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What is an ABAP?
ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) is a high level programming language created by the German software company SAP. It is currently positioned as the language for programming SAP's Web Application Server, part of its NetWeaver platform for building business applications. Its syntax is somewhat similar to COBOL.
What is an ABAP data dictionary?
ABAP 4 data dictionary describes the logical structures of the objects used in application development and shows how they are mapped to the underlying relational database in tables/views.
What are domains and data element?
Domains:Domain is the central object for describing the technical characteristics of an attribute of an business objects. It describes the value range of the field. Data Element: It is used to describe the semantic definition of the table fields like description the field. Data element describes how a field can be displayed to end-user.
What is foreign key relationship?
A relationship which can be defined between tables and must be explicitly defined at field level. Foreign keys are used to ensure the consistency of data. Data entered should be checked against existing data to ensure that there are now contradiction. While defining foreign key relationship cardinality has to be specified. Cardinality mentions how many dependent records or how referenced records are possible.
Describe data classes.
Master data: It is the data which is seldom changed. Transaction data: It is the data which is often changed. Organization data: It is a customizing data which is entered in the system when the system is configured and is then rarely changed. System data:It is the data which R/3 system needs for itself.
What are indexes?
Indexes are described as a copy of a database table reduced to specific fields. This data exists in sorted form. This sorting form ease fast access to the field of the tables. In order that other fields are also read, a pointer to the associated record of the actual table are included in the index. The indexes are activated along with the table and are created automatically with it in the database.
Difference between transparent tables and pooled tables.
Transparent tables: Transparent tables in the dictionary has a one-to-one relation with the table in database. Its structure corresponds to single database field. Table in the database has the same name as in the dictionary. Transparent table holds application data. Pooled tables. Pooled tables in the dictionary has a many-to-one relation with the table in database. Table in the database has the different name as in the dictionary. Pooled table are stored in table pool at the database level.
What is an ABAP/4 Query?
ABAP/4 Query is a powerful tool to generate simple reports without any coding. ABAP/4 Query can generate the following 3 simple reports: Basic List: It is the simple reports.
Statistics: Reports with statistical functions like Average, Percentages. Ranked Lists: For analytical reports. - For creating a ABAP/4 Query, programmer has to create user group and a functional group. Functional group can be created using with or without logical database table. Finally, assign user group to functional group. Finally, create a query on the functional group generated.
What is BDC programming?
Transferring of large/external/legacy data into SAP system using Batch Input programming. Batch input is a automatic procedure referred to as BDC(Batch Data Communications). The central component of the transfer is a queue file which receives the data vie a batch input programs and groups associated data into “sessions”.
What are the functional modules used in sequence in BDC?
These are the 3 functional modules which are used in a sequence to perform a data transfer successfully using BDC programming: BDC_OPEN_GROUP - Parameters like Name of the client, sessions and user name are specified in this functional modules. BDC_INSERT - It is used to insert the data for one transaction into a session. BDC_CLOSE_GROUP - This is used to close the batch input session.
What are internal tables?
Internal tables are a standard data type object which exists only during the runtime of the program. They are used to perform table calculations on subsets of database tables and for re-organizing the contents of database tables according to users need.
What is ITS?
What are the merits of ITS?- ITS is a Internet Transaction Server. ITS forms an interface between HTTP server and R/3 system, which converts screen provided data by the R/3 system into HTML documents and vice-versa. Merits of ITS: A complete web transaction can be developed and tested in R/3 system. All transaction components, including those used by the ITS outside the R/3 system at runtime, can be stored in the R/3 system. The advantage of automatic language processing in the R/3 system can be utilized to language-dependent HTML documents at runtime.
What is DynPro?
DynPro is a Dynamic Programming which is a combination of screen and the associated flow logic Screen is also called as DynPro.
What are screen painter and menu painter?
Screen painter: Screen painter is a tool to design and maintain screen and its elements. It allows user to create GUI screens for the transactions. Attributes, layout, filed attributes and flow logic are the elements of Screen painter. Menu painter: Menu painter is a tool to design the interface components. Status, menu bars, menu lists, F-key settings, functions and titles are the components of Menu painters. Screen painter and menu painter both are the graphical interface of an ABAP/4 applications.
What are the components of SAP scripts?
SAP scripts is a word processing tool of SAP which has the following components: Standard text. It is like a standard normal documents. Layout sets. - Layout set consists of the following components: Windows and pages, Paragraph formats, Character formats. Creating forms in the R/3 system. Every layout set consists of Header, paragraph, and character string. ABAP/4 program.
