INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction “Brands are like human beings. They are born, fed and nurtured, made strong and responsible so that they can be faithful friends of the people (customers), form mutually beneficial and satisfying relationships with them and become their companions for life. Such brands, make their parents (organization or corporate) proud of them. The best brands are the ones who help in forming and sustaining strong long term “parent- brand-people” relationships. These brands form the potential for present growth and future expansion. They help the organizations conquer peaks at the time of booms and stay afloat and swim at times of depression. ”We come across a number of brands in our daily lives. Our morning starts with using a toothpaste (Colgate,Pepsodent or Close-up), using a bathing soap (Lux, Fairglow or Cinthol) and shampoo (Clinic All Clear or Vatika), wearing clothes ( Allen Solly, Levi’s or Raymond’s), breakfast bread (Britannia or Modern) and butter (Amul) or jam (Kissan), lunch and dinner (Nature Fresh or Pillsbury flour and Safal vegetables),morning and evening tea and coffee (Tetley, Nescafe or Bru), going outin a car (Hyundai Santro, Honda Accord or Mercedes Benz). Talking on the cell phone (Motorola, Nokia, Siemens or Samsung), watching television in the evening (LG, Sony or Philips) or listening to music (Philips or Apple) etc. But how often do we think of what all a company does to put a positive imprint (fight for a shelf space) in the mind of the customer? Today nearly all the companies are focusing more and more on building strong brands. The concept of brand equity and its management has come to the fore like never before. More and more companies are refocusing on select strong brands. This project is thus a timely stuffy of the importance of brands, what it takes to build them, what benefits do they give to different stakeholders (organization, distributors and customers), how can they be leveraged, what is the impact of modern technology on branding, branding on the web, branding in mergers and acquisitions etc. examples have been given and cases discussed at every suitable point to bring out an application oriented understanding of “building and managing brands” WHAT IS BRANDING? A brand is the idea or image of a specific product or service that consumers connect with by identifying the name, logo, slogan, or design of the company. Branding is the idea or image that is marketed so that it is recognizable by more

investors etc. partners. symbol.). Branding is also a way to build an important company asset. fertilizers. Brand is the personality that identifies a product. Whether a company has no reputation. Brand is the personality that identifies a product.g. or exceed them.) or in products which are perceived as a commodity (e. investors etc. sign. staff. term. or design. King (1991) captures this by defining a product as a factory-made tangible that can readily be copied by competitors. the creation of tangible values as well as intangible values isquintessential in allowing customer the means to distinguish one brand from another (Hankinsonand Cowing. investors etc. symbol. 1993). Thissimple yet powerful definition insinuates that a brand is the core identity of a product. symbol. durables etc. King (1991) continues with hisdistinction by clarifying that a brand is an intangible asset that is unique and timeless. service or company (name. sign. It can be used as a differentiation strategy when the product cannot be easily distinguished in terms of tangible features (which invariably happens in case of many services. or combination of them) and how it relates to key constituencies: customers. service or company (name. branding can help to change that. which is a good reputation. The reader will appreciate that it is this ability in particular. term. potato chips etc. or combination of them) and how it relates to key constituencies: customers. partners. salt. Branding is the process by which a marketer tries to build long term relationship with the customers by learning their needs and wants so that the offering (brand) could satisfy their mutual aspirations. bringing better products and services to the market place. Branding can build an expectation about the company services or products. Brand is the personality that identifies a product. that separates a“brand” from a mere “product”. and can encourage the company to maintain that expectation. staff. term. staff. cement. Kotler (1999) expands on the concept of identity by stating that a brand is capable of conveying up tosix different levels of meaning to a targeted audience. and identified with a certain service or product since there are many other companies offering the same service or product. or combination of them) and how it relates to key constituencies: customers. This is known as the “Six Dimensions of The Brand” . or a less than stellar reputation.and more people. service or company (name.Brand building is a conscious customer satisfaction orientation process. sign. The brand owner tries to retain customers to its fold over their competitors by a mix of hardware software because when a customer feels satisfied he she develop a kind of loyalty for the same. partners. or design. or design. In modern day branding.

such as prestige Benefits A brand strengthens a product’s attributes by communicating aset of benefits that makes it more attractive Values A brand represents a company’s core values and belief system Culture A brand is representative or target a target audiences socio-cultural characteristics Personality A Brand can project behavioural personality patterns of targeted consumers User The brand.Attributes A brand will communicate specific attributes. in some cases. can emulate the end user .

