# WWW.UPSCMANTRA.

COM
2011
Quantitative Aptitude
Concept 1

1. Number System
2. HCF and LCM
Prelims Paper II
 In Hindu Arabic System, we use ten symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 called digits to represent
any number. This is the decimal system where we use the numbers 0 to 9.
 0 is called insignificant digit.
 Natural numbers
 Counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
 The set of all natural numbers can be represented by
 Whole numbers
 If we include 0 among the natural numbers, then the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 … are
called whole numbers.
 The set of whole number can
 Every natural number is a whole number but 0 is a whole number which is not a
natural number.
 Integers
 All counting numbers and their negatives including zero are known as integers.
 The set of integers can be repre

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NUMBER SYSTEM
NUMBER SYSTEM
In Hindu Arabic System, we use ten symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 called digits to represent
any number. This is the decimal system where we use the numbers 0 to 9.
0 is called insignificant digit.
Counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5... are known as natural numbers.
The set of all natural numbers can be represented by N= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5…}
If we include 0 among the natural numbers, then the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 … are
called whole numbers.
The set of whole number can be represented by W= {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5…}
Every natural number is a whole number but 0 is a whole number which is not a
All counting numbers and their negatives including zero are known as integers.
The set of integers can be represented by Z or I = {…-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 …}
Types of Numbers
•Natural numbers
•Whole numbers
•Integers
•Positive Integers
•Negative Integers
•Non-negative Integers
•Rational Numbers
•Irrational Numbers
•Real Numbers
•Even Numbers
•Odd Numbers
•Prime Numbers
•Composite Numbers
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2 NUMBER SYSTEM
In Hindu Arabic System, we use ten symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 called digits to represent
N= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5…}
If we include 0 among the natural numbers, then the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 … are
Every natural number is a whole number but 0 is a whole number which is not a
All counting numbers and their negatives including zero are known as integers.
1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 …}
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3 NUMBER SYSTEM
 Positive Integers
 The set I
+
= {1, 2, 3, 4…} is the set of all positive integers.
 Positive integers and natural numbers are synonyms.
 Negative Integers
 The set I
-
= {-1, -2, -3…} is the set of all negative integers.
 0 is neither positive nor negative.
 Non-negative Integers
 The set {0, 1, 2, 3…} is the set all non-negative integers.
 Rational Numbers
 The numbers of the form p/q, where p and q are integers and q ≠ 0, are known as
rational numbers, e.g. 4/7, 3/2, -5/8, 0/1, -2/3, etc.
 The set of all rational numbers is denoted by Q. i.e. Q ={x:x =p/q; p, q belong to I,
q≠0}.
 Since every natural number ‘a’ can be written as a/1, every natural number is a
rational number.
 Since 0 can be written as 0/1 and every non-zero integer ‘a’ can be written as a/1,
every integer is a rational number.
 Every rational number has a peculiar characteristic that when expressed in decimal
form is expressible rather in terminating decimals or in non-terminating repeating
decimals.
 For example, 1/5 =0.2, 1/3 = 0.333…22/7 = 3.1428704287, 8/44 = 0.181818…., etc.
 The recurring decimals have been given a short notation as
0.333…. = 0.3
4.1555… = 4.05
0.323232…= 0.32.
 Irrational Numbers
 Those numbers which when expressed in decimal from are neither terminating nor
repeating decimals are known as irrational number, e.g. √2, √3, √5, π, etc.
 Note that the exact value of  is not 22/7. 22/7 is rational while π irrational number.
22/7 is approximate value of π. Similarly, 3.14 is not an exact value of it.
 Real Numbers
 The rational and irrational numbers combined together are called real numbers,
e.g.13/21, 2/5, -3/7; √3, 4 + √2, etc. are real numbers.
 The set of all real numbers is denoted by R.
 Note that the sum, difference or product of a rational and irrational number is
irrational, e.g. 3+ √2, 4-√3, 2/3-√5, 4√3, -7√5 are all irrational.
 Even Numbers
 All those numbers
8, 10, etc., are even numbers.
 Odd Numbers
 All those numbers which are not exactly divisible by 2 are called odd numbers, e.g. 1,
