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# Automated Lateral Loads Manual

For SAP2000® and ETABS®

Berkeley, California, USA

Version 11.0.0 January 2008

COPYRIGHT

Copyright © Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978-2008. All rights reserved. The CSI Logo®, SAP2000®, and ETABS® are registered trademarks of Computers and TM TM Structures, Inc. SAFE and Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers and Structures, Inc. The computer programs SAP2000® and ETABS® and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers and Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com

DISCLAIMER CONSIDERABLE TIME. THE PROGRAMS ARE VERY PRACTICAL TOOLS FOR THE DESIGN/CHECK OF STRUCTURES. THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAMS. THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE PROGRAMS AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS. IN USING THE PROGRAMS. HOWEVER THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ THE MANUALS AND MUST CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS. HOWEVER. . THE PROGRAMS HAVE BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF SAP2000 AND ETABS.

Contents Automated Lateral Loads Chapter 1 Introduction 1.4 1.1 1.2 Defining Automatic Seismic Load Cases Automatic Seismic Load Cases 2.3 1.1 Distribution of Automatic Seismic Loads at a Story Level 2-2 2-3 2-3 i .1 2.5 About the Manual Technical Support Help Us Help You Telephone Support Online Support 1-1 1-2 1-2 1-3 1-3 Chapter 2 Automatic Seismic Loads 2.2.2 1.

2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.8.5.8.1 Options for 2003 IBC Building Period 2.12.8.3 Algorithm for 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads 2.3 Algorithm for 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads 2.3 Algorithm for 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads 2.9.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.11.7.7 2.3.5 2.6.12 2004 NZS 1170.3 Load Direction and Diaphragm Eccentricity Story/Elevation Range Data 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-10 2-10 2-12 2-13 2-13 2-15 2-15 2-17 2-17 2-18 2-19 2-21 2-21 2-22 2-23 2-26 2-26 2-27 2-28 2-31 2-31 2-32 2-33 2-36 2-36 2-37 2-38 2-42 2-42 2-42 2-42 1997 UBC Seismic Loads 2.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.9 2.11 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads 2.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.3.5.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.4.10.6 2.1 Options for 1997 UBC Building Period 2.4 2.4.1 Options for ASCE 7-05 Building Period 2.9.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.2.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.11.12.6.3 Algorithm for 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads 2.10.10 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads 2.3 2.3 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Seismic Loads 1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads 2.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 2.5 Building Period 2-45 2.1 Options for 2002 Chinese Building Period 2.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2-46 ii .8 2.6.1 Options for 1995 NBCC Building Period 2.7.7.2.3 Algorithm for ASCE 7-05 Seismic Loads 2.3 Algorithm for 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads 2003 IBC Seismic Loads 2.1 Options for 1997 NEHRP Building Period 2.10.1 Options for 2005 NBCC Building Period 2.9.1 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.1 Options for 1996 BOCA Building Period 2.2 2.3.2 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads 2.5.1 Options for 2004 NZS 1170.5 Seismic Loads 2-45 2.3 Algorithm for 2003 IBC Seismic Loads 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Seismic Loads 2.11.

1 3.3 Algorithm for 2004 NZS 1170.2 Algorithm for 2005 NBCC Wind Loads ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads 3.1 Input Factors and Coefficients 2.7 3.1 Input Exposure 3-2 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-6 3-7 3-9 3-9 3-10 3-13 3-13 3-14 3-16 3-16 3-16 3-19 3-19 3-20 3-22 3-22 3-23 3-26 3-26 3.8.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3.1 Exposure 3.1 Response Spectrum Functions from a File 2.8 3.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3.14.9.14.13.2 Algorithm for 1996 BOCA Wind Loads 1995 BS 6399 Wind Loads 3.3 Algorithm for 2007 AS 1170.5 Seismic Loads 2.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3.8.4 3.6.4 Building Period 2.2 User-Defined Response Spectrum Functions 2.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.5.2 Wind Exposure Parameters 3.2.3 3.1 Options for 2007 AS 1170.3.Contents 2.13.2.2 Algorithm for1995 NBCC Wind Loads 2005 NBCC Wind Loads 3.15 Response Spectrum Functions 2.5.13 2007 AS 1170.3.4 Seismic Loads 2.2.14 User Defined Seismic Loads 2.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3.4.12.2 Defining Automatic Wind Load Cases Automatic Wind Load Cases 3.4 Seismic Loads 2.2 Algorithm for User Defined Seismic Loads 2.13.15.2 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Wind Loads 1996 BOCA Wind Loads 3.4.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3.6.9 iii .7.5 3.2 Algorithm for 1995 BS 6399 Wind Loads 1995 NBCC Wind Loads 3.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads 3.3 Wind Exposure Height 1997 UBC Wind Loads 3.6 3.15.3 Code Specific Response Spectrum Functions 2-46 2-48 2-48 2-49 2-50 2-51 2-51 2-51 2-52 2-53 2-54 2-55 Chapter 3 Automatic Wind Loads 3.7.15.

12.1 Input Wind Exposure Parameters 3.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads 3.10 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads 3.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 3.11.12 2002 Chinese Wind Loads 3.10.9.2 Algorithm for 1987 RCDF Wind Loads 3.3 Algorithm for 2002 Chinese Wind Loads 3.13 User-Defined Wind Loads References iv .2 Input Wind Coefficients 3.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads 3-28 3-35 3-35 3-36 3-42 3-42 3-42 3-43 3-43 3-44 3-45 3-47 3.1 Input Exposure 3.11 1987 RCDF Wind Loads 3.12.10.12.11.

1 About the Manual The next chapter will show how seismic loads are generated for various codes. It is strongly recommended that you read this manual and review any applicable “Watch & Learn” Series™ tutorials before attempting to use the automated features of the software. partially due to the high level of intelligence embedded within the software.Chapter 1 Introduction SAP2000 and ETABS are extremely powerful and productive structural analysis and design programs. 1. again describing both the forms used and the accompanying algorithms. Additional information can be found in the on-line Help facility available from within the program’s main menu. Introduction 1-1 . greater confidence in their models and analyses. allowing the user to create and analyze the models in such a way that is both natural and efficient for a structural engineer. This manual seeks to explain the logic behind the automated lateral load generation so that users can gain greater insight into the behavior of the programs. Chapter 3 does the same for automatic wind loads. including a detailed discussion of the algorithms used. and hence. What this means is that many of the capabilities are highly automated.

and RAM size).Automated Lateral Loads Manual 1. A description of your model. This can be obtained from inside the program using the Help menu > About command. A description of what happened and what you were doing when the problem occurred. priority technical support is available only to those with a yearly Support. Upgrade and Maintenance plan (SUM). 1. Inc. operating system. After 90 days. if possible. then contact us as described in the sections that follow. including a picture. The exact wording of any error messages that appeared on your screen. please: Consult this documentation and other printed information included with your product. please provide us with the following information to help us help you: The version number that you are using. If you cannot find an answer.3 Help Us to Help You Whenever you contact us with a technical support question. Customers who do not have a current SUM subscription can obtain technical support. Please contact CSI or your dealer to inquire about purchasing a yearly SUM subscription. hard disk size. but via email only and at the non-priority level. processor. (CSI) or your dealer via telephone and e-mail for 90 days after the software has been purchased. The computer configuration (make and model. Check the on-line Help facility in the program. A description of how you tried to solve the problem.2 Technical Support Free technical support is available from Computers and Structures. If you have questions regarding use of the software. 1-2 Technical Support .

When you call.Introduction Your name. excluding U.M. holidays. If you send us e-mail. Monday through Friday.csiberkeley. Visiting CSI’s web site at http://www. your company’s name.Chapter 1 . you may contact CSI via a toll call between 8:30 A.M. Pacific Time. 1.S. and how we may contact you.4 Telephone Support Priority phone support is available to those with a current SUM subscription from CSI or your dealer. 1. and 5:00 P..com and using the Support link to submit a request for technical support.5 Online Support Online support is available by: Sending an e-mail and your model file to support@csiberkeley. be sure to include all of the information requested in the previous “Help Us to Help You” section. Telephone Support 1-3 .com. at (510) 649-2200. For users in North America. please be at your computer and have the program manuals at hand.

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4 Automatic Seismic Loads 2-1 .Chapter 2 Automatic Seismic Loads This chapter documents the automatic seismic lateral static load cases that can be generated.5 2007 AS 1170. Automatic seismic loads can be generated in the global X or global Y directions for the following codes: ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° 1997 UBC 1997 UBC Isolated Building 1996 BOCA 1995 NBCC 2005 NBCC 2003 IBC 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 1997 NEHRP 2002 Chinese 2004 NZS 1170.

Note that the actual forces associated with an automatic static lateral load are not calculated until an analysis has been run. use the list to choose any of the codes identified in the preceding section. That is. highlight the load in the Load list and click the Modify Lateral Load button. Each automatic static lateral load must be in a separate load case.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 2. two or more automatic static lateral loads cannot be specified in the same load case. Use this form to specify a name for the load case. the type of load. and X-direction load with –5% eccentricity. the load case is added to the model using default settings that are based on the selected code. for each eccentricity that is to be considered. to define automatic seismic lateral loads based on the 1997 UBC for X-direction load with no eccentricity. A separate automatic static load case must be defined for each direction. To review or modify the parameters for an automatic lateral load. you cannot view the resultant automatic lateral loads until after you have run an analysis. X-direction load with +5% eccentricity.1 Defining Automatic Seismic Load Cases The automatic seismic static load cases are defined using the Define menu > Load Cases command. However. additional user defined loads can be added to a load case that includes an automatic static lateral load. the Auto Lateral Load drop-down list becomes active. when you click the Add New Load or Modify Load button. This command brings up the Define Loads form. Thus. a selfweight multiplier. specify that the load is an Auto Lateral Load. If a code is selected in the Auto Lateral Load list. in the case of seismic loading. Select None for the Auto Lateral Load to specify that the Quake load will not be an automatic lateral load. For example. 2-2 Defining Automatic Seismic Load Cases . and in some instances. three separate load cases must be defined. When the load type is specified as Quake. and.

2.2.2 Automatic Seismic Load Cases The forms defining the automatic seismic loads consist of various data sections. This includes the direction and eccentricity data and the story/elevation range data. Some of the direction-dependent data is common to all of the codes. To apply an eccentricity.Automatic Seismic Loads 2. Other direction-dependent data. specify a ratio eccentricity that is applicable to all diaphragms. The weight of the structure used in the calculation of automatic seismic loads is based on the specified mass of the structure. 2. some of which are dependent upon the direction of the loading. The eccentricity options have meaning only if the model has diaphragms—the programs ignore eccentricities where diaphragms are not present.Chapter 2 . including building period information and other factors. the programs calculate a maximum width of the diaphragm perpendicular to the direction of the seismic loading. that force is apportioned to each point at the level elevation in proportion to its mass. This Automatic Seismic Load Cases 2-3 .2 Load Direction and Diaphragm Eccentricity Use the direction and eccentricity data to choose the Global X or Global Y direction of load and the eccentricity associated with the load case for all diaphragms. After the programs have calculated a force for each level based on the automatic seismic load case.05. These data are described in the subsections that follow because they are applicable to all codes. The default ratio is 0.1 Distribution of Automatic Seismic Loads at a Story Level The method that the programs use to calculate the seismic base shear and the associated story lateral forces is documented separately for each code later in this chapter.2. Where diaphragms are present. and coefficients and the non-directiondependent factors and coefficients are described separately for each code later in this chapter.

Automated Lateral Loads Manual width is calculated by finding the maximum and minimum X or Y coordinates (depending on direction of load considered) of the points that are part of the diaphragm constraint and determining the distance between these maximum and minimum values. typically the roof in a building. This moment is again applied about the diaphragm center of mass to account for the eccentricity. Thus. the automatic lateral load calculation likely should be based on the building roof level. For example. When the eccentricities have been overridden. as the top elevation. it may be advantageous to specify a lower elevation as the top level for automatic seismic loads. After the appropriate diaphragm width has been determined. In most instances. not a ratio. in some cases. but this may not always be the case. The bottom elevation typically would be the base level. specify a top story/maximum elevation and a bottom story/minimum elevation.3 Story/Elevation Range Data In the Story/Elevation range data. When defining eccentricities. a moment is applied that is equal to the specified ratio eccentricity times the maximum width of the diaphragm perpendicular to the direction of the seismic loading times the total lateral force applied to the diaphragm. However. you must input an actual distance from the center of mass of the rigid diaphragm. This specifies the elevation range over which the automatic static lateral loads are calculated. This moment is applied about the diaphragm center of mass to account for the eccentricity. if a penthouse is included in a building model.2. not the penthouse roof level. click the Override button to override the eccentricity for any diaphragm at any level. For example. the eccentric moment is calculated as the specified eccentricity distance times the total lateral force applied to the diaphragm. Note that when you override the eccentricities. 2. with additional user-defined load added to the load case to account for the penthouse. it is possible to have different eccentricity ratios at different levels. the top elevation would be specified as the uppermost level in the structure. if a building has several below-grade levels 2-4 Automatic Seismic Load Cases .

Automatic Seismic Loads and it is assumed that the seismic loads are transferred to the ground at ground level. • If Z ≥ 0. The building period. that the programs choose depends on the seismic zone factor. 30-8).3. TA = Ct ( hn ) 3 4 (1997 UBC Eqn. The value used for Ct is user input and hn is determined from the level heights. Note that no seismic loads are calculated for the bottom story/minimum elevation. it would be necessary to specify the bottom elevation to be above the base level. A typical range of values for Ct is 0. The programs also calculate a period based on the Method A period discussed in Section 1630. Call this period TA.020 to 0.2.3 2.2 of the 1997 UBC. T.2.2 of the 1997 UBC. They are: Method A: Calculate the period based on the Method A period discussed in Section 1630.035.35 (Zone 4) then: 1997 UBC Seismic Loads 2-5 . 30-8) Note that the item Ct is always input in English units as specified in the code. 30-8). The period is calculated using (1997 UBC Eqn. The period is calculated using (1997 UBC Eqn. Call this period Tmode. The height hn is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum elevation level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum elevation level. 2. The value used for Ct is user input and hn is determined from the level heights. Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y).1 1997 UBC Seismic Loads Options for 1997 UBC Building Period Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 1997 UBC automatic seismic loads. Z.Chapter 2 .

User Defined: With this option. The soil profile type can be SA.0. specify values for them. The seismic coefficients Ca and Cv can be determined in accordance with the code or they can be user-defined. then T = TA. then T = TA. 2-6 1997 UBC Seismic Loads .Automated Lateral Loads Manual – – • If Tmode ≤ 1. A typical range of values for R is 2.2. Note that soil profile type SF is not allowed for the automatic 1997 UBC seismic loads. If Ca and Cv are user-defined.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The overstrength factor. Z.3. SD and SE in Table 16-J of the 1997 UBC. then T = Tmode. 0.4. The seismic zone factor.35 (Zone 1. then T = Tmode. If Tmode > 1. A typical range of values for Ω is 2.30TA. They do not compare it against the Method A period. is restricted to one of the following values.40 and larger if the near source factor Na exceeds 1. are direction dependent. If Tmode > 1. 0. If Z < 0.0. which the programs use in the calculations. Both are specified in 1997 UBC Table 16-N. SC. The programs then use these parameters to determine Ca from 1997 UBC Table 16-Q and Cv from 1997 UBC Table 16R. SD or SE.40TA.15.8. SC. A typical range of values for Cv is 0.8 to 8. SB.075. SB. 2 or 3) then: – – If Tmode ≤ 1.06 to 0. No other values can be input. A typical range of values for Ca is 0. you input a structure period. and the force factor. These correspond to soil types SA.3.40TA.06 to 0. It is assumed that you have already completed this comparison before specifying the period.96 and larger if the near source factor Nv exceeds 1. R.2 to 2. 2. or 0. 0.5. Ω.30TA. specify a soil profile type and a seismic zone factor. as specified in 1997 UBC Table 16-I: 0. If Ca and Cv are determined in accordance with code.

The programs use linear interpolation for specified distances between those included in 1997 UBC Tables 16-S and 16-T. or C. The seismic importance factor. is calculated using (1997 UBC Eqn.Automatic Seismic Loads Note that in 1997 UBC Table 16-Q the Ca value for Z = 0." Initially the total design base shear. the programs determine Na from 1997 UBC Table 16-S and Nv from 1997 UBC Table 16-T. This base shear value is then checked against the limits specified in (1997 UBC Eqns. V. 30-5. and C in Table 16-U of the 1997 UBC.25.4 has an additional factor. I. Cv. Similarly. B.00 to 1. V= Cv I W RT (1997 UBC Eqn. B. 30-6 and 30-7) and modified as necessary to obtain the final base shear. A typical range of values for I is 1. If they are determined in accordance with code. 30-4) where. can be input as any value. These correspond to seismic source types A. Nv. No other values can be input. A period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 1997 UBC Building Period.4 has an additional factor. See 1997 UBC Table 16-K. If Na and Nv are user-defined. 30-4).3 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 1997 UBC seismic loads is based on Chapter 16. Cv = 1997 UBC seismic coefficient.Chapter 2 . specify values for them. Section 1630. The values for the near source factors.2 of the 1997 UBC. specify a seismic source type and a distance to the closest known seismic source. can be determined in accordance with the code or they can be user-defined. On the basis of the input for seismic source type and distance to the source. 2. The distance to the closest known seismic source should be input in kilometers (km). 1997 UBC Seismic Loads 2-7 .3. Note that the value from Table 16-K to be input for automatic seismic loads is I. not Ip or Iw. Na and Nv. Na. in 1997 UBC Table 16-R. the Cv value for Z = 0. The seismic source type can be A.

cannot be less than that specified in (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-6) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. V= 2.5Ca I W R (1997 UBC Eqn. the base shear is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. 2-8 1997 UBC Seismic Loads . cannot be less than that specified in (1997 UBC Eqn. Ca = 1997 UBC seismic coefficient. V. 30-4). the base shear is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. R = Overstrength factor specified in UBC Table 16-N. V. 30-7) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqns. W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass). Finally. 30-5 and 30-6). the base shear is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-4) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. The total design base shear. 304). 30-5).Automated Lateral Loads Manual I = Importance factor. 30-6). and all other terms are as described for (1997 UBC Eqn. the total design base shear. 30-6) where all terms are as previously described for (1997 UBC Eqns. 30-5). 30-5). If the base shear calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. V. V = 0. The total design base shear. Ca. T = Building period. 30-7). 30-5). 30-5) where. if the building is in seismic Zone 4. If the building is in seismic Zone 4 and the base shear calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn.11Ca I W (1997 UBC Eqn. If the base shear calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-4 and 30-5). need not exceed that specified in (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-7).

Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads

V=

where,

0.8ZN v I W R

(1997 UBC Eqn. 30-7)

Z = Seismic zone factor (0.40). Nv = Near source factor, Nv. I = Importance factor. R = Overstrength factor specified in UBC Table 16-N. W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).

Note that the programs check (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-7) only if the seismic coefficients, Ca and Cv, are determined in accordance with the code and the seismic zone factor Z is specified as 0.40. If the Ca and Cv coefficients are user specified, (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-7) is never checked. Note that the weight, W, that is used in (1997 UBC Eqns. 30-4 through 30-7) is derived from the building mass. The total base shear, V, is broken into a concentrated force applied to the top elevation/story and forces applied at each level/story in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-13):

V = Ft +

where,

story = 1

∑

n

Fstory

(1997 UBC Eqn. 30-13)

V Ft

= =

Building base shear. Concentrated force at the top of the building. Portion of base shear applied to a story level. Number of story levels in the building.

Fstory = n

=

The concentrated force at the top of the building, Ft , is calculated as shown in (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-14):

1997 UBC Seismic Loads

2-9

Automated Lateral Loads Manual

If T ≤ 0.7 sec, then Ft = 0 If T > 0.7 sec, then Ft = 0.07TV ≤ 0.25V where, T = Building period. V = Building base shear.

(1997 UBC Eqn. 30-14)

The remaining portion of the base shear, (V − Ft ), is distributed over the height of the structure in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn 30-15):

Fstory =

(V − Ft ) wstory hstory

story = 1

∑

n

(1997 UBC Eqn. 30-15)

wstory hstory

where, Fstory = Portion of base shear applied to a story level. V Ft = Base shear. = Concentrated force at the top of the structure.

wstory = Weight of story level (based on specified mass). hstory = Story height, distance from base of structure to story level. n = Number of story levels in the structure.

2.4

2.4.1

**1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads
**

Other Input Factors and Coefficients

For 1997 UBC isolated building seismic loads, the bottom story or minimum elevation should be input as the story at the top of the isolators. The overstrength factor, Ri , is direction dependent. It relates to the structure above the isolation interface. It is specified in 1997 UBC Table A-16-E,

2 - 10

1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads

Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads

which is in Appendix Chapter 16, Division IV. A typical range of values for Ri is 1.4 to 2.0. The coefficient for damping, BD , is direction dependent. It should be specified based on an assumed effective damping using 1997 UBC Table A-16-C, which is in Appendix Chapter 16, Division IV. A typical range of values for BD is 0.8 to 2.0. The maximum effective stiffness and minimum effective stiffness items refer to the maximum and minimum effective stiffness of the isolation system (not individual isolators) at the design displacement level (not the maximum displacement level). They correspond to the terms KDmax and KDmin, respectively, in Appendix Chapter 16, Division IV. The seismic coefficient CvD can be determined in accordance with the code or it can be user defined. If CvD is user defined, simply specify a value for it. A typical range of values for CvD is 0.06 to 0.96 and larger if the near source factor Nv exceeds 1.0. If CvD is determined in accordance with the code, specify a soil profile type and a seismic zone factor. On the basis of the input soil profile type and a seismic zone factor, the programs determine CvD from 1997 UBC Table 16-R, which is in Chapter 16, not Appendix Chapter 16, Division IV. Note that in 1997 UBC Table 16-R, the Cv value for Z = 0.4 has an additional factor, Nv. The value for this near source factor, Nv, can be determined in accordance with the code or it can be user defined. If Nv is user defined, simply specify a value for it. If it is determined in accordance with the code, specify a seismic source type and a distance to the closest known seismic source. On the basis of the input seismic source type and distance to the source, the programs determine Nv from 1997 UBC Table 16-T. The programs use linear interpolation for specified distances between those included in 1997 UBC Table 16-T.

1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads

2 - 11

2 2 The design displacement at the center of rigidity of the isolation system.12 1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads . 2 2 CvD = Seismic coefficient.).).4. is determined from (1997 UBC Eqn. 386.2 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 1997 UBC seismic loads for isolated buildings is based on Appendix Chapter 16. 58-1).g.. 386. DD. Vs .81 m/sec . 9. etc. g = Gravity constant. 2 . etc. 58-8). TD BD = Effective period at the design displacement.4 of the 1997 UBC. kDmin = Minimum effective stiffness of the isolation system at the design displacement.81 m/sec .4 in/sec .4 in/sec . 58-2) where. is determined from (1997 UBC Eqn. (e. (e. g = Gravity constant. The effective period at the design displacement. The base shear. 9.g. 58-2). ⎛ g ⎜ 2 4π DD = ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ CvDTD ⎠ BD (1997 UBC Eqn. Sections 1658. W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass). CvD. TD = 2π W kDmin g (1997 UBC Eqn. Division IV. 58-1) where. = Coefficient for damping. is calculated from (1997 UBC Eqn.. TD .Automated Lateral Loads Manual 2.3 and 1658.

58-9): Fstory = Vs wstory hstory i = story ∑ n (1997 UBC Eqn. is distributed over the height of the structure in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn.3 are not considered by the programs. Also note that the limits on Vs specified in 1997 UBC section 1658.Chapter 2 .13 .Automatic Seismic Loads kDmax DD RI Vs = (1997 UBC Eqn.5 2.2.4. based on the approximate formula discussed in Section 1610. 58-9) wstory hstory where. Vs. Ta. 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads 2 . They are: Approximate: Calculate the approximate period. 58-7). n = Number of story levels in the structure. The total base shear. To use a force level that is applicable to the isolation system in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn.1 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads Options for 1996 BOCA Building Period Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 1996 BOCA automatic seismic loads.1.5.1 of the 1996 BOCA. distance from base of structure to story level. 58-8). Fstory = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.4. 58-8) gives a force level that is applicable for the structure above the isolation system. Vs = Base shear in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. 58-8) Note that (1997 UBC Eqn. hstory = Story height. 2. create a different load combination with a scale factor of RI for the seismic load. wstory = Weight of story level (based on specified mass).

4. Note that the value used for Ca depends on the specified value for the effective peak velocity-related coefficient. Call this period Ta. The building period. The programs also determine a value for the coefficient for the upper limit on the calculated period. Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y).05.1) Note that the item CT is always input in English units as specified in the code. Ca is determined using linear interpolation if the specified value of Av is not in Table 1610.1.1 of 1996 BOCA.7. They do not compare it against the coefficient for the upper limit on the calculated period times the approximate period (CaTa).Automated Lateral Loads Manual The period is calculated using BOCA 1610. that the programs choose is determined as follows: – – If Tmode > CaTa .2. input a building period.1. Ca is taken as 1.1. The value used for CT is user input and hn is determined from the level heights.035.4. The value used for CT is user input and hn is determined from the input level heights.2. If Av exceeds 0. then T = Tmode. Ca is taken as 1.1. then T = CaTa. Call this period Tmode.2 in the 1996 BOCA. The programs also calculate a period based on the approximate formula discussed in Section 1610.2.020 to 0.14 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads .2. which the programs use in the calculations.4.40.2. Ta = CT ( hn ) 34 (BOCA 1610.1. 2 . A typical range of values for CT is 0. User Defined: In this case. T. If Tmode ≤ CaTa . Ca . The height hn is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum elevation level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum elevation level. If Av is less than 0. It is assumed that you have already performed this comparison before specifying the period. Av.4.1. using Table 1610.4.

R. 1610. 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads 2 . It is specified in 1996 BOCA Table 1610. S2. Any value can be input for the effective peak acceleration coefficient.4. Cs = where. A typical range of values for R is 3 to 8. 2. Av. A period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 1996 BOCA Building Period.3. Refer to BOCA section 1610.1.1. The soil profile type can be S1.1(a)) Av = The effective peak velocity-related coefficient.2Av S RT 2 3 (BOCA 1610. 1.1. A typical range of values for Av is 0. The value of this coefficient is then checked against the limit specified in (1996 BOCA Eqn.4.1) and modified as necessary to obtain the seismic coefficient.3.1 of the 1996 BOCA.3 Algorithm for 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 1996 BOCA seismic loads is based on Section 1610. is calculated from section 1610. R = Response modification factor. S3 or S4. A typical range of values for Aa is 0.Automatic Seismic Loads 2.Chapter 2 .3." Initially the seismic coefficient. Refer to BOCA section 1610.3.40.1. S = The site coefficient based on the input soil profile type.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The response modification factor. Cs.05 to 0.5. is direction dependent.1 of 1996 BOCA.1. Any value can be input for the effective peak velocity-related coefficient. These correspond to soil types S1.4. S3 and S4 in Table 1610.15 .3.05 to 0.4.40. S2.5. T = Building period. No other values can be input. Aa.1.

1610.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The seismic coefficient.4. 1610. V where.4. Weight of the structure (based on specified mass).1.1) Cs = W = Seismic coefficient calculated from (BOCA Eqn.1).1(b)).1(b)). The base shear is calculated using (BOCA 1610.1. Fstory = V = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.4. V.4. Weight of story level (based on specified mass). 1610.16 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads .1.1.1(b)) as appropriate.4. need not exceed that specified in section 1610.1. The base shear. the seismic coefficient is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (BOCA Eqn. wstory = hstory = 2 .4.5 Aa R (BOCA 1610.1(b)) where.2): Fstory = k V wstory hstory i = story ∑ n (BOCA 1610.4.1. Cs = 2.1. 1610. 1610.1.2) k wstory hstory where.1(a)) or (BOCA Eqn.1(b).4. Cs.4.1. is distributed over the height of the structure in accordance with (BOCA Eqn.4.1(a) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (BOCA Eqn. = Cs W (BOCA 1610.4. Base shear. If the seismic coefficient calculated in accordance with section 1610. Response modification factor. distance from base of structure to story level. Aa = R = The effective peak acceleration coefficient. Story height.

5 seconds. The value of k depends on the value of the period. which constitutes the main lateral-force-resisting system measured in meters.1N.Moment Frame: Calculate the period as 0. Ds = Length of wall or braced frame. If 0.Moment Frame: The programs use the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y). If T ≥ 2.5 seconds. Number of story levels in the structure. In addition. k is linearly interpolated between 1 and 2. the programs run a parallel calculation using a period equal to 0. T.9.6 2. where N is the number of stories in the structure based on the specified top and bottom story levels. k = 1. n = 2.1.5 seconds. where N is the number of stories in the structure based on the specified top and bottom story levels. used for determining the base shear.1(7b): T= 0. hn = Height of the structure measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level measured in meters. 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 .Automatic Seismic Loads k = Exponent applied to structure height. Code . k = 2.09hn Ds (1995 NBCC Section 4. They are as follows: Code .19(7b)) where.9. T. using section 4.1.17 .1 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads Options for 1995 NBCC Building Period Five options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 1995 NBCC automatic seismic loads. If T ≤ 0. Program Calculated .5 seconds < T < 2.Other: Calculate the period.6.1N.Chapter 2 .

8 Ve-0. 5.1. Call these values Ve-mode and Ve-Eqn (7b).18 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads .1N. If Ve-mode < 0. In addition. 1.8 Ve-Eqn.5 to 4.9.1. 4. They do not calculate other values of Ve using this method for comparison against the Ve calculated using your specified period. The equivalent lateral force at the base of the structure.8 Ve-0. then Ve = 0.9. 2 . The value of Ve to use is determined as follows: – – If Ve-mode ≥ 0. 5. R. The value of Ve to use is determined as follows: – – If Ve-mode ≥ 0. 2. Zv . can be input as 0.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The equivalent lateral force at the base of the structure. It is specified in 1995 NBCC Table 4. The acceleration-related seismic zone. User Defined: In this case you input a building period.0. 3.6.19(7b)). No other input values are allowed. is calculated using both periods. (7b). then Ve = 0. (7b).1N.8 Ve-Eqn.1N. No other input values are allowed. is calculated using both periods. If Ve-mode < 0. Program Calculated . Call these values Ve-mode and Ve-0.1N. 3. can be input as 0.8 Ve-Eqn. then Ve = Ve-mode.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The force modification factor.8 Ve-0. which the programs use in the calculations. Ve . It is assumed that you have already performed this comparison before specifying the period. 1.1. 2. is direction dependent. (7b). or 6. Ve. 4. or 6. The velocity-related seismic zone. 2. the programs run a parallel calculation using a period calculated using (1995 NBCC Section 4.B. then Ve = Ve-mode. Za .Other: The programs use the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y). A typical range of values for R is 1.

See the previous section entitled "Options for 1995 NBCC Building Period" for more information. or 0. The equivalent lateral force representing elastic response is determined in accordance with section 4.5.05. A typical range of values for F is 1. V. can be input as any value.Automatic Seismic Loads The zonal velocity ratio.1(5): Ve = v FS I (1995 NBCC Section 4. If FS > 4. If so.2 and Za > Zv . If necessary. 0. It is specified in 1995 NBCC Table 4. It is specified in 1995 NBCC Sentence 4. can either be based on Zv.1.1 (5)) Note that in cases where the structure period is program calculated. The period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 1995 NBCC Building Period.1.1.9.1. The seismic response factor. is calculated based on 1995 NBCC Table 4.1. 1. v.1." First the programs check if Zv = 0 and Za > 0. If it is based on Zv .1(4). 0. The foundation factor. the value of Ve is calculated twice and then one of the calculated values is chosen.05 is set for the calculation of the base shear.10. is calculated using section 4. S. or 6. I. The programs determine the product of the foundation factor. 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 . Call this product FS.9. and the seismic response factor. The minimum lateral seismic force.Chapter 2 . 2.0.3 Algorithm for 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 1995 NBCC seismic loads is based on Subsection 4. A typical range of values for I is 1.1.20. respectively.9. can be input as any value. or a user-specified value can be input. 2.1. F. 5.9.9.30. this product is modified as follows: – – If FS > 3 and Za ≤ Zv . then FS = 3. v is assumed equal to 0. 0. then Zv = 1 and v = 0.6. F.9 of the 1995 NBCC. 3.00.0 to 2.9. 0.A.1(10). 0. then FS = 4.19 . 4.1.0 to 1.40 for Zv equal to 0. S.2.15. The importance factor.C.

Automated Lateral Loads Manual

V=

0.6Ve R

(1995 NBCC Section 4.1.9.1(4))

The total base shear, V, is broken into a concentrated force applied to the top of the structure and forces applied at each story level in accordance with section 4.1.9.1(13):

V = Ft +

where,

story = 1

∑

n

Fstory

(1995 NBCC Section 4.1.9.1(13))

V Ft

= Building base shear. = Concentrated force at the top of the building.

**Fstory = Portion of base shear applied to a story level. n
**

= Number of story levels in the building.

The concentrated force at the top of the structure, Ft , is calculated as shown in section 4.1.9.1(13): - If T ≤ 0.7 sec, then Ft = 0 - If T > 0.7 sec, then Ft = 0.07TV ≤ 0.25V where, (1995 NBCC Section 4.1.9.1(13))

**T = Building period. V = Building base shear.
**

The remaining portion of the base shear, (V − Ft ), is distributed over the height of the structure in accordance with (1995 NBCC Section 4.1.9.1(13)):

Fstory =

(V − Ft ) wstory hstory

story = 1

∑

n

(1995 NBCC Section 4.1.9.1(13))

wstory hstory

where,

Fstory = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.

2 - 20

1995 NBCC Seismic Loads

Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads

V Ft

= Base shear. = Concentrated force at the top of the structure.

wstory = Weight of story level (based on specified mass). hstory = Story height, distance from base of structure to story level. n

= Number of story levels in the structure.

Note that the torsional moments discussed in 1995 NBCC Sentence 4.1.9.1(28) are included automatically when a diaphragm is present and eccentricity is specified in an auto lateral load case. You also can override the eccentricities at each diaphragm to specify these torsional moments.

2.7

2.7.1

**2005 NBCC Seismic Loads
**

Options for 2005 NBCC Building Period

Four options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 2005 NBCC automatic seismic loads. They are as follows:

Code – Steel & Concrete Moment Frames, Braced Frames, Shear Wall & Other Structures: Calculate the approximate period based on section 4.1.8.11(3). The values used for CT and x are user input and hn is determined by the programs from the input story level heights.

TA = CT ( hn ) 4

3

(1995 NBCC Section 4.1.8.11(3))

A typical range of values for CT is 0.025 to 0.085. The height hn is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level measured in meters.

Code – Moment Frames other than Steel & Concrete: Calculate the approximate period, TA, using section 4.1.8.11(3):

TA = 0.1N

where,

(1995 NBCC Section 4.1.8.11(3))

2005 NBCC Seismic Loads

2 - 21

Automated Lateral Loads Manual

**N = The number of stories in the structure based on the specified top and bottom story levels.
**

Program Calculated: The programs use the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y). Call this period Tmode. A period is also calculated based on (NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(3)), as appropriate. Call this period TA.

The building period, T, that the programs choose is determined from section 4.1.8.11(d). The values used for Cu are user input, and typically vary from 1.5 to 2.0 as specified in NBCC 2005 clause 4.1.8.11(3).

– –

If Tmode ≤ CuTA , then T = Tmode.

(NBCC 2005 Section 4.1.8.11(d))

If Tmode > CuTA , then T = CuTA. (NBCC 2005 Section 4.1.8.11(d))

User Defined: In this case you input a building period, which the programs use in the calculations. They do not compare it against CuTA. It is assumed that you have already performed this comparison before specifying the period.

2.7.2

**Other Input Factors and Coefficients
**

The ductility-related force modification factor, Rd , is direction dependent. It is specified in 2005 NBCC Table 4.1.8.9. A typical range of values for Rd is 1.5 to 5.0. The overstrength-related force modification factor, Ro, is direction dependent. It is specified in 2005 NBCC Table 4.1.8.9. A typical range of values for Ro is 1.3 to 1.7. The 5% damped spectral response acceleration, Sa(T), shall be input for periods T of 0.2 s, 0.5 s, 1.0 s, and 2.0 s as described in subsection 4.1.8.4 of the 2005 NBCC. The input in the programs is in g. The higher mode factor, Mv , is direction dependent. It is specified in 2005 NBCC Table 4.1.8.11. A typical range of values for Mv is 1 to 2.5.

