~~~~~~~~~t_.r".cfiaf<cc"C,c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c,cc , .. ..
To ProjC!J30r Donold L. Katz , University oj Michigan , jor his innumerable contributions to natural gas engineering; and my family Jor their constant encouragement and support.
, .... , .............................
VII
1. Natural Gas Origin and Development ....................... 1
J!llJ"Cyl!!9tian. What Is Natural Gas? Origin of Natural Gas. Other Sources of
Caseous Fuel. ~ral Cas Production and Processing System. Questions and Problems. References.
Contributions in Petroleum Ceology and Engineering
Gas Properties 2. Phase Behavior Fundamentals . ..... . ..... . ................. 18
, . / ' Introduction. Qualitative Hydrocarbon Phase Behavior. Quantitative Phase Behavior and Vapor. Liquid Equilibrium. Applications. Prediction of the Phase Envelope. QuestiOns and Problems. References.
Volume 4
Gas~~lu!:ti" onEngineering
~
•
3 . .Properties of Natural Gases ..............................•. 39
."./' Introduction. Equations of State. Critical Pressure and Temperature Deter· mination. The Cas Compressibility Factor. Some Z·Factor Related Proper. ties. Compressibility of Cases. Viscosity of Gases. Specific Heat for Hydrocar. bon Gases. Questions and Problems. References.
Copyri @.t. , ' . Company, Houston, 1l 1i1~. Printed in the United States of America. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher.
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data Kumar, S. (Sanjay), 1960Cas production engineering. (Contributions in petroleum geology & engineering; v. 4) Includes index. 1. Cas drilling (Petroleum engineering) 2. Gas engineering. I. Title. II. Series. TN880.2.KS6 1987 622'.3385 877452
ISBN 0·.87201577_7
ISBN 087201066X (serie!;) Iv
f~.,10' ::\01 * '" 9 01
~~~g
~
Gas Processing 4. Gas and Liquid Separation ............. . ... . ...... . ..... .. . 18
v
Introduction. Separation Equipment. Types of Separators. Separation Princi· pies. Factors Affecting Separation. Separator Design. Stage Separation. Low. Temperature Separation. Cas Cleaning. Flash Calculations. Questions and Problems. References.
~ GasWater Systems and Dehydration Processing
.•..•......... 169
Introduction. Water Content of Natural Gjlses. Gas fudrates. Hydrate Inhi· bition b~ Additive In~on. Absorption Dehydration. Adsorption Oenyara. tion. De ydration by Expansfon Refrigeration. QuestiOns and Problems. Ref· erences.
v
6. Desulfurization Processes ........... , , , ' , ..... . ............ 255
Introduction. Removal Processes. Solid Bed Sweetening Processes. Physical Absorption Processes. Chemical Absorption The Alkanol·Amine Processes. Chemical AbsorptionThe Carbonate Processes. Questions and Problems. References .
Preface
With this book I have sought to provide a rigorous and comprehensive text that reHects a broad spectrum or natural gas engineering experience. My motivation came primarily from some gas engineering courses I taught in the United States and overseas that made me realize the limitations of the existing material and the frustration or having to use several different publications, some of which would contradict others. Notwithstanding the enormity or the task, I decided to write a book to eliminate this conrusion and provide a wider and more detailed coverage of this topic. Much of the material presented here was drawn from these lectures . This book is designed to be a moderately advanced textbook ror students and a handy reference for practicing engineers. It was written with the assumption that some readers with little or no background in gas engineering will use it as their first book. To keep things interesting for the expert. I have sought to include the most current developments reported in the latest published works to the extent possible without dragging this book into an interminably long series of books on these topics. Pertinent references are included at the end of each chapter for those wanting more details. Almost every chapter includes worked examples to enhance understanding and some practice questions and problems that will aid in testing this understanding. (Answers to the questions and problems are available in a separate instructor's guide.) Chapter 1, an introduction to the scope of natural gas engineering, can be skipped by most seasoned readers. Chapters 2 and 3 describe the properties of natural gas that are crucial in designing and operating natural gas systems. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 deal with gas processingChapter 4 discusses the separation or gas from oil and water from a typical reservoir; Chapter 5 provides insight into gaswater systems and dehydration processing techniques for natural gas; and Chapter 6 examines some or the important and widely used desulrurization processes for natural gas, Chapters 711 present important topics in gas production and HowChapter 7 describes relationships for the steady state flow or gas through horizontal, inclined, and vertical pipes; Chapter 8 outlines the methods of handling multiphase flow encountered in gas production; Chapter 9 provides information on gas compression; Chapter 10 discusses gas flow measurement; and finally, Chapter 11 describes gas gathering and transmission systems, and deal.s with the design and modeling of the complete production
"
Gas Production and Flow
7. SteadyState Flow or Gas Through Pipes .................... 275
Introduction. Gas Flow Fundamentals. Vertical and Inclined SinglePhase Flow of Gas. Gas Flow Over Hilly Terrain. Gas Flow Through Restrictions. Temperature Profile in Flowing Gas Systems. Questions and Problems. References.
8. ~tiltiphase GasLiquid Flow .............................. 365
..... Introduction. Approximate Method for TwoPhase Systems. Multiphase Flow. ~ Loading in Gas \Vells. Questions and Problems. References.
9. Gas Compression ..................... , ... , .............. 394
Introduction. Types of Compressors. Compressor Selection. Compression Processes. Compressor Design Fundamentals. Designing Reciprocating COIllpressors. Designing Centrifugal Compressors. Designing Rotary Compressors. Questions and Problems. References.
•
10. Gas Flow Measurement ................•.............. . ... 451
J
/ Introduction. Measurement Fundamentals. Methods of Measurement. Orlfice Meters. Other Types of Measurement. Questions and Problems. Refer
ences.
11. Gas Gathering and Transport ................ . ............. 529
Introduction. Gathering Systems. SteadyState Flow in Simple Pipeline Systems. SteadyState Flow in Pipeline Networks. UnsteadyState flow in Pipelines. Some Approximate Solutions for Transient Flow. Pipeline Economics. Questions and Problems. References.
Appendix A. General Data and Unit Conversion Factors .. , , ....... 585 Appendix B. Computer Programs (FORTRAN Subroutines) ... , ... , 623 Index ....................... , ... , ... . .. , . . , ... , .. .. ........ 651
and transport system. Appendix A will be helpful in handling the several frequent1y confusing systems of units that, unfortunately, are our legacy in engineering. Appendix B presents some general FORTRAN subroutines that will help readers write computers programs to implement many of the techniques presented in this book. It has been my good fortune to have had close associations with many v 10 ment of this work. I am thankful to Drs. Kern H Guppy and George v. Chilingar for their enthusiastic interest, comments, and suggestions for this book. The figures and drawing.. provided by several companies and institutions are gratefully acknowledged. Many sections of the book could only be included because of the interest and curiosity of my students. They never failed to ask pertinent questions and draw the discussion to related relevant issues. Finally, the moral support from my family has been of great value in the moments of frustration during this work, I thank my father. Dr. Kundan L. Coyal, for his many discussions and suggestions for this book and his insistence that I keep at it. I submit this work to the engineering community with the hope that it shall inspire many minds, both the young and the elCperienced, to greater understanding and creativity in this endless search for knowledge.
1
and
Introduction The earliest records of natural gas go back to A.D. 221263 when it was first used as a fuel in China during the Shu Han dynasty. The gas, obtained from shallow wells, was distributed through an interesting piping system: hollow bamboos. Later evidence is not found until the early 17th century. when natural gas was used on a small scale for heating and lighting in northern Italy. In the United States, natural gas was first discovered in Fredonia, New York, in 1821. It is this latter discovery that has led, for the most part, to the developments we see today. In the years following this discovery, natural gas was used merely as a fuel locally: it was difficult to store and transport and had Iitt1e or no commercial value. Even in the 19205 and '30s, natural gas was only produced as an unwanted byproduct of crude oil production. Only a small amount of gas was pipelined to industrial areas for commercial use, most of it being vented to the air or flared. From these humble beginning.., the natural gas industry has burgeoned. especially in the years following World War II. Natural gas now accounts for almost onefifth of the world's primary energy consumption, surpassing coal and second only to oil (see Tables 11 and 12). Several factors are responsible for these developments: New processes permit the manufacture of myriad petrochemicals and fertilizers from natural gas; gas is a clean, efficient, easily combustible, lowsulfur fuel and has consequently replaced coal as a domestic, industrial, and power generation fuel in many parts of the world; difficulties in storing and transporting gas have been overcome by the development of longdistance, largediameter steel pipelines and powerful compression equipment; liquefied natural gas (LNG), produced by liquefying natural gas by a refrigeration cycle to less
(text continued on poge 4)
1
San;ay Kumar, Ph.D.
