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Investment Casting - An Investment in Quality

Investment Casting - An Investment in Quality

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Published by Lucideon

This paper describes the process of investment casting. Four stages of the process are presented in more detail: pattern manufacture, shell moulding, dewaxing and casting, and the problems associated with each stage are discussed. Methods of improving these stages are then proposed, drawing on Ceram’s knowledge, expertise and experience of the process. Applications include dental and orthopaedic implants and turbine components in the aerospace sector. Courtesy of John Cotton, Ceram.

This paper describes the process of investment casting. Four stages of the process are presented in more detail: pattern manufacture, shell moulding, dewaxing and casting, and the problems associated with each stage are discussed. Methods of improving these stages are then proposed, drawing on Ceram’s knowledge, expertise and experience of the process. Applications include dental and orthopaedic implants and turbine components in the aerospace sector. Courtesy of John Cotton, Ceram.

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INVESTMENT CASTING –

AN INVESTMENT IN QUALITY
John Cotton
v1 Dec 2013
This work by Lucideon is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-hareAlike !"0 #nternational License"
AN INVESTMENT IN QUALITY
Investment or ‘lost wax !ast"n# "s a $e% &ro!ess "n the
man'(a!t're o( h"#h )'al"t% en#"neer"n# !om&onents
s'!h as ortho&ae*"! "m&lants+ The &ro!ess ma% ,e
a&&l"e* to a w"*e ran#e o( metals an* allo%s an* !an
,e 'se* to &ro*'!e ,oth lar#e an* small !ast"n#s+ The
a&&l"!at"on o( "nvestment !ast"n# has seen s"#n"("!ant
#rowth "n the last - %ears w"th est"mates &la!"n# the
!'rrent mar$et s".e at /US 0+1 ,"ll"on an* wh"lst US
rema"ns the lar#est s"n#le &ro*'!er2 As"an mar$ets
a!!o'nt (or a&&rox 3-4 o( th"s val'e+
Th"s wh"te &a&er exam"nes the ma5or "ss'es "nvolve*
w"th the "nvestment !ast"n# &ro!ess+ The &ro,lems
that !an o!!'r *'r"n# &attern man'(a!t're2 shell
mo'l*"n#2 *e6wax"n# an* !ast"n# are *"s!'sse* an*
sol't"ons to these &ro,lems are "*ent"("e*+ The wh"te
&a&er also loo$s at some o( the non6te!hn"!al "ss'es
(a!"n# "nvestment !ast"n# "n 7899 an* the ('t're+
A::LICATI;NS <;= INVESTMENT
CASTING
Investment !ast"n# "s 'se* "n a&&l"!at"ons where
!om&lex"t% o( sha&e wo'l* otherw"se re)'"re extens"ve
an* !om&lex ma!h"n"n# lea*"n# to an 'ne!onom"!
&ro!ess !ost ,'r*en+ The &ro!ess "s !ommonl% 'se*
(or man'(a!t're o( ,"ome*"!al *ental an* ortho&ae*"!
"m&lants s'!h as h"& &rostheses2 (emoral stems2 $nee
5o"nt !om&onents2 *ental ,r"*#es an* *ev"!e
en!los'res2 e+#+ (or &a!ema$ers+ In aeros&a!e2 the
&ro!ess "s !ommonl% 'se* (or man'(a!t're o( t'r,"ne
!om&onents "n!l'*"n# ,la*es2 ,l"s$s2 an* no..le #'"*e
vanes where "nternal str'!t're "s o(ten *e("ne* ,% the
'se o( remova,le !eram"! !ores2 an* (or lar#er
str'!t'ral !om&onents "n the a"r(rame+
T>E :=;CESS
The &ro!ess starts w"th a wax &attern ?somet"mes
re(erre* to as the "nvestment@ wh"!h !losel% mat!hes
the sha&e an* s".e o( the re)'"re* !ast"n#+ A !eram"!