At selection-screen. AT FIRST. to which screen it is passed. The report output can contain up to 90 columns in the display with the wide array of display options. What is a batch input session? BATCH INPUT SESSION is an intermediate step between internal table and database table. At line-selection. iii)central authorization checks for database accesses. What is CTS and what do you know about it? The Change and Transport System (CTS) is a tool that helps you to organize development projects in the ABAP Workbench and in Customizing. Read and follow this documentation when planning your development project. What is Smart Forms? Smart Forms allows you to create forms using a graphical design tool with robust functionality. and how next screen is processed. AT END. This documentation provides you with an overview of how to manage changes with the CTS and essential information on setting up your system and client landscape and deciding on a transport strategy. At PF. this set of ALV functions can help choose selected columns and arrange the different columns from a report output and also save different variants for report display. correct. and more. top-of-page. What are the events in ABAP/4 language? Initialization. Sap provides a set of ALV (ABAP LIST VIEWER) function modules which can be put into use to embellish the output of a report. Upload of the data from the source file. Data along with the action is stored in session ie data for screen fields. Modification of the source file. What are logical databases? What are the advantages/ dis-advantages of logical databases? To read data from a database tables we use logical database.so the code block associated with an event ends with the next event statement (such as another GET or an END-OFSELECTION). This is a very efficient tool for dynamically sorting and arranging the columns from a report output. Start-of-selection. ii)Meaningful data selection. end-of-selection. Advantages: i)check functions which check that user input is complete. ii)There is no ENDGET command.and plausible. all new forms developed at SAP will be created with the new Smart Form solution. In such cases. Get.the GET events never occur. end-ofpage. Cases arise in sap when the output of a report contains columns extending more than 255 characters in length. Download of the source file template. dis advantages: i)If you donot specify a logical database in the program attributes. . and then transport the changes between the SAP Systems and clients in your system landscape. At New. At user-command. This set of ALV functions is used to enhance the readability and functionality of any report output. color. At LAST. program name behind it. How to upload data using CATT ? These are the steps to be followed to Upload data through CATT: Creation of the CATT test case & recording the sample data input.What is ALV programming in ABAP? When is this grid used in ABAP? ALV is Application List viewer. Additionally. A logical database provides read-only access to a group of related tables to an ABAP/4 program. iv)good read access performance while retaining the hierarchical data view determined by the application logic.
When processing an internal table in a block starting with LOOP and concluded by ENDLOOP . then that transport will be client dependent. the internal table contains number fields.if f is type I . F or P . Table can have primary key but a structure dose not have. If you use only COLLECT to fill an internal table. COLLECT is used to create unique or compressed datsets. Subroutines (FORM) can be called from both the program the are defined in and other programs .How can I make a differentiation between dependent and independent data? Client dependent or independent transfer requirements include client specific or cross client objects in the change requests. 3. What is the difference between macro and subroutine? Macros can only be used in the program the are defined in and only after the definition are expanded at compilation / generation. but seen them in action).. SUM calculates the control totals of all fields of type I . COLLECT makes sure that the internal table does not contain two entries with the same default key fields. The key fields are the default key fields of the internal table itab . F and P (see also ABAP/4 number types ) and places them in the LOOP output area (header line of the internal table or an explicitly specified work area). Table can store the data physically but a structure dose not store.the contents of these number fields are added together if the internal table already contains an entry with . If the subroutine is called external (used by more than one program) use a FUNCTION. some entries in customizing are client independent. If the subroutine is used only local (called internal) use a FORM. If you display the object list for one change request. A FUNCTION is (more or less) a subroutine that is called external. structure doesn't stores underline database level. this output area must be compatible with the line type of the internal table. When you use SUM in a LOOP with an explicitly specified output area. 1. structure doesn't contain primary key. the control total of f at the end of the group appears in the field SUM(f) . A MACRO is more or less an abbreviation for some lines of code that are used more than once or twice. prevent the use of them (I’ve never used them. 2. What is the difference between collect and sum? SUM. What is the differences between structure and table in data dictionary in ABAP? Structure and table both are 2/2 matrices but there are many differences between table and structure. structure doesn't contain technical attributes. If one object in the task list has this flag on. Table can have the technical attribute but a structure dose not have. Workbench objects like SAPscripts are client specific. besides its default key fields. you will find the flag client specific. A FORM is a local subroutine (which can be called external). If. and then for each object the object attributes.When using LOOP to process a sorted extract (see SORT ). COLLECT. Since debugging a MACRO is not really possible.
. for a unique or compressed dataset which is also efficient. all the values are added up in the first table line.at last etc check docu What is the difference between Table and Template? table is a dynamic and template is a static When do we use End-of-selection? End-of-selection event are mostly usedÂ when we are writing HR-ABAP code. the entry to be processed is taken from the explicitly specified work area wa .at new 3.you have to explicitely mention the Start-of-selection event while you are writing the logic. When we have to use this event explicitly? Why? The default event in the ABAP is Start-of-selection.at first 2.We have to call explicitely this event when you are writing other than ths eventÂ . or two values with identical default key field values could not possibly occur in your particular task. If uniqueness or compression are unimportant. If you specify wa INTO . However. COLLECT is the statement to use. How we format the data before before write statement in report ? We can format the reports output by using the loop events like: 1.existing or new table entry with default key fields which match those of the entry to be processed. If not. If the default key of an internal table processed with COLLECT is blank. as described above and COLLECT will run very efficiently. it comes from the header line of the internal table itab . you should use APPEND instead. Before these events called .the same key fields. If you use COLLECT with an explicitly specified work area. In events start-of-selection is default event. Only by doing this can you guarantee that the internal table will actually be unique or compressed. you should also use COLLECT to fill it. COLLECT can create unique or compressed datasets and should be used precisely for this purpose. the system field SY-TABIX contains the index of the . If you process a table with COLLECT . that is when you write ATÂ SELECTIONSCREEN EVENTS OR INITIALIZATION EVENT etc. it must be compatible with the line type of the internal table.all the code you have written come into this default Start-ofselection screen event. After COLLECT . In the HRABAP code. data is retrived in the Start-of-selection event and Printing on the list and all will beÂ done in End-of-selection event.