3, 5, 7 etc., are odd numbers.
 Prime Numbers
 A natural number other than 1 is a prime number if it is divisible by 1 and itself only.
 For example, each of the numbers 2, 3, 5, 7 etc., are prime numbers.
 Composite Numbers
 Natural numbers greater than 1which are not prime, are known as composite
numbers.
 For example, each of the numbers 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, etc., are composite numbers.
The number 1 is neither a prime number nor composite number.
2 is the only even number which is prime
Prime numbers up to 100 are: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19,23, 29, 31, 37, 41,43, 47, 53, 59,
61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97, i.e. 25 prime numbers between 1 and 100.
Two numbers which have only 1 as the common factor are called co
relatively prime to each other, e.g. 3 and 5 are co
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NUMBER SYSTEM
which are exactly divisible by 2 are called even numbers, e.g.2, 6,
8, 10, etc., are even numbers.
All those numbers which are not exactly divisible by 2 are called odd numbers, e.g. 1,
3, 5, 7 etc., are odd numbers.
umber other than 1 is a prime number if it is divisible by 1 and itself only.
For example, each of the numbers 2, 3, 5, 7 etc., are prime numbers.
Natural numbers greater than 1which are not prime, are known as composite
example, each of the numbers 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, etc., are composite numbers.
BITS
The number 1 is neither a prime number nor composite number.
2 is the only even number which is prime
Prime numbers up to 100 are: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19,23, 29, 31, 37, 41,43, 47, 53, 59,
61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97, i.e. 25 prime numbers between 1 and 100.
Two numbers which have only 1 as the common factor are called co-primes or
relatively prime to each other, e.g. 3 and 5 are co-primes.
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4 NUMBER SYSTEM
which are exactly divisible by 2 are called even numbers, e.g.2, 6,
All those numbers which are not exactly divisible by 2 are called odd numbers, e.g. 1,
umber other than 1 is a prime number if it is divisible by 1 and itself only.
Natural numbers greater than 1which are not prime, are known as composite
example, each of the numbers 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, etc., are composite numbers.
Prime numbers up to 100 are: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19,23, 29, 31, 37, 41,43, 47, 53, 59,
primes or
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5 H.C.F. and L.C.M.
H.C.F. and L.C.M.
Common factor
A common factor of two or more numbers is a number which divides each of them exactly.
For example, 4 is a common factor of 8 and 12.
Highest common factor (H.C.F.)
Highest common factor of two or more numbers is the greatest number that divides each
one of them exactly.
For example, 6 is the highest common factor of 12, 18 and 24.
Highest Common Factor is also called Greatest Common Divisor or Greatest Common
Measure. Symbolically, these can be written as H.C.F. or G.C.D. or G.C.M., respectively.
Methods of Finding H.C.F.
I. Method of Prime Factors
Step 1
Express each one of the given numbers as the product of prime factors.
[A number is said to be a prime number if it is exactly divisible by 1 and itself but not
by any other number, e.g. 2, 3, 5, 7, etc. are prime numbers]
Step 2
Choose Common Factors.
Step 3
Find the product of lowest powers of the common factors. This is the required H.C.F.
of given numbers.
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6 H.C.F. and L.C.M.
Example 1
Find the H.C.F. of 70 and 90.
Solution
70 = 2  5  7
90 = 2  5  9
Common factors are 2 and 5.
H.C.F. = 2  5 = 10.
Example 2
Find the H.C.F. of 3332, 3724 and 4508
Solution
3332 = 2  2  7  7  17
3724 = 2  2  7  7  19
4508 = 2  2  7  7  23
H.C.F. = 2  2  7  7 = 196.
Example 3
Find the H.C.F. of 360 and 132.
Solution
360 = 2
3
 3
2
 5
132 = 2
2
 3
1
 11
H.C.F. = 2
2
 3
1
= 12.
Example 4
If x = 2
3
 3
5
 5
9
and y = 2
5
 3
7
 5
11
, find H.C.F. of x and y.
Solution
The factors common to both x and y are 2
3
, 3
5
and 5
9
.
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7 H.C.F. and L.C.M.
H.C.F. = 2
3
 3
5
 5
9
.
II. Method of Division
A. For two numbers:
Step 1
Greater number is divided by the smaller one.
Step 2
Divisor of (1) is divided by its remainder.
Step 3
Divisor of (2) is divided by its remainder. This is continued until no remainder is left.
H.C.F. is the divisor of last step.
Example 5
Find the H.C.F. of 3556 and 3444.
Solution
3444)3556 (1
3444________
112) 3444 (30
3360______
84) 112 (1
84________
28) 84 (3
84

