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Survey chepter 5

# Survey chepter 5

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07/10/2013

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# SURVEYING-1

Department of Civil Engineering

Sr.lecturer
Lecture of Surveying and transportation Department ‘’AARSH MAHAVIDYALAYA’’

24-8-12

''AARSH MAHAVIDYALAY'' BY: BHAVESH SIR

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1

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''AARSH MAHAVIDYALAY'' BY: BHAVESH SIR

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What is levelling?
A measurement process whereby the difference in height between two or more points can be determined

BS

FS

Difference in height
H=BS-FS

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''AARSH MAHAVIDYALAY'' BY: BHAVESH SIR

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Reading an E-type levelling staff The value is ?
Read value at the horizontal cross hair

1.930 1.920 1.910 1.900
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Terms used in Leveling
a) DATUM – or Datum plane is an arbitrarily assumed level surface or line with reference to which level of other line or

surface are calculated.
b) REDUCED LEVEL (RL) – is the vertical distance between a survey point and the adopted level datum. c) BENCH MARK – (BM) – B.M. is a fixed reference point of known elevation. It may be of the following types. i) ii) Permanent Bench Mark : They are fixed points of reference establish with reference to mean sea level Arbitrary Bench mark : These are reference points whose elevations are arbitrarily assumed.
''AARSH MAHAVIDYALAY'' BY: BHAVESH SIR 5

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d)

e) Level Surface : The surface which is a surface, all
points on which are normal to the pull of gravity.

f) Line of Collimation : The line of collimation is the
imaginary line joining the intersection of the cross hair

and the optical center of the objective and its extensions,

it is also called line of sight or collimation.

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''AARSH MAHAVIDYALAY'' BY: BHAVESH SIR

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g) Height of Instrument (HI) : The elevation of the line of sight with respect to assumed datum is known as HI.

h) Back sight : (B.S.) - The first sight taken on a levelling staff held at a point of known elevation. B.S. enables the surveyor to obtain HI +sight i.e. Height of Instrument or line of sight. i) Fore Sight : (F.S.) – It is the last staff reading taken from a setting of the level.. This is also called minus sight as the

foresight reading is always subtracted from height of
Instrument.
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k) Change Point (CP) : The point on which both the foresight and back sight are taken during the

operation of levelling is called change point.
L) Intermediate Sight (IS) : Any levelling sight which is
neither BS nor a FS, is known as intermediate sight. It may be noted that for one setting of a level, there will be only one back sight and one foresight but there can be any number of intermediate sights.

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''AARSH MAHAVIDYALAY'' BY: BHAVESH SIR

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Type of Leveling Equipments
i) Dumpy level ii) Tilting level iii) Automatic level iv) Digital Auto level

Dumpy level
It is simple compact and stable. The telescope is rigidly fixed to its support therefore cannot be rotated about its longitudinal axis. A long bubble tube is attached to the top of telescope. Dumpy literally means short and thick.
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The Automatic level

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''AARSH MAHAVIDYALAY'' BY: BHAVESH SIR

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The Automatic level : Also termed as self aligning level. The fundamental difference between automatic

and the classic spirit level is that in the former the line
of sight is no longer levelled manually using a tubular spirit level, but is levelled automatically within a certain tilt range. This is achieved by compensator in the telescope.

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''AARSH MAHAVIDYALAY'' BY: BHAVESH SIR

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Basic components of level 1. Telescope – to provide a line of sight 2. Level Tube – to make line of sight horizontal 3. Levelling head – to bring the bubble of tube level at the centre of its run. 4. Tripod – to support the above three parts of the level. 1. Telescope : Telescope is an optical instrument used for magnifying and viewing the images of distant objects. It consists of two lenses. The lens fitted near the eye is called the eye piece and the other fitted at the end near to the object is called the objective lens.
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The objective provides a real inverted image in front of the eye piece at a distance lesser than its focal distance. Two essential conditions are involved. : i) The real image of the object, must be formed. ii) the plane of image must coincide with that of cross

hairs.
• Focusing of Telescope : The operation of obtaining a

clear image of the object in the plane of cross hairs is
known as focusing.
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Diaphram : A frame carrying cross hairs usually made of either silk thread or platinum wire and placed at the plane at which vertical image of the object is formed by the objective. Vertical hair of the diaphram enables the surveyor to check the verticality of levelling staff whereas horizontal hairs are used to read the staff graduations. 2.Level Tube : Also known as Bubble Tube consists of a glass tube placed in a brass tube which is sealed with plaster of paris. The whole of the interior surface or the upper half is accurately ground so that its longitudinal section, is an arc of a circle. Level tube is filled with either or alcohol, the remaining space is occupied by an air bubble. The centre of air bubble always rest at the highest point of the tube. 24-8-12 ''AARSH MAHAVIDYALAY'' 14
BY: BHAVESH SIR

