the position and extentof all As the waterflowsthroughthe jets. However. for example. to ensure. This cannot be provided by a trailermounted unit and so a lorry tankerunit is required. a CCTVcamera is used within the drain to monitor the works as they are carried out. the means of access. to producea clearview of the complete circumference of the pipe. renovation High pressure water jet-cleaning Water is pumped under pressure through a flexible hose to a steel nozzle. Where thereis an available manhole. these have to be replaced by traditional excavation. For de-scaling. once in the drain. The hose wouldbe larger — up to 30mm diameterand would deliver 140 bar — 750 bar with volumesof 0. Once all of the roots have been cut and removed. This is then winched through the drain at a rate of approximately 6 metres per minute. The meterage. In orderto ascertain the condition of a drain. the nozzle rotatesto allowthe waterjets to be directed to the complete circumference of the pipe. scale can form. the camera is mounted on a stainlesssteel skid. Larger diameterdrainsand thosethat are heavilysilted or blocked with solid Root cutting vitrifiedclay drainswith sand and cement joints. debris require a larger volume of water. The processand equipment for cutting and removing roots from the drain are as for de-scaling. passing under a busyaccesswayor road. A detailed typed survey reportshould defects. producing a backwards umbrella-shaped jet. such as root cutting and lining. the nozzle is designed to produce very fine waterjets at 90° to the hose. Jetcleaning is carried out by feedingthe hose into the drain in an upstream direction. The same equipment and procedures are used in de-scaling as for pressure jet cleaning. A common problem. is the ingress of plant and tree roots. creating a void which couldlead to the collapseof the pipe. numbered and titled. Following the de-scaling operation. The steel mandrill is forced into the drain and expanded using compressed air.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Below ground drain Methods of it is not commonly used on belowground drainage pipework. an excavation is not alwaysrequired. particularly in older Closed circuit televisionsurvey Although not in itself a method of renovation. Because of its condition. the high pressure waterjetting equipment will be trailer-mounted with a 20mm hose delivering waterat pressure. In this situation. Where required. Cast iron drains develop heavy scale and corrosion. Although termed as being 'trenchless'. the CCTVsurveycan be recorded on videotape. date. creating a rough surface where blockages can occur.5-1. Pressures should be dependent on the type of jet and the material and condition of the sewer. 132 Where a drainhas connecting branches. Drains with a larger diameter are surveyed by mounting the camera on a remote controlled electrically operated tractor unit linked to the CCIV camera operator. However. using a system of 'pipe bursting'. which forcesthe existing pipe outwards allowing a new pipeto be threaded into position. De-scaling In vitrified claydrains. aligned in the centre of the drain. The scale is cut awayfrom the walls of the drain by the water pressure. For pipes between 100mm and 300mm. depending on the sizeof the pipe. With drainsfrom 100mm to 300mm diameter. the use of CCTVis vital to establish the need for and to monitor all of the renovation works. a different shape jet nozzle is used and lower flow ratesare required. the defective drain can be replaced by inserting an expanding mandrill. which has partly collapsed. can expand and multiply. In someoperations. but the cost or disruption caused by traditional replacement is not acceptable.

which must be considered for the application at hand. There are a number of different products on the market.5m above the highest point. all of which reduce the boreof the existing drain. However. Therefore. the selection of the resin material must be carefullyconsidered. The use of these resins has been adaptedand they have been in use for drain renovation works for over 20 years. This is applied in the sameway as the cementlining. filled. as tests beyond this period have not yet been carried out. However. In orderto pull this type of liner through a drain. As the resin grout passes through any cracks. Originally used with ordinaryPortland cement. the annularspace between the new linerand the drain has c Resingrouting pnetrates through the drain's cracks and intothe surrounding concreteorsoil . with screw and socketed joints. Rigid plostk liners Made from high density polyethylene or polyolefin polymerbased materials. this system should only be considered where no possible movement is anticipated. the groutis left to cure for between 30 minutes and 90 minutes depending on the resin product and the ground temperature. this type of liningsystem is very effective and there is a range of linerdiameters from 75mm to 600mm. as accessis required from both ends of the drain. Figure 29 Cementandresingrouting Open joints couldbe made good by cement piston grouting Porousjoints sealed by penetratingresin grout Whenfully cured. Due to its viscosity. This type of lining is only suitable for rigid drain installations wherethere is no anticipated movement. but a lining is not left in the pipe. The minor reduction in bore. does not adversely affectthe flow characteristics. which takes between 2 and 3 hours. thereare two main generic types. the drainshouldthen be pressure jet cleanedto remove any surplus resin gel from the wallsof the pipe. although of reduced diameter. the resin forms a solid flexible gel. The life of the resin grout for drainage renovation is not guaranteed beyond 15 years. a tolerance should be allowed in sizing to ensure that the linercan pass through the drainwithout becoming stuck on open joints or in a section of slightly non-uniform pipe. This is carried out by pumping a weak cement grout. wherethe draincarries aggressive or chemical waste. After allowing the remaining resin to cure fully. Whenthe level in the standpipe has stabilised. Underpressure. Being flexible. 133 . Where the existing drain is found to be oversized. using larger pistons so that the cracks and gaps are filled.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage Lining Thereare several types of liner. Thisis then mixed withwaterat a Cement lining This is the oldest form of drainlining and has been used successfully for about40 years. The pressure extertedby the piston at the front pushes the cementin the pipe and leaves a thin liningall around the pipe. no deterioration has been found after periodsof 20-30 years. There is a wide range of products available. filled with the mixed cementthrough the drain. there are two main typesof grout: Cement concentrationof 20-22% depending on the typeof product used and the ambient temperature. the resin grout passes through any crackand permeates the surrounding ground. Resin compounds used for groutingin drain renovation works were originally developed for use in stabilising ground in mining and excavations and in controlling the flowof ground water. each witha slightlydifferent chemical make up. between 10mm and 25mm depending on the size of the pipeandtype of liner. providing a new smoothbore. which are greatly improved by the smooth bore of the liner. for example wherethe use of a building has changed. This system does have a good branchconnections cannot be repaired by this method. Resin resistance to chemical attack. Thistype of lining system is ideally suited whereflexibilityis required and where aggressive discharges are anticipated. However. to be sealed to prevent movement. Once in place. However. slightly smaller in diameter than the drain. the drain plugshould be taken out and the surplus resin within the pipepumpedout and disposed of. it is usually necessary to repeat this process 3 or 4 times. these have to be excavated and connected to the new linerwith a purposemade branch section. These liners are winched into the drain. the aqueous resin grout is forced into any cracks or open joints in the drain. these will have to be thoroughlycleaned following this type of lining operation to ensure theyare clear of any cementdebris. The method of application is by pulling two loose rubber pistons. The resin produced with a mixture of polyphenolic vegetable extract and paraformandehyde or from otherorganic monomers is delivered to site in a dry powderform. voids in the surrounding bedding material are filled and replaced with the grout. The drain to be grouted is thoroughly cleaned and sealed at its lowest point and the aqueous resin grout is pumped into the drain and filled through a standpipe to produce a static headpressure of 1 . To provide a smoothinternal liningwith all cracks etc. both of which have the same qualities are widely used in grouting defective drains. Each lining method has advantages and disadvantages. from the research carried out on these resin materials wherethey have been used to stabilise ground water. which is impervious to water. Beforethe resin becomes fully cured. Any movement in the pipewill resulton the repaired cracks opening up. the grouted drain is not adversely affected by movement. Where thereare connecting branches. Grouting This is the term used for sealingcracks or openjoints in a drain with an aqueous compound. applications todayare more common using a range of specially produced quick drying resin based cementcompounds. However. Where there are branches connecting to the drain being lined.

The flow chart (See Figure 33) is designed to suggestappropriate routes for the various situtations. pushing the liner onto the wall of the pipe. Method of design The method of design is based on the following assumptions: a. An alternative is the Wyly-Eatonequation in c. the carriertube is deflated and removed. the liner is left to cure for between 1 and 2 hours depending on the weather conditions.this has alwaysbeen difficult and time consuming and. priorto releasing the water. the linerhas to be cut internallyafter curing by a remote controlled tractorunit.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Continuous fibre liners These consist of a felt or polyester sleeve which is impregnated with a hardening resin. the annularspace should be filled by pumping with grout. The lineris winched into position on an inflatable carrier tube and its location confirmed by CCTV. Data and formulaefor rainfall intensities are from BS 6367 Formulae used for production of gutter sizing nomograms are from BS 6367 Actual flow rates for grated roof outletsshouldbe obtained from the manufacturers Flow rates for ungrated outletsare based on Weir formula The rainwater downpipe sizing chart is based on the formula: q = Kd813 resulting from work carried out by BRE and the US National Standards Bureau. withthe advent Water Figure 31 Typical fibre liner of more advanced resin formulae. a vitrifiedchannel is bedded onto the existing brick invertand benched both sides would provide a new clean. Being completelyflexible when installed. b. similar results will be obtained by using BS 12056-3. BS EN 12056. The lineradheresto the wall of the drain and is very secure. Sources of data a. the ends are trimmedand sealed. giving a stepby-step guidethroughthe calculation procedure. a detailed Where this type of lineris used to provide a considerably reducedbore to the drain. Figure 30 Insertion ofcontinuous fibre liner Holding-back Hot water cirulation hose rope of chemicals. However. Sleeve tapered at both ends When the liner is set. d. efficient. Once in position and filled with waterto a static head of between 3m and 6m. Where the general condition of a brick sewer is poor. the drain will remain relatively flexible. However. To improve the sewers hydraulic gradient. greatcare is required in the installation to avoid undulation of the invert and flotationduring grouting. which is sizedto suit the diameterof the drain. theyare used in short lengths of 300mm to 1500mm to deal with isolated defects in a drain wherea continuous liner is not required. e.2 x 10 K (1/3 full) = 5. is winchedinto the drain and filled with water. Once cured. where: q = dischargecapacity in litres/sec d = stack diameterin mm K (1/5 full) = 2. b. _ U Hole sealed by sleeve I. a resin or clay based compound should be used.2 x 10 The following two examples are for information purposes only. The sleeve. However. leaving the liner in place. Sometypes of liner require the water to be heated to allowthe resin to harden. the liner pan be used in drainsthat are not true to line or bore. Due to the high temperatures created by cement based groutingmaterials due to exothermic reaction. Although most of the data used is from BS 6367. 134 . glass reinforced plastic sewer linersare available for installing into the sewer in one piecesections. This type of system is resistant to a large range Figure 32 Continuous fibre liner The gutter is normally level The gutter has a uniform crosssectional shape checkof the manufacturer's chemical resistance chart for the type of liner considered should be made wherethe discharge is aggressive or likelyto contain high levels of chemical waste. up to 6m long. self cleansing sewer invert. this system is not as often used. pushing the liner out to the wall of the drain. This type of liner provides a smoothsolid wall to the drain and reduces the boreby only 10-15mm. Once fullycured. Wherethere are connecting branches. Sedional fibre liners These are of the same material as the continuous fibre liners above. the installation should be as before. The annular gap between the new section and existing brickwork is pressure groutedto complete the job. with a tolerance of ±2° per metre. Although it is possible to use this type of systemto line a drain and reduce the bore. The outlets are large enough to allowthe gutter to dischargefreely. Hole sealed by liner Rainwater systems Thissection has been produced using chartsand tables as an alternative to the British Standards.1 x 10 K (1/4 full) = 3. However. The carriertube is then inflated. c.

Todeterminestorm durationreferto Figure 34 and Table 24(a)—(g) Step6: SelectionRoute A' or 8' depending on type of roof drainage. Step 11B:To determinesize of outlet referto Tables 27-28.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage Figure 33 Flowchartshowing calculation procedure Step 1: Life of Building in yearsfor whichbuildingis to be Obtain period protected No Step 2: ReturnPeriod: To selection category determinereturn period and refer to Figure 34 and Table 24(a)—(g). parapet and boundarywall gutters. The storm durationcoincides withthe time of entry. which should not be in excess of 2 minutes. Step 8A: Ca culatearea of Step9A: Determine I/s run-off from roof (total). Step 12: Sizingof rainwater Step 13: Referto gravityflow drain design chartsforsizing of underground drainage orhorizontal pipework 135 . Step lOB: Referto gutter sizingnomograms Step 1 1A: Read I/sdischarge peroutletfrom Table 25. ro Step 88: Calculate area of roofand discharge to guttersin I/s. down pipes referto Graph 7. Route A Route B Step 7A: Flatroofoutlets Step7B: Roof with valley. Step 9B: Determinenumber Step 1OA: Referto Table 25 of outlets. Is return period know? Yes Step 3: Is standard storm duration of 2 minutesapplicable? Yes No Step 4: Is time of entry forroofin excess of 2 minutes? or Yes Is greaterprecision for No Step 5: Rainfall: rate of rainfall required? Yes Generally forbuildingroofdrainage. to determine minimumnumber of outlets required. Referto Figure34and Table 24(a)—(g) to determinedesign rateof rainfall. to determine size of gutter.

Return period.661/sec gutter= 1000m2 Flow rate in litres per second to the gutter: = areaof roofx design rainfall (Step 3) intensity = 1000m2 x 0. Step 1: Life of building Step 2: Yes Step 3: Yes Step 4: No Step 5: Locationof building— Newcastle Step bA Select type of outlet For installation reasonsa 100mm diameter vertical grated type outletType 17B is selected.the required design intensityis 150mm per hour.275 rn/hr = 275m3/hr 136 . By referenceto Graph 8. Details of this outlet are to be found in Table 25. NOTE Flowrates for roof outlets should be obtained from manufacturers. follow Route'B' (trapezoidalGutter). witha high degree of confidencethat the buildingwill be protectedfromrainwater for the duration of its life. 40 years 60 years From this Table we can determine the discharge rate in litres per second that the chosen outlet is capable of receivingat a given head. The roof construction is to be steeply pitched roof with valley gutters. Is standardstorm duration of 2 minutes applicable? A = length x width A = 50m x 20m = bOOm2 Step 12 To determinediameter of rainwaterpipes.as these are usually higher than the BS standard types listeddue to theirtypeofdesign and construction. Area of roof Therefore Life of buildingis: 40 years ThereforeT = 4. The Architect has specified a flat roof. for a 60 year return period with a 2 minute duration rainfall. no overhangs.5 x 40 years Flow rate per outlet is 2. having a head roofand valley gutter.92 litres per second (fromTable 25) Step 3 = 180 years.275m/hr). We now refer to Table 24(d). litresper second. for a storm duration of 1 minute with a return period of 180 years. — Example 2: Route B valley gutter Design and size roof drainagefor a large warehousewith pitched roof and valley gutters. Figure 34. Plan area of roof draining into each valley flow rate = bOOm2 x 0. = Areax intensity So flow rate (in metres) Therefore. 'C' factor is 4.2 litres per second and is therefore satisfactory. When using high intensitiesfor roof areas the flowrates should only be carried through to the branch drains immediately outside drainage system. Thiscorrespondswith Table 24(f) and shows that. asphaltfinish with a parapet around the perimeterof the roof.15m/hr = 150m3/hr or 41. from which we can determine that. Step 13 Horizontal pipeworkshould be sized using undergroundgravity flow charts. locatingthe building on the map of UK.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Example 1: Route A — flat roof A typical specoffice block of approximate plan dimensions of 50m x 20m sited in Newcastle. Step 1 Life span of building:40 years Sensitive 2 mm M5 Numberof outlets = Totalrun-off in litres per second (from step 9) Design rate of rainfall By referenceto the UK rainfall map. Step hA 2.15m/hr). Swindon lies on contour F. Step 4 No: storm duration (time of entry) is requiredto be 1 minute. Thereforeflowdown any one pipe is 2. the building.5 Step 6/7 In this examplewe have an upstand flat roof withgrated rainwateroutlets. warehouse with steeplypitched of 30mm over the outlet. Step 8A Determinearea of roof and flow rate in litres per second from the roof. the design rainfall intensityis 275mm per hour (0. RefertoTable 26.e. i. Now from Step 5 we know that the design intensity is 150mm/hr(0. Step 6/7 Type of roof drainage Steeply pitched roof with valley gutters. it can be seen that a 100mmdiameter pipe flowing 1/5 full (curve A) is capable of receiving 4. The expected life of the building is 40 years and it has been decided to allow for a 60 years period. Step 5 To determinethe rainfall design intensity: Referringto Figure 34.92 Step 9A Total run off fromroof in litres per second.92 I/sec Selectingcategory 3 from Table 26. So calculatingthe number of outlets required to drain the roof of the building: The warehouse is to be located in Swindon and is to be designed for a 40 year building life. We have assumed for the purpose of this exercise that there is one outlet per rainwaterdownpipe. Step 8B Plan area of roof and dischargeto gutter. we can see that the site of our building (Newcastle)is adjacent to contour line D. This is not known and has thereforeto be determined.Therefore we follow Route 'A' through the guide. T = 'C' factor x life of building Thereforenumber of outlets = Therefore 14 outlets required. We are assuming in this examplethat the area of roof to be drained is the same as the plan area. The roof is protectedwithan asphalt upstand which is capable of containing at least 60mm head over the outlet without risk of damage to Step 2 Return period. litres persecond discharge per outlet An outlet has been chosen.

Drainage (Length of gutter 7. having a constantgraduation from one contourto the other. = 10 I/s approximately(5 I/s from each length of gutter) Selecting a 150mm diameteroutlet.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage = 275000 3600 gutter) I/hour = 76 I/s (run-offper second per length of Step 9B Determine numberof outlets and discharge in litres per second per outlet: Numberof outlets provisionallydetermined by potential stack location (one per outlet).as the outlet would then be less than three quarters of the width of the sole of the gutter.1 side slope. Read from Figure 34 the contour reference for the site location.061/s. Thereforenumber selected: 8 Thereforeflowrate per outlet — Step 118 Size of rainwateroutlet (and depth of box receiver). Width = Not less than the width of flow in the gutter. Head of water cover outlet to be not more than yc or 29mm (from Step 10). Referto Graph 7. Now refer to respectivenomogram. Reading from gutter sizing nomogram. It is not possibleto select a stanadardoutlet. Know criteria: Flow rate per outlet = approximately101/s 2. thereforeminimum width of sole to be 300mm. this should be a minimumof 2/5ths of the maximumdepth of flow(yuf) subject to a minimumof 25mm. If the flowof water is from both directions. 1. the outlet should be ungrated and of not less than three quartersof the width of the gutter.preferablybetween each pair of outlets. 137 . the head of water over the outlet. b.5 x depth of gutter) minimum. 1. Graph 9 where yc = 29mm (critical depth) yuf = 63mm (depth upstreamof gutter — high point of water) Freeboard must be added to yuf. Derby is situated mid-way between contours E and F. The areasbetween contour lines on Figure 34 (which correspond with Tables 24(a)—(g) should not be read as having a blanket coverage of rainfall. Gutter sole to be suitable for foot traffic. Referringto Table 28. thereforewe must alternativelyconstruct a box receiverat the outlet. flowing 1/5 full is capable of carrying 10 litres per second. For added safety overflow pipes or weirs should be installed at either end of the gutter as a minimum. It may not be possible to select an outlet to conform with this. varying storm durations and return periods The following tables should be used as follows: Design rate of rainfall for total flowrate number of outlets 1:1. For the gutter to dischargefreely. total depth of gutter is. Therefore freeboard = 25mm (minimum) So. but as two extreme ratesof rainfall that coincide with the contour lines. a 250mm diameter outlet requires a head of water H of 45mm over the outlet to receive a flow rate of 10. in this exercisewe are using trapezoidalgutters with a 1. therefore a judgement must be made between Tables 24(e) and (f). When using high intensititesfor roof areas the flowrates should only be carried through to the branch drains immediately outside the building. e. Step lOB Determinesize of gutter: Known criteria: 65 + 25mm = 90mm (minimumdepth of box receiver) Plan area of Box receiverwould be made up as follows: a. H. Step 12 Sizing of rainwaterdownpipes.the length of the box should be (1. Length = the length of the box for a flow of water from one directionshould not be less than (0. 2. where H = head of water over outlet. Know criterion: 1. Now read off from the selected table the intensityin mm/hragainst the required storm duration and return period. Design flow rates should be reassessed based on the sensitivity of the underground drainage system. Box receivers should be the width of the gutter and the depth should not less than H ÷ 25mm.g.0 metres) (assumingequal outletcentres). yuf + freeboard Flowrate=10I/s A 150mmdiameter rainwaterdownpipe = 63mm = 25mm = 88mm Details of roof constructionand weathering might dictate that a greater overall depth of gutter is required. Having selected a circular ungrated outlet refer to Table 28.75 < depth of gutter). is 65mm.1/s = A smaller outlet could be chosen by using a box receiverto give a free discharge.

Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Figure 34 Key to rainfall Tables24(a) to (g) A A a B C D D• 138 .

5 15 20 150 100mm 150mm 35 60 190 350 — — 225mm 400 750 2000 3000 — — 8 20 For intensities of225mm per hourandabove.5 10 12 18 95 150mm 20 35 60 100 185 750 225mm 180 320 700 800 1800 — 2 3 4 5 10 2 3 4 5 10 6 mths 7mths 9mths 1.75 2 7.5 3 4 5 10 4.0mmin 2minutes.5 15 20 150 100mm 8 20 40 60 100 700 150mm 90 300 500 800 1000 — 225mm 1000 2500 — — — — (mins) 1 50mm 75mm 100mm 150mm 225mm 275mm 300mm 2 2 3 4.5mm in 2 minutes. occuringon average once in 5 years (2 mm M5) Intensity(mm/hr) Duration (mins) 1 50mm 7mths 1. such as the provision ofoverflows or additionalfreeboard.5mmin 2 minutes.duration and return period Table24(a) Rainfall amount 1.5 2 3 4 15 75mm 3 5 7.75 1.5 3 mths 5 mths 3 mths 4 mths 6 mths 6 mths 1 7 7 18 20 38 200 55 55 120 190 190 350 450 650 1900 350 750 1100 1600 — 2 3 4 5 10 2 3 4 5 10 6 mths 1 1.5mmin2 minutes. occuringon average once in 5 years (2 mm M5) Intensity(mm/hr) Duration Table 24(g) Rainfall amount4.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage Series of tables relating rainfall intensity. 2 3 4 5 10 7mths 8mths 9mths 2yrs 7yrs 40 60 100 700 Return period(years) 139 . shouldbe considered. occuringon averageonce in 5years (2 mm M5) averageonce in 5 years (2 mm M5) Intensity(mm/hr) Duration Duration 50mm 4.75 2 75mm 7 18 35 45 60 450 100mm 35 60 175 350 750 2500 150mm 325 850 1800 225mm 4000 — — — — — (mins) 1 50mm 75mm 17 mths 8mths 1. occuringon average once in 5 years (2 mm M5) Intensity(mm/hr) Duration Table24(f) Rainfallamount4mm in 2 minutes.5mm in 2 minutes.5 100mm 1.5 5. occuring on average once in 5 years (2 mm M5) Intensity(mm/hr) Duration (mins) 1 50mm 1.5 200 250 1800 2 6 5 50 yr — Retu rn period(years) Return period (years) Table 24(d) Rainfall amount3.5 7 8 3000 4000 — 6 mths 7 mths 2yrs 45 40 300 3500 Return period(years) Return period (years) Table 24(c) Rainfall amount2. alternative meansof protecting the building otherthan increasing the size ofrainwater pipes etc.5 10 20 40 300 75mm 35 55 175 210 400 300 100mm 185 300 800 — — — — — — — Intensity(mm/hr) 150mm 1800 3500 225mm — (mins) 1 (mins) 50mm Smths 75mm 1 100mm 2 4.5 150mm 7 18 35 40 50 225mm 50 110 250 350 650 275mm 180 450 700 1000 — — 4 mths Smths 5mths 2 2 3 4 5 10 2 4 6 7. occuring on average once in 5 years (2 mm M5) Intensity(mm/hr) Duration (mins) 1 50mm 6mths 75mm 3 5 7. The average roof should have a duration/run offtime not exceeding two minutes.75 2 4 2000 — lomths 4yrs 4. Periods ofgreaterduration shown for in formation and completeness only. occuring on Table24(e) Rainfall amount3.5 20 Return period (years) Return period(years) Table24(b) Rainfallamount2mm in 2 minutes.

187 100 50.100 65 75 90. 100 50 75. 75 75.667 (Its) 5.354 0.112 0. but with the aid of the charts it is possible to select a gutter to suit any application.100 0.270 1. Return period.604 1.604 0.250 0. T = C factor x life of building.437 0. ii.65 0.812 0.562 0.396 2.920 1. Calculate the flowof water(0) Select the breadth (Bs) and length (Lg) to read off depth ofwaterat point of discharge(Yc) and the upstreamdepth (yuf) to which a suitablefreeboard depth must be added 2/5ths of yuf subject to a minimum of 25mm. i.896 1.2 5.5 1.021 0.093 0.6 5.040 0.e.771 1. Use of gutter sizing charts The charts provide a unique method of selecting gutter sizes and produce results similar to BS 6367 and BS EN 12056-3.750 1. Procedure BS EN 12056-3 The C factor is used when calculating the return period i.417 (Its) 1.750 1.562 0. 100 85 51 12 20 80 (Ifs) Square flat grating Circular flat grating Circular flat grating D shaped flat grating B-shaped flat grating B-shaped flat grating Circular flat grating Circular flat grating 17A 1 7B (l/s) 1.250 0.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Table 25 Estimatedcapacities of outlet for flat roofs Outlet type Tablein BS416: 1973 Square flatgrating Outlet size 5mm (m2) 17 4.812 0.093 0.479 0.108 0. 90.187 (Its) 3. 90.875 0. British Standard gutters are manufactured in a limited range of shapes and sizes.4 7.312 0.667 2.5 See A series of four charts cover four basic gutter profiles.6 4. Rainwater downpipes should be sized separately using Graph 7 if vertical.200 0.208 1.292 0.5 7. Example Roof size: 20 x 19.187 1.148 17B 17C 17C 17C 17D 17D 75.583 (Its) 2.875 0.292 1.062 2. Table26 Type of Roof Category C Factor 1 1 Determine type of outlet required.208 1. gutters and flat roofs Valley and parapetgutters Valley gutterswith higher security Highest possible security 2 3 4 4.479 1.2 m (Referto Graph 6) Rainfall intensity = 384m2 = 75mm/hr =81/s 100%runoff 140 . ii.396 2. 100 27 14 15 21 105 58 61 65 75 90.5 9. or drain sizing data if horizontal.250 0. Pitched roof with external eaves.958 1.062 1. Referto the Table for cast iron roof outletsas BS 416.158 0. Actual flow ratesfor grated roof outlets should be obtained from the manufacturers.771 Procedure i.1 Area drained at rainfall intensity of 75mm/hat depthof water above outlet: 10mm 15mm 20mm 25mm (m2) (m2) 90 23 50 27 28 39 23 37 (m2) 135 36 77 42 43 60 36 57 (m2) 190 51 (mm) 17A 17B 17B D'-shaped flat grating 17C 17C 17C Circular flat gratingwith 17D 17D 100 30mm (m2) 250 67 140 77 80 110 67 105 49 12 Circularflatgrating 50. 100 50 75.

Followright (horizontally)to the intercept with theyufaxisand read offthe value at yuf. 141 .00 I/s. Read across to the centre axis noting the depth (yc) at the outlet Of 32mm. Select the appropriate nomogramfor gutter profile requiredand range of sizes. Read off and note value of yu. Starting at the bottom right-hand side of the chartselect a gutter breadth (B). 60mm. say 200mm.0 I/s into lOm length of gutter. 0 4 4 The gutter runs off full length (20m) of the buildingand has one outlet at each end. Continue to the left to the curve representingthe gutter length (10m) and drop into the bottom left-handsection of the nomogram to the value of the depth (yu) of 60m previously established. follow vertically up the nomogram to the flowrate curve of 4. Half of the water will dischargein each direction. 4. Addfreeboardto yuf. ie.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage Graph6 Guttingsizing nomogram showing worked example Yc (mm) Yu (mm) 'I.

37 8. and read outlet sizefrom table against depth of waterover outlet.21 150x150 0.49 17.45 4.82 lOOxlOO 0.5 = Length ofsump 142 .28 17.18 5.30 1.23 0.63 3.42 4.23 5.64 16.61 3.46 30.68 10.19 0.10 14. i. yg (mm) = Overalldepth ofgutter ygx 1.12 28.85 26.38 8. The depth (yc) is for a free flowing gutter and a depth not lessthan this must be used to size the gutter outletfrom the Figures Procedure NOTE 1. Bs (mm) = Sole width ofgutter Lg (m) = Length ofgutter 0 (1/sec) = Discharge offlow in gutter yc (mm) = Depth of flow atdownstream endofgutterdischarging freely Diameterofoutletto be a minimum of3/4 the widthofgutterto ensurefree discharge where a sumpis not used.14 0.08 20.46 11.24 3.40 3.22 5.90 13.93 6.29 7.73 1.90 8.59 2.97 7.47 19.18 6.86 8.18 11.86 12.09 2.27 6.92 4.19 4.08 150x100 0.45 6.45 7.42 4.13 4.48 3.52 11.e.55 8.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Table27 Flow rates.46 0.74 3. square/rectangular ungrated gutter outlets(litrespersecond) Headof water over outlet in mm H Size ofrainwater outlets in mm 75x75 100x75 0.50 9.98 4.92 1.84 10.32 4.02 3.65 4.56 15.89 6.97 1.96 3.49 2.12 Gutter outlets (Use of Tables 27 and 28) Having determined the depthof waterat the downstream end of the gutter (yc).66 1.20 11.31 200x200 0. It is recommended thata box receiveris constructed atthe outletto be full widthof gutter.05 1.62 13.53 0.80 10.91 3.28 0. 2.33 0.60 3.31 2.16 0.29 17.18 6.79 13.12 1.45 4. The gutter will not otheiwiseact as a free outlet.69 2.77 17.06 11.60 5.79 1.76 5.72 6. which would invalidate previous data.31 2.40 0.69 4.37 15.05 2.28 5.84 5.68 7.03 5.17 5 10 15 0.37 1.59 5.57 11.32 7.52 23.86 2. and depth no less than H + 25 mm.86 23.08 10.78 3.11 2. 3.48 6.04 5.45 200x150 0.79 6.72 24. square/rectangular or circular.56 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 80 85 90 95 1.14 3. yu (mm) = Depth of flow at upstream endofgutter endofguttertakinginto accountthe affectof frictional resistance yuf (mm) = Depth of flow at upstream Select Table 27 or 28 for type of outlet required.04 7.19 4.94 2.85 1.79 18.64 4.87 22.43 10.

15 6.99 13.83 14.55 2.60 15.69 0.64 2.39 13.16 9.22 0.19 1.39 3.30 10.89 1.16 1.94 5.29 4.42 13.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage Table 28 Flowrates.94 2.62 143 .14 5.58 0.32 19.32 0.49 17.71 0.16 5.19 2.06 6.98 4.52 21.25 3.52 2.47 19.14 3.77 5.52 6.42 0.79 13.84 1.37 1.48 6.38 5.78 2.56 3.77 24.33 4.75 8.30 0.23 14.05 1.90 8.65 2.76 3.37 2.43 10.65 23.77 1.32 6.90 22.46 3.66 0.85 26.37 4.58 5.06 11.86 4.07 8.96 6.97 15.48 11.04 7.63 1.50 3.25 1.43 10.88 12.71 0.11 0.90 3.02 3.08 20.35 3.15 0.79 2.50 12.12 28.05 9.67 2.46 30.07 2.02 4.62 17.37 5. circularungrated gutter outlets (litresper second) Head of water over outlet in mm H 75 100 150 200 250 Size of rainwateroutlets in mm 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 0.17 5.

C'J - U._ — . iii -__---__8 ____ _____ 8 8 c) C'. c'J CD . N \\ U.J —___ C — 8 EEE__E___ C'J CD \ \ \ 0) U. CC -\ I C. C'J CD CD ..t. E E 0 Cl. U.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Graph 7 Vertical rainwater pipe sizing chart An alternative to this Graph is Table 8 from BS EN 12056 cr— CD U. C . — — .. \ —_____— — . U. — C.-. CD Pipe diameter (mm) 144 .%— _\__ -\\___\ \.

Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage Graph 8 Rectangular Box Gutter E -J 0 E > 145 .

Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Graph 9 Trapezoidalgutter with 1 to side slope I 3 3 3 3 146 .

Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage Graph 10 Trapezoidalgutter with 1 to 1.5 side slope Q 147 .

Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Graph 11 Trapezoidalgutter with 1 to 2 side slope E 3 E E > 148 .

For this reason several balance checks may have Pattern 5: Full Bore Flow FlowDirection 149 . c. to be made during installation if variations occur on site. The design must be carefullyconsidered or problems will be encountered dueto: a. Vertical discharge pipes can be kept to a minimum reducing the number of connections to the underground stormwater drainage system. Alternatively a system Figure 35 Rowpatterns comprising siphonic outletspositioned at suitable intervals and heights along the gutter and connected to separate overflowsiphonic pipework is another solution. The roof outletsare specially designed to controlthe pattern of discharge from the roof. may conflict with the needto operate the siphonic system at full bore flow regularly to flush it through. It must be appreciated that this head requirement is to prevent air entrainment at the statedflow rate and not to force the water into the outletas witha gravity system. occupying less space in ceilingvoids making co-ordination of serviceseasier. to prevent air entrainment at given flow rates. This allows the pipework to flowfull bore under a head at the design rainfall intensity. The 'driving force in a siphonic system is the available head in the total system. Roofoutlet manufacturers provide validated test data which indicate the minimum head of waterrequired over outlets. Such a system is not easyto detail or install and the additional depth of gutter is likelyto make it impractical. Where long term protection is required. The required hydraulic gradient and freeboard must of course be calculated from these higher outlets and added to the gutter depth. unless otherwise specified by the outlet manufacturer. Full bore flowoccurs as the water volume increases and if the b. Higher velocities generated in the pipework produce a self cleaning flow. The bubble flow can occur withflows as low as 50% watervolume. (Figure 35. The capacity of a full bore system is dependent uponthe sizeof the pipework and the available head fromthe water level over the outlet to the velocity break' at the bottomof the system. Excessive vibration 0 Pattern 3: Plug Flow Pattern 4: Bubble Flow d. provision must be made to discharge the water resulting from stormsabove the design intensity. This minimises the amount of associated ground works to be implemented on site. In orderto maintain self cleansing flows a minimum discharge capacity for individual outlets should not be less than 1 litre/sec. This is achieved by the use of a bafflewhich when submerged prevents air entrainment and the formation of a vortex. Design of the system considers the building roof area to be drained together withthe rainfall design intensity peculiar to the project location and building protection. The rainwater pipework must not be designed in isolation. eliminating the need for rodding points. The use of a separate overflow system withoverflows located between each outlet is necessary. Design criteria and considerations The roof areato be drained and the rainfall design intensity should be calculated as described elsewhere in this Guide. The final balancing of the system head losses is critical and extremely sensitive to any variation in pipe lengths and fitting changes. Specially deisgned roof outlets restrict air from entering the system allowing the pipework to be balanced using hydraulic principles. sufficient rainwater is required to enterthe pipework to prime the system. Pattern 1: Wavy Flow Pattern 2: Pulsating Flow High negative pressures and possible cavitation High noise levels c. but must form an integral designwith the roof/gutter and the external drainage.) Figures 35 and 36 illustrate the development of rainfall and roof drainage withapproximate limitsfor the different flow patterns. The full design discharge will not occur instantaneously. Alternatively. During this period a number of flow'patterns occurwith increasing flows until the flow rate to the outlet is exceeded and air enters the system. In this situation consideration should be given to storing the higherintensity flows at roof level for a few minuteswith the siphonic outlets operating as regulating valves. Potential surcharging of gutters. As the waterto air ratio increases then a plugflow occurswhich leadsto a bubble flow. the high rainfall intensity and consequent long returnperiod. b. It can be seen that with flows lessthan the design intensity the system will drain and a wavy/pulsating flowoccurs. Due allowance must of course be madefor the additional depth of waterto build up without penetrating the waterproofing details. The additional head over the outletswill not noticeably increase the flow into the pipes. in accordance with BS EN 12056-3. Pipework is smallerin diameterthan a comparative gravity system and can be run level. There are several space and cost advantages with a siphonic system: a.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage Siphonic rainwater systems Introduction A siphonic rainwater system is not truly siphonic according to the dictionary definition and should be seen as a full boresystem.The incorporation of weir or piped overflows at the end of longvalley gutters is inadequate as theydo not control the depth of water between outlets in the centreportion of the gutter.

A section in a system is the run of pipework from each outlet to the velocity break.'(g) (m) 0.5m from intersecting walls or the end of a gutter. roofsthey should be located at a minimum distance of 0.43 400mm between each section to ensure all outletsachieve their design flows within acceptable limits. It will therefore often be necessary to provide deeper gutters to storethe additional rainfall above the design figure. The design of the system must take into account the negative pressures that are created within the pipework. normally at ground level. The maximum negativepressure must be Dimensional rainfall intensity C'. The receiving pipe must be sized to acceptthe flow rate (by gravity)that is discharging from the siphonic system.95 Vapourpressureat different temperatures 5 10 15 20 Temperature 0 oc 25 30 systemtypically running approximately 150 p. (Figure 39.37m. These flow ratesare not fixed and are dependent on the working head in the system and the head over the outlet. If the maximum permitted negative pressure is exceeded thereis a risk of cavitation and collapseof plastic pipes. If the velocity of the discharge is high then it may be necessary to introduce an initial collection chamber.06 0. If the negative pressure exceeds the designed valuethe possibility of cavitation increases and under extremeconditions the pipework can implode. A minimum designvelocity of lm/s is required to enable the system to be self . Increasing this height by 40mm is insignificant and would typically result in an increased capacity of less than 1%. ie to overcome the system resistances. The system will start to dischargeunder 'siphonic conditions' with watervolumes of 50-60% and improve its discharge capacity as watervolumesapproach 100% of the design rainfall intensity. The maximum permitted negative pressurefor a system can be calculated as follows: Vapour pressure — atmospheric pressure = permitted max. to allowthe velocity to be reduced before discharging to the sewer via conventional sizeddrain pipework. With a siphonic system the driving force is the difference in heightfrom the water level over the outletto the 'siphonic system converts to a conventional gravity system and is an integral part of the design. This is very important with a siphonicsystemas unlike a conventional system there is practically no spare capacity above the design flow. rainwater pipework to full flowing drains abovesea level (m) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 7. A checkof the required free standing headof water over the outlet is necessary to achieve the maximum discharge capacityas this can vary between differentmanufcturers. connections to a surcharging drainwill result in backing up in the rainwater pipework and cause the system to overload.09 9. on flat break'.50 = —9. it will be necessary to provide an overflowsystem designed to function whenthe water retained on the roof or in a gutter reaches an unacceptable level.Whilst the systems operate well within the pressure range of copper. Connecting directlyfrom full bore extendsthe working head which increases the negative pressure in the upper part of the system. negative pressure Atmospheric pressureatdifferent elevations abovesea level Elevation one third full when subjected to an additional 40mm over its design head.45 The siphon breakwill not always be at the bottom of the building as it only needsto be at a height to generate the required working head.32 0. care must be taken when specifying plastics. This mayonly be one or two storeys down the building. The 'velocity break'is wherethe full bore The positioning of the siphonor velocity breakis important and it must be maintained at all times or the calculations will be invalidated.22 0. For exceptional storm intensities suchas found in Asia.17 0. This is due to the headof waterover the outletbeing the driving force in the system.95 8. Time Flow pattern 1<2 Flow pattern 3<4 Flow pattern Flow pattern 4>3 pattern 2>1 5 Figure 36 Typical storm flows system is correctlybalanced.13 0.45 7. a reduced discharge capacity and irregularflow.steel and cast iron.50 8. For example a gravity It is important to ensurethe free flow of waterto all sides of the outlets. Extensive pipe systems maytakeconsiderably longer to fill if not designed correctly.) If this balance is not achieved the system will not functioneffectively due to increased air entrainment. Conversely. C Co C C. The system sections must be designed within a head loss balanceof typically Pai'e(g) (m) 10. outletswith a capacity of up to 80 litres/sec are available. Roof outlets currently available tend to caterfor nominal flows of 6 I/sec and 12 I/sec. consideredwhen selecting the working pressureof pipework. If the siphon break is surcharged during a stormand the working head increased therecouldbe a significanteffect uponthe system. As withconventional design.13—9.5m fromvertical wallsand not less than 1.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Example If a system is designed on a building Developmentof rainfall 500m above sea level and the temperature of the rainwateris taken as 1000. Manufacturersdo not generally publish negative ratings as pipes are normally used for positive applications and therefore the grade of material will have to be confirmed with the manufacturer. Typical velocity breaks are illustrated in Figures 37 and 38.09 0. If the system has an imbalance then wavy/pulsating flow mayoccur more often resulting in a less effective discharge fromthe roof. then the permitted negative pressureis 0. could have an increased carrying capacity of up to 20%.

b. provision should be made to accommodate thermal expansion and or contraction (in particular.This is caused by air being drawn into the outlet at high velocities. Where horizontal pipework is routed above office space or otherquiet areas sound insulation should be considered. At this point there invariably follows many recalculations as the losses in the sections are balanced and pipe diameters changed to achieve this. In somecases in order to fine tune the head lossa length of pipe between two Jointsoccurring alongthe collection pipework should not allow the ingress of air into the system. 151 . note the individual discharges 0 Figure 39 System sections cleaning. Section 1 comprises pipework fromoutletAto siphon break D Section 2comprises pipework fromoutletBto siphon break D Section 3comprises pipework fromoutletC to siphon break 0 Most of the pipework in section 3 is common to sections 1 & 2therefore any balancingof 3 can only be carried out in the short drop from the outlet Notethe head. Figure 38 Typical velocity breaksabove ground Changes of direction shouldbe achieved using 45° bendsand branches. Hasclient given any specific design requirements. Will the material and jointingmethod withstand the negative pressure that the system has beendesigned to. Balcony discharging less than 1 litre/sec connects to conventionally designed rainwater downpipe ii. Notethe velocity and negative pressure developed. both to assist the flow of water and to reduce the resistance. vi. Siphonic rainwater outlets installed on different roof levels Combinedcollection of siphonic and conventional rainwater outlets v.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage Siphonic pipework Velocity break point Gravity pipework Pipework materials At present the following materials are being utilised for the installation of siphonic systems: Steel Copper Velocity break point ____ To drain pipework Cast Iron Polyethylene When choosing the material to be used.Calculate the systemto achieve the required balance. however. flowvelocities of 6-7m/sare often achieved. Consideration should be given to pipe fixing. an isometric is useful to mark up the information priorto calculating vii. Calculate areaof roof to be drained (m2) Calculate the flowof rainwater to be discharged (l/s) iii. Main sewer on main drain run Velocity break chamber Figure 37 Typical groundlevel velocity breaks System design Siphonic pipe Procedure i. The highvelocity combined with slugs of air during certain flow patternscan generate higher noise levels than would be experienced with a gravitysystem. The losses for each section are then compared to establish the system balance. consideration should be given to the following: a. in particularat changes in direction. Design the pipework layout. as movement and vibration can occur due to the high flowvelocities.Clearlyidentifythe height from the roof outletto the velocitybreak Fix the position of the roof outlets and hence the areadrained. during installation theremust be the necessary supervision and pressure testing to ensurethe system is airtight. Due to the reduction of vertical pipes longerhorizontal runs maybe required. with the use of plastics). The calculations are simple in that for given flow rates and pipe sizes the engineer calculates the head lossin each length of pipe andtotalsthe losses for each section. therefore. if not confirmbasis of design iv. This is where a computer program or spreadsheet are essential. during maximum discharge. The outletsthemselves generate noiseat the point immediately before and after the full bore flowstate. plus a safety margin. Notethe individual pipe lengths and heights within the system viii.