HCF=Divisor of last step=28
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8 H.C.F. and L.C.M.
B. For more than two numbers:
Step 1
Any two numbers are chosen and their H.C.F. is obtained.
Step 2
H.C.F. of H.C.F. (i.e. HCF obtained in step 1) and any other number is obtained.
Step 3
H.C.F. of H.C.F. (i.e. HCF obtained in last step) and any other number (not chosen
earlier) is obtained.
This process is continued until all numbers have been chosen. H.C.F. of last step is
the required H.C.F.
Example 6
Find the greatest possible length which can be used to measure exactly the lengths
7 m, 3 m 85 cmand 12 m 95 cm
Solution
Required length = HCF of 7 m, 3 m 85 cm and 12 m 95 cm
=HCF of 700 cm, 385 cm and 1295 cm
= 35 cm.
Common Multiple
A common multiple of two or more numbers is a number which is exactly divisible by each one of
them.
For Example, 32 is a common multiple of 8 and 16.
8  4 = 32
16  2 = 32
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9 H.C.F. and L.C.M.
Least Common Multiple
The least common multiple of two or more given numbers is the least or lowest number which is
exactly divisible by each of them.
For example, consider the two numbers 12 and 18.
Multiples of 12 are 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 …
Multiple of 18 are 18, 36, 54, 72 …
Common multiples are 36, 72 …
Least common multiple, i.e. L.C.M. of 12 and 18 is 36.
Methods of Finding L.C.M.
I. Method of Prime Factors
Step 1
Resolve each given number into prime factors.
Step 2
Take out all factors with highest powers that occur in given numbers.
Step 3
Find the product of these factors. This product will be the L.C.M.
Example 7
Find the L.C.M. of 32, 48, 60 and 320.
Solution
32 = 2x2x2x2x2x1
48 = 2x2x2x2x3
60 = 2x2x3x5
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10 H.C.F. and L.C.M.
320 = 2x2x2x2x2x2x5
L.C.M. = 2x2x2x2x2x2x3x 5 = 960.
II. Method of Division
Step 1
The given numbers are written in a line separated by common.
Step 2
Divide by any one of the prime numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, 11 … which will divide at least any
two of the given nu8mbers exactly. The quotients and the undivided numbers are
written in a line below the first.
Step 3
Step 2 is repeated until a line of numbers (prime to each other) appears.
Find the product of all divisors and numbers in the last line which is the required
L.C.M.
Example 8
Find the L.C.M. of 12, 15, 20 and 54.
Solution
2 12 15 20 54
2 6 15 10 27
3 3 15 5 27
3 1 5 1 9
3 1 5 1 3
5 1 5 1 1
1 1 1 1
L.C.M. = 2  2  3  3  3  5 = 540
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11 H.C.F. and L.C.M.
Note: Before finding the L.C.M. or H.C.F., we must ensure that all quantities are expressed in the
same unit.
Tips
1. H.C.F. and L.C.M. of Decimals
Make the same number of decimal places in all the given numbers by suffixing zero(s) if
necessary.
Find the H.C.F. /L.C.M. of these numbers without decimal.
Put the decimal point (in the H.C.F. /L.C.M. of step 2) leaving as many digits on its right as
there are in each of the numbers.
2. L.C.M. and H.C.F. of Fractions
I . C . H . =
I . C . H . o ¡ t ℎc n u m b c r s i n n u m c r o t o r s
E . C . F . o ¡ t ℎc n u m b c r s i n J c n o m i n o t o r s
E . C . F . =
E . C . F . o ¡ t ℎc n u m b c r s i n n u m c r o t o r s
I . C . H . o ¡ t ℎc n u m b c r s i n J c n o m i n o t o r s
3. Product of two numbers
= L.C.M. of the numbers  H.C.F. of the numbers
4. To find the greatest number that will exactly divide x, y and z.
Required number = H.C.F. of x, y and z
5. To find the greatest number that will divide x, y and z leaving remainders a, b and c, respectively.
Required number = H.C.F. of (x – a), (y – b) and (z – c)
6. To find the least number which is exactly divisible by x, y and z.
Required number = L.C.M. of x, y and z
7. To find the least number which when divided by x, y and z leaves the remainders a, b and c,
respectively.
It is always observed that (x – a) = (y – b) = (z – c) = k (say)
Required number = (L.C.M. of x, y and z) – k.
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12 H.C.F. and L.C.M.
8. To find the least number which when divided by x, y and z leaves the same remainder r in each
case.
Required number = (L.C.M. of x, y and z) + r.
9. To find the greatest number that will divide x, y and z leaving the same remainder in each case.
 When the value of remainder r is given:
Required number = H.C.F. of (x – r), (y – r) and (z – r).
 When the value of remainder is not given:
Required number = H.C.F. of l(x – y) l, l(y – z) l and l (z – x) l
10. To find the n-digit greatest number which, when divided by x, y and z.
 Leaves no remainder (i.e. exactly divisible)
Step 1: L.C.M. of x, y and z = L
L) n digit greatest number (
Step 2: remainder = R
Step 3: Required number
= n digit greatest number – R
 leaves remainder K in each case Required number
= (n digit greatest number – R) + K.
11. To find the n-digit smallest number which when divided by x, y and z
 leaves no remainder (i.e. exactly divisible)
Step 1: L.C.M. of x, y and z = L
L) n-digit smallest number (
Step 2: remainder = R
Step 3: Required number
= n-digit smallest number + (L – R).
 Leaves remainder K in each case.
Required number = n-digit smallest number + (L – R) + k.