universities. In the 1 2 0 0 s . primarily toinsure honesty in measurement. some fraternities and sororities branded their pledges (literally)during initiation rites as a form of identification and bonding. The oldest generic Brand. they branded af l e u r d e l i s o n t h e s h o u l d e r . companies that sold patented m e d i c i n e s a n d t o b a c c o b e g a n branding their products as early as the early 1800s. printers also.[5] This brand was developed at Dhosi Hill in North India. We tend to think of branding as a modern day phenomenon. E n g l a n d r e q u i r e d b r e a d m a k e r s . Butm o r e i n t e r e s t i n g t o m e i s h o w f a r b a c k i n t i m e b r a n d i n g g o e s . The Italians were among the first to use brands. . Around the sametime. In the Medieval times.Between the 1600s and 1800s." It refers to the practice of producers burning their mark (or brand) onto their products. Branding became ubiquitous. 9000–10000 years ago is known as 'Chyawanprash'. Certainly.EVOLUTION OF BRANDING The word "brand" is derived from the Old Norse brandr meaning "to burn. A s r e p u g n a n t a s i t m a y b e to us today.But that is still recent history -. F o r instance. u s e d m a r k s a s d i d p a p e r m a k e r s ( w a t e r m a r k s ) a n d v a r i o u s o t h e r c r a f t guilds. It is widely used in India and many other countries and is a herbal paste of 45 herbs made for revered Rishi named Chyawan. criminals were branded (again literally)as a form of punishment and identification. a practicethat has long since been identified as hazing and therefore abandoned. b r a n d i n g e m e r g e d a s a significant area of emphasis not only for companies and their products. on an extinct Volcanic Hill. while in France. For instance.they branded an S on a person's cheek.s l a v e s w e r e a l s o b r a n d e d r o u g h l y d u r i n g t h e s a m e t i m e p e r i o d t o connote ownership. goldsmiths and silversmiths to put their marks on goods. other non-profit organizationsand even individuals. in the form of watermarks on paper in the 1200s. since Vedic period. in England.relatively. which is in continuous use in India.d u r i n g t h e l a t e 1 9 9 0 s a n d t h e e a r l y 2 0 0 0 s . Many of us alsok n o w t h a t P r o c t o r & G a m b l e a n d o t h e r c o n s u m e r p r o d u c t c o m p a n i e s began branding their products in earnest in the mid-to-late 1800s. but also for municipalities.

which enables positive responses from the consumer. Your brand must be in the heart and minds of your target market. there is no denying the importance of branding. Social media is an extremely useful tool to accomplish this with. It also relates to the quality of your product. gives you a competitive advantage in the market. defining. This can be accomplished by integrating your brand strategies through your company at every point of public contact. and encompasses those unique characteristics that distinguish your product. and some that you cannot. A strong brand is invaluable in today’s competitive market. sign. It is the foundation piece in your marketing plan. and building your brand. It is important to spend time investing in researching. That is the result of consistent reinforcing of the brand. some of which you can influence. But in fact.IMPORTANCE OF BRANDING A brand is usually associated with the logo. or other image that consumers associate with your company and product. It is your brand that is a source of promise to your target audience. knowing that consumers will remain loyal. It results from the experiences and perceptions of you. and buy it at the higher cost. brand also incorporates other factors. The 5 key objectives that a brand achieves are: Delivers the message clearly Confirms your credibility Connects your target audience emotionally Motivates the buyer Solidifies user loyalty In order to be successful in branding you must understand the needs and wants of your target market. and sets it apart from the competition. name. the way you do business. It allows you to charge more for your product. . Consumers are always willing to buy products they know and trust. well defined brand. especially for the small business. A strong.

Importance of Branding in Business: Importance of Branding in Marketing: Importance of Branding in Advertising: .

Brand awareness Brand awareness refers to customers' ability to recall and recognize the brand under different conditions and link to the brand name. the awareness is not just concerning the fact that a brand exists. The brand awareness is not the simple acknowledgment of a brand. jingles and so on to certain associations in memory. In this sense. it includes knowing and recognizing its image and product range. . More the brand is well-known. logo. Other efficient tools are layouts and packaging. than more consumers are inclined to buy its products. It also ensures that customers know which of their needs are satisfied by the brand through its products (Keller). It consists of both brand recognition and brand recall. Brand awareness is of critical importance since customers will not consider your brand if they are not aware of it. The recognition of a brand happens especially thanks to the logo. It helps the customers to understand to which product or service category the particular brand belongs and what products and services are sold under the brand name.