mo'l* or shell "s (orme* aro'n* th"s &attern ,%
re&eate*l% *"&&"n# "t "n a !eram"! sl'rr% an* !oat"n#
w"th !eram"! &ow*er ?st'!!o@+ ;n!e (orme* an*
har*ene*2 the wax &attern "s remove* (rom the shell ,%
melt"n#2 leav"n# a !av"t% o( the same sha&e as the
re)'"re* !ast"n#+ Molten metal "s then &o're* "nto the
!av"t% an* allowe* to sol"*"(% ,e(ore the shell "s
remove* (rom the !ast"n# s'r(a!e+ In &ra!t"!e several
&atterns are 's'all% assem,le* "nto a ‘tree
arran#ement ea!h !onne!te* to a &o'r"n# t',eAr'nner
s%stem so that m'lt"&le !om&onents ma% ,e ma*e (rom
the !ast"n# &o'r+
The &ro!ess "s shown s!hemat"!all% "n <"# 9+
Investment !ast"n# "s a ver% rel"a,le an* !ons"stent
&ro!ess wh"!h "s a,le to &ro*'!e h"#h )'al"t%
!om&onents (or !r"t"!al a&&l"!at"ons "n aeros&a!e an*
me*"!al *ev"!es+ A n'm,er o( "ss'es ex"st however2
wh"!h a((e!t ,oth )'al"t% an* %"el*2 an* man% o( these
have the"r or"#"ns "n s&e!"("! &arts o( the &ro!ess2 these
,e"n#B
6 :attern man'(a!t're
6 Shell Mo'l*"n#
6 Cewax"n#
6 Cast"n#
<"#'re 9+ :r"n!"&les o( the Investment Cast"n# :ro!ess
DJones et al+ J+ Mater+ :ro!ess+ Te!hnol+ Vol+ 93-2 7883
&+7-EF
:ATTE=N MANU<ACTU=E
The wax &atterns 'se* "n "nvestment !ast"n# are
's'all% ma*e ,% low &ress're "n5e!t"on mo'l*"n# "nto
metal *"es+ The &atterns are s',se)'entl% assem,le*
onto a !ast"n# t',e an* r'nner s%stem wh"!h "s "tsel(
!om&ose* o( the same or s"m"lar t%&e o( wax+ Th"s
assem,l% "s !alle* a tree+ The 'se o( metal mo'l*s "n
the &attern ma$"n# &ro!ess ens'res that the &attern
a!!'ratel% re(le!ts the !om&onent sha&eG however2 at
the start o( a mo'l*"n# r'n ?,e(ore the mo'l* a!h"eves
"ts am,"ent o&erat"n# tem&erat're@2 'n*ers".e* an*2 "n
some !ases2 *"storte* &atterns ma% ,e &ro*'!e*+
These *"stort"ons ma% not ,e "mme*"atel% a&&arent on
v"s'al "ns&e!t"on+
Com&lex sha&e* wax &atterns !an ,e *"(("!'lt to
remove (rom the mo'l* an* the 'se o( release a#ents
by Lucideon 2
on the mo'l* s'r(a!e "s !ommon &ra!t"!e+ Ex!ess"ve
release (l'"*s s'!h as s"l"!one o"ls or :T<E ,ase*
aerosols however2 !an "nter(ere w"th s',se)'ent
sta#es "n the &ro!ess or2 !an themselves !a'se
s'r(a!e *e(e!ts "n the &attern wh"!h 'lt"matel% trans(er
to the !ast"n# s'r(a!e+
In a**"t"on the2 's'all% man'al2 &ro!ess o( han*l"n# the
mo'l*e* &attern *'r"n# an* a(ter extra!t"on (rom the
mo'l*2 "+e+ wh"le the mo'l*"n# "s st"ll so(t2 r"s$s the
"ntro*'!t"on o( s'r(a!e "m&er(e!t"ons on the &attern
wh"!h2 "( 'n*ete!te*2 w"ll emer#e as s'r(a!e (laws "n
the ("n"she* !ast"n#+ The r"s$ o( "ntro*'!"n# s'r(a!e
(laws "nto the &attern also ex"sts *'r"n# the assem,l% o(
the &attern onto a tree+ Th"s assem,l% &ro!ess "s o(ten
!arr"e* o't ,% han* an* hot wax "s 'se* as an
a*hes"ve+ Mana#ement o( ex!ess wax an* !lean"n# o(
5o"nts "s !r"t"!al to ma"nta"n"n# the sha&e o( the r'nner
s%stem an* ens'r"n# h"#h )'al"t% !ast"n#s+
S>ELL M;ULCING
The shell mo'l*"n# &ro!ess "nvolves a&&l"!at"on o(
m'lt"&le la%ers o( ,on*e* !eram"! &ow*er evenl% onto
the s'r(a!e o( the wax &attern+ T%&"!all% th"s m'lt"
!oat"n# &ro!ess w"ll "nvolveB
6 A wash !oat to remove an% rema"n"n# release a#ent
(rom the &attern s'r(a!e
6 A &re6treatment !oat to mo*"(% the h%*o&h"l"!"t% o(
the wax &attern s'r(a!e – th"s "s *one to ens're that
the &attern s'r(a!e "s ('ll% wette* ,% the &r"mar%
!oat
6 A &r"mar% !oat"n# o( a ("ne !eram"! s's&ens"on+
Th"s !oat"n# ma% !onta"n a #ra"n re("ner s'!h as
!o,alt al'm"nate ?(or Co6Cr allo%@+ The &r"mar%
!oat"n# ma% ,e a s"n#le or *o',le la%er+
6 A ser"es o( ,a!$"n# !oat"n#s !onta"n"n# !oarser
!eram"! &art"!les+ These ,a!$"n# !oats ma% !onta"n
H – 98 la%ers an* ,e several mm th"!$+
6 A ("nal seal !oat – !onta"n"n# ("ne #ra"ne* !eram"!+