Balancing a system is simplya matterof achieving the same head loss in each section. A short length upstream of each junction is often useful when balancing. If the branches are of sufficient height most of the horizontal pipework couldbe positive. The sectionof pipework from the last branch to the siphon breakwill often comprise more than one diameter in order to use up all of the working head. In the above example all pressures are negative along the horizontal pipe run. Moving down the vertical pipethe system head will overcome the previous losses until at the bottomof the system zero is indicated. Fundamentals Intensity As withany rainwater system the designer must review the parameters to which he is going to design. Forthis reason when numbering a system prior to calculating always breakthe systemdown into more than one length between each fitting. upper part of the system will then operate as an undersized gravity system. This is a valid adjustment to a calculation but can only be carried out by trial and error. The systemwill start with a small positive head over the outlet. In a situation wherethe horizontal run is midway down the building and dropsfrom the outletsare of sufficient heightto overcome losses in that branch (probably in excess of 1. When balancing a system the engineer will often find the need for additional short lengths of pipe in order to fine tune the head losses. Vacuum drainage isn't the answer to all rainwater drainage problems. This is quite valid as the calculation is aboutbalancing head losses and velocityvariations are secondary. This will allowthe system to fill more rapidly andtherefore run full bore sooner. These calculations are possible by hand but they are verytime consuming and a simple spreadsheet will save many designhours. This can be a useful method of adjusting a system on site where for instance the intended pipe lengths or numbers of fittings have not beenachieved resulting in an imbalance. A systemmust be fully primed before it will operateat its design capacityand the soonerthis is achieved the better. The design of a siphonic system is closer to a cold waterdownservicethan a gravitydrainage system. It is a common misconception that water is pulled throughthe system by the action of water dropping down the final vertical pipeand that therefore all pressures alongthe horizontal pipe must be negative. If the system is thoughtof as a cold waterdown service served by several water cisterns supplying one outlet. some proprietarysoftware will size orifice plates for insertionin the outletsto fine tune a system. then it can be easierto graspthe concept. the engineerwill see a common theme to the calculations and will soon get a feel for a systems balance by observing the Vacuum rainwater systems within buildings Introdudion Rainwater systems within buildings have traditionally relied on gravityto function. If this can be repeated from each outlet to the siphon break a perfectly balanced system will be achieved. When the flow rates have been adjusted to achieve a pressure balance the resulting hydraulic gradientand increase in flow depth must be checked to ensurethe gutter has adequate depth. Vacuum systems require maintenance and rely on there beinga reliable electrical powersource. Many methods exist for obtaining the point rainfall intensities to be designed for linked to the level of risk and the security required for the building. This method of balancing should only be used when a balancecannotbe achieved with the available pipe lengths. Thesemethods suggestan intensity for design based on a gravitysystem where only limited possibilities of failureexist such as blockages. The designer should aim to use all of the available working headin each section leaving as nearas practical zero headon the last pipe.5m). breaking the siphonic effect.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide fittings will comprise two different diameters. positive pressures will appear. the branches closest to the dropwill be smaller in diameter. As architects and engineers explorenew forms of construction the Plumbing Services Design Engineer has to respond and providesystems that work in harmony with the architectural form of the buildings. This in recent years has led to the incorporation of siphonic rainwater systems within developments which allow smaller pipework to be incorporated but still essentially rely on gravityto function. Having designed a few systems. Alternatively. Taking a typical run of pipework say 0. Whereoutletsare located in a common gutter any small differential in system pressure will result in load sharing between outlets. The following sectionidentifies the major components within systems and discusses their operation. several fundamental questions have to be answered beforeit is considered the by designer for use on a project to ensure that it is suitable. Failure to achieve this will allow outletson these branches to over perform and introduce air into the system. In reality this will be a small negative or positivefigure but witha maximum difference of 400mm between the lowest and highest section. Thiswill be lost through the outlet and the losseswill build up progressively along the horizontal run leading to the greatest negative approaching the top of the vertical drop. This is due to the needto create additional headloss in these branches. A mechanical system by its nature incorporates a greater numberof possibilities for failure and for this reason the engineermust also considerthis against whethera vacuum . This obviously starts withthe question of what rainfall intensity is to be used. it can be beneficial to run the branches parallel to the main run for a short distance before connecting. Alternatively some of the specialist designer installers and outlet manufacturers are now releasing their designsoftware to consultants. Now all that has to be done is to size the pipes to achieve identical head losses from each cistern to the outlet. It must not be used for outlets in separate roof areas. This will allow moreflexibility in pipe lengths and sizeswhen balancing.5m belowa gutter with a drop at one end. More recentlyvacuum has been seen as wayof providing rainwater drainage within buildings with advantages such as beingable to route pipework upwards over obstructing beams or in fact over longdistanceswith no or minimal fall. The level of water in the cistern (above the outlets) is minimised by the use of vortex inhibitors in the outlets. This has been due to the overwhelming reliability of gravity systems and the traditional form of buildings over the millenia. The 152 system losses. The systemwill be equally balanced if the larger pipes are positioned downstream but it will be difficult or impossible to fill them with waterduringthe early stagesof a storm. This inevitably means that with a typical run of pipework serving outlets in a gutter and dropping at one end. This is perfectly valid as the working head is the total height of the system not just the final vertical section of pipework. Also with a run of pipe serving a series of outlets in a gutter. Wherethis happens the smaller diameter pipesshould be at the downstream end of the system.

the excess being the volume required to be stored within the vessels. The vacuumpumpsdraw the air contained within the vessels above the water surface to maintain a vacuum and this needs to be expelled to outside. vacuum vessels. Location in accordance with the building regulations for vent pipes would be appropriate for such a termination but it should be remembered that the discharge is forced by the vacuumpumps and could be moisture laden. As local authority sewers become more congested the requirements for attenuating of discharge become more and more likely. These are most easily assessed using proprietary software. This is necessary as vacuumsystems need to be pumped to waste. On start up of the discharge pumps they must overcome the maintained level of vacuum in the vessels. Components Systems with low volumeswould require the pumps to constantly be switching on and off in response to valvesopening. Each building should be considered on it's own merits and the pros and consconsidered before any system is selected for use. These pipes are constantly maintained at vacuum. The vacuum pumps are required to generate the vacuum within the system. The return period will be given by the local authority and could be for example 10 years. the level of which is dependant on the lift required of the system. Vacuum pumps used for the dischargeof water from a vacuum must be designed specifically for this use. The buffer allows the vacuum pumps when called uponto operate to do a reasonable amount of work replenishing the vacuum in the buffers beforethey need to turn off. it is not possible to simply open a valveon the vessels and allow them to empty by gravity. If allowable discharges are relatively high then short sharpflash storms can result in peak storage volumeswhilst longer storms require peak storage when allowable discharges are small. will have a reasonable quantity of water to discharge. For instance it maybe an acceptable risk to incorporate a vacuum systemwithin an office development but not in an art gallerywherethe consequence of failure is greater. when called upon to function. The actual stored volume is dependent on the areas drained. must be maintained at all times and the opening of a valveon a vesselwould resultin vacuum being lost. Pumps used on vacuum systems sufficient to overcome the negative head plus any lift involved. Interface valves and actuators The interface valves are located within the box receivers designed as part of the gutter system. Even then the designer should consider the form of the roof. the discharge pumps empty the contents of the vessels mo the drainage system or sewer. Discharge pumps Having beenfilled withthe surface water from the roofs. and therefore the operational status of the system. This will be specified as an allowable dischargein I/s and a return period critical storm to be protected against. Vacuum vessels The vacuum vessels within a surface water system servetwo functions. In order to allow the pumps to discharge efficiently certain 153 needto draw water from a vesselthat is at a negative head and raise its pressure . to avoid confusion it is worth stating both the lift the pumpis required to perform as well as the negative head the pumps are to overcome. The calculations required for this type of analysis are complex and require input hydrographs for storm profiles relevant to the location of the site and for the duration of stormslikelyto yield the critical volume. The duration of the storm that givesthe critical (maximum) volume of storage will then have to be calculated. Local authorities will need to be consulted as to what their limits of discharge are likelyto be and what level of protection is required. Any moist air within the vent will have a tendency to condense and run to the bottom of the ventduringtimes when the vacuumpumpsare not operating. Conventional pumps are designed to draw water under floodedsuction yielding a positive suction head. The systemwill. a flat roof with internal parapet guttersis less secure than a pitched roof with eaves gutter that would purely shed waterover the side at times of failure. for lower rates of runoff. Vacuum pipework where the allowable discharge to the sewer is less than the expected runoff from the roofs. discharge from the vacuum vessel. These should be arranged as duty. vacuum pipework. usually between 30 minutes and 2 hours duration. remove water fromthe sumpsintermittently as theyfill up and stop once the sumpsare empty.Vacuum. It is important that some form of box receiver or sump is used in orderto ensure that the interface valve. so siting next to surfaces where it could readilycondense such as metal cladding systems maycause staining. The attenuated runoff is stored within the vessels whilst the discharge is arranged to release waterto the sewer at a controlled rate. discharge pumps. Many projects within built up areas now require someform of attenuation. If a system is required to lift rainwater through2m verticallythen the vacuum the system generates must be in excess of the 2m lift required. Although relatively cleanwater is contained in the vessels it maycontain leaf debriswhich over time will rot and cause odours. sense the rise in water level within the sump/box receiver and open the interface valvefor a predetermined time. The actuators which should be located remotely from the interface valves in a position to aid maintenance. Their second function is to act as a holding tank priorto discharge to the sewer/discharge system.Their dutycycleshould be rotated aftereach operation to yield even wear on the pumps. This is Vacuum pumps Vacuum systems used for draining water from roofsand othersimilar areas incorporate similar items of equipment to foul drainage systems. The provision of vacuum tanks gives the designer the opportunity to provide attenuation within the system. including vacuum pumps. Initially they act as vacuum buffers that enable the system to function and for the vacuumpumps to operate.sufficient to ensurethe sump unit/receiver is emptied. If the required attenuation storage is high a separate storage vessel should be provided to receive the pumped vacuum pumps should therefore be directed to discharge in a location so as not to cause nuisance. actuators and interface valves. assist and standby. the limit set by the local authority and the allowable flowto the sewer. The discharge from the The vacuum pipework consists of a network of pipes which are routedback to the main collecting vessels. The pumps are connected via a header to the vacuum vessels and operateon pressure switches to maintain the vacuum in the system.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage system is suitable for a particular building. These calculations balance the inflow with the outflowand give a resultant volume required to be stored throughout the storm. It is important when specifying duties for systems that it is clear exactly what the pumps needto achieve. To remove condensation from the discharge line a small suction line is connected into the dischargeat its lowest point to suck the condensate backinto the vessels by opening a solenoid valve on the small bleed line before the vacuum pumps operate.

The high level floodingfloat/sensor will isolate the vacuum pumps fromthe vessel in the event of a high water level in the vessels ensuring that watercannot enterthe vacuum pumps. This can be done by opening a smallsolenoid valve on the top of the vessel so as to admitair into the vessels to replacethe volume of water being removed. A drop in vacuum can be caused by either a leak within the pipework and system or by the admittance of water into the system. Repeated opening of discharge valves High level float. b. At lower set point the vacuum pumpswill start to replenish vacuum. Locate interface valves in easily accessible locations. The waterwill therefore move alongthe pipework system in pockets. The pumps are arranged to shut off once a low level cut-out switch or sensor has been reached. will initiate the discharge pump. will cause the system to cyclethe vacuumpumps which will increase wear on them leading to premature failure. Thesetake the form of a trap in the pipework. the systemwill sit in this static mode until the pressure drops in the system once again whereby the vacuum pumps will start to replenish the vacuum. Design hints a. each containingthe volume drawn into the system at each operation of the interface valve. This is the actual volume required for retention. Consider acoustically treating of the water. Interface valves open allowing slugsof waterto enter the system. Priorto vacuum pumps starting the vacuum pump dischargeline will be purged of condensation via a link backto the receiver vessels. This is achieved by a solenoid valve opening and closing priorto the pumps starting. Vacuum pumps cut in to maintain vacuum and to exercise pumps. System charged with vacuum whilst it is rarely not raining Rain starts Guttersconvey waterto the box receivers. c. which allows the water pockets to reform acrossthe diameterof the pipeensuring they get transported along the system the next timea valveopens. even if small. In orderto assist in the transport are fitted in the system. Ensurethe discharge pumps discharge into an adequately sized/vented drain. The opening of the solenoid can also help in primingthe pumps by ensuring the water in the suction headers is not drawn awayfrom the impellerby the vacuum in the vessels. within the box receiver or sump. d. If the discharge pumps were to start pumping out the contents of the vesselsthen as the water level drops within the vessels the air above its surface will become more rarefied and the vacuumin the vessels will increase to a point where the discharge pumps may not pass any more water. Table 28 Typical control sequence Condition System function System remains static. or sensor. Vacuum levels within the systemdrop to below lower set point. pipework in sensitive areas. Some manufacturers achieve this by having a balance line connected to the discharge side of the pump linking back into the vessels which ensures even pressure either side of the pump at all timesuntil it operates. and transport of rainwater tothe vessels causesthemto become full and needemptying. e. This will reduce the tendency for leaks and reduce the noise fromthe interface valves. g. discharge. The heavierit rains the closer together these pockets of water become. The pressure within the vessels is registered by the pressure switch and starts the vacuum pumpto expel air from the vessels and system. The entryof waterinto the system will lower the vacuum level in the pipework and vessels. operates. Seetable 28. To ensure the level of vacuumin the systemdoes not increase due to the discharge pumps functioning the increased vacuummust be released. Water levelsin receivers rise. When emptythe interface valve will close. emptying the box receiver. The operating bandof the vessels between high water level and low water level is the actual holding capacityof the tanks. Sensors detect the rise. On initial start up the vessel is empty and the system is at atmospheric pressure. Water entering the systemwill be pushed alongtowardsthe collecting vessels each time the interface valve. The vesselvolume must be greater than this to allow for freeboard and dead water. When this happens the balanceline is shut with a solenoid valveensuring the pumps discharge to waste and not back into the vessels. reforming points 154 . The water moves along the system until it arrives at the vacuum vessels. The velocity of water slugs is high and can cause vibration at changes of direction and if not properlybraced. Discharge pumps are stopped and system returns to normal. It is important to ensure the system does not incorporate any leaks as this. Without reforming pockets it is possible for the waterwithin the pipework to pond at the base of the pipeand for the air within the system to rush pastwhen the interface valves openand for the water not to be transported along the pipe efficiently. This is oftenachieved by the introduction of a motorised valve in the vacuum line and a high level flooding float/sensor introduced into the vessels.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide othercomponents within the system needto operate. It is not necessaryfor themto be immediately adjacent to box receivers. The vessels fill and upon reaching a high level float switch or sensorthe discharge pumps will empty the vessels. Vessel operating cycle Waterlevel in tanks drop during pump out to the lower level float orprobe. Fix the pipework adequately. Allowfreeboard at the top and bottom of the vessels for dead water and freeboard. In orderto ensure the systemdoes not overfill and flood the vacuum pumps a means of shutting the vacuum lines need to be incorporated into the system. As all rainwater systems are designed to functionfor a finite rainfall intensity and it is likelythat it will rain at an intensity greaterthan this at some point in the life of the systemcertainsafeguards need to be incorpororated. Operatethe system at as low a vacuum as possible. Upon reaching the design level of vacuum the pressure switch shutsthe vacuum pumps down. Discharge lines should rise to high level and ioop in to the top of the drain in order to eliminate siphonage assisting the discharge pumps and greatervolumetric flows entering the drainage system than the design f. awaiting next cycle of operation. At the set level the interface valve will openand allow the pipework to draw waterinto it.

transportation and land-based systems. although environmentally friendly. Water shortage or otherreasons for reducing waterconsumption b. the actual design process depends upon the performance of the individual components and the design philosophy of the manufacturer. In complex building structures and In penal installations where isolation and control of the appliances is necessary to prevent concealment of weapons and drugs. Hold adequate supplies of spares on site to assist in the routine maintenance of the plant. hotels. This led to the development of the single pipevacuum drainage system generally employed today. and information suchas this section. When flexibility in pipe routing is or required to drainappliances where frequent pipelayout changes are expected g. Buffer volume: The storage volume of the interface unit which balances the incoming flow of wastewater to the output capacity of the discharge valve. eg for differenttreatments e. currently the information they require. Hence. i.ceiling voidsand service ducts. However. This was one of the original aims of the invention by Mr Liljendhal. A complete set of definitions is contained within the European Standard EN 12109. System descriptions Definitions Applications to the use of vacuumdrainage in the following circumstances: Particular consideration should be given of terminology A selection of the fundamental definitions that are required to understand the terminology of vacuum drainage systems are listed below. opensthe interface valveand. although the Standards specify the requirements for systems and set out the design principles. This may be achieved by the use of a sump into which the wastewater from the gravity system drains. Controller: The device which. the modernvacuumdrainage system is believed to have been started by the development of the vacuumtoilet by Mr Joel Liljendhal in the mid 1 950s. However. as each prospective installation usually requires a unique design. It would be wrongfor this bookto recommend one manufacturer's system. Black and grey water Whilstthe original systems were developed for domestic wastewater transportation. Where separation of wastewaters is desired. j. pipework configurations and interface valvesizes. The main manufacturers of vacuum systems use different design philosophies and this resultsin their use of different pipe sizes. afterthe passage of wastewater and normally air. This would be of particularadvantage if sewerage capacity wasat a premium as the grey watercould be run to a water course after preliminary treatment. specifiers and clientsare only ableto use the Standards. Building refurbishment h. when activated by its level sensor. Provide duplicate interface valves in guttersto provide backup in the eventof one becoming stuck. an interface valvewill open allowing the wastewater to enterthe vacuum drainage system. met withquite a lot of resistance because houses needed to be re-plumbed and the vacuum toilet required more maintenance than a conventional toilet. i. Retrofit and newbuildflexibility When conventional gravity drainage systems are extended as in refurbishment work. When sufficient water has accumulated in the sump. and agree an informed specification for any system. ie airlines and railways. the system is finding a place in the building sector. The vacuumtoilets used only about1 litre of water per flush improving the efficiency of the system and making treatment easier. Interface valve: A valvewhich admitsthe a. Limited sewerage capacity c. The Standards contain the design. a vacuumsystem should be considered as a complete machine and not a simple hydraulic network.000 ships. In hospitals. European Standards.Today some 5. eg wheregrey water is reused d. Where separation of blackand grey water is desired. Vacuum drainage systems Introduction Vacuum systems for the transportation of waste watercan be divided into two basicsystems. adopted as British Standards. installation and performance requirements for vacuum drainage and vacuum sewerage systems. from yachts to cargovessels to ocean-going cruise liners. This two-pipe system. suchas the performance characteristics of the interface valves. within buildings and outside buildings. Engineers often wantto be able to design a vacuum system in the same waythat theywould design conventional systems. wherethe needto conserve wholesome water. it would be of advantage if there wasa requirement to use the grey water for reuse or irrigation. but with the restrictions placed on new projects such as smallconduit. is not in the public domain. The majorityof work has been in the transportation sector. the systems evolved in two differentareas. For the same reasons this technology was adoptedby the other formsof mass transport. the existing gravity drainage system can be fed into the vacuum drainage system. The buiding sector has beenslow to adopt this new technology. Also. Background Generally. Unlike a conventional gravity drainage or sewerage system. closes the valve. office buildings or otherareaswherecongested usage occurs 155 . The concept of his system was to separate the heavily polluted waste and the lightly pollutedwater (black and grey water) for separate treatment. and over 100 train installations use vacuumdrainage systems. and the marine industrycontinues to be the majoruser of the system. to helpthem decide if a vacuum systemis applicable for the project they have in mind. and the problems of confined pipework runs and sewage disposal are paramount. have been written for thesetwo systems. 50 majorairline companies. This arrangement can also be used to collect rainwater or as an interface between a building with conventional drainage and a vacuum sewer. Where drainage by gravity becomes impractical f. and the growing awareness of the needto limitwater consumption.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage h. suchsystemsare currently manufactured by a few international companies that fiercely safeguard their systemdesign details. The collection arrangements and small bore pipework of vacuumdrainage systems provide the possibility of easily separating grey and black water. designers. Hence.

All wastewater remaining in the vacuum pipework will drain. Lift: Section of vacuum pipeline with an increase in invertlevel in the direction of flow. The reformed slug is then propelled by the air admitted during the next discharge. When used with buffer volumes. Interface units The valves that form the interface between the vacuum drainage lines and the appliances can be used directlywith some appliances and with buffer volumes for others. Reforming Pocket: A low point in the piping profileinstalled intentionally to produce a controlled slug flow. These unitscan also receive discharges from gravity drainagesystems directly into the tank. Service Connection: The section of vacuumpipeline connecting an individual interface unit to the vacuum main. Air is discharged to atmosphere only from the vacuum station. Usually. and where required a standby generator. a means of discharge. on average. Control and monitor the system. wastewater forwarding pumps. and is a formof interface valve. Elector unit Basic components A vacuumdrainagesystem may be considered as comprising four elements: The vacuum transport process An understanding of the vacuum transport process is helpful to the system designer. Whilstaccelerating. valvedischarges. they are less power efficient than a conventional vacuum station and. In many designs of interface unit. They are of varioussizesof interface valveup to about 100mm bore. Typically. Typically a complete interface unit is composed of a buffer volume of varying size. are more expensive to run. As long as no interface unit is operating. it includes a flushing rim and the toilet's controller may have a memory function 156 . The machinery installed is similarto that of a conventional wastewater pumping station or lift station. pressurised water is introduced into the bowl througha watervalve and a flushing ring with holes to clean the bowl. The typical water consumption for this timing sequence would be 0. c.5 litre per flush. They are large unitswith a higher capital cost but typically are cheaperto run than ejectors. The automaticinterface units (AIU) The vacuum toilets The pipework The vacuum station. Vacuum: Any pressure below atmospheric. and control equipment and which may also incorporate vacuum vessel/holding tank(s). being small in physical size and with fewerworking parts than vacuumpumps. The magnitude of the propulsive forces starts to declinenoticeably whenthe interface valvecloses but remain important as the admitted air continues to expand. When designing systems greaterthan 1OOm in length (from the valveto the vacuum station). the valves are termed interface units (AIUs). ii.8-1 . Generate vacuum Receive and forward the wastewater and iii. Vacuum Station: An installation comprising vacuum generator(s). normally located at ground or basement level. ie greater than 40m3 of air. theyare used mainly for larger systems. the wastewater is pumpedautomatically to the building outfall connection. the discharge travels to the vacuum station. Vacuum toilets maybe re-flushed in lessthan a quarter of the timetaken for a conventional WC to refill. and are easy to maintain and operate. is similar to a conventional pumping station. b. They have the advantage of having a lower capital cost. The vacuum receiver tank size and/or numberof tanksdepends on the number of appliances connected to the system and the expected frequency of discharge. Simultaneously the interface valve opens and the pressure differential in the piping forces the contents through the valve.friction and gravity bringto rest the wastewater at the low points of the pipework system.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide flow of wastewater only or wastewater and air into the vacuum drainage system pipeline. The larger valvesare used in vacuum sewerage systems. level sensorsand controllers are combined into one device. level sensors and controllers. The flush water valve stays open for abouttwo seconds to reestablish the water pool in the bowl. controlsand alarms. air is drawn into the pipe. it is necessary to generate sequentially high acceleration and self-cleansing velocities withthe least amount of energy. The control of this kind of vacuum station. Oncethe interface valveshave operated. a sensor to sense the wastewater level in the buffer volume. Although AlUs are operated by air. which require approximately 40m3 of air an hourat peak flow. a controller which operates a pilot valveto openand close a vacuumsupply line to the interface valve. d. Before the interface valvecloses. littlewastewater transport takes place. Slug:An isolated quantityof wastewater flowing full borethroughthe vacuum pipeline. From the vacuum station. Each tank incorporates level switches The vacuum drainage system transports wastewater by means of atmospheric pressure acting againstvacuum. To designa reliable and economic vacuum drainage system. by gravity. Vacuum station A vacuum station has three functions: i. wastewater containing high levels of detergents may cause foaming problems. Eventually. non-automatic unitsmay use electricity to control their operation. the wastewater is transformed into foamand soon occupies only part of the vacuumpipe cross sectionso that the momentum transfer from air to watertakes place largely through the action of shear stresses. Vacuum toilets Ejector unitsare used on small systems. When an interface valve opens. However. such as reforming pockets and at the bottom of pipeline lifts. a. into the reforming pockets when all upstream interface valves are closed. therefore. However. a series of reforming pockets must be used. so that it will operate as soon as there is sufficient vacuum available. the differential pressure between the vacuum in the system and atmosphere. NOTE: A vacuum drainage systemis NOTa reversed pressure systemwhere allthe waterwould be accelerated simultaneously. These minimise the break-up of the wastewater slug and reform that portion of the slug that remains in the piping between interface A vacuumtoilet uses air instead of water to remove the contents of the bowl. vacuum pumps. Although vacuum stations may be used withsimilarsystems as the ejector unit. and consists of a collection tank. whenoperating a flush button. forcesthe wastewater into the vacuumpipework. a vacuum toilet will take 3 seconds to complete a flush cycle. to discharge into the external drainage system by gravity.

Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage that control the discharge pumps automatically. This will affect the choice of pumps where vacuum levels of a greatermagnitude than the normal —0. Lead forwarding pumpstart iv. for example in supermarkets with chiller cabinets. Combined vacuum generators 157 . When the water level has fallento a low level sensoror after a pre-set time period. Assist forwarding pump start High level alarm vi.The pump controls will include logic controllers that will be connected to the various level and vacuumsensors. or for projectsat high elevations whereatmospheric pressure is lower. the side of the vacuum moisture removal tank (where fitted) b. control circuitry and hours run meters for each vacuum and forwarding pump. The combined vacuum generator and forwarding pump. where stand-by pumps and collection tanks are installed. when the high level sensor indicates to the logic control that water has risen to the high level. Vacuum gaugesshould be provided at the following locations in positions that can be viewed easily: a. are fitted to all collection tanks. a. The signal to start the discharge comesfrom the high level switch in the collection tank. The controller will closeautomatic valve in balance line. Forwarding pumps The vacuum drainage system control panel contains the main power switch and the pump operating system which includes: magnetic starters. and start the forwarding pump If level does not fall within the pre-set time. To enable someforwarding pumpsto work. Vacuum generating and Controls System controls and conduction probes may needto be used. if fitted. forwardingpumps Vacuum generating pumps Vacuum pumps of the liquid ring and sliding vane typesare both suitable for use in vacuum drainage systems. The maximum vacuum provided by a liquid ring pumpoften will not exceed —0. where fitted. A data recordermay be built into this panel. a vacuum balance line may be required downstreamof the discharge pumpto reduce the pressure differences acrossthe pump (a balanceline is not required with an ejector system). then an alarm is given and the vacuum system is shut down iv. c. inductive or capacitative. A vacuum switch attached to the pipework and adjustable timer are used to control the vacuum pumps. The size of the forwarding pump is a function of the following: design peak flow. others are fixed probes that maybe conductive. Theseswitches are fitted with stainless steel bellows to protect against corrosion from any gases evolving from the wastewater. These pumps are designed to operate witha large pressure differential acrossthem withtheir inlets under vacuum.overload protection. of someform. generates vacuum b. In systems whereonly blackwater is being collected it is prudentto use the second forwarding pump as a circulation pump.8 bar gauge. To prevent loss of vacuum when the pump is not discharging. this sequenceof operation will commence: i. High level cut-off — stopvacuum v. vacuum regulator switches which control the vacuum pumps and level alarms which can be audible or connected to the building management system. The controls should be designed so that. Where a lot of condensate is being collected. in accending orderof height from the base of the tank: i. For example. Vacuum tanks or collecting tanks are not required normally.the controller will stop the forwarding pump(s) and open the automaticbalanceline valve. the mineral contentof the water mayaffectthe operation of the system A combinedvacuumgenerator and forwarding pump can generate vacuum directlyon the pipeline to an appliance and discharge to a gravity system in the same operation. Forwarding pumps are required to discharge the collected wastewater to the external gravity sewerage system.This operation should be programmed into the logic system as the first step in the discharge cycle. iii. Level detectors. whilst the maximum vacuum of a vane pump will typically be closer to —1 bar gauge. Collection tanklevel controls Combined vacuum generator and forwarding pump A combinedvacuum generator and forwarding pump or 'vacuumarator' is a screwvacuum pump with liquid ring seal with a macerator for breaking up any solids passing through it. both the vacuum and forwarding pumps alternatetheir use and are interconnected and controlled to allow them to be used with eithertank automatically. Vane typevacuumpumps are recommended for most projects sincethey are more efficient. If level reaches the high level alarm sensor. a checkvalve is required in the discharge pipework downstream of the connection of the balance line. The macerator consistsof one rotating knifefixed to the shaft and one stationary knifefixedto the suctionchamber. Pump controls or similar Earthing probe. the stop functionis eithercontrolled by a low level switch or timer. The signals from the six common detectors control the discharge pumps and alarmsas follows. macerates solids operation. and the permissible discharge rate for the receiving sewer. Alarmand telemetry systems mayalso be included if required.5 to —0. a second pumpwill be started or an alarmgenerated c.7 bar gauge operating range will be required. A second vacuum switch maycontrol a low vacuum control alarm signal. ie theyhave a greater throughput of air and are less temperature sensitive than similarly powerful liquid ring pumps. Vacuum gauges It is important that all vacuum gaugesbe specified to indicate gauge pressure and have stainless steel bourdon tube and socket. pumps wastewater in the same Level detectors are available in various forms. or sensorfloat switch Both forwarding pumps stop iii. This circulates sewage within the collection tank and breaks up any solids which may have formed on the surface of the wastewater. one gauge on each incoming vacuum main or header. ii. It is important that these gaugesare located above the incoming pipes and in a position that is easily viewed from the operating position of the isolation valves. as well as the collection tank level control relays. pumps. the collection tank ii. some are float switches. volume to be discharged.

8 bar. All service connections fromthe interface units could eitherbe liftedto the pipeline in the ceiling above or dropped through the floor to the pipeline below. These factors enable the wastewater to behave more like a gas than a liquid and in particular flow uphill. the manufacturer should supply a guarantee along with the testcertification that the products are appropriate for vacuum drainage applications. and a differential pressure of 0. Required vacuum generator capacity vii. Theyshould be determined by the designer and equipment supplier for each system: i. Horizontal piping connecting to vertical stacks should enterby way of single Ybranches. The pipesare installed in a near horizontal profile. Required operational level of vacuum forvacuumsystems.8 bar gauge vacuum. Required forwarding pumpcapacity. Combined vacuum generators and forwarding pumps have a small footprint compared to conventional vacuum stations andcan be located in small ducts. Checkvalves are also fitted on the discharge from a vacuum discharge pump. The designer shouldtake into consideration any known possible future additions or modifications to the system to avoid future installation andoperating constraints. Permissible leakage factors. flowingabove the wastewater but is entrained into the wastewater where its expansion propelsthe wastewater and lowers its bulk density. when open. Precautions should be taken. The following parameters are required to calculate the pipe sizesand system layout. The size and number of combined vacuum generator and forwarding pumps to be used depends uponthe required capacity. HDPE. Ambient temperature range within which the system shall operate Pipework Usuallystainless steel and thermoplastic (ABS. if ix. Dynamic losses between the vacuum station and the furthestappliance on each pipeline iv. and the minimum pressure rating for thermoplastics should be 10 bar but higher ratings shall be used if the pipe has an initial ovality. all horizontal pipes maybe connected at each level in the building in the void between floor and ceiling. Static losses between the vacuum station and the furthestappliance on each pipeline Pipeworkdesign Vacuum systems are designed to operate on two-phase air to liquidflows. Minimum vacuum level required to operate the interface units and vacuum toilets viii. flow. if utilised utilised viii. In industrial installations where high wastewater temperatures are anticipated. Air consumption of vacuumtoilets x. PVCu or MDPE) pipesare utilised for the construction of the vacuum pipelines. as in a conventional horizontal gravitysystem. Total wastewater flow Vacuum toiletflush frequency iii. Service life expectancy Type of building iii. ii. Also theyare fitted in strategic locations to enable sections of a systemto be isolated for service. Air to water ratios required for the interface units ix. Number of people the system is to serve iv. so that the design can limit. Isolation valves are fitted to all forwarding and vacuumpumps to allow their removal withoutdisruptingthe system. Generally. but a large numberof combined vacuum generator and forwarding pumps would be more expensive to purchase and run than a comparable vacuum station based system. Not all rubberring pipejoints are suitable vi. Preferably. As a minimum it shall connectinto the top sectorof the vacuum main pipeline contained within the angle of ±60°aboutthe vertical axis.Sanitary plumbing and drainage Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide and forwarding pumps can be used for all size of systems.2-0. ii. 158 . eg the use of a checkvalve suitable for vacuumdrainage. when closed on a functioning system. All pipesused should be suitable for vacuum. vii. withoutbackfall (0. to prevent fillingthe rise with wastewater by backsurges. Types. A combined vacuum generator and forwarding pump is more power efficient than an ejector system. Required collecting tank capacity. Multiple connections should be at staggered levels where practical. the selection of pipeline material is dependent upon its location and the characteristics of the waste water. The system should be designed to acceptdischarges from all appliances planned to be connected to the system. Isolation valves shouldbe suitable for vacuumuse and may be of the eccentric plug type or resilient face gate type and have a clean opening of not less than the nominal diameter of the pipe. number and location of appliances to be connected v. by pipework design and buffer volume sizing.5% fall) to a suitably located vertical pipe. Pipe sizes x. Vacuum recovery time. batchvolumeand frequency) vi. v. if progressive deformation or longterm loss of strength due to high temperature is likely to occur. Standard manufactured fittings are used where available. Design criteria In order to design a vacuum drainage system the following basicparameters should be determined and obtained: i. Vertical lift piping connecting to horizontal pipelines should enterfrom the top by way of a Yfitting. Design Design requirements Check and isolation valves A check valve is installed in each vacuum pump suction line to maintain the vacuum in the system. Y junctions for incoming branches should be 45° and reducers be concentric. Wastewater temperatures greaterthan 70°C should be notified to the designer. possible boiling due to pressures lowerthan atmosphere. care must be taken in the selection of pipe materials. Wastewater temperature range (high temperature grey water discharges shall be specified concerning temperature. Once the vertical pipe (stack) is installed. The air in the pipework is not.This makes installation one floor at a time possible which is particularly valuable in building refurbishment. Both checkand isolation valves must be capableof withstanding 0. connections to horizontal pipelines shouldbe arrange so that the branch pipe enters from the top by way of a Y-fitting. The strength of thermoplastics is affected by temperature. and oftenare fitted on the serviceconnection froman appliance. The velocities of water within the pipework and the resulting percussive effectsat changes of direction lead to the requirement for such pressure ratedpipe. joints shouldbe smooth and protrusion free to ensurefull flow conditions. subject to lift height restrictions.

if any iv. Fault finding procedures ii. Maintenance schedule for vacuum station equipment vii. check valves and other items that need inspection and/orservice iii. The crossover pipework would be located between the vacuumstation and pipework manifold of each subsystem.Estimated repair or replacement timesfor vacuum station equipment ix. for normal operation. so that. isolation valves. possibly with a crossover. Precaution routines if system performance is temporarily lost or reduced x. Estimated repair or replacement times of interface units vi. in the eventof failure of part of the system. each subsystem could operate as a standby for the other. be closed. Recommended stocking of spare parts xii. Maintenance schedules for interface units in relation to cyclefrequency and endurance v. cleaning eyes. if not cost prohibitive. Maintainability System maintainability affects not only maintenance costsbut also availability. Training of maintenance personnel xi. the crossover valve. The following aspects are the minimum that should be addressed as part of system design: i. Procedures for removal of interface units and their temporary effecton system performance. Internetsites. Estimated cost of maintenance per year. located within the crrossover pipework would. References The Environment Protection Agency (EPA) in USA. 159 .Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Sanitary plumbing and drainage For a larger building it is customary to divide the system into smallersubsystems. Access to all interface units. An isolation valve. if any viii. loP/BRE/CIBSE Vacuum Drainage Systems Guidance (bookand video). Procedures for removal or repair of vacuum station equipment and their temporary effectson system performance. and manufacturers literature.

160 .

Pumps and pumping Definitions and descriptions Pump types Applications Systems Pump selection Noise Pump installation A guide to sewage submersible pumpselection 162 164 165 165 166 166 166 167 161 .

or acids.00 bar = 10. Ensurethat all valves which are fitted in the suction line are essential. The difference in weightbetween the light hot water and the heaviercool water created a pressure. which oftengives a characteristic appearance to the damaged material. if the blows are repeated often enough and for a sufficientlylong period. If circulating pipeswere located higher above the boiler.20m head. — feed and expansioncistern cold feed neutral point c. by the impeller vane travelling faster. than the liquid can keep up with it b.Pumps and pumping Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Definitions and descriptions Absolute pressure The gauge pressure. by a restricted function(therefore never throttle the suctionof a centrifugal pump) system. the Net Positive Suction Head required by the pump must be matched by the Net Positive Suction Head from the Cavitation Positive and negative pressure The increase in pressure on the outlet is called positive pressure. it is normallyunderstood to be the gauge pressure). they worked on gravity circulation. b. gradually being filled with vapouras the liquid at the interface boils at the reduced pressure in the cavity. Reduction in the efficiency of the pump. Figure 1 illustrates this point. heavier water dropping. suggesting that it has been gnawed by rodents. will create a resistance to the flow of waterthroughthem. pipefittings. whenthe specific speed is too high for optimum design parameters e. Its motion is like a circle. whethermore (increase) or less (decrease). d. the system will have an increase or a decrease in pressure corresponding to how far from the pump it is. Neutral point The pumpcreatesa negative and positive pressure within the circle (figure 1). Audible rattling pitch of dangerous vibration.The moreor faster you try to circulatewater through them. etc. c. Water. It is shown by a plus sign (+). The water within the system is being circulated from boiler to radiators and Cavitation is defined as the formation of cavities beneath the back surface of an impellervane and the liquid normallyin contact with it. Moving awayfrom the pump. Figure 1 Neutral point backto boiler. although each individual hammer-blow may be minute. ii. Bends(which should be large radius) and 'T' pieces should be keptto a minimum and should not be positioned so nearto the pump suctionthat local effectsare still present as the liquid enters the pump. (Whena pressure is referred to without'gauge'or 'absolute' being stated. Some of the consequences are: a. Pressure All pipework. 162 .g. at higher rpm. the pressure in the surrounding liquid increases and the cavity collapses against the impellervane with considerable force. even when fully open. whenthe temperature of the liquid is too highfor suctionconditions. it produces a kind of water-hammer effect. This means that on very smallareas of the metal extremely high pressures are momentarily developed and. To ensure cavitation free running. the said metal maybe damaged or even destroyed. waterwith large amounts of dissolved oxygen. The rate of erosion may be accentuated if the liquid itself already has corrosive tendencies. whenthe required NPSH is equal or greaterthan the available NPSH + circulation Flow of water Negatwe Heating + ) + positive pressure + pressure — pump Atmosphericpressure Normal atmospheric pressure at sea level is 1. If the cold feed is the neutral point. The neutral point is wherethe cold feed enters the system. Gravity circulation When heating systems were first developed. The lattertype of valve has an appreciable pressure drop. You probably now knowthe principleof gravity circulation. Somewhere it must change from positive to negative. e. As the cavity moves alongthe underside of the vane towards the outercircumference of the impeller. It can be caused in a centrifugal pump: a. How to avoid cavitation i.5 rn/s. more pressure was created. suction lines should be kept as short as possible and suctionvelocities should not exceed 1. normally expressed in cubic metres per hour(m3!h). This was called circulating head. or crackingsounds maybe heard which can reach the Capacity The volumetricflow rate delivered by a pump. radiators. To overcome this resistance. The decrease in pressure on the inlet side is called negative pressure shown by a negative sign (—). The increase or decrease in pressure will be at its greatestclose to the pump. The cavity consistsof a partial vacuum. This is because pressure is beingused to overcome the resistance of the pipes etc. like electricity. as you can see fromfigure 1. the increase or decrease in pressure will reduce. Thatforce will overcome resistance and circulate the water. This force is pressure. plus the pressure of the atmosphere. The lighter hot water was forced upwards by the cooler. will alwaystry to takethe least line of resistance. If so then checkthat these are of the gate type. Wherever possible. or litres per second (lIs). This is called the neutral point. Atmospheric pressure varies with the altitude above sea level and with the weather conditions. Erosion of metallic surfaces. the more resistance theywill create to this flow. a force must be put into the water. iii.