"Can you hear me now" is an important part of the Verizon brand. 5 is trademarked. such as: Name: The word or words used to identify a company. Tagline or Catchphrase: "The Quicker Picker Upper" is associated with Bounty paper towels. Movements: Lamborghini has trademarked the upward motion of its car doors. NBC's chimes are a famous example. Tastes: Kentucky Fried Chicken has trademarked its special recipe of eleven herbs and spices for fried chicken. service. Shapes: The distinctive shapes of the Coca-Cola bottle and of the Volkswagen Beetle are trademarked elements of those brands. Scents: The rose-jasmine-musk scent of Chanel No. Graphics: The dynamic ribbon is a trademarked part of Coca-Cola's brand. Colors: Owens-Corning is the only brand of fiberglass insulation that can be pink. . product. Logo: The visual trademark that identifies the brand. or concept.Brand elements Brands typically are made up of various elements. Sounds: A unique tune or set of notes can denote a brand.

consumers will instinctively attempt to simplify their choice process by selecting brands that have satisfied them in the past. a company’s PR efforts or even a high concentration of local distribution in an area that is in close proximity to a consumer. One can conclude that a central function of branding is its ability to negate the need for a consumer to seek out information when a need or a want has been recognized. it can induce the natural differentiation of their offerings. In terms of companies’ views on branding. Thus. but rather. will produce a state of competitive advantage. A consumer might strongly favor a brand with no prior purchasing experience. This type of consumer behavior is based on stimulus provided by direct exposure to advertising campaigns. lead him to a brand that has been satisfying in the past. but can alternatively be formed by embedded perceptions. Differentiation can only allow for competitive advantage if the cost of differentiating is significantly lower than the revenue earned by the sales. Differential advantage allows companies to showcase their offer in respects to other competitors in the same market place. Due to the complexity of having to select a product amongst thousands of similar offerings. one can conclude that pleasant past experiences is highly conducive to consumers associating benefits to a brand. One must acknowledge however. which ultimately. . that frequent purchasing of a brand cannot always be linked to previous experiences.Branding in today’s Markets A central function of branding is the facilitation of the consumer choice process.

sociology.Buyer behavior has two aspects: the final purchase activity visible to any observer and the detailed or short decision process that may involve the interplay of a number of complex variables not visible to anyone. what they buy. socio psychology. friends. It blends the elements from psychology. anthropology and economics. reference groups and society in general . purchasing and post consumption of a product or service Consumer behavior involves study of how people buy. . when they buy and why they buy.UNDERSTANDING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Definition Consumer behavior refers to the mental and emotional process and the observable behavior of consumers during searching. It also tries to assess the influence on the consumer from groups such as family.

After your content and design are in place. A system that will automate this whole marketing process will save you time and in the long run. you’ll need a design and content for your website. money. Once this is done. so you’ll want to learn about search engine optimization (SEO). register it. your budget will also determine the components you use in any of the Internet marketing strategies you might develop.Solution on How to Brand Yourself and Your Company What is your budget for developing a marketing plan? Marketing is an investment. Ideally would be if you have a place where you can purchase your domain name. A website will require you to choose a domain name and register it and to purchase a web hosting service for your website. Of course. you’ll want your site to be found. design your website and find relevant content so that it will position your content on the first page of Google. which you will either provide yourself or pay to have a web content professional and/or web designer handle it for you. Revisit your marketing plan every quarter. Remember that patience is a virtue when it comes to tracking. Search engines aren’t likely to find . which is an important part of strategic internet marketing. You can either do this yourself or pay someone else to do it for you. Make sure you are on target or do you need to revise it? Keep track of what is working and what is not. so that you can get the most out of SEO.

However. Are you a brand loyal customer? | Yes | No Which attributes did attract you to purchase branded products? Rank these attributes in order of their importance to you. a well-managed strategic Internet marketing plan can increase your chances for success.you overnight and your strategies may not generate revenues right away. | Brand Name | Transparent | Price | Cleanliness | Easy Availability | Others What was the reason for the delay between the purchase decision and the actual purchase? | Financial constraints | Waiting for more innovative product | Waiting for market response . QUESTIONNAIRE 1.

What influenced you to buy the above stated brand(s) ? | Advertising | Shop Display | Word of mouth | Family/Friend/Relatives | Attractive packaging | Any Other | Dealer Influence of Brand name on purchasing decision | Agree | Disagree | Strongly Agree | Strongly disagree 6. Influence of Quality on Purchase Decision | Agree | Disagree | Strongly Agree | Strongly disagree 7. Influence of Price on Purchase Decision | Agree | Disagree .

| Strongly Agree | Strongly disagree Influence of Product features on Purchase Decision | Agree | Disagree | Strongly Agree | Strongly disagree Influence of Family members on Purchase Decision | Agree | Disagree | Strongly Agree | Strongly disagree Influence of Peer group on Purchase Decision | Agree | Disagree | Strongly Agree | Strongly disagree 11. Will you like to switch your brand preference if you get some promotional scheme with another brand? . Influence of Advertisement on Purchase Decision | Agree | Disagree | Strongly Agree | Strongly disagree 12.

| Yes | No 13. Do you think branded products are better than unbranded products? | Yes | No .

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