Booking and reduction of the levels may be done by following 2 methods.

i) Rise and fall method ii) Height of collimation method

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''AARSH MAHAVIDYALAY'' BY: BHAVESH SIR

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RISE AND FALL METHOD – In this method, the difference of level between two consecutive points for each setting of the instrument is obtained by comparing their staff readings. The difference between their staff readings indicates a rise if back sight is more than foresight and a fall if it is less than foresight. The Rise and Fall worked out for all the points given the vertical distances of each point relative to the proceeding one. If the RL of the Back staff point is known, then RL of the following staff point may be obtained by adding its rise or substracting fall from the RL of preceding point.
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Height of Collimation Method: In this method Height of Instrument (H.I) is calculated for each setting of the instrument by adding the back sight (B.S) to the elevation of B.M.

Height of instrument (H.I) = R.L of B.M+ B.S

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''AARSH MAHAVIDYALAY'' BY: BHAVESH SIR

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Levelling Staff

Levelling
S2
(unknown) RL B

Height of the Plane of Collimation (HPC ) or (HI)

S1

RL A (known)
A B

HI

= R.L (A ) + S1
HI - S2
18

R.L (B) =
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''AARSH MAHAVIDYALAY'' BY: BHAVESH SIR

HI HI BS

FS
RL C

BS RL A

FS RL B C

A (CP) B RL A is known HI = RL A + BS RL B = HI - FS

Now the RL B is known

So we can repeat the process

HI =
Generally :
24-8-12

RL B + BS

RL C =

HI - FS

HI

= Known RL + Back Sight =
''AARSH MAHAVIDYALAY'' BY: BHAVESH SIR

Unknown RL

HI

- Fore Sight

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1) Setting up 2) leveling up 3) focusing 1) setting up: the tripod stand is placed at the required station with its leg well apart and pressed into the ground.
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To fix the level to the tripod, the clamp is released, the level is held in the right hand is fixed on the tripod by turning round the lower part with the left hand. The tripod legs are so adjusted that level is at eye height. Approximate leveling is done by moving the tripod legs.
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2) Leveling up: leveling up with three foot screw: Three screw head: * loose the clamp. bring the position of the plate level roughly parallel to a line joining any two of the leveling screw by turning the instrument. * bring the bubble in the centre by turning both the screw in opposite directions.
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*Rotate the telescope through 90* so that it lies over the third foot screw . * Rotate the third screw until the plate bubble is central . *Rotate the step the bubble is central in both the positions. *now rotate the instrument through 180*.the bubble should remain in the centre of its run.

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''AARSH MAHAVIDYALAY'' BY: BHAVESH SIR

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Focusing:
*Parallax is a condition arising when the image formed by the objective is not in the plane of the cross-hairs. *the focus the eye piece for distinct vision of the cross hairs point the telescope towards the sky and move eye piece in or out till the cross hairs are sharp and distinct.
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*the telescope is now directed towards the staff and the focusing screw is turned till the image appears clear and sharp

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''AARSH MAHAVIDYALAY'' BY: BHAVESH SIR

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A surveying optical telescope
diaphragm eyepiece line of focusing screw collimation

focusing lens Focusing
1. Rotate eyepiece to give a sharp, clear image of the cross hairs

object lens

2. Rotate focusing screw to give a sharp, clear image of the object being observed.
The aim of focusing is to remove (eliminate) PARALLAX
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Bubble

When bubble is centred the instrument’s standing axis is approximately vertical. The compensators in the instrument take over and adjust the optical Line of Collimation so that it is horizontal (hopefully)

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''AARSH MAHAVIDYALAY'' BY: BHAVESH SIR

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THANKS

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