you assign the datatype of another object to the declaring data object. What is table buffer? Which type of tables used this buffer? buffer is nothing but a memory area. cluster tables can not buffered. ABAP memory is available to the user duringÂ life timeÂ ofÂ external session.Press the Pattern button on Appl. LIKE. The datatype is referenced indirectly. when you call data from database table it will come from application server. What is the difference between Type and Like? Answer1: TYPE. In this way we link function module to ABAP Code. transperent and pooled tables are buffered. What is the difference between SAP memory and ABAP memory? Answer1: data sending between main sessions using get parameter and set parameter is sap memory data sending between internal sessions using import or export parameters is abap memory Answer2: sap memory is a global memory whereas abap memory is local memory. In which situation we use OOABAP? OOABAP is used to develop BSP/PCUI applications and also anthing involved object oriented like BADIs. SmartForms. we have four programs in abap memory and assigned some varibles to a particular program in abap memory then those varibles can't be used by anyother program in abap memory i.whereas sap memory can access all the abap memory or else it can perform any kind of modifications. table is buffered means that table information is available on application server.like KEY WORDS in Capitals and remaining are in small letters which is also depend on system settings. Pretty Printer is used to format the ABAP Code we write in ABAP Editor . What is the use of pretty printer ? Exactly where can we link the functional module to abap coding. the variables are only for that program and also local to that memory. tool bar then u will get box where u write the function module NAME which u want to call in the code by selecting the radio button CALL FUNCTION. For example. Answer3: SAP memory is available to the user during the entire terminal session. We can call the function module in the ABAP Code .What is the differences between ABAP and OOABAP..e.etc. Answer2: Type is a keyword used to refer to a data type whereas Like is a keyword used to copy the . you assign datatype directly to the data object while declaring.where as ABAP is used to develop traditional programs in R/3..
WAS web application server or ITS are generally used for this purpose. function group .module pool . programs ( where you can create ur programs) and BSP applications . In se80 ( object navigator) there are additional features such as creating packages. Generally used to search the fields of SAP Tables . these IDOC are interpretted by the system at the recieving end with the message class with which it is bound with. Answer1: Roll area is nothing but memory allocated by work process. Explain briefly? Answer1: SE16 is a T-code for object browser. Dialog programming is used for customization ofscreens How do you connect to the remote server if you are working from the office for the client in remote place.existing properties of already existing data object.classes. and respective data.. What is difference between dialog program and a report? Report is a excecutable program Dialog is a module pool program. intermidiate documents which carry the data you want to transfer or the documents you want to transfer.then remote login can be used this depends on the internet speed. Roll area: Each workprocess works in a particular memory that memory is known as Role . In se38 you can go create programs and view online reports and basically do all thedevelopmet of objects in this editor. For what is it used. ABAP-Processor. If you want to logon a system which is very distant. Answer3: type refers the existing data type like refers the existing data object What is Tcode SE16. Explain about roll area .It has to be executed via a transaction only. Answer2: Dispatcher recieves the request from client and assigns the request to one of the work process. It holds the information needed by R/3 about programs execution such as value of the variables. Further dispatcher sends this requests to work process on FIFO(First In and First Out) basis. Answer2: se16 is a data browse and it is used to view the contents of the table and we cannot change or append new fields to the existing structure of the table as we cannot view the structure level display using the se16 What are different ABAP/4 editors? What are the differences? The 2 editors are se38 and se80 both have the abap editor in place. Dispatcher. Dispatcher :All the requests that come from presentation server will be directed first to dispatcher. If you are sitting at your office with a server which is in the system and the other server is at the clients place you can generate IDOC.
Processor :is an interpretor which can execute logic Which one is not an exit comand ? (Exit. Effect :The statement STOP is only to be used in executable programs EXIT. the syntax for fieldsymbol is FIELD-SYMBOL <N>. FOR FIELD SYMBOL. WRITE:/ <FS>. In this example the name of a table control is substituted by a field symbol. WRITE:/ <FS>. MOVE TIM TO <FS>. MOVE DAT TO <FS>. DATA: DAT LIKE SY-DATUM. The output will be . back) STOP. Example form insert_row using p_tc_name. BACK. Effect :If the EXIT statement is executed outside of a loop. FIELD-SYMBOL : <FS>. num instead of that it points to the memory block. ABAP. Answer2: fieldsymbol has the same concept as pointer in c. it will immediately terminate the current processing block.Area. stop. MOVE CHAR TO <FS>. EG. "Table control assign (p_tc_name) to <tc>. TIM LIKE SY-UZEIT. cencle. * insert 100 lines in table control <tc>-lines = 100. which consists of User context and session data. Effect : This statement positions the list cursor on the first position of the first line in a logical unit. CHAR(3) TYPE C VALUE 'ADF'. fieldsymbol don't point to a data type like char. WRITE:/ <FS>. So "Cancle" is not an exit command What is Field symbol ? Answer1: You can use field symbols to make the program more dynamic. using the name of the table control as a parameter. field-symbols <tc> type cxtab_control. Thus you cal call the form with any internal table.