Where the suctionconditions are liable to be critical it will be necessary to calculate NPSH values to ensure correct pump selection. particularly with volatile liquids such as gasoline. plus all pipe and fitting resistances plus the velocityhead. 163 . expressed in terms of vertical head of the liquid.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Pumps and pumping iv. it is pushedin by the pressure of the atmosphere as a resultof the pressure of the fluid in the pump being reduced. assuming normal temperature at normal atmospheric pressure. See Figure 1 which illustrates good and bad practices in suction pipework layout. Newton x metres seconds — — forcex total head seconds Suction head (positive) This exists if the source of liquid is above the pump. but this should be covered by the manufacturers' ratings at stated viscosities. Efficiency % This exists if the source of the liquid is below the pump and is the vertical distance from the centre-lineof the pump up to the free surface of the liquid. less its vapour pressure at the pumping temperature. Special care should be takenwith installations wheretwo or more pumps are fed from a common heater. thus creatinga vacuum which allows the atmospheric pressure to push the liquid through the suction pipe into the pump. NPSH required The minimum absolute pressure necessary at the pumpentry to maintain the required flowwithoutcavitation. The total pump head must include the measured pump head. The pressure of the atmosphere and hence the depthfrom which a pumpwill 'suck'.81 x I/sec x m = Suction lift (negative) Friction head The head is necessary to overcome resistance to motion in pipes and fittings. Output in kW Input in kW Efficiency: % NPSH available The absolute pressure of the liquid at the pump entry. When a fluid (liquid or air) is sucked into a pump.varies with the altitude above sea-level and with the state of the weather(see definition of Atmospheric Pressure). overall efficiencies of about 50% are quite normal for coupled sets. recorded by gauge. Power The total amount of energy required to drive a pump or a pumping set. = output x 100 Input Input or power to be provided. vi.' and is the vertical distance from the centre-line of the pump up to the free surface of the liquid. The suction lift of a pump is also affected by. kg/s = il/sec 1 Newton 1 = 1kgx m/sec2 = force Newton= lkgx 9. a condition generally known as 'flooded suction. The effectof vapour pressure or permissible suction lift is important. Pump power Watts NOTE: 1 — — = 9. the viscosity of the liquid. Care shouldalso be takento avoid places where gas pockets can occur.81 Gauge pressure The intensity of pressure exerted by a pump. Power and efficiency Power of a pump work done time (seconds) — — Static head The pressure exerted by a liquid at rest. It is an expression of the installation conditions. unless otherwise stated. Owingto the combined effectiveness of the pump and motor. — — kg x 9. Net positive suction head (NPSH) The method of specifying suction performance under criticalsuction conditions including altitude. self-priming is the characteristic which enablesthe pump to evacuate air from the suction line. The brake poweris the power absorbed by the pumpoutput. deductions being madefor high altitude and for high temperature and vapourpressure.81 x litres x head seconds Efficiency Efficiency of a pump is its ability to perform with the least energy input.calibrated above atmospheric pressure. Total head = L + Lf + 1/2MV2 The efficiency of a pump is the ratio of the input powerto the brake power. NOTE: The NPSH required mustalwaysbe less than the NPSHavailable. The suction lift for which a pump is listed is. to the surface. When a by-pass is fitted to a pump and this has to go backinto the suction line at some point. full details of the installation shouldpreferably be referred to the supplierfor consideration. high temperature and high vapour pressure and the limitations of the pump itself. a check must be madeto ensurethat the resultant temperature rises (at any point) do not reduce the Net Positive Suction Head available to a point where cavitation occurs. It is of greatimportance as it may exceed the static head.81 x head seconds 9. the total suction lift of which the pumpis capable as the listed speed. v. Self-priming When a pump is operating under suction lift (negative) conditions. Static delivery head The vertical distance between the centre-line of the pump and the free surface of the discharged liquid. aromatic solvents and most liquids at elevated temperatures and where suction lift is necessary.

plus the staticsuction lift. some or all of the air has been removed and the pressure is belowatmospheric pressure. thus impartingkinetic energy. 164 . The vapourpressure of water is 0 at freezing point but reaches normalatmospheric pressure. Vapour pressure Is the minimum pressure necessaryto prevent evaporation of a liquid at a given temperature. indicating the degree of partial vacuum in a pipeor vessel. or minus the staticsuction head (positive). bar at 100°C. M = kg V = velocity in m/second Typical characteristic curvesfor a simple centrifugal pump including powerand efficiency are illustrated in Graph 1. Total delivery head The static delivery head. A complete or perfect vacuum is impossible to attain. the impeller'throwing' the pump liquidto the outside of the volute. plus the velocity headand the friction head in the entire pipesystem. All liquids evaporate spontaneously unless prevented by external pressure. Total suction head (positive) The static suction lift. Vacuum A space in a pumpsystem from which. (See Figure 2. which is the boiling point of water at sea-level. Velocity head This is the pressure required to set a liquid in motion and is generally of practical importance only in the case of pumps of large capacity or wherethe suctionlift is nearthe limit. there being manydifferenttypeswithin each category. as the case may be. Centrifugal A centrifugal pump in its simplestform consistsof an impellerand a volute casing which has to be filled completely with liquid when the pump is in operation. plus the velocity headand friction head in the suction pipesystem. However. which illustrates various head conditions on a pump). plus the velocity head and the friction head in the inlet pipe system. Vapour pressure increases rapidly by a rise in temperature. Total head on the pump The static delivery head. Pump types The two main pump classifications are centrifugal and positive displacement.5 x M x V2 Velocity head where Total suction lift (negative) The static suction lift.' often referred to as the 0/H curvewhere Q is the quantity(flow rate) and H is the head. the main characteristics referred to belowcan be regarded as generally applicable. = 0.Pumps and pumping Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Static delivery Static deliveryhead +friction head in deliveryand suction pipe Figure 2 Pumping definitions Vacuum is normally measured in millimetres head of mercury. minus the velocity head and friction head in the inlet pipe system. In this way a centrifugal pump is capable of generating a certain headwhich varies according to the pump speed and the accepted method of expressing the relationship between capacity and head is by means of a 'characteristic curve.

B. the generated head is at a maximum andcorresponds to a noflow condition. Capacity varies with head (see 0/H curve) system Return Ideal position due to most ofcircuitbeing under positive pressuretoprevent ingress ofair into the system. theydeliveralmostconstant capacity irrespective of variations in head so that the usual Q/H curve whendrawn for a typical positive-displacement pump is an almostvertical straight line. It is usualfor package unitsto be positioned on a prepared base. it is often foundthat this method of providing a pumping system is expensive and the responsibility for resolving problems is impossible to apportion between the pump manufacturer. This is often referred to as the 'closedvalve pressure' and a centrifugal pump should not be left operating in this condition for any length of time as it will rapidly over-heat due to the horse power at this point being turned effectively into heat energy. the liquid being positively transferred from suction to discharge port. C. fire hydrants. 4. Package systems reduce the amountof site work and ensure that the arrangement of all components can be adequately maintained. D. Pump should operate as near this point as possible A. Suitable for low-viscosity liquids.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Pumps and pumping Graph1 Typical characteristic curves Maximum generated head. Non-self-priming e. Fittings/valvesunder pressure. Draw downin expansionpipe will be equal to F/R betweenfeed & suction of pump (pipework and boiler PD). vessels. there are a numberof disadvantages. E = 6 /' 7/ .g. pistons. Modern system higher head greater than Hs only boiler PD (3ff ft). Neglecting leakage. sliding-shoes etc. _______ Boiler Pump Flow Heating a. screws. Although satisfactory systems can be arranged. Wherethe pressure is adequate for all the building's requirements but the 1. Pump over will not occur due to position of open vent and cold feedmaking the neutral pointon the same side of the pump. lobes. Capacity proportional to speed c. For this reason it is not usual to provide QIH curvesfor positive pumps. showers. Theremay also be over design of somesystems due to the 'ad hoc' selection of various components. Capacity substantially independent of head 165 . operating with minimum clearance. with lowhead requirements. Best position. The collection of items are all a. Self-priming ::: Z 15 i2 C) \ s7 -N — — ower Peakefficiency. Energydissipated through load. Positive displacement Positive pumps usually consistof a casing containing gears. valves and control equipment into an operational system. Worse than B. Their main characteristics are as follows: performance. vanes. most positive pumps are self-priming and somewill handle entrained gas or air.only final connections to the suction and discharge pipework and connection of the electricity supplyto the pre-wired integral control panel is required on site. Candraw airthrough fittingswhilstthey might not leak under pressure. e. Head proportional to the square of the pump speed Systems Packaged systems Most pump manufacturers supply equipment that is prefabricated using all the components necessaryto providea systemthat is factorytestedto a proven d. wash down points. causing subsequentdamage. Wherethe available pressure is sufficient for normal domestic and culinarypurposes but is too low for otherequipmentor fittings to the building. When properly costed. OK on cold systems d. The main characteristics of centrifugal pumps can broadlybe summarised as follows: Wherethere is no piped publicwater supply and the only available water is at or belowground level.i' 12 60 a 55W 50 45 Applications Pumped systems or a booster set will be required where any one or number of the following conditions prevail. ancillaryequipmentsupplierand the installer. Due to fine clearances involved. Suitablefor viscous liquids (reduced speeds usually necessary for high viscosities). 3. Unpackagedcomponent systems It is sometimes necessary to design and install separate items of pumping equipment and controls to form a system on site. Figure 4 Idealposition supplied separately and the installer is required to connectthe pumps. Figure 3 Pump positioning L Vent pipe Feed and expansioncistern ________ Cold feed Water Supply Undertaker is not prepared to guarantee the pressure in the foreseeable future.closed valve OH curve position L b. Greater chance of pumping over. b. hose reels. Capacity proportional to pump speed c. 2. _____ Boiler L j I x 3 0 4 6 J 10 Capacity(litres/sec) - At the point where the curve intersects the head ordinate. Wherethe pressure from the public supplymain is insufficient to reach the highest or most distantdraw-off point for the whole or part of the day. processequipment etc.

Noise Noise can be very simply defined as unwanted sound.Pumps and pumping Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Pump selection Between 90 and 95 per cent of the world'spumping is carried out using the centrifugal pumps and wherever conditions are suitable. Multi-stage pumps maybe of horizontal or verticaldesign. a positivedisplacement pumpwould be the first choice. with sump pumps emptying engine-room bilges aboard ship and similarduties. It is normallyadvisable to raise the pump above floor level so that it is more accessible and can be easily drained. has proved very suitable for this application. Although these notes on pumptypes have referred briefly to the main characteristics of centrifugal and positive pumping equipment and its effects can be minimised by careful siting of the plant room in relation to working or living areas and by the use of sound insulating materials on the wallsand ceilingof the plant room. for example. Particular care must be taken that all joints in the suction line are absolutely tightto avoid lossof capacity or difficultyin primingdueto airleaks. Careful selection of equipment is most important to ensure that noise generation is keptto an absoluteminimum. Many special types have beendeveloped. Pump installation It is most important that pumps are correctly installed and the following notes are intended as a general guide. the past few years have seen a rapid growth in the number of specialised designs available for particularapplications. ceilings etc. water borne noise and noise transmitted throughthe actual structureof a building. It is therefore advisable for pump manufacturers to be approached during the early stages of installation layout and designfor their recommendations. 166 . one of the factors contributing to the quiet operation which is so oftenessential for this class of application. it is necessaryfor the pumpto operate for periods witha completely dry suction and one specialised type. Centrifugal. i. Such a dry suctioncondition could arise with recirculation systems where the suction source maybe starved for periods due to cyclical or abnormal operating conditions. Easy bends should be used and sharpelbows and tees avoided. there is an increasing interest in pumps suitable for handling oily water withoutexcessive emulsification so that the liquid can be handled efficiently by conventional oil/waterseparators and the sliding-shoe design. Where risers pass throughfloors they should not be grouted in but supported by soft packing materials and where pipework is clipped to walls. sufficient to produce satisfactory results but where exceptionally quiet operation is essential for a very specialised application it may be necessary to take additional precautions and such cases should be referred to companies who specialise in noisesuppression. is capableof handling this condition for reasonable periodswithout harm. Piping should be accurately cut and fitted so that it can be bolted up to the pump branches without putting any strain on the pumpor pipejoints. the actual pipe losses should be calculated so as to check the total head on the pump. For otherthan very simple runs.In the case of non-self priming centrifugal pumps. Noise can be transmitted to the structure of the building throughthe foundations of the pump and in certain instances it may be desirable to mount the pump sets on resilient mats or anti-vibration mountings in which case it is essential that flexible Piping The size and suction of delivery pipes should be carefullycalculated and should in any case not be smaller than the pumpconnections. with a positive suction head. It is generally accepted as an irritant which can affectour mental and physical state and its effect can be particularly significantin the relatively quiet environment of the office. Noise transmission associated with pumping systems falls into three main categories. pipe clips should preferably be insulated with rubber. Particular attention should be paid to pipesizing and layout to keep water velocities low and avoid turbulence and pipework shouldbe securelyanchored to prevent vibration. the sliding shoe design. a centrifugal pump is normally the simplest and most economical type available. or where large volumes of waterhave to be moved at relatively low heads. the latter having the advantage of requiring appreciably less floor space. For water boosting services where relatively small capacities are required at fairly high heads. airborne noise. displacement pumps. Water borne noise may be moreof a problem as it carries through the pipework to any partof the building and the most effective way of dealing with it therefore is to prevent it at source as far as possible. including multi-stage designs in which a number of impellers are assembled from a common shaft withthe pumped liquid being delivered to each impeller. modern vertical multistage pumps with small diameter impellers having a low top speed operating at 2900rpm have proved to be extremely quiet in operation. the suction pipe should slopeup towardsthe pump suction to avoidthe possibility of trappingair in the top of the suction piping. vertical multi-stage centrifugal pumps have been developed. rather than to suppress it.e. connections are fitted to the suctionand discharge flanges of the pumpset to minimise the possibility of vibrations being transmitted to the structure throughthe pipework and to prevent undue strain on the flanges. Thesesimple precautions are normally For installations operating under flooded suction conditions. These have small diameter impellers having a low tip velocity. domestic and hospital buildings. For long runs of piping or when handling viscous liquid theyshould generally be larger than the pump connection. With someapplications however. felt or similar absorbent material. Whereviscous liquids are to be pumped or where selfpriming with good suctionfunction performance is essential. Airbornenoise is not normally a particularly seriousproblem with With the growinginterestin pollution control. It is quite common for the friction headto exceed the static liquid. then the centrifugal pump is the natural choice. particularly in residential premises and hospitals. Whileit is generally considered that 1440rpm pumps are inherently quieterthan 2900rpm pumps. operating at reduced speed. Location The pumpshould be in an accessible location and there must be room for dismantling and maintenance.pumpsare generally considered unsuitable as they churn the liquid excessively and the oil/water separators are unable to handle the resultant emulsification.

can be cut up priorto enteringthe pump. A relief valve is designed to give temporary protection againstan abnormal condition and. The pumps are oftenslid into placedown guide rails fixedto the side of the tank. connectthe incoming pipe(s) and the dischargepipe. the latter will not last long. Whenthe sumptype and sizehas been selected. Mono channel Discharge non-return valve If there is any appreciable head or length of deliverypipe. preferably threetimes as a general rule and four timesor more if there is likelihood of frequent clogging. e. single channel and chopper. The main problem can be the blades can be damaged by stones or metalobjects. Largercollection sumpsmay be constructed from concrete. the electrical connection to the starter box and the jobis almost complete. The impeller is good for producing higherheads.. Storm water. again have sand and grit in the water and are the main problems that cause a pump to fail. vortex. has grit. for example sludges. the foot valve maybe combined with the suctionstrainer.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Pumps and pumping Suction strainer For most industrial applications or where solids may be present. A single non clogging impeller. 167 . the use of slip-ringmotorsor other reduced-current startingmethods should be considered. The total area of the holesin the strainer should never be lessthan twice the cross-sectional areaof the suction pipe. a suction strainer should be fitted to protect the pump. by far the bestoption is a double mechanical hard facedseal.The advantage of this typeof unit is the site work is kept to a minimum. The main advantage is the risk of blocking the pipe work with largesolids is reduced. both to make it possible to open up the pump withoutdraining the pipe and to prevent the head of water from driving in reverse after stopping. pump selection is therefore very important. Size is the limiting factorfor transporting to site and the cost. it is necessary to select the pump impellerbut perhaps more importantly the shaft seal arrangement. Sewage Pumping Sewagefor a building complex to a mains pipeline or processstation has its options of pumpavailable. set in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Mechanical shaft seals There are a numberof combinations of seal arrangement available. Depending uponthe application. Under these conditions the average motor takes four to six times full load currenton startingand where local regulations or conditions prohibit direct-on-line starting. repairs and down time will be frequent. drip proofor totallyenclosed. Silicon and tungsten carbide faces are ideal for the demanding conditions. however sand and grit can cause damageto the pumps. cooking oil. Soaps. bleach and a lot moreare usually diluted. When required the pumps can be raised for cleaning or repair. Pumps should be controlled by starters with suitable overload releases. A guide to sewage submersible pump selection Pump options There are a considerable numberof pumpvariations available for an even larger range of applications. fish pondsand fountains. both are expensive but give a long working life and so work out cheaperto run over a long period. The choppertype impeller is designed to condition the solids in the liquid. the cause should be ascertained and rectified.g. Foot valve With most pumps operating under suction lift conditions a foot valve at the end of the suction pipe is desirable to keep the suction pipefull at all timesand eliminate the need for primingaftera shutdown. sand and plastic items in suspension against which care has to be taken in selection of a pump. should be considered with reference to conditions under which the pumpwill be working. this type Liquids Sewage mayconsistof mainly water with a wide range of other matter. Beware.Or the less expensive option. a double lip seal with an '0' ring for a seal. Water features. Human waste is mainly 1% approximately solids.The conditions are very harsh. the impellertypes include. Sometimesthe pumps are free — standing secured by a chain and the deliverypipe is a flexible hose. First there is the fully packaged unit. The type of enclosure. is ideal for the highermoreviscose liquids. Chopper Relief valve Positive displacement pumps will develop excessively high pressures if run with the discharge shut-offor throttled and a spring-loaded relief valveshould be fitted to the pump. simplyset the tank into the desired hole. a non-return valve should be fitted. String. As a resultthe repair costscan be highand frequent. well worth the investment. this consistsof a GRP tankwith one or two pumps fitted inside. Impellertypes Vortex impeller Thistype of Impeller is ideal for solids in suspension and depending on the pump inlet sizewill pass solids clear through the pumpwith little risk of damage to the pump. Switch gear It is not possible to protecta motor adequately by means of fuses only as a fuse that will carry the normalstarting currentis too heavy to give protection againstordinaryoverloads. small plasticitemsetc. shouldthe valve operate. The best combination of double mechanical seal is one of them being hard facedor a standard carbon faced seal with back up lip seal. Electric motors Squirrel-cage AC motorsare the normal choice wherever possible and can usually be started direct-on-line.

witha blockage shortly to follow. The following question check list should be answered before selecting a pumping system: 1. The probe is connected to a warning device light or buzzer in the control panel. Is a duty and standby pump(s) required? Calculations Most of the calculations related to pumps have been covered in otherparts of this guide and they apply to submersibles just the same. Whereis the liquidto be pumped from— to? Distance? 5. should water get past the first seal a probe that is built into this area short circuits.The second seal is to give added protection to the Electric motor to prevent water ingress shouldthe first seal fail. Similarlyto pumpthe liquidvertically the velocity should be increased to 2.Pumps and pumping Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Double mechanicalshaft seal seal that is in contact with the liquid being pumped. nature of the liquid? 6. What is the solids content. What is the most efficient impellerwe can use for the task? Vortex.5 metres per second or more. failureto do so will result in solids falling backdown the pipe.However viscosityand solids contentare of major importance to our pumpselection. 2. Heavy sludge maybe some 3% solids in suspension. What power is thereavailable? 415-3-50 240-1-50 UK? 8. As soon as practical the pump can be removed a new seal and oil installed and returned to work. A quality seal arrangement in a submersible pump will have a hardfaced 3. Domestic sewage is 1% approximately solids. this will increase the specific gravity of the liquid and so must be allowed for.The advantages are minimum downtime with minimum parts required. What is the liquidto be pumped? Sewage. singlechannel? 7. chopper.5 metres per second. When pumping the solids (1-2%) through horizontal pipework there is a needto keep the liquidvelocity to at least 1 . storm water. What is the quantityto be pumped in whattime? 168 . A second seal say 25mm higher up the shaft can be either hard faced or a carbonfaced seal. dirty water. Between the seals is a small reservoir that is filled with a non conductive oil. the oil serves to lubricate the seal faces. failureto do so will allowthe solids to settleout in the pipeand maycause a blockage after a period of time. Useof a chopperor vortex impellertype pump is your choice. (12-24 volts). What is the best installation GRP tank or concrete sump? 9.Viscosity will vary depending uponthe nature of the liquid. What static headheight is the liquid to be pumpedto? 4.

Fire protection services Principal causes of fires in buildings Classificationof fire risks Residential/domestic fire sprinklersystems Components 170 170 170 170 171 Pipework installation Hose reel installations 174 175 176 177 178 Wet risers Dry risers Foam systems Types of system 169 .

the building control body and the insurer(s) of the dwelling and dwelling contents. and for the design. residential homes. A. and 'Domestic occupancies'. If the required pressure and flow rate is not achieved the installation should not proceed and the designer of the system should be consulted. Automatic pump drawing from a stored water facility c. a. maisonettes and transportable homes. suchas individual dwelling houses. installation. C Smothering Dry powder with a CO2 gas non-conductive agent Where a sprinklersystem is being consideredit is necessary to consultthe fire authority. DD251 gives recommendations for the water supplies. The processof combustion orburning can be likened to a triangleas shown in Figure 1. Components Sprinklerheads A sprinklerhead is a device that allows water to discharge in a predetermined pattern. issued by BSI. Automatic booster pumpdrawing waterfrom a town main or an elevated storage tank d. i.e. Thus the closest sprinkler headto the fire is most likelyto operate. If sprinklers are installed under glazed roofsthe sprinklertemperature Method of extinguishant The properties covered by DD251 Extinguishing agent Water Cooling Inflammable liquids Electrial equipment Smothering Dry powder Co2gas Foam include 'Residential occupancies'. residential rehabilitation accommodation and dormitories. Details of thesetogetherwith the methods of extinguishment and extinguishing agents are shown in Table 1. such as: apartments.e. The sprinkler head is operated by temperature. The Draft for Development is open to public comment and changes to the recommendations contained within it may be made during the documents lifetime. reference should be made to DD251. 170 .e. system components suchas the sprinklerheadsand valves. i. commissioning. thuscontrolling the fire and enabling occupants to reach safety. the water supplier. Air. installation. Principle causes of Residential! domestic fire sprinkler systems A residential fire sprinklersystemfor life safety purposes is designed to fight fires at an earlystage in their development. The three basicessentials required before any fire can start are: Fuel. i. The public comment period will usually last for 2 — 3 years after which time BSl will consider whether a full British Standard is required. when at its lowest hydraulic characteristic. the required flow rate and pressure requirement can be achieved. with a number of sprinklerheads that discharge water. oxygen to sustain combustion c. nursinghomes. different types of sprinklerhead produce different patterns. a Draft for Development published in 2000. Once a flow of water is detected in the pipework an alarm is triggered which operates a visual and audible alarm. and may be the only headto operate. Classification of fire risks Firesare divided into three categories. and maintenance of the system. This criticaltemperature is known as the 'temperature rating' of the sprinkler and for normal conditions in the United Kingdom will be 57°C or 68°C. HMOs. Feasibility Before installation work can beginthe servicepipe water supply should be tested to ensurethat. Installation of residential sprinklersystems shouldonly be undertaken by certificated sprinkler contractors. Water supplies Sprinkler systems should ideallybe connected to a town main but mayalso be connected to one of the following water supplies: Figure 1 Fire triangle Removal of any one of the sides of that trianglewill resultin extinguishment of the fire and this is the principleon which all forms of fire extinguishment are based. The installation requirements of BS 6700 (Specification for design. Gravity fed stored watersystem. those contractors who have undertaken and passed a recognised course of trainingspecificto sprinkler system installation.Fire protection services Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide fires in buildings a. boarding houses. individual flats. Heat. In the event of a fire it is the heat generated which will cause a sprinkler headto operate. agedpersons homes. blocks of flats. It is recommended that installers of residential/domestic systems be familiar with the content of DD251. when a critical temperature is reached the waterwill flow throughthe sprinkler. Wherethe watersupply is shared with the domestic services and there is no priority demandvalvean additional flow rate is required in all calculations. Table 1 Classification of fire risks Risk involved A Wood Textiles Paper All goods manufactured from above B Sprinkler protection for residential and domestic properties are described in DD251. i. something to burn b. testing and maintenance of services supplying waterfor domestic use within buildings and their curtilages) and the Water Regulations apply.e. connected to a suitable water supply. B and C. The majorityof installations will be mains connected with eithera dedicated sprinkler supplyor a demand valve to divertall available incoming waterto the sprinkler system. In any case the temperature rating of the sprinklers should be the closest to but at least30°C greaterthan the highest anticipated ambient temperature of the location. The sprinkler system will consistof pipework that is constantly chargedwith water. Pressure tankor vessel b.

p = 0. whereappropriate. Sprinklers should be threaded suitable for use with fittings threaded in h. where applicable. f. a priority demand valve. 171 . The valve should be locked in the open position to prevent accidental interruption of the water supply to the sprinkler system. and 6. e. The distance between sprinklers within a room shouldnot be less than 2m. Batons and locktype clips should be fitted in close proximity to the sprinklerheadsto ensure no movement is allowedwhich may recoil heads into the ceiling or loft voids. The potential for a shielded fire to develop is taken into account. Pipe sizing (Hydraulic calculations) All pipework downstream of the alarm valve should be sized by hydraulic calculation. Sprinklersshouldbe positioned so that: a. consisting of not lessthan a 22mm nominal diameter pipeand quick acting test valve with an outlet nozzle equivalent in size to the smallestsprinklerin the system. Sprinklers should be installed in accordance with their approval listing specification and supplier! manufacturer's instructions. f. of the full borelever typeto isolate sprinkler pipework from mains water supply. A stopvalve. b. When using residential/domestic sprinkler heads the system shouldbe capable of providing flow rates in accordance withthe manufacturer's recommendations. A water flowalarmfor detecting water flow into the system and sounding an alarm. Sprinklers should be positioned such that they are not more than 4m apart nor are they more than 2m from any wall or partition. see DD251. An alarm test valve. will operate an audio-visual alarm. The sprinkler system should have: If conventional sprinklerheadsare to be used the flow rate at the sprinklerhead should be not lessthan 60 1/mm for single head operation and 42 I/mm for each of two heads operating simultaneously in domestic properties and for each of four headsoperating simultaneously in residential properties. Sprinkler heads should only be fitted by qualified installers. e. orthe flow rates required for conventional sprinkler heads. accordance with ISO 7-1: 1982 and ISO 65: 1981 and BS21. DD251 recommends that the maximum area protected by a single sprinklerbe 15m2.5 bar. sprinkler heads. basedon the resultof the component performance test. They are in accordance with the c. be installed in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions and the approval and listing requirements of an independent third party certification body. a. The heat sensitive elements are within 25 to 100mm belowthe ceiling for ceiling mounted sprinklers. g. d. The difference in static pressure between two connected points in a sprinkler system is given by the following formula: Static pressure difference.05 x i0 C185 x d4-87 xLxQ185 p = pressure loss in pipe (bar) Q= flow rate through pipe (litres/mm) d = mean bore of pipe (mm) L = equivalent length of straight pipe. A mechanically driven alarmor an electrically operated flow switch which. c. The nominal sizeof sprinklers should be one of those shown in Table 2. And.7m below the ceiling are wetted when the sprinklers are operated. An air bleed valvefitted to the highest point/sof the sprinklersystem to allowthe purging of air from the system. manufacturer's instructions identified in the approval listing. calculation of pressure losses throughoutthe system. The wholeof the floor area and the wallsfrom the floor up to 0. Only new equipment shouldbe used. 5. NOTEconcealed sprinklers may be considered with theapprovalofthe authority having jurisdiction. Table2 Sprinklerhead orifice and pipe threadsizes Nominaldiameter of orifice (mm) Pipework installation Pipework All pipework should be installed in the sameway as otherwater services. when triggered by the flow of water in the sprinklersystem. A backflow prevention valveto prevent mains watercontamination. b.lh(bar) where h is the vertical distance between the two points (in m).Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Fire protection services rating should be within the range of 79°C to 100°C. Pipework support Only metallic pipe fixings should be used. The pressure lossdue to pipe friction should be calculated fromthe HazenWilliams formula. Nominal pipe thread size (inch) 10 15 and 20 20 /8 1/2 3/4 Valves and alarm devices Valves and alarm devices suitable for residential and domestic systems should be installed in accordance with manufacturers' instructions and should be manufactured to the appropriate British Standards. as described in BS 6700. Their sensitivity and discharge pattern are not adversely affected by obstructions such as constructional beams or light fittings or other d. Pipes and fittings should eithercomply withthe appropriate standards of Table 3 or for plastic and otherpipe and fittings suitable for residential and domestic sprinkler systems. p= where 6.Any sprinkler head removed froma system should be discarded. The minimum operating pressure at any sprinklershould not be lessthan 0. bendsand fittings (m) C= a constantfor pipe material (see Table 7) For flow ratesof 60 1/mm the following tables give the appropriate pressure lossesper metre of pipe. A drainand test valve should be fitted at the lowest point of the sprinkler pipework to allowtesting and the complete draining of the sprinkler system. a test facility should be provided at the end of the hydraulically most remote range pipe on the system consisting of not less than a 22mm nominal diameter pipe and quickacting test valvewith an outlet nozzle equivalentin sizeto the smallest sprinkler in the system. The heat sensitive elements are within 100 to 150mm belowthe ceiling for wall mounted sprinklers. Sprinkler system pipework should be supported at the intervals given in Tables 4.

attached garages.6 Equivalentlength (m) 0. boiler houses. Capillary fittings to bejointed bysoldering orbrazing with alloyswith a melting point ofnot less than 230°Cas specified in BS EN29453.4369 run (m) (m) 1.2423 0.6 1.0021 0.0 3.4 2.6 51.9 1.4 3.7 2.8 0.65 x io' Q015 d°87 where 0= the water flow rate (litres/mm) d = the tube bore (mm) The equivalent length of pipefor the pressureloss due to the bend for a water flow rate of 60 litres/mm is as given in Table 11.2 32. And crawlspaces.0052 0.7 3. copper and CPVC Material Steel Copper CPVC C 120 140 150 c. Table 6 Maximumspacingoffixingsfor CPVC pipework Nominal diameter (mm) Horizontal Vertical Table 10 Pressure loss in im ofsteel pipe fora water flowrate of 60 litres/mm Mean size (mm) 21.2930 0. = 7. or subsidiary alternatesystems maybe considered.3470 0.0 40 50 2.86 52.4 2.0 3.0018 0.8 2.0006 Frost protection It is essential that any waterfilled pipework which may be subjected to low temperatures should be protected against freezing at all times.31 35.4 3.98 Pressure loss run (m) run (m) Tube size 12(/8') 15(1/2') 22(/4') 28(1') 32(11/4') 40(11/2') 50(2') 0.01 70 0.0 1.0173 0. Brass fittingsin underground locations should be immune to de-zincification.0021 0. 172 ..6 Pressure loss (bar) 0. factory plastic coatedtube:In thiscase.0044 0.0 22 28 35 42 54 Meansize (mm) 20.6 0.0 3.2 1. BS EN 1254Part 1 NOTE 2 BS 1740 Part 1 BS 7291 Part 4 1.2 32.2 26. fittingsshould be manipulative Type B.0 3.4 Table 7 Values ofC forsteel.8 0.05 1.8 1.97 41.g. Note: the use of electrical trace heatingand/or lagging or antifreeze solutions.0 2.0 3.0007 Extent of sprinkler protection Sprinkler protection shouldbe provided in all habitable parts of the dwelling. Equivalent length Table 4 Maximum spacing of fixingsfor copperand stainless steel Table8 Pressure lossin im of copper pipe for a waterflow rate of pipework Nominal Horizontal 60 litres/mm Vertical run diameter (mm) 22 28 35 42 54 run (m) Tube size (mm) (m) 1.6 39.6 20 25 32 Meansize (mm) 20 25 32 Pressure loss 40 50 40 50 (bar) 0.6 39.Fire protection services Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Table 3 Pipeand pipe fittings specifications Location Pipe Fittings Below ground Above ground BS EN 1057 NOTE 1 BS 1387 BS 3505 BS 3506 BS 6572 BS EN 1057 BS 1387 BS 7291 Part 4 BS EN 1254 Part 2 NOTE 1 BS 1740 Part 1 BS 4346 BS 4346 BS EN 1254Part 3 Equivalent lengths of pipe for pulled bends in copper tube (in m of pipe) Frictional pressure loss in copper pipework bendswhere the direction of water flow is changed through45° or more should be calculated using the following equation.2 26. There are a numberof areas that can be exempt from protection including: a.6 51.8 2. Cupboards and pantries withfloor areas of lessthan 2m2 and wherethe least dimension does not exceed 1 m and the walls and ceilings are covered with non-combustible or limited-combustible materials 2. thick walled.0554 0.0 3.1 (mm) 20 25 32 40 50 (bar) 0. Coppertube to BS EN 1057used in underground locations shouldbe R220 (annealed).8 (mm) 20 25 32 2.4 2.0006 Table 11 The equivalentlength of copperpipe for the pressure loss due to the bend for a water flowrate of 60 litres/mm Tube size Table5 Maximum spacingoffixings for steel ipework Nominal diameter (mm) 15 Horizontal run Vertical Table9 Pressure loss in im of CPVC pipe fora waterflowrate of 60 litres/mm Tube size (mm) 22 28 35 42 54 Mean size (mm) 20.0512 0. Bathrooms witha floor areaof less than 5m2 b.63 27. can also be exempted if the separation from the habitable areas has a 30 minute fire resistance.2 1.1932 0.0054 0.0529 0. Non-communicating parts of the property e.0156 0.6 1.6 3. 2. etc.4 2.4 2.

30 2. Whenall the commissioning tests have been passed the installer should sign a Certificate to indicate that the system has been designed and installed following the guidance set out in DD251 -iiocumenauon For new and extended systems all drawings and documents should bear: a. the installer should providethe following information to the owneror occupier: a. 90° screwed elbow 90° welded elbow 45° screwed elbow Standard screwed tee or cross Table 14 CPVC .5 times working pressure for one hour. the systemshould not be approved for use until the system has been corrected and the test specified in this clause has been passed.02 3.66 2. 1.36 0.00 0. Details of all tests conducted and their results c.50 3.04 0. the alarm is effective and that the system has not been modified.63 0.40 2.30 0. should include instructions on the actionsto be taken in respect of operation of the system. The addressand location of the premises b. The person carrying out the inspection should complete and sign the logbook accordingly.40 1.80 0.13 0.88 1. b.10 1. checking and maintenance i.60 Tee run Tee branch 0. Essential information for the user e.10 0. 173 .60 0.30 0.g. Details of the authorities consulted and any response to consultation. The stated audibility should be achieved when there is a waterflow of not more than 60 litres/minute throughthe alarm device under test. or damaged.49 0. The sprinkler system should be subject to an annual inspection andtest by a qualified installerto ensurethat the sprinklers' heat sensing capacityand their spray pattern is not impeded.60 3.60 0.16 28 e. Detailsof any remedial action taken d.44 1.81 h. The sprinkler systemshould be tested to ensure that at leastthe required flow rate can be achieved at the required pressure at the alarmtest valve.13 1. c.90 1.equivalentlengths ofpipe forfittings(in m ofpipe) Fitting 20 Nominal_diameter (mm) 25 32 40 50 65 g. Logbook A logbook should be handed over on completion of the system commissioning.10 1.25 0.74 Nominaldiameter (mm) 35 42 0. should include pressure/flow rate data at a specified location for the commissioned installation.49 0. If the system fails to maintain pressure the leak should be found and corrected and this test repeated. identifying 1. Confirmation or otherwise of the alarm systems operational status f. The person carrying out the inspection should test the system by visually inspecting for leakswherever possible.30 0. The program 54 0. coveror in any way impedethe operation of a sprinkler head'.91 1.77 0.22 0.equivalent lengths Fitting 20 0.30 0.69 0.10 0. d.89 0.20 0. This logbook should give details of: a.00 1.40 0.30 0. c.30 1. A Log Book containing inspection. Heads should only be replaced by qualified installers.54 1.30 1.10 f.60 0.10 0.70 2. faults.60 0. Maintenance It is the property owner's responsibility to ensure that a regular inspection and testing program is in place.30 1. The installer and the designer shouldbe responsible for correcting the system.22 3. etc.30 90° elbow 45° elbow coupling spare sprinklerheadsbe left at the site of the installation to replace activated.60 0.55 2. ofpipe for fittings (in m ofpipe) Nominaldiameter (mm) 25 32 40 50 65 80 documents. A small quantityof air should be left in the systemat the end of the purging process.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Fire protection services Table 12 Copper.50 2. sprinkler systems operational status e. If this flow rate at the required pressure cannot be achieved. Details of any recommendations or comments.30 0.068 1. The name of the designer d.68 1. The watersupply to the system should then be isolated and the system should be testedto a minimum of 1. the minimum flow ratesare achieved at the drainand test valve. unless by a qualified designer/installer.30 Table 13 Steel .46 0. Detailsof the watersupplieswhich.34 1. It is recommended that a number of 0. A 24 houremergency telephone numberwhich can be used to obtain assistance.equivalentlengths ofpipe for fittings (in m ofpipe) Fitting 22 Tee run Tee branch 900 capillary elbow 900 compression elbow 0. Confirmation or otherwise of the Commissioning On completion of the installation the pipework needsto be tested. if a town main.00 3.30 0.60 3.80 2. detailing a regular program to be undertaken by an approved contractor.60 4. The alarm (and/orrepeaters) should be heard in all habitable rooms in the premises protected by sprinklers coupled to the alarmdevice being tested. sprinkler heads.70 0.30 3.56 0. The date of inspection b.30 0. The name and address of the installer Withthe pipework filled with waterat the normal working pressure for the system any leaks shouldbe found and repaired.50 A list of components used.40 0. A layout of the sprinkleredpremises showing the extent of the installation.76 2. do not paint. leakage and hydraulic tests need to be carried out. On completion of the installation. The date of installation.91 2.90 0. An inspection and routine checking program for the system.30 0. manufacturer's name and parts reference number. A general specification of the system and a statement of compliance with the guidance given in DD251.90 2. withthe timeand date of the test.

Hose reels are normally fitted with 20mm d in mm V in rn/s = V2gH q in litres/sec it 4 q = 0. Table 15 Heightofjet (max) in metres Headon jet in metres 3.4 27.72 15. the hose reels must be fitted inside the actual officeaccommodation which as a general rule means that they are fitted adjacentto the fire exit doors into the lift or stair lobbies. it is not always possible to site hose reels adjacent to the fire exits owingto the fact that the width of the building would prevent the hose from reaching a fire in the centre.43 12. Stop valvesshould be exercised to ensurefree movement. Automatic hose reels are fitted witha valvewhich is opened or closedby the revolving action of the reel whenthe hose is pulled out or rewound and with this type it is only necessaryto pull out the hose and open the shut off nozzle at the end to allowwater to be discharged.46 10.84 18. This means that they must as a general rule be fixed alongescape routes or adjacentto fire exits so that personnel escaping from an outbreakof fire will passthem on their wayto safety and can thus use themwithout having their means of escape cut off. The alarms should be activated so that their satisfactory operation can be audibly verified. The usual lengths of hose are 23m.29 18. it is of vital importance that they are placed in readily accessible positions so that they can be used withoutexposing the personnel to danger.03 2.25 24.72 16.96 — co-efficient of discharge H in m Types of hose reel Thereare two basictypesof hose reel.2 6.72 11.50 21.86 14.34 23.79 6.0 15.5 12.5m above the floor. normal practice to fit a lock shield type isolating valve on the feed pipe so that individual reels can be shut down for maintenance purposeswithout isolating the whole system.10 2. The fixed typeof reel shouldnormallyhave its centre line at least 1 .0 9.5 times working pressure for 1 hour. it is necessaryto turn on the isolating valveand a warning notice to this effect must be positioned adjacentto the reel. the building usually on the columnsor stanchions but care must be takento ensurethat they can be used safely in the eventof fire.33 7.63 11. or the highest testpoint of the installation pipework.14 10.07 17. Each reel is also fitted with a 5mm lever operated shut off nozzle at the end of the hose.83 20. All hose reels must be fitted with a union between the isolating stopvalveon the feed pipe and the inlet to the reel.96 x v'2gH x —x—-— x i03 106 d This reduces the formula: 3.Fire protection services Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Should a leak be suspected the pipework should be pressure tested to 1.15 12.44 9.42 22.86 19.85 8.28 13. to ensure that the systemflow rate requirements are met.08 25. The sprinklersystem should be flow tested for 1 minute at the drainand test valve. They are installed to provide the occupants of a building with fkst aid means of fighting a fire whilst awaiting the arrival of the local fire brigade. This enables individual reels to be shut off and dismantled for maintenance and overhaul without shuttingdownthe entire system.05m above the floor.3 21.34 23. In industrial premises.47 25. Wheretrace heating is installed.35 x 64 x 3 1000 10. Discharge from lets Quantity = Velocity x area q =CdxVxAxl000 Putting Cd = 0.29 19. 36m and 45m. Manually operated hose reels are fitted with a wheel headtype isolating valveon the inlet to the reel which is closedwhen the reel is not in use to prevent the hose from beingcontinuously subjectto water pressure.3 3.4 1000 q = 0.67 4.68 2.15 17.05 — — x 6. are available if required. It is however. This enables the hose reel to be used without opening the smokestop doorsthus preventing the lobby from beingfilled with smoke.59 8.34 21. In office blocks especially the multi-storey type.4 3. the average being 900mm to 1.57 5.86 5.93 5.00 5. as the amount of water discharged by each reel.97 5. In these circumstances it is necessary to position the hose reels in the centreof In determining the length of hose to be used the critical factor is the requirement that all areas of the building must be covered and no part must be morethan 6m from the hose reel nozzle when the hose is uncoiled.0 6. The fire service personnel do not normally use them unless the fire happens to be a small localised one. diameter reinforced non-kink rubber hose but hose reels fitted with25mm dia.07 13.91 8.35 x 82 1000 >< — — 3. The drop pipeto the hose reel fromthe distribution main is normally 25mm Diameteroforifice in millimetres 9.4 5.15 16.64 I/sec Pipework Hose reel systems are classed by the waterauthorities as domestic cold water services owing to the fact that water can be freely drawn off through the reels. approximately 23 litres/mm is not sufficient to extinguish a large fire.00 10.2 18.4 30.A swinging type hose reel can be swung through 1800and be mounted at any convenient height.51 19.3 24.97 13. fixedor swinging. 30m.7 16.79 8. the whole unit being connected to a suitable watersupply.0 12.51 21.43 14. Example when d = 8mm H = 9m — q— Positioning of hose reels As hose reels are intended for use by the building occupants.67 12.72 8.42 20.8 2.29 10.41 15. its effective operation should be checked.99 5.54 19. Before running out the hose.81 21.19 — — — — — — 174 .60 2.49 11.0 3.35d2 q= 1000 xVH Hose reel installations A hose reel consists basically of a steel drumor reel on which is rolleda length of suitable rubber hose with a shut-off nozzle at the end.19 12.05 16.

46 4.10 1.23 0.07 0.89 7.4 2.86 0.07 5.91 16.50 5.0 0.87 4.67 4.02 1.59 1.43 6.12 0.99 2.11 0.5 6.05 2.4 0.95 2.28 0.61 1.26 0.15 1.80 0. Testing and approval Duplicateelectric ordiesel pumps Figure 2 Typicalarrangement ofhose reel system.59 diameterwitha 25mm by 20mm reducing elbowat the bottom.3 24.27 3.27 2.89 0.90 7.96 8.As a general guide a capacity of 1250 litresor 1 .22 0. Automatic'On' and 'Off' Water supplies The following water systems are acceptable for hose reel installations and are the ones most commonlyused.18 4.56 0. d.46 2.46 7. A normal requirement for a hose reel system water supply is that it should be capable of providing a flow rate of at least2.49 0.70 3.08 0.39 4.46 0.09 0. it is unlikely to be extinguished solely by their use.14 0.14 4. Special provision in respect of pump supplies addition.46 1.11 6.95 1.85 6.36 0.37 6.44 2.98 1.8 0.5 bar throughthe reel this is sufficient to produce a 6m jet of water to comply with requirements.30 1. Connection from sprinklerinstallation trunk main c.00 1.11 1.73 8.80 4.6 12.62 0.08 1. but the local water company shouldbe contacted to establish their requirements.73 1.51 9.27 I/s at a running pressure of 2 bar at the level of the top hose reel in the system.43 2.14 0.2 metres 3.26 9.0 13.77 0.67 0.06 0.125 0.12 1.20 0.32 1.21 6.63 5.21 3.07 2.55 22.24 4.82 6. Connection from hydrant main or wet fire riser.17 0.65 0.55 1.18 0.0 1.55 19.77 10. Duplicate pumps Duplicate pumpsare normally provided and these maybe controlled as follows: As automatic 'On'and manual 'Off' This system of control is identical to that used for sprinklersystem pumps in that the pump is startedautomatically by a pressure switch and stopped manually by a stop/reset push button on the starter.5 0.3 0.60 2.22 1. although if a fire has reached a size requiring this number of hose reels to be broughtinto action.36 7.0 4.81 3.27 0.03 1.20 5.60 3.06 4.41 1.92 1.72 0.97 1.38 10.51 0.15 0.48 5.04 0.25 0.27 1.63 6.0 1.88 5.03 2.49 0.76 2.40 0.99 11.60 0.36 0.09 0.40 0.44 0.5 Diameterof orifice in millimetres 3. Completed installations are normally required to be tested in the presence and to the satisfaction of the localfire authority and to be approved by both the local fire authority and water company.7 15.36 0. Care should be exercised in positioning hose reels on drinkingwater systems that a sufficient flow of water passes along the pipework (oversized to meet the hose reel requirements) to ensure fresh wholesome water at all drinking and culinary terminal fittings.38 I/s per reel).76 2.45 1.52 0.2m3is a common requirement.24 0.72 1.16 0.58 3.57 0.86 1. A typical pump supply is shown in Figure2.82 0.86 25.05 3. In 175 .25 2. The required capacity of the break tankvaries.53 1.63 0.43 0.80 8.6 9.29 0.0 10.99 2.32 0. the feed pipe to the reel being20mm diameter.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Fire protectionservices Table 16 Discharge fromjets in litrespersecond Head on jet in 1.3 21.16 0.45 3.37 1.23 12.34 0.0 7.69 0.87 3.52 3. it is often necessary to provide a suction breaktank supplied fromthe town's main via a suitable float operated valve.The flow rate of 2.65 0.64 11.73 0.13 0. Direct connection from town'smain (or mains) b.87 1. Wet risers Figure 3 Typical arrangement of wetriser Low pressure landing valve on roof (if required) With a pressure drop of approximately 0.4 27.7 0.88 0.31 6.53 2.27 I/s will permit up to six reels to operate efficiently (0. Pump supply (usually with suction break tank) With this system the pumps are started by a pressure switch but a flow switch is also provided in the pump delivery line to ensure that the pump continues to run all the time there is a flow of waterthrough the system.10 0.27 5.69 2.41 8. Connection from boosted domestic water service e.16 0. a. an electrical alarm bell is provided to run all the time the pump is running and thus provide a remote warningof system operation.5 0.02 9.99 4.70 0.12 0.43 1. As most water companies do not permit direct connections from their mains to be boosted.8 1.05 2.36 0.39 0.4 30.2 18.