Los Angeles, California
•

Table 1·1 World Energy Consumption and Fuel SharesHistory, 1960, 1973 and 1979" (Quadrillion Btu)
1160
Fuel Shares (Pen:enl)
1973
Fuel Shares (Percent)
1979
;Uc"c"Cod~s,C.C,a~CCCCOC44C.~2C23OCC4:5~28;CCC4C~7:5C.ICCI~8C4:7~30;C5C••
Canada Japan
Region or Country
Fuel Shllr.s Tolli Tot.' Totl' (Percent) Energy Energy Energy Consumed Coal eNt Gas Other Conaumed Coal 011 Gas Other Consumed Coal 011 Gas Oth.r
Western Europe' Finland/Norway/Sweden Unit....:! Kingdom/Ireland IknclUlIDcnmark!T West GermallY france
Australia/Switzerland Spain/Portugal Italy GreecefThrkcy Australia/New Zealand ThtalOEeD' Thta.l Non·OECD' OPEC Other Thtal Free \\urld'
J,g 3.9 26.9 1.8 8.0 2.7 6.2
14 48
49 36
10 I
27 15
8.1 15.3
H 14
46 79
20 2
26 5
3.7
0.9 l.0 2.2 0.4 1.4 BO.4 10.5 1.7 8.8 90.9
55 13 70 53 73 51
24 41 14 41 54 35 31 3 37 35
35 49 29 47 25 35
34 41 54 55 4J 42 57 75 53 43
2 0 0 0 0 3
8 38 I 0 2 11
54.0 3.9 10.4 7.3 11.5 8.2
2.0 3.0 6.2 1.4 2.9 155.4 25.0 5.0 20.0 180.3
HI 5 35 II 30 15
8 ]4 15 21 35 18 21 I 25 18
63 5H 51 67 58 70
58 70 78 76 50 56 60 66 59 56
10 0 11 22 10 7
7 2 10 0 6 19 II 30 7 18
8 37 3 0 2 8
27 \4 7 3 9 7 8 3 9 8
79.3 10.0 16.1 571 4.9 10.3 6.8 12.4 8.8
6 36 0 18 II 21 0" 0 3 16 7 6 6 21 4 6 15 7
..,
3.8
2.0 3.8 166.2 35.7 7.0
17
287
201.9
19 48 26 7 8 41 21 30 II 74 6 9 19 56 14 1I 449245 33 44 18 5 12 57 28 3 25 53 17 5 16 61 10 13 6 41 12 41 16 68 3 13 66917 8 35 00 0 S 39 42 11 8 18 52 20 10 1962910 74 22 3 2J 59 6 12 18 54 18 10
, From 0.0.£:. 1981 Annu.1 Report 10 Congrrso, Volu1M' 3. " Indud.. ~o Rico, Virgin Islands, .nd purclll_ fm tbe Stra,egic Pdroleum I Numben mly not .dd to l"'lb dlW to f'OOlIIding °t Oetw:IIU eountoa.ne Belgium, the Ndtwrl.nd>.. and Ltuembourll. R~rlnloo with (Wrm~n In:om IIPI. 19fI..I
\tee..,.
Table 1· 2 World Energy Consumption and Fuel Shares: Base Scenario Midprlce Projections· 1985, 1990, and 1995* (Quadrillion Btu)
,,
Fuel Shares (Percent)
United Ststes" Canada Japan Western Europe' Finland/Norway/Sweden United Kingdomllrelsnd Benelux/Denmark" west Germany France Australia/Switzerland Spain/Portugal Italy Creeee/1tJrkey AustraliafNew Zealand ThIIIOECD' Thtal NonOEeD' OPEC
Other
~~~~~~~~~~~CCCC~~
82.3 10.1 19.4 54.6 4.8 9.1 6.5 11.7 8.7 2.2 3.5 6.4 1.8 3.9 170.3 45.6 10.3 35.3 2 15.9 23 8 18 22 4 36 20 32 13 9 14 20 28 33 22 20 0 25 21 42 36 55 46 44 38 46 41 52 41 54 50 55 44 45 59 72 55 47 24 20 15 15 2 18 29 19 9 14 3 20 0 15 19 II 27 6 18 II 36 12 17 50 8 5 8 26 36 29 10 17 8 14 iO 14 14 86.5 \I 2 22.6 58.8 5.2 9.5 7.0 12.6 9.5 2.3 3.8 7.0 1.9 4.3 183.3 55.0 14.0 41.0 238.3
Region or Country
Fuel Share. Total (Percent) Totsl Energy Energy Energy Consumed Cosl 011 Gas Other Consumed Coal 011 Gas Other Consumed Coal Oil Gas Other
..
1990
Fuel Shares (Percent)
1995
27 5 22
2J
4 37 28 34 1I 9 10 2J 21 33 24 19 0 2S 23
Thlal Free World'
38 32 50 42 40 37 43 37 48 3'.1 53 44 53 39 40 57 74 52 44
22 22 IS IS 2 18 23 17 10 17 5 21 0 19 19 II 25 6 17
·~~CCCC~CCCC~~==
13 41 13 20 54 8 6 12 31 35 32 12 26 \) 17 13 17 16 93.9 12.4 26.0 63.3 5.7 9.8 7.6 13.4 10.4 2.4 4.1 7.8 2.1 4.6 200.2 66.0 19.0 47.0 266.2 31 3 24 24 5 39 32 36 9 8 10 24 19 32 27 19 0 26 25 35 29 46 39 37 37 41 32 44 37 49 41 52 37 37 58 76 51 42 21 23 14 15 2 16 22 19 13 17 5 22 0 22 18 11 23 7 16 13 45 16 22 56 8 5 13 34 38 36 13 29 9 18 12 1 16 17
, From 0.0.[:. 1981 Annual RqIOrt to Congrea. Volume 3.
I'rojrctlon rangela", baJed on UlUmed prioce patm for imported oil.tated In 1979 constant dollars. The low prl« Ke".rlo .... u"',,;. tkh~e ...ed world 011 price of $32 per btlrnel, the mld·rlnp {used abo~)",1 ~r boor..,l, Ind the high rlnge $49(Wr bar..,l .. IncludN Puerto Rico. Virgin Islands .•nd pun;ha.... for tbe Strategic I'I:troleum Reset"C 1 Numben may not.dd to tOilb due to rooDding. 11 1IeneIu.. evuntriet are Iklglum, the Nd~lands, and LunmOOurg. R~nnt..J w,th ptrmioslon from API. 191\04 ..
•
eo" Production Engineering
Natural easOrigin and DeVf!lopmeJlt
5
(text continued from page 1)
than J!600 of its original volume, can now be transported acrQS5 the oceans by insulated tankers. Cas is now a highly desirable hydrocarbon resource. It is no longer cheap; the price has gone up from a mere $O.07!Mscf (1.000 standard cubic feet) in 1950 to $2.79IMscf currenUy (1987). The price of gas peaked in 1984, when gas was being sold at $4.80iMsci. and as much as $9.00'\iscf in some areas. Production costs for natur..J g~ have also been rlSing over the years. Average costs in the USA have gone up from $O.86/M.scf in 1976 to about $3.90IMscf in 1982. But natural gas is still competitive with other fuels. as shown in Table 13.
Table 13 Cost Comparison of Vlrious Commercial Fuels
:
~
.
~~
~~~ ~~. ";cici ~~~~~
~!2
O~M
O " ' ....... cg
<>iOcgoo <>IO!:,=!~,=!
 
r
8~~~!:i e;
"'''''''
01"'_'" ~il~
~~
~~
g~
~<OO'!o~
",,:r:~:o
Fuel
Ca.wl.il'k' Ileating oil
Price
$1.20, gallon $I iOlgallon
Price, s/MM Btu
~aH~ U~~~
9.00 1.95 22.00
Lowsulfur fuel oil
Electricity
C~I
"atural gllS
• ", indicates the unit "Thenn"' used
aft~n
S30.0ibbl 7.5 cenu:kWh I3S,Oiton 51.9 centsITh'
far gas. 1 Th _ 10' Rtu
4.'"