Also it is OOD bases so dosen"t depends on screen flow.meaning they can only be called from within the same program whereas subroutines can be called internally (FORM) or externally (FUNCTION). it is again a collection of code. MACRO’s are generally faster than subroutines. Subroutines can take any number of arguments as well. are stored. also known as metadata. the code segments are not inserted into the program as in a MACRO. Why BAPI need then BDC ? BAPI"S provide the standard interface to other applications apart from SAP and within differnt vesions of SAP too. the control is returned back. Once done. . In case of subroutine. Q2: Can you tell me what an ABAP data dictionary is? ABAP data dictionary is a central repository where all data descriptions. Also. Another major difference is that MACRO’s can only be local. In case of MACRO. what makes it different from MACRO is that it is expanded during runtime. It can take up to 9 parameters and are usually expanded during compilation/ code generation. However. When a MACRO is invoked. It’s usually a collection of code. Instead. program control is transferred to the memory location that stores the subroutine. but are resource intensive. the resulting code is inserted into the program.Today's date current time What is lock object ? LockObjects used to synchornize access of several users using same data. BDC gets failed if we make changes for screen changes through IMG customization Q1: Differentiate between a Macro and a Subroutine Both MACRO’s and Subroutine’s help make the code more organized.
It controls the data flow between Web server and R/3 application server and enabling application user access to Internet application components (IACs).Data is usually distributed among different tables. Views are used to summarize these Lock Objects. Application gateway 3. They are Tables. Mapping Manager Q5: Differentiate: Transparent tables. Export Data Q4: What is ITS? ITS stands for Internet Transaction Server.The system ensures that there are no redundant data in the dictionary and makes the data available for all system components automatically. ITS links a Web server and R/3 application server. businesses can make use of LSMW tool which can support the transfer of data. The main functions are 1. In such cases. It’s a middleware that makes web based access to several SAP products possible. Cluster tables and Pooled tables .These are used to synchronize simultaneous data access of the same data by different users Q3: When do you prefer using LSMW? Sometimes businesses might need to shift from traditional or legacy systems to SAP. Components of ITS 1. Import Data 2.This is defined globally and any change to type is automatically reflected in all the programs that make use of the same type Views. Web gateway 2. The ABAP dictionary has several object types.Represents DB tables where data is present Types.
It’s not possible to create secondary indexes for cluster tables. It is possible to create secondary indexes in case of transparent tables. A single table can have either one or multiple primary keys. in bound 2.Transparent Table: A transparent table contains only a single table.they can even be called as Sequential files. Cluster Table: Instead of a single large table. outbound RFC . Each table will have a primary key and it does not begin with the same fields.Batch data communication in which there are 2 processes 1. How to do back ground processing in BDC Session method ? . Read Dataset. These tables are generally used to hold master data. What are the table controls in BDC ? What is the difference between bdc and lsmw ? What is the difference between bdc and rfc ? BDC . Read datasets ( Reading and writing data to files)? Date Sets are nothing but files on Application Server. Is used to read the contents required file on the application Server. They are used for performance improvement purposes such as when several tables have to be opened at the same time. The primary key of each field begins with the same field as well. This table is mainly used to store system data and contains data from a few large tables. The relationship is many to one in this case. Open datasets. It has a 1-1 relation with the table in DB and stores data directly. You can access them via native as well as open SQL. Pooled Tables: This is a combination of cluster and transparent data. cluster tables hold multiple small tables. The relationship here is again many-to-one as in cluster table. Open Dataset Is used to open required file on the application Server. It is not possible to create secondary indexes and can be accessed only via open SQL.remote fucntion call(or) calling Data conversion experience? DATA CONVERSIONS: SAP HAS PROVIDED A TOOL NAMED LSMW WHICH CONVERTS THE LEGACY DATA INTO THE REQUIRED SAP FORMAT AND UPDATES THE DATABASE.
What is the difference between Upload and WS_Upload ? The diffrence between WS_Upload and Upload is when you use function Upload it prompts for a dailog box where in you need to key in the file location. ASSIGN COMPONENT l_index OF STRUCTURE itab TO <f_value>. SM35 transaction . MOVE : wa_cells-value TO <f_value>. How to automate BDC ? sm35 is used to play girls for better nightfalls. How to load data from MS Excel sheet to SAP by using BDC method ? KCD_EXCEL_OLE_TO_INT_CONVERT even takes care of blank cells and is available in older versions of SAP * Add values to internal table SORT t_cells BY row col. What is the difference between call transaction and session method? Session method: The records are not added to the database until the session is processed. MOVE : wa_cells-col TO l_index. Updation in database table is either Synchronous or Asynchronous. ENDAT. APPEND itab CLEAR itab. ENDLOOP.goto sm35 select the option background process Call transaction method. THEN FINALLY THE CAPTURED ERRORS MUST TO SENT TO THE INTERNAL TABLE WHICH WE DECLARED IN THE BEGINNING WITH BDCMSGCOLL BY USING THE FUNCTION MODULE "FORMAT_MESSAGE" AND THUS THE ERROR MESSAGES WILL BE SENT TO THE INTERNAL TABLE WHICH WE DECLARED AT THE BEGINNING.Where as in case of WS_Upload you specify the file location in the function input parameters itself . THEN WHILE WRITING THE CALL TRANSACTION STATEMENT WE SHOULD PUT THE 'E' MODE FOR CAPTURING ALL THE ERRORS. Error logs are created for error records. LOOP AT t_cells INTO wa_cells. AT END OF row. how to capture the errors ? IN CALL TRANSACTION TO CAPTURE THE ERRORS WE SHOULD PERFORM THE FOLLOWING. Call Transaction method: The records are immediately added to the database table. Updation in database table is always Synchronous. FIRST ME MUST DECLARE AN INTERNAL TABLE WITH THE STRUCTURE OF BDCMSGCOLL TABLE. sy-subrc is not returned. sysubrc is returned to 0 if successful. Error logs are not created and hence the errors need to be handled explicitly.