Fire protection services Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Statutoryregulations There are no insurance requirements relating to wet risers. In orderto reduce the running pressure in the canvas hose line. The 176 Testing and approval Completed installations are normally required to be tested in the presence. drain pipe running vertically downthe building alongside the main riser and discharging over the suction tank. Normally only one outlet per floàr would be required. but wheretwo are necessary the second riser should be provided at the oppositeend of the building.71/s. They are normallyonly installed in buildings up to 61m high. of the Local Fire Authority and be approved by both the Local Fire Authorities and Water Companies. wet risers being required in buildings exceeding this height.The maximum running pressure permitted with only one outlet in operation is 5 bar. Most local Fire Brigades publish a standard for dry risers installed in their area. It is also necessaryto limit the static pressure in the canvas hose to a maximum of 6. and to the satisfaction. can be altered to give the correctrunning pressure when the landing valve is fitted in position. The discharge from the relief valveis piped via a 50mm dia. In view of the very high pressures involved (up to 16. it is advisable to obtainthe local authority requirements in each instance. In early wet riser installations a lot of trouble was experienced throughinadequate drainage facilities and it is important to ensurethat the drain pipework is short and direct with the minimum number of bends. Dry risers A dry riser consists of an empty or dry pipe rising vertically up a building with hydrant valve outlets on each floor and at roof level. An inlet (Breeching Piece) is provided at ground level in an external wall to enable the Fire Brigade to pump water into the riser from the nearest suitable hydrant. Figure 4 Typical arrangement ofdry riser. connection into a 100mm dia. This is achieved by means of a spring loaded pressure relief valve incorporated in the outletfrom the landing valve. It is necessary to efficiently earth wet risersto prevent damagefrom lightning.6 I/s must be provided to refill the tank. . Theyshould be mounted with their centre lines between 910mm and 1.c!rLnvalve Installation The requirements for installation during construction of a building are the same as from a dry riser. Dry risers are provided solely for use by the Fire Brigade personnel and theyare not intended as first aid fire fighting equipment for use by the building occupants in the sameway as a hose reel system. The riser should be 100mm diameter normally with outlets on all floors. Size and positioning A wet rising main shouldbe positioned either in the ventilated lobbyapproach staircase or within the stair enclosure itself. Statutoryregulations Dry risersare normally installed when they are a requirement of the Local Water Company. a wet riser supplysystem should be capable of maintaining a minimum running pressure at the top outlet at roof level of 4 bar at a flow rate of 22.06m above finishedfloor level and one outlet should be provided for every929m2 of floor area. butterfly can be adjusted by means of a nut on the outside of the landing valve body and by use of a special test pipe and gauge. the electricpump can be either'Auto On' and 'Manual Off' or 'Auto On' and 'Auto Off'but in both cases the diesel pump (which is on standby) is 'Auto On' and 'Manual Off'. Size and positioning of risers Risers should be 100mm diameter where only one hydrant valveoutlet is provided on each floor. In a similar way to hose reel systems. Pumping equipment The arrangement of the duplicate electric and diesel fire pumps. Water supplies Generally. The 'Auto Off'facility is provided by incorporating a flow switch in the electric pump delivery line. Also as they are only installed in buildings exceeding 61m in height and as thereare very few standard requirements.When two outlets are provided on a floor fed from the same riser then the diametershould be 150mm. usually duplicate electric and diesel fire pumps. Landing valve on roof Automatic airvent if required Lanuing To maintain the above pressure and flow rates it is necessaryto employ pumping equipment. high pressure landing valvesare fitted with an adjustable butterfly valvein the inlet which acts in a similar mannerto an orifice plate and reduces the pressure under flow conditions whenthe valve is openbetween 4 bar and 5 bar. valve Dryriser Twin inlet breeching niece in sheet metal box at ground level 1st floor Ground floor Basement TdWlevel i. Use of a dry riser in the eventof fire avoids the necessity of running long lengths of canvas hose up the staircase of a building and thus enables the Fire Brigade to tackle the blaze much more effectively and in the case of very tall buildings much more quickly (see Figure 4). An automatic inflow froma town's main having a flow rate of at least 7. If when the riser is initially installed it is impossible to then it must be fitted out as temporary dry riser with a temporary breaching inlet in a suitable position at ground level.5 bar at the pump delivery) direct boosting of the town's mains is not permitted and therefore it is necessary for the pumps to be supplied froma suction break tank which must have a minimum actual capacity of 45.45m3. Outlets Wet riser outlets are 65mm diameter high pressure landing valves withflanged inletsand female instantaneous outlets fitted with plugssecured by short chains. commission the pumping equipment.6 bar if water is shut off by closing the branch pipe nozzle at the end of the hose. startersand suction tank is identical to that used for sprinkler installations with the exception of the method of control.

Liquid stored in open or closed tanks is dealt with by applying foamto the surface of the liquid. This enables Fire Service personnel to couple up their hose to the riser outlet in a smoke-free areaand it is not necessary to open the smoke stopdoors until the last moment when the water is turnedon. The inlets are normally grouped togetherin a singlecastingcalled a "breeching pipe" or "inletbreeching" which has a single flanged or screwed outlet. It shouldalso resistheat.The two stages (induction and aeration) are sometimes carried out in one apparatus but often separate unitsare employed. Foam has three constituents. and retain its watercontentfor a long time. Foam mayalso be used for items of plant or complete buildings. tenacious. Application Foam maybe used for extinguishing fires of oils. Automatic Air Relief Vents are sometimes required by the Local Fire Authority to be fitted at the top of the riser. in which casethe mixture of foam compound and wateris pumped through a pipeor hose to the foam maker (sometimes known as an aeratorbox or aspirator box). paints. of the Local Fire Authority and be approved by both the Local Fire and Water Companies. Whenpositioning inlets due regard must be paid to accessibility. similar in appearance to soap suds and it is so light that it will float on the surface of a liquid. Combustion does not occur actuallyat the surfaceof the liquid because the proportion of vapourto air is too greatto form a combustible mixture. molten fats and similar liquids. They should be mounted with their centre lines between 910mm and 1. Each inlet consists of a 65mm diametermale instantaneous coupling to BS 336 with a non-return valveand a blankcap secured with a short length of chain.28m in height.06m above finished floor level. it must be remembered that the liquid itself does not burn.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Fire protection services Dry risers should normally be positioned in the ventilated lobby approach Installation Dry risers should be installed progressively as a building is constructed in orderto provide protection during the building operations. and to the satisfaction. water and air. Foam should not be used on live electrical equipment because it is a conductor of electricity. Inletbreechings are normally contained in sheet metal inlet boxes withwired glassdoorsin accordance with BS 3980. foam. It is the mixtureof air and the vapourgiven off fromthe liquidthat burns. An exception to this requirement is made in the case of blocks of flats whereoutletsare normally only required on everyotherfloor from first floor to roof. long lasting and flow freely. Outlets Dry riser outlets are 65mm diameter gunmetal gate pattern landing valves withflangedinletsand female instantaneous outletsfitted with plugs secured by shortchains. The properties desiredin foamare that it should be tough.48m in height the riser must be installed when the building exceeds 18. The fire occurs slightly above the surface of the liquid. staircase or within a staircase enclosure. in such quantities as to coverthe entiresurfaceof the burning liquid. in the event of a fire. In buildings over 30. Foam systems Foam is a frothy product. spirits. etc. First the liquidfoam compound is induced into the water streamand the aerationtakes place. Outletsshould be provided for every 929m2 of floor area on every floor from first floor level to the roof. and its production takes place in two stages. 177 . the positions of adjacent street hydrants and dangerfrom falling glass.The "inlet breeching" must be mounted in an external wall with its centre line not more than 762mm above pavement level. Owing to the fact that dry risers project above the roof level of buildings it is necessary for them to be efficiently earthed to prevent damagefrom lightning. Testing and approval Completed installations are normally required to be tested in the presence. wind and rain. To appreciate the value of foam when used to fight fires involving liquids. This blanket of foam excludes air and prevents the formation and possible re-ignition of furthervapour. The doors are secured with spring locks so that they can be opened from inside by smashing the glassand releasing the catch on the lock. Inlets A 100mm riser should be fitted withtwin inlets and a 150mm riser should have four inlets.

A smalltank of foam compound (sometimes in the form of a knapsack) is connected by a flexible pipe to the branch pipe. These units have the disadvantage in that they are always readyfor immediate use. These are generally carried on Fire and comprise a Brigade appliances specially designed branchpipe for use with a 65mm hose. Foam branch pipes Foam has an expansion ratio of between 6 and8 to 1. tenders or engines. The method of generating high expansion foamdiffersfrom the method employed with ordinaryfoam systems in that a fan is incorporated to provide the largequantityof air necessary for making highexpansion foam. a typical installation wouldcomprise a valid connection from the water main via an induction unit or venturi to the oil storage tank. Fixedfoaminstallations Extinguishers generally have a nominal pourers wouldbe connected backto a convenient point in the open (generally in an outside wall). aeration takes placewithin the branch pipe and a jet of foam capableof a range of 9m from water pressure of 3. High expansion foam Wherelarge quantities of foam are required suchas oil storage tanks. oil filled electrical equipment or other materials or apparatus for which foam is a suitable extinguishing medium may be fitted with pourers so placedthat a foam blanket can be formed over the equipment and floor of the room. The oil storage tank is a risk commonly protected by the application of foam and the installation would be designed to provide a blanket of foam to the burning oil surface within the storage tank. their use is limited to the time taken to discharge the original contents. Pipework from the 178 . High expansion foam has an expansion rate of between 600 and 1000to 1. oil storage tanks.3 bar up to 30m from water pressure 8 bar. automatic operation or both. The flow of water through the branch pipe induces the foamcompound into the water stream. etc. the fire brigade can then connecta foam making branch pipe by means of an adapterand pumpfoam into the room or basement area to deal with the fire. boiler houses. Design data Minimum recommendations for foam systems have been established by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Foam inlets Rooms which contain oil fired boilers. but as they cannot be refilled quickly. They may also be carried as part of a fire brigade's equipment. it is normal practiceto install a system of pipework to deliver the foam to the particularrisk. foamtrailers. Assuming an adequate supply of water at the required pressure is available from an underground main.Fire protection services Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Types of system Portableextinguishers capacityof up to approximately 17kg and should be capable of expelling a continuous discharge of foam in the form of a jet until the whole of the contents have been discharged. Mobile foam units MFU-s maybe used in situations where the quantityof foam likely to be required is greaterthan could be provided by portableextinguishers. Application rates higher than thesewill be beneficial and reduce extinguishing time but as a general rule the NFPA standard is accepted as a good basisfor design purposes. High expansion foam units may be installed as a permanent systemwith manual operation.

Steam and condensate Introduction Steam tables Design considerations Steam and condensate traps Steam separators Strainers Steam trap checking 180 180 180 186 187 187 187 187 187 Air venting Reduction of heat losses Allowance for expansion Condensatereturn Handling condensate 188 189 190 179 .

is 6.The initial gauge pressure (P1) is 7 bar and the final outlet pressure (P2) after due allowancefor radiation loss. Practical experience shows that reasonable velocities for dry saturated steam mains are 25-35m/s. to avoid high pressure dropsa steamvelocity of no morethan 15m/s should be used on long lengths of pipework. Specificenthalpy of evaporation (latent heat) — which must be added to the water at the vapourchange state to convertall the water into steam at the same temperature. Using Table 2.002827 x — D2V U Where D= pipe diameter in mm V= velocity. Table 1. Figure 1 Diagrammatic steam main 1 — Pressuredrop Method There are three quantities of heat in steam: 1. Specificenthalpy of steam — this is the sum of 1 and 2. boiling water Boiler and steam have the sametemperature. Velocitiy.0 bar has a pressure of 56. The method is clearly easy and convenient but it provides no guarantee of pressure at the using end. Specificenthalpy of water (sensible heat) — this is the heat which is added to the water up to the pointat which it is converted into steam. low pressure systems require larger diameter pipesthan high pressure systems.low pressure steam is a better heat carrierthan high pressure steam and is easy to control.6 bar. a 50mm (2in) diameteris the correctsize and allows for a working margin. m/s Example 1 A steam main. we can calculate a suitable pipediameterfor a steam demand of 270kg per hourrequired by the unit above. where: P1 = a factorbased on the initial pressure = a factorbased on a final pressure L = an effective length of servicepipe which is inclusive of frictional allowance for fittings F aboveformula Table 2 indicates the relationship between pressure factors and the bar. particularly if the steamis wet. = pressure drop factor determined by working gauge pressure expressed in Required flow ratesof steam over a wide range of pressures can be evaluated fromTable 3. afterallowing for all resistances has an effective length of 165 metres. the actual quantityof heat to be supplied or available in steam can only be determined from steam tables. this temperature gradient makes the steam more useful as a heating agent. The first consideration therefore is distribution pressure. Design considerations There are two methods of sizing pipework both of which have an unknown factorwhich must be assumed: 1.00kg/h. The steam table. pipe sizecan be determined fromthe following formula: and equates the necessary final pressure L Steam tables Owingto somewhat complexeffects which occur at various steam pressures. . F = (P1 — P2) Method 2 — Velocity If a velocityis assumed then calculations are basedon the specificvolume of steam beingcarried. Checking that the supplyavailable in 40mm (1½in) diameterpipe is below our needs.0323 the steam flow rate froma 50mm (2in) diameter pipe read from Table 3 is 501.Steam and condensate Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Introduction Steam is water which has taken in heat and passed through to the complete vaporization stage.38—51. Above atmospheric pressure the steam temperature rises. High pressure systems utilising smaller distribution pipework with pressure reductions at the equipment inlet are generally preferred. 3. indicates the specific enthalpy of water. Per unit of weight. Steam will only flow along a pipeline whenthere is a sufficient pressure differential between the point of supply and the outlet. 2. However. ie 100°C.6 bar operating pressure 2. Pressure drop Total length = 150m + 1O% + 165m At atmospheric pressure.5lbIin2). someway above atmospheric pressure. steam is normallysupplied at a pressure. The pressure factors applicable to design can be determined from the following worked example: Wkg/h= 0. However. evaporation and steam available in steam at pressures up to 27 bar (1 bar = 14.38 P2 at 6. in relation to the crosssectional areaof the pipe. required. As in practice. These velocities should be regarded as maximum values above which noise and erosion will take place.05 165 = 0. a differential principleis expressed in the formula: at 7. at 7 bar 6. a differential pressure is required to cause steamto flowalong a pipe. 180 U = specific volume m3/kg Selection of a pipesize can be simplified by reference to Table 4 which has been compiled to give easy and convenient selection withoutthe needto use the calculation method.05 P1 F F =(P1—P2) L 56. Reading the specific volume of steam from the steamtables.0323 At 0.6 bar has a pressure of 51. When undertaking the sizing of steam mains.

0 2100.9 2696.5 2803.8 2722.1 1850.7 2184.2 2030.5 2800.0 40.0 2400.0 2693.227 0.3 557.6 512.405 0.0 170.4 732.414 1.9 830.2 1947.0 900.689 0.6 2788.422 0.0 1600.7 580.3 0.8 2112.0 1935.5 743.9 1831.9 2663.0 400.69 135.0 240.1 2803.10 0.971 0.0 113.0 1400.9 2108.0 150.7 721.61 289.1 852.50 0.7 589.0 2791.117 0.00 •4.119 0.00 8.2 518.1 859.841 0.00 20.0 2133.0 1550.743 0.55 111.622 0.0 2673.3 2156.6 498.9 845.0 2700.40 117.2 597.083 1.20 148.40 2.80 0.3 885.3 2715.90 126.7 2039.30 1.2 1813.54 133.0 190.806 0.0 180.80 120.5 781.136 0.83 170.0 1200.0 340.4 459.1 2305.0 1100.3 941.8 450.1 552.70 1.0 80.20 1.5 1965.0797 0.50 1.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Steam and condensate Table 1 Steam tables Specificenthalpy Pressure Temperature Water(h.2 2711.0 2794.1 1993.20 2.215 0.0 380.7 2170.0 (°C) 69.1 1972.2 2243.10 1.20 0.1 0.4 1822.1 2780.90 212.40 1.) (kJ/kg) Evaporation (h10) (kJ/kg) Steam (hg) (kJ/kg) Specificvolume of steam (m3/kg) (bar) 0.00 14.2 2793.00 22.00 141.96 155.128 0.315 0.5 709.217 1.20 3.43 0 0.0 70.1 541.6 2261.50 12.9 620.0 1986.60 3.0 800.89 130.0 320.2 1870.0 1700.50 5.4 605.3 2645.5 2702.0 2300.4 1959.6 2201.4 2128.15 230.20 100.5 2205.14 634.0 1150.0 650.40 3.603 0.255 0.4 2724.7 1941.389 0.33 91.50 7.0 50.0 200.536 0.80 4.6 2220.10 81.0 700.49 384.225 1.7 2139.1 2771.8 2699.1 0.0 850.4 837.0 130.0 1900.7 2086.0 2192.08 165.0 2177.00 10.6 547.0 260.38 207.483 0.2 2231.00 27.0 50.6.1 2122.5 2713.0 280.3 670.92 162.0 2725.292 0.8 2257.177 0.714 0.50 13.95 absolute (kPa) 30.4 2733.773 0.777 1.92 201.9 2022.00 2.82 191.7 524.96 217.50 8.9 2720.04 167.6 1953.4 484.229 3.0 2000.00 17.0 120.0 2056.85 224.92 204.1 815.8 2181.1 1901.60 2.0714 181 .1 491.50 16.0 20.04 430.151 822.0 2500.2 440.50 6.6 530.1 2625.00 11.1 2007.35 199.47 214.5 536.55 158.00 23.3 2225.00 26.65 221.240 0.0 90.4 2210.43 177.8 2786.185 0.3 2784.10 184.0 2680.3 1890.665 0.5 2706.024 0.0949 0.240 2.7 2066.1 753.50 15.0 160.0 220.3 612.0 627.10 107.60 0.4 2684.00 3.00 9.00 21.6 2731.05 188.7 656.00 24.50 10.9 2744.163 0.00 15.39 411.272 0.00 25.0 140.0 1500.0 920.00 7.204 0.0906 0.461 0.90 1.9 2150.12 228.5 2769.0 2742.8 2047.4 2215.3 2763.6 697.3 763.4 2237.0 30.6 790.28 127.62 128.1 2718.44 151.8 807.0 865.75 0.509 0.9 2736.0 450.7 2709.7 2783.0 2756.02 189.1 2794.0 300.13 186.9 952.0 1800.9 2117.8 2753.00 6.881 0.2 571.00 19.1 2166.70 0.0 1928.43 195.0 2802.96 123.02 226.6 2691.0 600.568 0.1 2096.342 0.132 0.0 100.00 12.1 981.3 931.37 132.5 2728.2 2778.75 145.00 5.0 2776.7 2741.2 972.8 1923.7 2163.0740 0.157 0.0 772.4 2802.30 0.92 143.9 2795.9 2015.0868 0.0 360.2 909.0 550.673 1.23 340.3 476.88 138.68 193.0 1300.8 2188.50 173.0 2200.00 13.00 gauge 0 10.0 2075.84 150.374 0.4 1912.0 2781.00 18.45 202.0 1450.5 1880.5 2801.1 2798.0768 0.0 500.0 1000.0 1250.01 / 140.50 14.40 0.02 175.6 990.7 2144.3 562.90 2.7 872.43 419.100 0.3 2173.149 1.2 2676.10 196.9 2746.194 0.0 60.1 2336.3 2717.66 105.3 2787.6 2803.5 2000.8 2804.124 0.78 98.62 198.50 11.5 2766.0 110.39 109.141 0.0 2250.171 798.42 121.80 1.0 75.2 962.4 2278.0 1050.00 1.0 897.35 219.9 505.4 1840.312 1.1 2704.2 2687.105 0.0 5.0 1979.148 0.8 2790.0 750.1 2792.5 2799.46 124.13 131.80 3.0 950.50 0.4 2738.9 684.75 179.30 0.56 115.110 0.00 102.0 1350.7 2797.17 209.923 0.0832 0.9 2760.0 640.7 468.97 182.50 9.9 2748.1 1860.0 2600.7 2774.1 2197.14 116.46 147.0 95.533 1.60 1.440 0.

61 24.502 0.00 10.125 0.17 42.29 195.50 3.86 40.305 0.076 5.06 14.649 6.748 9.20 3.25 148.60 9.953 2.84 83.90 0.169 0.10 0.673 1.16 21.00 5.80 18.87 115.4340 0.80 13.20 7.3140 0.75 2.219 0.60 12.261 0.41 97.694 1.57 152.0970 0.66 95.121 88.10 11.50 5.61 0.10 3.405 0.40 4.48 10.40 11.54 127.33 73.675 7.51 25.30 0.00 6.389 0.58 185.70 6.320 0.90 4.76 51.194 0.3716 0.00 16.85 2.301 0.80 1.79 11.60 6.00 9.23 200.022 7.743 0.55 0.40 2.30 265.198 0.2128 0.509 0.05 2.20 91.70 5.18 98.70 0.60 10.10 0.81 0.396 0.0115 0.777 1.00 2.70 3.734 5.01 253.249 0.330 0.232 0.265 0.64 135.15 0.878 4.20 11.30 0.182 0.166 3.200 0.429 6.572 1.189 0.30 3.80 17.130 0.70 1.204 0.00 21.164 7.025 1.49 85.70 119.993 3.80 11.115 1.837 2.05 52.224 14.612 0.40 16.145 0.083 1.98 144.40 7.90 5.381 0.10 9.10 7.139 0.83 180.10 5.18 10.95 2.95 3.40 190.915 7.80 15.971 0.75 1.62 37.80 3.22 16.660 4.338 3.10 111.60 4.60 16.37 13.70 4.30 9.30 210.701 0.30 5.533 1.15 0.473 8.109 0.00 17.471 1.50 90.96 63.40 15.20 4.84 7.866 5.65 2.115 0.013 bar gauge factor 0.30 4.32 28.117 0.901 0.45 0.654 0.35 0.292 0.422 0.80 9.65 0.44 35.673 1.119 0.229 0.40 17.76 45.48 16.568 0.72 23.143 0.255 0.174 0.27 30.202 0.13 60.025 1.107 0.29 70.104 220.80 14.090 2.535 2.106 0.026 (bar abs) 2.60 5.00 15.62 300.00 14.60 13.124 0.23 48.240 0.50 4.75 0.161 0.80 16.50 7.230 2.217 2.258 0.50 6.40 14.20 12.179 0.113 0.361 0.6489 0.83 276.03 270.25 1.187 0.529 0.60 17.85 1.28 29.59 123.20 15.823 0.325 0.128 0.149 1.35 2.1694 0.252 0.70 7.80 6.230 1.714 0.60 11.35 1.522 0.229 4.067 4.414 1.496 0.56 131.85 0.284 0.54 19.55 0.670 6.57 104.71 14.50 0.75 18.0681 0.361 1.70 8.54 44.268 1.05 1.05 12.60 2.15 1.336 0.689 0.552 0.95 1.585 6.212 0.087 1.Steam and condensate Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Table2 Pressure factors for pipe sizing Pressure Volume (rn/kg) Pressure Pressure (bar abs) 0.0253 0.679 2.39 64.315 0.20 16.126 1.20 2.65 0.024 0.55 2.52 36.36 53.0442 0.348 0.35 43.312 1.75 102.806 0.163 0.62 259.75 0.477 0.97 242.80 0.788 0.80 72.17 231.9053 1.536 0.881 0.22 81.111 0.20 0.272 0.98 47.40 3.54 61.5010 0.20 8.674 10.156 0.90 1.25 2.643 0.76 15.105 0.964 2.339 1.122 0.85 0.196 0.00 12.00 11.822 1.50 2.215 0.92 166.60 0.50 8.560 0.75 59.997 0.622 0.732 2.14 86.70 9.40 1.127 0.05 0.413 0.118 0.50 0.601 0 0.50 171.937 8.694 3.00 13.72 12.515 0.8153 0.114 0.60 8.40 9.02 56.510 5.00 7.153 0.03 13.45 1.355 0.246 0.60 15.177 0.65 1.88 75.70 2.48 49.85 22.40 8.525 2.46 248.375 2.296 0.147 0.30 7.58 294.269 0.79 69.37 34.55 1.580 3.20 5.40 108.36 27.677 0.158 0.98 17.72 182 .38 57.544 0.132 0.728 0.203 8.80 4.96 157.869 1.237 0.68 55.40 13.10 4.186 1.61 0.80 5.69 282.78 139.181 80.41 Pressure (bar abs) Volume (rn/kg) Pressure factor 66.365 2.860 0.90 2.291 5.757 0.453 1.172 0.192 0.86 226.20 14.206 0.135 0.13 175.10 8.108 0.5727 0.191 0.999 3.483 0.40 5.208 0.451 0.946 0.210 0.60 14.972 1.10 6.260 4.80 7.40 0.141 0.597 9.276 0.40 6.96 100.10 1.733 0.514 3.342 0.73 38.01 41.367 0.32 33.41 0.20 1.489 0.217 0.80 8.961 28.40 10.0301 0.25 0.7298 0.41 161.70 0.243 0.665 0.29 32.461 0.90 0.00 1.60 1.20 6.310 0.90 6.149 0.00 4.00 8.280 0.40 0.110 0.30 2.90 7.151 0.50 1.00 0.30 6.00 3.90 10.632 0.40 12.80 12.10 1.240 2.20 9.20 10.471 0.90 8.80 2.051 1.60 0.603 0.35 0.1308 0.27 31.42 215.20 0.30 8.888 10.440 0.458 4.374 0.92 93.60 288.70 13.45 2.2610 0.309 9.95 1.23 205.15 2.20 13.288 0.60 3.576 0.466 0.30 1.34 20.222 0.594 0.227 0.37 12.60 Volume (rn/kg) Pressure factor 9.841 0.166 0.204 5.417 7.185 0.05 0.43 26.235 0.80 0.54 236.530 3.25 0.45 0.50 9.225 1.184 0.90 9.133 0.44 77.923 0.02 78.193 6.31 67.20 17.192 14.431 11.

7 6424 11524 220.62 1790 111.0 1802 254.86 40.50 70.00 674.72 18.4 34.73 20.00175 0.37 030 86.08 115.24 1038 22.32 360.73 26.58 8.32 020 v 71.13 450.9 259.6 476.02 70.20 21.88 104.27 459.08 150.77 35.13 36.2 126.39 19.34 3215 245.08 38.2 86.02 4429 5861 9482 30.2 1237 2231 136.8 588.09 8.87 1279 1823 14.2 269.40 9.18 55.08 56.4 1594 139.68 37.03 100.34 035 v _____________ 90.69 3046 34.9 245.2 18879 276.6 183.99 23.65 578.4 402.49 123.1 456.2 13044 19370 23441 39229 199.31 42.68 29.68 114.87 1231 109.1 24.92 4.9 15.9 40.2 9317 319.47 134.00 12.1 120.5 289.5 19584 133.4 59.45 13.96 3.1 18.3 43.44 4.54 57.3 3126 274.34 20.8 14.1 _______ _______ _______ a a a a a a 84.2 845.97 60.4 80.72 104.00045 0.9 11622 163.05 392.0 961.5 68.81 1579 25.78 31.5 3145 255.3 23538 160.8 27.16 407.5 — 20. 109.1 118.9 1983 55.33 30.04 9.12 24.9 206.53 48.2 207.78 12.96 51.90 9.96 150.4 20.0 95.48 40.73 40.49 196.9 447.77 11.7 111.62 ____________ a 37.54 4.5 206.7 39.9 154.6 40.57 12.11 4291 25.24 5422 7544 10090 16503 4276 14.28 61.97 9905 13240 21625 61.11 14.68 15.82 90.46 9.55 103.49 29.00150 0.53 6068 51.1 14481 83.04 50.41 10.2 84.1 7993 10512 20595 140.52 2697 92.38 360.1 221.94 4.9 1863 51.75 11.37 '2329 2623 ' 3800 14.4904 6767 8974 14956 42.48 804.14 006 008 010 a _______ a 37.2 66.25 9.44 7.6 13296 150.0 980.1 6.39 98.0 51489 282.52 784.00030 0.26 17.9 4413 8042 151.46 0040 ____________ a 0050 ____________ 30.9 9.45 93.26 74.62 127.83 5.76 6.39 a 28.31 3819 43.5 5422 122.3 858.01 3597 4781 7741 24.21 7208 10543 14417 19173 31384 52.70 a 49.91 61.75 36.3 113.50 8.96 4.28 135.57 7.00 620.61 20.42 337.39 5.1 169.34 10.5 254.88 881.82 1556 34.33 8275 55.64 20.28 2546 36.43 _______ a _____________ ____________ 34.11 4183 35.8 16.70 89.32 23.38 v 8.82 225.78 16.86 5.2 2161 189.98 124.3 8817 135.22 67.51 7.2 15.9 294.75 53.36 8.5 35.86 62.10 113.9 20917 179.08 12.3 193.00 18.0 3727 235.5 407.56 5.36 47.54 6.8 14.29 10.03 50.52 5.3 2083 326.35 15.16 6.46 3138 76.59 28.29 28.01 1367 80.2 235.2 3261 3494 213.21 2017 30.42 102.8 1108 118.1 85324 326.65 14.0 662.18 2382 18.58 17.85 739.24 7.50 0.56 23.88 2305 32.3 1412 39.89 600.72 6.1 81.31 41.0 10.29 23.9 334.73 26.68 8.67 306.39 72.52 6.0 62.0 146.0 18.00 514.02 77.64 9072 12406 16476 26970 77.9 177.26 49.01 66.06 402.4 155.1 201.18 57.41 2970 101 7 3264 94.7 30.05 1005 1275 10.62 3908 5172 8367 26.6 16672 24518 36532 177.34 148.44 2595 20.7 487.3 190.7 138.00075 0.51 69.9 5884 1350 9792 9332 65.9 197.1 126.08 75.3 i8 161.14 38.0150 0.09 46.1 8.83 70.1 107.25 12.34 17.1 10.6 269.00020 0.1 2697 17426 23074 37785 .12 24.1 227.94 1966 13.30 9.5 21.3 150.19 2.3 57373 75026 287.3 11.58 283.72 025 78.72 249.7 65.8 3923 129.84 13.84 5.0 86.81 34.04 9.72 2896 31.83 901.17 8.0 662.4 294.67 143.9 4217 258.91 35.75 7.68 1663 18.94 1437 12.2 12.85 38.2 7.94 140.71 5631 7493 11999 38.16 547.3 15.43 409.29 4707 6228 10052 32.99 012 v 54.92 5921 7852 13087 40.07 132.20 44.01 10.77 333.64 1209 1478 2118 12.29 173.76 6277 2550 4148 55.4 203.04 23. 31.26 6.5 42616 22.65 189.62 33.3 402.14 7.5 16.0 8.97 15.04 92.9 841.77 54.6 2020 108.86 2976 4879 7355 65.26 116.96 8.8 18.9 4 13 a a a a a a a a a 1.26 491.7 244.03 3634 261.48 75.31 8.40 90.66 16.99 411.41 4.0 4251 118.29 2403 27.58 87.49 26.53 251.0100 0.31 09 105.13 7.8 72.2 160.16 18021 56.6 551.26 39.97 5702 2305 3727 5737 50.67 834.23 43.3 168.98 6.3 735.3 1648 45.20 919.21 29.9 1089 291.61 v a a a 3.52 354 6.85 1451.40 4.34 1008 14.22 2040 3330 5051 44.7 266.16 29.62 3.40 88.81 50.44 27.08 9048 98.31 55.9 163.1 144.62 28.1 19.11 10.21 942.7 12014 150.6 1275 35.28 153.10 99.2 1101 14.87 11.2 4668 285.39 5.4 14.020 0025 0030 a a a 10.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Steam and condensate Table3 Pipeline capacityand pressuredrop factors 15mm F 0.08 44.5 17457 193.21 0.8 263.63 118.4 598.55 16.6 26.3 4855 8827 166.1 31.40 17.70 1226 75.96 21.3 48.09 262.39 19.58 82.91 19.95 56.0 286.03 16.46 76.00 25.26 30.12 6870 77.8 10.10 2.0 319.39 229.56 5.3 514.9 1128 31.9 58.2 11.1 90.1 872.10 4.3 9.72 132.2 7.0030 00040 00050 00060 00080 0.93 112.65 80.74 3.03 501.4 214.3 46.1 27 74 215.00025 a 20mm 3/C 1/2" 25mm 32mm 40mm 50mm 65mm 80mm 100mm 125mm 150mm 175mm 200mm 225mm 250mm 300mm 4" 6" 7" 8" 9" 10" 12" 1 11/4 11/2 2" 21/2" 3" 5" 30.4 32.72 5.36 209 8 51.27 2836 22.05 355.2 115.4 804.0020 00025 0.13 911.98 11.9 804.09 505.18 3.03 295.8 362.80 20.19 4091 35.0 1373 120.16 302.9 14368 21282 31384 43152 2199 240.98 676.73 81.77 5.92 10.6 13.04 2390 3172 5149 16.70 1270 27.5 1315 17.9 45.0 326.5 25974 142.74 342.68 647.2 1079 122.11 _____________ v _____________ 24.3 23.97 48.38 8.31 519.72 9.08 62.93 040 104.86 3.8 1804 158.8 16.99 3281 4338 7057 22.4 31.9 283.1 045 050 06 07 08 50.00055 0.97 45.56 271.4 18.58 1977 22.35 32.97 6.7 1195 135.0 20841 310.55 33 48 3280 36.07 70.94 7.7 7110 12700 243.74 11.1 266.5 1565 180.7 2497 3348 5406 17.19 5.8 30.3 293.69 8303 3334 5492 8336 7311 84.97 47.01 539.8 5057 309.9 205.62 77.73 4.04 3.92 18.28 130.3 735.00035 0.41 81.76 6.6 465.72 188.0 7110 149.6 278.30 14.47 5035 6655 10639 34.6 73.0 99.32 2240 24.25 10.7 120.90 117.78 186.20 4.04 4919 57.84 5.7 124.13 19.6 7.17 8.1 245.59 3383 24.1 296.22 1823 20.46 845.0 72.39 25.03 4413 43.15 _____________ 59.5 23.5 21.5 1710 197.0 241.97 2767 46.75 4.29 285.38 750.6 134.5 5688' 10249 194.00 2.50 165.6 2599 159.4 218.07 311.36 7.99 22.69 277.76 8189 11278 14858 24469 70.04 210.8 73.5 216.98 103.13 32.29 a 25.93 240.56 215.78 27.95 16.1 2942 180.99 5.00125 0.3 106.5 9.53 38.00 27.2 38.9 230.33 1678 1755 11.71 9.0 22.03 159.14 31.63 10.1 66.37 40.85 15.01 1908 27.84 1020 2230 4045 6620 10022 62.59 17.26 36.96 17.5 31384 1691 50508 7163 147.6 979.30 42.2 16.90 163.85 6.0 40.5 12.80 20.96 429.31 90.31 113.1 228.85 30.1 12.94 ____________ a 41.2 323.2 199.0 6.34 12.17 1699 26.08 45.48 5.46 130.5 21.2 128.4 17.6 5443 665.28 152.04 203.13 2544 29.0 750.4 122.7 13.30 34.11 52.92 43.31 11033 63.09 44194 1073 2360 4291 65.2 138.23 20.67 21.98 313.6 230.5 152.7 110.75 25.1 84.69 2913 3884 6267 19.37 686.21 13.81 99.2 600.9 47.7 11.4 979.49 8.28 26.92 124.9 166.05 24.60 130.4 50.20 13.18 5.48 9.0125 0.23 49.9 224.6 184.0 1427 162.06016 0.76 1172 22.46 4.39 2.3 26357 34750 56581 179.1 6.7 500.86 67.9 735.00100 0.31 20.7 95.24 170.31 157.27 17.39 3482 39.9 19.58 16.5 188.79 12.80 63.5 25254 279.7 138.1 2059 1986 174.13 12.83 11.64 20.8 185.82 68.8 9.8 22.88 7.73 50.6 150.2 28.86 343.00065 0.0 2876 252.48 68.6 239.88 7.7 1677 94.70 93.32 514.1 5834 760.8 211.1 70.32 103.7 2314 266.47 26.1 252.1 11867 16280 21576 35307 101.83 15.5 7769 266.0175 0.2 58.78 36.5 10.39 33.32 4.9 104.44 4.2 14.30 60.50 12.23 22.28 76.82 21.7 250.70 1480 118.37 4.8 1490 19.77 391.00 24.54 12.22 18.51 10.02 179.63 48.09 4904 6994 107.05 64.0 7.7 65.59 5.30 15.23 33.63 169.35 7.38 12.4 a kg/h capacity v= rn/s velocity with a volume of 1 m3/kg 183 .5 456.28 230.43 43.7 218.3 666.37 a a a a a 6.57 12.44 191.20 7.7 1201 327.8 26.86 84.09 105.40 41.2 216.72 7.25 14 12 6.5 105.13 82.64 a 34.86 14.22 79.31 5.8 76.9 56.4 27461 144.97 137.2 176.5 2599 3236 198.56 63.98 95.48 968.80 652.92 18.83 .95 8.9 1207 16.38 16.7 12.92 63.8 98.02 34.7 239.22 18.3 34571 45604 172.11 3589 5867 8844 78.52 52.73 750.38 18.09 9.99 890.58 ____________ a 43.5 26595 37697 62522 194.44 445.87 5.40 1733 13.44 15.8 27461 313.26 16.8 9.1 220.0 95.70 101.26 15.0 48.64 1093 37.41 5.3 55.84 3.89 11.94 577.36 2183 2904 4715 14.95 v a v a a a 9.69 15.1 147.28 43.94 604.3 63.13 24.07 94.88 62.7 163.00085 0.22 22.3 34.80 38.97 11.33 80.13 103.0 215.3 5017 128.12 1701 29.

4 (m/s) 15 25 40 15mm 20mm 25mm 32mm 37 62 40mm 52 92 50mm 99 162 265 109 182 298 112 193 311 65mm 145 265 403 166 287 428 182 300 465 280 428 745 385 632 1025 432 742 1247 526 885 1350 632 1065 1620 705 1205 1865 800 1260 2065 1012 1530 2545 1270 2080 3425 80mm 213 384 576 250 430 630 260 445 640 410 656 1010 535 910 1460 635 1080 1825 770 1265 1890 925 1520 2270 952 1750 2520 1125 1870 3120 1465 2205 3600 1870 3120 4735 100mm 125mm 150mm 7 10 17 14 25 24 40 64 394 675 1037 431 648 972 1670 680 1145 1712 694 1160 1800 1125 1755 2925 1505 2480 4050 1685 2925 4940 2105 3540 5400 2525 4250 6475 2765 4815 7560 3025 5220 8395 3995 6295 9880 5215 8500 13050 917 1457 2303 1006 1575 2417 1020 1660 2500 1580 2520 4175 2040 3440 5940 2460 4225 7050 2835 5150 7870 3400 6175 9445 3990 6900 10880 4540 7120 12470 5860 8995 14390 7390 12560 18630 35 16 102 40 72 142 59 100 0.0 15 25 37 56 87 42 63 116 49 81 131 26 41 19 40 4.0 15 59 97 157 63 114 117 70 122 192 95 145 216 121 195 25 40 7.0 15 25 40 30 49 22 36 59 26 43 71 450 796 352 548 855 425 658 1025 445 785 1210 475 810 1370 626 990 1635 810 1375 2195 338 153 253 405 165 288 455 190 320 510 250 405 615 310 520 825 6.7 15 25 40 7 12 18 25 45 68 25 37 17 716 1108 470 730 1150 715 1215 1895 925 1580 2540 1166 1980 3120 1295 2110 3510 1555 2530 4210 1815 3025 4585 1990 3240 5135 2495 3825 6230 3220 5200 8510 106 43 72 167 65 1.0 15 25 40 10.Steam and condensate Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Table 4 Pipelinecapacities at specific velocities Pressure Velocity kg/h I (bar) 0.0 15 25 40 29 49 76 32 54 84 41 8.0 15 25 66 104 40 14.0 15 25 40 5.0 15 50 85 126 25 40 305 184 .0 15 25 25 43 64 45 70 115 60 100 157 70 115 197 87 135 225 105 162 270 110 190 303 126 205 327 155 257 408 205 331 555 182 295 475 245 425 595 281 40 3.0 15 25 40 8 12 19 12 19 30 16 29 48 71 26 39 100 172 100 162 275 127 225 357 156 270 456 187 308 495 225 370 595 260 450 690 285 465 730 372 562 910 465 740 1210 112 70 112 178 93 152 250 108 180 295 128 211 2.

