Microprocessor System Design

Program writing and MASM

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Review

• Stack data structure • Operands • Addressing modes • IO ports

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Outline
• Flag instruction

• ADD and ADC
• A loop program • Data entering • MASM • Directives

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Flag Register

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Program

• Effect of ADD on carry flag • Use of zero flag for looping • Add 5 bytes in debug • Using MASM • Simple directives • Consider carry

• Use ADC

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MASM 8086 Instruction - Basic Structure
Label Operator Operand[s] ;Comment

Label - optional alphanumeric string 1st character must be a-z,A-Z,?,@,_,$ Last character must be : Operator - assembly language instruction mnemonic: an instruction format for humans Assembler translates mnemonic into hexadecimal opcode example: mov is f8h Operand[s] - 0 to 3 pieces of data required by instruction Can be several different forms Delineated by commas immediate, register name, memory data, memory address Comment - Extremely useful in assembler language These fields are separated by White Space (tab, blank, \n, etc.) DCSE CEG Anna University

8086 Instruction - Example
Label
INIT: mov

Operator
ax, bx

Operand[s]

;Comment

; Copy contents of bx into ax

Label Operator Operands Comment

-

INIT: mov ax and bx alphanumeric string between ; and \n

• Not case sensitive • Unlike other assemblers, destination operand is first • mov is the mnemonic that the assembler translates into an opcode

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Anatomy of MASM Source File
• Assembler program divided into segments • Segments defined in 1 or more modules
– contain instructions, data, assembler directives

• Each module is a separate file
– Assembler translates modules to object files

• Linker does several things
– – – – Combines multiple object files Resolves relative addresses Inserts loader code Creates executable

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Assembler Language Segment Types
• Stack
– For dynamic data storage – Source file defines size – Must have exactly 1

• Data
– – – – For static data Storage Source file defines size Source file defines content (optional) Can have 0 or more

• Code
– For machine Instructions – Must have 1 or more

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Using MASM Assembler
• to get help:
C:\> masm /h

• Can just invoke MASM with no arguments:
C:\> masm
Source Filename Object Filename Source Listing Cross Reference [.ASM]: hello [HELLO.OBJ]: [NUL.LST]: [NUL.CRF]:

• .ASM - Assembler source file prepared by programmer • .OBJ - Translated source file by assembler • .LST - Listing file, documents “Translation” process
– Errors, Addresses, Symbols, etc

• .CRF – Cross reference file
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Using MASM Assembler/Linker (Cont.)
• Another way to invoke assembler:
C:\> masm hello,,hello,hello

• This causes MASM to create:
HELLO.OBJ HELLO.LST HELLO.CRF

• Yet another way:
C:\> masm hello

• This causes MASM to create:
HELLO.OBJ

• Next step is to create executable file using the linker:
C:\> link hello

• This causes linker to create:
HELLO.EXE
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MASM Assembler Language
• Each module contains 4 types of statements:
1. 2. 3. 4. Executable instructions MASM assembler directives MASM macroinstruction definitions MASM macroinstruction calls

Executable Instr.: Instructions that the x86 can fetch from memory and execute MASM Dir.: Programmer supplied directives that guide the “translation” process MASM Macro Defs. and Calls:

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x86 Instruction Type Classifications
• DATA TRANSFER
– General – – – – – – – – Integer Floating Point Logical Shifting Branching Interrupt Subroutine call JUMP JMP
mov ax, [DAT1] ;ax gets contents of mem

• ARITHMETIC/LOGIC
add fadd and ror ax, bx DAT ax, bx ax, 2 ;ax gets ax+bx ;ST get ST+DAT ;ax gets ax AND bx ;ax contents shifted-2 right

• CONTROL TRANSFER
jnz int SUB1 LAbel LABEL1 21h ;if ZF=1 then IP=LABEL1 ;invoke INT handler 21h

;invoke subroutine, SUB1 ;CS:IP = label

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x86 Instruction Set Summary
(Not Included in Following Slides)

• Floating Point
• Special Protected Mode

8087
80386

• MMX (DSP)

Pentium MMX

• SSE (Streaming SIMD Extension) - Special SIMD Pentium III • Others (few specialized added with each generation)