4. -1. 3. 3.. -3. 1.com . 3. 3. 2. then the numbers 0. Integers  All counting numbers and their negatives including zero are known as integers. 2. 1. 2. we use ten symbols 0. 0. 9 called digits to represent any number. 5. 4. 4.NUMBER SYSTEM 2 NUMBER SYSTEM   In Hindu Arabic System. 1.  The set of whole number can be represented by W= {0. 2. -2. 8. are known as natural numbers. Types of Numbers • Natural numbers • Whole numbers • Integers • Positive Integers • Negative Integers • Non-negative Integers • Rational Numbers • Irrational Numbers • Real Numbers • Even Numbers • Odd Numbers • Prime Numbers • Composite Numbers  Natural numbers  Counting numbers 1. 4.   www. 5…}  Every natural number is a whole number but 0 is a whole number which is not a natural number.upscmantra. 7.  The set of all natural numbers can be represented by N= {1. 4. 0 is called insignificant digit. 1. 5. 2. 5 … are called whole numbers. This is the decimal system where we use the numbers 0 to 9. 3.. 3. 6. 5…} Whole numbers  If we include 0 among the natural numbers. 2.  The set of integers can be represented by Z or I = {…-4. 4 …} repre 1. 5.

√3. 3+ √2. etc. = 0.333…. e.  www.. 0/1. -5/8. -7√5 are all irrational. 3. Rational Numbers  The numbers of the form p/q. 3…} is the set all non-negative integers. 4…} is the set of all positive integers. √5.  Since every natural number ‘a’ can be written as a/1.1428704287. 1/5 =0. Q ={x:x =p/q.1555… = 4.2. 4/7.  For example. where p and q are integers and q ≠ 0. 22/7 is approximate value of π. 22/7 is rational while π irrational number. 8/44 = 0. -2.323232…= 0. 4 + √2.  Every rational number has a peculiar characteristic that when expressed in decimal form is expressible rather in terminating decimals or in non-terminating repeating decimals.com . q belong to I. 3. are real numbers.05 0.  Note that the sum. Real Numbers  The rational and irrational numbers combined together are called real numbers. 2.181818…. etc. 4√3. 2/3-√5. Similarly.g.     Irrational Numbers  Those numbers which when expressed in decimal from are neither terminating nor repeating decimals are known as irrational number. every natural number is a rational number.g. are known as rational numbers. 4-√3. 2/5. π. -2/3.32. i. -3/7. etc. Negative Integers  The set I.NUMBER SYSTEM 3  Positive Integers  The set I+ = {1.  The recurring decimals have been given a short notation as 0. q≠0}. e.13/21. Non-negative Integers  The set {0.14 is not an exact value of it.  The set of all real numbers is denoted by R. √3.upscmantra. etc.= {-1.3 4. 1.  Positive integers and natural numbers are synonyms. e. 1/3 = 0.  Since 0 can be written as 0/1 and every non-zero integer ‘a’ can be written as a/1. √2. every integer is a rational number. p.g. 2.g. e. difference or product of a rational and irrational number is irrational.  0 is neither positive nor negative.333…22/7 = 3. -3…} is the set of all negative integers.e.  The set of all rational numbers is denoted by Q. 3/2.  Note that the exact value of  is not 22/7.