'OO
5.79
•
Table 14 shows the production for the twenty leading natural gas producers in the world. The foremost gas producers today are the USA and USSR, with a gas production of 52 Bscf/d (billion standard cubic feet per day) and 45 Bscfld, respectively. What Is Natura1 Cas? NaturaJ gas is simply a naturally occurring mixture of combustible hydrocarbon (HC) gases and impurities. Typical natural gas components are shown in Table 15. The nonhydrocarbon components of natural gas contain two types of materials: dilllerlts, such as N 2 , CO 2 , and water vapor, and COntaminants, such as H.aS and other sulfur compounds. Diluents are noncombustible gases that reduce the heating value of the gas. They are not "very harmful, and may actually be used sometimes as "fillers" to reduce the heat content. of the supply gas. The disadvantages include greater horsepower ~nd plpelining requirements for the same energy content of the gas, greater Internal corrosion, and freezing. Contaminants are very detrimental to production and transport equipment (some are hazardous pollutants),
<0 '" '" cg CIO CIO .... 0
~~.;;;~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~
I/) ...
CIO 0 0 0 ..,
•
GtU Product/on Engineering
Natural Go,t Orlgln and Development Table 1·5 Typical Constituents of Natural G•• (Modified after McCain, 1974)
Category
Paraffinic lie's
Component
Amount, 'MI
7
Methane (CIi,)
Ethane (C1He) Propane (CJ{.) Butane (C, H ,o) Pentane (4ti,u Hexa ne (CJ{,,) Heptane & higher (G, .. )
70·98'\ 1  1OC%. trace . 5~ trace· 2'"
trace 1% trace·0.5'70 11011(' • trace
".~ traces ".~
Cyclic He's
Cyclopropane (C,I~) Crclohexane (CJi u )
Benzene (Celie). others
Aromatic HC's
Non.h)·drocarbon
<>I "'t<O<')
~~~i'i:;
Nitrogen (Nt) Carbon dioxide (COl) H}'drogen sulfide ( H ~) Helium (lie) Other sulfur and nitrogen compounds Wilter (H,O)
trace· 15% trace· 1% trace occasionalhtrace _ 5'1'" trace occasionallr trace·5"',
and the primary reason for gas conditioning and processing is to remove them as soon as possible from the gas stream. Hundreds of processes and processing plants have been developed to deal with this problem. Some of the major contaminants in natural gas are (Curry, 1981): 1. Acid gases, chiefly HzS, and to some extent, CO 2 , 2. Water vapor in excess of about 5 7 Ibm /M.Mscf. 3. All entrained free water, or water in condensed form. 4. Any liquids in the gas, such as well inhibitors, lube oil, scrubber oil, methanol, and heavierend hydrocarbons. 5. AJI solid matter, sometimes called "pipeline trash," that may be present. This includes silica (sand), pipe scale, and dirt . Like all gases, natural gas is a homogeneous fluid of low density and viscosity. It is odorless; odorgenerating additives are added to it during processing to enable detection of gas leaks. Natural gas is one of the more stable flammable gases (Curry, 1981). It is flammable within the limits of a 515% mixture with air, and its ignition temperature ranges from 1,100 to 1,300"F (compare this with HzS, which is flammable within 446% in air at a much lower ignition temperature). Typically, natural gas has an energy content of 1,000 Btu/seC, which is an important parameter because gas these days is very often priced in terms of its energy content, rather than mass or volume.
•
00000
~~~~~
 .....
"":;~C'>
limestones). I " . Structural traps: (a) anticline. It is believed that hydrocarbons generally move upward from their place of formation to their accumwation sites.:en reservoir. The two most widely accepted theories are inorganic and organic. Typically.rOrigin and Dev~lopment 9 Origin of Natural Cas Many theories have been proposed for the origin of petroleum flu. and combination traps. There are man)' types. limestone. Because rivers playa major role in transporting terrestrial matter to the sea. the deepest sediments. river deltas are favorable places for gas to exist. shale. Common types of geologic features and structural traps. Thus. Some scientists believe that terrestrial (land) plants and animals predominantly produced natural gas and some waxy crudes. or gas in solution in the oil). 1985. and it is almost impossible to fully explain the origins of any gi'. 1980). The more widely accepted organic thoory states that the hydrocarbons were generated from organic matter (land and sea plants and animals) under the influence of pressure and temperature over geologic time. continually compacted by the weight of succeeding layers to fonn sedimentary rock.) serves of natural gas may be found at depths of 15. such as anticlines and domes. hydrogen and carbon reacted together under the immense pressure and temperature rar below the earth's surface and formed oil and gas. Some of these are shown in Figures 11 through 1·4.) • • Figure 1·2.000 ft and beyond (Barker and Kemp. Each well in the reservoir may produce gas with a different composition. Occurrence of Natural Cas in Conventional Reservoirs Cas is found in sedimentary subsurface strata composed of sandstone. fault traps. and some reservoirs may be completely gas reservoirs. These hydrocarbons then migrated through porous rocks to collect in various subsurface traps. it can be safely assumed that considerable re Figure . and may migrate from their place of formation (sourcerock) through suitable porous and permeable strata to suitable geologic traps where they accumulate.00030. a vertical sequence has been envisaged. or dolomite.ids. whereas the aquatic (sea) organisms produced normal crude oil. are overlain by marine sediments rich in aquatic matter. The type of organic matter and the temperature have an important bearing on the formation of oil or gas. shapes. displacing the sea water that originally filled the pore spaces of the sedimentary rock. An oil reservoir always has some amount of natural gas associated with it (either free gas. (b) normal fault. clean sandstones are more favorable than carbonates.se traps..1. windblown dust and sediment. deposited in the continental rift and rich in terrestrial organic matter. dome and plug traps. The amount of methane surviving is a function of the reservoir lithologycooler.000 ft that have currently not been explored. etc. (From McElroy. unconformities. with the gasgenerating material at the bottom and the oilgenerating material at the top. 1987. According to the inorganic theory. This upward movement is inhibited when the oil and gas reach an impervious rock that traps or seals the reservoir. Thus. None is perfect. (From Wheeler and Whited. formed by upfolding. Layers of mud and silt settled on these dead organisms by various prooessesrivers emptying huge amounts of mud and silt into the oceans. It has been found that methane can remain stable at depths of 40. Thus. Hydrocarbon deposits are entrapped in these sedimentary rocks (sandstones. production equipment may need to be changed from time to time to compensate for the altered composition of the gas. and sizes of geologic structure'> that form the reservoirs for the accumwation of oil and gas. These layers accumulated.8 CQ" Production Enginemng Natural Ga. len. and the composition of the gasstream from each individual well may change as the reservoir is depleted.
can be determined quite accurately (see Table 1·6). Dissolved or associated.. • I • I • I  " • 0..10 Gal Production Engineering Nawral GasOrigin (lnd Development II 2. Potrntiai reserves: These are the additional resources of gas believed to exist in the earth. and...eparator pressure.. Found in reservoirs with no or minimal amounts of crude oil. Common types of stratigraphic traps.. (b) sand pinchout. Figure 1·4. The most desirable gas is the nonassociated type. Proved res . nonassociated gas is typically richer in CH~. ' ..ed indlc.m.. therefore. .. Associated or dissolved gas is separated from the crude oil at lower o.) ."'ly Figure 15. associated gas is poorer in elL. because it can be produced at high pressure. R""".. .. but richer in heavier components.c" lSut.. a "guesstimate" that may vary widely from one investigator to another. the probable "'00«1 ~ I P.hly 01 ~. Cas in solution with crude oil is tenned dissolved gas.. Classification of mineral reserves and resources..grn. as follows: 1.. shown in Figure 15.'''n. McKelvey (1972) provides an e:tcellent guide. therefore. Gas condensates. of un.paration facilities and compression Figure '3. poorer in heavier components. but not actually found by the drill yet. Typically. (From Brown and Miller. ~rvoir modeling.\e ot en classified into two cate.. In this figure."bIt ~ me. therefore. It is. 1987).Md ""t<ttd . but ~mil&r.. cannot be known verr precisely. The estimates e~p' ft updated by ~r\'oir characteristics (productio transient analysis..b. Nonassociated. Gas condensates have high amounts of hydrocarbon liquids and may occur as gas in the re5en·oir. F.gas "The gories: '301~ r FrlJi~:l 1.. In addition to its composition and Btu content. Stratigraphic traps in various geologiC features: (a) "permeability pinchout".. (e) angular nonconformity.. whereas the gas found in contact with the crude oil as gas cap gas is termed associated gas.. I Is figure 1(lthe lantities found by the drill. as inferred from the prevailing geologic evidence. naturallY'QCCU~ing resour~pf. 2. courtesy of American Scientist. 1972.. 3.e. Gas condensates represent a greater amount of gas associated with the liquid than the associated or dissolved gas types. at best. other data) and.. Such gas is often flared or vented.) =. 1985. '" c For the estimation of mineral reserves and resources. (From McElroy. This figure. natural gas is frequently characterized in terms of its nature of occurrence underground. (Aller McKelvey.oIHbIt r Po. entails more compression expenses.