Ea!h o( the !eram"! !onta"n"n# la%ers also !onta"ns a
!eram"! ,"n*er s'!h as a s"l"!ate sol't"on or a sol+ The
&ro!ess (or "ntro*'!"n# !oarser !eram"! &art"!les "nto
the o'ter !oat"n#s "s 's'all% as (ollowsB
9+ The &attern w"th "ts &r"mar% !oat "s *"&&e* "nto a
s's&ens"on !onta"n"n# ("ne !eram"! &ow*er an*
!eram"! ,"n*er+
7+ Ih"le st"ll wet the &attern "s !oate* "n *r% !oarse
&ow*er – th"s ma% a!h"eve* ,% rotat"n# the &attern
"n a &ow*er !as!a*e or "n a (l'"*"se* ,e* o( the
!oarse &ow*er+
3+ The !oat"n# "s slowl% *r"e* ,e(ore a&&l"!at"on o( the
next !oat ?a a,ove@
The ma5or "nvestment !ast"n# "ss'es asso!"ate* w"th
the (ormat"on o( the shell mo'l* relate to three areas+
9+ The )'al"t% an* 'n"(orm"t% o( the &r"mar% !oat+ Th"s
"s the &art o( the mo'l* wh"!h "s "n *"re!t !onta!t
w"th the !ast metal so "t m'st ,e o( 'n"(orm text're
an* (ree o( "n!l's"ons an* !ontam"nants+
7+ Var"at"on "n the thermome!han"!al &er(orman!e o(
the mo'l* wh"!h ma% lea* to a!!elerate*
sol"*"("!at"on "n !r"t"!al areas o( the !ast"n#+ S'!h
var"at"on ma% ,e attr",'te* to *ens"t% or !oat
th"!$ness var"at"ons wh"!h !o'l* res'lt (rom raw
mater"al var"at"on or *r"(t "n the &ro&ert"es o( the
*"&&"n# sl'rr%+
3+ Cra!$"n# "n the o'ter la%ers o( the shell – 's'all%
asso!"ate* w"th the *r%"n# sta#es2 wea$ens the
shell mo'l* an* ma% lea* to (a"l're o( the mo'l*
*'r"n# *e6wax or !ast"n#+
The *es"#n o( the !om&onent tree sho'l* ens're that
,r"*#"n# ,etween the o'tmost !oat"n#s o( the &atterns
"s avo"*e*+ Inter6!om&onent ,r"*#"n# alters the thermal
!hara!ter"st"!s o( the shell lea*"n# to non6'n"(orm an*
'n!ontrolle* sol"*"("!at"on a(ter !ast"n#+
CE6IAJING
The removal o( the wax2 (rom the #reen ?'n("re*@
!eram"! "s a!h"eve* ,% melt"n# "t an* allow"n# the
molten wax to *ra"n (rom the shell mo'l* 'n*er #rav"t%+
>owever2 the wax has a m'!h h"#her thermal
ex&ans"on !oe(("!"ent ?a&&rox 98J@ than the #reen
!eram"! an*2 "( s"m&l% heate*2 wo'l* #enerate "nternal
stresses wh"!h wo'l* r'&t're or *"stort the shell ,e(ore
the wax rea!he* "ts melt"n# &o"nt+ To &revent th"s2 the
heat"n# o( the wax m'st ,e !arr"e* o't as )'"!$l% as
&oss",le so the wax ,e#"ns to melt an* (low ,e(ore "t
ex&an*s s'(("!"entl% to overstress the shell+
Th"s &ro!ess "s !ommonl% !arr"e* o't "n an a'to!lave
where h"#h &ress're steam at K0$#A!m67 ?0LA=@ "s
"n5e!te* "nto a seale* oven2 ra&"*l% ra"s"n# the
tem&erat're o( the shell an* &attern to 9H869H-MC
DLr'm 788EF+ Th"s "s *one (or a s&e!"("e* t"me relat"n#
to the mo'l* s".e an* wax vol'me+ ;n!e the wax has
*ra"ne* o't o( the mo'l*2 the hollow !eram"! shell "s
rea*% to ,e ("re*+
The ma5or "ss'es relat"n# to the *ewax"n# sta#e areB
6 Shell !ra!$"n# *'e to 'n!ontrolle* wax ex&ans"on
6 In!om&lete removal o( wax (rom the mo'l*+ Th"s
ma% not ,e !om&letel% !om,'ste* *'r"n# the
s',se)'ent ("r"n# &ro!ess an* "n that !ase w"ll leave
by Lucideon 3
res"*'es wh"!h ,e!ome "n!l's"ons "n the ("n"she*
!ast"n#+
CASTING
Two a&&roa!hes ma% ,e ta$en to mo'l* &re&arat"on
&r"or to !ast"n#B
9+ The mo'l*s ma% ,e ("re* to2 or 5'st a,ove the
!ast"n# tem&erat're2 allowe* to !ool an* store* to
awa"t !ast"n# "n a se&arate &ro!ess+
7+ The mo'l* ("r"n# an* !ast"n# &ro!ess ta$es &la!e
se)'ent"all% – "+e+ the mo'l*s are not allowe* to
!ool ,e(ore !ast"n# ta$es &la!e+
The !ho"!e ,etween these two a&&roa!hes "s
*eterm"ne* lar#el% ,% the metals to ,e !ast an* hen!e
!eram"!s 'se* "n the mo'l*s+
<or metals s'!h as Co6Cr allo%2 a t%&"!al shell mo'l*
wo'l* !onta"n ('se* an* amor&ho's s"l"!a ,on*e* ,%
an or#an"! s"l"!ate+ <"r"n# o( th"s !om&os"t"on !onverts
some o( the s"l"!a to !r"tsto,al"te ?– a !r%stall"ne (orm o(
s"l"!a wh"!h 'n*er#oes a ra&"* !han#e "n *"mens"ons