Also in the session method while processing the session you can specify the processing type as background or foreground. Have you set up a back ground job ? How to create a background job without a variant ? Yes. A function should return the value mandatory. So its compulsory return the value.Read dataset and Close dataset In session method sy-subrc is not returned whereas in call transaction method sysubrc is returned . What kind of BDC programs are written ? There are five types of BDC methods available.Batch input session 2. what does it mean? While to transfer the data from the through if any errors occurs until the errors are the complete the data is not transfer to the SAP system. but some times while updating the database referential integrity is violated. user can avoid manual search for fields and tables required in a program including screen numbers. Alert Message is created in the CCMS monitor using TCodes RZ20 and RZ21. that errors are stored into the error logs (Transaction is SM35). Recording Function With recording. the system compulsory shows the errors. user can create background job scheduling in two ways. In call transaction method data is directly pass to the SAP system. The values for Alert AutoReaction Methods are defined using the TCode RZ21. 1. SHDB is the transaction code. By calling the executable program RSBDCSUB 2. Transaction Code SM37 What are the tools used in SAP Implementation? How do you create Alert Messages? One of the Tools being used for SAP Implemention is QuickSizer. so the session method should not return any value. which is used to size the SAP Server based on number of users using various modules in SAP. Because of the call transaction is the function.If I want to execute a program only in background not in foreground is there any option for this? The sm37 transaction can be used for running a program in the background.LSMW How to read files and process BDCs automatically? To read file from Presentation server use Upload or GUI Upload or WS upload and to read file from Application server use Opend Dataset. They are 1.Recording 4. .Direct Input and 5. BDC vs Direct Loads( have you used direct loads on SAP tables ) Direct loads is 5 times faster than uploading by normal BDC method. while this particular method is assigned to the Monitoring Tree Element (MTE) in the TCode RZ20.Call Transaction 3.
but not all. wiping out all changes (and savepoints) that occurred later than the named savepoint. COMMIT makes the database changes permanent and visible to other database sessions. Transactions begin with the first change to data and end with either a COMMIT or ROLLBACK. Tp is the basic tool for the transporting the request. ROLLBACK undoes the changes made in the current transaction either to the beginning of the transaction or to a savepoint. ROLLBACK FORCE). What is the difference between R3trans and Tp in SAP-DBA? R/3trans is the R/3 system transport program which can be used for transporting data between different SAP systems . and select * from database table into table (internal table name) the above statement collects the data into the body area directly . A savepoint is a named processing point in a transaction. What is “Group by” in Select statement? Answer1: Group by is used to fetch a unique data from a column. where alerts from the Entire Landscape can be configured in a Central Monitoring System from where it can trigger a alert mail or SMS to the concerned Administrator When spool buffer is full and new spool request is raised what happens to the request ? where does the request stored? The new spool request will be in the queue.MAX().. MIN(). for example. of the database model for transactions (you cannot. Rows not included in the "group by" clouse and not part of ARG functions cannot be used .One as well can have an Alert Management System. Answer2: A "group by" is used to group selected rows in a table to perform arg functions on them. AVG() Select statement to read data into internal tables.(logical grouping of data) or orerations performed (on groups of data) can be used with the "HAVING" clause to further refine the output.. Explain “Commit” and “Roll back” The Oracle RDBMS provides a transaction model based on a unit of work. Rolling back to a savepoint is a partial rollback of a transaction. R3trans normally is not used directorly but called from the Tp controle program or by the R/3 upgrade. What happens “Update” command is used without where clause ? Answer1: . created with the SAVEPOINT statement. If it is urgent request then the current request will be be stoped and newrequest will be send. Types of Select statements select * from database table into (internal table name) the above statement collects data into the header area of the internal table. The PL/SQL language supports most.even when they dont belong to the same group. ex of some ARG functions : SUM() .
