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Resistant Hinduism. Sanskrit Sources on Anti-Christian Apologetics in Early Nineteenth-century India.(R

Resistant Hinduism. Sanskrit Sources on Anti-Christian Apologetics in Early Nineteenth-century India.(R

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Throughout the course of this research, I have benefited from the wise
counsel of numerous authorities of various nationalities. To them, and not
only to the subject itself, must I attribute the considerable pleasure that I
have derived from this project. Especially to be credited are my professors in
the Department of Oriental Studies at the University of Pennsylvania,
whose patient and skillful teaching whetted my interest in Indology and
enabled me to undertake research in that field. To Professor Ludo Rocher I
owe thanks for making the intricacies of Sanskrit intelligible to me; to
Professor Peter Gaeffke for doing the same with Hindi; and to Professor
Wilhelm Halbfass for leading me artfully through the labyrinths of Indian
philosophy. Despite their demanding schedules and my often importunate
requests, all three never stinted either on time or attention. Each read with
me in the principal texts constituting this study, giving me bearings I needed
in order to find my way.
To my advisor, Professor Halbfass, my debt is immense. He brought to
my attention Nïlakantha Goreh's Saddarsanadarpana, the final product in
the series of treatises comprising what I call the Mataparlksä Controversy.
Without this original clue, I would never have discovered the other parts to
this literary puzzle, nor would I have been able to make of them a coherent
interpretation without his guidance. At the initial stage he convinced me
that this topic rightly belongs to Indology rather than theology; and to the
end, through much consultation and many letters, he constantly widened my
horizon with respect to the implications of my materials.
Enroute to India for a year of research, generously provided by a grant
from the American Institute for Indian Studies, I was able to spend ûve
months in Great Britain, utilizing the libraries and archival resources there.
That my time was productively spent was due in part to the cooperative
staffs of the British Library's Department of Oriental Manuscripts and
Printed Books and the India Office Library and Records. Especially helpful
were the archivists of the Church Missionary Society, the Baptist Missionary
Society and the United Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, all of
which must be credited with sparing no cost to preserve materials invaluable
for this study. Also to be thanked is the University of Edinburgh for granting
permission to reproduce the John Muir portrait.
While in Europe I also had the privelege of consulting in Lund with
Reverend Bror Fredrik Tiliander, who served the Church of Sweden for many
years in Andhra Pradesh. The example he set for me is not adequately
measured by citations in the notes referring to his pioneering doctoral
dissertation, Christian and Hindu Terminology. If my research is subse-



quently applied to interreligious hermeneutics, I would hope it follows
methods already established by this outstanding missionary-scholar.
I am also grateful to Professor Dr. Gerhard Oberhammer, Director of the
Indological Institute of the University of Vienna, for impressing upon me the
principle that good theology cannot ignore the results of Indological scho-
larship — a conclusion that I hope Christian readers of this study will reach
independently. A newcomer to scholarship always hopes that the significance
of his research will be recognized by scholars whom he respects and admires.
It has been my good fortune to receive from Professor Oberhammer not only
expert guidance and constant encouragement but also a generous offer to
include the present volume as the eighth in the De Nobili Research Library

The ease with which I was able to conduct my research in India, 1977—
78, was in large measure due to the assistance of Tarun Mitra, Calcutta
representative for the American Institute for Indian Studies; and to the
Reverend Pritam Santram and the Reverend Michael Westall of Bishop's
College, Calcutta, with which I was temporarily affiliated. Living in that
institution brought me into contact with the heritage of Indian Christian
hermeneutics, particularly with respect to Church Sanskrit, which was given
momentum by the first college principal, William Hodge Mill, in the early
nineteenth century. The staff of the Carey Library of Serampore College
deserves recognition for help in locating many of the journal articles cited in
the bibliography. To Fr. Pierre Fallon, SJ, my dissertation advisor while in
India, I am grateful for many hours of conversation in his North Calcutta
flat, acquainting me with his observations on terminological obstacles
impeding interreligious dialogue today, just as they did during the
Mataparlksä Controversy — observations informed by his immersion in the
life of Bengali Hindus.

Bringing the writing of this dissertation to a close while teaching in
Japan has made necessary the utilization of resources in the Sanskrit library
of the University of Tokyo. Through the good offices of Professor Sengaku
Mayeda, I have had access to everything I needed. Thanks to Professor Dr.
Minoru Hara, I have been able to solve several Sanskrit conundrums.
Without contact with these Indologists, Tokyo would indeed have been an
incongrous place in which to prepare for publication a dissertation bearing on

Despite my debt to the above-named scholars, whatever mistakes I may
have made must not be attributed to them.
I am especially grateful to my wife for her patience, encouragement, and
careful typing of the original drafts and final copy during the last four years.

Tokyo, March 15, 1981

Richard Fox Young

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