2 - 22

2005 NBCC Seismic Loads

4. Fv is the velocity-based site coefficient.8. specify a site class.2) based on 2005 NBCC Table 4.5.8 to 1. S (T ) = Fa Sa (0.4(6)-1 to 4.4 of the 2005 NBCC. Linear interpolation is used for intermediate values of T.1.8.7 to 2.8.8.5 s (2005 NBCC Eqn. C.8.8.B.4." The programs begin by calculating the design spectral acceleration S(T) using (2005 NBCC Eqns. B. See 2005 NBCC Table 4. or E. If site coefficients are user defined.4(6)-1) (2005 NBCC Eqn.1. 4.8.2 s S (T ) = Fv Sa (0.0) based on 2005 NBCC Table 4.0) for T = 1.23 . If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code.8.4(6)-5 are described in Section 4.1. the software automatically determines Fv from the site class and Sa(1.1. A typical range of values for IE is 0.2) for T ≤ 0. If the site coefficients are in accordance with code.4.1.1.1.Automatic Seismic Loads The site coefficients can be input in accordance with the code or they can be user defined. 2. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code.5 to 2. The site class can be A.8.1. specify Fa and Fv. whichever is smaller for T = 0. the value for Fa is input directly by the user.7.1. Eqns.8.4(6)-2) (2005 NBCC Eqn. the software automatically determines Fa from the site class and Sa(0.1.Chapter 2 .11 of the 2005 NBCC.4(6)-3) S (T ) = Fv Sa (1. The period T is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 2005 NBCC Building Period. The importance factor. D.1.A for site class definitions. 4. It is specified in 2005 NBCC Sentence 4.C.5) or Fa Sa (0. Note that site class F is not allowed for automatic 2005 NBCC lateral seismic loads. A typical range of values for Fv is 0. the value for Fv is input directly by the user.3 Algorithm for 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 2005 NBCC seismic loads is based on Subsection 4.4.8. Fa is the acceleration-based site coefficient. IE. 4. If site coefficients are user defined.0 s 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 . 4.1.1.8.5. If site coefficients are user defined.2).4(6)-1 to 4.8.1. A typical range of values for Fa is 0. can be input as any value.4(6)-5).1.

V.0 )M v I E W/(Rd Ro ) where.11(2)-1) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn. If the base shear calculated in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn.2)I E W/(R R ) d o 3 (2005 NBCC Eqn.1.0 s The minimum lateral earthquake force.1.1.0) for T = 2. (2005 NBCC Eqn.4(6)-4) (2005 NBCC Eqn.11(2)-2). 4. The total design base shear.8.1.11(2)-2).11(2)-2): V = S (T )M v I E W/(Rd Ro ) where. V. 4.11(2)-3) S(0. the base shear is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn. 24. 4.24 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads .Automated Lateral Loads Manual S (T ) = Fv Sa (2.8.1. 4. the base shear is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn.2 s.8.8. 2 . 4.0) / 2 for T ≥ 4.11(2)-3). V.11(2)-3).1.11(2)-3). (2005 NBCC Eqn.1.1. W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).1.8.4(6)-5) S (T ) = Fv Sa (2. is determined in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn.8.1.1.8. 4.8.5 need not exceed that specified in (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.0 s (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.11(2)-2) S(2.8.8. 2 S (0.11(2)-1) is less than that calculated in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn. If the base shear calculated in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn.0) = Design spectral acceleration for a period of 2 s.2) = Design spectral acceleration for 0.8.8.8.1. shall not be less than that specified in (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4. 4. for a structure with an Rd ≥ 1. V= where.1. The total design base shear. 4.11(2)-1) V = S (2.1.8. 4. 4.11(2)-2).

The remaining portion of the base shear.8. is broken into a concentrated force applied to the top of the structure and forces applied at each story level in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn. = Concentrated force at the top of the building. 4. 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 .11(6)-3): Fstory = (V − Ft ) wstory hstory story = 1 ∑ n (2005 NBCC Eqn. V = Ft + where.8.7 sec .11(6)-1). Building base shear. 4.8. story = 1 ∑ n Fstory (2005 NBCC Eqn.1. (V − Ft ).07TV ≤ 0. Base shear. 4.Chapter 2 .1.1.8.25V where. is calculated as shown in (2005 NBCC Eqn. then Ft = 0 . then Ft = 0. 4. The concentrated force at the top of the structure.7 sec .11(6)-1) V Ft = Building base shear. V.Automatic Seismic Loads The total base shear.If T > 0. (2005 NBCC Eqn.25 . is distributed over the height of the structure in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn.8. Fstory = Portion of base shear applied to a story level. 4.1.1.11(6)-2) T V = = Building period.1.11(6)-2): . Fstory = V = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.8. Ft .If T ≤ 0. 4.11(6)-3) wstory hstory where. n = Number of story levels in the building.

3. that the programs choose is determined as follows: – If Tmode ≤ CuTA . The height hn is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level. The value used for CT is user input and hn is determined from the input story level heights.5. Story height. Eqn. then T = Tmode.26 2003 IBC Seismic Loads .8 2. Call this period Tmode. 9. Weight of story level (based on specified mass). Cu.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Ft = Concentrated force at the top of the structure.2-1) Note that the item CT is always input in English units as specified in the code. The building period.020 to 0.030. wstory = hstory = n = 2.5.5.1 2003 IBC Seismic Loads Options for 2003 IBC Building Period Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 2003 IBC automatic seismic loads.5.3. 9.5.2 of ASCE 7-02. A typical range of values for CT is 0. Call this period TA. They are as follows: Approximate Period: Calculate the period based on (ASCE 7-02.3.5. distance from base of structure to story level. A period is also calculated based on (ASCE Eqn.3. x is determined using table 9. T. 9. The value used for CT is user input and hn is determined by the programs from the input story level heights. Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y).2-1). Eqn.5.2-1). The programs also calculate a coefficient for the upper limit on the calculated period.5. TA = CT ( hn ) x (ASCE 7-02. Number of story levels in the structure.8. 2 .

A typical range of values for Ω is 2 to 3. and the system overstrength factor. S1 is the mapped spectral acceleration for a one second period as determined in 2003 IBC Section 1615. No other values are allowed. A typical range of values for S1 is 0 to 2. specify a site class. See 2003 IBC Table 1615. The programs determine the occupancy importance factor. The input in the programs is in g. The site class can be A. B. Note that site class F is not allowed for automatic 2003 IBC lateral seismic loads. A typical range of values for R is 2 to 8.27 . I. Fa and Fv. it should be input as 1. Ss is the mapped spectral acceleration for short periods as determined in 2003 IBC Section 1615. User Defined: In this case. Thus the map values should be divided by 100 when they are input.5. Ω. S1.2.1 for site class definitions. Thus the map values should be divided by 2003 IBC Seismic Loads 2 . If seismic coefficients are user defined. The seismic group can be input as I. The seismic coefficients can be input in accordance with the code or they can be user defined. 2. For example. Both are specified in 2003 IBC Table 1617. See 2003 IBC Section 1616. The input in the programs is in g. if the map value is 125%g.1. are direction dependent. They do not compare it against CuTA. specify Ss.25g. input a building period.2 for information about the seismic group. D. from the input seismic group and 2003 IBC Table 1604.1. which the programs use in the calculations.6.8.Chapter 2 . R.Automatic Seismic Loads – If Tmode > CuTA. Note that the seismic maps show Ss in % g with a typical range of 0% to 300%. or E. If the seismic coefficients are in accordance with code. C. Ss and S1. II or III. Note that the seismic maps show S1 in % g with a typical range of 0% to 200%.1. A typical range of values for Ss is 0 to 3. It is assumed that you have already performed this comparison before specifying the period.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The response modification factor. then T = CuTA.

16-39 and 16-41. or F with A being the least severe and F being the most severe) based on 2003 IBC Section 1616.4. Cs. A typical range of values for Fv is 0. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code. Fa is a site coefficient. This base shear value is then checked against the limits 2 .3(1).5.1. If site coefficients are user defined.8 to 3. A period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 2003 IBC Building Period.5. Fa is input directly by the user." The programs begin by calculating the design spectral response acceleration at short periods. For example.3.1-1).8. D. 2. Fv is a site coefficient. A seismic design category is determined based on SDS using 2003 IBC Table 1616. SDS . C. Fv is input directly by the user. The more severe of the two seismic categories is chosen as the seismic design category for the building.2(1). E.2. the software automatically determines Fv from the site class and S1 based on 2003 IBC Table 1615. using IBC Eqns. B. the software automatically determines Fa from the site class and Ss based on 2003 IBC Table 1615. S D1 = 2 Fv S1 3 (IBC Eqns.5. the design spectral response acceleration is calculated at a one second period.3 Algorithm for 2003 IBC Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 2003 IBC seismic loads is based on 2003 IBC Section 1617.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 100 when they are input. is calculated using (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. using IBC Eqns. If site coefficients are user defined. A seismic design category also is determined based on SD1 using 2003 IBC Table 1616.1. SDS = 2 Fa Ss 3 (IBC Eqns.2(2).8 to 2. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code. SD1. 16-38 and 16-40.25g. 16-38 and 16-40) Next. 9. A typical range of values for Fa is 0. 16-39 and 16-41) The programs determine a seismic design category (A. Initially a seismic response coefficient.5. if the map value is 125%g it should be input as 1.28 2003 IBC Seismic Loads .3(2).

2003 IBC Seismic Loads 2 .5.1-3).Automatic Seismic Loads specified in (ASCE Eqns.5.1-3) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.1-1).5. Cs . 9.6.2.1.1-2) where. 9.5.1-3).1-1) where. Cs .5. 9.1-2) .2.2. Cs = SDS R I (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. = The occupancy importance factor determined in accordance with 2003 IBC Table 1604.2.5. If the seismic response coefficient calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. The seismic response coefficient.5. SD1 = the design spectral response acceleration at a one second period T = the building period used for calculating the base shear and all other terms are as described for (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.1-3.5.2. SDS = The design spectral response acceleration at short periods. Cs = S D1 ⎛R⎞ ⎜ I ⎟T ⎝ ⎠ (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.5. 9.2. 9.5.5.5.1-2).5. R I = Response modification factor specified in 2003 IBC Table 1617.29 .5.2.5.5.1-2).2. 9. equal to that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.1-2.2.5.5.2.Chapter 2 .5.5. 9.5.5.5.5. the programs set the seismic response coefficient equal to that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.5.2. 9.1-1) The seismic response coefficient. and 9.5.2.5.1-4) and modified as necessary to obtain the final base shear. If the seismic response coefficient calculated in accordance with (ASCE Eqn.5. 9.2.2. need not exceed that specified in (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.2. 9.1-1) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. can not be less than that specified in (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. the programs set the seismic response coefficient. 9. Cs.5.

5. Fstory = k V wstory hstory story = 1 ∑ n (Eqns.5.1-4) as appropriate.1-3).2. 9. If the building is in seismic design category E or F and the seismic response coefficient calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.5.2. the programs set the seismic response coefficient equal to that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.2. 9.1-4) where.4-2) wstory h k story where.2.5. 9.1-1) and (ASCE Eqn.5. 2 .5.5.5.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Cs = 0.1-1 through 9.5.5. Cs = 0.1-1) Finally. 9. 9.5.5.1-4).-1 and 9.4-1 and 9. W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).2.5.4. 9.1-3) where all terms are as previously described for (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.5.2.5. S1 = the mapped spectral acceleration for a one second period and all other terms are as previously described for (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9. 7-02 9.5S1 R I (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. V.5.2.5.2.5.5.4-2).2.5. if the building is in seismic design category E or F.5. Cs .1-1) . 9. 9. is calculated using (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.1-4).2. the seismic response coefficient.5.5.5.044 SDS I (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.5.5. 9.5.5.-1) Cs = Seismic response coefficient as determined from one of (ASCE 702 Eqns.2. V.5.5. shall not be less than that specified in (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.2.5. The base shear. 9.1-4) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.5.5. The base shear.2.-1) V = Cs W (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.30 2003 IBC Seismic Loads .5. is distributed over the height of the building in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqns.

They are as follows: Approximate Period: Calculate the period based on (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 2.8-7) The values used for CT and x are user input and hn is determined by the programs from the input story level heights.75 to 0. T. If T ≤ 0. used for determining the base shear. 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Seismic Loads 2 . hstory = Story height. as specified in the code. k = Exponent applied to building height. If 0.1 Options for ASCE 7-05 Building Period Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the ASCE 7-05 automatic seismic loads. The value of k depends on the value of the building period.5 seconds < T < 2.9 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Seismic Loads Section 1613 of the 2006 IBC states that earthquake loads shall be determined in accordance with ASCE Standard 7-05. with the understanding that this information is directly applicable to those using the 2006 IBC as well.03. wstory = Weight of story level (based on specified mass).5 seconds. then k is linearly interpolated between 1 and 2. in the remainder of this section all references will be made only to the ASCE 705 document. = Number of story levels in the structure.9. then k = 1. while x varies from 0.8-7) Note that CT is always input in English units. If T ≥ 2.9. For the sake of clarity. then k = 2.5 seconds.5 seconds. TA = CT ( hn ) x (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. The height hn is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level.Automatic Seismic Loads Fstory = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.Chapter 2 . V = Building base shear. n 2. A typical range of values for CT is 0. 12.31 . distance from base of structure to story level. 12.016 to 0.

Note that site class F is not allowed for automatic ASCE 7-05 lateral seismic loads.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The response modification factor. If Tmode > CuTA.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y). T. are direction dependent. TL. from the input occupancy category and ASCE 7-05 Table 11.32 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Seismic Loads . The occupancy category can be input as I. III or IV. Fa and Fv.9. and the system overstrength factor. TL.5 for information about the occupancy category.8-7). B. 2 . specify Ss.3-1 for site class definitions. 2. The building period.2-1. A typical range of values for R is 2 to 8. The seismic coefficients can be input in accordance with the code or they can be user defined. input a building period. II. They do not compare it against CuTA. It is assumed that you have already performed this comparison before specifying the period. then T = Tmode. See ASCE 7-05 Section 11. C. that the programs choose is determined as follows: – – If Tmode ≤ CuTA. D. If seismic coefficients are user defined. User Defined: In this case. Call this period Tmode. The site class can be A. See ASCE 7-05 Table 20. or E. Call this period TA. R. The programs also calculate a coefficient for the upper limit on the calculated period. No other values are allowed. A period is also calculated based on (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. The values used for CT and x are user input and hn is determined from the input story level heights. If the seismic coefficients are in accordance with code. specify a site class. Both are specified in ASCE 7-05 Table 12. then T = CuTA. I. Cu. Ω. Ss and S1. A typical range of values for Ω is 2 to 3. S1.5-1. 12. as well as a long-period transition period. which the programs use in the calculations. The programs determine the occupancy importance factor.

1. the Fa is input directly by the user. TL is the long-period transition period as determined in ASCE 7-05 Section 11.1. Note that the seismic maps show S1 in %g with a typical range of 0% to 100%.5.Automatic Seismic Loads Ss is the mapped maximum considered earthquake (MCE) spectral acceleration for short periods as determined in ASCE 7-05 Section 11. If site coefficients are user defined. Fv is a site coefficient. For example. Fv is input directly by the user.Chapter 2 .5. SDS. A period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for ASCE 7-05 Building Period.4-3).4-1. 11.25g. The input in the programs is in g.4-1 and 11.8 to 3. If site coefficients are user defined. if the map value is 100%g it should be input as 1.4.9. The input in the programs is in g. the software automatically determines Fa from the site class and Ss based on ASCE 7-05 Table 11. Thus the map values should be divided by 100 when they are input. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code. S DS = 2 Fa Ss 3 (ASCE 7-05 Eqns.5.33 .3 Algorithm for ASCE 7-05 Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining ASCE 7-05 seismic loads is based on ASCE 7-05 Section 12.8. S1 is the mapped MCE spectral acceleration for a one second period as determined in ASCE 7-05 Section 11. A typical range of values for S1 is 0 to 1.4-3) 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Seismic Loads 2 . if the map value is 125%g it should be input as 1. using (ASCE 7-05 Eqs.4. Fa is a site coefficient. 2.4.8 to 2. the software automatically determines Fv from the site class and S1 based on ASCE 7-05 Table 11." The programs begin by calculating the design spectral response acceleration at short period. A typical range of values for Ss is 0 to 3. For example.0g. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code.4-2. A typical range of values for Fa is 0. Thus the map values should be divided by 100 when they are input.4-1 and 11. 11. Note that the seismic maps show Ss in % g with a typical range of 0% to 300%. A typical range of values for Fv is 0.

12.5-1. is calculated using (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. the programs set the seismic response coefficient.8-3 and 12. 12.34 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Seismic Loads .8-2) where.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Next. D. Cs. 12. A seismic design category is determined based on SDS using ASCE 7-05 Table 11. R I = Response modification factor specified in ASCE 7-05 Table 12. equal to that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns.21.8-4.6-2. SDS = The design spectral response acceleration at short periods.8-5. E. C. the design spectral response acceleration is calculated at a one second period. Initially a seismic response coefficient. A seismic design category also is determined based on SD1 using ASCE 7-05 Table 11. If the seismic response coefficient calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. Cs . need not exceed that specified in (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.4-2 and 11. B.8-3 and 12.4-2 and 11. 11.6. S D1 = 2 Fv S1 3 (ASCE 7-05 Eqns.8-4). 12.8-3. using (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 11. SD1.8-4). 12. as appropriate. and 12.4-3) The programs determine a seismic design category (A.8-2) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns.6-1. 12. The seismic response coefficient. = The occupancy importance factor determined in accordance with ASCE 7-05 Table 11.8-6) and modified as necessary to obtain the final base shear.4-3). 12. This base shear value is then checked against the limits specified in (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. The more severe of the two seismic categories is chosen as the seismic design category for the building. or F with A being the least severe and F being the most severe) based on ASCE 7-05 Section 11. 2. Cs. 2 .8-3 ).8-2). Cs = SDS R I (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.