94 3.82 0.90 0.80 146 148 149 150 152 154 155 157 158 160 162 168 170 179 180 194 198 199 209 302 308 314 320 327 337 343 345 348 354 358 359 365 366 557 569 580 591 1238 1261 1887 1923 3565 3638 3710 1288 1311 1959 1996 2041 3783 3851 602 615 634 645 649 655 665 673 675 685 1338 1379 1402 1411 1424 1447 1458 1465 1488 1497 1510 1529 689 695 704 733 740 777 785 845 0.75 0.59 3.33 3.10 304 305 313 315 317 325 328 335 703 721 727 730 749 757 771 314 320 327 333 340 343 353 359 360 3.40 0.47 0.71 73 75 76 77 78 80 82 88 90 98 100 114 118 120 131 0.29 2.12 2.16 2.40 2.61 40mm 1320 1340 1361 50mm 65mm 80mm 100mm 16511 16756 17000 17736 90 92 93 97 107 108 113 116 119 123 127 130 133 135 138 141 214 218 226 249 253 263 270 277 286 296 400 403 414 469 476 496 508 521 538 865 878 890 930 1028 1040 1079 1107 1134 1172 1211 2554 2590 2631 5194 5271 8079 8196 8314 1420 1565 1583 1646 1687 1728 1787 1846 2744 3025 3062 3180 3261 3338 3447 64 67 69 70 71 0.14 1.73 0.98 370 375 391 395 414 2100 2136 2150 2168 2200 2227 2236 2268 2282 2300 2331 3933 4051 4119 4146 4182 4246 4291 4305 4368 4390 4427 4491 4536 1590 1606 1696 1701 1832 1860 1880 1996 2018 2037 1.80 2.74 2.35 2.50 0.59 0.28 0.78 0.45 2.64 0.00 3.76 0.20 1.76 180 196 1.69 0.77 0.30 0.45 0.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Steam and condensate Table5 Flowof waterin heavy grade steel pipes Pa mbar kg/li 15mm 20mm 209 25mm 380 32mm per m 28 29 30 33 39 40 43 45 47 50 53 55 57 59 61 per m 0.37 418 450 457 462 484 497 502 516 534 541 546 857 867 907 931 939 966 2427 2449 2567 2590 2790 2830 2860 2994 3071 4717 4944 4990 5366 5443 5502 5761 5348 5579 6142 6214 6454 6618 6777 6949 7235 7380 7525 7666 7806 7970 8210 8342 8432 8473 8600 8695 8723 8850 8900 8972 9072 9453 9548 10025 10115 8677 9526 9639 10024 10297 10523 10859 11249 19514 19736 20457 21002 21500 22154 22907 11476 11703 11884 12111 23360 23814 24268 24721 12383 12746 25220 25991 12973 13041 13154 13336 13517 13563 13744 13812 13925 14407 14651 26400 26563 26808 27216 27506 27579 27987 28132 28350 28758 29865 30142 31616 14787 15513 15649 10841 11022 11113 11657 11948 12066 12383 12814 16828 17055 17282 18053 18507 18688 31879 34247 34746 35120 36742 37667 38012 39055 40361 40797 41232 42938 43364 45360 45931 47265 137 140 147 157 1.27 336 340 344 775 784 792 801 1315 1348 1356 1363 1402 1414 1438 1446 1462 1479 4304 4318 4331 8176 8260 8287 8501 16683 16738 17173 25814 25900 26554 3.00 1.47 1.77 2.43 3.39 0.29 0.40 1.80 1.18 1.60 1.96 234 237 246 249 261 3103 3189 3298 3334 3370 3511 570 576 603 611 629 2309 2331 200 212 216 220 2.55 0.57 0.43 0.57 215 216 224 231 2096 2168 2195 2218 1002 1011 1025 1066 1075 160 163 176 1.61 274 277 280 294 300 310 2.40 3.00 2.20 3.20 229 235 240 245 255 2.60 2.70 0.53 3.88 0.33 0.60 348 351 1495 1511 1520 1541 353 358 362 363 809 813 825 834 835 2917 2935 2948 3025 3055 3112 3129 3163 3198 3230 3263 3279 3328 3361 4459 4479 4595 4641 1556 1558 3365 4726 4752 4825 4853 4904 4955 4980 5054 5103 5109 8555 8593 8813 8900 9063 9074 9204 9299 17282 17357 17781 26717 26839 27533 27803 28308 55793 56428 57507 17956 18280 18380 18579 18776 28459 28767 29076 57879 58424 58968 9408 9516 9571 9707 9798 9809 18979 19178 19278 19550 19732 19754 29366 29656 29801 30237 30522 30564 59612 60057 60329 61236 62143 62211 185 .63 1.53 0.55 265 273 275 278 284 288 292 295 301 634 641 1129 1143 1179 1188 1200 1225 2440 2472 2549 3547 3710 3760 3874 3905 3942 655 664 672 679 694 701 1243 1256 1270 1297 1311 2567 2595 2649 2689 2719 2749 4028 4086 4129 4173 4260 5906 5965 6128 6337 6409 6477 6740 6808 7130 7221 7434 7493 7570 7729 7843 7927 8010 19187 19822 20049 20278 12973 13109 13608 13744 14379 14560 21092 21319 22317 22589 15014 15132 15277 23270 23451 23678 47637 48014 15604 15840 16017 16193 16520 24177 24522 24780 25039 25556 49125 49832 50363 50894 51928 52445 52618 54069 54432 54636 2806 2834 2844 260 261 2.14 3.31 1.67 0.

these points allowfor the pipework to be raised to a higher level and fall again. Pipework should be arranged with a fall in the direction of flow. Saturated steam pipework should be drained at regular intervals. When condensate is flowing. Due to the falls required on pipework. This film will gravitate to the bottom of the pipeso the waterfilm will be greatestthere. effectively. the sensing element allows If a few simple rulesare observed. cause water hammer. the rate is reduced but remains as small but finite amounts. long horizontal lengths of pipe should have relay points. such branches would in effect become drain pockets. they shouldhave sufficient capacity to passthe amounts of condensate reaching them withthe pressure differentials which are present at the time. Relay points are ideal drain points as the change in level helps to separate out entrained water droplets. which in turn can damage both pipework and fittings. because of their construction. Steam and condensate traps The steamtraps used to drain steam mains must be suitable for use at the maximum steam pressure within the main. slugs of water will collect. The rate of condensation is heavy at plant start-upwhenthe system is cold. During normal running. The condensate formsdropletson the inside of the pipewalls. The trap opens on a cyclic 186 . the result would be very wet steam reaching equipment. effective locations for drainpoints. it starts to condense as heat lossestake place from the pipework. Steam leaving a boiler is often much wetterthan is appreciated. build up considerable amounts of kinetic energy which reappear as pressure energy when the water is stopped at any obstruction. above this size pockets can be one or moresizessmallerthan the pipe. Unless the condensed water is removed as quickly as possible. it closes and will not allow the steamto passthrough. Therefore these traps will cause a certain amount of water logging and allowance must be made for this. location and the frequency of startup.Steam and condensate Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Alignment. the trap remains open but whenthe higher temperature steam enters the trap. intervals of 30 to 50m between points is usual. The fall in the pipework ensures the condensate is carried by the steamto drain points located in the system. Drain points on long straightlengths of pipework should be as largeas possible. The most common trap of this type is the thermodynamic trap which usesthe increased velocity of the flash steam to close a discagainsta seat. proper alignmentand drainage will do much to ensurea troublefree system. Thermodynamictraps (Figure 7) HteaSteam Steam trap Steam •. a fall of around 40mm in lOm (1 in 250) in the direction of flowis consideredadequate. These slugs of water carried down the pipework by the steam. The inverted bucket in this type of trap floatswhen steam is admitted to the trap and thusthis action closesthe trap valve. flash steam is produced. There are three basic designs of steam trap which are most widelyused: Thermostatic traps (Figure 4) Thesetraps are bi-metallic devices or liquid-filled bellows which. Low points occur in branch pipework and drop legs to low level equipment with isolating or control valves are the most common occurrence. are able to 'sense' the difference in temperature between condensate and steam. Condensate will build up in front of a closed valve. Mechanicaltraps (Figures 5 & 6) This type of trap reliesfor its principleof Trap set of direction on pipework are Figure 3 Recommended take-offfrommain with branchdrainage Figure 2 Condensate removal from distribution main 30m action on the difference in density between steam and water acting on a ball float which rises in the presence of condensate and thus opensthe valve which then permitscondensate to pass throughthe trap..— Condensate Sometraps rely on the fact that when condensate at nearsteamtemperature is reduced in pressure at an orifice. these droplets can merge into a film as they are swept along by the steam flow. The distance between drain points will depend on line size. The resultant shockwaves created. Branch connections should always be taken from the top of any main to ensure the driest possible steam is supplied. however well insulated the pipework maybe. Branch connections from the side and particularly from the bottom of mains should be avoided. full bore pockets are ideal on pipelines up to 100mm. therefore a drainpoint with steamtrap setis required as indicated in Figure 3. A steam trap is an essential piece of equipment which must be fitted to the condense outlet of the steam heated equipment beforedischarging into the condensate return. The basic function of the steam trap is to release condensate and to hold backsteam in the equipment.and drainage Problems associated with a steam distribution system can be minimised if the correctconsideration is given to the alignment and drainage of the pipework. Whenthe steam condenses and loses temperature. Changes the trap valveto open and the cycleis repeated. any low point where condensate can collect should be drained.

they cannot remove moisture formthe steam itself. 5. Dry steam passes throughwith little difficultybut allows the water droplets to dropto the bottom of the unit to a drainoutlet and run to a drain point and a steam trap. A recent development in trap checking is the adventof an electronic device which uses the electrical conductivity of the condensate to sense the conditions within the trap. These deposits can easily blockpipework and control equipment. outputmay not be affected but live steam could be passed to waste. Heat losses should be keptto an acceptable minimum so as much of the pipework and fittings within the distribution system as possible should be insulated. 187 . 6 and 7 indicate the working principles of the steam traps described. The internal passageway of the pipework is continually confronted with deposits that cause blockages. This is achieved by the introduction of automaticair vents. The thickness of insulation applied can vary significantly and the designer must makethe most economical judgementon the thickness used. The test points of a numberof traps can be fitted remotely from their sensorchambers by suitable wiring. carbonate deposits in hardwater districtsand any general debris entering during installation.The traditional method of checking for failure is the installation of a sight glass downstream of each trap to enable viewing of the flowdischarge. This is achieved by a series of simple baffle plates andare arranged to force the steamto change direction and are formed in an item of equipment called a separator. this is particularly advantageous whereaccessis difficult. Failure in the closed position would mean rapid reduction of plant outputand remedial action must be taken. There are a number of other more complex designs of steamtrap which can be used in special circumstances. These maytake the formof rust. Further amounts of air and noncondensable gases are alreadymixed with the steam. thus providing better steamfor power and process. Bucket Strainers Strainer Figure 6 Inverted bucket trap basiswhen steam pressure in the control chamber is dissipated due to radiation. The discharge from the air ventshould be piped to a safeplace. if the trap fails in the open position or partially open position. the pipework is full of air. and the air and gases must be removed from the system. Air venting Whem steam is first admitted to the pipework on start-upor aftera periodof shut-down. steam trap and valve set. The most common practice is to provide and install a pipeline strainerupstream to any equipment. jam openvalves as well as scoring the faceof valves and equipmentdue to the high velocity at which steamoperates. Balanced pressure air vents should be installed at the end of steam pipelines and large branch connections above the level of any condensate. These traps and their special functions lie within the realms of the specialist steam applications engineer.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Steam and condensate Steam trap checking Element Figure 4 Operation ofbi-metalsteam trap Figure 7 Thermodynamic trap Steam separators Figure 5 Floattrap with thermostatic air vent Valve Even whenadequately protected by a strainer. Figures 4. a steam trap mayfail to operate for a numberof reasons. Conversely. Reduction of heat losses Reduction of heat losseswithin the steam distribution system is an important factor in the efficiency of the system. Lever Vent hole Although drain points are adequate to deal with condensate on pipeline walls. These traps discharge condensate as soon as it is formed and are therefore idealfor most trappingapplications.

15mm 54 68 83 99 116 134 159 184 210 241 I 20mm 25mm 32mm 103 122 149 179 208 241 Pipe size 40mm W/m I 50mm I 65mm 155 198 241 I 80mm 100mm I 150mm 56 67 78 89 100 111 65 82 100 120 140 164 191 125 139 153 167 180 194 274 309 224 255 292 329 372 79 100 122 146 169 198 233 272 312 357 408 461 108 136 166 205 234 271 321 285 333 382 437 494 566 373 429 489 556 634 132 168 203 246 285 334 394 458 528 602 676 758 289 337 392 464 540 623 713 808 909 188 236 298 346 400 469 555 622 747 838 959 1080 233 296 360 434 501 324 410 500 601 598 698 815 939 1093 1190 1303 696 816 969 1133 1305 1492 1660 1852 Table7 Expansion of steelpipes Final temperature (°C) Expansion per30m (mm) 19 66 93 121 'cold stressing' as it is alternatively known.It has a tendency for the ends of the loop to straighten slightly but this does not cause any misalignment of the connecting flanges. however unless they are rigidlyanchored they can develop problems of separating. Figure 8 The full loop Figure 9 The horse orlyre loop Figure 10 Sliding joint Figure 11 Bellows joint Where practicable the expansion of the steam pipework and any expansion devices incorporated into it should be reduced by the inclusion of 'cold draw' or 188 . any misalignment in pipework will cause the sleeve to bend. 29 41 61 177 204 232 260 Expansion (mm) = Full loop The full ioop is achieved by one complete turn of the pipe. througha range of heat-up temperatures. Expansion loops can be fabricated from straightlengths of pipesand bends. changes of direction to allow the expansion to be taken up 'freely'. as the system heats up to ensure no undue stressesare set up. the downstream side passes below the upstream side and should be fitted horizontally or a trappingset would be required to drain the build-up of condensate that would occur.25 x iO x °C (duff) x 1000/rn Sliding joint Sliding joint expansion devices take up littlespace. the ends being flanged for incorporation into the pipework system. ie. can be up to 50 times greaterthan from the same pipework in still air conditions. 74 84 97 1. care should be taken in their use. Expansion in long lengths of pipework can be taken up by nonmechanical means by the use of loops in the pipework.Steam and condensate Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Table 6 Heatemission frompipes steamto air °C Temp. This type of loop has a tendency to unwind and can exerta force on the connecting flanges. as short radius bendsrestrictflexibility. External installations require weatherproofing as the heat lossesof water saturated insulation. the joints also need regular maintenance. Allowance for expansion Allowance for expansion within the steam distribution system is required to give the necessary flexibility. Horse shoe or lyre ioop The horseshoe or lyre loop is commonly used. Where 'free'movement is not possible othermeans of achieving the flexibility should be incorporated into the system. dill. long radius bendsshould be used. The distribution pipework where possible should be installed in reasonable lengths with sufficient bends. Table 7 showsthe approximate expansion of steel pipework installed at a temperature of 16°C.

Care should be taken not to connect the pipework from the traps draining the steam main to the floodedpumped condensate returns. Assume a steam main 30 metres long has atemperature rise from 16°C to 260°C. the condensate can be lifted 1 metre. Abovethis pressure range. 189 . Bellows Bellows type devices are also in-line fittings but unlikethe 'sliding joint' type require no packings. Example 2 Condensate return Design of the condensate return system is important. Artkuloted bellows Articulated bellows are capable of absorbing the axial movement in the pipework and some of the lateral and angular displacement and have a number of advantages over other devices particularly at changes of direction.5 (5OPa) 0. it will be seen that a 32mm pipe can handle2040kg/h at a pressuredrop of 1.Table 7 gives the expansion in steel pipes. on the other hand. frictional resistance (mbar per m of travel) Heavy grade steeltube A plant having a normal running load of 1000kg/hand a starting load of 2000kg/h is to be adopted for condensateline sizing. Forthis kind of exercise the start-upload should be taken as not lessthan twicethe running load. some additional capacity in the condenselines may however be desirable.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Steam and condensate Table 8 Flowofwaterin steelpipes (kg/h) Tube 0. no steamtrap will actually'lift' the condensate. 0 Referringto Table 8. some lifting will almostcertainlybe required. Anchoring and guiding are important with this type of device.3 (3OPa) 0. Steam will condense rapidlyand the steam consumption maybe two or threetimes the normal running rate. these steam bubbles will soon collapse in the cooler condensate causing severe water hammer.25 x 105°C per unit length. The system should be adequately sized to carry maximum flowand be arranged with a fall to overcome the system resistance and flow under gravity conditions.4OKPa (mbar) per metre of travel.4 diameter (mm) 15 20 steam pressures up to 10 bar.20mbar and this small amount of back pressurewould be acceptable. Figure 12 Articulatedarrangement At start up the plantis cold. 95 220 410 890 1360 2630 5350 8320 17000 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 130 290 540 1180 1790 3450 6950 10900 22200 140 320 600 1300 2000 3810 7730 12000 24500 160 370 690 1500 2290 4390 8900 13800 28200 180 420 790 1700 2590 4990 10150 15650 31900 (l4OPa) 220 500 940 2040 3100 6000 12100 18700 38000 The flow rates and pressure dropsgiven in Tables 5 and 8 may be found convenient for pipe sizing condensate lines. Example 3 Starting load ie running load x 2 Approx. Experience has shown that pipes sized for the above conditions will have an adequate capacity to handle the normal running conditions. As the plant warms up. determine a suitable diameterof pipe for the condensatepipeline. It is therefore usual to directthe condensate to collecting receivers from which it can be pumped backto the boilerhouse. The overall pressuredrop is therefore 1.40 x 3 = 4.0 (lOOPa) 1.25 x 1 x 30 x (260 16) x 1000 = 1. then the back pressure will be 500 x 1. It should not impose any undue back pressure on the steam traps in the system. This is achieved by the pressure available at the trap outlet and therefore.If. these pipelines often follow the routing of the steam mains.5mm The heat emissionfrom bare horizontal pipes with ambienttemperaturesbetween 10°C and 21°C in still air conditions are shown in Table 8.would imposea totalback pressure in the region of 800mbar. however pressure within the fittingcan extend them. the condensate pipework will be required to passtwo orthree times the normal condensate rate.25x30><2. Under these conditions. so the amount of condensate reduces to the running load.to which must be added the back pressure caused by any lift in a line. Expansion(mm) = 1. Introducing condensate at higher pressure and temperature into flooded condensate pipework will cause reevaporation wheresome of the condensate will flash-offinto steam again. the condensatehas to travel over a distance of say 500m.4 700mbar and allowing for additional resistance. Condensate should run away from the trap by gravitybut there are occasions when it is necessary to 'lift' it. adequate anchoring and guiding is essential. Pumped condensate return pipe lines are generally flooded when running. Calculatethe linear expansionto be taken up by an expansionunit. It should be remembered when selecting steamtraps that water hammer and attendant noisewith the risk of mechanical damageare inevitable when lifting condensate. It is however rarelypossible to returnall the condensate produced in the distribution systemall the way backto the boiler hotwell by gravity. Assuming a steam trap is fitted not more than 3m from the condensatereceiver tank. This provision will be sufficient for It is handyto remember in initial design that for each 0.6 (6OPa) 0.8 (8OPa) 1. Heavy qualitysteel pipes have a linear coefficient of expansion of 1.44 = 91.llmbar (11KPa) pressure at the trap.

theycould continue to operateeven if submerged in water. Care shouldalso be taken to reducethe amount of back pressure imposed on the units due to the frictional resistance in the pipework. Due to the differentoperating design of the two sets. The designof the pipework is important. it will therefore be necessary to pumpthe condensate to higherlevels than the collection receivers. the receiver ensures a constant headwhen the pump body is filling by gravity. This will severely reduce the efficiency of the unit and can also cause damage to the pump impellers. 190 . Positive displacement pump The positive displacement pump generally uses steam as the operating medium. Also because thereare no electrics or motors they can continue to operatein dampor moisture laden conditions. The most suitable arrangement is to have a vertical riser from the set followed by a gravity fall backto the boiler Hotwell. The advantages of this type of pump are that there is no cavitation and they can pump condensate at boiling point if required. one or more motor driven pumps evacuate the condensate fromthe receiver backto the main plant Hotwell in the boilerhouse. at high temperatures it can flash to steam. These sets can develop problems when dealing with hot condensate. long horizontal runs should be avoided. Units that operate with low nett positive suction head cope with these conditions and will generally run trouble free. one is positive displacement and the other uses electronically operated pumps. Electronically operated pump The electronically operated pump set has a much larger receiver.Steam and condensate Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Handling condensate The receivers that collect condensate are usually at lower level than the boiler 'Hotwell' back at the boilerhouse. compressed air can be used as an alternative. Thereare generally two accepted types of pumpfor condensate. Figure 13 Positive displacement pump In this type of set. A longhorizontal run followed by a final verticallift would result in fully floodedreturn lines. Figure 14 Electronically operated condensate pump It should be remembered that both types of condensate sets do not discharge condensate on a continuous basis. but due to aerationcan have a corrosive effect. whilst acting as a reservoir during the discharge stroke of the pump which ensures the flow of condensate from the plant to the receiver is not interrupted. a good rule of thumb guide to sizing the discharge pipework is to allowthreetimesthe rated capacity of the positive displacement set and one and a half times for the electrically operated set. therefore the dischargepipework should be sized to take accountof this. a vented condensate receiver is located abovethe pump. Coupling two or more units togetherwill increase the volume of condensate that can be handled.

Pipework expansion Consideration for design and installation Calculation of expansion and contraction Controlled pipeworkmovement 192 192 192 191 .

2 225 60to 100 21 structures unless careful consideration is given to the change in pipework length due to temperature changeand the direction in which the expansion and contraction will take place. domestichot water and certain waste pipework installations. joists. Example 1 the final length of a straight copper pipe 15 metres long when subjectedto a temperature increasefrom20°C to 80°C. heating. Table 1 Typical coefficients of linear expansion for various materials Coefficient (mmK 10. 10 Pipe clips.9 x 106mm/K. Generally the changein diameterof pipework used for Building Services Engineering will not require detailed consideration. The temperature variations can occuras a resultof fluidswithin the pipework being heated or cooled. This could takethe formof a proprietaryplasticcoated pipe wrapped in fibreglass and the whole surrounded with expanded metal or c. The following important points shouldbe considered: a.0152m. At = The changein temperature to which the pipe is subjected (K). pipe supports. The temperature variations can range from gradual. Expansion and contraction within cold water pipework systems is minimal and generally does not require any special consideration. d. due to temperature variation can be calculated using the following formula: Formula 1 Al =lxaxAt where: Al = The changein length of the pipe due to temperature change. ceilings. for the same temperature rise. provision must be incorporated to prevent damageto the pipework and screed. unless it has been heated excessivelyto such a point where a loss in form has occurred. or when heated water is suddenly circulated throughthe pipework.0000102. for instance. a = The coefficient of linear expansion (mm/K). PVC pipework. and between adjacent pipes which maycome into close contact witheach other.0152m= 15. the coefficient of linear expansionfor copper is 16. From Formula 1 Al What would be the increase in length and All pipework will expand and contract longitudinally and around the circumference when subjected to temperature variations. Any mastic or other material used to fill the gap must permitmovement of the pipe. particularly on long pipe runs.9 23 29 11. This includes walls. = The original length of the pipe. It must be ensured that the pipework will not come into contact withthe sleeve or wall of the hole. suchas the surrounding air temperatures. or similar. floorboards. such as when hot water is discharged from a sanitary fitting. 192 . Damage and failurefrom stress and strain can occur to pipework systems. FromTable 1. etc. Al will be calculated in the sameunit of measurement as that used for 'I'.2 x equates to 0. pipework support systems and building 7 16. Generally units ofeithermetres(m) or millimetres (mm) will be used. Pipework passing throughstructures 6Oto 110. eg: 10. supports and guidesmust not restrictthe movement of the pipe. or from the effects of external heat sources. =lxaxAt = 15 x 16. b. building structures. to almost instantaneous. such as the increase and decrease in room air temperatures.2mm) Thereforethe pipe would expand 0. floors.3 80 140. for both expansion and contraction. NOTE 106 indicates thatthe decimal point of the value being considered should be movedsix placesto the left. floor joists. Whereit is necessary to bury the pipework in the screed. to allow free movement of the pipework. 'I'can beany metric unit ofmeasurement.Pipework expansion Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Consideration for design and installation Calculation of expansion and contraction The changein length of pipework. condensate.6 19 18 12 shouldbe provided with sleeves or It should be noted thatthe rate of expansion and contraction varies as a result of the type of material.0152m (15. NOTE 'K'denotes degrees Kelvin. similar.9 x106 x (80—20) 0. solar heat. should be provided between pipework and notched joists. Controlled pipework movement Freedom of movement The expansion and contraction along the length of pipework can however be very significant. Upon cooling down the pipe will return to its original length. etc.2 25.01 52m and the final length ofthe pipe would be: =15m + 0. Felt pads. particularlyfor steam. will expand at over three timesthat of copper. etc. to enable unrestricted movement.6) Material ABS Aluminium Brass Bronze Cast iron Chromium Copper Duralumin Lead Mild Steel Nylon Polyethylene High Density Polyethylene Low Density PVC unplasticised Tin Zinc x Consideration must be given during the design and installation of all pipework systems to ensure that theyare free to expand and contract. as well as the temperature variation. This is the same as a temperature rise measured in Celsius. 30 installed through neatly formed holes. otherthan to ensurethat adequate clearances are maintained between pipes.

to prevent a pipe from coming into contactwith an adjacent wall.. Originally intended pipework route shown dotted. e. Opentype pipe clips must not be used wherethere is a possibility of the pipe springing awayfrom the clip. therefore effectively halving the maximum change of pipework length in any given direction.. Installing expansion bellows or Figure 4 Typical light to medium loadanchor compensators c. Anchor Soft solder orlow melting point silver solder I F--1 Figure 1 Typical anchorpositions Ensure that any branches connected to expanding pipework (eg: connections to radiators). The direction of pipework expansion must always be controlled using suitable anchors. offsets or loop/horseshoe pipework systems to accommodate the pipework expansion. are of adequate lengthto provide natural flexibility to prevent the connection shearing. 'A 1 I.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Pipework expansion Dotted line indicates howthe pipeworkwill expandaway fromanchors Anchor Short length ofpipe. Anchors restrain the pipework ensuring that any movement due to expansion occurs in a direction away fromthe anchor. guides and clips. These include: of expansion and contraction. Anchors are usually fixed to the middle of the pipe to enable the pipeto move in two directions. Routing pipework with additional bendsor offsets b. to which the anchor is fixed. Anchors Where expansion is excessive. The anchoris adequately secured to the pipe b. It is essential that the manufacturer be consulted for their particular recommendations regarding the most suitable type for the situation and for their requirements for anchors and guides. for instance. 193 . with 4 anchor positions. The building structure itself. f.Anchor nsion::'Expansion Anchor. is adequate to acceptthe forces. designed to accommodate or absorb expansion and contraction. Ensure that expanding pipework will not clash with structures. The anchoritself is structurally adequate Expansion bellows or compensators are proprietary manufactured devices. a. d. h. Sometimes however. Figure 2 Typical anchorfor copperpipework Plastic coated Figure 5 Providing additional bends to accommodate pipework expansion g. The provision of additional bends. Standard pipework clips may be adequate for short pipework lengths of small borecopper andplastic. When anchors are installed to control expansion. The above requirements are also essential to ensurethat excessive frictional noises do not occuras a result L. The anchorfixings to the building structure are adequate d. pipe movement must be controlled by installing anchors... Various different types of these devices are available. Wherenecessary. then consideration must be given to providing additional devices to enable movement to take place. It is therefore essential to ensure that: Thisanchor may be used forcopperpipes using brassstrap. Providing purposedesigned loop/horseshoe sections in the pipework c. must provide adequate natural flexibility a. it is desirable to provide an anchorat one end of a pipe run.. Providing expansion couplingsfor soil and waste pipework systems..l Figure 3 Typical anchorforsteelpipework (lightload) Figure 6 Expansion loop/horseshoe section Pipework expansion devices If expansion and contraction of pipework cannot be controlled withthe use of anchors alone. the advice of a structural engineer should be obtained to ensure the anchor and support arrangements are adequate for the anticipated forces which maybe exerted. forceswill be exerted on the anchor.. taken fromoriginal of carrying pipe' (the length split along its axis) Pipework provided with additional bendsto accommodateexpansionshown in solid line.

Pipeanchors must be of adequate strength. Only the bellows unit should be e. The guides must allow only axial movement onto the bellows.2mm for larger pipes. To ensurealignmentof the pipeonto the bellows.6mm for pipediameterup to 100mm and not greaterthan 3. This will depend on the system employed. A pipe guide is any form of constraint which allows the pipe true axial movement along its length but prevents offset movement whether horizontal or vertical. be designed to also provide a supportfacility. h. The pipe support should reducedeflection of bending of the pipe. —i Figure 8 Strap-type guide with tube roller 111111111 r 111/2 pipe diameters I Tubular guides 5-6 pipe 'I diameters Figure 12 Guide near bellows and Figure 9 Strap-typeguide with roller chair Guides as necessary I : II liliMill : 11/2pipe diameters 15-20 pipe diameters I Bellows—' Clearance I. Supports and pipe guides The purposeof a support is to transfer the load of the pipeand the contents within the pipe safely to a structure. The line between two anchors should be straight. For guides nearest the bellows. The pipe supports must guide the pipeand allowonly axial movement alongthe entire length of the pipe.8 metre intervals or as recommended by the manufacturer. Straps and roller guidesare short and individually cannot control angular movement of the pipe. Axial typebellows must not be used wherethe pipe is hung or suspended freely. The purpose of a pipe guide is to control the direction in which a pipe will move when it expands. This can be achieved by usinga tubulartype guide (as Figure 10) of such length that the necessary clearances to permit axial movement do not allowappreciable offsetmovement. f. to connect pipes together. Bellows must be stretched by half the total expansion movement (colddraw).2mm and 6.4mm respectively should be used. d. installed between two pipe anchors. g. This does not applyto special applications or 'pre-cold drawn' units. The most common method of providing the facility for expansion and contraction in plasticsoil and wastepipe systems is the use of proprietaryexpansion couplingsincorporating socket and spigot joints having rubbersealing rings. in plan and in elevation. the clearances between the outside pipeand inside guide walls should not be greater than 1. c. maximum clearances of 3. with no sets or bends.' Angle Figure 13 Installation ofadditional strapand rollerguides Figure 14 Pipeworkfailure may occurwithout pipe guides Bowingforce Figure 10 Tube-type Guide Figure 11 Slip-on FlangeType Guide Anchor guides Anchor No guides 194 . Pipe guides can. It is essential to ensure that the pipe is guided carefullyon each side of the bellows. The expansion couplings should be introduced at 1. Tubular guidesare generally only fitted to small pipes. For the guidesalongthe pipe run. an additional set of guidesis required It is essential to ensure that the pipe is guided carefullyat the necessary intervalsalong the whole pipe run. ClearancO_stm1) LI Figure 7 Strap-type guide as follows. Some typical pipe guides are indicated in Figures 7 to 11. Screwed end units must be held firm when installing to prevent twisting of the bellows. proprietary straps and rollerguides are normally employed. however. For larger sizes (50mm and over). Guides nearest the bellows The functionof guides closest to the bellows is to ensuretrue axial movement on to the bellows. Plastic pipework should be anchored and supported in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Generally a tubularguide having a length to diameterratio of 6:1 will be adequate.Pipework expansion• Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide The following points should be noted when using expansion bellows or compensators: a. b.The couplings shouldbe of the same manufacture as the pipework system.

25 C1 = 0. for all bellows: By purchasing pre-cold drawn bellows. the bellows manufacturers often recommend that cold draw is not used. half in tension and half in compression fromthe neutral position. If this is not carried out. b. p C1 = 0. damage to the pipesupports or structure may result. The elasticity forceto stretch and expand the bellows. summer/winter) when installing the bellows. allowances must be madewhencalculating cold draw. The effectof test pressure on the cross-sectional area of any bellows installed within the pipework system. Calculating forces on anchors The following main factors have to be taken into consideration when determining forceson anchors: a. HtHII 111111111 Bellows-neutral Bellows-hot expansion .3 Figure 18a Pointcontact Figure 18b Line contact Cold draw of bellows It is normal for bellows to be cold drawn' (eg. the pipework maybow outwards as a result of the compressive forcesimposed on it. Figure 16 Takingup cold drawon flangedbellows Figure 19 Figure 17 Taking up cold draw on weldedend bellows Anchor r— Flange Anchor Bellows—7 IHIX Anchor Guide at necessary intervals Anchor X ___ liii > 195 . vibration or subsidence are to be absorbed. on low temperature applications. d. except for purpose designed anchors. compress bellows installed through the working movement. enable controlled pipework movement.4 Figure 18c Line contact Cold draw can be achieved by: Figure 18d Face-to-face contact In steam and high temperature heating applications. due to excessive friction or forces. pipe. (b). Frictional forces between the pipe and pipe supports. for screwed bellows: Under-cutting the length of an adjacent pipesection and allowing the threadof a connecting union to a. Differential forcesdue to changes in pipediameter. The bellows will then absorbthe total expansion. and (d) may be used as a general guide for steel on steel. affecting the lower anchor(vitallyimportant if the pipe is vertical). sincethis variation is verysmall compared with the working temperature range. Bellows— cold draw for flanged bellows: Leaving a gap internally between the bellows and pipe flange at one end of the unit and then tightening up the flangeusingover-sized flangebolts. IX Anchor iiiiiEi >< The frictionalresistance (kg) = dead load at pointof support (kg) x coefficient of friction. c. Figure 15 Cold drawin expansion bellows Bellow Spacer piece Anchor Quoted friction coefficients between pipework and supports vary considerably but the values shown in Figures 18(a).Wherevery small movements. acting against the direction of movement. Care must be takenthat the bellow is not twisted during the tightening process. C1 = 0. for welded end bellows: Installing a pair of flanges in the pipework adjacent to the bellows with a gap initially between the flange faces and then tightening up the flange using over-sized flangebolts. it is not necessary to allow for ambienttemperature variation (day/night. e. Fluid pulsation and flow effects in the f. stretched) by half the total calculated expansion when installed into a pipe.4 C1 = 0.J Totaldraw movement Cold d.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Pipework expansion It is essential to ensurethat the complete pipe run is adequately guided and not just local to the bellows. (c). However. b. c. This keeps the stress in the bellows material to a minimum for a given expansion and provides maximum bellows life. If the pipework is incorrectly restrained. The slope of the pipe. It is essential that all support arrangements.

this however is not always the case. it will expand awayfrom the anchor position. This will pull the bellows with it and may cause failure.5)]kg = Converted to Newtons(1kg = 9. but otherwise free to move longitudinally. and runs accurately in a straightline from anchorto anchor.807N = approximately6000N against the direction of movement. pressure is exerted by both 196 .5 + (19.Pipework expansion Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide unacceptably high forces consideration could be given to using special PTFE support pads which gives figures as low as 0. exerting an outward force awayfrom the anchor.5kg/rn = 6kg/rn = 0.5)] x 9. Hence the need for firm anchors at each end of the pipe run. An outward pressure is therefore exerted by the bellows.02. Frictional resistanceto pipemovementover its supports: = coefficient offriction x (total weight of pipe + water÷ lagging) = 0. it can act eitherway.3 x [(22 x 42. it expands towardsthe bellows and triesto compressit. The pipe between bellows and anchorsis frequently in compression and unless the pipe is guided carefully.5 x 42. Meanwhile the pressurised bellows is exerting pressure outwards towardsthe two anchor points. pipework sections towards the bellows. Example 2 This resistance acts againstthe direction of movement e. holding the internal pressure.3 pipe and supports System working pressure = 55OkPa (550 x lO3Pa) System test pressure Length of pipe = 83OkPa = 42. a pipeanchored at two points and provided with a bellows between the anchorpoints is subjected to heat.5 Pipeworksystemunder normalworking conditions Thrust due to internal pressureon bellows = working pressure x effective area = 550 x x 0. pushing outwards on anchors.5 x 42. The fittingwill act just like a pipe itself. When a fitting such as a bend. The following exampleillustratesthe calculation to determinethe force imposed on an anchor under normal working and test conditions on a pipeworkinstallation indicated in Figure 19. = 6700N pushing outwards on anchors.023m2 It can be seen in this instance that the greatest force acting on the anchor is under normal working conditions.3 x [(22 x 42. When the pipe getshot. depending on whetherthe pipe is warming up or cooling down. Meanwhile. the pressurised bellows is trying to open out lengthways.5) + (19. v.Confirmation should always be obtained from the bellows manufacturer regarding any special requirements they mayhave regarding the position guides. of anchors and = 22kg/rn = 19.5) + (6 x 42. ii When an axial bellows is fitted into a pipe and subjected to internal pressure. Water weight Lagging weight Effective area of bellows Pipe weight = NIL as pipe only moves under = 19090—6700 = 12390N pushing outwards on anchors.g.023N = 12650N pushing outwards on anchors io Force due to bellows stiffness (bellows compressedin working platform) The following important points should be considered when installing bellows: i. which incorporates axial type bellows. Never use axial bellows in pipework systems incorporating suspended hangersupports or any othersupport systems which can readilyswing. The designer must obtain the relevant data from the bellows manufacturer.023N stretched in cold-drawposition) Frictional resistance temperatureeffect Totalthrust on anchor = 1 9090N pushing outwards on anchors Forcedue to bellowsstiffness (bellows = 6700N pulling inwardson anchors vi.5) + (6 x 42. TotalThrust on Anchor = 12650 + 6700 + 6000 = 25350N (Newtons)pushing outwards on anchors. but not pushingor pulling on the pipe. The expanding pipe therefore has to overcome this pressure forceas well as the stiffness of the bellows and the frictionof the pipe supports. the pipe may bow out sideways. iii. vii. it reactsto the internal pressure by trying to openout lengthways. eg. is subjected to heat. When = 0. viii. valve or distance pieceis installed into a pipe and subjected to internal pressure. and careful guiding not only on each side of the bellows but also along the pipe run.807N) iv. When a pipe restrained by an anchor at one end. Should the above figures give Pipeworksystemundertest conditions Thrust due to internal pressure on bellow = test pressure x effective area = 830x io x 0. Thrust to compress or extend bellows = 6700N through full movement from manufacturer's data (Newtons) Coefficient of friction between = 0.

Mechanical ventilation Measurements of airflow Extract air ventilationrates — domestic properties 198 198 Extract air ventilationrates — commercial properties 199 Fresh air ventilationrates Mechanical ventilationheating load Effect of mechanical ventilationon heal producing appliances Ductwork sizing Noise control Fan types 199 199 200 202 203 203 197 .

located so as to avoiddraughts. or extracted from. by the densityof the air being considered.5 )< 5. Cubic metresper hour (m3ih).Mechanical ventilation Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Measurements of airflow Air flowcan be measured in termsof: 1. Air changes per hour Extract air Q=qxn Where Q is the ventilation rate in Its q is the ventilation rate per person in I/sper person n is number of people in the the room. Airflow ratesper person are generally expressed as litres per person (lip). Mass airflowratesare frequently used for Q=vxn = 2. Volumetric flow 2. Mass airflow Units of volumetric airflow ratesare generally expressed in: 1.72m31h Calculate the ventilation rate within a restaurant 8. ** Maybe operated intermittently. Air changes per hour (Ach/h) is the most Calculate the fresh air ventilation rate requiredwithin an office which is designed to accommodate5 people. frequently used basisfor calculating the required airflow. but are rarely used for general mechanical ventilation calculations. per person.7 x 6 = 67.2m long x 1. and are usually used only where fresh air ventilation is required within occupied spaces. Requirements for continuous operation unnecessary ifcontrollable andsecure ventilation openings are provided having a free area not less than 4000mm2.7m high.75 metresabove floor level.7m wide to provide an airflow of 40m3/h per m2 of floor area.7 = 1938m3/h Wherea massairflow rate is used. 198 .5m long x 5. the densityof air can be assumed at 1 .9m wide x 2.2m3ikg. it can be converted to volumetric airflow by multiplying the value. Example 2 ventilation rates — domestic properties Building Regulations requirements Room Air Change Rate 2. is usually expressed in: 1. Litres per hour (I/h) 4. NOTE: 1000 litres= 1m3. An airflow rate per unit floor area. eg: a trickle ventilator. The airflow rate into a room space.2 x 1. of floor area a is the room floor area in m2 Calculate the ventilation rate within a toilet 2. Mechanical ventilation is not required ifnatural ventilation is providedhaving atleast 1/20th ofthe floor area. to provide 6 air changesper hour: Example 3 air conditioning calculations. An airflow rate per person 3. someofwhich must be at least 1. Q=qxn = 5 x 12 = 60 I/s Toilets 3Ach/h* Bathrooms! shower rooms 15 I/s Kitchens 60 I/s or 30 I/s if incorporated within a cookerhood** Plus System capableof operating continuously at 1Ach/h*** Fan mayoperateintermittently but must have a 15 minute over-run. the room space. for general mechanical supply and extract systems. Litresper seond (lis) Calculating room ventilation rates using air changes per hour Formula 1 Calculating room ventilation rates using airflow per unit floor area Formula 3 The formula for calculating the ventilation rate is: The formula for calculating rateis: the ventilation Q=vxn Where Q is the ventilation rate in m3/h v is the volume of the room in m3 n is the air change rate (Ach/h) Example 1 Q=qxa Where 0 is the ventilation rate in m3/h q is the airflow rate in m3/h per m2 2.The fresh airflow rate required is 12 litres per second. Mass airflowratesare generally expressed in kilograms per second (kgis).9 x 2. Calculating room ventilation rates using airflow per person Formula 2 Q=qxa = 40 x 8. Air changes per hourare the numberof times in one hour an equivalent room volume of air will be introduced into. For general ventilation calculations. Airflow ratesper unit floor area are similar in effectto air changes per hour exceptthat the heightof the room is not taken into consideration. Cubic metresper second (m3/s) 3.

an electricheater batteryor a heat reclaim device.01 x [21 —(—5)] = 7. 0. arrange for both fans to be operated in the supply or extract modesimultaneously. wherethe ceiling height is lessthan 2.24 x 1. It is normal practiceto pre-heat the air to at least room temperature.2 x 1. Mechanical ventilation heating load Mechanical ventilation systems.5 — 199 . it is necessary to pre-heat the air before it is discharged into the room space.5 2.35m/s minimum air velocity over hoodopenings. The following should be considered when selecting a heat reclaim device: 1.7kW. It is therefore necessaryto switch off the supply or extract fan. Formula 4 The formula for the heat load of air passing through a ventilation system or being introduced into or extractedfrom a room space is: 0= mCpAt Where 0 =The heating load in kW kg/s m =The mass airflow rate of air in Cp=The specific heat capacityof air in kJ/kg°C = The temperature differentialof the air under consideration(°C) At If the supply air is below room temperature. Heat reclaim is not required during warm weather.7kW. The supply air discharge temperature can be generally selected to provideall heating requirements within the room space if required. Example 4 Fresh air ventilation rates No smoking areas Some smoking Heavy smoking Outside Air LII J•i Heater Fan (O. 4 — 6Ach!h Offices Meeting rooms! 6 — lOAch!h board rooms Restaurants 8 — l5Ach/h Laundries 10 — 15Ach!h Bathrooms! — shower rooms 3 8Ach!h Classrooms 3 — 6Ach!h 8 — 12Ach/h Shops within the room comes into contact with the cold surfaces of the supply air system. This is to avoid draughts and also the possibility of condensation as the warm moistair velocity (mis) Main ducts Branch ducts Louvres velocity (mis) Recommended pressure drop (Palm) Maximum pressuredrop (Palm) 2 5 3.01 kJ/kg°C.2x1. It must be ensured that the temperature and location of the air being discharged will not cause discomfort. The specific heat capacityof air can be taken as 1.OlxAt = 0. The volume airflow rate is converted to mass airflow by multiplying by the density of the air.2x1. with smallsupplyair systems.563kW Table I Maximum air velocity andpressuredropsin ductwork Recommended Maximum For larger systems. 2. the fresh air drawn from outside can be discharged into the unheated room space. Generally the supply air discharge temperature should not be more than 10°C above room temperature.24m3/s) —5°C 8 I/s per person 16 I/s per person 24 I/s per person Very heavy smoking 32 I/s per person Design fabricandinfiltration heat loss from room =3.0 — 1. Ventilation system heat load From Formula4 0 =qxl. air by-pass arrangement around the heat reclaim device. or to provide an The ventilationsystem heat load to be added to the room heat loss. The requireddischarge air temperature into the room and the ductheater output if the system is to provide for the design room heat lossof 3. If the supplyair is heated to a temperature in excess of the room design temperature. will have an effecton the heating loadwithin the building they serve.2m3/kg. 2.5 (throughfree airways) 7 5 3 (throughfreeairways) 1.24m3!sinto a small office. Room temperature 21°C. whether they be supply or extract systems.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Mechanical ventilation Extract air ventilation rates commercial — properties Room Air Change Rate Toilets Public toilets Kitchens 3 — 6Ach!h minimum or 6 I/s per WC pan 6— l2Ach!h 20 — 3OAch/h. if a heater is not provided in the system. For example. The air introduced will then form part of the room heat load in a similar wayto fresh air infiltration. When heated to room temperature. the resultwill be that useful heat is introduced into the space which can be deducted fromthe room heating requirements.01xAt Where q = The airflow rate in m3/s. Calculate: 1. the supply air will not have any effecton the room heat load.2 1. For general applications this can be takenas 1 . A fresh air mechanicalventilation system supplies 0.7m. The device will not be 100% efficient and thereforethe supplyair will always be at a lower temperature than the extract. Various proprietary heat reclaim devices are available which transferheat fromthe warm air within extract systems to heat the incoming cold supply air. Therefore the formula can be written as: Q=qxl. then the balance to heat the air to room temperature must be added to the room heat load. Pre-heating of the air can be achieved by a water heatingcoil. Care must be exercised to ensurethat the cold air being discharged will not cause draughts or discomfort.