59. e. 19. 9. 1.2. 25 prime numbers between 1 and 100. 7 etc. 73. are odd numbers. 37.e.g. are prime numbers. 83.    BITS The number 1 is neither a prime number nor composite number.. 53. 8. 2 is the only even number which is prime Prime numbers up to 100 are: 2. 79. 47. Composite Numbers  Natural numbers greater than 1which are not prime. each of the numbers 4. 10.43. e.. 5. 71.g.com . 17. 29. co www. 5.. 11. Two numbers which have only 1 as the common factor are called co-primes or co primes relatively prime to each other.g. 31. 5. umber  For example. 41. 3. 7.  For example. etc. Odd Numbers  All those numbers which are not exactly divisible by 2 are called odd numbers. are composite numbers. 6. 12. 97. 67. 61. e. etc. Prime Numbers  A natural number other than 1 is a prime number if it is divisible by 1 and itself only.. 7 etc. 13. 3 and 5 are co-primes. are even numbers.NUMBER SYSTEM 4  Even Numbers  All those numbers which are exactly divisible by 2 are called even numbers.upscmantra.23. i. 8. 3. 6. 3. are known as composite numbers. each of the numbers 2. 89.

C. 7. Symbolically. these can be written as H. This is the required H.C.C. Method of Prime Factors Step 1 Express each one of the given numbers as the product of prime factors. For example. I.) Highest common factor of two or more numbers is the greatest number that divides each one of them exactly. or G.F.F.C.C. Highest Common Factor is also called Greatest Common Divisor or Greatest Common Measure. [A number is said to be a prime number if it is exactly divisible by 1 and itself but not by any other number. Common factor A common factor of two or more numbers is a number which divides each of them exactly. 6 is the highest common factor of 12. 5 H. and L. For example.C.g.. and L.F. e. respectively. Highest common factor (H.H.M. or G.F.C. 3.D. are prime numbers] Step 2 Choose Common Factors.M. Step 3 Find the product of lowest powers of the common factors. 4 is a common factor of 8 and 12.F.C. Methods of Finding H. 2.upscmantra.C. etc.F.M. 5.com . www. 18 and 24. of given numbers.C.

C. = 2  2  7  7 = 196.C. Example 2 Find the H.upscmantra. of x and y.F. Solution 70 = 2  5  7 90 = 2  5  9 Common factors are 2 and 5.F. 6 Example 1 Find the H.C.com . of 360 and 132. 35 and 59.F. Solution The factors common to both x and y are 23. find H.  H.M. www. = 22  31 = 12. Solution 360 = 23  32  5 132 = 22  31  11  H. and L.F.F.H.C.C.F.C. of 70 and 90.C. 3724 and 4508 Solution 3332 = 2  2  7  7  17 3724 = 2  2  7  7  19 4508 = 2  2  7  7  23  H. of 3332. = 2  5 = 10. Example 4 If x = 23  35  59 and y = 25  37  511.C.C. Example 3 Find the H.F.F.

Method of Division A. and L.C. Step 3 Divisor of (2) is divided by its remainder.F.com .C. Solution 3444)3556 (1 3444________ 112) 3444 (30 3360______ 84) 112 (1 84________ 28) 84 (3 84  HCF=Divisor of last step=28 www. II.M. Step 2 Divisor of (1) is divided by its remainder. For two numbers: Step 1 Greater number is divided by the smaller one. is the divisor of last step.F.F. H.C. 7  H.upscmantra.H.F. Example 5 Find the H. = 23  35  59.C. This is continued until no remainder is left.C. of 3556 and 3444.

C.C. This process is continued until all numbers have been chosen.C. H.F.F.C.C.C. Step 3 H.M.F. 32 is a common multiple of 8 and 16. (i.H. (i. 8  4 = 32 16  2 = 32 www.C. Common Multiple A common multiple of two or more numbers is a number which is exactly divisible by each one of them.C.F. For Example. For more than two numbers: Step 1 Any two numbers are chosen and their H. of H.e.e. HCF obtained in last step) and any other number (not chosen earlier) is obtained. HCF obtained in step 1) and any other number is obtained.upscmantra.C. 3 m 85 cm and 12 m 95 cm =HCF of 700 cm. of H.F. 385 cm and 1295 cm = 35 cm.F. of last step is the required H.F. 3 m 85 cm and 12 m 95 cm Solution Required length = HCF of 7 m. and L.com . 8 B. Step 2 H. Example 6 Find the greatest possible length which can be used to measure exactly the lengths 7 m.F. is obtained.