as "t !ools@+ >en!e2 when th"s mater"al "s ("re* an*
!ast"n# ta$es &la!e as "n 7 a,ove2 as the shell mo'l*
!ools2 "t !ontra!ts aro'n* the sol"* !ast"n# an* !ra!$s –
ma$"n# "ts removal (rom the ("n"she* !ast"n# eas"er+
<or more re(ra!tor% allo%s or ,at!h !ast"n# &ro!esses2
s'!h as va!''m !ast"n#2 ."r!on2 ."r!on"a2 or al'm"na
,ase* shell !om&os"t"ons are !ommonl% 'se*+ These
are o(ten ("re* a!!or*"n# to a&&roa!h 9 a,ove+
The ma5or )'al"t% l"m"t"n# "ss'es ar"s"n# *'r"n# the ("r"n#
an* !ast"n# &ro!ess areB
6 Cra!$"n# o( the re(ra!tor% shell *'r"n# the ("r"n#
!%!le res'lt"n# "n2 at ,est2 s'r(a!e "m&er(e!t"ons
?ve"n"n#@ an*2 at worst2 metal ,rea$ o't *'r"n#
!ast"n#+ Cra!$s a&&ear"n# at th"s sta#e are 's'all%
alrea*% &resent "n the shell *'e to 'nre!o#n"se*
*ama#e earl"er "n the &ro!ess+
6 I( there "s res"*'al wax &resent "n the shell an* "( the
("r"n# atmos&here "s not ox"*"s"n# eno'#h2
"n!om&lete !om,'st"on o( the res"*'al wax ma%
res'lt "n a res"*'e or s'r(a!e *e&os"t wh"!h ma% ,e
tra&&e* ,% the !ast"n#+ Th"s !an lea* to s', s'r(a!e
"n!l's"ons an* s'r(a!e "m&er(e!t"ons+
6 In!l's"ons – *'st or !eram"! &art"!les wh"!h !an
enter the shell mo'l* *'r"n# $"ln &la!ement or "n the
t'r,'lent env"ronment o( the $"ln *'r"n# ("r"n#+
Altho'#h some o( the *e(e!ts !an ,e "*ent"("e* *'r"n#
the &ro!ess2 most (laws an* )'al"t% "ss'es are onl%
"*ent"("e* on!e the !om&onent has ,een !ast2 "+e+ when
the &ro!ess ener#% an* mater"als !osts have ,een
em,e**e* "n the !om&onent+ S', s'r(a!e (laws s'!h
as &oros"t% an* "n!l's"ons are o(ten onl% reveale*
*'r"n# s',se)'ent ("n"sh ma!h"n"n# &ro!esses when
even more "nvestment has ,een ma*e "n the
!om&onent+
IM:=;VING T>E :=;CESS
It "s &oss",le to ma$e "m&rovements "n the %"el* (rom
the "nvestment !ast"n# &ro!ess2 someth"n# wh"!h2 o(
!o'rse2 hel&s to re*'!e losses an* enhan!e the !ost
e((e!t"veness o( the &ro!ess+ Th"s !an 's'all% ,e
a!h"eve* ,% ta$"n# an hol"st"! a&&roa!h to the &ro!ess
as a whole2 re!o#n"s"n# that "m&rovements to "n*"v"*'al
sta#es ma% "n(l'en!e the &er(orman!e "n others+
:ATTE=N MANING
T%&"!al (laws seen at the &attern ma$"n# sta#e are
"n!om&lete &atterns – o(ten *'e to "na*e)'ate vent"n#
o( the *"e2 an* s'r(a!e "m&er(e!t"ons wh"!h !o'l* res'lt
(rom ex!ess release a#ents or $n"t l"nes ar"s"n# (rom
'n!ontrolle* (low o( the wax "n the *"e+
C"stort"on o( the &attern *'r"n# han*l"n# o( the
!om&onent (rom the *"e "s also &oss",le+ Most o( these
(laws are reveale* ,% v"s'al "ns&e!t"on an* #a'#"n# o(
the &art a(ter man'(a!t're+
Assem,l% o( the &atterns onto a !ast"n# tree also
re&resents a &otent"al so'r!e o( (laws as ex!ess wax at
the 5o"ns w"ll lea* to "n!ons"sten!% "n r'nner sha&e an*
"n(l'en!e metal (low *'r"n# !ast"n#+
Im&rovements "n the &attern ma$"n# sta#e !an ,e
a!h"eve* ,% (o!'ss"n# on the !r"t"!al areas+ <or
exam&le2 L'!"*eon has hel&e* !l"ents to over!ome
&attern ma$"n# &ro,lems thro'#h &ro!ess eval'at"on
!ons'ltan!%2 's"n# <EC o&t"m"sat"on o( wax "n5e!t"on
&arameters2 a&&l"!at"on o( (low an* thermome!han"!al
mo*ell"n# to tree *es"#n2 an* thro'#h the 'se o(
s'r(a!e !hem"!al anal%s"s (or (orens"! "nvest"#at"ons
an* !leanl"ness eval'at"on+
S>ELL M;ULCING
The shell mo'l*"n# &ro!ess "s a &otent"al so'r!e o(
several t%&es o( (laws seen "n "nvestment !ast"n#s+ The
most "m&ortant &art o( the mo'l* (rom the &o"nt6o(6v"ew
o( the )'al"t% o( the !ast"n#s &ro*'!e* "s the &r"mar%
!oat wh"!h *e("nes the !ast"n# s'r(a!e+ An%
"m&er(e!t"ons "n th"s la%er w"ll ,e "mme*"atel%
trans(erre* to the !ast"n# s'r(a!e hen!e the )'al"t% an*
"nte#r"t% o( the &r"mar% !oat "s !r"t"!al to the !om&onent
)'al"t% an* %"el*+ The "n(l'en!e o( "m&er(e!t"ons "n the
by Lucideon !