6g. 12. W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).8-5) Finally.8-6). 12.8-5). 12.35 . Cs = 0.8-6) where. 12. V. Cs shall not be less than that shown in (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-2).5S1 ⎛R⎞ ⎜I⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. S1 = the mapped MCE spectral acceleration for a one second period and all other terms are as described for (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.8-3) Cs = SD1 TL for T > TL ⎛R⎞ 2 ⎜ I ⎟T ⎝ ⎠ (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.8-6) as appropriate. 12. Cs = 0. 12.Automatic Seismic Loads Cs = S D1 for T ≤ TL ⎛R⎞ ⎜ I ⎟T ⎝ ⎠ (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. The base shear. 12.8-2). Cs shall not be less than that shown in (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. SD1 = the design spectral response acceleration at a one second period T = the building period used for calculating the base shear TL = the long-period transition period and all other terms are as described for (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.01 (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.8-4) where.8-1): V = Cs W (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.Chapter 2 . 12.8-1) Cs = Seismic response coefficient as determined from one of (ASCE 705 Eqns. 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Seismic Loads 2 . 12.8-2 through 12. for structures located where S1 is equal to or greater than 0. is calculated using (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.

5 seconds.5 seconds. If T ≤ 0.5 seconds < T < 2. They are as follows: Approximate Period: Calculate the period based on (1997 NEHRP Eqn. TA = CT ( hn ) 3 4 (1997 NEHRP Eqn. Story height. 12.8-12) wstory hstory where.8-11 and 12. 5. Fstory = V = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.1-1) 2 . used for determining the base shear.10.8-12) Fstory = k V wstory hstory story = 1 ∑ n (ASCE 7-05 Eqns.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The base shear.1-1).3. If T ≥ 2. k = 1. 5. Building base shear. 12. T.3. k = 2. wstory = hstory = k = n = 2.8-11 and 12. V. Weight of story level (based on specified mass). Number of story levels in the structure. The value of k depends on the value of the building period. The value used for CT is user input and hn is determined by the programs from the input story level heights. If 0.1 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads Options for 1997 NEHRP Building Period Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 1997 NEHRP automatic seismic loads.5 seconds.10 2.3. Exponent applied to building height.36 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads . distance from base of structure to story level.3. k is linearly interpolated between 1 and 2. is distributed over the height of the building in accordance with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns.

The value used for CT is user input and hn is determined from the input story level heights.Chapter 2 . Note that linear interpolation is used to calculate values of Cu where the value of SD1 is not specifically specified in Table 5.020 to 0.1-1). See 1997 NEHRP Table 1.4 for information about the seismic group. based on 1997 NEHRP Table 5. User Defined: In this case. R. which the programs use in the calculations. They do not compare it to CuTA.2. No other values are allowed. The building period. that the programs choose is determined as follows: – – If Tmode ≤ CuTA. A period also is calculated based on the (1997 NEHRP Eqn.4. It is assumed that you have already performed this comparison before specifying the period. II or III.3. The seismic group can be input as I. The height hn is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level. I. Call this period TA. T.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The response modification coefficient. and the system overstrength factor.3.3.10.37 .Automatic Seismic Loads Note that CT is always input in English units as specified in the code. 5. Ω. then T = CuTA.035. 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads 2 .3. then T = Tmode. A typical range of values for CT is 0. Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y).3. is determined from the input seismic group and 1997 NEHRP Table 1.2.3. An occupancy importance factor. A typical range of values for Ω is 2 to 3. A typical range of values for R is 2 to 8. The programs also calculate a coefficient for the upper limit on the calculated period. Call this period Tmode. If Tmode > CuTA. are direction dependent. 2. input a building period. Both are specified in 1997 NEHRP Table 5. Cu.

38 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads . For example." 2 . Fv is a site coefficient. Note that site class F is not allowed for the automatic 1997 NEHRP lateral seismic loads. Fa is input directly by the user. Fa and Fv. The input is in g. If the seismic coefficients are in accordance with code. it should be input as 1. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code. 2. See 1997 NEHRP Section 4. A typical range of values for Fv is 0.2. Thus the map values should be divided by 100 when they are input. S1 is the mapped maximum considered spectral acceleration for a one second period as determined in 1997 NEHRP Section 4.25g.2. if the map value is 125%g.1. it should be input as 1.5.8 to 2.1 for site class definitions. A typical range of values for S1 is 0 to 2. if the map value is 125%g.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The seismic coefficients can be input in accordance with the code or they can be user defined. For example. The site class can be A. Fa is a site coefficient. Note that the seismic maps show Ss in %g with a typical range of 0% to 300%. C.5.1.2.3 Algorithm for 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 1997 NEHRP seismic loads is based on 1997 NEHRP Section 5. A period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 1997 NEHRP Building Period.1. specify Ss. The input is in g. Note that the seismic maps show S1 in %g with a typical range of 0% to 200%. the Fv is input directly by the user. A typical range of values for Ss is 0 to 3.10.2.1.3.25g. A typical range of values for Fa is 0.1. Ss and S1. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code.8 to 3. specify a site class. the programs automatically determine Fv from the site class and S1 based on 1997 NEHRP Table 4. D or E. S1.2. If site coefficients are user defined.4b. B. Thus the map values should be divided by 100 when they are input. If site coefficients are user defined. Ss is the mapped maximum considered spectral acceleration for short periods as determined in 1997 NEHRP Section 4. the programs automatically determine Fa from the site class and Ss based on 1997 NEHRP Table 4.4a. If seismic coefficients are user defined.

1-2). 4.4-1 and 4.4-1 and 4.1-2).2. is calculated using (1997 NEHRP Eqn. = The occupancy importance factor determined in accordance with 1997 NEHRP Table 1.1. 5. using 1997 NEHRP Eqns. This base shear value is then checked against the limits specified in (1997 NEHRP Eqns.3.3.1.2.5.1-3) and modified as necessary to obtain the final base shear. D. SD1.1-1). 4. or F with A being the least severe and F being the most severe) is determined based on 1997 NEHRP Section 4.3. 5.) Next the programs calculate the design spectral response acceleration at a one second period.1.) A seismic design category (A.2.4-2 and 4. where.2.2.Automatic Seismic Loads The programs begin by calculating the design spectral response acceleration at short periods. Cs.1. 4. SD1 = 2 Fv S1 3 (1997 NEHRP Eqns.2. Initially a seismic response coefficient.2.2.39 . the programs set the seismic 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads 2 .3.3. Cs = SDS R I (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.2.2. The more severe of the two seismic categories is chosen as the seismic design category for the building.1.4-2 and 4.4.2. B.5-1.3. A seismic design category also is determined based on SD1 using 1997 NEHRP Table 4. E.1-1).3. C.1b. If the seismic response coefficient calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn.1-2 and 5.1.5-1.5-2.2. 5.2.2.1.2. R I = Response modification factor specified in 1997 NEHRP Table 5.2.1-2. need not exceed that specified in (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5. The seismic response coefficient.2.1a. A seismic design category is determined based on SDS using 1997 NEHRP Table 4.2. SDS. Cs . SDS = The design spectral response acceleration at short periods.2.5-2..Chapter 2 .3. 5. using 1997 NEHRP Eqns. S DS = 2 Fa Ss 3 (1997 NEHRP Eqns.1. 4.1-1) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn.2.1.2.

1-4).3.3. Cs = 0.3.3. the seismic response coefficient.1-3) where all terms are as previously described for (1997 NEHRP Eqns.1-2). Finally.2.3. 5.1 SD1 I (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.3.3.2.1-4) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqns.3.1-3) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn. if the building is in seismic design category E or F. Cs = S D1 ⎛R⎞ ⎜ I ⎟T ⎝ ⎠ (1997 NEHRP Eqn.5. 5.3. shall not be less than that specified in (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.1-1).1-3). The seismic response coefficient. Cs .1-2).1-1 and 5. Cs = 0.2. the programs set the seismic response coefficient equal to that calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn.11 and 5. SD1 = the design spectral response acceleration at a one second period T = the building period used for calculating the base shear and all other terms are as described for (1997 NEHRP Eqn.1-1). Cs .2.3. shall not be less than that specified in (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.40 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads .5S1 R I (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5. equal to that calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn.3.1-3). 5.Automated Lateral Loads Manual response coefficient. the programs set the seismic response coefficient equal to that calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn.1-2) where.3.2.1-4) where.2.2. 5.1-3). 2 .3.3. 5. If the seismic response coefficient calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn. Cs .2.2.2.2.1-4).2. 5.2. If the building is in seismic design category E or F and the seismic response coefficient calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn.2. 5.2.2.3. 5. 5. 258.

5 seconds.2) Cs = Seismic response coefficient as determined from one of (1997 NEHRP Eqns.3.2. used for determining the base shear. 5. T.1-4) as appropriate. Fstory = V = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.2): V = Cs W (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5. k = 1. Building base shear. The base shear.3.3. If T ≥ 2.2. If 0.4-1 and 5.5 seconds.2. V.5 seconds. k = 2. Exponent applied to building height.41 .5 seconds < T < 2.3.1-1 through 5. The base shear. Weight of story level (based on specified mass). k is linearly interpolated between 1 and 2. W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass). The value of k depends on the value of the building period.3. 5.Chapter 2 . If T ≤ 0.4-2). 5.Automatic Seismic Loads S1 = the mapped spectral acceleration for a one second period and all other terms are as previously described for (1997 NEHRP Eqn. V. is calculated using (1997 NEHRP Eqn. Story height.3. 5.3. Fstory = k V wstory hstory story = 1 ∑ n k wstory hstory where. wstory = hstory = k = n = 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads 2 . distance from base of structure to story level.1-1). is distributed over the height of the building by combining (1997 NEHRP Eqs. Number of story levels in the structure.

The damping ratio. 7(0. is the fundamental 2 . 8(0.42 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads .10g). obtained from the 2002 Chinese Design Code response spectrum for the fundamental period. has six possible values: 6(0.40g).11. is entered in units of seconds.3 Algorithm for 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 2002 Chinese seismic loads is based on calculating a factor of seismic lateral influence. αmax.5 to 1.11. ζ. The period used for determining this factor.1 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads Options for 2002 Chinese Building Period Two options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 2002 Chinese automatic seismic loads. from the response spectrum curve. The seismic intensity.0. α1. is used to calculate the factor of seismic lateral influence.30g) and 9(0. They are as follows: Program Calculated: The programs use the longest period mode (fundamental) for the calculated time period. input a building period. This period is T1. User Defined: In this case. The characteristic ground period.20g). The fundamental period. 2. is multiplied by the period time discount factor. 2. PTDF typically ranges from 0. prior to looking up the value of α1 from the 2002 Chinese Design Code response spectrum curve.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The maximum value for seismic lateral influence factor. is used to adjust the shape of the response spectrum curve. T1. Tg. T1. PTDF. SI. α1.05g).15g). 7(0. 8(0.11 2.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 2. which the programs use in the calculations. The enhancement factor is a multiplier to amplify the value or response spectrum curve.11.

– If T ≤ 0.Automatic Seismic Loads period as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 2002 Chinese Building Period. then α1 = ⎣ η2 0.43 .55 ) 0. 2-1b) (Eqn. 2-1d) where.5 + 5 ζ = 0.1s < T ≤ Tg. ⎝T ⎠ or ⎡ ⎤ – if 5Tg < T ≤ 6.02 + ( 0. then α1 = ⎜ ⎟ η2 α max .05 − ζ ) 8 = 1+ ( η1 ≥ 0 ) ( η2 ≥ 0. α1 αmax T T1 Tg = Seismic lateral influence factor. = Maximum value for the seismic lateral influence factor.1s.2γ − η1 ( T − 5Tg ) ⎦ α max γ (Eqn. 2-2): 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads 2 .0s. or ⎛ Tg ⎞ – if Tg < T ≤ 5Tg. PTDF = Period time discount factor. is calculated using (Eqn. or – if 0." The programs calculate the seismic lateral influence factor using (Eqns. = PTDF (T1) = Fundamental period of the structure.05 − ζ 0. then α1 = [0.06 + 1. 2-1). The total specified load for lateral seismic action. γ η1 η2 = 0.45 + T(η 2 – 4. = Characteristic ground period. then α1 = η 2 αmax.7 ζ ζ = Damping ratio.Chapter 2 . 2-1a) (Eqn. 2-1c) (Eqn. FEk.9 + 0.05 − ζ 0.5)] αmax.

08T1 + 0. 0 if T1 > 1. The total specified load for lateral seismic action.85 α 1GE where.35 < Tg ≤ 0. (Eqn. The concentrated force at the top of the structure.4 Tg. Fi n = Portion of total specified load applied to a story level. 0.02 if Tg ≥ 0. 2-2) α1 GE = Seismic lateral influence factor calculated in (Eqns. 0.4 Tg.Automated Lateral Loads Manual FEk = 0.35 and T1 > 1. 2-1a through 2-1d). 0. = Total specified gravity load of building (based on specified mass). ΔFn. FEk. 2-4): ΔFn = δn FEk where. 2-3): FEk = ΔFn + where. (Eqn.4 Tg.4 Tg. 2-4) FEk = δn = or δn = or δn = or δn = Total specified load for lateral seismic action.55 and T1 > 1. is broken into a concentrated force applied to the top of the structure and forces applied at each story level in accordance with (Eqn. 2-3) FEk = Total specified load for lateral seismic action.55 and T1 > 1. = Number of story levels in the building.01 if 0. ∑F i =1 n i (Eqn.08T1 + 0. ΔFn = Concentrated force at the top of the building.44 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads .07 if Tg ≤ 0. is calculated as shown in (Eqn. 2 .08T1 + 0.

n = Number of story levels in the structure. 2-5): Fi = Gi Hi ∑G j =1 n ( FEk − ΔFn ) (Eqn.1 2004 NZS 1170. Gj = Equivalent gravity load of lumped mass for story levels i and j. Call this period T1.5 Seismic Loads 2 .5 Seismic Loads Options for 2004 NZS 1170. Fi FEk ΔFn = Portion of lateral seismic load applied to story level i. respectively.12. respectively. = Total specified load for lateral seismic action. Hj = Story heights of lumped masses i and j. They are: Program Calculated: The programs use the longest period mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y). = Concentrated force at the top of the structure. (FEk . which the programs use in the calculations.5 Building Period Two options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 2004 NZS automatic seismic loads. measured from base of structure to story level. User Defined: In this case. 2.45 .12 2. Hi. input a building period.Chapter 2 . is distributed over the height of the structure in accordance with (Eqn. They do not compare it against the program calculated period. Gi.ΔFn). 2-5) j Hj where.Automatic Seismic Loads The remaining portion of the lateral seismic load. 2004 NZS 1170.

6 of the 2004 NZS 1170.55.1. A typical range of values for R is 0." The programs begin by calculating the elastic site hazard spectrum for horizontal loading. is based on Section 4.5 Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 2004 NZS 1170. or E.12. See 2004 NZS 1170.46 2004 NZS 1170.7 to 1.2 of the 2004 NZS 1170.5.2 to 1.5 3. D. A typical range of values for Z is 0.5 entitled “Equivalent Static Method. A typical range of values for N is 1 to 1. T1.0. The structural ductility factor.5.13 to 0.8.” A period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 2004 NZS 1170.5 Subsection 3.4 of the 2004 NZS 1170.5 Seismic Loads . using (NZS Eqn.5. as described in Subsection 3. The site subsoil class in combination with the period.5. 1170.D) where. C(T). but should be limited such that ZR does not exceed 0.5 seismic loads is based on Section 6. Z is the hazard factor as determined from Table 3. Ch(T1).5.1.5 3. is based on Section 4.1.72.2 of the 2004 NZS 1170.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 2. are used to look up the seismic hazard coefficient. N. R is the return period factor as determined from Table 3. 2. µ. Sp. 1170. B.1(1)) C(T1 ) = Ch (T1 )ZRu N(T . C.5 Building Period.3 of the 2004 NZS 1170. The site subsoil class can be A.5 of the 2004 NZS 1170.3 Algorithm for 2004 NZS 1170.3 for site subsoil class definitions. 2 .7.3 of the 2004 NZS 1170.5 Commentary.12.5.1(1)) Ch(T1) = Seismic hazard coefficient for period T as determined by the program from Table 3. (NZS Eqn. A typical range of values for Sp is 0. is based on Subsection 3. The near-fault factor.1 of the 2004 NZS 1170.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The structural performance factor.

Chapter 2 .5 6.0 second for site subsoil class E.5 Seismic Loads 2 . 1170. Cd(T1).1(1)) Sp kµ kµ µ = structural performance factor = µ = for T1 ≥ 0.5 6. T1 shall not be taken less than 0.2(1)) Cd(T1) = Horizontal design action coefficient calculated in (NZS Eqn. 0.5 6. The horizontal base shear. 1170. N (T. the horizontal design action coefficient is calculated at the T period. or 1.4 second for site subsoil classes A. 5.7s ( μ − 1) T1 + 1 0.6 second for site subsoil class D. Return period factor. is distributed over the height of the building in accordance with (NZS Eqn.02 ⎟ Ru but not less than 0. B.47 .2(2)) 2004 NZS 1170. Cd (T1 ) = where. 5. using the following equation.7 = structural ductility factor and for the purposes of calculating kµ. C ( T1 ) S p kμ ⎛ Z ⎞ ≥⎜ + 0. is calculated using (NZS Eqn.2(1)) W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass). (NZS Eqn.2(1)) ⎝ 20 ⎠ C(T1) = elastic site hazard spectrum calculated in (NZS Eqn. V.Automatic Seismic Loads Z Ru = = Hazard factor. Near-fault factor.7s for T1 < 0. 1170. 1170.D) = Next. V.2(1)): V = Cd (T1)W where.5 3.03Ru (NZS Eqn. The horizontal base shear. and C.

2. Weight of story level (based on specified mass). 0.25kt hn (AS 1170.5 6.13.2(2)) wstory hstory where. 6.2(7)) where kt is defined as follows (AS 1170.48 2007 AS 1170. 0.4 Seismic Loads Options for 2007 AS 1170. They are as follows: Approximate Period: Calculate the fundamental period based on (AS 1170.13 2.075 for moment-resisting concrete frames 0. Horizontal base shear calculated in (NZS Eqn. Story height.4 section 6.2(7)). wstory = hstory = n = 2.1 2007 AS 1170. distance from base of structure to story level.4 Eqn.11 for moment-resisting steel frames 0.4 Seismic Loads . 6.4 automatic seismic loads.06 for eccentrically braced steel frames 2 . 1170.3): kt = = = 0. Fstory = Ft or Ft V = = = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.2(1)). The value used for hn is determined by the programs from the input story level heights.75 TA = 1.4 Eqn. 6.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Fstory = Ft +0. Number of story levels in the structure.08V if story = top level 0 if story ≠ top level.92V wstory hstory story = 1 ∑ n (NZS Eqn.4 Building Period Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 2007 AS 1170.