if you have many statements in the query you need to use the where clause. Match code objects.If record is available it modifies otherwise it wont modify.It will update all the records with same name in the particular field of the table. ex: update employee set firstname= @firstname.If record is available its update the record otherwise it creates a new record.Add a new record into the database table." Can you create a table with fields not referring to data elements ? YES. eg:. UPDATE . views. Answer2: If we dont mention "WHERE" clause in the UPDATE statement. STEP 3: DEPENDING UPON THE BDC TYPE ." This is translated in English as "Systems. Applications. data elements. Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung.If record is available it modifies otherwise it wont modify. “Update” and “Modify” INSERT . lock objects. UPDATE .Add a new record into the database table.ITAB LIKE SPFLI. What should be the approach for writing a BDC program ? STEP 1: CONVERTING THE LEGACY SYSTEM DATA TO A FLAT FILE to internal table CALLED "CONVERSION". MODIFY . MODIFY . 'Modify' it is a combination of both insert and update.. What are the different types of data dictionary objects? tables. it will update all records satisfying the given condition (if given any ) in the table ! Answer3: Based on query condition.. domains.here we are referening to a data object(SPFLI) not data element. STEP 2: TRANSFERING THE FLAT FILE INTO SAP SYSTEM CALLED "SAP DATA TRANSFER".If record is available its update the record otherwise it creates a new record. What is SAP R/3 ? The name SAP a German company is an acronym for "Systeme. Anwendungen. structures. Difference between “Insert”. so in the above case nothing wil be happen if you used where clause or not. 'Update' will modify a record in the DB table. and Products in Data Processing. it will update all the fields which are mentioned in the query. “Catch” Command Trying to catch any runtime errors programmatically or manually we use this statement catch. Answer2: INSERT .lastname=@lastname where employee_id =@employee_id. What are logical databases? Answer1: insert' will add a new record or a new row into the database table.
What does an extract statement do in the ABAP program ? Once you have declared the possible record types as field groups and defined their structure. Can a transparent table exist in data dictionary but not in the data base physically ? NO. step 2: creating data elements(properties and type for a table field). A situation: An ABAP program creates a batch input session. As soon as the system has processed the first EXTRACT statement for a field group . you can fill the extract dataset using the following statements: EXTRACT. you fill the extract dataset with records of different length and structure. the structure of the corresponding extract record in the extract dataset is fixed.BODY. However if session is processed we may delete it manually. extract datasets provide the advantage that you need not determine the structure at the beginning of the program. DATA ELEMENT : A FIELD IN R/3 SYSTEM IS A DATA ELEMENT.FOOTER. field length. How to do it ? go to SM36 and create background job by giving job name. a runtime error occurs. By processing EXTRACT statements several times using different field groups. . the system creates the extract dataset and adds the first extract record to it. When you extract the data. You can no longer insert new fields into the field groups and HEADER. Since you can modify field groups dynamically up to their first usage in an EXTRACT statement. ii)if session processing fails data will not be transferred to SAP database table. the record is filled with the current values of the corresponding fields. the new extract record is added to the dataset EXTRACT HEADER. In each subsequent EXTRACT statement. If success data will transfer).EXACTLY WITH THE SAME DATA AND FIELDS. What are the problems in processing batch input sessions and How is batch input process different from processing online ? PROBLEMS: i) If the user forgets to opt for keep session then the session will be automatically removed from the session queue(log remains). TRANSPARENT TABLE DO EXIST WITH THE SAME STRUCTURE BOTH IN THE DICTIONARY AS WELL AS IN THE DATABASE. If you try to modify one of the field groups afterwards and use it in another EXTRACT statement. job class and job steps (JOB SCHEDULING) What are the domains and data elements ? DOMAINS : FORMAL DEFINITION OF THE DATA TYPES.THEY SET ATTRIBUTES SUCH AS DATA TYPE.LENGTH.RANGE. step 3: creating tables(SE11).i)call transaction(Write the program explicity) ii) create sessions (sessions are created and processed. What is the typical structure of an ABAP/4 program? HEADER . We need to submit the program and the batch session in back ground. What is the step by step process to create a table in data dictionary ? step 1: creating domains(data type. When the first EXTRACT statement occurs in a program. range).
Accenture.append? Ans.. Include structure allows to add one or more structure into structure or table.GLOBAL EXISTANCE(these could be used by any other program without creating it again).? After Observing many interviews.Also placed positioning anywhere. one cannot use native sql on these tables (only open sql). 5. ii)Pool tables & iii)Cluster tables . 2. Upto 6 include structure can be used in a table. What is the advantage of structures? How do you use them in the ABAP programs? Adv:. Difference between . Data along with the action is stored in session ie data for screen fields. Yes it is possible to write call transaction and session in one program.These are logical tables that are arranged as records of transparent tables. Finally i come up with the following questions which are mostly asked in all the Big companies including SAP Labs. Both Opensql and Nativesql can be used. How many types of tables exists and what are they in data dictionary? 4 types of tables i)Transparent tables .Only one append structure can be used . When we need to update medium amount of data we use LSMW. Which BDC you prefer? Ans. iv)Internal tables . When u prefer LSMW? Ans. and how next screen is processed.What is the alternative to batch input session? Call transaction. program name behind it.include and . If we want to transfer large amount of data and when we need to use more than one transaction code we prefer session method.They are not managable directly using database system tools. (This is more genric answer but you can add more on to this if you have worked on BDC) 3. TCS . Can we write the code both call transaction and session method in single program? Ans. to which screen it is passed. For small or less amount of data and for single transaction use call transaction. Infosys etc… 1. LSMW is also used when the person like functional consultant has less programming language.Exists with the same structure both in dictionary as well as in database exactly with the same data and fields. IBM . Append structure can be placed only at the end of a structure or table which also stops further insertion of fields. What is a batch input session? BATCH INPUT SESSION is an intermediate step between internal table and database table. Deloitte .