.rq .~ 137. on 1. Possible reserves are similar to probable reserves.70!.•• 1. . geopressured aquifers.~ 212 .• .~ ~ .500 Tscf undiscovered.Origin and Development 13 reserves indicate the amount of gas expected to be found in close proximity to.OOO 1301.ITO . . :an . contain such gas. :t:Z.".. 01' 7 ...103 . MHF has been quite successful... Thtal world reserves are 7. Undiscovered.000 ~ u_ UfI. Many geologic formations.300.200 Tscf proved.OOO ~. OUlcr Sources of Caseous Fuel Besides conventional sancbtone and limestone reservoirs._ '"IV.. or potentioi reserves are those that are expected to be found in areas that have not been. the fluids £low back into the well bore.001 to 1 md (millidarcy).n.~ ISH ~ ~~ ~. or associated with.~ . Nuclear blasts are dangerous and probablY not feasible at this time. When pumping stops.. .101 21M •• ' '07000 '. . Tight Shales y• . finely laminated. leaving the proppant behind to hold the fracture open. . 1. which is not possible to produce using conventional fracturing and completion methods ... 2.. and coal. Chemical explosives are also quite dangerous.12 Go.. but in more distant regions where the uncertainty is greater. Three major techniques have been proposed: nuclear explosives...10' H~..= . Shales.. '" . " Shales are generally rich in organic matter.otT .. According to Crow (1980).115 . with porosities in the range of 515 % .. sources of natural gas include: tight sands. the 1978 estimated US reserves (conventional reservoirs/conventional methods) are approximately 1. predominantly composed of quartz.~ 1. 110. Key areas where substantial potential exists for increasing production in the next decade are the OPEC group countries and the USSR. and is presently the subject of much research.'" .019 Tscf (trillion standard cubic feet). ~ ~ •. known producing fields in known areas with similar 'N.. and effective only in areas where natural fractures: exist (which is not the case for most tight sands).m ~ .~ . irreducible water saturation of 5070%. An MHF treatment typically requires the injection of a fracturing fluid (water) at high pressures for many hours to induce a fracture... or amy partially. n '7. spec· ulative. ..~ ..000 . tight shales. ._ M. 101 ~. especially in the Rocky Mountain area of the USA.= . followed by a fluid containing the propping agents (glass beads or sand)..32_ :101 3.)u.000 . and massive hydrauHc fracturing (MHF). chemical explosives. 1.. There is a need to develop special artificial fracturing techniques to produce gas economically from tight sands.515 . explored and tested. Tight Sands Large amounts of gas are locked within very tight formations.un u ... with a permeability of the order of 1 md.~ ~ ~ ~ .. and ultralow permeabilities in the range of 0.~ geological conditions. Produ('tlon Engineering Table 16 estimated Proved World Reserves of Natural Glill o (Billions of cubic feet) Natural CQ.. 370. Current world production is 70 Tscfiyear..~ .f. ~ ..
the total system consists of the following calculation modules: 1. 3.. p~oduction is controlled by natural fractures.. "'. . however.. Gas gathering system module. The production profile exhibits a long.. Gas conditioning module for the removal of contaminants from the g"'... VEIl TICAL IIHCUI<[O . 4. The De\onian .. .. An estimated 2..". sueh geopressured aquifers are located predominantly in a band that extends onshore and offshore from Texas to Florida along the Culf of Mexico.. Howe\'er. The gas derived from coal usually has a lower heating value than natural gas. From a design viewpoint.. ...... Another source of gas generation is coal gasification... . wAut . 6. The commercial viability of coal gasification is not favorable yet.. and their compositions. In these shales.000 ft has been estimated to be 260 Tscf in the US.14 Gal Production Engineering Nall/ral GasOrigin and Development 15 with some kaolinite.. Flow module for the flow of fluids from the ~rvoir to the wellhead at the surface. ~. ST~_£I)GAS TO ptT~OOW:"'" tOlOOlllONftG If. which can form due to rapid subsidence. This module calculates the flow of gas through the pipeline network at the surface that is used to collect gas from several wells for separation and processing. ~ . 9. _1 ! SU\. rUM TI'IROUGI1 PlPU \'. ... OMES SUR raCE Methane gas occluded in coal in minable coal beds with depths less than 3.... as high as 1. In the USA. Metering devices for measuring the amount of gas and oil from the separators.hales in eastern Kentuch and western West Virginia are well known gas producers. Separation module for calculating the amounts of gas.T14[RI'«lSUT[III _ . t0f01lOII1I'IG _UIOIE TII""SPOIIT tONSUIO(RS ToViME_ I lRlitlt . 8. pyrite. ~IOII[fAcr(l" fEIIliU$UI M~" ILliG 1 a~" "_. The ~r\'oir module that deals with the flow of gas (and oil) through subsurface strata.·ater.f1/t.."CIt.'5 REU:"" \ Figure 16. no commercial means of recovering this gas ha\'e been de\'cloped to date.250 Btu sci \1HF techniques are useful for tight shales also... Natural gas liquids recovery module..I'\IR. . may only produce less than 40 Tscf due to practical constraints.. and road transport.1 fLtaO _ c. These tight shales are an attracth"c source of gas and may contribute very significantly to gas production in the coming years..~ _'"' UQUlOS TO RECQYEfll . Gas compression/liquefaction for economic transport by tankers. This significant resource base. may contain up to 40 sef of natural gas per barrel of \.llllOl ..IU. oil and water generated by the wellstream. Natural Cas Pnxluction and Processing System Figure 16 outlines a typical gas production and processing system.. railroad. The gas has a high Btu "alue. 2. slow decline.. Co. Flow module for the pipeline transport of gas to consumption sites.1 ''' Highpressure brine in geopressured aquifers. constitute about 5% of all sedimentary rocks in the USA... ". Ccopressured Aquifers u. feldspar.. U C.LWAlEfIOU S(P. 7.. ...700 Tscf of gas reserves (unproven at this time) are associated with this region... 5. ! "'''"'c" ~. A typical gas production and processing system. and other minerals.. l "..'"91 PfIOtUS IfOCUSTItY 1 ~ a.
1974. & Expl.. • References American Petroleum Institute. C .. Tulsa. M. Chapter 11 describes i!:as gathering and transmission systems and the ~mputational techniques for handling the complete production system. V. 3240." American Scientist. N. Tulsa. What impurities can one expect to find in natural gas produced from a gas field? 4. Gulf Publishing Company. in Mid·Cont. How are gas reserves estimated? 7 Besides conventional reservoirs. R. lnst. Layman's Guide to Oil & Gas Investments & Royalty Income.Feb. Co.. 118 pp. and Kemp. M. Vol. Culf Publishing Company. W. Oklahoma.16 GO! Prcxlul'tjqn Engilleerlng Natural CasOrigin and Development 17 This book has been desib'lled to provide information on the design. IV. 1980. Basic Petroleum Data Book: Petroleum Industry Statistics. 1985." presented at the Conf. Tulsa.2 (May). Chapters 9 and 10 provide information on related topics. C. Univ. Culf Publishing Company. R. 2nd Edition. etc.. Meeting. 1985.. Barker. March 1112. what types of gas reserves hold promise for the Cuture? Why? Publ. then when and why? 5. jr. Fundamentals oj Petroleum Maps. McElroy. "Generation of Natural Cas and its Sur· vival in the Deep Subsurface." presented at the Am. Flow calculations are covered in Chapters i and 8. "M ineral Resource Estimates and Public Policy. gas compression and gas metering. respectively. (a) List some factors that may enhance the appeal of natural gas as a domestic and industrial fuel. Wheeler. Philadelphia. Fundamentals oj Natural Cas Conditioning.. P. OilFrom Prospect to Pipeline. (b) What are some of the factors that may reduce the appeal of natural gas as a domestic and industrial fuel? 2. K. voir module. 1972. . 1980.. Texas. Co . Texas. "Future Potential Cas Supply in the United StatesCurrent Estimates and Methods of the Potential Cas Committee. API. E. McKelvey. 60. PennWeli Pub!. dissolved. PennWell 9. Houston . Curr\'. on Natural Gas Res.) is being produced? What is the minimum information required to draw such a conclusion? 6.. and Whited. namely. of Chern. Why is natural gas termed a ··stable" flammable gas? 3. R. E. and Miller.. operation. and engineering calculations for all of these modules. eas? Can such flares be hazardous to the environment? If yes. S. Basins: Prodn. Brown. 1981. Washington.. Houston. of Tulsa. 1984. except the reser. Why are gas flares a common sight in many petroleum producing ar. June ~lcCain. 342. pp. Chapters 4 through 6 describe separation and processing for natural gas.. (}e\'. 1987. Houston . C. FinsHv.C. Techniques. D. PA. Crow.. Oklahoma. T. Oklahoma. D. 'M Questions and Problems 1. As a petroleum engineer you are taken to tour a gasproducing field. Can you tell what type of gas (associated. Jan. Texas. 5th Edition. Chapters 2 and 3 pro"ide the basic gas properties that are an essential input in all computations. O. The Properties oj Petroleum Fluids. Engrs. No.
