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Final Presentation

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02/20/2013

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ThermoAcoustic Refrigeration

ThermoAcoustic Refrigeration Generation Engineering Team

Team Members
   

Trevor Bourgeois Mike Horne Peter Smith Erin MacNeil

Supervisor – Dr. Murat Koksal

Design Description

Thermoacoustic Refrigerator
– –


Unpressurized System Air as Gas Medium Loudspeaker as Acoustic Driver Variable design (stacks)

Advantages of Thermoacoustic Refrigeration
– –

No Environmentally-Harmful Refrigerants Mechanically Simple

Summary of Fall Term
  

Work to understand Theory Development of Mathematical Model Construction of two Prototypes
– –

Standing wave created No DT

Identification of Stack as most important component

Main Prototype Components


 

Speaker Gas Tube Stack Heat Exchangers

Speaker  Considerations – – Power Capacity Frequency Response  Choice – – – 10 inch Operates At Low Frequencies (100 Hz) 400 W Maximum Power .

Gas Medium  Considerations – – – Physical Properties Sealing Cost  Choice – – Air Atmospheric Pressure .

Tube  Considerations – – – – – Length Diameter Sound Reflection Low Acoustic Losses Sound Transmission 1.5” PVC Tube Flat End c l 2f  Choice – – .

Stack  Considerations – – – – – – Gap Size Material properties Material thickness Location Length Does not impede wave Paper Aluminum Screen  Choice – – .

Heat Exchangers  Considerations – – Material Type  Choice – – Aluminum Water Circulated .

Stack     Solid Porous Material Give And Takes Heat From Gas Heat Transfer DT Across .

Design Considerations       Gap Size Solid Thickness Position Length Ability Of Sound To Pass Through Physical Properties .

Stack Designs      Foil Paper Foam Lexan Screen .

Foil    Aluminum Foil Crimped Rolled Up Around Centre Post .

63 mm Gap Size 1.Foil ALUMINUM FOIL STACK Value Units Outer Diameter 47.86 mm Length 63.07 mm Foil Thickness 0.42 mm Thermal Conductivity 180 W/m*K Density 2790 Kg/m3 .1 mm Center Post Diameter 2.

Paper   Couragrated Paper Rolled Up .

12 Thermal Conductivity 0.4 Gap Size 1.44 Paper Thickness 0.Paper PAPER STACK Value Outer Diameter 49.8 Length 55.18 Density 930 Units mm mm mm mm W/m*K Kg/m 3 .

Foam    Open Cell Foam Cut To Approximate Shape Tape To Hold Two Pieces Together .

5 Units mm mm mm .14 Length 54.Foam PLASTIC FOAM STACK Value Outer Diameter 51.04 Gap Size 0.

Lexan    Strips Thin Lexan Monofilament Fishing Line Used As Spacers Rolled Up Around A Pencil .

Lexan LEXAN STACK Value Outer Diameter (no tape) 45.71 Length 51.03 Thermal Conductivity 0.9 Gap Size 0.4 Lexan Thickness 0.18 Density 1119 Units mm mm mm mm mm mm W/m*K Kg/m^3 .18 Outer Diameter (with tape) 48.2032 Center Post Diameter 7.

Screen    Aluminum Screen Punch To Cut Circles Many Layers .

Screen ALUMINUM SCREEN STACK Value Units Outer Diameter 50.24 mm Thermal Conductivity 180 W/m*K Density 2790 Kg/m^3 .69 mm Wire Diameter 0.56 mm Length 51 mm Gap Size 1.

Experimental Setup Thermocouples Pressure Transducers .

5 W vs Frequency 7000 6000 Pressure (Pa) 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 110 130 150 170 190 210 230 250 Frequency (Hz) Paper Lexan Aluminum Foil Foam Aluminum Screen .Maximum Pressure vs. Frequency Stack Pressure at 26.

Stack Temperature vs. Time 50 45 40 Temp(degC) 35 30 25 20 15 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Time(s) Screen Hot Side Lexan Hot Side Foil Hot Side Screen Cold Side Lexan Cold Side Foil Cold Side Foam Hot Side Paper Hot Side Ambient Foam Cold Side Paper Cold Side . Time @130Hz Stack Temperatures vs.

Stack Temperatures at 36 Watts Aluminum Screen Lexan Aluminum Foil 42 C Paper 48 C 36 C 44 C Foam 44 C 18 C 21 C 24 C 25 C 18 C 26 C Temperature Difference 30 C 18 C 15 C 19 C .

00 15. Frequency Stack Temperature vs Frequency 30.00 5.00 20.00 0.00 10.00 110 130 150 170 190 Frequency (Hz) Paper Aluminum Foil Foam Aluminum Screen Lexan 210 230 250 .Temperature vs.00 Temperature Difference 25.

Speaker Power Power vs.Temperature vs. Stack Temperature Difference Tem perature Difference (degC) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 Power (W) ALUMINUM FOIL FOAM LEXAN PAPER ALUMINUM SCREEN 60 80 .