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MASM Program Example
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ; This is an example program. It prints the ; ; character string "Hello World" to the DOS standard output ; ; using the DOS service interrupt, function 9. ; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; hellostk SEGMENT BYTE STACK 'STACK' ;Define the stack segment DB 100h DUP(?) ;Set maximum stack size to 256 bytes (100h) hellostk ENDS

hellodat dos_print strng hellodat
hellocod START:

SEGMENT BYTE 'DATA' ;Define the data segment EQU 9 ;define a constant via EQU DB 'Hello World',13,10,'$' ;Define the character string ENDS
SEGMENT BYTE 'CODE' ;Define mov ax, SEG hellodat mov ds, ax mov ah, dos_print mov dx,OFFSET strng int 21h mov ax, 4c00h int 21h ENDS END START the Code segment ;ax <-- data segment start address ;ds <-- initialize data segment register ;ah <-- 9 DOS 21h string function ;dx <-- beginning of string ;DOS service interrupt ;ax <-- 4c DOS 21h program halt function ;DOS service interrupt

hellocod

; ‘END label’ defines program University entry DCSE CEG Anna

Another Way to define Segments
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; Use 'assume' directive to define segment types ; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; hellostk SEGMENT ;Define a segment DB 100h DUP(?) hellostk ENDS hellodat dos_print strng hellodat hellocod START: SEGMENT ;define a segment EQU 9 ;define a constant DB 'Hello World',13,10,'$' ;Define the character string ENDS SEGMENT ;define a segment assume cs:hellocod, ds:hellodat, ss: hellostk mov ax, hellodat ;ax <-- data segment start address mov ds, ax ;ds <-- initialize data segment register mov ah, dos_print ;ah <-- 9 DOS 21h string function mov dx,OFFSET strng ;dx <-- beginning of string int 21h ;DOS service interrupt mov ax, 4c00h ;ax <-- 4c DOS 21h program halt function int 21h ;DOS service interrupt ENDS START
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hellocod END

Yet another way to define Segs
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; Use .stack,.data,.code directives to define segment types ; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; .stack 100h ; reserve 256 bytes of stack space .data dos_print EQU 9 strng DB 'Hello World',13,10,'$'

;define a constant ;Define the character string

.code START: mov mov mov mov int mov int ax, SEG strng ds, ax ah, dos_print dx,OFFSET strng 21h ax, 4c00h 21h ;ax <-- data segment start address ;ds <-- initialize data segment register ;ah <-- 9 DOS 21h string function ;dx <-- beginning of string ;DOS service interrupt ;ax <-- 4c DOS 21h program halt function ;DOS service interrupt

END

START

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Masm Assembler Directives

end label proc far|near

end of program, label is entry point begin a procedure; far, near keywords specify if procedure in different code segment (far), or same code segment (near) end of procedure set a page format for the listing file title of the listing file mark start of code segment mark start of data segment set size of stack segment

endp page title .code .data .stack

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Data Allocation Directives
db dw dd dq dt equ Examples: db 100 dup (?) db “Hello” define 100 bytes, with no initial values for bytes define 5 bytes, ASCII equivalent of “Hello”. define byte define word (2 bytes) define double word (4 bytes) define quadword (8 bytes) define tenbytes equate, assign numeric expression to a name

maxint equ
count equ

32767
10 * 20 ; calculate a value (200)
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List of Programs
1)

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

write a program in debug calculate the sum of 4 words (each 16 bit data) data are 1234H, 03FDH, 4FD3H and 11FFH data is located at offset address of 0, 2, 4, 6 code starts at address 10H the result should be stored in location 8,9 save your program including the data run the program and write the sum. In your email you should attach the file and write the sum value in your email. The name of the file should be your firstname_lastname.com Note that finding how to save the file in debug is your responsibility

2) a. b. c. d. e. f.

write an assembly program and the compile it using masm and link move data from location of memory to another. Source data is “Salam your_first_name” Put separate code and data segment for your code Put some spaces in your data segment for destination Use masm and link and include .asm, .lst, .exe files in your email. The name of the file should be hw2
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