So. for i = 1. or gaseous phase. p. and BO indicate the combinations of pressure and temperature at which the adjacent phases shown on the dia o I . Usually. the pressure p and temperature T are unknown. Generally. Vapar B Tripi.PhQM! Behavior Fundamentals 19 where N . The equilibrium lines. T diagrams only are used for a single component system. Solid b£ ____ Liquid i _' ___h!vapar : Suptrll.~.number of equations .CP + C .C(p .I"p.1) or.(C . and T. Substances can be cla~ified into two typespure or single component. Then.J.. since knowing the mole fractions of (C . the mixture composition becomes an additional variable. These relationships are frequently shown graphically as "phase diagrams" to enhance qualitative understanding.l)P + 2 . precise quantitative phase behavior data are crucial. we have (P .. liquid. keeping pressure and temperature fixed. whether it is in the solid.. For multicomponent systems....T phase diagram for a singlecomponent system. Usually.J.P + 2 • Qualitative Hydrocarbon Phase Behavior A phase diagram for a single component system has three axes: p. the number of degrees of freedom are: N "" number of unknowns . Pressuretemperature diagram lor a single component NCP+2 18 Tlmp. and composition serve as the variables.2. (b) compositioncomposition diagrams. C .li2" . BC. the chemical p0tentials (see pages xxxx for thermodynamic criteria for equilibrium) for each component are equal in each phase: Pn . or using theoretical/empirical methods such as the equations of state. howc\:er. and mwticomponent. . keeping temperature fixed. holding the composition fixed. and (c) pressurecomposition diagrams. or a total of C(P . Thus.l)P + 2..1) equations for every component. Consider a mixture consisting of C components distributed in P phases.I)P unknowns. namely. number of degrees of freedom of the system C _ number of distinct chemical components (or compounds) in the system P _ number of phases in the system 2 Phase Behavior Fundamentals The number of degrees of freedom of a system is the number of variables that must be defined to fix the physical state of the system.alld .1) components in any phase P fixes the mole fraction of the last component (the sum of the mole fractions equals unity). The phase rule can easily be verified. Also. ·· __ ·U : I C I I Critical pall'll ta Camru~ liqu d . at equilibrium. . which represent (C . pOll'll A Figure 21. temperature. AB. For design purposes. the total number of unknowns are (C . In this chapter. The Phase Rule Cibbs' phase rule for the degrees of freedom of a system is written as: SingleComponent Systems Figure 21 shows a typical p. C Introduction The properties exhibited by any substance depend upon its phase. Y. Phase behavior relationships can be determined from laboratory pVT (pressure.CP .ralure  system.. temperature) studies. some fundamental concepts in phase equilibrium are introduced. volume.1) equation. three types of phase diagrams are used for mixtures: (a) pressure versus temperature (p. . The unknowns are the mole fractions of each component in each phase. pressure.P + 2 . N . Thus.T) diagrams.
At the triple point. By going further from f to a point g beyond the critical temperature at constant pressure. At the critical point. and is more compressible than a regular liquid.. it is called superheated.. the system is in a "fourth" phase that exhibits properties different from gas. on n. but an energy equal to the latent heat of fusion is required to convert the solid phase to liquid. B. To better understand vaporliquid phase behavior. From a to b the system is completely solid. specifyin)i!. the triple point is a unique point that defines the whole sy. Multicomponent Systems p. reprt:M:nt only two phases in equilibrium and the degrees of freedom N . it is impossible to define the state of the system. . The temperature Increase from c to d requires energy proportional to the specific heat of the liquid phase.T phase diagrams for a reservoir fluid.. liquid will at some point begin to disappear into a seemingly gaseous phase.20 GO! Production Engineering Ph4&e &haclQr Fundamentals 21 gram exist in equilibrium. particularly at pressure and temperature conditions above the critical point. Thus. pressure and temperature remain constant. In the single phase regions. and is best referred to as being in the fluid state. and are a uniquely defined numerical \'alue for every pure substance. for example at h. to . all three phases exist in equilibrium. N . and it is possible to pass from one state to the other without an abrupt change of phase. in the region above Consider a constant pressure (isobaric) process represented by the line alx:deh of Figure 21. 40 60 110 Figure 22 • . IT one proceeds from d by a compression process at constant temperature to f.3 + 2 . The pressure and temperature corresponding to the critical point are termed critical pressure. though not corre1atable to either. C. At higher temperatures. The equilibrium lines. The properties of this fluid are in between those of gas and liquid. and the energy requirements for achieving the increase in temperature are simply proportional to the specific heat of the solid phase. consider the region near the critical point in greater detail. For conditions far removed from the twophase region. Critical pressure: The pressure at which gas exists in equilibrium with liquid phase at the critical temperature. B. a phase transition from the liquid state at d to a vapor state at e can be achieved without any abrupt change of phase. '" o . the degrees of freedom.. Applying the phase rule. either the pressure or the temperature fixes the other variables for the system. This shows that liquid and vapor phases are in reality quite similar: They represent separate forms of the same condition of matter.1. without ever going through the liquid phase.I. From b to c. Pressure. At e.rtem. At d the liquid is a saturated liquidany further addition of energy will cause vaporization at constant pressure and temperature. it can be seen that for a singlecomponent system with three phases. Above the critical point at f.2. liquid and gaseous phases become indistinguishable and their intensive properties (that is. respectively. Line AD represents the equilibrium between solid and vapor. and critical temperature. back to e. An example of this is "dry ice:' Line DO indicates the solid liquid equilibrium. Therefore. 2.temperature diagram lor a multicomponent reservoir fluid. the terms liquid and vapor have a definite meaning only in the two phase region.oduction of pressure to below line AB. it is denser than regular gas. N . More formal definitions are as follows: 1. and ends at the critical point. The liquid\'apor equilibrium line (BC) begins at the triple point.. Energy equal to the latent heat of vaporization is required to accomplish the change of phase from d to e. from g to h at constant temperature.O. The energy spent for going from saturated vapor state at e to a superheated state at h requires an amount of energy proportional to the specific heat of the vapor. Pc. For example. The system has three regions: (a) single phase oil. viscosity) become identical. The energy supplied is converted into internal energy.. and finally.. Also defined as the saturation pressure corresponding to the critical temperature. T e . Line BC is the equilibrium between liquid and vapor phases. Hence. S!o. properties independent of the amount of fluid: for example: density. Figure 22b. A solid above this line will sublime direct1y to the vapor phase. Critical temperature: The temperature above which a substance cannot be liquefied by the application of pressure alone. the vapor is termed saturated. T Diagrams JOT a Fixed Compollition • Figures 22a and 22b show typical p. Phase diagram showing two retrograde regions.I . howe\'er. and both pressure and temperature must be known to determine the location (or state) of the system in the phase diagram.