7. 5.?? . run the program RSTXDBUG in se 38 . What is page window? Ans : page window is nothing but a container of a page .then goto SE38 execute the print program .now open the print program in se 38 …u vll notice that the print prgm is automatically diverted to debugging mode. During writing select query write all fields in sequence as per database table. What is the difference between scrolling a table horizontally and vertically. 11.occur statement allocates 8kb of memory to the internal table. 10. This concept is mainly used in IDOC where u select the partner profile using Tcode We20 .endloop. Occurs addition to the Declaration will give initial size to that table.it automatically goes to debugging mode …. Two ways to debug sapscript .the other way is . 4.6.with Tcode SM59 you create RFC(remote function call) to create communication link to a remote system. 3. customer window . What is partner selection? Ans. How to debug sapscripts ? Ans. execute it . first way is goto SE 71 and from menu bar select Utilities->activate debugger . terms and condition window etc … 12. 1. 8. Use binary search but before using binary search sort that table. Use st05 SQL trace. The sequence of fields must be same as per database table 2. billing document header window . Preformance techniques Ans. code inspector. se30 run time analysis.. slin. a message will show that debugger is activated . Always use primary key 7.. What is occurs in internal table? Ans.which uniquely identifies a set of data …for example while creating invoice …we create logo window .etc. Never write select statements inside loop…. Use select single * statement instead of select * 6.
What are the different buffering methods? There are two different buffering methods The system ensures that data transfer between the R/3 System and the database system is as efficient as possible. User command. it improves performance 10 to 100 times more 17. it uses the following techniques: . RFC is Remote Function call so it can’t access the values with Pass by reference. It should always be a HEADER field group that defines how the extracted data will be sorted. To do this. 16.How the values will be passed to RFC Function module PassbyValue or Passbyreference? Ans: always Pass by Value. Line selection. at runtime. End of Selection. Top of page. Buffering concept usage? Ans: There are three type of buffer 1 single record 2 generic buffer 3 full buffer Buffering is use for improve performance. 13. Start of Selection.(Again it will assign only One Record to the internal table/Work area) 18.Ans: In table control when you scroll a table vertically presentation server needs to call application server to fetch the next record and display in the table while in case of horizontal scroll there is no need to call application server. 14. the INSERT command is used to define which data fields are assigned to which field group are called Field Groups. End.Initialization. 15. If more than one matching records are there then only the first matching record will be considered other records will not be taken into account. Where as select up to 1 rows will fetch all the matching records from the database. Select up to 1 row and select single difference ? Ans: Select single fetches first matching record. Selection Screen. List the events in ABAP/4 Language? Ans: The events in ABAP/4 are load of program . What are Field Groups? Ans: A group that combines several fields fewer than one name. First. the fields grouped under the HEADER field group sort the data.
v o Enhanced write lock (exclusive lock without cumulation) Works like a write lock except that the enhanced write lock also protects from further accesses from the same transaction. The write lock allows other transactions neither read nor write access to the locked area of the table. If you are triggering the RFC from SAP portal make sure that both the user ID should be same If the users are different then provide the XI/Portal User ID in the users field.As all the Development Object are stored in client independent tables. v o Write lock (exclusive lock) Protects write access to an object.How to Debug RFC Function module? Ans: SE38 –> Utilities –> Settings –> ABAP Editor –> Debugging Activate the external debugging and choose the New Debugger option in ABAP debugger. Database request buffering: Individual database entries are not read or passed to the database until required by an OPEN SQL statement. 19. The read lock allows other transactions read access but not write access to the locked area of the table.? Ans-: Smartforms create its own function module so it doesn’t need to transport the request through SCC1.Why sapscripts are client dependent and smartforms are client independent. Whereas Script doesn’t generate any function module while executing so we need to transport the request number through . 22.Table buffering: The program accesses data from the buffer of the application server. Different types of locks? v Read lock (shared lock) Protects read access to an object. 20.It is written inside the screen flow logic. 21. Go to the particular place in the code and put break point. CHAIN END CHAIN? Ans: Chain and end chain are used for multiple field validation in Module pool programming . pop will appear then choose the HTTP break point.
2.I am uploading 100 records out of which say 59th record has error so what will happen if i am using synchronous or asynchronous method of BDC? Can we update the database using local update mode how? 26. . Multiple implementation means Reusability… because we use OOps Concepts for BADI. Where as in case of select option we have to explicitly create internal table. Ans: HELLO (Explain the importance of LOAD-OF-PROGRAM Event. AT-LAST: This event is used when we want to execute the statements after all records are processed. 4. WRITE:/”HELLO”. It is a tool available in abap by which we can add or delete multiple records at a time and it is executed or triggered by the transaction code SM30. AT-NEW: This event is used when we want to execute the statement before group of records are processed. 24. When u declares a select options it will implicitly declare an internal table (ranges) for you. 3.HIGH. The main difference between select option and ranges is that ranges implicitly or automatically creates internal table with fields like OPTION.etc .SCC1. 23. AT-END: This event is used when we want to execute the statements after processing of group of records. While using RANGES syntax u can declare internal table explicitly. What is TMG? Ans. Control break events in ABAP:1.If you dont know Tell the interviewer as this event is used in such cases when you want to clear sum buffers or something Before calling that Program) 27. 25. Difference between select option and ranges ? Ans. TMG stands for Table Maintenance generator.so sapscripts are client dependent and smartforms are client independent. Suppose i am writing following code then what will be output? LOAD-OF-PROGRAM.Sap script is stroed in side the client depended table as a TEXT.LOW.SIGN. 28. AT-FIRST: This is used when we want to execute the statements before records are processed. Difference between user exit and BADIs? Ans: User exit is for single implementation and it is procedural approach while BADIs are for multiple implementation and object oriented approach.