,a!$ '& !oats "s less s"#n"("!ant ,'t !an also ,e the
so'r!e o( (laws "n the !ast !om&onent+
:r"mar% !oat "m&er(e!t"ons !an ar"se (rom la!$ o(
!ontrol o( the &attern6!oat"n# "nter(a!e o(ten "n(l'en!e*
,% "na*e)'ate !lean"n# o( release a#ent (rom the
&atternAtree ,e(ore *"&&"n#+ The th"!$ness an*
'n"(orm"t% o( the &r"mar% !oat "s !ontrolle* ,% the
rheolo#% o( the &r"mar% !oat s's&ens"on an* )'al"t%
!he!$s to "*ent"(% an* re!t"(% a#"n# e((e!ts an* *ens"t%
an* v"s!os"t% !han#es are essent"al to ma"nta"n
!ons"sten!% o( &er(orman!e+ Chan#es "n the &r"mar%
!oat an* ,a!$ '& !oat s's&ens"ons ma% ,e *'e to
#ra*'al !han#e "n sol"*s !ontent o( the s's&ens"on
a(ter re&eat *"&&"n#s2 or *eter"orat"on ?a#e"n#@ o( the
,"n*er+ The *"&&"n# &ro!ess "tsel( m'st ,e !ons"stent
t"me a(ter t"me an*2 to th"s en*2 ro,ot han*l"n# "s the
norm (or th"s &ro!ess+ The !oat"n# &ro!ess o(ten ta$es
&la!e "n !lose &rox"m"t% to the st'!!o a&&l"!at"on area
an* a"r,orne !ontam"nat"on o( the &r"mar% *"& !oat !an
o!!'r+
At L'!"*eon we have 'se* o'r s$"lls "n &ro!ess
eval'at"on2 raw mater"al !hara!ter"sat"on an* QC
test"n#2 s's&ens"on !hara!ter"sat"on an* !ontrol2
rheolo#% assessment2 "n!l'*"n# ,oth v"s!os"t% an* .eta
&otent"al meas'rement2 to hel& !l"ents "m&rove the
&er(orman!e o( the shell mo'l*"n# &ro!ess+ Ie have
also 'se* o'r extens"ve test"n# an* anal%s"s !a&a,"l"t%
"n the !hara!ter"sat"on o( shell str'!t're2 an*
meas'rement o( thermome!han"!al &ro&ert"es+ S'r(a!e
!hem"!al anal%s"s te!hn")'es have also ,een 'se* (or
(orens"! "nvest"#at"ons an* !leanl"ness meas'rements+
CE6IAJING
=emoval o( the wax &attern (rom w"th"n the shell mo'l*
w"tho't *ama#"n# the mo'l* str'!t're rel"es on
mana#ement o( the thermal ex&ans"on m"smat!h
,etween the !eram"! shell an* the more ex&ans"ve
wax+ In &ra!t"!e2 th"s o(ten re)'"res the ra&"* melt"n#
an* removal o( the wax ,e(ore s'(("!"entl% h"#h tens"le
stresses !an ,e #enerate* to !ra!$ the shell+ Th"s ma%
,e a!h"eve* thro'#h the 'se o( ra&"* a!t"n# a'to!lave
where steam &ress're ass"sts "n sta,"l"s"n# the
waxAshell "nter(a!e2 or more re!entl% m"!rowave
ass"ste* heat"n#2 where the wax &hase "s &re(erent"all%
heate*+
Most a'to!lave shell !ra!$"n# an* *ama#e o!!'rs on
the e*#es o( !om&onents2 s'!h as tra"l"n# e*#es an*
shar& !orners2 where re*'!e* shell ,'"l* an* h"#h
stress res'lts "n !eram"! (a"l're+
<"#'re 7+ Show"n# the heat soa$"n# thro'#h the shell (rom the start o( the a'to!lave !%!le (or a &er"o* o( 18
se!on*s+
L'!"*eon has hel&e* !l"ents 'n*erstan* an* "m&rove
the"r *e6wax &ro!esses ,% mo*ell"n# o( the *ewax
&ro!ess to s"m'late the e((e!t o( &ro!ess an* tree
*es"#n !han#es on the thermo6me!han"!al
&er(orman!e o( the shell+ Chara!ter"sat"on o( the
shell mo'l*s a(ter *ewax has also ,een 'se* to
by Lucideon $
"*ent"(% !ra!$s "n the shell an* the &resen!e o(
res"*'al wax "n the shell !av"t%+
CASTING
Th"s &ro!ess !ons"sts o( three elementsG shell ("r"n#2
metal melt"n#2 an* metal &o'r"n#+
The shell ("r"n# &ro!ess stren#thens the mo'l* an*2