th the critical point. Mixtures with more than two components have more than one critical locus.H 16)_ It can be seen that with a shift in the mixture cOmposition from 100% ethane to 100 % nheptane. and the shifts in the phase envelopes as a function of composition must be studied carefully. ou Figure 23. the phase envelope shifts towards the right. The BP and OP cur\'es intersect and terminate at the critical point.) • envelope are composition dependent. C. the cricondenbar at A. the phase equilibrium relationships change with time for a typical ~rvoir system. however. and the problem becom~ quite complex. This is indicated as point B in Figure 2Za. is neither practically feasible nor usually necessary. It is evident that the retrograde region results from the shape of the phase envelope and the quality lines. Figure 23 shows a p. more and more liquid is condensed (refer to the quality lines). which is the portion bounded by the SP and OP curves. a liquid phase vaporizes to gas. since none of the correlations are very exact. . and the cricondentherm at B. The only reliable method at this point is laboratory measurement. Therefore. N . The heavier components in the reservoir f1wd will begin to vaporize. compositions also change due to the selective removal of components in the mobile phase. the cricondentherm is defined as the maximum temperature at which liquid and vapor can exist in equilibrium. On further reduction in pressure. and (c) the two phase region. Whenever the reservoir fluid is in the twophase region. pressure decreases over time. Similarly. • courtesy of SPE of AIME.r Production £nginunng Ph4se Behavior Frmdamentou 23 the bubble point (SP) curve. exhibits quite an interesting behavior.C . a twophase region will eventually be encountered at pressures below the bubblepoint curve. in the region towards the right of the dew point (OP) curve. Ternary diagrams are used as an approximate method for representing the phase behavior of multicomponent mixtures. Usually. This shows that the shape and location of the phase CompoationComposition Diagrams (Fiud p. Along \\<.P + 2 degrees of freedom must be specified for completely defining the phase behavior of a mixture with C components distributed in P phases. Point A represents the maximum pressure at which liquid and vapor may exist in equilibrium. T Dtagmnu for \'tlrialJle Composition The case discussed earlier concerned studring the phase diagram at a given fluid composition. If we started off with an oil reservoir for example. C. p.~ . 1978. Pressuretemperature diagram for the ethanelnheptane system. For naturally occurring hydrocarbon mixtures.~ "•• '. two retrograde regions will occur as shown in Figure 22b. on lowering the pressure. until point c is reached. Simple mixing rules have been devised (to be discussed later) to represent this shift in terms of 'pseudocritical" properties for correlation purposes. 1984). the gas at a hegins to generate liquid at b (see Figure 22a). (Alter Stalkup.22 Ga. The inflection points of the quality lines govern the retrograde area. leading to altered reservoir fluid compositions. Such a rigorous description.liquid begins to vaporize until the 100% gas quality line (or the dewpoint curve) is reached at d. Outside the retrograde region fTOm c to d. (b) single phase gas. This pressure is known as the cricondenbar. which is bounded by the critical point. If the critical point is to the right of the cricondenbar. The critical point for a mixture is thus a function of its composition.0000 . But in this region. T) According to the Gibbs phase rule. These diagrams represent the phase behavior of a ternary (threecomponent) mixture exactly. The dashed line drawn tangent to all the phase envelopes at their critical points is called the critical locus. When fluid is produced from a reservoir. 1983. these serve as valuable tools for reconThe region retrograde region . mixtures with more components are approximated by three pseudocomponents. For hydrocar .T diagram for a binary mixture of ethane (C 2 l4) and normalheptane (nC. on lowering the pressure. the critical point has always been found to occur to the left of the cricondenbar (Campbell.
. whereas the side opposite to this corner represents 0 % of that component. would result in a gas phase of composition y in equilibrium with a liquid phase of composition x.. whereas singlephase liquid occurs below the bubblepoint curve. This can be mathematically expressed. Plllil poinl : • 0: JOO% . ethane through hexane (C 2. along the applicable tiehne. since we need to know additional parameters such as the vaporliquid ratio. Such transfers involve a decrease in the total free energy of the s)'Stem. The tielines disappear at the critical point. Thus. In processing and other postproduction operations. Thermodynamic Criteria for Equilibrium Phase equilibrium is reached when there is no net transfer of material from one phase to another. which represents all hydrocarbon fractions with molecular weight greater than hexane. A typical ternary phase diagram for a reservoIr fluid. where the liquid and gas phases become identical. Lever's rule can be applied to determine the relative amounts of gas and l~qu~d in ~uilibrium. ConCenlrOl1Ol\ of CI' " J f .Ga6 Production Engineering Phose Behavior Fundammtou 25 Figure 2·4. when equilibrium is attained. it is important to know the phases present in order to design the system.s by . and 15% C7 +. also called the plait point. but their applicability is limited since they do not offer information of a general nature. Figure 25. at a given p and T as: . will be at its minimum value. Pressurs<:omposition diagram lor a reservoir fluid. under equilibrium conditions. The twophase region is more difficult. also called Gibbs free energy. Each corner of the triangle represents 100% of the component indicated. Figure 24 shows a typical ternary phase diagram for a reservoir fluid. Pml8UrtCompoeition Diagrarm (Fixed T) adding the desired injection fluid to the oil in a highpressure visual cell. For example. Clearly. The appropriate (bubblepoint or dewpoint) saturation pressures are measured as a function of the injection fluid mole fraction in the total mixture that ~ults from the mixing of the injection fluid with the reservoir oil. The dashed line connecting these equilibrium gas and liquid compositions. the total free energy. is called a tieline. the twophase region collapses to smaller sizes. respectively. o 100 C. Ax/Ay.  bon systems. there can be an infinite number of such tielines. G. occurring on the dewpoint and bubblepoint curves. Pressurecom~ition diagrams also serve as a useful method for displaymg phase behaVior data. from the bubblepoint and dewpoint curves. Such diagrams are easier to obtain than the ternary diagrams. The singlephase regions are relatively easier to define. singlephase gas occurs above the dewpoint curve. The size of the twophase region depends upon the pressure and temperature. as a function of pressure and temperature. Such a mixture. the three pseudocomponents generally used are methane (C. Figure 25 sbows a pressurecomposition diagram for a reservoir oil as a function of the mole % methane in the mixture. lying in the twophase region. and the compositions of both the phases. the point A in Figure 24 represents a mixture containing 67% Cit 18.. and C. the mixture at A would split into a gasl~qUld ratio equal to the ratio of the distance of A. which require obtaining equilibrium samples and compositions.).4). Thus. With increasing pressure. • Quantitative Phase Behavior and VaporLiquid Equilibrium In most petroleum production operations. it is desirable to control these phases by controlling the operating conditions. These diagrams are obtained for reservoir oi1. Outside the phase envelope. or condensing or vaporizing selected components. that is.5% CtCts. The distance in between a corner and the opposite side is divided into equal parts to rep~nt fractions between 100% and 0% of the component. whereas with increasing temperature it expands in size.
and S is the system entropy. pv . be defined as a quantity whose numeric value is equal to the pressure when the substance is in the state of an ideal gas. any substance in any phasesolid. For a s'ingiecom{X)nent ideal gas. the chemical potential for any component i. Lewis defined a special function called fugacity. It can be seen also in the equations of state. therefore. There is still a continuous exchange or transfer of material between the phases. which reduce to the ideal gas form. For a perfect gas mixture. The ratio between two isothermal states as previously defined suffices for application purposes. .RT: see Chapter 3 for further detail). For an ideal gas (pv . is given by: Po. liquid. this becomes: Note that "no net transFer" does not imply that the system is static. it can be seen that the condition for equilibrium can. vdp (27) where n j represents the moles of any component i. is simply the ratio of its mole fractions in the vapor (Yi) and liquid (x./pt) + RT In (fj/ft) + RT In (£j/£O) . or gascan be brought into an ideal gas state by sufficient pressure reduction at constant temperature. A system is in equilibrium when the fugacities of a given component are equal in all the phases. Chemical potentials are intensh'e properties and depend upon the composition of the mixture. T. and the superscript· refers to any arbitrary standard state. at the limit when p = 0 or v .. commonly known as the vaporliquid equilibrium ratio or the equilibrium vaporization ratio. alternatively. From a purely theoretical standpoint. V is the system volume.Po· + RT In (pIp·) (23) Fugacity can.RT d In p (25) To preserve this simple mathematical form of this equation for other cases where the system is not an ideal gas.RT In Yj (28) (24) Using these relationships. keeping p. An equivalent idea is expressed using the condition that dE "" O. But the rate of transfer of each component from one phase to another is just balanced by the same transfer /XCurring in the opposite direction from the latter to the former phase.. The Equilibrium Ratio The vaporliquid distribution coefficient. . there is no IIet transfer of any molecular species from one phase to another. to express these ideas. p. for any substance is given by dC . Equation 22 can be manipulated to yield the result that the necessary condition for equilibrium is that the chemical potentials of a given component are equal in all the phases. and is proportional to pressure for an ideal gas. It is not possible to ascribe absolute numeric values to quantities such as free energy and chemical potential. be stated in terms of fugacity. It can be easily seen on comparing Equations 25 and 26 that fugacity has the units of pressure. where E is the total energy content of the system.) phases at equilibrium conditions: (29) where Yj is the mole fraction of component i in the mixture.. RT. 00.26 de 0 (21) Phase Behavior Fundamentah 27 The change in free energy. Thus. except those of p and T Gibbs defined chemical potential. Fugacity for a component i in a mixture can now be defined in terms of the chemical potential as follows: /Ll . as follows: de" RT d In f Integrating Equation 26. Note that the derh'ative in Equation 21 is "'ith respect to all possible variations. we can obtain: C  (26) co  RT In(fW)  r. the chemical potential can be considered as a kind of driving force for mass transfer between phases. The chemical potential of any component i in a phase is the rate at which the total free eneTgy of that phase changes as one changes the amount of the component i. dC..v dp. the chemical potential is given by: It . Kit for a component i. and no net change in composition occurs in any of the phases.Pot ~ Po" • where R is the gas constant. but not on the total mass. Thus. and amounts of all other components of the phase constant: (22) de . Fugacity thus serves a very valuable purpose in equilibria studies.1'1" + RT In (p. f.