5 of the 2007 AS 1170.0.4 and Table 6.5(A) and 6.8. The site subsoil class can be Ae.5(B). The site subsoil class in combination with the period.5(B).1.4.1 for site subsoil class definitions. A typical range of values for Z is 0. They do not compare it against TA or Tmode.5 of the 2007 AS 1170.4 Subsection 4. is based on Section 6. Z is the hazard factor as determined from Table 3. A typical range of values for Sp is 0.2 of the 2007 AS 1170. A typical range of values for kp is 0.5(A) and 6.1 of the 2007 AS 1170.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The structural performance factor.4 of the 2007 AS 1170.03 to 0. is based on Section 6.4.4. User Defined: In this case. are used to look up the spectral shape factor. Call this period Tmode. µ. Sp.0.0 to 4. De or Ee.67 to 1.Chapter 2 . Be. input a building period. T1. See 2007 AS 1170. as described in Subsection 6. kp is the return period factor as determined from Table 3.4 and Table 6.Automatic Seismic Loads = 0. Ce. 2007 AS 1170. The structural ductility factor. Ch(T1).2 to 1. which the programs use in the calculations. 2. A typical range of values for µ is 2. It is assumed that you have already peformed this comparison before specifying the period.05 for all other structures The height hn is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level and is input in meters.49 .4 Seismic Loads 2 .13.60. Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y).

3(1)).Automated Lateral Loads Manual 2.13.4 Eqn.4 Seismic Loads .2(4)) Cd (T1 ) = W = C ( T1 ) S p μ (AS 1170.2(5)) Ch(T1) = Spectral shape factor for period T as determined by the program from Table 6.3 Algorithm for 2007 AS 1170. V.4 6. 6.2(5)) C(T1 ) = k p ZCh (T1 ) where.2 of the 2007 AS 1170. C(T). using (AS 1170. (AS Eqn.4 Eqn. 6.4 Eqn.2(1)) Cd(T1) = Horizontal design action coefficient calculated in (AS 1170. The base shear.4 Eqn.2(1)): V where.4 Eqn.2(4)) Weight of the building (based on specified mass). 6.3(1)) k wstory hstory 2 .4.4 Eqn. 1170.4 of the 2007 AS 1170. Z kp = Hazard factor." The programs begin by calculating the elastic site hazard spectrum for horizontal loading.4 Eqn.” A period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 2007 AS 1170. Fstory = k wstory hstory story = 1 ∑ n V (AS 1170.4 Building Period.4 seismic loads is based on Section 6. is distributed over the height of the building in accordance with (AS 1170. = Return period factor. 6.50 2007 AS 1170.4 Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 2007 AS 1170. 6. The horizontal base shear. is calculated using (AS 1170. V. 6.4 entitled “Equivalent Static Analysis. 6. = Cd (T1)W (AS 1170.

is used as an exponent on the building height when determining the distribution of the base shear over the height of the building.5 seconds. k = 1. 2. V. If T ≤ 0. = Exponent applied to building height. = Building base shear. k = 2.2 Algorithm for User Defined Seismic Loads The base shear. used for determining the base shear. C. is calculated using (Eqn. This coefficient multiplied times the building weight gives the lateral seismic base shear in the direction specified.5 seconds < T < 2. Fstory V wstory hstory k = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.Chapter 2 .14.5 seconds. distance from base of structure to story level. W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass). k is linearly interpolated between 1 and 2. The value of k depends on the value of the building period. n 2. 2-6): V=CW where. = Weight of story level (based on specified mass). = Number of story levels in the structure. is direction dependent.14. 2-6) C = User-defined base shear coefficient. User Defined Seismic Loads 2 . The building height exponent.5 seconds.14 2. (Eqn. If 0.Automatic Seismic Loads where.1 User Defined Seismic Loads Input Factors and Coefficients The base shear coefficient. = Story height. k.51 . If T ≥ 2. T.

add a new user defined response spectrum function. hstory = Story height. wstory = Weight of story level (based on specified mass). 2.52 Response Spectrum Functions . The Response Spectra area of this form lists the names of all the currently defined response spectrum functions. 2 . Instead the units are associated with a scale factor that multiplies the function and is specified when you define the response spectrum case. and delete existing response spectrum function definitions.15 Response Spectrum Functions A response spectrum function is simply a list of period versus spectral acceleration values. 2-7) wstory h k story where. that is. When this command is used.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The base shear. the Define Response Spectrum Functions form appears. In ETABS the acceleration values in the function are assumed to be normalized. The Click To area of the form allows can be used to add a new spectrum from a text file. modify an existing response spectrum function definitions. V. k n = A user-defined exponent. = Number of story levels in the structure. Fstory = Portion of base shear applied to a story level. V = Building base shear. distance from base of structure to story level. is distributed over the height of the building in accordance with (Eqn. Click the Define menu > Response Spectrum Functions command to define response spectrum functions. 2-7): Fstory = k V wstory hstory story = 1 ∑ n (Eqn. add a new response spectrum function based on one of several ETABS built-in code response spectra. the functions themselves are not assumed to have units.

Automatic Seismic Loads 2. Typically ETABS does not import the file into its database. Any line that has a $ symbol in the first character space is treated as a comment line and ignored. or if the .53 . Any number of header lines at the beginning of the file can be specified to be ignored by ETABS. It simply maintains a link to the file location.1 Response Spectrum Functions from a File A response spectrum definition can be added to ETABS from a text file.Chapter 2 . If the Convert to User Defined button is clicked. ETABS skips the number of lines at the top of the file indicated in the Header Lines to Skip item. These values are available for viewing only and can not be edited unless the function is converted to a user defined func- Response Spectrum Functions 2 .edb file is moved to another location. Define Function: This area displays the period and spectral acceleration values for the function. Those header lines do not need $ symbols at the beginning of them. Function file: Click on the Specify File button in this area to bring up a form that can be used to indicate the name of the text file that includes your response spectrum data. ETABS quits reading the file when it reaches the end of the file or when it reaches a blank line. ETABS may suddenly be unable to locate the response spectrum file. One set of values (period and spectral acceleration) should be provided on each line. Note that ETABS considers a line with the first character space blank. The following areas exist in this form: Function name: Use this edit box to specify or modify the name of the response spectrum function. Note that when reading the function file. This brings up the Response Spectrum Function Definition form. the second character space a $ symbol and anything beyond the $ symbol as a blank line. Thus if the response spectrum file is moved.15. Do not click the Convert to User Defined button until a file name has been specified and the number of header lines to skip has been indicated. ETABS imports the response spectrum into its database file and the data will always be available to your model. The text file should have period and spectral acceleration values. Click the Add Spectrum from File button in the Click To area of the Define Response Spectrum Functions form to add a new response spectrum function definition from an existing text file.

then it skips to the next line. No values appear in this area until the graph of the function is displayed. ETABS reads the response spectrum function file as follows: First it skips the specified number of header lines.Automated Lateral Loads Manual tion. If the line is blank or if the end of the file is reached. Function graph: This area displays a graph of the function. Next it checks to see if a line has a $ symbol as the first character.15. The following areas exist in that form: Function name: Specify or modify the name of the response spectrum function.2 User Defined Response Spectrum Functions Click the drop-down list just below the Add Spectrum from File button in the Click To area of the Define Response Spectrum Functions form and click Add User Spectrum to add a new user defined response spectrum. If there is not a $ symbol as the first character on the line. This also fills in the values in the Define Function area of the graph. If it does. ETABS stops reading and closes the file. Then click the Display Graph button in the Function Graph area to display the graph of the function. The coordinates of the dot are reported in the box just below the graph. This brings up the Response Spectrum Function Definition form.54 Response Spectrum Functions . Define Function: Input the period and spectral acceleration values for the function in this area. Run the mouse pointer over the function graph to display a dot along the line representing the response spectrum. Then click the 2 . First specify the text file name and the number of header lines to skip in the Function File area of the form. Type the first set of period and spectral acceleration values into the edit boxes at the top of this area. ETABS reads the information on the line. 2.

Run the mouse pointer over the function graph to display a dot along the line representing the response spectrum. To delete an existing set of values.Automatic Seismic Loads Add button. click the Refresh Graph button located just below the graph.3 Code Specific Response Spectrum Functions ETABS allows you to easily define code specific response spectrum functions for a variety of building codes.55 . Click the drop down list just below the Add Spectrum from File button in the Click To area of the Define Response Spectrum Functions form and click one of the code-specific items. For example. Modify the values in the edit boxes and then click the Modify button. Note that the highlighted values appear in the edit boxes at the top of the area. If the graph does not update automatically. To modify an existing set of values. Clicking on one of these code specific items brings up a code-specific Response Spectrum Function Definition form. Then click the Delete button. It updates automatically as additional points are defined for the function. first highlight the appropriate values in the list box. Function graph: This area displays a graph of the function. Response Spectrum Functions 2 . Type in the next set of period and spectral acceleration values and again click the Add button. Continue this process until all sets of values are entered. click Add UBC97 Spectrum to add a new response spectrum based on the 1997 UBC. The following areas exist in the forms: Function name: Specify or modify the name of the response spectrum function. first highlight the appropriate values in the list box. The coordinates of the dot are reported in the box just below the graph.Chapter 2 .15. 2. Note that the highlighted values appear in the edit boxes at the top of the area.

Run the mouse pointer over the function graph to display a dot along the line representing the response spectrum. see Table 16-J in the 1994 UBC for typical values. 2 or 3. The parameters specified for each of the codes ETABS includes are identified in separate subsections that follow. The values are available for viewing only unless the function is converted to a user defined function. The soil type can be input as 1. Function graph: This area displays a graph of the function. It updates automatically as the spectrum parameters are redefined.56 Response Spectrum Functions . Any positive. Z and a soil type. Define Function: This area displays the period and spectral acceleration values for the function. The digitization of these response spectra is based on Section C106. nonzero value can be specified for the seismic zone factor.15. Then the values in the Define Function area can be edited.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Parameters: Specify the parameters that define the code specific response spectrum.1 in the 1996 SEAOC Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary (more commonly called the SEAOC Blue Book). The coordinates of the dot are reported in the box just below the graph. Note that the Convert to User-Defined button can be clicked at any time to convert the function to a user defined function. see Table 16-I in the 1994 UBC for typical values. click the Refresh Graph button located just below the graph. The values shown update every time the spectrum parameters are redefined. 2 .1 1994 UBC Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The 1994 UBC response spectrum function is based on Figure 16-3 in Chapter 16 of the 1994 UBC. The parameters required are a seismic zone factor. These parameters vary from code to code.3. 2. If the graph does not update automatically.2.

3 1996 BOCA Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The following parameters are input for the 1996 BOCA response spectrum function. v = Zonal velocity ratio. Aa = Av = Seismic coefficient representing the effective peak acceleration as determined in 1996 BOCA Section 1610. For a given period.57 .4 1995 NBCC Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The following parameters are input for the 1995 NBCC (Canadian) response spectrum function.3.3.5 Aa ≤ 2 R RTm 3 (Eqn. 11-3) 2.1.3. the value of Csm is determined using (Eqn.3.2 1997 UBC Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The 1997 UBC response spectrum function is constructed as shown in Figure 16-3 in Chapter 16 of the 1997 UBC. The response modification factor determined from 1996 BOCA Table 1610. See Tables 16-Q and 16-R in the 1997 UBC for typical values of these coefficients. Tm. Csm = 1.3.3. 2. Any positive.15. The response spectrum is constructed by plotting the modal seismic design coefficient.15. versus the modal period of vibration.5.2Av S 2. Tm. Csm. nonzero value can be input for these parameters. Seismic coefficient representing the effective peak velocityrelated acceleration as determined in 1996 BOCA Section 1610.Chapter 2 .3.5. Response Spectrum Functions 2 . Any positive. nonzero value can be specified for the seismic coefficients.1. R S = = The 1996 BOCA response spectrum function is based on 1996 BOCA Section 1610. 11-3). The parameters required are seismic coefficients Ca and Cv.3.1. The coefficient for the soil profile characteristics of the site as determined by 1996 BOCA Table 1610.15.Automatic Seismic Loads 2.

15. The 1995 NBCC response spectrum function is based on item 44(a) in Commentary J of the 1995 NBCC. can be input for the spectral acceleration. Values for these parameters can be found in Appendix C of the 2005 NBCC.5 Sec. v. Sa(1. PGA.50) = Spectral Acceleration at 0.58 Response Spectrum Functions .0 Sec.5 2005 NBCC Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The following parameters are input for the 2005 NBCC (Canadian) response spectrum function. Any positive. or zero.3. Any positive. Sa(0. The 2005 NBCC response spectrum function is based on item 72 in Commentary J of the 2005 NBCC. Any positive integer. nonzero value can be input for the zonal velocity ratio.1.3.20) = Spectral Acceleration at 0. Velocity-related seismic zone.3.15. nonzero value can be input for the peak ground acceleration. Any positive. or zero. nonzero value can be input for these parameters. 2.6 IBC2003 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The following parameters are input for the IBC2003 response spectrum function. Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) Sa(0. can be input for the acceleration and velocity-related seismic zones.0) = Spectral Acceleration at 1. SDS = The 5% damped design spectral response acceleration at short periods as specified in IBC2003 Section 1615. Values for these parameters can be found in Appendix C of the 1995 NBCC.2 Sec.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Za = Zv = Acceleration-related seismic zone. 2 . Site Class = A to F.0 Secs. Any positive integer. 2.0) = Spectral Acceleration at 2. Sa(2.

2.4.1 (ASCE 7-05 11.2. S1 TL Site Class = Site class A to F as specified in IBC2006 Section 1613.5-2). The IBC2006 response spectrum function is based on the procedure described in IBC2006 Section 1613. 2. SS = The 5% damped design spectral response acceleration at short periods as specified in IBC2006 Section 1613.4 (ASCE 7-05 11.Chapter 2 . 2.4. = Long-Period transition period(s) as specified in ASCE 705 11.1.1. Response Spectrum Functions 2 . nonzero value can be input for these parameters. The 1997 NEHRP response spectrum function is based on the procedure described in 1997 NEHRP Section 4.Automatic Seismic Loads SD1 = The 5% damped design spectral response acceleration at a one second period as specified in IBC2003 Section 1615. The IBC2003 response spectrum function is based on the procedure described in IBC2003 Section 1615.5.1).1.4.1.5.3.4. Any positive.4).2.1). SDS = The design earthquake spectral response acceleration at short periods as specified in (1997 NEHRP Eqn.15.1 (ASCE 7-05 11.3. = The 5% damped design spectral response acceleration at a one second period as specified in IBC2006 Section 1613.6.1.2 (ASCE 7-05 11.2. 4. 4.3.5-1). Any positive.5.1.8 1997 NEHRP Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The following parameters are input for the 1997 NEHRP response spectrum function.4. nonzero value can be input for these parameters.15.59 .7 IBC2006 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The following parameters are input for the IBC2006 response spectrum function. SD1 = The design earthquake spectral response acceleration at a one second period as specified in (1997 NEHRP Eqn.5.2).

Note that the value of these items depends on the specified subsoil class. ETABS calculates the Ch(T. B. 2. η. input the scaling factor as (Sm)(Sp)(R)(Z)(Lu). The 1992 NZS4203 (New Zealand) response spectrum function is constructed as specified in 1992 NZS4203 Section 4.1 through 4.60 Response Spectrum Functions . 0.20 second are taken as 0. the subsoil class and the damping correction factor.6.68. 4. and c and in Tables 4. TB.3.6. 4. and c. b.6. 0. or C. k1. In Table 4.4) is used.6. If (1992 NZS4203 Eqn. 4.72.1a the coefficient values for periods of 0.1 in 1998 Eurocode ENV 1998-1-1:1994 Section 4. respectively.3 and 4.6.10 second are taken as 0.3.6. and S are taken from Table 4. nonzero value can be specified for the scaling factor.3) is used.0 in Figures 4.6. The parameters you enter are the design ground acceleration.20 second are taken as 0. nonzero value can be specified for the design ground acceleration.10 1992 NZS 4203 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function For the 1992 NZS4203 (New Zealand) response spectrum function. The ordinates of the response spectrum are calculated using (1992 NZS4203 Eqns. The subsoil class can be input as A.4). The ordinates of the response spectrum are calculated using Eqns. respectively. b. 1) term in (1992 NZS4203 Eqns. 4.2.68.40. and 0.2. 4. Any positive.80 and 0. input the scaling factor as (Sp)(R)(Z)(Ls). In Table 4.15.6.6. B.6. TC.4 in 1998 Eurocode ENV 1998-1-1:1994 Section 4.42 and 0. The site subsoil category can be input as A. ag.9 1998 Eurocode 8 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The 1998 Eurocode 8 response spectrum function is constructed as described in 1998 Eurocode ENV 1998-1-1:1994 Section 4.1c the coefficient values for periods of 0 and 0. and 0.1a. input a scaling factor and a site subsoil category. k2.15. and 0.1b the coefficient values for periods of 0. 0.42. or C. 0. In Table 4.1a. 2 .09. If (1992 NZS4203 Eqn.2.2. The values of βo.2.80. The damping correction factor must satisfy η ≥ 0.13.6.6.7.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 2. respectively. TD. Any positive.3 and 4.2.4) based on the input site subsoil category and the values for μ = 1.

15. To delete an existing response spectrum function.Automatic Seismic Loads 2. Response Spectrum Functions 2 . highlight its name in the Define Response Spectrum Functions form and click the Delete Spectrum button.61 .Chapter 2 . The same form that appeared when you defined the function appears.3.11 Modifying and Deleting Response Spectrum Functions In the Define Response Spectrum Functions form highlight an existing response spectrum name and then click on the Modify/Show Spectrum button to modify the spectrum. use the form to make any required changes or modifications.