36. 24. Step 2 Take out all factors with highest powers that occur in given numbers.C. consider the two numbers 12 and 18. 72 … Least common multiple.H.e.C. Solution 32 = 2x2x2x2x2x1 48 = 2x2x2x2x3 60 = 2x2x3x5 www. 36.M. Step 3 Find the product of these factors.M. i. For example. 9 Least Common Multiple The least common multiple of two or more given numbers is the least or lowest number which is exactly divisible by each of them. 48. 60 and 320. Method of Prime Factors Step 1 Resolve each given number into prime factors. I.C.M.C.C. L. 72 … Multiple of 18 are 18. and L.C. 48.M. Methods of Finding L. of 32. 72 … Common multiples are 36. Multiples of 12 are 12. 54.F. Example 7 Find the L.com . of 12 and 18 is 36.M. This product will be the L.upscmantra.

The quotients and the undivided numbers are written in a line below the first.H. 7. Example 8 Find the L.C.F.C. Step 3 Step 2 is repeated until a line of numbers (prime to each other) appears. = 2x2x2x2x2x2x3x 5 = 960.C. 15.upscmantra. Step 2 Divide by any one of the prime numbers 2. Method of Division Step 1 The given numbers are written in a line separated by common.C. 20 and 54. Solution 2 2 3 3 3 5 12 6 3 1 1 1 1 15 15 15 5 5 5 1 20 10 5 1 1 1 1 54 27 27 9 3 1 1 L. Find the product of all divisors and numbers in the last line which is the required L. 5. and L.com .C. 11 … which will divide at least any two of the given nu8mbers exactly.M.C.M. 3.M. of 12. 10 320 = 2x2x2x2x2x2x5  L. II.M. = 2  2  3  3  3  5 = 540 www.M.

of x.C. y and z 5. ℎ ℎ 3.F. .M. of (x – a). . . and H. Put the decimal point (in the H. y and z) – k. y and z 7. y and z. of x. .C.upscmantra. . b and c. www.M.C. of Fractions .C.F.F. b and c.C. Required number = L. Tips 1.M.C.C. respectively.C. To find the least number which is exactly divisible by x.. and L.F. .M. .C. /L. and L. . . H. ℎ ℎ .F. . or H.M. we must ensure that all quantities are expressed in the same unit. of step 2) leaving as many digits on its right as there are in each of the numbers. y and z. of these numbers without decimal. of the numbers  H.M.F. To find the greatest number that will exactly divide x. .M. Required number = H. . To find the least number which when divided by x.com . (y – b) and (z – c) 6. respectively. It is always observed that (x – a) = (y – b) = (z – c) = k (say)  Required number = (L.C.C.C.C. Find the H. of the numbers 4. . 2.F.C.= .H.C. y and z leaves the remainders a. To find the greatest number that will divide x. Required number = H.= . of Decimals Make the same number of decimal places in all the given numbers by suffixing zero(s) if necessary.M.F.C. of x.C. Product of two numbers = L.C.M. /L. 11 Note: Before finding the L. L. . y and z leaving remainders a.F.

www.e.C.C. 9.M. of x.H. exactly divisible) Step 1: L. of l(x – y) l.M. of (x – r). y and z leaving the same remainder in each case. Required number = n-digit smallest number + (L – R) + k.  Leaves no remainder (i.M. To find the n-digit smallest number which when divided by x.C. and L. To find the least number which when divided by x. y and z leaves the same remainder r in each case. of x. when divided by x. To find the greatest number that will divide x.  Leaves remainder K in each case. of x.M.  When the value of remainder is not given: Required number = H. (y – r) and (z – r).  When the value of remainder r is given: Required number = H. y and z  leaves no remainder (i.e.C.upscmantra.C.F. Required number = (L.F. y and z = L L) n digit greatest number ( Step 2: remainder = R Step 3: Required number = n digit greatest number – R  leaves remainder K in each case Required number = (n digit greatest number – R) + K. l(y – z) l and l (z – x) l 10. y and z. 11. To find the n-digit greatest number which. y and z) + r.F.com . y and z = L L) n-digit smallest number ( Step 2: remainder = R Step 3: Required number = n-digit smallest number + (L – R).C. exactly divisible) Step 1: L. 12 8.C.