"n s"n#le ("re* s%stems2 ma% *evelo& a&&ro&r"ate
!eram"! &hases s'!h as !r"sto,al"te wh"!h ass"sts "n
the removal o( the shell mo'l* a(ter sol"*"("!at"on o(
the !ast"n#+ An a**"t"onal as&e!t o( the ("r"n# &ro!ess
"s the !om,'st"on o( an% res"*'al wax (rom the
*ewax"n# sta#e "n the shell &r"or to !ast"n#+ I( the
!on*"t"ons *'r"n# ("r"n# are not s'(("!"entl% ox"*"s"n#
however2 the wax res"*'e ma% !har an* leave
a*herent res"*'e on the mo'l* s'r(a!e !a's"n#
"n!l's"ons an* s'r(a!e &"tt"n# "n the !ast"n#s+
The shell mo'l* ma% !ra!$ *'r"n# the ("r"n# &ro!ess
,'t #o 'nnot"!e*2 'nless there "s ,rea$o't o( the
metal *'r"n# !ast"n#+ In these !ases the ?!lose*@
!ra!$s res'lt "n (eat'res s'!h as (lash or ve"n"n# on
the !ast"n# s'r(a!e+
<"#'re 3+ Shell *e(ormat"on a(ter 18 se!on*s
Cast"n# *e(e!ts !an ar"se (rom "n!l's"ons or sla# "n
the metal &r"or to !ast"n#+ Th"s !an ar"se (rom
rea!t"on o( the metal w"th the melt"n# !r'!",le
!a's"n# *eter"orat"on o( the re(ra!tor% l"n"n#+
=e(ra!tor% ("lters are o(ten "n!l'*e* "n the &o'r"n#
t',es o( shell trees to m"n"m"se these "n!l's"ons+
;n!e the !ast"n# has !oole*2 the o'ter !eram"! shell
!an ,e remove* ,% water 5et2 v",rator% hammers2
va&o'r ,last"n# or shot ,last"n# leav"n# the !om&lete
metal mo'l* "n the sha&e o( the or"#"nal wax mo'l*+
I( &re6(orme* !eram"! !ores are 'se*2 these nee* to
,e lea!he* o't w"th a !a'st"! (l'"* or another
relevant !ore removal metho* at th"s sta#e+
L'!"*eon has ass"ste* !l"ents at the !ast"n# sta#e
thro'#h &ro!ess eval'at"on an* tro',leshoot"n#
!ons'ltan!%2 "n!l'*"n# re(ra!tor% anal%s"s an*
test"n#2 (a'lt *"a#nos"s an* !hara!ter"sat"on+ Ie
have also 'se* thermome!han"!al mo*ell"n# o( the
res&onse o( shells *'r"n# !ast"n# an* (or ,oth ,a$e
o't an* !ast"n# ('rna!e *es"#n+
by Lucideon %
Ta,le 9+ Ca'ses an* reme*"es (or (laws a&&ear"n# *'r"n# the "nvestment !ast"n# &ro!ess
:ro!ess Sta#e T%&"!al <law :otent"al Ca'se =eme*%
Iax :attern In!om&lete &atterns o(ten
w"th ro'n*e* s'r(a!es at
the 'n("lle* areas
Ins'(("!"ent vent"n# o( the *"e
Iax (low rate too h"#h
:oor (lowA("ll o( the *"e
Enhan!e vent"n# "n the !r"t"!al
areas
Mo*"(% the "n5e!t"on !on*"t"ons
Mo*"(% #ate &os"t"ons to avo"*
o&&os"n# (low o( wax
Shell Small &"m&les evenl%
*"str",'te* over the s'r(a!e
o( the !ast"n#
:"nholes "n the &r"mar% !oat
!a'se* ,%B
:oor !overa#e o( the wax
&attern
Tra&&e* a"r ,',,les "n the
sl'rr% – wh"!h ma% ,e *'e to
earl% #ell"n# o( the sl'rr%
:oor *"s&ers"on o( the ("ller
Cast"n# tem&erat're too h"#h
Che!$ the wax &attern (or
!ontam"nat"on
Control the rheolo#% o( the
&r"mar% !oat sl'rr%
=e*'!e the &art"!le s".e o( the
("ller "n the sl'rr%
=e*'!e the !ast"n#
tem&erat're
Shell General s'r(a!e ro'#hness
o( the !ast"n#
:oor !overa#e o( the wax
&attern
Use o( an 'ns'"ta,le wash"n#
a#ent
Eros"on o( the &r"mar% !oat
*'r"n# *e6wax"n#
:enetrat"on o( the &r"mar% !oat
,% st'!!o #ra"ns
Cr%"n# o( the &r"mar% !oat
,e(ore a&&l"!at"on o( the
st'!!o
Cra"n"n# o( the &r"mar% !oat
&art"!'larl% (rom shar& e*#es