7 39.Temperature vs.5 39.7 46.4 46.2 .4 41. Radial Distance 46.

067 0.067 0. 2 1 2 ----------1 2 P/E 2 1 2 1 ----------2 0 0 0 0 0 ----------DT Sum 8 2 6 2 2 10 Weight 0.2 0.067 0.333 .267 0.Stack Ranking  Pairwise Ranking Method – Important Attributes Determined – Ranked According to Importance For Each Stack Attribute Compatibility Cost LTCS Manu. P/E DT Compatibility ----------0 0 0 0 2 Cost 2 ----------2 1 1 2 LTCS 2 0 ----------0 0 2 Manu.

2 0.605 Paper 5 8 8 9 5 9 7. P/E DT Score .Stack Ranking  Aggregate Scoring System – 10 = Highly Effective 0 = Not Effective Al Screen 6 6 9 7 5 9 7.004 Al Foil 4 8 3 4 4 6 4.333 1 Attribute Compatibility Cost LTCS Manu.406 Foam 7 8 2 10 4 4 5.738 Weight 0.067 0.267 0.075 Lexan 5 8 6 1 3 5 5.067 0.067 0.

Stack Temperature Results .

Heat Exchanger  Cold Side – Hot Side temperature To use the cold Heat Exchanger produced and cool a cold space  Hot Side – – Wooden Cartridge Experiments: heat conduction from hot side to cold side If we cool Cold Side Heat Exchanger be the hot side. we will able to obtain a colder cold side .

Heat Exchanger Evolution Four Bolt Holes Floating fastener assembly Heat exchanger must be compatible with our present design Center Hole To hold part of the stack .

Heat Exchanger Evolution Drill Thru Channel Design Manufacturing – – – – Drill three thru holes Intersect at right angles Four ends tapped and plugged Front two ends tapped for a 1/8” NPT thread .

Heat Exchanger Evolution Drill Thru Channel Design Pros: Few manufacturing steps Low cost operation Cons: Long enough drill bit Possible tool wandering .

– Tube Insert – Seal with silicone Drill and tap two ends for a 1/8” NPT thread .Heat Exchanger Evolution Tube Flow Design Manufacturing – – CNC machine a pocket for the tube insert Tube insert   Machined block Connects five 1/16” diameter tubes.

Heat Exchanger Evolution Tube Flow Design Pros: Greater heat transfer rate Cons: Higher manufacturing costs Longer build time Sealing 1 Larger pump ( P  4 ) R .

Heat Exchanger Evolution CNC Milled Channel Design Manufacturing CNC – end mill curved profile – Thickness of wall is 2mm a2 Pi  Po   m ax  1 2  y  2 2 a b – Front two ends drill and tap for a 1/8” NPT thread – .

Cons: Sealing .Heat Exchanger Evolution CNC Milled Channel Design Pros: Better rate of heat transfer than the first design. Lower machining costs than the second design.

Heat Exchanger Setup Hot Side Heat Exchanger Wooden Cartridge Cold Side Heat Exchanger Reservoir Large Reservoir to keep water at a constant temperature .

Heat Exchanger Setup Hot Side Heat Exchanger Represents our refrigerating capacity Wooden Cartridge Cold Side Heat Exchanger Cold Space .

Hot Side Pump Ambient .Heat Exchanger Experiments H. Experiment (Aluminum Screen) 50 45 40 +ve Slope Temperature (°C) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 -ve Slope +ve Slope -ve Slope 5.No Pump Hot Side .Hot Side Pump Hot Side .No Pump Cold Side .5°C Time (s) Cold Side .E.

Heat Exchanger Experiments 4.8°C in 30 minutes 1.2°C in 30 minutes Cold Space Cold Space Cooling From Prototype Cooling from atmosphere .

185 Cooling From Prototype .6°C in 30 minutes Heat removal rate of 16.Heat Exchanger Experiments 3.25W COP = 0.7W Cold Space Speaker drawing power at 90.

Comparison with Project Goals        Less than ½ meter long.000.00 User’s Manual . less than 20lb DT of 5-10ºC below ambient (17 º C) Sound Insulation Introduce Heat Exchangers 10-20 Watts Cooling (16.7 W) Build for less than $2.

Recommendations  Theoretical Work – – Calculate Operating Frequency Heat Exchanger Calculations .

Recommendations   Theoretical Work Experimentation – – – Stack Gap Size Stack Location Stack Length .

Recommendations    Theoretical Work Experimentation Equipment Improvements – – Pressure Transducers Signal Generator .

Recommendations     Theoretical Work Experimentation Equipment Improvements Design Changes – – – – – Speaker Funneling Helium Heat Exchangers Insulation (thermal. acoustic) Mechanical Resonator .

7 W cooling power Coefficient of Performance 0.185 .Term Summary        Built prototype with variable stacks Performed comprehensive set of experiments Determined optimum stack Designed Heat Exchanger Heat Exchanger tests performed 16.

Thank You  Questions?? .

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