At the operating conditions of the separator. T~ . Approach . Water is assumed immiscible in the liquid oil (oleic) phase. .1 In Z .(YiP)/(x.). the partial pressure of component i in the \"apor phase (.___ . it splits into L moles of liquid of composition {XI}.~ure of component i at the equilibrium pressure and temperature conditions. coexisting under equilibrium conditions. . . we generally have a twophase oilgas phase breakup. is the moles of component i in the total mixture.11 ) F?r a gas phase.28 Ca. is that the gas obeys ideal gas laws and behaves as an ideal mixture.pprotu:h Flasb Calculations Nonideal behavior can be accounted for by using the fugacity coefficients. Consider F moles of a hydrocarbon mixture of composition {Zj} enters a separation unit. Fugacity coefficients are commonly written as: In v In f/p  I: [(v/RT) . f[ at equilibrium • Fugacity !.p.: with Iim. .d fugacity coefficient.'IX. This can be verified. respectively.is ~pproach is very useful as a practical methoo for determining the eqUlhbrium constants. but has limited applicability.In Z + Kvalues can be expressed in terms of partial pressures of the components.(lIp)]dp FL+V and (212) . Production Engineering Pruue Behavior Fundamentau 29 Equilibrium ratio values can therefore be determined by laboratory equilibrium flash experiments by analyzing the mole fractions of the different components in the vapor and liquid phases. In oil and gas systems. "" 1 These calculations involve solving simple material balance equations for multiphase systems in order to establish the phase compositions as well as amounts upon equilibrium separation. K can be expressed in terms of fugacity coefficients as follows: K• = ". by expanding the righthand side term of Equation 214: "'r . where n.h. the partial pressure. by the law of conservation of mass: pu (2. up to about 400 psi.KI rr . and V moles of vapor of composition {YI}' Then.p. p. . Pi = YiP.PYJ) must be equal to the vapor pressure exerted by its presence in the liquid phase (.. f" to its partial pressure..1'/"'\' • (214) So. "'" for a component i is defined as the ratio of its fugacity. and liquid phase partial pressures are expressed as I~ _ x.p) since . at equilibrium: I ~ [(1 v) .__________________________________. no j" . T.LXI + VYI for each component i ~~>r. The assumption.an. and miscible only in the gaseous phase where its presence can be quantified by Dalton's law of partial pressures./p (210) where and are the fugacity coefficients of component i in the liquid and vapor phases.}'i/x. Thus. The fugacity (or activity) coefficient. The PartitJ PrnlUlT for a pure component. . . of course. .(RT/v)]dv Fz."'. and In '+'1"" In f.(1 RT)(ap .(lIRT) L [p . Therefore.Z . such a concept is only applicable at low pressures.rr where pvl is the vapor pres. To enable definition of a liq~. At equilibrium. an equivalent hypothetical partial pressure concept IS used. .P. /px. K.)]dv (213) for a component i in a mixture..
) I and 10 Thus. any error in the calculation of V will be far more detrimental (2.1:J ."rvol. for predominantly gas systems.1: [~I(Ll KV + I)J .. e.pectively. .L " " 1:J x. but with different initial conditions denoted by 1. Consider four different reservoirs. and then obtain L by difference. use a very low error tolerance). and both pressure and temperature decline to the wellhead producing conditions. . or internal gas drive reservoir. ~Ived gas drive. z.. F . L. T phase diagram for a naturally occurring hydrocarbon fluid of a known composition. since L + VI (Equation 215a).I II R. depletion drive. is called an undersaturated oil reservoir.30 Cal Production Engineering Phase Behavwr Fundamentals 31 Changin~ to a unit mole basis. Temp"Olure  From the standpoint of obtaining an accurate solution. . The curved lines represent the pressure and temperature chang~ imposed upon the reservoir fluid as it flows upward through the well bore. . we get VX.1: [~I(KVIL + I)J 1I_I Equations 2·16 and 217 require a trial and error type of solution scheme. and one has the choice of using either one. . knowing either L or V is sufficient.. For such a system.Vx. can be calculated as follows: V " " V 1: y. + Vr. A typical pressuretemperature phase diagram for a reservoir fluid. solution gas dri . 21t 3. with this same fluid. re. The vertical lines represent the pressure decline in the reservoir at constant temperature. (2·16) U liquid. The subscripts sand r denote surface and reservoir conditions. these equations. is desired. Similarly. .15a) z. occurring above the bubblepoint curve. it can be calculated as follows: L. . V.. Cas is Condensole The following additional relationships must also be satisfied: " " 1: x.. it will therefore be necessary to solve for V using Equation 216 using very rigorous com'ergence criteria (that is.J(LIV + K) and (2· 15b) to accuracy as compared to an error in the calcuJation of L. and 4. Equation 217 would provide better accuracy. It is also called a black oil reservoir. Applications Reservoir Behavior Figure 26 shows a p. It is eas)' to envision that for a stream F for which V is very small. Both these equ~tions are equivalent.. V + K) Thus.I. the amount of vapor. Figure 26.(L. are different. for simplicity: L+Vand howe\'er. Reservoir 1.Lx.