Note: All validations of the selection screen fields e. SELECT ** from ** where MATNR in val_range. the s_matnr field created above should be done in selection screen events like AT SELECTION-SCREEN etc and not in PAI. b) In the top include of your module pool program declare a selection screen as a subscreen e.Create a SELECT-OPTIONS in module pool screen using two methods as shown. ” ‘KUNNR’ struc_tab_and_field-tablename = con_kna1. CALL FUNCTION ‘COMPLEX_SELECTIONS_DIALOG’ EXPORTING* TITLE = ‘ ‘ text = g_titl1 ” ‘Customers’ tab_and_field = struc_tab_and_field TABLES RANGE = rng_kunnr EXCEPTIONS NO_RANGE_TAB = 1 CANCELLED = 2 INTERNAL_ERROR = 3 INVALID_FIELDNAME = 4 . c) In the PBO and PAI of the main screen where the select options needs to be created do a call subscreen of the above screen (100).g. ” ‘KNA1′. Method 1:—a) Create a subscreen area in your screen layout where you want to create the select options.g. CALL SUBCREEN sub_area INCLUDING <program> <screen> This CALL SUBSCREEN statement is necessary for transport of values between screen and program. continued …… struc_tab_and_field-fieldname = con_cust. These selection screen validations etc should be done in the top include only. is it possible to bring select option in module pool screens? Ans. SELECTION-SCREEN BEGIN OF SCREEN 100 AS SUBSCREEN.g. Insert an icon beside the high value which will call the multiple selections popup screen on user command. Use function module COMPLEX_SELECTIONS_DIALOG to achieve this. here u can use select-option or ranges : val_range. SELECTION-SCREEN END OF SCREEN. select-options s_matnr for mara-matnr.The only need of declaring ranges is when you r not taking input from the user but you want make limit based selection at that time it will be use full e. 29. Method 2:——a) Create 2 separate fields in your screen layout – one for the low value and one for the high value.
HAS_FIELD_SEPERATOR ‘X’ ‘X’ can provide the Whatever delimiter we used in flat file for separation. .For up loading text file we use the pre-defined FM gui_upload. You can use the return table rng_kunnr to populate your own internal range table with the values entered by the user. in that FM we have the parameter has_field_seperator for that we assign the default delimiter ‘x’. g_cust = rng_kunnr-low. If i want to execute a BDC program only in background not in foreground is there any option for this? Ans. ENDIF.How can we handle table control in BDC? Ans. What is the land scape in sap. * Read the very first entry of the range table and pass it to * dynpro screen field *READ TABLE rng_kunnr INDEX 1.We can handle table control using line index Line index indicates which line of Table control is to be use for BDC transaction Ex perform bdc_field using ‘RC29K-AUSKZ(01)’ Indicates 1st line of table control is going to be used for transaction which is Line index of Table Control 32.The sm37 transaction can be used for running a program in the background. 33. IF sy-subrc = 0.Once the respective secondary indexes are created write select queries and within select queries specify secondary indexes field name with where clause. We can create one primary index and 15 secondary indexes. Also in the session method while processing the session you can specify the processing type as background or foreground. ENDIF.explain with simple example Ans: First create secondary indexes on required fields of a particular database table.How Can We upload a text file having Delimiters in to Legacy System Ans. 30.OTHERS = 5. 31. 34. IF NOT rng_kunnr IS INITIAL. Basically here you are just simulating the work of a select-options parameter by module pool screen elements.how we can retrive data using secondary index.
what will happen if i use projection view and maintainence view together? 4.How will u edit fields from output list of alv? ==================================================== . 35. Tell me about workbench request and customization requests. How will u create sapscripts & smartforms in multiple language? 3.How to execute sap script & smart forms in Background? 4.Ans.append how will u do table enhancement? 2.what r the events of table maintainence generator? 3. In every organisation sap landscape involves three servers viz.How will u print footers in alv report? 2. actually it is client dependent.include & .How to do total & subtotal in scripts & forms? ================================================= DATA DICTIONARY 1. data should not disturb how can i do this? ===================================================== REPORTS 1. Workbench request are client dependent or client independent Ans. but customized request has to import in that client perticular client where it is created.production server data is ready for final business use. Workbench request are client independent. (Common Man Workbench request holds the Program . Development server.Workbench (ABAP Dev) request is client independent when you import it into one system it reflact it in all client in same system. I created ZEMP table now i want to add more data but prev. Can we write the code/program inside sap script? 2. Whatever new development we do as per clients requirement is done in development server. Later to test the developed object we move it to quality server for testing and finally once everything goes clear then the object is moved to production server . How it can be Client Dependent!!!!) 36. FM etc…. Other Interview questions… SAP SCRIPTS & FORMS 1. Quality server and Production server. Ans.Apart from .
what is routine? how it is different from user exits? .How to write customer exits? 3.me21n? 2.what r the fields u took during recording for mmo1.BDC 1.what r enhancement points? 2.If u want to do bdc for xd01 explain me how will be the flow? ================================================= user exits 1.
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