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Chapter 3 Automatic Wind Loads This chapter documents the automatic wind lateral static load cases that can be generated. Automatic wind loads can be generated in any arbitrary horizontal direction for the following codes: 1997 UBC 1996 BOCA BS 6399-95 1995 NBCC 2005 NBCC ASCE 7-88 ASCE 7-95 ASCE 7-02 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 1987 RCDF (Mexico) 2002 Chinese Automatic Wind Loads 3-1 .

a type. To review or modify the parameters for an automatic lateral load. when you click the Add New Load or Modify Load buttons. additional user-defined loads can be added to a load case that includes an automatic static lateral load. Use this form to specify a name for a load case. Another data sets defines the wind exposure parameters. 3.2 Automatic Wind Load Cases The forms defining the automatic wind loads consist of four data sets. Note that the actual forces associated with an automatic static lateral load are not calculated until an analysis has been run.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 3. This command brings up the Define Loads form.1 Defining Automatic Wind Load Cases The automatic wind static load cases are defined using the Define menu > Load Cases command. A separate automatic static load case must be defined for each direction of wind load. an Auto Lateral Load. However. That is. The data in the first three sets is common to all of the codes and is 3-2 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms . Thus. highlight the load in the list and click the Modify Lateral Load button. that load case is added to the model using default settings based on the selected code. you cannot view the resultant automatic lateral loads until after you have run an analysis. Each automatic static lateral load must be in a separate load case. One data set defines the exposure by selecting loading based on diaphragms or area objects. a self-weight multiplier. When the load type is specified as Wind. and a third set defines the exposure height. and in some cases. some of the data sets are dependent on the exposure selected. the Auto Lateral Load drop-down list becomes active and you can choose from any of the codes identified in the previous section. Select None for the Auto Lateral Load to specify that the Wind load will not be an automatic lateral load. If a code is selected in the Auto Lateral Load list. two or more automatic static lateral loads cannot be specified in the same load case. The fourth set is for specifying the wind coefficients.

Automatic Wind Load Cases . exterior cladding.e. Unlike the diaphragm exposure option that generates only lateral wind loads. the exposure from area objects option will generate wind loads normal to any area object. The wind load case must be defined before assigning the Cp values to the area objects. a diaphragm consisting of a single point object will have a zero exposure width.2. which is described at the end of this chapter. and various code-dependent wind coefficients. the dimensions of the object. If exposure from the extents of diaphragms is selected. walls. this option may be used to generate vertical as well as lateral loads. The the wind coefficient data set is code-dependent and is described separately for each code later in this chapter. Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3-3 . wind loads will be generated on each area object that has been assigned a Cp using the Assign > Area Loads > Wind Pressure Coefficients command.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms described in the subsections that follow. and various code-dependent wind coefficients. a separate lateral load is created for each diaphragm present at a story level. regardless of its orientation. 3. the assumed exposure width for the diaphragm(s) at the story level. Thus. that point object becomes the location where the wind load is applied.. The wind loads calculated at an area object are based on the elevation of the object. The wind loads calculated at any story level are based on the story level elevation. However. If area objects are used to model the actual in-plane stiffness of the diaphragm and automatic wind loads are to be created using the diaphragm option. Assign a dummy diaphragm to just one point object at a story level. Wind loads also can be user defined. so input a user defined exposure width for the dummy diaphragm to generate a non-zero wind load (use the Modify/Show Exposure Widths button on the Wind Loading form). one or more dummy diaphragms must be defined at each story level.1 Exposure The automatically calculated wind loads may be determined by exposure to diaphragms or to area objects (i. and/or roofs). the story height above and below that level. If exposure from area objects is selected.

it is blowing from the negative global Xdirection to the positive global X-direction. By default. A positive angle appears counterclockwise as you look down on the model in the negative global Zdirection. and the leeward coefficient. These input values are not available when using the exposure from area objects method because the wind coefficients are assigned directly to the area objects using the Assign > Area Loads > Wind Pressure Coefficients command. respectively. The angle is always measured counterclockwise from the positive global X-axis. For example. the wind exposure width for a diaphragm is equal to the calculated width of the diaphragm in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the wind load. An angle of 0 degrees means the wind is blowing in the positive global X-direction. An angle of 90 degrees means the wind is blowing in the positive global Y-direction.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 3. Cp. while the opposite side is the leeward side. An angle of 180 degrees means the wind is blowing in the negative global X-direction. are used in calculating the wind pressures on the windward and leeward sides of the diaphragms.2. Click the Modify/Show Exposure Widths button to review and modify the exposure widths calculated by the programs for each diaphragm. The maximum width of the diaphragm perpendicular to the direction of the wind loading is calculated using the following three-step process. if the wind 3-4 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms .2 Wind Exposure Parameters The wind exposure parameters are available only when calculating lateral wind loads using the exposure from extents of diaphragms option. Transform the coordinates of all of the point objects that are part of the diaphragm constraint into a system of coordinates that is parallel and perpendicular to the specified direction of wind loading. Find the point objects that have the maximum and minimum coordinates perpendicular to the direction of the wind load. Any angle for the wind direction can be input. that is. An angle of 270 degrees means the wind is blowing in the negative global Y-direction. When specifying the wind direction. The windward side of a diaphragm is the side exposed to the wind. Cp. The windward coefficient. indicate the direction of the wind by an angle measured in degrees.

Subtract the minimum perpendicular coordinate from the maximum perpendicular coordinate to obtain the diaphragm width perpendicular to the wind load. It is assumed that all stories above the bottom story are loaded by the wind. By default. Figure 3-1a shows an elevation of a two-story building with diaphragms at each story Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3-5 . for example where penthouses are included in the model. By default the bottom story is assumed to be the base level of the structure. In some cases.3 Wind Exposure Height The top story/maximum elevation and a bottom story/minimum elevation input values specify the elevation range over which the structure is exposed to wind. Modify the assumed wind load application point and the default exposure width on the Wind Exposure Width Data form.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms load is in the global X-direction. Figure 3-1 gives a representation of how loads are distributed to the diaphragms when using the exposure from extents of diaphragms method. User defined loads can then be added to the load case to account for the wind loads acting on the penthouse.2. which displays when the Modify/Show Exposure Widths button is clicked. the point where the wind load is applied to a diaphragm is the calculated geometric center of the diaphragm. The top story/maximum global Z indicates the highest story level to be assumed exposed to wind loading for the purposes of calculating the automatic wind load. 3. The bottom story/minimum global Z indicates the lowest story level that is exposed to wind loading.Automatic Wind Load Cases . find the point objects with the maximum and minimum global Y-coordinates. In most instances the top story should be the uppermost story level/elevation in the building and this is the default value. it may be more convenient to indicate that the top story level for automatic wind loading is the main roof level. it may be advantageous to specify a higher level as the bottom story for wind loading. One example of this might be if a building has several below-grade levels that should not receive any wind loading. In some instances.

the exposure heights allows the programs to determine how much of each area object is exposed to wind.1 Input Wind Coefficients Three wind coefficients are input for 1997 UBC wind loads. 3-6 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms . The shaded area in Figure 3-1b illustrates the extent of the wind load that is applied to the roof level diaphragm. 3. Exposure width for 2nd level diaphragm Specified parapet height Specified parapet height Exposure width for Roof level diaphragm Roof h2 2nd Z X a) Building Elevation h1 Base Z X b) Wind Loading at Roof Level h2/2 Exposure width for 2nd level diaphragm Specified parapet height Exposure width for Roof level diaphragm Roof h2 2nd h1 Base h2/2 h1/2 Z X c) Wind Loading at 2nd Level Exposure width for 2nd level diaphragm Exposure width for Roof level diaphragm Roof h2 2nd h1 Base Figure 3-1: Example extent of wind loading When using the exposure from area objects method. Assume the wind load is to be automatically calculated for the Ydirection. Thus.3.Automated Lateral Loads Manual level. the exposure type. The shaded area in Figure 3-1c illustrates nd the extent of the wind load that is applied to the 2 level diaphragm. and the wind importance factor.3 1997 UBC Wind Loads 3. They are the basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph). Iw. the wind load is acting on the face of the building shown in Figure 3-1a.

15. (UBC Eqn. P.2 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Wind Loads 3.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms The basic wind speed is described in 1997 UBC Sections 1616 and 1618. The first modification is that the programs do not automatically apply vertical wind loads over the projected horizontal area. The wind importance factor. The exposure types are described in 1997 UBC Sections 1616 and 1619. 3. The modification does not limit structures to less than 200 feet high. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load case. C.3 of the 1997 UBC. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area. Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3-7 (UBC Eqn.3. 20-1) is used to determine the wind pressure. you must manually include them. I or Ip— should be input. The programs have two modifications to the requirements of Section 1621.3. as discussed in 1997 UBC Section 1621. qs = Wind stagnation pressure at the standard height of 33 feet as given in 1997 UBC Table 16-F. Horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area as described in Section 1621.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the 1997 UBC are based on Sections 1616 through 1621 of the 1997 UBC.1997 UBC Wind Loads .3.3. The other modification is that the programs apply the method to structures of any height.2.00 to 1. A typical range of values for the basic wind speed is 70 to 130 mph. Iw—not one of the seismic importance factors.3. The wind importance factor can be found in 1997 UBC Table 16-K. The shape of the vertical projected area is determined based on the story heights and the input exposure widths for each diaphragm. No other values are allowed. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from extents of diaphragms method are based on a modified version of Method 2 (Projected Area Method) as described in Section 1621. 20-1) . or D. A typical range of values for Iw is 1. The exposure type can be B. P = qs Iw (Cq-windward Ce-windward + Cq-leeward Ce-leeward) where.

Automated Lateral Loads Manual Iw Cq-windward Ce-windward = = = Importance factor as input by the user. Windward pressure coefficient as input by the user. Windward combined height, exposure and gust factor coefficient at the height of interest as given in 1997 UBC Table 16-G. Leeward pressure coefficient as input by the user. Leeward combined height, exposure and gust factor coefficient, evaluated at the specified top story level, as given in 1997 UBC Table 16-G.

Cq-leeward Ce-leeward

= =

The Ce coefficient is determined from 1997 UBC Table 16-G using the input exposure type and the elevation from the input bottom story. Linear interpolation is used to determine the value of the Ce coefficient at heights above 15 feet that are not listed in 1997 UBC Table 16-G. qs is determined from the following equation: qs = 0.00256 V ≥ 10 psf

2

(UBC Table 16-F)

where, qs = Wind stagnation pressure at the standard height of 33 feet, psf. V = Basic wind speed as input by the user, mph.

Note the units that are specified for qs and V. Also note that the preceding equation is consistent with 1997 UBC Table 16-F. The programs distribute the pressures, P, on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1.

3.3.2.2

Exposure from Area Objects

Automatic wind loads for the 1997 UBC are based on Sections 1616 through 1621 of the 1997 UBC. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are based on Method 1 (Normal Force Method) as described in Section 1621.2 of

3-8

Exposure from Area Objects

1996 BOCA Wind Loads - Exposure from Area Objects the 1997 UBC. Wind loads are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in Section 1621.2. (UBC Eqn. 20-1) is used to determine the wind pressure, P, at any point on the surface of the area objects. P = Ce Cp qs Iw where, Ce = Combined height, exposure, and gust factor coefficient as given in 1997 UBC Table 16-G. This value is evaluated at the height of interest for windward exposures, and at the top story level for leeward objects. Cp = Windward or leeward pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user. qs = Wind stagnation pressure at the standard height of 33 feet as given in 1997 UBC Table 16-F. Iw = Importance factor as input by the user. The value for qs is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms.” The programs distribute the pressures, P, on the surface of each area object, which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects. (UBC Eqn. 20-1)

3.4

1996 BOCA Wind Loads

**3.4.1 Input Wind Coefficients
**

Four wind coefficients are input for 1996 BOCA wind loads. They are the basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph), the exposure category, and the wind importance factor, I, and the gust response factor, Gh. The basic wind speed is described in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.3. A typical range of values for the basic wind speed is 70 to 130 mph.

Exposure from Area Objects

3-9

Automated Lateral Loads Manual The exposure categories are described in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.4. The exposure category can be A, B, C or D. No other values are allowed. The wind importance factor, I, is described in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.5. A typical range of values for I is 0.90 to 1.23. The gust response factor, Gh, is discussed in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.7 and in Table 1609.7(5). Specify that the gust response factor is (a) calculated based on the height (distance) of the specified top story above the specified bottom story and the exposure category in accordance with the code using Table 1609.7(5) or (b) a value you input. Note that in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.7, the following statement is made about Gh. The gust response factor for buildings which have a height to least horizontal dimension ratio greater than 5 or a fundamental frequency less than one cycle per second (period greater than 1 second) shall be calculated by an approved rational analysis that incorporates the dynamic properties of the main wind forceresisting system. When you select the Per Code option for the gust response factor, the programs do not check the height-to-least-horizontal-dimension ratio or the building period and it does not determine the gust factor using an approved rational analysis incorporating the dynamic properties of the main wind force-resisting system. It is assumed that you will do this yourself, if necessary, and provide a user defined value for Gh. A typical range of values for Gh is 1.00 to 2.36.

**3.4.2 Algorithm for 1996 BOCA Wind Loads
**

3.4.2.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms

Automatic wind loads for the 1996 BOCA are based on Section 1609 of the 1996 BOCA. The wind loads applied are a modified version of those described in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.7. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof sur-

3 - 10

Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms

(Table 1609.00256 V ≥ 10 psf 2 (Table 1609.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms faces. Velocity pressure exposure coefficient. as given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(3). Note the units specified for Pv and V. Importance factor as input by the user. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load case. The Kz coefficient is determined from 1996 BOCA Table 1609. The programs use linear interpolation to determine the value of Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 .7(4) using the input exposure category and the input bottom story. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area. For use in 1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(4). you must manually include them. Pv = Basic velocity pressure. V = Basic wind speed as input by the user. P.7(3)) where.7(4).11 . Leeward pressure coefficient as input by the user. Pv I Kz Gh Cp-windward Kh = = = = = = Basic velocity pressure given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609. The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure.7) Cp-leeward = The Pv coefficient is determined from the following equation.1996 BOCA Wind Loads . Pv = 0. mph. psf. evaluated at the specified top story level. Velocity pressure exposure coefficient at the height of interest as given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(4). the input bottom story/minimum elevation is assumed to be ground level. Windward pressure coefficient as input by the user. P = Pv I [Kz Gh Cp-windward + Kh Gh Cp-leeward] where. Gust response factor as given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(5) or as user specified.

7(4) using the input exposure category and the height of the input top story above the input bottom story.7) (Table 1609.Automated Lateral Loads Manual the Kz coefficient at heights above 15 feet that are not listed in 1996 BOCA Table 1609. (Table 1609.7.12 Exposure from Area Objects . = Importance factor as input by the user.7. Gh. 3.4. For discussion of the gust response factor. P." The Kh coefficient is determined from 1996 BOCA Table 1609. Wind loads are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in Section 1609. at any point on the surface of the area objects.7(4). on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1. Linear interpolation is used to determine the value of the Kh coefficient at heights above 15 feet that are not listed in 1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(4).2.7(3). The programs distribute the pressures. Pwindward = Pv I Kz Gh Cp-windward or Pleeward = Pv I Kh Gh Cp-leeward where. refer to the previous section entitled "Input Wind Coefficients for 1996 BOCA. The following equations are used to determine either the windward or leeward wind pressure.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for the 1996 BOCA are based on Section 1609 of the 1996 BOCA.7) 3 . The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are as described in 1996 BOCA Section 1609. Pv I = Basic velocity pressure given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609. P.

6.1.2 the following statement is made about Cr: Exposure from Area Objects 3 . Ve.25. The size effect factor for external pressures.6. = Velocity pressure exposure coefficient.00. Ca. A typical range of values for Ca is 0.5 1995 BS 6399 Wind Loads 3. = Windward pressure coefficient as assigned to the area object by the user.” The programs distribute the pressures.7(5) or as user specified. as given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609. Kz. and the dynamic augmentation factor. = Gust response factor as given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects 3.1995 BS 6399 Wind Loads .Exposure from Area Objects Kz Gh Cp-windward Kh = Velocity pressure exposure coefficient at the height of interest as given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609.3. the size effect factor. is described in 1995 BS 6399 Section 1. is described in 1995 BS 6399 Section 2. Note that in 1995 BS 6399 Section 1.4.52 to 1. The effective wind speed.13 . They are the effective wind speed in meters per second (m/s).3.2.5. is described in 1995 BS 6399 Section 2. and Kh are the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms.1.7(4). P. Cr. evaluated at the specified top story level. Cp-leeward The values for Pv.7(4).1 Input Wind Coefficients Three wind coefficients are input for 1995 BS 6399 wind loads. = Leeward pressure coefficient as assigned to the area object by the user. on the surface of each area object. A typical range of values for Cr is 0 to 0. The dynamic augmentation factor.

p = 0. 2. Horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area as described in Section 2. This typically means that when Cr ≥ 0.8. The programs have two modifications to the requirements of Section 2.5.2.6(7) is used to determine the wind pressure. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load case.25.85 qs Ca (Cp-front + Cp-rear) (1 + Cr) where. The first modification is that the programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area. 3.1.25. as discussed in 1995 BS Section 1. Size effect factor as input by the user.3.2 Algorithm for 1995 BS 6399 Wind Loads 3. The other modification is that the programs apply the method to structures of any height.1. p. you must include them manually.1.Automated Lateral Loads Manual This part of BS 6399 does not apply when the value of dynamic augmentation factor exceeds the limits shown in figure 3. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from extents of diaphragms method are based on a modified version of the Standard method as described in Section 2.5.3.14 = = Dynamic pressure as given in 1995 BS 6399 Table 2. 2. Eqn. The shape of the vertical projected area is determined based on the story heights and the input exposure widths for each diaphragm.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the 1995 BS 6399 are based on 1995 BS 6399 Section 2.1 of the 1995 BS 6399.6(7)) Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms . the program allows the user to input any value. and performs no check to ensure that Cr is less than 0. qs Ca 3 . the structure is assumed to be dynamic and the methodology for establishing wind loads described herein is not applicable. The modification does not limit structures to less than 100 meters high. (Eqn. Buildings falling outside these limits should be assessed using established dynamic methods. However.