2 1.2 30° Angle 45° Angle Aerofoildamper 0. Use velocity pressure in VD 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Conical branchwith through airflow (Vc to VD). Use velocity pressure in VD 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Concentric reducer (Usevelocity pressure at reduction) The Building Regulations stipulate that an internal room provided with extract ventilation alone must not contain open flued appliances. Use velocity pressure in VB > >V V 3. 3.7=0.04 0. 30° AngIe 45° Angle Aerofoildamper Flexible spiral reinforced duct 0.2 xl .8 0.05x Length(mm) Diameter (mm) 200 .2x1.52 0.06 0.24x1.0 Shoe branch with airflowto branch (Vc to VB).03 0 0 0 0 The Building Regulations also stipulate that a mechanical extract system must not be installed in any roomcontaining a solid fuel burning appliance. The extract fan(s) and openflued appliances will immediately shut down should the supply airflow proving switch determine that the supply air system has failed. Discharge air temperature (Ta) to provide3.09 0.01xt 3.5 0.0 2.3 0.03 VD operating.26kW 0.2x1.09 0. Use velocity pressure in VD (V V VB VD airflow(V to VD).Mechanicalventilation Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide If the supply air is not pre-heatedan additional 7.4 0.72 — (—5)] = 11.7 > VD VB Effect of mechanical ventilation on appliances heat producing It is essential to ensurethat any extract systeminstalled does not cause spillage of flue gases from openflued boilers.0 0.03 0 0 0.45 0.5 0.54 0. If mechanical supplyair ventilation is provided to such a room.48 0.0 1.53 0.25 0.01 +21 3.5 1. etc.7kW heatingwithin room Table 2 Ductwork fittingK factors (Velocity pressureloss factors). The supplyair system is activated whenever the extract system is V V 0.7kW. Use velocity pressure in vD 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Shoebranch with through airflow (Vc to VD).06 0.6 0.37 0.7 1.5 1.07 V V 0. Circularducts Fining Bends 90° (Radius to inside edgeof bend) Radius ½ x D Radius 1 x 0 Radius 1½ x D K Rectangular ducts 0 =qx1.0 1. 2. v I V0 V 0. cooking appliances.09 0.23 V> 2. it must be electrically interlocked with the extract fan(s) and provided with an interlocked supply air flow proving switch 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Conical branch with airflow from branch (VB toVD). fires. Use velocity pressure in VD 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Concentric reducer (Usevelocity pressure at reduction) 0. Use velocity pressure in VB 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Shoebranchwith through 0.8 Conical branch with airflowto branch (Vc to VB).54 0.02 0.23 0. 0. > V V 1.01 x [33.24x1.563kW will need to be added to the room heat loss of 3.28 0.55 v V. 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Conical branch with through airflow to vD).2 0.1 Use velocity pressure inVD 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Shoebranch with airflow from branch (VB to Vs).55 to ensure: 1.24 0. 4.2 0. Percentages for branches are based on the change in air velocity ofthe air stream under consideration. The open flued appliances will not operate until supplyairflow has been proved.34 0.02 0. The extract fan(s) will not be activated until supply airflow has been proved.01 x(T—21) Fitting Bends 90° radius ½ x D (Radius to inside edgeof bend) Height/width ratio K T 0.72°C Duct heateroutput 0 = 0.7 = 33.3 0.52 0.2x1.53 0. Openflued appliances must be ableto operate correctly whetheror not the fan(s) is (are) running where natural ventilation and mechanical extract ventilation are provided to the same room space.04 0.24 x 1.06 0.

06 0.4 0.0 3.0 201 .01 0.0 2.2 0.08 0.4 E a) Ca 0 0.0 0.0 1.04 0.02 0.1 0.6 0.1 Pressure drop (Palm) 0.01 0.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Mechanical ventilation Graph 1: Sizing chartsforcircularducts 5.02 0.2 0.8 1.0 4.6 0.8 0.08 0.04 0.06 0.

As the air velocity throughthe ductwork system increases. the noise generated and the frictionalresistance (pressure drop)to airflow will also increase. The resultant resistance to airflowas a resultof friction between the airflow and the ductwalls. The velocity of air through ductworkcan be readily calculated using the following formula: Formula 5 v=' a Where v = The air velocity in metres 2. The unit pressure dropthrougha ductworksystemdepends to a certain . It is therefore necessary to limit air velocity to 202 per second (mis) = The airflow throughthe duct q in cubic metres per second (m3Is) a = The ductcross sectional area in square metres (m2).Mechanical ventilation Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Graph2: Relationship between rectangular and circularducts (equalvolume flow rate and unitpressuredrop) 1000 //? :0:___j// 600__ I //iti t 6 V U) E E ////////// a) C 0 0 0) C :::__////7/7)iiI 20C— 100 100 150 200 300 400 500 600 800 1000 Diameter of circular duct(mm) Ductwork sizing Ductwork sizing is determined primarily by the following two factors: 1. It is also necessary to ensure that the velocity is not too low or ductswill be oversized. Table 1 indicates recommended maximum duct velocities and pressure drops. The air velocity throughthe duct ensure that the system is not excessively noisyand that an economical fan selection can be made.

Graph 1 provides the relationship between airflow.26 107.77 10.21 13.00 72.25 19.25 39.37 49.42 80. The individual pressure lossthrough each element of the ductworksystem has to be added together to arrive at the are provided within the system.0 0.45 24.60 29.73 2.15 144.37 8.75 43.21 151.74 95.60 2.57 45.90 6.69 61.2 0. Propeller.3 0. with the air velocity pressure in the duct.29 1. Also note that Centrifugal fans a.49 26. typical for use in small ductwork systems constructed from PVCu or steel. Fun types Thereare four main types of fans used in ventilation systems: 1.33 51.2kg/m3.26 89. It should be ensuredthat the fan and ductwork system are not fixed to.34 53. The following general characteristics of each fan typeshould be noted: P = 0.9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0.00 0.65 76.86 2. which are more readily controlled by attenuation b.97 99.94 4.69 140.62 41.6 0.30 114.15 66.34 50.57 37.00 22.35 54. Main sound power generation in lower frequencies.18 3.54 120.22 1. by selecting a fan which has a low sound powerlevel. It is usual practice when selecting a fan leakage. to add a percentage (between 10 and 20%) to the required airflow for ductwork there is a difference between 'sound power' and 'sound pressure' noise levels. It shouldbe noted that the published figures can take various forms and it is therefore necessary to ensurethat like for like comparisons are made. metalor plastic springs or similar 2.78 0.05 1.09 16.81 31.40 101.98 92. unit pressure drop and air velocity through straight circular ductwork.41 20.81 23.10 40.60 60.93 35.98 127. High airflow High pressure c.15 18.45 68.81 71. Noise control Consideration must be givento ensure that vibration and airbornenoise generated by a fan will not cause damageor a nuisance.86 42.93 87.22 0.77 112.40 117.89 63.01 0.53 58.15 0.8 0.61 90.65 5.02 0.13 14.18 27. Generally the type of fan selected will be governed by the fan duty required (airflow and pressure). on the typeof duct material and method of construction.77 106. Tabulated sound powerlevels in decibels (dB) against frequency (Hz) can be obtained fromthe fan manufacturer.17 6.35 33.13 96. it is required fan pressure.35 3.60 135.70 8. Centrifugal 2.50 0. Vibration transmission can be reduced by providing a sound isolating material between the fan.06 31.85 23.45 47.89 0.10 1.02 0.13 122.14 34.82 26.98 138.69 82. in the first instance. Where branches necessary to determine which route 203 .40 38.7 0.93 133.15 12 13 14 15 21. air terminals and louvres should be obtained from the manufacturer. and the type of application.26 131.4 0.58 32.1 0. Axial Flow 3.40 9.75 7.21 73.29 136.35 93. These four typesof fans are further divided into various types. primarily associated withthe type of fan blades which theycontain.15 1.30 104.35 12. Therefore the formula can be simplified to: This can take the form of: 1.40 48.30 25. Pressure loss through ductwork fittings can be calculated by multiplying the fifing K factor listed by Table 2. support structure and connecting ductwork.75 109.61 129.78 62.35 126.46 6. Pressure lossthroughgrilles.58 16.66 44.69 extent.50 46.42 142.94 11.38 1.98 83.53 11.60 15.49 2. Flexible ductwork connections to the fan unit.85 115.42 75.46 57.01 3.38 55.70 18.82 20.40 5. The rectangular equivalentof the circular duct section used can be determined from Graph 2.6 x v2 The velocity pressure againstvelocity is tabulated in Table 3.00 0.85 102.62 17.73 4.42 149. or in closeproximity of any materials which could readilyflex and vibrate.97 119. 4.41 56. Neoprene or similarinserts between the fan and fixings 3.65 147. Formula 6 wouldbe the indexrun (eg: the run with the highest pressure loss).26 110.74 124.33 30.54 4.89 28.5 0.05 9.09 15. Advice regarding attenuator selection should be sought from the fan manufacturers or a specialist.14 10.06 7.17 5.30 67.02 64.54 98. Attenuators (silencers) can be installed within the ductwork to reduce the airborne noise transmission from a fan.61 0. The air velocity pressure can be calculated using the formula: Mixed Flow P= 1!2x(pxv2 Where P= The Velocity Pressure in Pascals (Pa) = The density of air in kg/m3 v = The air velocity in rn/s For general ventilation systemsthe densityof air can be takenas 1.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Mechanical ventilation Table3 Velocity pressure(Pa)against velocity Velocity 0.78 12.97 0.29 84. Proprietary anti-vibration mountings constructed from neoprene.90 77.62 69. Airborne noise can be reduced.66 13.74 36.90 146.60 86.15 79.

Fans canbeinstalled in series to increase pressure available d. Compact design e. Low efficiency e.Mechanical ventilation Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide d. Axial flow fans a. Low cost d. High pressure c. Mixed flowfan a. Low noise e. High efficiency d. Larger fans are readily available with thus fan duty f. belt drive motorswhich can facilitate a future changein fan speed and Backward curved type impellers available which have non-overloading (non-stall) characteristics. Fan will stall if ductwork pressure loss is outside fan characteristic g. Fan installed in-line. High pressure c. 204 . Low cost. High airflow b. Propeller fan High airflow b. Low pressure a. in direction of airflow f. Un-cased units require a change in ductwork direction from intake to discharge e. c. Can be noisy. High airflow b. Low energy consumption.

Designing for the disabled Introduction Approaches to buildings Inside buildings WC compartments in public buildings 206 206 206 207 209 209 210 Washbasin fillings WC levels in privatefacilities Facilities for private use and nursing homes Advanced WC cubicle design for wheelchair disabled 213 Central heatingfor the disabled Boilers 213 213 205 .

They can however have disadvantages as adjacent wall space is rendered useless. People in wheelchairs preferswing doorsto sliding doors. there is poor acoustic insulation and the typicalsliding gear used with low cost doorsdoes not easily withstanddisabled usage and may be pulled acrossthe line of the operating track. they should be under coverwith covered access to the building and there should be adequate extra space for the transfer from car to wheelchair. Sliding doors Maybe necessaryin bathrooms and WC compartments. 45-50mm for support. Inside buildings Double swing doors These are preferred in circulation areas. Resting places should be provided at intervalsif the approach ramps are longer than 3 metresand nearthe maximum gradient of 1 in 12.Designing for the disabled Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Introduction The following information provides designers withguidelines for designing plumbing servicesfor the disabled community. Approaches to Handrails Handrails should be provided on both sides of a ramp. They should not be less than 900mm wide. and/orwhere the gradientexceeds 1 in 15. Glass doors and other toilet. Dropped kerbs These should be 1400mm wide with a gradientof at least 1 in 12 and should be Automatic entrance doors These are preferable in certain circumstances but they should have a minimum clear distance of 2100mm between sets for sliding doorsand 2500mm for swing types. Their spring should be of released tension to allowuse by a disabled person. Rampsshouldbe a minimum widthof 1200mm witha maximum gradient of 1 in 12 and having an unobstructed platform of 1200 square millimetres. Spring closers These should be avoided but delayed action types are preferred if theyare essential. If possible. In the caseof the compartment. parking spaces Parking spacesshould be close to an accessible entrance and preferably on the same level (ramps are permissible Figure 2 Handrail dimensions Entrance doors These should have a clear opening not lessthan 980mm wide and an auxiliary side hung doorthe samewidth should be provided if they are revolving. or in the centre if its width exceeds 2000mm. Kick plates Figure 1 Disabled sign These are not essential but are recommended to be fixedto the trailing faceof side hung doors as they can help to minimize damageto the building finishes. but may be tiring for wheelchairor zimmerusers). They should be easyto grip firmly with a circulardiameter of 45-50mm. It includes information on access to buildings which apply whether the building is large or merely a small Stepped access This is not permissible under current government requirements. The plates located at low level to a height above the wheelchairuser's foot rest level togetherwith anotherplate at centre of side wheel level to prevent the wheels from damaging finishes. stair and ramp handrails Internal doors These should have a clear opening of not less than 900mm. the figures given are the minimum size required. 206 . The doors shouldbe easily swung and any spring or hydraulic damperprovided must allow easy access for the wheelchair user. Thresholds Thresholds must be flush withoutsteps or upstands to complywith statutory requirements. Level/ramped access Should be provided at one entrance from the adjacent streetand car parking spaceswith access to the toilet facilities. Theyshould never be used in areas/institutions wherewheelchairusers are prominent. On the leading faceof side hung doors thereshould be a clearwall space or panel equivalent of 300mm. Additional space is recommended wherever possible. buildings Facilities for the disabled should be marked withthe internationally agreed disabled sign. glass areas Should be made easily identifiable to thosewith defective vision. placedwherethere is a mergingof roadway and pavement. More specifically it gives details of measurements required for WC compartments. passage ways and doorsizes.

etc. principal railway stations. supplementary facilities should be provided in large buildings. an additional WC could be incorporated into the bathroom.Also. towel dispensers (or hand dryers). a sliding door should not be fitted. If the WC is in an adjacent room. hand basins with taps. air terminals. Points to consider for WCs in the Disabled Persons home a. if there is sufficient space in the WC the door couldbe re-hung. Changes in level by ramps are permissible. g. When installing a new WC installation checkthat the seat height is suitable for the user. Standard 207 . attendance helper. i. leisure and sport facilities. cinemas. Checkwith the disabled person first to find out what their needs are before finally installing the sanitaryfitting. room should be allowedfor a wheelchair to manoeuvre. If the upstairsWC is inaccessible. At leastone unisex publiclavatory p300mm accommodation should be provided in: imensions adjacent areas are Entertainment facilities Concerthalls. ridges or steep changing floor levels. considerinstalling a ground floor bathroom or shower room extension incorporating a WC suite. e. etc. It is most important that a route is available to the toilet area having suitablysized doors and openings of minimum clearance of 900mm wide alongwhich the disabled person travels to the compartments. additional ventilation and special consideration for understairs installation. floor types. The WC compartment should be provided withaccessto allowwheelchair approach to all the facilities which should include the WC. considerations should be given to either covered access to it or a one sided protected walkway installation. Allowances must be made for the specific needs or future needsof the disabled person. This type of pan allows for complete floor cleaning. recreational buildings. a stairlift should be considered if it enablesother rooms to be used. Hazards Hazards suchas level variations and projections or obstructions such as floor drainage gulliesand upstanding access and manhole coversmust be avoided.All work must comply withthe Building Regulations. faces of walls Figure 3 Dimensions — internaldoorsand Door handles Door handles should be approximately 1040mm above floor level and of the lever type. At leastone unisex staff lavatory accommodaiton should be provided in large office buildings and buildings related to othertypes of employment. sufficiently large diameterin sizeto grip and easyto use. Where there is no suitable downstairs space available. It is very difficult and often impossible for disabled people to flusha low level cistern usinga handle behind their seated position.There should be no simulation of steps in the patterning. Level changes Level changes should be easily identifiable by lighting and colourtexture contrasts. are detailed in the preceding paragraphs. sanitarytowel disposal units and mirrors. Ramps no greaterthan 1:15 slope. Remember no steps. touch light controlsare preferable. For lifts. Access to WC compartments Floors Floors should have a slip resistant surface (wetor dry). Strict building regulations apply if a new WC is installed and these must be checked withthe Environmental Health Department. The installation of this appliance requiresBuilding Control approval. Travel facilities Transport buildings. Passage ways Passage ways should not be lessthan 1200mm wide. Grant help may be available through the Environmental Health Department (for private housing) or the Local Authority (for council housing). manoeuvring space. flushing unit. with embossed digitsto enable identification by blind people. h. theatres. road service stations.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Designing for the disabled 900mm minimum WC compartments in public buildings . Access through lobbies and openings This is not recommended but whereit is essential. robust. or at the same level as a lift. Internal circulation areas There should be a wheelchairaccess at the same level as an accessible entrance door. In additionto the above unisex facilities whereone assistant can aid the disabled person. b. Switches Switches for lights should alignwith the doorhandlesand be no higher than 1200mm above the floor level. securing it on a raised plinth as necessary. c. f. A slim-line cistern provides more space for those with stiff hips or for a helper assisting with body cleansing. such as level access. A wall-hung WC pan must be fitted with a spacerbox. The WC appliance witha warm water doucheand warm air drying facility can provideindependence in personal cleansing for someseverly disabled users. Commercial buildings Shopping centres and largedepartment stores. A low-level cistern affords some back support and may be useful for those with poor balancebut can impede others who have stiff hips. If the only WC is external to the building. d. Utilizing space downstairs maynecessitate the fitting of extra doors. All recommendations for passage width.

They should be set at a temperature of not more than 35°C and have a cut-out switch when this is exceeded. The 'flimsy' type of WC seatwhich deforms and moves when sat on must not be used as it could cause accidents during transferoperations. Note should be madethat wheelchairlengths vary between 945mm and 1150mm with the width between 550mm and 675mm.Designing for the disabled Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Toilet paper holder Horizontalhandrail Placeon the side closest to the WC seat within easy reach. Support rails 50mm minimum diameter support rails should be provided on all sidewalls adjacent to the WC with a hinged horizontal rail of 300mm minimum length on the exposed side. It is possible to get an adjustable height basin. The basin can also be used to support make-up and toiletry items. resulting in personal injuries. an individual disabled person the rails maybe placed according to their specific requirements. These units needa relaxation from the Water Company and Building Control before installation. The door must be unlockable from the outside in the event of emergency and assistance needed by an attendant. The mirror can equally be positioned abovethe basin to save movement within the cubicle. carefully to fit the WC securelyand the user or a helper shouldcheckfrequently that the fittingsare secure. It is advisable to design the holder to accommodate two rolls of paper. there is also a selection of less recommended models operated by 'soft touch'. Mirrors The lower edge should not be higher than 900mm above floor level. Flat on wall mirrors are not suitable. It is poor practice to design the flushing operating device/handle behind the disabled person. If the design is for 208 If usersare likelyto be too severely handicapped to be ableto clean themselves. Mirrors should be tilted to an angleto enable the wheelchair user to use it together with a standing person. These have a warm douche and warm air for drying. Preferably the WC should be placed to allowa lateraltransferfrom the wheelchair.open outwards (so that the doorway is not blocked if a person inside falls). such as the 'Zoom'basin. A raised seat shouldbe adjusted . such as the 'Ifo tilting'wash basin. or items which tip at the front. These should be placed with the seat of the WC at 450-475mm above floor level to top of seatto alloweasy transfer from wheelchairs. The basin should be at a height of 750mm. in which casea pedestal unit should recede towards floor level to ease transfer. Toilets Dimensions The WC compartment should not be less than 2000mm by 1500mm. WC seats These should be of a robust material and must not deform when sat on. It may be possible to place the flushing device on a side wall within easy reach. Hand dryers These are preferable to otherless hygienic methods of drying the hands. this should be placedso that it is usable whilstseated on the WC pan. Do not install shallow basins with pedestals. which is placedto one side. Side transfershould be designed in preference to front. There are a numberof automaticdryers on the marketthat work by remote sensor. including cuts which result in the disabled person having pressure ulcers. which has to be manoeuvred backwards at the sametime as pulling the door open. Also accidents can occur during use. or it should slide. such as paper towelsor rollertowels. If it is not within reach the individual has to transferback into the chair before washingtheir hands and so foulsthe chair's arm rests and wheel runs used for propulsion. The flushing device must be easy to operate and must not be higher than 1200mm above floor level. have a pull rail and handle. The seats should be manufactured to British Standards Specification and kitemarked. It must also be remembered that the disabled person's feet extend in front of the wheelchairand their arms and especially their fingers to operate the wheelchair. Hinged support rail Dimensions in mm Figure 4 Dimension ofWCcompartments and facilities wheelchairs need 1800by 1400mm to turn 180°. or possibly a frontal transfer. an installation of a proprietary WC/bidet(closomat or medic100 type of unit) should be considered. Door This shouldbe 1000mm clear wide. Hand rinse basin Where practical. Vanity unitscan be suitable for wheelchairusers with built into the wall types most useful and practicable. It shouldonly open inwards if there is 1100mm by 700mm of unobstructed space insideit to allow a free door swing with the wheelchair.

Selection of raised toilet seats The seat shouldpreferably be fixedto the WC pan by brackets: in certain situations removable seatsare useful. quarterturn levers. short (or long). with cross-tops. provides this height. The surface finish of the seat should not adhere to the skin even after prolonged sitting.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Designing for the disabled Restricted space In a building whose size makes it impractical for a unisex compartment to be installed. Somedisabled people require a seat height of between 475-550mm. The springs must be reduced in tension for the disabled. 209 . They are not suitable for Most raised seats can be removed for normal use of the WC by able bodied and for cleaning. separate hot tap. Regulardusting with talcum powder helps to prevent the seatfrom becoming hot and sticky. Some disabled people are not sufficiently sensitive to temperature to realise when the water is too hot and for such applications. however lateral transfercan be accommodated. which necessitates reaching forward. set into the basinor into the surround. the advice should be sought from the disabled person's medical professional as to the maximum temperature the mixed watershould be Knee-action valves are available for those who cannotmanagetaps and these can be operated from wheelchairs. The comfort of the seatfor the individual user should be checked. Electronically operated taps are operated by the user placing their hands under the spoutwhich activates a remote sensor. In a domestic facility. WC facilities for ambulant disabled Supplementary facilities for ambulant disabled should be provided in large buildings as for the wheelchairdisabled users. A raised seat with one cut-outside may be suitable for a person with a stiff hip. Some users may require carefully positioned grabrails or a WC support frame to helpthem transfer on and off the seat. To alloweasy access for personal cleansing the aperture length should preferably be 300mm. unless strict disposal management control is imposed. The method of fixing should be easy to carry out. levers. setto. S. A personwith two stiff lower limbsor extremely weak upper limbs may be helped by a self-lifting seat or angled seatfixed to a frame support. the recommended minimum dimensions shouldbe not less than 2000mm by 1500mm. Long-handled lever taps require less powerto operatebut need a widerarc of movement than short-handled levers. Tap turners are a cheaperalternative to fitting new tapsfor general home use and can be useful when away from home. Controls can be fitted to the front of a vanity unit to allow remote control of the tap outlets. carefully assessing the action required to operate each type. singlelever mixertypesor electronic taps. A convex seat rim is more comfortable than a concave one. Check that the seat fittings are easy to clean. Control knobs are easierto handle than a chain but are smaller than most tap handleswhich cause arthriticdisabled people severe problems. A padded WC seat maybe of help to those with sensitive skins and those prone to pressure sores. bidets and all otherhot waterapplication temperatures should be set at not more than 35°C by the use of a thermostatic valveto maintain an even safetemperature to prevent scalding. The seatheight must be assessedfor each individual and a seat should be supplied which. This can result in a limited manoeuvring space. Macerating WC boxes and WC pans These electrical mechanical units cannot dispose of sanitarytowelsor incontinence towels and must not be fitted to WC pans used by the disabled community. however seatsthat are not securelyfixed can be dangerous. Mixerfittings with swivel arms can be moved to the side to leave the sink bowl areafree. The remote sensorshould be adjusted to suit the application. Pressure handles vary in the pressure needed and must be heldin position to operate. WC levels in private facilities Considerations The required overall heightshould be checked for the individual user. Combined mixer. Washbasin fillings Tapsmay be paired. Basin plugswith short chains tangle least and may be easierfor the disabled user to reach than the longer type. The fixing brackets should not damage the WC Pan. ••S Additional facilities Where there is already a unisex toilet compartment and wheelchairusers require additional toilet accommodation it is recommended that a WC compartment 2000mm by 1500mm minimum dimensions be installed. Wooden seats maybe preferred for comfort by some users and maybe more stable than plastic seats for sometypes of transfer. Central column fitting plugs can be operated with a push and pull movement. wheelchairusers. Both should be adjusted carefullyto the individual and are suitable for those with poor balance. but they require good balance to use. Taps can be wall-mounted. High-necked fittings provide more space when hand-washing and can facilitate cleaning. when placedon the WC pan. Foot-operated pressure pads may be useful for some with upper limb diabilities. choose taps which are suitable for the individual. Mixer taps may be dangerous if heat sensation is impaired or if the person is confused.

direct access from the bedroom or living room to the WC compartment withoutnegotiating corners and landings. This is often more economical than building an extension and a lift can be re-sited if the person moves premises. The extractor fan should be fitted with humiditycontrol stat to operatethe fan together with wired-intimer control to over-run for at least 20 minutes. Alternatively provide personal sensorsactivating the lights. The electricity suppliershould be consulted before the installation of an electric hoist. the size and type of house and the potential space. Flooring Anti-slip flooringsuch as vinyl sheeting incorporating abrasive grainsof aluminium oxide or anti-slip surface tiles are suitable.They should be fixed above head height to avoid the risk of burns. could be suitable. Sliding doors are not recommended however they may be suitable alternatives where space is limited.Designing for the disabled Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Facilities for private use and nursing homes Bathroom layout The layout will depend on variousfactors including the severity of the disability and the amountof assistance necessary. Extractor fan This should be provided to remove condensation togetherwithtoilet smells. Spacewill be necessaryto hang towels and clothes. approved double-wound isolating transformer. Rails must be positioned for the individual and placedso that accidental misuseof the heated towel rail is avoided as this could be potentially dangerous. Spacing Doors mayneed repositioning to provide quick. If accessto an upstairsbathroom is a problem. The bathroom doorcan be re-hung to open outwards if equipment is bulkyor if wheelchairmanoeuvring space is needed. The ceilingjoistswill needstrengthening before an overhead hoisttrack is fitted. shower and the basin. the needs of the family. The transformer must be installed outside the bathroom. WC and bath may be ideal for a severely disabled person. Door openings must be a minimum of 900mm clear opening width to accommodate the wheelchairuser. A front rail at the basin maybe needed to prevent the basin rim being used as a support. A damp-proof membrane should be laid beneath the flooringand extended 80mm up the wall to prevent water seepage. In shower areas. The height of the fittings maynot be ideal for the disabled user but a compromise may be necessary to reconcile their needswith those of other members of the family. This is in addition to the statutory requirements. Grabrails Grabrails will be needed alongside the WC. considera stairlift or throughfloor lift especially if the person is ableto use otherrooms upstairs. Shaver points and mirrors should be 1200mm above the floor level and accessible for the user. Mats should be removed as they are a hazard for an ambulant persontogether with beingan obstruction to a wheelchair. Wherespace is inadequate. Suitable soap holdersand twintoilet roll holders must be accessible and at the correctheightfor the user. Bathing Points to consider before alteration An emergency call system may be necessary. bath. Only heaters approved for bathroom use should be used. An electric hoist must operatefrom24 volts voltage supplied throughan A storage areafor toilet accessories must be provided. Alternatives shouldbe considered carefully. Space will be needed to manoeuvre a portablehoistand the bath panel may be removed to accommodate the hoist legs. Doors Depending on the space available doors mayopen inwards or outwards. properly enclosed with a permanently wired connection to the electricity supply. The permanent freshair inlets must be as required by the extractor fan manufacturer's installation requirements. especially to the elderly. An adaption of a preferred arrangement will often be more acceptable than a totally new one. separate WC and washing facilities are recommended. A wheelchair user will require spacefor manoeuvring and it maybe necessaryto remove non-loadbearing walls between the bathroom and WC. Investigate all possible alternatives before alteringbath or shower facilities. Because of the longertime taken by the disabled member to carry out their toilet needs. All doors shouldhave emergency release fittings. There needsto be a permanentfresh air supply passing under the door into the room with undercut space or permanent open low level inlet with privacy grilles. A bath with a low side may 210 . the method of transferand the type of hoistand other appliances. Users with disabled hands should be provided with pull-ring fittings to pull cordsfor switches. Grants maybe available for major adaptations and applications should be made to the Local Authority's Environmental Health Department for private housing and to the local council's Housing Department for council housing. Fillings Sanitaryware must be appropriate for the user and correctly positioned for their use. a floor-fixed base plate into which the hoistmast can be fitted. the financial assistance available. A straight trackfrom the bedroom to the bathroom spanning the bed. eithercovered tiles or PVC covering at walls with upstands should be fitted. All locking doors must be fitted with a lever-operated indicatorbolt with an external emergency release. Heating The bathroom temperature should be maintained at a higher level than the rest of the home for the disabled person's comfort (see reference to heating for the disabled in this section). An ambulant person usually prefers the securityof a relatively confined space with carefullypositioned and easily reached grabrails. Carpetsdesigned for bathroom use maybe appropriate in somecases. especially to those with impaired temperature sensation.

The user must be ableto sit in the normal position. The curtain will need to hang outside the bath so suitable flooring is required with a drain gully in the floor. Seekmedical advice for each user's needs. usinga transfer board if necessary. It savesthe attendant from unnecessary bending and mayhelp prevent backstrain. The seatcan be used alone or in conjunction with a bath board. bath seat and non-slipmat mayassist manypeople who have difficultygetting into and out of the bath. Fitting a non-slip mat in the bath and teaching the person to turn on their hands and knees after draining the bath watermayenable themto get out without further aids. They are unsuitable if a plasticinsert is used. If new downstairs facilities are essential. The bath can be used as a sit-in bath or as a showercubicle. The disabled person or assisting helper effectively. The sensation of rising watermay be frightening to someelderly or confused people. A seat is useful for a personwho is unable to sit in the bottom of a bath because of balance. It is recommended that quarterturn lever Bath inserts A rigid insert may be more suitable than a bath board combined with bath seat if the person has great difficultyin getting out of an ordinarybath or lacks balance suitable power point will be required outside the bathroom. If the user cannotclosethe doorand operatethe controls of the tilting bath a helpermust be available to do so. a taps may be the most suitable. Some. Ensure waterpressure is reduced for safety. slides backwards on the board. Check that the person is not likelyto sufferdizziness when changing from horizontal to vertical. A walk-in bath maysuit those who are liableto fall or are afraid of falling. others are assistant-operated. Installing a lifting device may be more cost-effective than fitting a special bath or shower. allowing sufficient space for a wheelchair and a helper as necessary.Showering does not always overcome all problems of disabled bathers. the ceilingjoists must be inspected and their structural strength confirmed to ensure that they are adequate to carry the tracking. Slings A non-slip bath shouldalways be used A person who is unable to get into or out of the bath unaided shouldbe hoisted usingthe particular modelthe bath was designed to accommodate. bathboard. balance or co-ordination problems or stiff joints. whereavailable. Showering Showers must be thermostatically controlled with maximum hot water outlet temperature of 35°C. A tilting bath may reduce the need for assistance and increase the independence of some people confined to a wheelchair. particularly the elderlydisabled. used must allowthe waterto drain and it is recommended that a spare set be supplied to allowfor drying. Before a floor-fixed device is installed the floor should be checked for suitability. Periodically.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Designing for the disabled makegetting in easier but provides insufficient support when getting out. This bath is made fromcast acrylic sheetand has a slip-resistant finish. lighting and ventilation of the shower areas should be as detailed previously and the installation of an emergency call system is essential. or co-ordination. It can be used as a shower area by a seated person. A bath rail may be necessary. Bath lifts Some bath lifts can be operated independently by the bather. must have sufficient arm movement and strength to operate a mechanical device Some lifting devices are simple to use. Some are suitable for installing in small bathrooms and most can be re-sited if the person leaves the A wheelchair user should check that he can transfereasily into and out of the tilting bath. The user can sit on the seat to bath or shower if he is unable to lowerthemselves into the bottomof the bath. A water thermostat must be fitted to the taps. devices with rigid seats are safer. Discussion shouldbe given to the choice between an over-bath shower and shower cubicle. including those with lower limb disabilities. The tap closest to the bath edge must be the cold tap to helpthe blind and for the safety of children. Only a seat which hangs fromthe bath rims or stands on the bottom of the bath is suitable in an acrylic bath. Grants maybe available for part of the cost of installing a shower from Environmental Health Departments (for private housing) or the Local Authority (for council housing). Theyare portableand can be used by community nurses to bath patients at home. the user or helper should check the device for stability. Those involved in using the device must be made fully aware of the safety factors recommended by the manufacturer. A seat is built-in and handgrips are fitted on each side. Heating. Some makes have mesh or slatted seats for water drainage. may impede getting into and out of the bath. The person sits on the board. 211 . The bathroom floor should be checked carefully for suitability if a special bath is beingconsidered. turns to swing the legs over into the bath and slides to the middle of the board. Alternatively. An ambulant person can step into the bath at its lowest level and be raised to a convenient height for the helper bathing him. a base plate can be floor-fixed at the side or end of the bath and hoist mast fitted into it. mobilityor lower limb problems. Baths with built-in seats The small square bath is designed to fit into a bathroom with limited space. house. They are unsuitable for thosewith poorbalance. If the device is operated electrically. Those who lack limb strength or have poor balancemay prefer to sit on the bath and use an over-bath shower. strong arms are needed to lower to the seat andonto the bottom of the bath. An electrically-operated hoistcan be used in the bathroom. dislike showersand prefera strip-wash. Portable patient lifterscan be used in the Cornertaps may be practical for some but if fitted on the outerside. A combination of bathrails. A bath board is useful for those with difficultygetting over the side of the bath. It is particularly practical for institutional use and may prevent the attendants hurting their backs. feet outside the bath. consider the site of the shower with the WC and washbasin. bathroom provided adequate manoeuvring space is available and there is space under the bath for the legs of the hoist. An adjustable heightbath is intended for use in hospital or in residential accommodation.

The unit must be temperature pre-set to suit the user's medical needs. See the appropriate section for details. Theyshould be positioned so that the washbasin. Non-slip mats are dangerous in such areas. the seat height must be the same as the wheelchair seat. readily available in practicalpositions for use by maintenance personnel. It is recommended that the shower be used for hairwashing and conveniently sited for this application. This is not good practice. Generally the wheelchairuser will not be ableto use wall hung or slab urinals.) Act 1974have a 'duty of care' and should be able to demonstrate that they are providing a safeenvironment. The shower mixing valve should have Joints Ensureall joints are sealed with nonsetting ceramicsealants. A shower curtain must hang insidethe showerunit which reduces the areathat can be used. Grabrails fitted in a bathroom orWC must have an anti-slipfinish. Hotwater and heating Scope NHS Estates Guidance Note DN4 gives information for all health care and personal social services premises. toilet roll holder or towel rail are never used for supportthrough habit or emergency. A tray for soap and sponges should be accessible to the user. special models with a higher seat 212 A bidet is recommended for independent Drainage incontinence and sanitarytowels will be placed into the WC Pan for disposal as no otherfacility is provided. Disposal of incontinenceand sanitary towels For reasons of hygiene and to prohibit the spread of disease by contamination. Hinged grabrails should be checked regularly to ensurethat the hinge is in goodworking order. residents and visitors. Registered HomesAct 1984and nonregistered premises such as sheltered accommodation. cushions or seatcushions mayhelp those using urinals. Maintenance personnel must be protected against contracting diseases.Designing for the disabled Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Showertrays designed for the disabled do not have a step-over ledge. getting into and out of the bath and on and off the WC. installed instead of bins. However what is adequate for one user maynot be adequate for all. staff. however designthe drainage system to accommodate these itemswhenthe disposal units are not functioning. All changes of direction must be designed with long radius easy bends and sufficient access points. incinerators are threfore preferable. The temperature leaving the shower-head must not exceed 35°C. The installaiton of these typesof showersmust be in compliance with the Water Regulations. The hot water requirements must be as for Showering' section previously. It maybe difficult to install a sloping floor area in an upstairs bathroom. This is especially important for those with sensoryproblems when the temperature must be pre-set lower to suit their medical needs. Grabrails Grabrails are fitted in the bathroom to provide supportto the disabled user when washing at the basin. The seat height of the bidet must be suitable for the disabled ambulant person. maximum temperature pre-set at 35°C and thermostatically controlled. The grating material should be nickel bronzeor stainless steel. Rails should be positioned to suit the individual. For a wheelchair user. Sloping floors must be non-slip. An instantaneous electric heatermust contain an anti-scald device to cope with variations in waterpressure. There shouldbe a visual method of checking the water temperature for those with sensoryproblems. calculate the volume and discharge rates required to keep the drainage system from the toilet areas used by the disabled community clean of soiled items. Reinforcement may be necessary. Grabrails will be necessary. Safe hot water temperature must not exceed 35°C. Safe hot water temperature Bidets personal cleansing. The controlsmust be easy to operate and within safe reach of the user or helper. Wallsand partition walls must be of sufficient structural strength to support the load exerted on the rail. The use of macerators is only acceptable providing maintenance personnel are given training and protection againstAIDS and other related diseases. The designer should If no disposal unit is madeavailable. Ensurethat drainage gradients are not minimum but generous for self cleansing velocity of the solids from the drain. The showercurtain or doorshould be easy for the disabled user to manage. Adhesive safety treads can be used. macerators or incinerators shouldbe Floordrain gratings should be flush with the floor. All commercial activity to private or public homes and domestic facilities within requirements for all patients. Only where a resident or patient or user is under adequate continuous supervision may the use of low surface temperature radiators not be warranted. the Hot water distribution temperature will be in excess of 50°C for the control of Legionella. Seek advice from Health and Safetyat Work Commission. Standard layouts and combination may not be satisfactory. The user can sit facing forwards or backwards on the bidet as convenient. The installation must conform to the Water Regulations. Somemagnetic door catches on cubicles require considerable dexterity. It is recommended for safety reasons that the whole installation workscomplyto the Guidance Note DN4. with regard to backflow. This requirement is equally applicable to new and existingpremises. A non-slip sloping floor area is much saferthan a showertray and it is essential for wheelchair use. Installation should be carried out by a qualified person. An anti-scald shut off device must be provided as an essential component. . supervisors and contractors! installers under the Health and Safety at Work (etc. Urinals Specially adapted wheelchairs. Before using dual watercapacityflushing units. All outlets must be thermostatically controlled and blended to temperatures below35°C to accommodate the user's medical needs. Checkthe model and install a grabrail for safety by the entrance. are available. Requirement All responsible persons including design A shower headfitted to a flexible tube with wall-mountings at alternative heights or a showerheadwith a sliding bracket on a wall-mounted tube are recommended in preference to a fixed sprayposition. though it is more expensive to install.

If watertemperatures are decreased it is imperative that heat outputfrom the emitters are corrected. require less attention and are easier to operatethan solid fuel boilers. The associated dangers of this type of boiler must not be overlooked. Control knobs and levers must be smooth in operation and of a design to enable the user to operate them easily. Small pieces of debriscan fail the operation of the temperature control. towel rails. low surfacetemperature radiators being the exception. The bunker itself may require special consideration to ensurethat the fuel can be readily racked to the outlet. The controlsmust be so situated to ensure that the user could not be injured from the hot surfaces in the boiler. Advanced WC cubicle design for wheelchair disabled This usesthe recommended guidelines for the size of the WC compartment and facilities. The system should be designed to ensure that all air and hydrogen dispels naturally throughthe openvent to avoid the necessity to vent radiators. Other maintenance should be strictly in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. The local waterquality. They must only be considered when the user would be capableof transferring fuel. This is particularly important for those users who do not move frequently and wouldtherefore require a warmerenvironment. The following represent the main criteriato consider. If banks of liquid petroleum gas bottles are provided having standbyor changeover provision the valving arrangement must be readily 213 . etc. the additional heat load must be included within the design of the heating system. The designer should use a wheelchairto gain experience for the user's needs. Domestic hot watersystemsmust not be used for space heating. these could be provided either by natural ventilation. The sanitary fittings are placed within easy reach of the disabled person whilstthey are seated on the WC Pan. Where solid fuel boilers are used it is recommended that the fuel feed should be hopper fed requiring the minimum of attention. The fuel can be oil. Theyshould be situated to ensurethat all controls or components requiring adjustment or attention by the user are at such a height to facilitate easy access andthat no obstructions. Solid fuel It is recommended that where possible. In some instances. In those instances. removing ashes. Maintenance Central heating for Boilers Boilers should be fullyautomatic in operation. heat and hot fuel and ashes. Support rails of the standard size are placed in the positions shown in Figure 4.The whole cubicle has a fail safe mechanism. All components must be selected and designed to ensure that no injury or harm can resultto the disabled user during normal use or due to possible foreseeable accidents. Living environment Special consideration may be required with regard to the design internal temperature. Doors or flaps concealing the controls must be provided with an adequate method to enable the user to open and closethem easily. are placed closeto the boiler to restrict or prevent the user gaining access to the controls. solid fuel boilers should not be provided for disabled users. The WC compartment is illuminated by an automatic light incorporating an infra red device which switches 'on' when a disabled person enters the room and only switches 'off' after the person has left the room. The tap and hand dryerare operated by automatic sensors. particularly the necessity of the user coming into close contact withflames. bidet temperature is 35°C. shower. Facilities should not be institutional looking.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Designing for the disabled Recommended safe'hot water terminal tap. Gas/oil fired These are generally more reliable. Consideration should be given to providing a method of ash removal direct to outside so that it is not necessaryfor the user to carry hot ashes throughthe premises. The ignition system should be of the fully automatic self-igniting type to avoidthe necessity of re-lighting the pilot in the event of failure. All thermostatically controlled mixers must be fail safeto BS 1415 Part 2 and must not allow hot waterto flow in the event of failure. ie openable windows or mechanical ventilation. Everyone is unique and a person. Space heating Care must be exercised when designing and installing heating systems for the disabled to ensurethat all components requiring adjustment or attention by the disabled user are accessible and safeto operatewithout risk to the disabled person or their attendants. requiring the minimum of adjustment by the user. Boilers with sharp edges must be avoided. the disabled It is essential to check the temperature settings and operation of all mixing devices at least half yearly. Each installation must be considered individually to determine the required temperature for the user. bed pan racks. higher than standard design ventilation rates will be required. It will also be necessary to conceal or guard pipework to protectthe user from the possibility of burns. The standard design heating flowand return temperatures of around 82°C and 71°C has to be used withconvectors or low surface temperature radiators. Theyshould be well designed with good quality products and user friendly. such as return edges of wallsor kitchencabinets. If this cannotbe provided than a pilot having piezo or electronic ignition should be used. Pilots requiring manual ignition by flame should be avoided. All bare radiators and pipework and controls within areas of use by disabled and elderly persons must be screen guarded to comply with Statutory requirements. especially if the 'safe' wateris not treated. natural or liquid petroleum gas. will influence the maintenance frequency. it may be necessary to raise the bunkerto provideadequate access. Correct pipework gradients are therefore essential. lightingand stoking the fire.