:r"mar% !oat sl'rr% too th"!$
A#e"n# o( the &r"mar% !oat
sl'rr%
See a,ove
Use a less a##ress"ve wash"n#
a#ent to avo"* et!h"n# o( the
wax s'r(a!e+ L"m"t the
"mmers"on t"me *'r"n# wash"n#
Use ,"n*ers wh"!h are not
atta!$e* ,% steam "n the
*ewax sta#e
Use a lower ener#% &ro!ess (or
a&&l"!at"on o( the st'!!o ?e#
(l'"* ,e* vs !'rta"n@
Control tem&erat're an*
h'm"*"t% o( the shell area
Mo*"(% the rheolo#% o( the
sl'rr% – 'se o( a&&ro&r"ate
wett"n# a#ents
Mo*"(% the v"s!os"t% o( the
sl'rr%
QC !he!$s on the &> an*
sol"*s !ontent o( the sl'rr%
by Lucideon &
Shell S!a, – areas o( s'r&l's
metal on the s'r(a!e o( the
!ast"n# – somet"mes w"th
re(ra!tor% mater"al
em,e**e*
:r"mar% !oat l"(t"n# (rom the
mo'l* *'e to &oor a*hes"on to
the ,a!$"n# la%ers2 mo"st're
tra&&e* ,etween the &r"mar%
an* ,a!$ '& la%ers2 or
*"((erent"al ex&ans"on stresses
,etween the &r"mar% an*
se!on*ar% la%ers o( the shell
Im&rove the $e%"n# ,etween
the &r"mar% an* ("rst ,a!$ '&
!oat ,% 's"n# a !oarser2 more
an#'lar st'!!o &ow*er
In!rease the *r%"n# t"me or
"m&rove the *r%"n# !on*"t"ons
(or the &r"mar% an* ,a!$ '&
!oats
Ens're the mo'l* "s *r% ,e(ore
*e6wax"n#
Mat!h"n# o( thermal ex&ans"on
o( &r"mar% an* ("rst ,a!$ '&
!oat
Shell In!l's"ons – shallow
"rre#'lar *e&ress"ons
somet"mes w"th re(ra!tor%
mater"al em,e**e*
S&all"n# o( the &r"mar% !oat
:oor ("x"n# o( the &attern to the
tree res'lt"n# "n #a&s wh"!h
are ("lle* ,% the &r"mar% !oat
Entra&ment o( sla# "n the
!ast"n#
MetalAmo'l* "ntera!t"on
Im&rove !lean"n# o( the &attern
,e(ore *"&&"n#
Ens're !orre!t *r%"n# o( the
&r"mar% !oat
Mat!h"n# o( thermal ex&ans"on
o( &r"mar% an* ("rst ,a!$ '&
!oat
Control o( the rheolo#% o( the
sl'rr"es to avo"* *r%"n# !ra!$s
Ens're a*e)'ate ("ltrat"on
Mo*"(% *eox"*at"on &ra!t"!es
=e*es"#n the r'nner s%stem to
re*'!e t'r,'len!e *'r"n#
!ast"n#
M"n"m"se !ast"n# tem&erat'res
Mo*"(% &r"mar% !oat to "m&rove
"ts re(ra!tor"ness

Some o( the non6te!hn"!al "ss'es (a!"n# "nvestment
!ast"n# "n 7899 an* the ('t're areB
6 :er"o*"! shorta#es "n ."r!on2 al'm"no6s"l"!ates an*
al'm"na lea*"n# to volat"l"t% "n raw mater"als s'&&l%
an* &r"!e
6 Cr"sto,al"te wh"!h "s (orme* "n some shells "s
s',5e!t to rev"ew ,% the E'ro&ean Car!"no#ens
C"re!t"ve an* ma% !ome 'n*er "n!reas"n#
restr"!t"ons to "ts 'se an* *"s&osal
6 Ce&en*"n# on "ts so'r!e2 O"r!on !an exh","t
ra*"oa!t"v"t% wh"!h &roh","ts the *"s&osal o( waste
shell mater"al "n man% !o'ntr"es
6 >eav% metal !onta"n"n# mater"als s'!h as !o,alt
al'm"nate are not a,le to ,e *"s&ose* "n lan*("lls "n
UN ma$"n# *"s&osal o( shell waste "n!reas"n#l%
*"(("!'lt an* ex&ens"ve+
The shell mater"al !annot !'rrentl% ,e rea*"l% re!%!le*
or re'se* em&has"s"n# the nee* to m"n"m"se losses "n
the &ro!ess+
C;NCLUSI;N
The #rowth o( "nvestment !ast"n#2 &art"!'larl% "n the
me*"!al *ev"!es "n*'str%2 shows no s"#n o( slow"n#+
:ro!ess "ss'es *o ex"st however2 wh"!h a((e!t ,oth
)'al"t% an* %"el*+ In or*er to m"n"m"se these "ss'es2
by Lucideon '
an* so "m&rove %"el* an* &ro("ta,"l"t%2 "t "s "m&ortant to