5. Pa. (Eqn.85 qs Cp Ca (1 + Cr) where.2.2. qs = 0.1. 2.2. External pressure coefficient on the leeward side as input by the user.Exposure from Area Objects Cp-front Cp-rear Cr = = = External pressure coefficient on the windward side as input by the user.1(1)).613 Ve2 where.6(7)) is used to determine the wind pressure. at any point on the surface of the area objects.2.1(1)) Note the units that are specified for qs and Ve. (Eqn. qs = Ve = Dynamic pressure.6(7)) Exposure from Area Objects 3 .1. p.2. p.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for 1995 BS 6399 are based on Section 2. The programs distribute the pressures.3. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are based on a modified version of the Standard method as described in Section 2. p = 0.15 . qs is determined from (Eqn. 2. Effective wind speed as input by the user.1995 BS 6399 Wind Loads . Eqn.2.2. Also note that (Eqn. 2. m/s. Note that the factor 0.3. (2. 2.85 accounts for the non-simultaneous action between the front and rear faces.1 of 1995 BS 6399. on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1.1(1)) is consistent with 1995 BS 6399 Table 2. Wind loads are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in Section 2. Dynamic augmentation factor as input by the user. 3.

3.2.6 1995 NBCC Wind Loads 3.16 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms . 3 . on the surface of each area object. The velocity pressure. The default value is 2. q. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects. The gust effect factor. The value for qs is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms. Ca = Size effect factor as input by the user.1 of the 1995 NBCC. Cp = Windward (front) or leeward (rear) external pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user.0. is discussed in 1995 NBCC Sentence 4. 3. Note that the factor 0.2 Algorithm for 1995 NBCC Wind Loads 3. Cg.20 to 0.1 Input Wind Coefficients Two wind coefficients are input for 1995 NBCC wind loads. in kPa and the gust effect factor.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for 1995 NBCC are based on Section 4. They are the velocity pressure.90 kPa. Any positive value or zero is allowed.8.1.6. Any positive value is allowed. Cg. can be obtained from 1995 NBCC Appendix C.1.Automated Lateral Loads Manual qs = Dynamic pressure as given in 1995 BS 6399 Table 2.8.6. Cr = Dynamic augmentation factor as input by the user. q. p.1(6).6.85 accounts for the non-simultaneous action between the front and rear faces.” The programs distribute the pressures. A typical range of values for the velocity pressure is 0.

1. 15 ≥ 0.1(5)).17 . ⎛h ⎞ = ⎜ middle ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ 15 ≥ 0. q Cg Cp-windward Ce-windward Cp-leeward Ce-leeward = = = = = = Velocity pressure as input by the user.1. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. 4. you must include them manually.1. The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure.1(1)) Ce-windward is determined from (Eqn. 4. External pressure coefficient for the windward wall as input by the user. meters.1(5)). p. p = q Cg [Cp-winward Ce-windward + Cp-leeward Ce-leewa where. (1995 NBCC Eqn. Exposure factor for the leeward wall.1995 NBCC Wind Loads .1. 4. 4.1(5)) h = Distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the elevation considered.8.9 (1995 NBCC Eqn.9 (1995 NBCC Eqn. Exposure factor for the windward wall. Ce− leeward where.8. External pressure coefficient for the leeward wall as input by the user.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths.8. Gust effect factor as input by the user.8. 4.1. ⎛ h ⎞ Ce− windward = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ where. To include those vertical wind loads in the load case. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area. Ce-leeward is determined from (1995 NBCC Eqn.8.1(5)) Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 .

⎛ h ⎞ Ce− windward = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ where.6. p.8.2.1 of the 1995 NBCC.1(5)).1(5)) h = Distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the elevation considered. The following equations is used to determine the wind pressure. (1995 NBCC Eqn. p = q Ce Cg Cp where.1(1)) q = Velocity pressure as input by the user.1.1.1.9 (1995 NBCC Eqn.8. meters.1. are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis. 4. The pressures. 4. Cp = Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user.Automated Lateral Loads Manual hmiddle = One-half of the distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the input top story/maximum level. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in 1995 NBCC Section 4. meters. Eqn.18 Exposure from Area Objects . 4.1. at any point on the surface of the area objects. as shown in Figure 3-1. 3 .8. p. Cg = Gust effect factor as input by the user. Ce = Exposure factor.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for 1995 NBCC are based on Section 4.8.8. Ce for a windward facing area object is determined from (1995 NBCC Eqn.1. 15 ≥ 0. 3.

1(6). 15 ⎛h ⎞ ≥ 0.25.8 to 1.1. meters. I.23 kPa. on the surface of each area object.1(5)).8.1(5)) where. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects. The gust effect factor. q. hmiddle = One-half of the distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the input top story/maximum level.7. A typical range of values for the velocity pressure is 0.7. p. the gust effect factor.1. Exposure from Area Objects 3 . I. Cg.Exposure from Area Objects Ce for a leeward facing area object is determined from (1995 NBCC Eqn. 3. is described in 2005 NBCC Table 4. Cg.0. in kPa.9 Ce− leeward = ⎜ middle ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ (1995 NBCC Eqn.2005 NBCC Wind Loads . A typical range of values for I is 0.27 to 1. q.1.8.1. The default value is 2. They are the velocity pressure. 4. Any positive value is allowed.19 . can be obtained from 2005 NBCC Appendix C.7. The programs distribute the pressures. The velocity pressure. 4. and the importance factor.1 Input Wind Coefficients Three wind coefficients are input for 2005 NBCC wind loads. Any positive value or zero is allowed. is discussed in 2005 NBCC Sentence 4.1. The importance factor.7 2005 NBCC Wind Loads 3.

p.1(1)) I q Cg Cp-windward Ce-windward Cp-leeward Ce-leeward = Importance factor as input by the user. = Gust effect factor as input by the user.7. = External pressure coefficient for the leeward wall as input by the user.1.2 ≥ 0.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the 2005 NBCC are based on Section 4.2 Algorithm for 2005 NBCC Wind Loads 3.1.9 (2005 NBCC 4.1. 4.2.1 of the 2005 NBCC. p = I q Cg [Cp-winward Ce-windward + Cp-leeward Ce-leeward where. Ce-windward is determined from (2005 NBCC Eqn. (2005 NBCC 4.1(5)) 3 . 0. = Exposure factor for the windward wall.20 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms . Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths. = Velocity pressure as input by the user.7. you must include them manually.1(5).7.7. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area.1. To include those vertical wind loads in the load case. ⎛ h ⎞ Ce− windward = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ where. = External pressure coefficient for the windward wall as input by the user.7. = Exposure factor for the leeward wall.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 3.7. The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure.

2.21 . p.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for 2005 NBCC are based on Section 4. Cp = Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user.1. 3.7.7.Exposure from Area Objects h = Distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the elevation considered. meters. meters. Cg = Gust effect factor as input by the user. p = I q Ce Cg Cp where. Ce-leeward is determined from (2005 NBCC Eqn.1. 4.1(5).9 (2005 NBCC 4. 0. The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure.1(5)) hmiddle = One-half of the distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the input top story/maximum level. Exposure from Area Objects 3 .1(1)) I q = Importance factor as input by the user.1.2 ≥ 0. ⎛h ⎞ Ce− leeward = ⎜ middle ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ where.7.1. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in 2005 NBCC Section 4.1. at any point on the surface of the area objects.7. = Velocity pressure as input by the user. p.7.1. (2005 NBCC 4.7. The pressures. Ce = Exposure factor.1 of the 2005 NBCC.2005 NBCC Wind Loads . are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1.

7.7.2 ≥ 0.1(5)) h = Distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the elevation considered. 0. meters.5. Ce for a leeward facing area object is determined from (2005 NBCC Eqn. the topographic factor. 4.1.9 (2005 NBCC 4. meters. 3 . The exposure categories are described in ASCE 7-95 Section 6. I. The exposure category can be A. The programs distribute the pressures. p. A typical range of values for the basic wind speed is 85 to 150 mph.1.1. No other values are allowed. or D.8.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Ce for a windward facing area object is determined from (2005 NBCC Eqn. on the surface of each area object. ⎛h ⎞ Ce− leeward = ⎜ middle ⎟ 10 ⎠ ⎝ where. The basic wind speed is described in ASCE 7-95 Section 6.1(5)) hmiddle = One-half of the distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the input top story/maximum level.2 ≥ 0.8 ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads 3.7.1(5)). the exposure category.7.3. B. 4.1. C. They are the basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph). Kzt. 0.1 Input Wind Coefficients Five wind coefficients are input for ASCE 7-95 wind loads.2.22 Exposure from Area Objects . 3. ⎛ h ⎞ Ce− windward = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ where. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.5. the wind importance factor. and the gust factor G.1(5)).9 (2005 NBCC 4.

0. Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user. Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 . qz = 0.15. A typical range of values for I is 0. at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area in pounds per square foot (psf).0.80 to 0. 3. qz.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads 3. you must include them manually. The topographic factor Kzt is discussed in ASCE 7-95 Section 6. A typical range of values for G is 0. V I = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user.2.87 to 1.4 through 6. I. The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure.00256 Kz Kzt V I where.8.23 .ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads .5. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load case. = Importance factor as input by the user.4 through 6. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. The default value for Kzt is 1.6.85.6. C3a and C3b).Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms The wind importance factor.6 of ASCE 7-95.5. Note that the building and structure classification categories are defined in ASCE 7-95 Table 1-1. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-95 are based on Sections 6. See (ASCE 7-95 Eqns. The wind loads applied are a modified version of those described in ASCE 795 Sections 6.8. 2 (ASCE 7-95 Eqn 6-1) Kz = The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. Kzt can not be less than 1. The gust response factor G is discussed in ASCE 7-95 Section 6. is described in ASCE 7-95 Table 6-2.

01 ⎜ ⎜ zg ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2α for 15 feet ≤ z ≤ zg 2α ⎛ 15 ⎞ K z = 2." p = q G Cp-windward + qh G Cp-leeward where.01 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ zg ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where. which is based on ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1. C3a. Table 3-1: α and zg factors for use in ASCE 7-95 Equations C3a and C3-b Exposure Category A B C D α 5.5. (ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1) 3 . C3b) z = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point considered.5.5 11. is obtained using (Eqns.0 7. it is based on the row entitled "Main wind force-resisting systems" under the heading "Buildings of all heights. p.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. α = As specified in Table 3-1 (ASCE 7-95 Table C6-2 in ASCE 7-95 Commentary Section 6.1).1). In particular.5.1).0 9. Kz.5 zg (feet) 1500 1200 900 700 The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure. for z < 15 feet (ASCE 7-95 Eqns. ⎛ z K z = 2. zg = As specified in Table 3-1 (ASCE 7-95 Table C6-2 in ASCE 7-95 Commentary Section 6.24 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms . at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area. C3a and C3b in ASCE 7-95 Commentary Section 6.

4. C3a and C3b). = Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user. (ASCE 7-95 Eqn.ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads . 6-1) Kz = Velocity pressure exposure coefficient. at any height z on the surface of the user selected area objects in pounds per square feet (psf).8.4 through 6. = Gust response factor as input by the user. 6-1) is used to determine the velocity pressure. = Velocity pressure at the top story height on the surface of the vertical projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-965 Eqn.Exposure from Area Objects q = Velocity pressure. = Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.2. p. at any height z on the surface of the horizontal projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-965 Eqn. Exposure from Area Objects 3 . 3. qz.6 of ASCE 7-95. are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1.2. 61). Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user. G Cp-windward qh Cp-leeward The pressures. 6-1). See (ASCE 7-95 Eqns. V I = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user. qz = 0. qz. = Importance factor as input by the user.00256 Kz Kzt V I where. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in ASCE 7-95 Section 6.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-95 are based on Sections 6. 2 (ASCE 7-95 Eqn.25 .

q = qh.9 ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads 3. The programs distribute the pressures. The wind load case must be defined before assigning wind parameters to frame objects.1 Input Exposure In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Exposure” earlier in this chapter. G = Gust response factor as input by the user." p = q G Cp where. at any point on the surface of the area objects. 3 . at any height z on the surface of the area object calculated using (ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1). Cp = Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user.” ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1 is used to determine the wind pressure. wind loads will be generated on each line object that has been assigned wind parameters using the Assign > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parameters command. the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-02 also offers the capability to generate wind loads on line (frame) objects for use on open or lattice structures. p. which is based on ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1. In particular it is based on the row entitled "Main wind force-resisting systems" under the heading titled "Buildings of all heights. the velocity pressure at the top story/maximum height.9. For leeward facing area objects. qz. p. 3. If the option to include frame objects is checked. on the surface of each area object.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The value for Kz is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms.26 Exposure from Area Objects . (ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1) q = Velocity pressure. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.

A typical range of values for the basic wind speed is 85 to 150 mph. or 4. G.15. the directionality factor. Kzt. z0.Input Wind Exposure Parameters Selecting the Assign > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parameters command will display the Auto Wind Load Overwrites for Line Objects form. the roughness length parameter.9. the dimensions of the object. Input Wind Exposure Parameters 3 . and the solid/gross area ratio if frame objects are exposed to wind loads The basic wind speed is described in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.4. e1 and e2.27 . I. the exposure category. and the eccentricity factors. the topographic factor. The form allows specification of three items: the frame object is (Yes) or is not (No) loaded by wind (the default is Yes): the ice thickness: and the net force coefficient. and has a default value of “Program Determined. Cf.” The net force coefficient for wind. 3. A typical value for e1 and e2 is 0. Cf. and various code-dependent wind coefficients. They are the basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph). the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-02 allows specification of three additional coefficients when the exposure from extents of diaphragms is selected: the case type.9.2 Input Wind Coefficients Seven or eight wind coefficients are input for ASCE 7-02 wind loads depending upon the type of exposure. also has a default value of “Program Determined. kd. The case types are described in ASCE 7-02 Figure 6-9.5. the wind importance factor. The case type can be 1. 3. the gust factor. The eccentricity factors are described in ASCE 7-02 Figure 6-9. 3.1 Input Wind Exposure Parameters In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Wind Exposure Parameters” earlier in this chapter.1.1.ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads . 2. The ice thickness for wind load affects the area of the line object to be loaded.” The wind loads calculated at a line object are based on the elevation of the object.

To include those vertical wind loads in the same load case. The directionality factor. ∈.0.5.5.016 to 6.4. 3.6. The topographic factor Kzt is discussed in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.6. is described in ASCE 7-02 Table 6-1. A typical value for G is 0.0. is discussed in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.9.85 to 0.7. Kd. No other values are allowed.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads 3. The gust response factor G is discussed in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.77 to 1. z0. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths. I.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The exposure categories are described in ASCE 7-02 Section 6. Kzt cannot be less than 1. The exposure category can be A. The wind loads applied are a modified version of those described in ASCE 702 Section 6.5.13. C or D. A typical range of values for I is 0. The default value for Kzt is 1. you must include them manually.28 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms . as discussed in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.8. is used in the determination of the net force coefficient.5.15. B. Note that the building and structure classification categories are defined in ASCE 7-02 Table 1-1.4. The roughness length parameter.5. The wind importance factor.5 of ASCE 702.5 (Method 2 – Analytical Procedure). The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. A typical range of values for z0 is 0.3.6.95.2.9. is discussed in ASCE 7-02 Commentary C6. This ratio applies only to open structures. A typical range of values for Kd is 0.85. and thus is available for user input only when exposure to frame objects has been selected. 3 . Cf.5.2. The ratio of solid area to gross area.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-02 are based on Section 6.

is obtained using (Eqns.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure. See (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area. ⎛ z K z = 2. zg = Gradient height. in pounds per square foot (psf). qz = 0.ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads . C6-4).4).29 . C6-5). is obtained using (Eqn.6. V I = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user. zg. qz. for z < 15 feet (ASCE 7-02 C6-3a. zg = 1273 z 0.5.6. C6-3a and C6-3b).00256 Kz Kzt Kd V I where.5.01 ⎜ ⎜ zg ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2α for 15 feet ≤ z ≤ zg 2α ⎛ 15 ⎞ K z = 2. Kz. See (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. = Importance factor as input by the user. Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user. α = Empirical exponent. 2 (ASCE 7-02 Eqn 6-15) Kz = The velocity pressure exposure coefficient.01 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ zg ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where.125 0 (ASCE 7-02 C6-5) Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 . Kd = Directionality factor as input by the user. See (ASCE 7-02 Eqns. The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. C6-3a and C6-3b in ASCE 7-02 Commentary Section 6. C6-5 in ASCE 7-02 Commentary Section 6.4). The gradient height.C6-3b) z = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point considered.

The program then combines the loads for each of the four wind load cases described in ASCE 7-02 Figure 6-9. Px and Py. = Velocity pressure at the top story height on the surface of the vertical projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area. qz.157 0 (ASCE 7-02 C6-4) where.5. The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure.19 z-0. = Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.6. p = q G Cp-windward + qh G Cp-leeward where. z0 = Roughness length parameter as input by the user. 3 . G Cp-windward qh Cp-leeward The pressures. The application of these pressures determines a resultant lateral force in both the x. = Gust response factor as input by the user. 615).or y-axis. as shown in Figure 3-1. p.4). α = 6. = Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user. resulting in the permutations shown in Table 3-2.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The empirical exponent α is obtained using (Eqn. p. at each diaphragm level. 6-15). Note that one or the other of these forces may be zero if the wind direction is perfectly aligned with the x.and ydirections of the building. C6-4 in ASCE 7-02 Commentary Section 6.30 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms . are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis. (ASCE 7-02 Eqn 6-17) q = Velocity pressure. at any height z on the surface of the horizontal projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.

qz. 3.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-02 are based on Section 6.563(Px + Py) Torsional Moment ±0.563(e1BxPx ± e2ByPy) where.75 e1 By Py ±0. e2 = Eccentricity for load in the transverse direction of applied load as input by the user. Px = Resultant wind force in the x-direction.9.12.31 . at any height z on the surface of the user selected area objects. Bx = Diaphragm width in the y-direction.75 Px 0. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in ASCE 7-02 Section 6. Py = Resultant wind force in the y-direction.5. The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure. Exposure from Area Objects 3 .75 e1 Bx Px ±0.ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads . in pounds per square feet (psf).2.75(Px + Py) 0. e1 = Eccentricity for load in the direction of applied Wind load as input by the user.5 of ASCE 702. By = Diaphragm width in the x-direction.75 Py 0.Exposure from Area Objects Table 3-2: Wind Load Cases CASE 1 1 2 2 3 4 Lateral Force Px Py 0.