Equipment for the Disabled. CarbonMonoxide (CO) gas alarmsshould be installed.Designing for the disabled Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide accessible and easily operated by the user. oil. particularly during autumn and spring when external temperatures vary considerably from day The installation location must not be in line with external fresh air. a CO alarm is not a substitute for a smoke alarm or a combustible gas detector. CarbonMonoxide gas alarms In all livingareaswhere gas. Automatic controls The automatic control system should be simple to operateand reliable in service. The temperature range of the thermostat must be adequate to ensure that a comfortable environment can be maintained. Heat emitters Consideration must be givento selecting low surface temperature radiators and othersuitable heat emitters withoutsharp edges or protrusions on which the user could be injured due to the accidental knock or fall. It should be remembered that the CO alarm does not wholly protect people who are at special risk due to age. This position allows for the audible alarm to soundand the disabled personto evacuate the premises before their breathing zone becomes contaminated withCO gas. however it must be heard within the sleeping areas. wood. The initial setting of the cylinderthermostatmust that the stored water is maintained at a temperature to protect the user from legionella. Oxford 0X37LD. London Wi N 8AB. The radiatorvalves used should have an easy and smooth action to enable the user to isolate the radiator if required. London SE1 2NY. Fire Precautions in the Design. solid fuel. London W9 2H0. Existing buildings covered by: Disabled Discrimination Act of 1995 (gives suppliers until 2005to remove all physical barriers). particularly those who do not have complete sensitivityto heat. BS 5588:Part 8:1988. Tel: 01865 750103. that is they shouldbe totally enclosed. 214 . HMSO. Do not conceal the alarm behind curtains. Off-peak electric storage heaters Off-peak electricheatingis probably the safest and most easily operated method of heating for the severelydisabled user. Centre for Accessible Environments. The heat emitters used should be designed so that there are no surfacehot spots together with no access holeswhich allowsmall hands to enter. Tel: 010-7357 8182. Construction and Use of Buildings — Code of Practice for Means of Escape for Disabled People. it is essential to ensure that the heat emitters and pipework are installed in such a mannerthat damageis unlikely to result to the services in the event of an accidental collision. Consideration should be givento using digitaltime switches which many users wouldfind easierto adjust than the electro-mechanical type. has the same buoyancy as air and can killl References The Building Regulations (Amendment) 1998 Part M (schedule 1) and the supporting Approved Document M: Access and facilities for disabled people: 1999 Edition. air vent and plugged connections. pictures. some users would find top and bottomopposite end connections more desirable with the isolating valve or thermostatic valveat the top connection to prevent the necessity to benddownfor adjustment. The protrusions could include radiatorvalves. odourless. Tel: 020 8289 6111. The control of heat output from storage heaters is not as precise as othermethods of heating and may cause overheating or underheating at times. appliances and electric storage heaters are used. heat emittersshould be positioned under windows to reduce cold downdraughts and the cold radiant effect. 380-384 Harrow Road. The Royal Association for Disability and Rehabilitation (RADAR). All these factors must be taken into consideration to justify the installation if safety is not the primeconsideration. 60 Gainsford Street. Tel: 020-7637 5400. Special consideration may be necessary with regard to the mounting heightand position of the thermostat. to day. Alternatively. Nutmeg House. The safe hot water temperature at the outletof the fitting must be thermostatically controlled and blended not to exceed 35°C and incorporating an anti-scald device that will not cause harm to the user. receive special consideration to ensure Where it is known that the occupant will require the aid of a wheelchair. 35 Great Smith Street.The main isolating gas or oil cock must also be readilyaccessible for use in an emergency. CarbonMonoxide gas is colourless. Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre. Bathrooms and WCs. It maybe necessary to provide a protective guard around the services. false ceilings or otherobstructions. Headington. The heightof the alarm must be slightly higherthan the disabled persons head height. Room thermostats and thermostatic radiator valvesshould be selected with a method of adjustment that can be readily altered by the user. This is particularly important for those users who do not move frequently and therefore require a higher room temperature. Radiators shouldalso be positioned adjacent to external doors to reducethe effect of cold draughts. 25 Mortimer Street. The user would not normally adjust the domestichot water cylinderthermostat and therefore no special provisions are required. pregnancy or medical condition. Where possible. Tel: 020-7222 7980. Radiators and convectors are available with the facility to conceal angle valves or with bottom or side connections which couldbe used in conjunction with straightvalves. Also. London SW1 P 3BJ. Wherethis is not possible they should be installed adjacent to windows. The cost of off-peakelectricity may be more expensive than otherfuels but the installation and maintenance costsare generally much lowerfor storage heaters than otherformsof heating. Spaces in the Home. Mary Marlborough Lodge. Disabled Living Foundation. Additional alarms should be installed nearfuel burning appliances and electric storage heaters. Access Committee for England. The CO Alarms must be manufactured in compliance with BS 7860:1996.

Domestic swimming poois Introduction Pool shells Filtration Heating Treatment 216 216 218 219 220 215 .

the immediate family. The Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group (PWTAG) is a research body mainly concernedwith the pool water. A structural engineer should design concrete poolshells and according to SPATA Standards the calculations should be madeavailable to the client if required. Videosshow a demolition ball beingdropped into a pool and the sides tightnesswhere no water loss is accepted. Naturally enough it is not possible to cover everything in a short paper such as this. as with extensive and imaginative planning theycan be very attractive. It requires a greatdeal of specialistknowledge in the fields of construction. which are to be discussed 1. Therefore if the ground conditions are unknown it is wise to have a trial hole dug and if necessary a soil analysiswhich should be passed to the structural engineer. and invited guests. the home owner. A flotationcollar is placed around the top of the walls and when water is introduced the collarfloats upward and the pool fills. the type of soil. Filtration Heating 4. These range from the large leisure centre pool incorporating swimming areas and recreational areasto the smallerclub and school pools and down to the domestic pool in the familyhome. They are not designed to be installed in the ground. It is obvious to say but clay. the water table and the general surrounds. the liner. The installation of a swimming pool is not a particularly difficult operation but like most specialities if you don't knowwhat you are doing things can go horribly wrong. This means that the basicand only shape is circularalthough there is a range. Treatment. There are now manycompanies that have been designing and installing swimming poolsfor a substantial number of yearsand it is a large industrywith two to three thousand pools beingput in the ground each year. Thereare two types of above ground shell.The basic shape for this pool is round but with the addition of support'buttress' frames the two halves of the circle can be elongated withthe insertion of straightpieces. The word flat is included here. Concrete shell can be designed to one of two different standards eitherBS 8007 which is for 'Waterretaining structures' or BS 8110for 'Structures forretaining Aqueous Liquids'. This magnitude of lossis virtuallyand practically impossible to detect. filtration. However it is not unusual for new shells to be testedfor water Note 7. In commercial and some domestic installations a void or undercroft is designed around the poolto 216 . It is also important to establish the use to which the pool is to be put and what is required of it. As has been noted these pools have limitations in shape and depth and sit on the ground. the concrete. In that publication is the now accepted demarcation definition between the private and publicsectors. This is not intended to demean this type of pool. warm.those erected above ground. The former is used when absolute water tightness is required and demands that the concrete shell will hold water before the internal rendering is applied. chemical treatment. The wallsare of a constant depth and the floor flat or with a shallow indentation to give a slightly deeper deep end. which is tailored to a circular shape withthe material forming the walls as well. consequently they are in greatdemandin the DIY market and are very much cheaperthan the in ground shells. which with air-inflated sides achieve a rectangular shape.Domestic swimming pools Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Introduction Pools have been installed in this country for manyyears and although there are somedating backto the nineteenth centuryit has only been in the last fifty yearsthat they have become really popular. First it is important to note that everyin ground pool must be designed to suit the ground in which it is to be installed. Both these designs have been extensively testedto showthey can withstand the pressure of water pushing outwards. as its name implies. chalk and sandy loam exhibit very different properties and it is vitalthat the contractorbe aware of the conditions prevailing on the site before the pool is designed. Additionally the Water Regulations give guidance and recommendations for the connection of main supplies to poolsand the Electrical Regulations (BSi 7671) coverswimming poolsin Special Locations Guidance The abovegroundpool is designed. There are basically four areas. In the above ground poolthis couldprovedisastrous if the base is not flat. although it mightsound superfluous.The first is a framework. Pool shells Thereare basically five types of pool shell. and environmental control. as waterwill always be in the horizontal plane regardless of the container in which it is put. The Swimming Pool and AlliedTrades Association (SPATA) publishes Standards as a guide to best practice in the whole field of 'Swimming Pools'. in somecases civil engineering. The Instituteof Leisure AmenityManagers (ILAM) also concerns itself with the running of commercial poolsas well as othermatters. This will depend on the specification. Information is widely available fromthese organisations. as the whole structure could toppleover and collapse. It states that all pools are commercial exceptcertain medical and therapeutic pools. The pool shell construction and finishes 2. to sit on a flat surface above the ground. This shell is described as a monolithic structure in that it is an entity in its own right and should in theory be able to hold the volume of waterwhether in or out of the ground. staying upright and anothershowed an elephant getting in and out of the full vinyl type. when used for the designed purpose. This is somewhat in the style of the liner pool described later. The latter relies on the internalrendering to retain the water. 3.The Institute of Swimming Pool Engineers provides a home learning course for Technicians and organises four or five seminars per year on various topics. The result is a flexible wall bowing outwards. waterthat is pollutant free and safe to swim in and enjoy. and the stainless steel. the fiberglass modular. evaporation and backwashing is 12mm in a seven-day period. The floor is covered with soft sand placed directly on the flat clearedsoil and a lineris the means of retaining the water. The primary aim beingto provide clear. and pools in a private dwelling for the use of The second type is a heavy-duty liner bag. The Health and Safety Commission has produced a booklet called 'Managing Health and Safetyin Swimming Pools'. The bathing load will determinein part the sizeand vice versa and the typeof swimming or leisure may also play a part. which is erected on the ground comprising uprights and sheets of constant depth material fitted between them. Indeed SPATA Standards state that an acceptable water lossfrom any type of poolshell. The Institute of Sport and Recreation Managers (ISRM) dealswith the day-to-day operation of commercial poolsand also runs various course in that area. excluding splash. in cases when it is to be installed over or immediately adjacent to habitable accommodation and in the commercial sector.

Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide

Domestic swimming pools

house air heating ductwork and water pipes and in this case the strength of the pooi shell is of paramount importance. The method of constructing shells can also vary. In commercial installations one method is a poured floor and shuttered walls with both thickness and reinforcing according to the design. This is also suitable for smallerpoolsbut the cost of the shuttering can be a high. Cavity block wall containing reinforced concrete tied to a poured floor is a method widely used in the domestic market and for smaller commercial pools. In this casethe two blockwallsact as shuttering for the poured concrete in between once again both thickness and reinforcing according to the design. The blockwork is quicker and cheaperto construct but due to the blocksize is limited to gentle curves and therefore shape. Sprayed concrete, either Shotcrete or Gunite depending on the aggregate size is applied by spraying it under pressure onto the pre-assembled reinforcement frame. The constituents of the concrete mixing at the nozzle of the spraygun. This method of application results in a much lighter shell but one with a greater degree of flexibility in shape. Stainless steel pools are structurally designed to retain the weightof the water in the samemanneras the concrete pool. Some products have supporting frames and others have reinforcing built into them. Theyare considerably lighter than the concrete type of shell and are usually restricted to the decklevel type of pool as the surround channeladds to the strength. In some cases stainless steel can be the finish and in others vinyl. Angular shapesare favoured ratherthan free form.

Linerpoolshave a shell that is radically different. To start withthe watertightness is achieved by a vinylcontainer(the liner). The structure is non-reinforced and the floor of the pool is porous. The porosity of the floor is to allow ground water to permeate throughit shouldthe ground waterpressure become greater than the weightof the water in the pool at which time the flexibility of the liner allows movement to prevent collapse. The liner is supportedby a structure, which is not meant to have any great strength in relation to the ground and water, but is there to give shape to the pool and to keep the liner in place. For this reason, this linersystem is not generally used for large commercial installations however there are some products which are similar and due to their more robust design have structural strength. The supporting structure can be constructed of a variety of materials. Years ago one would see linerwalls

made of wood or even steel as developments progressed galvanised metal and basicfibreglass were used but today thereare manycomposite 'plastic' wall panels of high quality available. Theseare held in the vertical plane by braces usually known as 'A' frames. Theseframes are set in concrete for strength and support. Generally speaking this type of linerconstruction gives a constant panel depthof approximately 1 metre. The floor profilecan then be graded from the bottomof the wall into eithera hopper or wedgeshape. Blockwork can also be used for liner pool walls; depending on the depthof the wall eitherhollowagricultural typeor ordinary blocks can be used. However this type of wall has to have sand and cement rendering to provide a smooth finish, which will not puncture the liner material. However the use of hollowblocks that can be reinforced can give greater wall and thereforewater depths and this leadsto gentle constant slopefloors.The sand used on the walls and floor should be sharpsand as this gives a greater longevity. It is also good practice, with blockwalls withoutreinforcement, to have a ring beam of concrete at the top of the wall, which is reinforced and runs the length of the perimeter, to give added strength. Again because of the construction of the walls liner pool have limitations in shape. Fibreglass pools were usually small onepiece shells or if larger were in two pieces. The fibreglass was not particularlythick and the general principle on installation wasto bed them soundlyand then backfill between the shell and the dig with a lean-mix of concrete, which would give some strengthto the structure. Additionally most, but not all, of these pools were of constantdepth. In the last few yearsthere has been a resurgence of this type of pool but with better construction techniques used. The shells are madeof good marine fibreglass, with timber incorporated to provide structural support,and are designed to hold water in or out of the ground. Theyare now usuallyfactory fitted withflow control fittings and pipework to ease plant installation. They also come in quite a range of sizes. This in itself is one of the problems withthis type of shell. The larger they are the heavierand more difficult they are to transport and to get into the site. They are moved with the use of low loader lorries, largecranes and even helicopters. Oncethe excavation is completed the pool is lowered onto the drainage bed on the floor of the hole, leveled and the backfilling carried out. Consequently despite the logistical

difficulties the shell should be installed very quickly.There is, once again, a size and shapelimitation.

All the above comments applyto the freeboard pool whethercommercial or domestic. The deck level pool with the water over flowing into a perimeter channelis usually built of reinforced concrete ratherthan a traditional liner. Once againthere are products that are the exception to this but they are few in number. It would be technicallypossible

to have a prefabricated fibreglass pool in this type but the practicality of it would be
in doubt. Onecommon factor in relationto the proper installation of all pool shells is the question of ground water. If the ground waterpressure builds up the shell of the poolwill be at risk unless the pressure is relieved. Battleships were madeof steel, weighed thousands of tons and floated.If the pressure is greaterthan the water and the weight of the concrete or fibreglass shell it could lift or floatthe shell. In concrete pools not only shoulda hydrostatic relief valve be fitted in the lowest point but also the drainage under and around the structureshould be such that the watercan easily gravitate to the deepest point and if necessary operate the relief valve. Linerpoolswith their porousbase do not have hydrostatic relief valves because that water would permeate through the linerfloor. Again the surround drainage shouldbe designed to take water awayfromthe structure as the linerwill lift off the base and floatand a floating liner is not

conducive to swimming. This, in extreme cases, could mean the installation of a pumping chamberand float operated pumpto takeawaythe ground water. The fibreglass shell should be protected in the same way as the concrete pool. It is therefore important to assess the ground water situation, and considerthe winter months, before the installation is started so that all necessaryprecautions can be included in the specification. Although a discussion on the relative merits of the many poolfinishesis not included here, the internal finish of the pool does have a bearing on the selection of poolshell construction method. The appearance and feel of the finished pool is important to the users, especially in the domestic market.

The different methods of construction describedearlierindicate that there is an obvious cost difference between concrete pools and linerpools. Whether there is an appreciable difference between liner pools and fibreglass pools will depend on the problems on site related to access and general transportation. The actual costswill also depend on a numberof factors, which vary fromdesign to design

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'UWL on centr eline of and 750mm fromtop

deckbox on

ic

Pump

Figure 1 Schematic domestic swimming pool layout offamilypool with largestep area for smalltoddlers

and from project to project, consequently it is verydifficultto be precise. One must bearin mind that the surround work, filtration, heating etc are goingto be the same regardless of the shell construction and that there will be somevariation in the cost of internal finish.

Filtration
In a swimming poolthe filtration system is there to remove, as far as possible the
suspended inorganic matterfrom the water. This is done in all pools by a pump(s) sucking the water fromthe pool tank, blowing it througha filter medium and thereafter back into the pooltank. The filter medium can be a fine powder calleddiatomaceous earthor a material similarto cartridgepaper but these days graded silica sand is mainly used. Sand provides a particulate removal downto 10 microns and although the othertwo

media produce a finer filtration the operational problems are such that they are rarely if ever used.

The water in the sand filtershould pass uniformly through the surfacearea and it is the relation of the speed of the water and the surface areathat give the filtrationrate in m3/m2/perhour.
Low rate filtration up to 10m3/m2/perhour is rarely if ever used these days. Medium rate from 11 — 30 m3/m2/perhouris widelyused in commercial poolsand is recommended by PWTAG and SPATA. — High rate from 31 50m3/m2/perhour is the preferred rate for the domestic market although it is true to say that this

Internal finishes
The linerand fiberglass pool have their finish as an integral part of the system. It is only the concrete structure that is tiled eitherwith ceramicor vitreous glass mosaics. The large commercial pool is nearly always tiled with large ceramic tiles.
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Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide

Domestic swimming pools

Tile edge

Basefor

water takes place in the plant room and it is there thatthe chemical treatment is introduced into it. Dead spotswithin the pool tank mean that the pollution is neither treated nor removed and it will
therefore proliferate. Water is takenout of the pool by bottom outlets usually placedat the deepest point from the surface. It is returned into the poolby inlets usually placed in the wall but sometimes in the floor. The positioning of these points will depend on the shape and sizeof the pooltank.

Heating
Poolwater can be heatedusingany of the fossilfuels and solar energy. There are some heaters, specifically designed for the pooi industrywhere the pool waterflows directlythroughthe heater and is heated directly. It is also possible to utilise a standard commercial or domesticboiler and add to it a pool water calorifier, primarypipe connection with thermostat and motorised valve. Solar energy is low-grade heat and can be obtained either froma bank of panel collectors or by an air to water heat
pump.

Waterproof render

Solid dense blocks

Concrete pour 300mm pea shingle back-fill

floor

base

cing iron linked from
wall

2700mm

Handling Unit Dimensionsare asa guide only Cad drawing notto scale Copyright PeterLang FISP October2001

The reason for taking water from the surface is that the vast majority of pollutants are found in the top 100mm of the water. In the commercial pool it is recommended that a 'level-deck' system be used. In this type of pool the water is at the same level as the surrounds and overflows the top of the poolwall into a perimeter channel. To keep the water level in the pool constant a 'balance tank' is built onto the pool outside the perimeter of the shell.The tank holds a quantityof water, which is added to the volume of the shell and is pumped around the system. As the capacityof the shell is lessthan the total water available the pooloverflows. The overflow water gravitates back into the 'balance tank'. This creates a surface wateroutlet that is 100% of the perimeter. Although this method can be used on any concrete pool it does add to the cost and consequently in the domesticpool water is takenoff the surfaceover a weir set into the side of the poolwall.The water does not overflow and so there is a 'freeboard' between the top of the pool and the waterof approximately 150mm. In this case, and when the number of bathers is very small, only one or two outlets may be used.

Solarpanelswill provide heat into an outdoorpool and are very rarelyused on indoor pools. On outdoorpools they perform in proportion to the natural ambient temperature and therefore the heat input is erratic. They are best

installed as a back-up to a fossil fuel heater. The installation can be expensive but the heat obtained in general termsis free.

Heat pumps will provide heat as required but the input is slowand cannot give bursts of high grade heat as can the fossil fuel heater.They are mainly used on outdoorpools in the domesticmarket and although the installation is slightly moreexpensive the running costs are
lower.

The water temperature varies depending on the activity in the pool. A spa where bathers are static, and for therapeutic reasons is going to be in the region of 38-40°C. Similarly childrenand nonswimmers in a teachingpool are goingto the average of 28-30°C. Outdoorpools also vary and tend to be slightly lower on average in the region of 24-26°C.

require a slightly higher temperature than

Turnover
The turnoveris the length of timethe pump takesto movethe total contents of the pooltank through the filter. However as the pumpis suckingfrom the pool tank and immediately pumping the water backinto the same tank the period over which it can be guaranteed that every drop of water has passed through the filter is much longer. However this theoretical figure is always used in designing the filtration system for any
pool. The turnover will vary from poolto pool depending on its use. A commercial spa with high temperature and high batherto water ratio will have a turn over of 5—15 minutes, a conventional 25m poolfrom 2.5 — 3 hours and a domestic low use pool up to 8 hours.

Indoorpools
Once a pool has been enclosed the air in the pool hall must be heated otherwise condensation can occur. Thiswill not only damage the fabric of the building but can also be a hazard when visibility is reduced. Consequently it is necessary to heat the air as well, usually to 1°C abovethat of the waterand to maintain that temperature in all parts of the pool hall. This is done by moving the air by blowing into the pooi hall and sucking it out. Relying on natural movement has been proved not to be effective and the use of radiators is to be avoided at all
times.

rate can be used in the commercial pool providing the design work is to a high standard.

Water circulation
In any pool, pollutants are going to enter the system via the water with the swimmers. In the outdoorpoolthe wind blown debris has also to be taken into consideration. It is therefore essential that the water, having been takenout of the pool, is returned and distributed in a mannerto ensure maximum mixing and avoiding areawhere very littlemovement occurs. The filtration and heating of the

Withthe air temperature above that of the water the evaporation will be reduced but waterwill still find its way into the atmosphere. If the humidity risesthe risk

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Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide

of condensation will again be increased and this must be eliminated. The air in
the pool hal! can be extracted and fresh air drawn in from the outside.This will also reduce the build up of odours but is costly, as the new air will have to be reheated.

The incoming air can be heated by the out going air by means of modern plate heat exchangers but re-cycling the air and reducing the air changing to a minimum means that the heat lossesare lower and the air handling unit can

incorporate a de-humidifier to remove the humidity. Humidity is relative to the differential between the pool hall air temperatures and the ambient and the point at which condensation will happen, the dew point, will vary. In an average pool hall the dew point could be as high as 21°C.

The pH is in general termsthe degree or level of concentration of acid or alkalis present in the water. Too alkaline and the effectiveness of chlorineis reduced, scale can be formed in small-bore waterways in calorifiers etc and therecan be batherdiscomfort. To acidic and erosion and corrosion can occur and bathers will find discomfort. TheTotal Alkalinity is the quantitative analysisof the amount of alkali in the water. This has an effecton the movement of the pH and can also encourage scaling as can the calcium hardness. Total dissolved solids are, as the nameimplies the dissolved matterin the water, which can affectconductivity, and at levels water
clarity.

It is recommended that in the commercial poolthe watertreatment is auto-mated
so that the level of disinfectant and pH is
measure electronically compared against the recommended levels and the appropriate chemicals pumped into the water. In order to prevent the build up of matter in the water it is also recommended that water be replaced at a rate of 30 litresper batherper day. This is partially achieved by backwashing/ cleaning the filter medium.

Hot air is distributed around the pool hall eitherin underground or exposed ductwork or, in smaller halls by single inlet and outletgrilles. Eitherway consideration must be given to the positioning of the returnair grillesso that short cycling is avoided. The hot air must be contained within the pool hall otherwise it will migrate. Of particular concern in any pool hall is the construction and generally speaking it is wiseto consider the inside of it as an external construction. Voids are to be avoidedbut if necessary a vapourbarrier must be inserted. This can be in the vertical as well as the horizontal plane. There are vapourbarrier materials widely available however greatcare must be taken when fixing them as ANY puncture hole, a nail, screw or tack MUST be sealed witha sealant. Heater batteries fitted in the ductwork or in the air-handling unit heat the air. The usual method is by LPHW from a standard boiler with statscontrolling motorised valves. In this case the pool water is heated in the same mannervia

a calorifier.

Treatment
Pool water needsto be treated to remove the organic mater, bacteria etc, which enters the water on bathers and is generally blown or taken into it.There are several optionsbut chlorineis the most widely used. However ozone and ultraviolet are also to be considered. Not only should a 'disinfectant' be applied but also water balancehas to take into accountof the pH, the total alkalinity, the calcium hardness and the total dissolved solids.

220

Electrical earthing and bonding of building services
Introduction General

222 222 222 225 225

Metal pipes and services
Plastic pipes and services Size of bonding conductors

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Electrical earthingand bonding of buildingservices

Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide

Introduction
The requirements for electrical earthing and bonding of building servicesare given in BS 7671: 2001 — Requirements for electricalinstallations; also known as the lEE Wiring Regulations. The requirements for the differenttypes of supply TN-C-S, TN-S andTI are all slightlydifferent. The guidance given here is basedon the requirements for a TN-C-S(or PME) supply. This is because new supplies are almost exclusively PME and the requirements for PME supplies are the most onerous. Compliance with the bonding requirements for a PME supply will resultin compliance with requirements for TN-S and IT systems. All incoming service pipes (gas,oil and water) and internalpipework (hot, cold, central heating)maynow be of plastic Guidance is given in this section on the requirements for the earthingand bonding of such installations as well as for metalservices.

General
Two types of equipotential bonding are recognised in the lEE Wiring Regulations as follows:

Metal pipes and
services
Main equipotentialbonding of metallic services
The lEE Wiring Regulations require that extraneous-conductive-parts including:

1. Main equipotential bonding 2. Supplementary equipotential bonding.
Main equipotential bonding is carried out at the origin of the electrical installation and supplementary bonding is carried out in areas of increased shock risk, suchas bathrooms or swimming pools. This guidance is concerned only with the plumbing aspects of such bonding.

a. Metalwater service pipes b. Metal gas installation pipes c. Othermetal servicepipesand ducting d. Metalcentral heatingand air
conditioning systems e. Exposed metal structural parts of the building f. Lightning protective system.

be connected to the main earthing terminalof the installation (Regulation 413-02-02). 'Othermetal service pipes and ducting' includes metallicwaste
pipes. Figure 1 shows a typical main bonding installation.

Figure 1 Main bonding and earthingof a typical domestic installation — metalservicepipes and PMEsupply

The main bonding of the incoming metallic gas and metallic water services is required to be carried out as close as practicable to the point at which those servicesenterthe premises (Regulation 547-02-02). Where there is an insulated

Earthing bar

Bondingto be as near aspossible to point of entry into customers premises—on customer's side of gas meter within600mm of

Meter

Intake

Main earthing terminal

connection safety electrical

donotremove

J

unit
Customersmetatic water and gas pipesand other metallicservices (except telephone)to bebonded

16mm2minimum

Stop

Gas

valve
Water service

222

Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide

Electrical earthing and bonding of building services

Ceiling

NOTES:

1. Theprotective conductors alt at powerandlighting within the points zonesmust be
supplementary

bondedtoall

extraneousconductive-parts is thezones, includingmetal waste,water and centralheating pipes,and metal

buthoandmetal showerbasins. conductors may be usedas
supplementary bonding conductors.

2. Circuitprotective

* Zone 1. Ifthespace is accessiblewithout the use ofa tool.
Figure 2 Supplementary bonding in a bathroom — metalpipe installation Figure 3 Supplementary bonding in a bathroom —plasticpipe installation

Spacesunder the bath, accessible only withthe use ofatool are outside the zones.

j
Plastic

Ceiling

Pull cord switch zones

pipe Zone 2 Shower Zone 3

Switch
Cord

aire
Shaver Zone3

j

Radwnt fire

3.Om

2

NOTES:

1. The protective conductorsatall powerandlighting pointswithin the zonesmust be
sapplementury bonded to all extraneousconductive-parts in the zones, includingmetal water and waste, centralheating pipes,and metal bathsand metal showerbasins.

2. Circuitprotective Plastic waste

1,L1-11

24m -j1--)11;_.._

conductors may be usedan
supplementary bending conductors.

* Zone 1. lIthespace isaccessible without the use of a tool.

Spacesunder the bath, accessible only withthe use of atool are outside thezones.

223

Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide

Electrical earthing and bonding of building services

section or insertat that point orthereis a meter, the connection must be madeto the consumers' hard metal pipework and before any branchpipework. Where practicable the connection should be made within 600mm of the meter outlet union or at the point of entryto the building, if the meter is external.

Supplementary equipotential bonding in locations of increased shock risk — metal pipework
Supplementary equipotential bonding is required only in locations of increased

Metal central heating pipes and air conditioning systems c. Accessible metalstructural parts of the building (metallicdoor architraves, metal handrails, window frames and similar parts are not considered to be extraneous-conductive-parts unless they are connected to metallic structural parts of the building) d. Metal bathsand metallicshower basins.
b.

Earthing and bonding clamps and labels
Earthing and bonding conductors must be connected to metal pipes with clamps to BS 951 (Specification for clamps for earthingand bondingpurposes). A permanent label also to BS 951 with the words.
SAFETY ELECTRICAL CONNECTION DONOT REMOVE

-

The supplementary equipotential bonding may be provided in close proximity to the
location.

shall be permanently fixed in a visible position at or nearthe point of
connection of:
a.

A typical installation is shown in Figure 2.

shockrisk such as those as in Part 6 of the Wiring Regulations (471-08-01). In domestic premises the locations
identified as having increased shock risks are rooms containing a bath or shower (bathrooms) and around swimming pools.

Supplementary bonding in other locations — metal pipework
There is no specific requirement in the Wiring Regulations to supplementary bondthe following: a. Kitchen pipes, sinks or draining
boards
b.

Every main and supplementary bonding conductor c. Every earthingconductor to an earth electrode

d. At the main earthingterminal (where the terminal is not part of the main
e.

In a bathroom or showerroom, local
supplementary equipotential bonding is required to be provided, connecting together the terminals of protective conductors of each circuitsupplying Class 1. and Class 2 equipment in zones 1, 2 or 3 and extraneous-conductiveparts in these zones including the following: a. Metal pipessupplying services and metallic waste pipes (eg water, gas)

switchgear) Plastic pipes and services.

Metallic pipes and wash handbasins in domestic locations otherthan bathrooms.

NOTE

Metal waste pipes in contact with earth should be main bondedback to the main earthing
terminal.

Table 1 Supplementary bondingin bathrooms
Pipeworkmaterial
Waste
1

Cold

Hot

CH

pipes Metal

water Metal

water Metal

bondrequired Supplementary in zones 0, 1, 2 and 3 between:

Comments

Metal

2

Plastic

Plastic

Plastic

Plastic

All metal pipes, earth terminals of Class I and Class 2 equipment, and exposedconductive-parts of the building structure. Earth terminals of Class I and Class 2 equipment and exposed-conductive-parts of the building structure.
Hot waterpipes, central heating pipes, earth terminals of Class I and Class 2 equipment and exposed-conductive-parts ofthe building structure. Central heating pipes, the earth terminals of Class I and Class 2 equipment and exposed-conductive-parts of the building structure. All metal pipes, earth terminals of Class I and Class2 equipment, and exposedconductive-parts of the building structure. All metal pipes, earth terminals of Class I and Class 2 equipment, and exposedconductive-parts of the building structure.

Metal pipes can be used as bonding conductors if joints are metal to metaland electrically continuous. Bonding of metal taps, metalradiators or metal baths is not required unless the bath is connected to the metallic
building structure. A bondis not required to the taps either hot or cold, or to metal bathsunless connected to the metallic building structure.

3

Plastic

Plastic

Metal

Metal

4

Plastic

Plastic

Plastic

Metal

of metalwatertaps is not required, nor metalbaths unless connected to the metallicbuilding structure.
Bonding

5 6

Plastic

Metal

Metal

Metal

Plastic

Metal

Metal

Plastic

Metal pipes themselves can be used as bonding conductors if jointsare metalto metaland electrically continuous. Metalcentral heating radiator does not
require bonding.

I. Supplementary bonding is carriedout to the earth terminalofequipment withinthe bathroomwith exposed-conductive-part. A supplementary bond is not run backto the main earth. 2. Metalwindow frames are not required tobe supplementary bondedunlessthey are electrically connected to the metallicstructure ofthe Metalbathssuppliedbymetalpipes do not require supplementary bonding ifail the pipes are bondedand there is no other connection ofthe bath to earth. 4. Ail bonding connections mustbe accessible andlabelled'SafetyElectricalConnection — Do Not Remove'.
3. 224

building.

the minimum sizeof copper conductor is given below: Main bonding 10mm2 PME supplies conductor 16mm2 for PME supplies 4mm2 where Supplementary mechanical protection bonding conductor is not provided. heatingsystems Where metallic radiators are supplied by plasticpipes. Wherethere is a plastic incoming service and a metal installation within the premises. unless the radiatorincorporates an electricfan. the bonding being applied on the customer's side of meters. It is common practice to use plastic pipe Size of bonding conductors Where bonding is required.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Electrical earthingand bonding of buildingservices Plastic pipes and services Main equipotentialbonding — plasticservices There is no requirement to main bond an incoming service whereboth the incoming service pipe and the pipework within the installation are both of plastic. 3 and 4. cw Metal wastes and soil stacks in bathroom to be supplementarybonded service Incoming services Plastic pipe central Figure 4 Requirements for bonding in domestic situations (not intended to be usedas a design for a plumbing installation). showers and luminaires. worksfor the generality of a plumbing installation. the main bonding must be carriedout. The sizeof main earthing. see Figure3. and use copper pipejust for visible parts of the pipe runs. there is no requirement to supplementary bondthe metallicradiator including any radiator in the bathroom. Earth ing conductor 225 . It must be ensuredthatthe circuit protective conductor ofthe immersion heateris electrically to thecylinder Supplementary bonding of plasticpipe installations Supplementary bonding is not required to metallic partssupplied by plastic pipes such as metal hot and cold watertaps supplied from plasticpipesor a metal bath not connected to extraneousconductive-parts suchas structural steelwork and wherethe hot and cold water pipes and the waste are plastic. There is no need to supplementary bond suchvisible metal parts of pipework as are supplied by plasticpipes. main equipotential and supplementary bonding conductors when insulated are given in Tables 2. main stop cock or plasticinserts. eg heaters. Supplementary bonding in a bathroom or shower room will still be required between the protective conductors of circuits supplying Class 1 and Class 2 equipment in the zones.

0 1.5 2.0 6.5 4.0 4.0 4. 3.5 4.5 2.0 4.0 10. Buriedearthingconductors must be atleast: 25mm2 copperifnot protectedagainstmechanical damage orcorrosion 50mm2 steel ifnot protectedagainstmechanical damage or corrosion 16mm2 coatedsteelifnot protectedagainstmechanical damagebut protected against 4.0 1.0 4.0 1. of not less than half thatrequired ofthe earthingconductor and 226 .0 6.0 16.0 4.0 4.0 4. Regionalelectricity companies mayrequirea minimum of earthing conductor at the origin of the supplyof 16mm2 copperorgreaterfor TN-S and TN-C-S supplies.0 4.0 4.0 Ifone ofthe extraneous-conductive-parts is connected to anexposed-conductive-part. The mainequipotential bonding conductor shall have a cross-sectional area not lessthan 6mm2. Protected againstcorrosion bya sheath.5 4 4 2.5 2.0 10.0 4.0 1. Protective conductors (including earthingand bonding conductors) of 10mm2cross-sectional area orless shall be copper.0 10.0 1. 16 2.0 4.5 2.0 6. 3.5 1.0 4.5 2.0 4.0 10.0 6. 1.5 2.0 2.5 2.5 2.0 4.5 4.5 2. Table4 Copperearthingconductorcross-sectional areas (csa)for TTsuppliesfor earth faultloop impedances not less than I_ohm_(Q) ________________________________________________ Buried Unprotected Protected against Not Buried Protected against corrosionand mechanicaldamage (mm2) Unprotected Protected against corrosion corrosion Protected against corrosionand mechanicaldamage (mm2) (mm2) (mm2) (mm2) (mm2) 2.5 2.0 10.0 16. Table 3 Supplementary bondingconductors Minimum cross-sectional area ofsupplementarybondingconductors Exposed-conductive-part to Exposed-conductive-part to Extraneous-conductive-part to extraneous-conductive-part exposed-conductive-part extraneous-conductive-part (1) Mechanically protected mm2 1 Size of circuit protective conductor mm2 Not mechanically protected mm2 2 Mechanically protected mm2 Not mechanically protected mm2 Mechanically protected mm2 Not mechanically protected mm2 6 1. 2.0 4.Electrical earthing and bonding of buildingservices Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Table 2 Main earthingand main equipotential bondingconductor sizes (copper equivalent) for TN-Sand TN-C-S supplies Phase conductoror neutral conductorof PME supplies (mm2) 6 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 Earthingconductor not buried or buried protectedagainstcorrosion and mechanicaldamage see notes Main equipotential bonding conductor see notes Main equipotential bonding conductor (mm2) 6 6 10 16 16 16 25 25 (mm2) 6 10 6 6 10 10 10 10 16 16 (mm2) 10 10 10 10 16 25 for PME supplies (TN-C-S) 1. corrosion.5 6. the bondmust be no smallerthan that required for bondsbetween exposed-conductive-parts — columns 3 or4. For impedances less than 1 ohm determine asper Regulation 543-01-02. Regionalelectricity companies shouldbe consulted when in doubt.0 1.0 10.5 2.

Standards. codes and miscellaneous data British and European Standards and Codesof Practice Conversion faciors and miscellaneousdata 228 233 227 .

3 : Specification for in-line anti-vacuum valvesof nominalsize up to and including DN42. BSEN 1254. BS EN 1452 .3 : Fittings with compression endsfor plastic pipes. Materials BS 143 and 1256 : Specification for malleable cast iron and cast copperalloy threaded pipe fittings.5 bar). BSEN 200 : Sanitary tapware— General technical specification for single taps & mixer taps (nominal size 1/2') PN1O — Minimum flowpressure of 0. BS EN 806 .2 : Specification for single feed indirect cylinders. BS EN 806 . which will then be withdrawn or revised as appropriate.2 : Specification for terminal anti-vacuum valves of nominalsize up to and including DN54.2 : Specification for temperature relief valvesfor pressures from 1 bar to 10 bar. BS 6282 : Devices with moving parts for the prevention of contamination of water by backf low.6 : Recommended practice for installation. Hot and cold water supplies Design BSEN 805 : Watersupply . BS 853 2 : Tubular heat exchangers and storage vessels for building and industrial services. BSEN 1254. BSEN 1254.5 : Fittings with short endsfor capillarybrazing to coppertubes. BS1212 . BS EN 806 .5 : Corrosion. BS EN 1452 . www. primarily for water applications. BS 1212 : Float operated valves. BS6283 .Requirements for systems & components for the storage of water. BS6282 .4 : Specification for compact typefloat operated & Codes of Practice Someof the BS ENslisted belowwere still to be published at the time of writing this guide. BS EN 806 . The exacttitle and possibly the numberof parts mayvary slightly when new BS ENs are actuallypublished. BS EN 1452 .3 : Fittings.3 : Specification for diaphragm type float operated valves (plasticbodied) for cold water services only (excluding floats). Users are advised to checkthe currentstatus of these documents before using them. BS 6282 .2 : Design.4 : Specification for combined checkand antivacuum valves of nominalsize up to and including DN42. BS 3198 : Specification for copper hot water storage combination unitsfor domestic hot water. BS EN 1452 .Plasticpiping systems for watersupply .1: Specification for piston type floatoperated valves (copper alloy body) (excluding floats).Standards.5 : Fitness for purposeof the system.Plumbing fittings. BS EN 1452 . BS 1566 . BS6283 .4 : Specification for drop-tight pressure reducing valves of nominalsize up to and including DN 50 for supply pressures up to and including 12 bar. On publication these BS ENs will often completely or partially replace a British Standard. BS 1212 .com valves for WC flushing cisterns(including floats).1: Specification for double feed indirect cylinders. - BS EN 1057 : Copper& copper alloys . BS EN 806 . 228 . BS EN 1254 : Copperand copperalloys .2 : Pipes. BS 1212. installation.PVC-U. - BSEN 1254. BS EN 1452 . BS 6282. BS 699 : Specification for copperdirect cylinders for domestic purposes. testing and maintenance of services supplying water for domestic use within buildings and their curtilages.O5MPa (0.7 : Assessment of conformity. BS EN 1254 4: Fittings combining other end connections with capillary or compression ends. checkand gate valves.1: General.3 : Pipe sizing.4 : Valves and ancillary equipment. BS 5154 : Specification for copperalloy globe. .1: Fittings with endsfor capillarysolder. BSEN 1452.Copperalloy stopvalvesfor potable water in buildings .Requirements for systems and components outsidebuildings. codes and miscellaneous data Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide British & European Standards BS1212 .Seamless round coppertubes for water and gas in sanitary& heating applications. BS 853 1 : Calorifiers and storage vessels for central heating and hot water supply.4 : Installation.1: Specification for check valvesof nominal sizeup BS 6282 to and including DN54. BS EN 1508 : Water supply . globe stopand check. BS EN 1717: Protection against pollution of potable water in drinkingwater installations & general requirements of devices to prevent pollution by backflow. BS 1566 : Copper cylinders for domestic purposes. BS6572 : Specification for blue polyethylene pipes up to nominalsize 63mm for belowground use for potable water. BSI have an excellent web site whereon line checkscan instantly be made. BS EN 1452.2 : Specification for diaphragm type float operated valves (copperalloy body) (excluding floats).2 : Fittings with compression ends for copper tube.General technical specifications.bsi-global. BS EN 806 : Specification for installations inside buildings conveying water for human consumption. accessories and their joints for water pipelines — Requirements and test methods. BS 1566 .1: General. BS EN 545 : Ductile iron pipes. BS 6700 : Specification for design. BS EN 1213 : Building valves . BS 6283 : Safetyand control devicesfor use in hot water systems. BS 4127 : Specification for light gaugestainless steeltubes. fittings.

