PowerScore/Testmasters LSAT Reading Comp Notes 1.
React to transition words, making it easier to predict he nest turn of the pas sage Frequently asked Questions: Tye A: Authors attitude Type C: Continuity-inserting an answer choice to a given paragraph Type M: Meaning in context-meaning of a certain word or phrase Type O: Organization-Passage as a whole or specific paragrapgs Type P: Purpose-What was the purpose of a word r phrase, paragraph or passage Type Q: Questions answered-Given what you read which information can be answered ? Type R: Relationships Things to Look for: 1. Reasoning structure -Cause and effect -Sufficient and Necessary structure 2. Distinctions -Pay attention to any distinctions or comparisons. Distinctions are tested more than similarities 3. Evaluative statements Passage Categories: 1. Science 2. History 3. Arts and Literature 4. Law What to do After Reading: 1. Count paragrapghs and mentally note what happens in each paragrapgh 2. Know the abstract structure 3. Know the main point Analyzing the passage using VIEWSTAMP: View: Views in the passage S: Structure of the passage T: Tone of the passage A: Arguments in the passage MP: Main Point * An opinion presented without reference to any group is typically the author's opinion. * Understanding the arguments will help you understand he details of the passage . Example: Humans cannot live on Venus because the surface temperature is too high. [ STH----> ~(HLV)] * What is the ultimate aim of the author's statements? what is he or she attempt ing to prove? Are some conclusions used to support others? Text-based Questions: Elements one could expect to see again in the questions 1. Initial information/closing information * Questions will occasionally reference information in the very beginning or end of the passage 2. Dates and numbers * The more dates you see, the more important it is to note them 3. Definitions * Helps to clarify and understand the word or phrase 4. Examples * Helps to understand more abstract points 5. Difficult words of phrases 6. Enumerations/lists 7. Text questions
Trap of separation 3. Circling * Circling key words or phrases that change the direction of the passage 3. * "The author uses the phrase 'rational expectation' (line 39) primarily in orde r to" * "Which of the following best exemplify the kind of theory referred to in the f inal paragraph of the passage?" 2. or parallel elements of the passage * Augment or expand the passage Location Element: 1. 2. Trap of proximity 4. 1. accompanied by a "V" side notation. CONCEPTUAL REFERENCE: Questions referring to themes or ideas within the passa ge that are not identified by specific line or paragraph reference. Passage topic traps * Should not assume that a topic or passage will be easy or hard just from the fi rst line or paragraph. Basic Underlining * Underline decisive information 2. Pitfalls to avoid: 1. 2. Casual * Usually discussed in the context of why certain evens occurs-such as caused by. Diagramming Passages: A. Traps of Chronology 6. or purpose of words or phrases described in th e passage * Strengthen. Passage Notation "V" for viewpoint "MP" for main point "CC" for compare and contrast "D" for definitions "E" for examples Circled number for enumeration "Q" for questions posed by the author
The Questions and answer choices: * Describe the main point or primary purpose of the passage * Describe the structure and organization of the passage * Identify the viewpoint of the author or viewpoints of the subjects describe wi thin the passage * Identify the details of the passage or statements proven by the passage * Describe the meaning. Marking the passage text 1. weaken. 3. Bracketing Text * Bracket sections too wide to indicate any other way B. * Should help as a guide to the direction of the passage Two Broad Reasoning structures: 1. or product of. SPECIFIC REFERENCE. Trap of inserted Alternate viewpoint 5. 5. 7. 6. reasons for. Boxing * Boxing Viewpoints.Conditional.The question stem refers you to a specific number line. 4. function. * " The passage suggests which one of the following about the behavior of elk in
. but are clea rly annunciated within one or two areas of the passage. Traps of Similarities and Differences 2. 4. p aragraph or sentence.
It usually ends with the author taking a side. or outlines two or more alternative views on a subject.Some entire passages are devoted to explaining the ca
. or. Author agreement * The author would be most likely to agree on the answer to which one of the fol lowing questions regarding musical capacity in human?" * It can be inferred from he passage that both authors hold which one of the fol lowing views?" 4. the two passages disprove which one of the following assertions?" Common Passage Structures: 1. Narrative of Causality. Passage Commonality * Both passages were written primarily to answer which one f the following quest ions? * Which one of the following principles underlies the arguments in both passages ? 2. Narrative without Authorial position-The focus is solely on the narrative and the author takes no position whatsoever. Passage exclusivity * Which one of the following most accurately express the main point of passage A ?" * Which one of the following is discussed in passage A but not in passage B?" 6. Passage relationship questions * Which one of the following most accurately characterizes a relationship betwee n the two passages?" * Which one of the following most accurately describes a way in which both passa ges are similar to each other?" 3.conflict situations?" * "The passage indicates that prior to the use of carbon dating. in the middle. identify a defined area or isolated concept within the question * Which on of the following most accurately express the main e? * Information in the passage most strongly support which one or they fail to stem. point of the passag of the following?"
Comparative Reading Question Types: 1. or the order of events as they occurred. GLOBAL REFERENCE: Questions ask about the passage as a whole. 3. Author disagreement * It can be inferred that the authors of the two passages would be most likely t o disagree over whether?" * The author of passage B would be more likely to make which of the following cr iticisms about the prediction made in passage A concerning a rise in the sea lev el?" 5.less often. 4. at least some h istorians believed which one of the following?" 3. 2. Narrative with authorial position-The authors viewpoint is most frequently pr esented at the end of the passage but sometimes at the beginning. Narrative with Timeline-author outlines series of events against the backdrop of time.The author explains the history of views on a subject. Narrative with positional analysis. Passage Aggregate * Which one of the following can be most reasonably inferred from the two passag es taken together. but not from either individually?" * Each of the following is supported by one or both of the passage EXCEPT?" * Together. agreeing or disagreeing with one or both pe rspectives. 5.
Many passages present an initial t heory or principle. Member of an Underrepresented group addresses a member of an overrepresented g roup ii. 6. Diversity Passages-Test makers always side with underrepresented groups a. Undermining Overrepresented groups c. Defiance of Classification-Person or group that either cannot be classifies b y conventional means. Law Related Topics: The Law is treated as the complicated.uses behind a particular event or occurrence. Science related topic: a. Member of an Overrepresented group addresses a member of an underrepresented group d. Affirming Underrepresented groups b. Mixed group passages i. Handling dense sections Bracket off the section and don't worry about understanding everything
. and the test maker s examine both the faults and benefits of the system. as well as the theoretical underpinnings. Common Passage Themes: 1. and use the remainder of the passage to discus examples of t he theory or provide evidence in support of the theory. or are under-appreciated in their time. powerful system it is. Narrative featuring Principle and Example. Handling scientific Terminology Underline difficult phrases and make notes of the definition b. confound their critics. Bending the Old with the New-Feature individuals or groups blending the old a pproach with the new approach to create something unique and powerful e.