5 of ASCE 702. See (ASCE 7-02 Eqns. 3. G = Gust response factor as input by the user. p = q G Cp where. q = qh. on the surface of each area object. (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. the velocity pressure at the top story/maximum height.3 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-02 are based on Section 6.9.2. Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user. For leeward facing area objects. V I = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user. 3 . The programs distribute the pressures. 6-15) Kz = The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. p.32 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects . at any height z on the surface of the area object calculated using (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. The value for Kz is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects. = Importance factor as input by the user. qz. 2 ( ASCE 7-02 Eqn. C6-3a and C6-3b).Automated Lateral Loads Manual qz = 0.00256 Kz Kzt Kd V I where. 6-17) q = Velocity pressure. 6-15). p. at any point on the surface of the area objects. Cp = Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user.” The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure. Kd = Directionality factor as input by the user.

Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects 3 . F = qz G Cf Af where. 6-15). in pounds per square feet (psf). The value for Kz is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms.” The following equation is used to determine the design wind force. G = Gust response factor as input by the user. qz.00256 Kz Kzt Kd V I where.ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads . qz. Af = Projected solid area normal to the wind. = Importance factor as input by the user. on the surface of the frame objects. C6-3a and C6-3b). See (ASCE 7-02 Eqns. 6-15) Kz = The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. at any height z on the projected area of the user selected frame objects. qz = 0.5. as specified in Table 3-3 (ASCE 7-02 Figure 6-21). (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user.Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects The wind loads applied when using the exposure from frame objects method are applied on the exposed surfaces of the user selected frame objects as described in ASCE 7-02 Section 6. Cf = Net force coefficient. 6-25) qz = Velocity pressure. V I = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user. evaluated at height z of the centroid of area Af using (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 2 (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure.13. Kd = Directionality factor as input by the user.33 . F.

0 1. in the remainder of this section all references will be made only to the ASCE 7-05 document.” The net force coefficient for wind.10 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads Section 1609. The wind load case must be defined before assigning wind parameters to frame objects.1 Input Exposure In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Exposure” earlier in this chapter. For the sake of clarity.8 1. with the understanding that this information is directly applicable to those using the 2006 IBC as well.1 of the 2006 IBC states that wind loads shall be determined in accordance with ASCE Standard 7-05. The form allows specification of three items: the frame object is (Yes) or is not (No) loaded by wind (the default is Yes): the ice thickness: and the net force coefficient. 6-25) Solid/Gross Area Ratio ∈ < 0.10.7 Cf 2.6 3.3 to 0. Selecting the Assign > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parameters command will display the Auto Wind Load Overwrites for Line Objects form. Cf. Cf.29 0.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Table 3-3: Cf factor for use in (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.” The wind loads 3 .1 to 0. The ice thickness for wind load affects the area of the line object to be loaded. and has a default value of “Program Determined. also has a default value of “Program Determined. the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-05 allows specification of the generation of wind loads on line (frame) objects for use on open or lattice structures. wind loads will be generated on each line object that has been assigned wind parameters using the Assign > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parameters command.1. 3. If the option to include frame objects is checked.34 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects .1 0.

10. The case type can be 1. are allowed. I. the wind importance factor.1.7. The case types are described in ASCE 7-05 Figure 6-9.5.15. The default value for Kzt is 1. the gust factor.4.77 to 1.35 .2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads .1 Input Wind Exposure Parameters In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Wind Exposure Parameters” earlier in this chapter. the directionality factor. Kzt cannot be less than 1. including exposure A. is described in ASCE 7-05 Table 6-1. A typical value for e1 and e2 is 0. A typical range of values for I is 0. depending on the type of exposure. Kzt. The eccentricity factors are described in ASCE 7-05 Figure 6-9. C.2 Input Wind Coefficients Seven or eight wind coefficients are input for ASCE 7-05 wind loads. 3. They are the basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph). 2. Input Wind Exposure Parameters 3 .5. and the solid/gross area ratio if frame objects are exposed to wind loads The basic wind speed is described in ASCE 7-05 Section 6. I. the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-05 also offers three additional coefficients to input when the exposure from extents of diaphragms is selected: the case type. G. The exposure category can be B.15. and the eccentricity factors. 3. the exposure category.2. No other values. The topographic factor Kzt is discussed in ASCE 7-05 Section 6. The exposure categories are described in ASCE 7-05 Section 6. the dimensions of the object.Input Wind Exposure Parameters calculated at a line object are based on the elevation of the object. and various code-dependent wind coefficients. A typical range of values for the basic wind speed is 85 to 150 mph. 3.3.0.6. Note that the building and structure classification categories are defined in ASCE 7-05 Table 1-1. e1 and e2.5.10.1. or D. the topographic factor. z0. The wind importance factor. kd.0. the roughness length parameter. or 4.

2 (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. The ratio of solid area to gross area.2.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads 3.6. qz. Kd.85.5 (Method 2 – Analytical Procedure). you must include them manually. z0. A typical range of values for Kd is 0. at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area.5.95.4.15. 3.0.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-05 are based on Section 6.8.5.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The gust effect factor G is discussed in ASCE 7-05 Section 6.5. A typical value for G is 0. C6-4a and C6-4b). is discussed in ASCE 7-05 Commentary C6.4. is discussed in ASCE 7-05 Section 6.5 of ASCE 705. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths.10. is used in the determination of the net force coefficient. as discussed in ASCE 7-05 Section 6. and thus is available for user input only when exposure to frame objects has been selected. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load case. The directionality factor. 3 . ∈. in pounds per square foot (psf). This ratio applies only to open structures. The wind loads applied are a modified version of those described in ASCE 705 Section 6. The roughness length parameter. 6-15) Kz = The velocity pressure exposure coefficient.5. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces.016 to 1.36 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms .85 to 0. The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure. See (ASCE 7-05 Eqns.10. Cf.00256 Kz Kzt Kd V I where. qz = 0. A typical range of values for z0 is 0.

5. ⎛ z K z = 2. The gradient height. is obtained using (Eqns. α = Empirical exponent. C6-6 in ASCE 7-05 Commentary Section 6. Kz.01 ⎜ ⎜ zg ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2α for 15 feet ≤ z ≤ zg 2α ⎛ 15 ⎞ K z = 2. The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. C6-6) The empirical exponent α is obtained using (Eqn. zg = Gradient height. See (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. for z < 15 feet (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. Kd = Directionality factor as input by the user. C6-5) where. C6-5 in ASCE 7-05 Commentary Section 6.6).125 0 (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. See (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. C6-5). C6-4b ) z = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point considered.6.01 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ zg ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where. C6-4a. zg = 1273 z 0. z0 = Roughness length parameter as input by the user.37 .19 z-0. α = 6.6).6.2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads . V I = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user. = Importance factor as input by the user. Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 . zg.6). is obtained using (Eqn.6.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user. C6-6).5.157 0 (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. C6-4a and C6-4b in ASCE 7-05 Commentary Section 6.5.

6-17) q = Velocity pressure. p.75(Px + Py) 0. p. Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.and ydirections of the building. The application of these pressures determines a resultant lateral force in both the x.38 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms .Automated Lateral Loads Manual ASCE 7-05 Eqn. Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user. at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.75 e1 Bx Px ±0. Note that one or the other of these forces may be zero if the wind direction is perfectly aligned with the x. The program then combines the loads for each of the four wind load cases described in ASCE 7-05 Figure 6-9. Velocity pressure at the top story height on the surface of the vertical projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.75 Py 0.or y-axis. p = q G Cp-windward + qh G Cp-leeward where.563(Px + Py) Torsional Moment ±0. at each diaphragm level. 615). Gust effect factor as input by the user. Px and Py. (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area. 6-17 is used to determine the wind pressure. G Cp-windward qh = = = Cp-leeward = The pressures. are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1. Table 3-4: Wind Load Cases Case 1 1 2 2 3 4 Lateral Force Px Py 0. qz.563(e1BxPx ± e2ByPy) 3 .75 Px 0.75 e1 By Py ±0. 6-15). resulting in the permutations shown in Table 3-4.

C6-4a and C6-4b). qz = 0. at any height z on the surface of the user selected area objects.10.2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads . in pounds per square feet (psf). e1 = Eccentricity for load in the direction of applied load as input by the user.5 of ASCE 705. qz. Px = Resultant wind force in the x-direction. Py = Resultant wind force in the y-direction. e2 = Eccentricity for load in the transverse direction of applied load as input by the user. Exposure from Area Objects 3 . The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in ASCE 7-05 Section 6. By = Diaphragm width in the x-direction.12.Exposure from Area Objects where. V I = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user. Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user.2. 6-15) Kz = The velocity pressure exposure coefficient.00256 Kz Kzt Kd V I where. 2 (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 3.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-05 are based on Section 6.5. Kd = Directionality factor as input by the user. See (ASCE 7-05 Eqns.39 . Bx = Diaphragm width in the y-direction. The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure. = Importance factor as input by the user.

qz. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects. C6-4a and C6-4b). qz. Cp = Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user. 6-17) q = Velocity pressure. at any height z on the surface of the area object calculated using (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from frame objects method are applied on the exposed surfaces of the user selected frame objects as described in ASCE 7-05 Section 6. in pounds per square feet (psf). on the surface of each area object.5. See (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 6-15). 3. 3 . p. For leeward facing area objects.10.2. at any point on the surface of the area objects. 2 (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 6-15 ) Kz = The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. p.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The value for Kz is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms.00256 Kz Kzt Kd V I where. the velocity pressure at the top story/maximum height.40 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects . The programs distribute the pressures. at any height z on the projected area of the user selected frame objects. q = qh. p = q G Cp where.3 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-05 are based on Section 6.15. (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure.” The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure. qz = 0.5 of ASCE 705. G = Gust effect factor as input by the user.

= Importance factor as input by the user.41 . as specified in Table 3-5 (ASCE 7-05 Figure 6-22). on the surface of the frame objects.6 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects 3 . 6-28) qz = Velocity pressure. Kd = Directionality factor as input by the user. evaluated at height z of the centroid of area Af using ASCE 7-05 Eqn. The value for Kz is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms. G = Gust effect factor as input by the user. 6-15.2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads . V I = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user. Cf = Net force coefficient. Af = Projected solid area normal to the wind.7 Cf 2.0 1.” The following equation is used to determine the design wind force.8 1.1 0. F.1 to 0.29 0.Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user. Table 3-5: Cf factor for use in ASCE 7-05 Equation 6-28 Solid/Gross Area Ratio ∈ < 0. (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. qz. F = qz G Cf Af where.3 to 0.

3 . 3.47 VD C p −windward + C p− leeward ( ) (Eqn. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. 3-1) where. The wind velocity is described in 1987 RCDF Section 3. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths. VD.11. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area in pascals (Pa).42 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms . the wind velocity.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 3. (Eqn. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from extents of diaphragms method are based on a modified version of the Metodos Simplificado (Simplified Method) as described in Section 3 of the 1987 RCDF. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load case. (Eqn.1.11.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the 1987 RCDF are based on Section 3 of the Normas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento.2. you must include them manually. 3-1) is based on (1987 RCDF Normas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento Eqn. is input for 1987 Reglamento de Construcciones para el Distrito Federal (RCDF) wind loads.3). pz. VD Cp-windward Cp-leeward = Wind velocity as input by the user. 2 pz = 0. = Leeward pressure coefficient as input by the user.1 Input Wind Coefficients A single wind coefficient. 3. 3-1) is used to determine the wind pressure.11.2 Algorithm for 1987 RCDF Wind Loads 3. = Windward pressure coefficient as input by the user.11 1987 RCDF Wind Loads 3.

pz. VD = Wind velocity as input by the user. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are based on Metodos Simplificado (Simplified Method) as described in Section 3 of the 1987 RCDF. 3-2) is used to determine the wind pressure. (Eqn. pz. 3. 3. (Eqn.43 . The programs distribute the pressures. Wind loads are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in Section 3.12.Exposure from Area Objects The programs distribute the pressures.3). 3. two additional coefficients are input for the automatic wind loads for 2002 Chinese when the exposure from extents of diaphragms is selected: the building width. 2 pz = 0.1 Input Wind Exposure Parameters In addition to the wind direction angle discussed in the section entitled “Wind Exposure Parameters” earlier in this chapter. as shown in Figure 3-1. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects. on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis. Cp = Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user.2. on the surface of each area object.11. 3-2) where. B.12 2002 Chinese Wind Loads 3. pz.2002 Chinese Wind Loads .2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for the 1987 RCDF are based on Section 3 of the Normas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento.47 C p VD (Eqn. and the shape coeffi- Exposure from Area Objects 3 . 3-2) is based on (1987 RCDF Normas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento Eqn. at any point on the surface of the area objects in pascals (Pa).

The ground roughness types are described in JGJ 3-2002 Section 3. from the Table 3. 3. The building windward width.12.2. or D. w0.2 Input T1 Source The fundamental period. shall be calculated by the program. μs.12. B. and the ground roughness type. C.3 Input Other Parameters The damping ratio. is also input when the exposure from area objects is selected. ζ. ξ. replaces the windward and leeward coefficients previously discussed in this chapter. B.44 Input Phi Z Source .3. The first mode of vibration coefficient can be obtained from a modal analysis or by using the Z/H ratio. The building width. 3. 3 .2. μs. is input for the 2002 Chinese wind loads for use in calculating the pulsation increasing coefficient. No other values are allowed. This coefficient is described in section 3. The roughness type can be A.Automated Lateral Loads Manual cient. 3.2 of JGJ 3-2002. is used in determining the pulsation influencing coefficient. in kN per meter (kN/m ).2.2 Input Wind Coefficients Two wind coefficients are input for 2002 Chinese wind loads: the basic wind 2 2 pressure. ϕz. 3.12. T1. may be determined by the program from a modal analysis.2. B.6-2 of JGJ 3-2002. The shape coefficient for wind load.1 Input Phi Z Source Two choices are offered for determining how the mode coefficient. The basic wind pressure is described in JGJ 3-2002 Section 3. RT. ν. or input directly by the user.2.12.

ξ = Pulsation increasing coefficient.12. βz.3. 7.2. See (Eqn. βz = 1 + where. wk = βz μs μz w0 where.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the 2002 Chinese are based on Section 3. ϕz ξν μz (Eqn.45 . 7. wk. 7.1 GB 50009-2001) (Eqn. Horizontal wind loads. μz = Wind pressure distribution coefficient at height z (Eqn. Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 .2002 Chinese Wind Loads . when using the exposure from extents of diaphragms method. are applied on the vertical projected area as determined based on the story heights and the input exposure widths for each diaphragm. (Eqn. 3-4) is used to determine the wind pressure. (Eqn.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3.2 of the JGJ 3-2002 and Section 7 of GB 50009-2001. μs = Shape coefficient for wind load as input by the user.12. (Eqn.6-2 JGJ 3-2002) μz = Wind pressure distribution coefficient at height z. at height z.2. ν = Pulsation influencing coefficient.3.1 GB 50009-2001). 3-3) is used to determine the wind vibration coefficient.2-2 GB 50009-2001) (Table 3. at any point on the sur2 face of the vertical projected area in kN/m . 3-4) βz = Wind vibration coefficient at height z. 3-3) ϕz = First mode of vibration coefficient at height z.4. 3-3). (Eqn.3 Algorithm for 2002 Chinese Wind Loads 3. w0 = Basic value for wind pressure as input by the user.

only area objects exposed on the windward side of the building should be loaded using the exposure from area objects method when using the 2002 Chinese automatic wind load option.46 Exposure from Area Objects . (Eqn. 3-5) is used to determine the wind pressure. 3-5) βz = Wind vibration coefficient at height z.2 of the JGJ 3-2002 and Section 7 of GB 50009-2001. wk. 3 . on the surface of each area object. 3. 7. Wind loads are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects. μs = Shape coefficient for wind load as input by the user. 3-3). which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.2 of the JGJ 3-2002 and Section 7 of GB 50009-2001.2. See (Eqn.12. (Eqn. As a general rule. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are as described in Section 3.3.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for the 2002 Chinese are based on Section 3. wk.1 GB 50009-2001). at any point on the surface of the area objects. μz = Wind pressure distribution coefficient at height z (Eqn.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The programs distribute the pressures. The value for βz is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms. w0 = Basic value for wind pressure as input by the user. wk = βz μs μz w0 where. as shown in Figure 3-1. wk. on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis.” The programs distribute the pressures.

define the magnitude of the wind load force in the Xand Y-directions. On this basis of these data.Exposure from Area Objects 3. a point object is automatically created at the location of the applied load. Exposure from Area Objects 3 .User Defined Wind Loads . the torsional moment. and the location of the wind load force to each diaphragm at each story level.13 User Defined Wind Loads For user defined loads.47 .

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Part 2. London. Building Officials & Code Administrators International. 7-05. Chinese. Country Club Hills. International Code Council.. ASCE Standard – Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. British Standards Institution. 1995. 2002.References AS 1170. Australian Standard – Part 4: Earthquake action in Australia. Reston. GB 50009-2001. American Society of Civil Engineers. New York. New York. Standards Australia. BS 6399.4-2007. The BOCA National Building Code – 13 Edition. 2003. International Building Code. Virginia. Reston. Load Code for the Design of Building Structures. 1996. Falls Church. Australia. Sydney. Inc. British Standard – Loading for Buildings. GPO Box 476. NSW 2001. Virginia. Illinois. i th . ASCE. ASCE Standard – Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. ASCE. American Society of Civil Engineers. Inc. Virginia. England. 7-02. American Society of Civil Engineers. BOCA. ASCE Standard – Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures.. ASCE/SEI. IBC. 7-95.

NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. Whittier. Ontario. National Research Council of Canada. D. 1987. Uniform Building Code – Structural Engineering Design Provisions. International Conference of Building Officials. Virginia. Reglamento de Construcciones para el Distrito Federal – Normas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento. 1997. RCDF. International Code Council. Ottawa. ii . Standards New Zealand . International Building Code. 2006.. National Research Council of Canada. New Zealand. Wellington. Building Seismic Safety Council. National Building Code of Canada. Ontario.Automated Lateral Loads Manual IBC. 1995. Washington. Mexico. Inc. NEHRP. NBCC. RCDF. 1997.C NZS 1170. UBC. California. National Building Code of Canada. Falls Church. New Zealand Standard – Part5: Earthquake Actions – New Zealand. NBCC 2005.5:2004.F. Ottawa. D.