('ll% 'n*erstan* all &arts o( the "nvestment !ast"n#
&ro!ess2 so that &ro,lems !an ,e eas"l% "*ent"("e* an*
solve* )'"!$l%+ The "nvestment !ast"n# &ro!ess "s one
wh"!h len*s "tsel( to !onstant "m&rovement2 however an
hol"st"! a&&roa!h2 em&lo%"n# te!hn")'es s'!h as those
&ra!t"se* ,% L'!"*eon2 "s re)'"re* to ens're that the
"nter*e&en*en!e o( the *"((erent sta#es o( the &ro!ess
are mana#e* there,% ens'r"n# o&t"m'm )'al"t% an*
%"el*+
AL;UT LUCICE;N
L'!"*eon "s a lea*"n# "nternat"onal &rov"*er o( mater"als
*evelo&ment2 test"n# an* ass'ran!e+
Thro'#h "ts o(("!es an* la,orator"es "n the UN2 US an*
the <ar East2 L'!"*eon &rov"*es mater"als an*
ass'ran!e ex&ert"se to !l"ents "n a w"*e ran#e o(
se!tors2 "n!l'*"n# health!are2 !onstr'!t"on2 !eram"!s
an* &ower en#"neer"n#+
The !om&an% a"ms to "m&rove the !om&et"t"ve
a*vanta#e an* &ro("ta,"l"t% o( "ts !l"ents ,% &rov"*"n#
them w"th the ex&ert"se2 a!!'rate res'lts an* o,5e!t"ve2
"nnovat"ve th"n$"n# that the% nee* to o&t"m"se the"r
mater"als2 &ro*'!ts2 &ro!esses2 s%stems an*
,'s"nesses+
AL;UT T>E AUT>;=
J;>N C;TT;N 6 LUSINESS
CEVEL;:MENT MANAGE=2
AE=;S:ACE P CE<ENCE
John "s a Chartere* En#"neer who hol*s a Ce#ree "n
A&&l"e* :h%s"!s an* "s a <ellow o( the Inst"t'te o(
M"n"n# M"nerals an* Mater"als ?I;M3@+ John serves on
the Ceram"! S!"en!e Comm"ttee o( I;M3 an* "s a
mem,er o( :eer =ev"ew Colle#e (or the En#"neer"n#
an* :h%s"!al S!"en!es =esear!h Co'n!"l ?E:S=C@+
John also a!ts as a Te!hnolo#% Ex&ert (or Mater"als
NTN+
I"th over (ort% %ears o( ex&er"en!e "n a*van!e*
mater"als – s&e!"al"s"n# "n re(ra!tor"es an* te!hn"!al
!eram"!s at L'!"*eon2 John "s an ex&ert "n all as&e!ts
o( mater"als =PC an* &ro,lem6solv"n#+ <rom "*ent"(%"n#
an* solv"n# &ro*'!t"on "ss'es to a*v"s"n# on
a&&l"!at"on *es"#n an* &er(orman!e2 John has wor$e*
w"th man'(a!t'rers2 s%stems "nte#rators an* en*6'sers
to ma$e a real *"((eren!e to the"r ,'s"nesses+
John has !ontr",'te* to several mater"als text,oo$s2
!om&ose* a lar#e n'm,er o( &a&ers an* "s a (re)'ent
&resenter at !on(eren!es worl*w"*e+
ACVANCEC MATE=IALS
Thro'#ho't h"s term at L'!"*eon John has wor$e* w"th
a ran#e o( a*van!e* mater"als "n!l'*"n# ,oth
monol"th"! an* !om&os"tes (or a&&l"!at"ons s'!h as ('el
!ells2 l"#htwe"#ht mater"als (or a"r(rame an* s&ort"n#
#oo*s2 as well as sensors2 a!t'ators2 an* h"#h
tem&erat're an* wear res"stant !om&onents+
AE=;S:ACE ANC CE<ENCE
JohnQs ex&er"en!e "n aeros&a!e an* *e(en!e mater"als
"n!or&orates !eram"! armo'r2 l"#htwe"#ht an* h"#h
tem&erat're !om&os"tes an* !oat"n#s (or thermal an*
!orros"on mana#ement+
CE=AMICS
(ohn has been involved in a ran)e o* ceramic +ro,ects
includin) the develo+ment o* sinterable silicon nitride
ceramics- evaluation o* ceramic materials as electrochemical
)as sensors- desi)n and manu*acture o* ceramics *or en)ine
com+onents- and desi)n o* dies and develo+ment o*
e.trusion technolo)y *or the +roduction o* thin ceramic and
metal +owder ta+es"
by Lucideon /

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