BS EN 26 : Gas fired instantaneous water heaters for the production of domestic hot water. end fittings and socketsfor domestic appliances burning 1st and 2nd family gases.1: Fittings with ends for capillarysolder. BSEN 12975 — 1: Thermalsolarsystems and components — Solar collectors — General requirements. EN 13623 : Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics — — Resource efficient design BS 5918 : Codeof practice for solar heating systems for domestic hot water. BS EN 89 : Gas fired storage water heaters for the production of domestic hot water. BS EN 483 : Gas fired central heating boilers—Type C boilers of nominal heat input not exceeding 70kW.Plumbing fittings.2 : Specification for corrugated metallic flexible hoses.1: Electric surface heating — Specification for electric surface heating devices. BS5410 . BS669 : Flexible hoses. BS EN 677 : Gas fired central heating boilers— Specific requirements for condensing boilers of nominal heat input not exceeding 70kw. codes and miscellaneous data Legionnairesdisease BS 6068—4. S BS 8207 : Code of practice for energyefficiency in buildings. BS669 . BS EN 1254 : Copperand copper alloys . BS 5449 : Specification for forced circulation hot water central heating systems for domestic premises. BS EN 625 : Gas fired central heating boilers— Specific requirements for the domestic hot water operation of combination boilersof nominal heat input not exceeding 70kw.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Standards. BS2869 : Specification for fuel oils for agricultural. BSEN 12976 — 1: Thermalsolarsystems and components — Factory made systems —Test methods.1: Codeof practicefor oil firing— Installations up to 45kW output capacity for space heating and hot watersupply purposes. BS2767 : Specification for manually operated copper alloy valves for radiators. testing and maintenance of electric surface heating systems. BS 6351 . S S BS 5482 : Domestic butane and propane gas installations. BS5250 Code of practice for control of condensation in buildings. covers.1: Specification for installations at permanent dwellings.1: Specification for strip-wound metallicflexible BS 6351 .2 : Fittings with compression ends for copper 229 . BS EN 1254. BS EN 88 : Pressure governors for gas appliances for inlet pressures up to 200mbar. BS 746 : Specification for gas meter unions and adaptors. Materials Installation. BS 5440— 2 : Installation and maintenance of flues and of ventilation of gas appliances rated input not exceeding 70kW net (1st. for sealed hot water heatingsystems. BS EN 1264— 1: Floorheating — Systems and components — Definitions and symbols. BS 5482 . Detection and enumeration of legionella.Seamless round coppertubes for water and gas in sanitary& heating applications. BS 5482 . BS669 . BS 5440— 1: Installation and maintenance of flues and ventilation of gas appliances of rated input not exceeding 70kW net (1st.2 : Installations in caravans and non-permanent dwellings. endfittingsand sockets for gas burning appliances. 2nd and 3rd familygases. 2nd and 3rd family gases) — Specification for Installation and maintenance of flues. BS 143 and 1256 : Threaded pipefittings in malleable cast iron and cast alloy. BS 6798 : Specification for installation of gas fired boilers of rated input not exceeding 70kW net. BS EN 1264—2 Floorheating — Systems and components — Determination of the thermal output. Heating BS 853 : Specification for vessels for use in heating systems. BS5410 — 2 : Code of practice for oil firing— Installations up to 45kW and above output capacity for space heating. BS EN ISO 13370 Thermal performance of buildings — Heat transfer via the ground — Calculation methods. end fittings and socketsfor catering appliances burning 1st. hoses. hot water and steam supply services. BS EN 1254. BS 8211 — 1: Energyefficiency in housing — Codeof practice for energy efficient refurbishment of housing. 2nd and 3rd family gases) — Specification for Installation and maintenance of ventilation of gas appliances. tube. covers. BS4814 Specification for expansion vessels using an internal diaphragm. fitted with atmospheric burners.3 : Electric surface heating — Code of practicefor the installation. Piped gas services Design . BS EN 297 : Gas fired central heating boilers— Type B11 and B11BS boilersfitted with atmospheric burnersof nominal heat input not exceeding 70kW. BS EN 1264—4 : Floorheating— Systems and components. BS 7592 : Methods for sampling for legionella organisms in waterand related materials.12 : Water quality Microbiological methods. BS 5970 : Codeof practice for thermal insulation of pipework and equipment in the temperature range of —1 00°Cto +870°C. BS EN 1264— 3 : Floorheating— Systems and components — Dimensioning. BS EN 1057 : Copper& copperalloys . domestic and industrial enginesand boilers. Bactericidal activities of products against legionella pneumophila —Test methods and requirements (phase2/stepl).

BS EN 752 .vocabulary. BS EN 858 . layout andcalculation. rubber hose and rubber hose assemblies for use in LPGvapour phase and LPG/airinstallations.3 : Roofdrainage. BS4250 : Specification for commercial butane and commercial propane. BS EN 12056 . also flexible mechanical joints for use solely with surface water pipes and fittings. General technical specification. BS 7281 : Specification for polyethylene pipesfor the supply of gaseous fuels. layout and calculation. BS 3605 : Austenitic stainless steel pipes and tubes for pressure purposes. BS 3016 : Specification for pressure regulators and automatic change-over devices for liquefied petroleum gases. BSEN 12056 . BS EN 752 .6: Pumping installations.8 : Specification for electronic volume correctors. BS EN 752 1: Generalities and definitions. Materials BS65 : Specification for vitrifiedclay pipes. BS EN 858 : Installations for separation of light liquids (oil & petrol).4 : Fittings combining otherend connections with capillary or compression ends.5 : Rehabilitation. BS EN 1671 : Pressure sewer systems outside buildings.Design requirements. BS EN 1610 : Construction and testing of drainsand sewers. type testing. BS EN 1295 : Structural design of buried pipelines under variousconditions of loadings — General requirements. 230 .1 : Independent governors for inlet pressures up to 25mbar.1: Codeof practice for scale of provision. BS 6297 : Codeof Practice for design and installation of small sewage treatment works.3 : Fittings withcompression endsfor plastic pipes. - considerations.3: Planning.4 : Wastewater lifting plants.1 : Specification for seamless and electricresistance welded tubes. BS3604 . BS 3554. performance.2 : Codeof practice for space requirements for sanitaryappliances. quality control.7: Maintenance and operations.2 : Specification for longitudinally welded tube. BS6465 . BS 3554 : Specification for gas governors. codes and miscellaneous data Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide BS EN 1254 . Sanitary plumbing and drainage Design BS EN 752 : Drain and sewer systems outside buildings.1 : General performance requirements.2 : Performance requirements. BSEN 295 : Specification for vitrified clay pipes andfittings and pipejoints for drains and sewers.1: Principles of deign. BS 3604 : Steel pipes and tubes for pressure purposes — Ferritic alloy steel with specified elevated temperature properties. 2nd and 3rd familygases up to 200mbar. BS EN 1085 : Wastewater treatment . BS 3605 . BS 3554. BS3605 . BS 7838 : Specification for corrugated stainless steel semi-rigid pipe and associated fittingsfor low pressure gas pipework of up to 28mm. testing. BS 1387 : Specification for screwed and socketed steeltubes and tubulars and for plain steel tubes suitable for weldingor for screwing to BS 21 pipe threads. BS 3212 : Specification for flexible rubbertubing. BS EN 1825 Part 2 : Installations for separation Of grease. BSEN 1254 . BS EN 124 : Gullytops and manhole tops for vehicular & pedestrian areas. BS 4089 : Specification for metallic hose assemblies for liquid petroleum gases and liquefied natural gas. BS EN 12566 : Smallwastewater treatment plants lessthan 5Opt. instructions for operation and use. BS 1552 : Specification for open bottomed taperplug valves for 1st. BSEN 12056 .5 : Installation and testing. BS3601 : Specification for carbonsteel pipesand tubes with specified room temperature propertiesfor pressure purposes. bidets & baths. marking. layout and calculation. selection and installation of sanitaryappliances. BS EN 752 . BS EN 1091 : Vacuum sewerage systems outside buildings.2 : Specification for longitudinally arc welded tubes. BS 7336 : Specification for polyethylene fusion fittings with integral heatingelements(s) for use with polyethylene pipes for the conveyance of gaseousfuels. BS EN 12109 : Vacuum Drainage in Buildings. BS EN 12056 .2 : Sanitary pipework. fittings andducts.Gravity drainage systems inside buildings.Standards.4 : Hydraulic designand environmental BS EN 752 . BS4161 : Gas meters. BSEN 12056 . BS 6465 .2 : Independent governors for inlet pressures up to 35Ombar. BSEN 274 : Sanitarytapware — Waste fittings for basins. BS EN 752 . BS EN 12056 . BS3604 . BS EN 752 .1: Specification for seamless tubes. marking and quality control. BS 6465 : Sanitary installations. BS4161 .

BS 416 Part 1: Discharge and ventilating pipesand fittings. BS EN 329 : Sanitarytapware — Waste fittings for shower trays — BS EN 295 . marking and quality control.1: Requirements. codes and miscellaneous data BS EN 295 . BS 1247 Part 2 : Specification for plasticencapsulated manhole steps.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Standards. BS EN 1124-2 : System S — Dimensions. their joints and accessories for the evacuation of water from buildings — Requirements. BS 1247 Part 1: Specification for galvanised ferrous or stainless steel manhole steps. joints & fittings for gravity systems. BS EN 588 : Fibre cement pipesfor drainsand sewers.4: Requirements for special fittings.1: Specifications for pipes andthe system. BS EN 1453. design & testing requirements. BS EN 1124 : Pipes and fittings of longitudinally welded stainless steel pipeswith spigot and socket for wastewater systems. - for pipejacking. BS EN 1329: Plastics piping systems for soil and waste discharge (low and hightemperature) within the building structure — Unplastisized polyvinyl chloride(PVC-U). BS EN 1254 : Copperand copperalloys — Plumbing fittings. BS EN 598 : Ductile iron pipes. BS EN 1254. BS EN 1455 1: Specifications for pipes. BS EN 1455 : Plastic piping for soil and waste discharge (low and hightemperature) within the building structure — Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS). BS 1387 : Specification for screwed and socketed steeltubes and tubulars and for plain steel tubessuitable for welding or for screwing to BS 21 pipe threads. quality control. BSEN 1253 . BS EN 1115 : Plastic piping systems for underground drainage & sewerage under pressure — Glass reinforced thermosetting plastics (GRP) based on unsaturated polyester (UP). quality control. BS 1247 : Manhole steps.1: Pipes. BS 882 : Specification for aggregates from natural sources for concrete. BS EN 1401 . BS EN 1253 : Gullies for buildings. BS EN 1451 : Plasticpiping for soil and waste discharge (low and hightemperature) within the building structure — Polypropylene (PP).1: Requirements.7 : Requirements for vitrifiedclay pipesand joints General technical specifications. requirements and testing. fittings. - BS EN 1433: Drainage channels for vehicular and pedestrian BS EN 877 : Cast iron pipesand fittings. BS EN 1453: Plastic piping systems with structured wall pipes BS EN 1123-2 : Dimensions. BS EN 1329 . BS EN 1451 . BS EN 588 .2 : Guidance for assessment of conformity.1: Specification for pipes. for soil and waste discharge (low and high temperature) within the building structure — Unpiasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U). BS EN 1451 . BS EN 1293 : General requirements for components used in pneumatically pressurised discharge pipes.2 : Fittings with compression ends for use with BS 437 : Specification for cast iron spigot and socket pipes and fittings. classification.1: Requirements. fittings and the system.1: Specification for pipes. coppertubes. drainsand sewers. BS EN 1401 . BS EN 773 : General requirements for components used in hydraulically pressurised discharge pipes. BS EN 1254. BS EN 1124. BS 1247 Part 3 : Specification for aluminium manhole steps. drains and sewers for gravity systems.1: Requirements. BS EN 295 6: Requirements for vitrifiedclay manholes. BS EN 476 : General requirements for the components used in discharge pipes. adaptors and compatible accessories.2 : Manholes & inspection chambers. fittings and the system. BS EN 1253 . test methods and qualityassurance.2 : Guidance for the assessment of conformity. - 231 .4 : Access covers.2 : Guidance for the assessment of conformity. requirements and testing.3 : Quality control. fittings and the system.1: Fittings with ends for capillary soldering or capillary brazing to coppertubes. BS EN 1455 .4 : Fittings combining otherend connections with capillaryor compression ends. BS EN 1453.2 : Qualitycontrol and sampling. accessories and their BS EN 607 : Eaves guttersand fittings made from PVC-U — BS EN 612 : Eaves guttersand rainwater down-pipes made from metal sheet — Definitions. . BS EN 295 .2 : Guidance for the assessment of conformity. Definitions. BS EN 1123 areas — Classification. BSEN 1253 . testing. BS EN 1401 : Plastic piping systems for non-pressure underground drainage & sewerage — Unplastisized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U).3 : Test methods. BS EN 295 . BS EN 1329 1: Specification for pipes. BS EN 1254. BS EN 588 . BS EN 295 . drains and sewers. BSEN 1444 : Fibre-cement pipelines — Guide for laying and on site workpractices.2 : Test methods. BS EN 1115-1: General.2 : Guidance for assessment of conformity. testing. BSEN 1253 . sand-cast or spun in cast iron — Specification for spigot and socket systems. BS EN 1124-3 : System X — Dimensions. BS EN 411: Sanitary tapware — Wastefittings for sinks — General technical specifications. joints for sewerage applications — Requirements and test methods. BS EN 295 5 : Requirements for perforated vitrified claypipes and fittings. fittings andthe system. BS EN 1123 : Pipes and fittings of longitudinally welded hot-dip galvanised steel pipes with spigot and socket for wastewater systems.

BS 5911. BS EN 32 : Wall hung wash basins . BS EN 12050 — 1: Lifting plants for wastewater containing faecal matter.103 : Specification for prestressed non-pressure pipesand fittings with flexible joints. BS EN 997 : WC pans with integral trap. BS 4660 : Thermoplastics ancillaryfittings of nominalsizes 110 and 160 for below ground gravitydrainage and sewerage. fittings andthe system. dimensions. BS5911 . fittings and ancillary products.1: Specifications for pipes.Connecting dimensions. BS5911 .1: Specifications for pipes.Connecting BS EN 37 : Pedestal WC pans with independent watersupply Connecting dimensions. fittings and the system. BSEN 35 : Pedestal bidets over rim supplyonly .Connecting dimensions. 232 .Connecting dimensions. galvanised steel.200 : Specification for unreinforced and reinforced manholes and soakaways of circularcrosssection.114 : Specification for porous pipes.4mmand of other sizes — Specification. BS 5257 : Specification for horizontal and end suction centrifugal pumps (16 bar). BS EN 33 : Pedestal WC pans withclose coupledcistern Connecting dimensions. BSEN 1565 : Plasticpiping for soil andwaste discharge (low and high temperature) within the building structure — Styrene copolymer blends (SAN + PVC). BS EN 695 : Kitchen sinks . BS5911: Precastconcrete pipes. and fittingsand accessories of 82. BS EN 232 : Baths . BS EN 38 : Wall hungWC pans with independent watersupply .2 : Specification for inspection chambers. BS5911 . BSEN 1565.Standards.2 : Guidance for the assessment of conformity.1: Specifications for pipes. fittings and the system. BSEN 1462 : Brackets for eaves gutters— Requirements and testing. dimensions. BS EN 1456 : Plastic piping systems for buried and above ground drainage and sewerage under pressure — Unpiasticized Sanitaryware - BS EN 31: Pedestal wash basins . fittings and the system.120 : Specification for reinforced jacking pipes with flexible joints.4mm minimum mean outside diameter. Pumps and pumping Materials - BS2494 : Specification for elastomeric seals for joints in pipework and pipelines. BS5911 -230 : Specification for roadgullies andgully cover slabs.Connecting BS EN 36 : Wall hung bidets over rim supplyonly . BS EN 34 : Wall hung WC pans withclose coupledcistern Connecting dimensions.2 : Guidance for the assessment of conformity. BS5911 . BS 5911 . BS EN 1852 1: Specifications for pipes. BS EN 1519. BS EN 1456 1: Specification for piping components and the system. BS EN 1565 .2 : Guidance for the assessment of conformity. BS EN 251 : Shower trays .Connecting dimensions. BS EN 12050 : Wastewater lifting plants for buildings and sites — Principles of construction and testing.Connecting dimensions. BSEN 1566. BS 4514 : Unplasticized PVC soil and ventilating pipes of 82.Connecting dimensions.Connecting dimensions. codes and miscellaneous data Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U).100 : Specification for unreinforced and reinforced pipes and fittingswith flexible joints. BSEN 1519. BSEN 1852 . BS EN 12050 —2 : Lifting plants for faecal-free wastewater. BS5911 . BS EN 1566 : Plastic piping for soil and waste discharge (low and high temperature) within the building structure — Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride(PVC-C). BS EN 80 : Wall hung urinals . BS EN 12050— 3 : Lifting plants for wastewater containing faecal matterfor limited applications. BS EN 111: Specification for wall hung hand rinse basins Connecting dimensions. BS 3868 : Specification for prefabricated drainage stack units in BS 3943 : Specification for plasticwastetraps.110 : Specification for ogee pipes andfittings (including perforated). BS EN 1519 : Plastic piping for soil and waste discharge (low and high temperature) within the building structure — Polyethylene (PE). BS EN 12050 — 4 : Non-return valves for faecal-free wastewater and wastewater containingfaecal matter. BS EN 1566 . BS EN 1852 : Plastics piping systems for non-pressure underground drainage and sewerage — Polypropylene (PP).2 : Guidance for the assessment of conformity.

BS EN 1254.1: Halon systems — Specification for halon 1301 total floodingsystems. BS 5041 .2 : Specification for longitudinally arc weldedtubes. BS 5306. BS 5306. BS 5588 .7 : Codeof practice for the incorporation of atria in buildings. BS 5306. BS5588 . EN 671 : Fixedfire fightingsystems — BS 5306.5.11:Codeof practice for shops. BS EN 1254. BS5588 . offices.1: Hose reels with semi-rigid hose.10 : Codeof practice for shopping complexes. BS 5306.6.1 : Specification for seamless and electric resistance welded tubes.2 : Hosesystems with lay-flat hose.0 : Guide to fire safety codes of practicefor BS 3169 : Specification for first aid reel hoses for fire brigade purposes.2 : Foam systems— Specification for medium and high expansion foam systems. BS EN 671 . BS 5306 . BS3601 : Specification for carbon steel pipesand tubes with specified room temperature properties for pressure purposes. BS 5041 : Fire hydrant systems equipment.2 : Specification for landing valves for dry risers. storage and other similar buildings.4 : Specification for carbon dioxide systems. BS 5306. BS3605 . BS 5588 . BS 5306 . BS5588 . BS 5306-5. BS 1387 : Specification for screwed and socketed steel tubes and tubulars and for plain steel tubes suitable for weldingor for screwing to BS 21 pipethreads.9 : Codeof practice for ventilation and air conditioning of buildings. BS5588 . 233 . BS 3604 .6. hose reels and foam inlets.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Standards. BS3605 . BS EN 671 . Materials BS336 : Specification for fire hose couplingsand ancillary equipment. BS 5041 .2 : Fittings with compression endsfor copper tube. BS 1635 : Graphicsymbols and abbreviations for fire protection drawings.5 : Specificationfor boxes for foam inlets and dry riser inlets.5 : Code of practice for firefighting stairs and lifts. particular premises/applications.1: Specification for landing valves for wet risers.3 : Specification for inlet breechings for dry riser inlets.3 : Maintenance of portablefire extinguishers — Code of practice.1 : Foam systems— Specification for low expansion foamsystems. BS5588. BS 5306 : Fire extinguishing installations and equipment on premises.Plumbing fittings.8 : Code of practice for means of escape for disabled people.0 : Guide for the selection of installed systems and otherfire equipment. BS 3604 .4: Fittings combining otherend connections with capillary or compression ends.2 : Halon systems — Halon 1211 totalflooding systems. BS 5306 .2 : Specification for sprinklersystems.1: Fittings with ends for capillary solder.2 : Specification for longitudinally welded tube. BS 5041 . codes and miscellaneous data Fire protedion services Design BS 3604 : Steel pipes and tubesfor pressure purposes — Ferritic alloy steelwith specified elevated temperature properties. BS 5041 . BS5588 .4 : Specificationfor boxes for landing valves for dry risers. BS 3251 : Specification — Indicator plates for fire hydrants and emergency water supplies. BS EN 1254. BS 3605 : Austenitic stainless steel pipes and tubes for pressure purposes.1: Code of practicefor residential buildings. BS750 : Specification for underground fire hydrants and surfacebox framesand covers.3 : Maintenance of hose reels with semi-rigid Hosesystems.8 : Selection and installation of portable fire extinguishers — Code of practice.1: Specification for seamless tubes. BS 5588: Fire precautions in the design.industrial.4 : Code of practice for smokecontrol using pressure differentials. construction and use hose and hose systemswith-lay flat hose. BS 5041 . BS 5588 . BS EN 671 . BS EN 1254 : Copperand copperalloys . of buildings.1: Hydrant systems. BS 5588 .6 : Codeof practice for places of assembly.

BS 845 — 2 : Methods for assessing thermalperformance of boilers for steam. BS EN 27841 : Methods for determination of steam loss of automatic steam traps. BS7671 : Requirements for electrical installations Regulations — Sixteenth edition.Standardscodes and miscellaneous data Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Steam and condensate : Methods for assessing thermal performance of boilers for steam. BS EN 56554 : Specification for face to face dimensions for flanged automatic steam traps. BS EN 27842 : Methods for determination of discharge capacity of automatic steam traps. construction and use of buildings — Code of practicefor means of escape for PD 6523 : Information on accessto and movement within and around buildings and on certain facilities for disabled people. lEE Wiring BS EN 26553 : Specification for marking of automatic steam traps. Miscellaneous BS 1387 : Specification for screwedand socketed steeltube BS1710 : Specification for identification of pipelines and services. BS 6129— 1: Code of practice for the selection and application of bellows expansion joints for use in pressure systems— Metallic bellows expansion joints. BS8300 : Design of buildings and their approaches to meet the needs of disabled people — Code of practice. Specification. BS8110— 1 : Structural use of concrete — Code of practice for design and construction. BS5342 : Specification for saturated steam. Swimming poois BS6785 : Codeof practice for solarheating systems for swimming pools. 45kW and above output capacityfor space heating. BS 5292 : Specification for jointing materials for installations usingwater. BS EN 26801 : Rubberor plastic hoses — Determination of Mechanical Ventilation conditioning in buildings. BS 5588. BS8007 : Codeof practice for design of concrete structures for rubber hoses for high pressure retaining aqueous liquids. and tubulars and for plain end steel tubes suitable for welding or for screwing to BS 21 pipethreads. low pressure steam or 1st. hot water and steam supply services.7 : Waterquality — Sampling — Guidance on sampling of water and steam in boiler plants. Designing for the disabled disabled people. BS5410 — 2 : Code of practice for oil firing — Installation of BS6023 : Glossary of technical termsfor automatic steam traps. BS EN 26704 : Classification of automatic steam traps. BS 845 — 1 BS 5122 : Specification for rubber hoses for low pressure and medium pressure saturated steam. hot water and hightemperature heat transfer fluids — Comprehensive procedure. 2nd and 3rd family gases. pr EN 13141 —7 : Ventilation for buildings — Performance testing of components/products for residential ventilation — Part 7: Performance testing of a mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation units (including heat recovery) for mechanical ventilation systems intended for single family dwellings. BS6759 —1: Safety valves— Specification for safety valves for steam and hot water. BS4800 : Schedule of paintcoloursfor building purposes. hot water and hightemperature heat transfer fluids — Concise procedure.1: Recommendations for the presentation of plasticdesign data — Thermal properties — Linear thermal expansion. Electrical earthing and bonding BS951 : Electrical earthing— Clamps for earthingand bonding. — BS6068 — 6. volumetric expansion.8 : Fire precautions in the design. Pipework Expansion BS4618 —3. BS 5720 : Code of practice for mechanical ventilation and air 234 . BS 2486 : Recommendations fortreatmentof waterfor steam boilers and water heaters.

Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Standards.02kg/rn3 0.80 7kN/m2 (kPa) in WG 1 inWG llb/in2 (psi) llb/in2 (psi) 1 headft H20 1 headft H20 lIb/in2(psi) 1 1 atmosphere (std) 249.7646m2 0.00155 in2 10.03937 in 3.205 lb 0.06895 Bar 1.281 ft 1.lkg/m2 16.32 litres 0.45 ft head H20 14.01 968 cwt 0.49lrnBar 6.006102 in3 35.1004 ton lm head H20 = 9.1 ft3/hr 2119. (std) 235 .7646m3 4.0 ft3/rnin 0.2mm2 0.4mm 0.9113ft/s 2.95 rnBar 0.609km 1mm Length lm lm 1km 1pm 1mm2 1m2 1m2 1 ha 1cm3 1rn3 1rn3 1 litre 1 litre 1 litre 1 litres 254pm 645.06243 lb/ft3 - llb/ft2 1 lb/in2(psi) 1 lb/ft3 Flow rate 1 gal/mm 1 gal/hr 1 ft3/min 1 ft3/mmn 1 ft3/hr - 4.22 gallons 1.4470m/s 28.4014 in WG 1 kN/m2 1 mBar 1 kN/m2 1 Bar 1 Bar 1 Bar 0.06895 kN/rn2 0.092gm2 0.27 oz 2.016 tonne 1.097 kph 0.488kg/m Area lm/s lm/s 1km/hr lm/s 0.2248 lb 0.546 litres 0.807 N) Pressure.Og4yds 0.39cm3 0.2048 lb/ft2 0. codes and miscellaneous data Conversion factors and miscellaneous data Conversion factors Table 1 Imperialto SI metric/SI metric to imperial Imperial to Metric 1 inch 1 foot 1 yard 1 mile 1 thou 1 in2 1 ft2 1 yd2 I acre Volume 1 in3 1 in3 1 ft3 1 yd3 1 gallon 1 pint 1 ft3 Velocity 1 ft/mm 1 ft/sec 1 ft/sec 1 mile/hr Metric to Imperial 25.02835kg 0.448 N 9.02832m3 0.895 kN/rn2 68.0kg 1.00508 rn/s 0.004014 in WG 1 rn/Bar 0.883kg/rn2 703.281 ft/s 0.308 yd3 0.0mm3 16.4536kg 50.9872 atmos.9842 ton 0. stress 1 lbf 1 tonf 4.001422 lb/in2(psi) 0.4047ha 16390.01450 lb/in2 (psi) 0.76 pints 0.237 mph Massand density oz 1 oz 1 lb 1 cwt 1 ton 1 ton 1 1 lb/ft lg 1kg 1kg 1kg ltonne 1kg/rn 1kg/rn2 1kg/rn2 1kg/rn3 - 0.3345 ft headH20 33.001263 I/s 1 I/s 11/s 0.5886 ft3/hr 127.02989 Bar 0.5683litres 28.6214miles 0.1N/rn2 (Pa) 2.31 ft3 1.672 lb/ft 0.699 m3/hr 0.3048m/s 1.50 lb/in2 (psi) 0.9144m 1.9 ft/mm 3.20 gal/mm 791.03527oz 35.3048m 0.03531 ft3 196.3531 ft3 0.145 lb/rn2 (psi) 0.9 gal/hr 2119ft3/min 0.964 kN iN 1mb = 1002 N/rn2 (Pa) lkN 13.007866 I/s il/s 1 13/hr 1 I/s 1m3/s Force (1 kgf = 9.07577I/s 0.013 Bar 1 bar = lOOkmm2 (kPa) iN/rn2(Pa) 0.76 ft2 1.196 yd2 2.35g 0.03937 thou 0.80kg 1016.4719I/s 1.471 acres 0.

009479 therms 3.40 600 686.33 190 196.59 35 35.30 16 16.70 1.30 1.00 bar 29.69 40 40.13 200 245.00 1.90 MN/rn2 5 MN/rn2 The useof various unitsto describe pressure is creating someconfusion andthe increasing use ofthe Pascal(Pa) inlieu ofthe N/m2 orthe Bar may leadeventually to itbecoming the mostcommonly usedunit ofpressure.16 10 10.00 bar 5.50 bar 3. which is the N/rn2.00 bar 4.81 bar 10.Standards.16 9 9.92 400 407.03726 mJ/m3 0.00 bar 9.47bar 19.50 1.1442W/m2 °C btu/hrft2 1 btu/ft3 1 btu in/ft2h0F W/m °C Heat (Thermal (Conductivity = k) 1 btu/hrft2h0F 5.79 45 45.14 8 8.90 bar 5.45 80 88.10 150 156.6mJ 1 btu 1055J 1 therm 29.40 25 25.96 2.27 1.678 W/m2°C Transmittance = U) (Thermal kWhr= 3.68 120 127.2931 W 3.42 1.20 1.84 60 68.50 2.24 13 13.49 30 30.30 450 490.45 2.as 1 Pa is equalto iN/rn2 itpresentsno difficultyin relatingPa to N/rn2 and the symbolhas beenaddedto the table above toenablethe user to more fully understand itsfunction.61 bar 20.91 160 166.41 bar 4.5MJ 1 btu 0.87 110 117.26 14 14.28 15 15.80 bar 1.07 100 107.89 500 509.968 btu lkWhr 1MJ 1kCal Head and pressure of water Table 2 Headand Pressure ofWater Pressure Head 1 Pressure in metres kN/m2 or kPa mbar & bar Headin metres 18.1868J 0.92 MN/rn2 4 MN/rn2 4.86 bar 1.00 bar 49.37 1.53 800 882.00 bar 6.96 MN/rn2 2MN/m2 2.27 400 441.67 1.08 5 5.00 bar 1.94 300 305.36 19 kN/m2 or kPa mbar & bar 1.94 3.00 bar 39.43 bar 3.32 17 17.83 bar 9.412 btu/hr 0.lObar 1.57 1.61 20 29.34 18 9. However.86 180 186.47 700 784.60 900 980.94 MN/rn2 3 MN/rn2 3.00 bar 8.66 1 MN/rn2 1.22 12 12. This guidedoesnot use the Pascal as a unitofpressure but generallyrefers to the SI unit forpressure.89 50 50.10 6 6.50 bar 4.84 btu/ft3 6.2520kCal 1 W/m2 °C — 1.03412 therms 0.03 50 58.99 60 61. 236 .86 bar 7.3lkWhr 1 therm 105.18 1.08 bar 1.20 11 11.23 350 392.000 btu 1J iCal = 4.58 90 91.77 bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar 1.23 bar 40.3170 btu/hrft2 26.00 bar 19.97 200 203.6MJ/s W = 1 J/s = 1 745.18 70 71.92 bar 4.38 80 81.17 250 294.49 130 137.71 170 176.52 98 mbar 100 mbar 196 mbar 200 mbar 294 mbar 300 mbar 392 mbar 400 mbar 490 mbar 500 mbar 588 mbar 600 mbar 686 mbar 700 mbar 785 mbar 800 mbar 883 mbar 900 mbar 981 mbar 1.0009478 btu 0.06 4 4.155W/rn2 0.00 bar 7. codes and miscellaneous data Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Table 1 (continued) Imperialto SI metric/SI metric to imperial Imperial to Metric Power heat flow 1 hp 1 btu/hr 1 1 Metricto Imperial Nm/s 1kW 1W 1W/rn2 1mJ/m3 1 1 kW = 1kJ/s = 3.1761 btu/hrft2h0F — 1 Therm = 100.90 bar bar bar bar bar bar bar 3.88 bar 6.42 bar 30.77 100 101.12 7 7.38 20 20.85 bar 8.02 2 2.00 bar 1.20 300 343.00 2.03 bar 50.23 40 49.60 1.934 btu in/ft2h0F 0.341 hp 3.26 90 98.42 30 39.65 70 78.29 140 147.04 3 3.33 500 588.7W 0.81 10 19.

33m Head of water 762mm Mercury Imperial Units 14.81 = pressure in kN/m2 Pressure in kN/m2x 0.3 = Head of water in ft 1 Gallon 1 Gallon 237 .434 = pressure in lbf/in2 Pressure in lbf/in2 x 2.25 Gallonsof waterequals 1 Cubicfoot Head of waterin feet x 62.7 Ibf/in2 34ft Head of water 3Oin Mercury Table4 Hydrostatic table SI Metric units 1 Litre of water weighs 1 kilogram 1 Cubic meter of waterequals .Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Standards.120 = Head of waterin meters = 1 Bar equals 1000 mbar = 105N/m2 lOPa 1 millibar (mbar) = 100N/M2=lOOPa Imperial units of waterweighs 10 pounds of waterequals 0. 1000litres Head of waterin meters x 9810= pressure in N/m2 Head of waterin meters x9. codes and miscellaneous data Hydrostatic tables Table 3 Atmospheric pressureat sea level SI Metric Units lOOkN/m2= 101 kPa 10.5 = pressure in lbf/ft2 Head of waterin feet x 0.16 Cubicfeet 6.

Green Yellow White Brown Em. Basic identification colours only for installations wherethe determination of merely the basic nature of the contents is sufticient b. Green Em. mineral oils & combustible liquids Gases in gaseous or liquified condition (except air) Acids and alkalis Silver-Grey Brown -BS colours References BS4800 04 E 53 06 C 39 08 C 35 22 C 37 20 E 51 Black 08 E 51 18 E 53 Yellow Ochre Violet of the contents Air Other fluids Electrical services Light blue Black Orange Basic identificationof colours and colour references - - 06 E 51 - Auxiliary Blue Code indication colours (ifother than Safety_Colours) Crimson Emerald green Salmon pink Yellow 04 E 53 14 E 53 04 C 33 10E53 The Basic Identification Colourmay be applied: i. Valves may be paintedwith the identification colourexceptwherethe pipeline has been coded withthe safety colourfor fire fighting.Standards. Table6 Optional colourcode indications for generalbuildingservices Pipe contents Basic colour (approx. vegetable. Green Salmon Pink Crimson Violet Yellow Ochre Yellow Ochre Brown Brown Brown Brown Green Green Green Green Green Green Green Green Green Green Green Crimson Crimson White Blue Crimson White White Crimson Crimson White Blue Crimson White White Compressedair Vacuum Steam Drainage Light Blue Light Blue Electrical conduits and ducts Town Gas Manufactured gas Natural gas Oils Diesel fuel Furnace fuel Lubricating Hydraulic power Transformer Acidsand alkalis 238 . any decorative or protective colourof the pipe shall not be any of the otherBasic Identification Colours. bulkheads. The Basic Identification Colourshall be placed at all junctions. Overthe wholelength As a bandof about 150mm. untreated Fire extinguishing Green Green Green Green Green Green Green Green Green Green Green Blue White White Em. depending on the diameter of the pipeline. 150mm) Colour code indication (approx. Green Crimson Blue Blue Crimson Salmon Pink Green Safety Red Light Blue White Silver Grey Black Orange Yellow Ochre Yellow Ochre Brown Brown Brown Brown Em. at both sides of the valves. Steam Animal. wall penetrations and any otherplacewhere identification is necessary. ii. river.when the valves should be painted red. 100mm) Basic colour Water Drinking Cooling (Primary) Boilerfeed Condensate Chilled Central htg < 100°C Central htg > 100°C Cold down service Hot watersupply Hydraulic power Sea. codes and miscellaneous data Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide ldentifkation of pipelines Formore detailedinformation see BS 1710— Identification ofPipelines According to the complexity of an installation and to the variety of fluids conveyed. Where banding is adopted. the pipesshould be identified Table5 Basic indication of colours Pipe contents Basic Identification Colour BS Colour References BS4800 Safety ColourReferences Water Green 12 AD 45 10 A 03 Safety colours Red Yellow by either: a. Basic identification colours and code indications for installations wherethe precise determination is of importance.

6 1.6 4. for pipes smaller than 25mm. It is fairly obvious that turningthe fitting on the larger pipe will require the large space between pipes for clearance. only the allowance for insulation has been considered in the table. The distance from the furring of the larger pipe is found (above 100mm)to be 95mm.0 as forwater pipes as forwaterpipes 0.9 — In the same manner it can be shown that the total space if the pipes were reversed would be 152 ÷ 124 ÷ 51 = 327mm.6 3.0 3.0 Lead (single tacks) Lead(double tacks) uPVC Up to 50 50 and over All sizes 32-40 50 75-100 150 32-40 50 32-40 50 — — 0.4 2.7 3.5 1.8 1.8 Find the minimum space requiredfor 32mm and 100mmpipes of the smaller pipe is located near the wall. (b) pipe and wall and (c) pipeand furring for two pipes with standardmalleable or cast iron screwed fittings.2 1. The value used will depend upon which pipe is installed first. on such small pipes.7 3.8 1.8 It should be notedthat.7 40-50 65-80 100-125 150 3.2 1.0 3.2 1.2 1. The minimum distance fromfurring (dimension F in the table) will not be less than 6mm larger than the radius of insulated pipe. find 54mm as the minimum distance from the wall of the smaller pipe.2 1. 0.2 1. It is evidentthatthe minimum distance for the wall will be that distance which will allow turning of a fitting on the pipe. pipe size 38 15 41 20 238 191 (mm) In orderthat there will be no confusion as to which pipe shouldbe installed first. continuous support is recommended.4 1. the distance for insulation is larger than that required for turning fittings.5 0.0 3.5 0.6 *Forpipes conveying hot waterand where itis essential to avoid airlocks (e.6* 1.0 4.5 5.8 0.2 1. Therefore.Plumbing Engineering ServicesDesign Guide Standards.6 4. codes and miscellaneous data Spacing of pipes The accompanying table gives the allowable minimum distances between (a) two pipes.9 1. 216 168 146 124 98 86 73 60 54 48 41 38 (mm) 200 150 125 100 90 65 50 40 32 25 20 15 Minimum distancebetweenfurring (F).5 0.4 3.9 1. This will be the distance K shown in the first column of the table. Example Steel to BS 1387 and Copper (heavy gauge) 15-28 35-42 54 76-133 159 10-15 20-25 32 2. The table shows.6 2.8 2.0 3.5 4.7 0.6 4.7 3. The total space is thus 152 + 54 + 95 = 301 mm Cast iron* Copper Steel to BS 1387 (mm) All sizes (m) 2. The table has beendeveloped on the basisof the following analysis: between two pipesof differing diameter there will be two values for the minimum distance which will allowfree turning of an elbow or tee. *At leastone fixingmust be providedforeach unit length Table9 Soil and waste pipes Size of pipe Type of piping Spacingfor Spacing for horizontal vertical (m) To the left of 32mm in the secondcolumn of the table. (mm) 48 51 54 64 70 79 95 1114 1127 1152 Nominal pipe size (mm) 25 I 32 40 50 65 80 100 1125 150 I 200 Distance between pipes (mm) 241 323 187 165 140 117 101 92 194 171 79 76 73 70 67 168 143 120 108 95 83 79 76 73 146 124 111 248 200 178 152 130 117 101 251 203 181 98 86 83 79 92 89 156 133 120 108 95 257 267 210 219 187 197 165 171 140 149 127 133 114 276 229 206 181 289 305 241 260 219 235 197 321 273 356 159 Maximum spacing of pipe supports Table8 Hot and cold waterpipesand gas pipes Typeof Piping Size of pipe Spacing for Horizontal Spacing for Vertical (m) (mm) Lead Copper (light gauge) and Stainless steel All sizes 12 (m) 0. that 152mm is the minimumdistance between 100mm and 32mm pipes. because furring is constructed after pipes have been installed. therefore lessspace will be required if the larger pipe is installed first.2 2. Solution Greyor ductileiron 50 75-100 150 2.4 3. so it would be advisableto locatethe smaller pipe nearthe wall or column. the condition givingthe greater distance between pipes will be considered.g.0 3.2 239 . primary circulation pipes).2 ABS Polypropylene 0.7 1.8 2. Table 7 Minimum Distance allowable between centre lines ofscrewedsteel and copperpipes Minimum distance Nom. under 32mm and opposite 100mm pipes.4 2.6 0.0 3.

Standards. Not to be run adjacent to withoutfurtherprecautions.000. It/son occasions necessary to run differentservices Key tosymbols in above table 0.01 1O Deci 10. The above precautions should be taken in each instance as faras practicable.000.000 1.1 0. or to makethe leakagebecome more dangerous. Not tobe exposed to temperature orleakagefrom. etc. L. M.000. D. B.6 Micro d c m 0. Not tobe run in suchapositionas wouldcauseany escape of airto circulate a gas leakage. F.000. electrically operatedgas valves. Noprecautionsnecessary. J. eg.000. Not to be run in sameduct. insulation or othermeans by from coming into contactwith. Miscellaneous data Table 11 Multiples and sub-multiples ofunits x factor 1.000 1.000 1. C. Not to be exposed to leakagefrom.thermostatic valves. A.000 0001 p 240 .000. Motor-driven pumps. Not tobe run where an escape ofgas could causerisk of ignition in presence of oil. Not to be run adjacent to. Shall not be prevented spacing.1 Centi 1O Mull 10. Not to be exposed to effluentfrom.001 0.000 100 Pretix 1012 Tera Symbol io Giga 106 Mega T G io Kilo M k h lO2Hecto 101 Deca 10 1 da 10°Basicunit 0. G. codes and miscellaneous data Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Relation of servicesto each other Table 10 Relation to otherservices Pipe or duct conveying Cold Natural gas Electricity water Telecommunications Hot water and steam Ventilation Drainage and air conditioning F Oil Flammable Compressed air gases and Hot water& steam Ventilation & air Conditioning Cold water Electricity A F 0 L A A A A F F B liquids C C L L 0 0 0 0 0 G 0 0 L - F - 0 F F A - A M - C C C C C C C C L L L L Telecommunications Natural Gas Drainage Oil C C C D C C B M F - F D J A A L A A L B C D B B L D B L AC C L C C D - 0 L Flammable gases& Liquid Compressedair L L 0 0 0 G 0 A 0 0 C to the sameposition to operateequipment connected directlytoa numberofservices.

/-. // . Basin — 15mm sep taps (33/1 200) Usage ratio should read 0. should read cistern•15. table 16.- 96 TaLe22 sho(Ild?readta'BIe5 103.\ .uk www. 108.org. Column Table 3.'/.' 140. Left hard not9 sh9uld read maximum for WC branch eád2.-. . 13....025 table 14.. Notes..water. Headin'g 'sI-oul read 'Vacuum pipe .028 Type of applicance.head of-. table 14.. table26.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Corrigendum Page No. -. t T = 30 1200 = 0. slop hopper cistenr only- 13..... N' —. t" i5ri I:1 appluance connections.sizing' ''.'/ .5 '_. / 981 0PaKôrN/m2 or 9. / Details P = t = 300 should read P = T 1200 13.-•• .org. The Institute of Plumbing HEAD OFFICE The InstituteofPlumbing64Station LaneI-Iornchurch Essex RM12 6NB +44 Telephone (01)1708472791 Fax+44 (0)1708448987Emailinfo@plurnbers.. I I—.. figl. 1. .5 andategory 3 should read 4.. Ni: / . fig 15..j.5rfl maximum for other Righthandriote should.uk Webpageswww. i. Category 2 shoul reid.shbuldread .or kN/m2 —.com Issue la 10/02 ... / / / 'L'.. graph 6..81"kPa.pIumbers.. 2 line 5 Pipe with section 7thd 8 should be extended to the left to conñectIhto pipe êction'6--(cold water from cistern tank) 16. '. / •:. meter.registeredplurnber.

lineS. tabI 14. table 14. 2. shouki read 4. Type read O 15. 96.it ofPhflhLbtL 64 tatknLan. 5 '.Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide Corrigendum No. or N/rn!. slop hopper ctenr onlyshouli read cistern Pipe with secton 7 aid B should 1e exterded to the left to connect into pipesection 6 (coki walerfrom cistern / tank) 9810Pa. The Institute of Plunthing Triior+44(0)170847271 Fx+44(0)17O84487 1b ri1 wwwrgrdphunbrom Th lntib. 1 meter head of water sI-ould read 2 18.025 T 1200 T 1200 13. f 2 2 of applicanc. 13. 108. I • Det1/s For 100. tab 26. Notes. 5. sin—15mm sep taps (3311200)- Uge ratio si-oud 13.ation should 82. 103. graph6. co/um. for WC branch 140. fi7. Thb/e tabIS 3. 15.000 litres storage read 100 m2 for2 meter height tank P = t = 300 sI-ouli readP = t = 30 = 0. HchurthEexRM12 6NB HEAD OFFICE lu2 04103 . 16. table 16.