eq uipment must never opera ature or composition can cause IS.\. is in the twophase region). So. Imp Iying a dissolved gas drive resen·oir. and the reservoir flUid Composition changes.1. d so expect it over become econom icalJy attractive to 0 . This revaporization aids liquid recovery and. OCCurring in the retrograde region. and gasoil the of the p«>. a reservoir is claSSified as a gas reservoir if the GOR> 100. On pressure reduction. 'b ' m or be able to generate mLSC1. lower reservoir temperature.eall. the reservoir (point 4.()()() scf /51 b are I.. ce the phase relationsh. is an oil reservoir with an initiaJ gas cap.( ''Ompon~J' d~:OO (m :io~u07 oompositio~ ~e:s~'~~. horls depends upon the ability of the InJ . is in the singlephase gas region.ps ace a unc uipment that is op"mum fluid. OCCurring in the singlephase gas region. COR increases..aCI hase gas and oi I Wit a I.. The relationship between the critical temperature. proportionately large changes as cum~ate :~ensrr:~~:::'t::="po. h as reservOir reserve estimates.vo" . flUid oomposition oonstant. . where highly deta'~dede :::g::f conltions. .~: u~d". ts it is highl) desirable not to ose the most valuable . ~~~. is a true gas reservoir.uid as possible fcom the p. fluid The injection ships must these met . andhto optimization of h d arbons For tees 'I'b . goe:. fluid must be tailored to reqUiremen I . The ""gn 'rod ced' gas 0. in the piping :.~nal d~~~". the reservoir temperature must be in between the Critical temperature and the cricondentherm.T phase envelope shifts to the right. The perfbe0rm~n~l~f ' be known over a WI . ratio. the producing COR (at the surface) increases. Reservoir 3. of the instability caused by and are genmll. parameters m ). we can nevee . the liquid begins to revaporize into the gaseous phase. but no gas is formed in the reservoir untiJ the pressure reaches the bubbJepoint pressure. . It is generally known as a wet gas reservoir if 4 is inside the moophase J region.0< tMP h d a bons ature of the fluid bemg p uf 't Since the inte.cn IC urate hase equilibrium re atJontechniques.000 to 100. The free gas liberated eventually begins to (Jow toward the well bore in increasing quantities up."ure • ph~.oduced d~gn~e::~ . T R.000. The onlf'h f. Reservoir systems in single phase that exhibit a g". howeve" changes as retrograde condensation OCCUrs: the p. liquid begins to condense at and beyond the dewpoint Curve. is a gas condensate reservoir.. and consequentJy.~itu ReserVOir 2.lI~:r to cha~e the installation at some POlOt ed the life 0 t e Ie .'.. ReserVOir 4. Reservoir engineering calculahons.~~~a~. behavio. 'bTty with the . ReserVOir Engmccnng and Enhanced Oil Recovery . ReserVoir systems in Single phase with a surface COR::> 10. be n""""".:. higher API gravity oils release greater amounts of gas since they contain larger amounts of lighter components. The intermediates that condense out of the gas are verr valuable and their loss is a serious affair.. 'ected fluid to mLSCI . Or as a dry gas reservoir if 4. as pressure is reduced further. T . Typically. and the reservoir t temperature. and higher abandonment pressure.. oond. and as a gas condensate reservoir if the GOR is between 5.. and simulations uSin~.'' I . su~ rs require reliable phase behavpredictions.nt s)~te~s. ts dictated solely by phase eqUlh nu . 'cs changes occurring as a befunc"on t~ ne'" the phase envelope boun a~. where may ~:m Hydrocar f 'I'res depends upon the nd surface . a low T • Expect retrograde cont densation for such reservoirs. "an oil """"'oi.:. assuming that the '''''"voi.000 scflSib. With declining pressure. a Critical saturation has to be bUilt up before it can flo\.""ure and tempeca'ure. . This retrograde 'ross" is greater for a greater shift of the p_ T phase envelope to the right. Nowhere is it more ..e::t ph"'. I n. The prodUCing COR for a reservoir is an exOOlent indication of the reservoir tYPe. . COR and the presence 0 \\a cr. .temperature changesI10 " ted does not condense liquids upon ahnhCd'PI"ang s)'stems. fluid oomposition. in the lines.32 Ga. may lead to a decline in the producing GOR at the su. ressure temper where small changes 10 p i~ vaporliquid. In this reservoir type. Below the bubble point. Since it clings to the pore spaces in the resenoir. 'h d' of the producing weII a . The """"'oi.ooalmih~~ i~ miscible enhanced 7~"'y ior data.000 scf/stb are likely to have a high C. with reduction in pressure."~n G Processing and Transport regardJ~ .:: P'''''. 10 enable suc~ c~dslcu ad ·ng an an be k LlqUl aecune fo. it for the "avmge" all conditions.mediate y coc . Cenerally. COR< 2 .) is aJwars in the singlephase gas region.e~ften ~ to the gas. of the pressure.toward the weJlbore. nds from the gas so that the g:" It may. increasing retrograde liqUid condensation into gas. occurring in the twophase region.face.rat. Production Engineering PhDse Behodor FllIIdamerltals 33 produced at thesur[ace conditions (1..'e heaVIer e pressure. For retrograde condensation to OCCur. .. I I . if the GOR < 5. determines whether retrograde condensation OCCUrs or not.)' to remo. the COmposition of the reservoir flUid starts changing. The producing gasoil ratio (COR) therefore .. the reservoir fluid maintains a constant composition since there is no change of phase in the reservoir. undes"a e f p. bon Production and Separation in. fraction.000 scf/stb.'kel)' to have T t > T R. Thus. How_ ever.
< 0.'aporliquid equilibrium calculations for bubblepoint and dewpoint curves to generate reasonable phase equilibrium curves.. To accurately predict the phase envelope for a muiticomponent hydrocarbon system such as oil or gas is almost impossible. pure component critical temperatures.O. or obtained from laboratory measurements. ""' (T~Tb • .925 For estimating cricondcnbar temperatures. Cricondcntherm and CriCQndenbar Grieves and Thodos ( 1963) presented the following equations for the prediction of cricondentherm temperatures: (218) Critical Point Many different studies have focused on the problem of characterizing hydrocarbons for predictions of their physical properties. O R aT!: y 8 .·e been included.0 (highly aromatic) to 13. it becomes \'ery necessary to use correlations and predictive methods in many instances where such studies cannot be readily performed.925 where If 51 units are used. 1980: Whitson. the righthand side of Equation 26 should be multiplied by 1. However.008 for 0 < x. only a portion of the phase curves rna)" be required.81. Most of these can be expressed using the (ollowing generalized equation: 8 T t .molar a.. Sometimes.cricondentherm temperature of the mixture. O R T b = nonnal (atmospheric) boiling point o( the mixture. Values for T b can be calculated using a mixing rule. and cricondenbar can then be used in conjunction with . and T p values. and operational problems. Grieves and Thodos (1963) suggest the following equations: T piT: . One proceeds by taking two successive components. as follows: (222) and Tt/T.7 (220) and Tp/T. Thus. They defined the Watson characterization factor. K.3' Gas Producti()n Enginnring Phose Behavior FrmdafflCfllais 35 Prediction of the Phase Envelope Tt: .l. The mixture composition.0 (highly paraffinic).116 (221) for 0.. Estimates of the critical point. Watson and Nelson (1933) and Watson et al.cricondenbar temperature of the mixture. 1935: Smith and Watson. Experimental means must be used. K defines the relative paraffinicity of a hydrocarbon fraction. 1963: Riazi and Daubert. and normal boiling points are require(l.256 (219) for 0.. the cricondentherm.1. physical property correlations based upon the boiling point and specific gravity ha'·e been used for a long time.55 < XI < 0. since imprecise results can be quite dangerous to use in the innumerable planning. calculating their T.specific gravity at 14.ht 362) + 1. Several useful relationships have been found using the Watson characterization factor ((or example. and have proven to be very reliable. an accurate compositional analysis of the reservoir fluid is essential. O R = pseudocritieai. pseudocricondenbar. whichever applicable. (1935) characterized the chemical makeup of petroleum mixtures using the boiling point and specific gravity. A typical range would be from 10.l)(e6 31<.OAI8x. but significantly larger errors up to 13 % for cricondenbar temperatures. O R .3). or pseudocricondentherm temperature. with Th in K (Kelvin). . DiHerent correlation parameters have been proposed.7 psia and GOOF (223) T: where . 1983).the property T b . A'i a bare minimum. Such a correlation is dif£icult to use. + 1. of the mixture. Watsonet al.1 )(e633'r51~) ..normal or cubicaverage boiling point. OR Tp . then adding one component at a time and calculating the Tt and T p values for this new mixture until all the components ha. ~38) . and the results are not very reliable. 1937: Simon and Yarborough..·erage boiling point o( mixture." (T~Tb .(TbiT b  l )(e4 .7 < Xi<O.l65~ + 1. O R ~ . desi~.21644 ( .mole (raction of 100"'boiling component The calculation prooedure is quite tedious. Grieves and Thodos (1963) report maximum errors of less than 5% in cricondentherm.
An efficient procedure to predict a bubble point is to find the pressure (or. 1 " " " ~)..0. {zd. mined by Riazi and Daubert (1980) and Whitson (1983).". What is the state of a substance at: (a) its critical point. is it possible to specify the number of phaSd for: (a) water. psia a24 278i 3. the constants a. < 1.~ K. for these three cases (Whitson.l KjZj and I:r.l.0.41490 X IOu b 0.. A similar procedure can be used to reconstruct the dewpoint curve. I  . .3%. determine the cricondenbar and cricondentherm temperatures. of !luch points . the system is singlephase allliquid.. Co.9 Equations 224 and 225 can thus be used to predict the bubblepoint and dewpoint curves. 9. C.T condition at which an all· liquid s}'stem releases the first (infinitesimally small) drop of gas. Thus.. The state of the system can be determined b)' applying the following rules that are true for vaporliquid systems: If Er. {y. Name the type of phase diagram required for the following cases: (a) a singlecomponent fluid being used for heat transfer in a nuclear reactor.5 96.0. From the phase diagram constructed in problem 5.IK. and (b) above its critical point? 4.0.3. A ~rit:!.0 at a given temperature (or pre.O. and in all regions where gas is not present. Construct a p. I_I 1.Zt '"' 1. are as follows: 8 If I:r_l Z.6 %. (224) At the dew point. Therefore: l. the system is in the twophase region. A typical procedure would involve calculating the quantities Er.. the sum of the component mole fractions equals unity. r:r_l YI is equal to l. the temperature) at which r. (b) a hvocomponent gas being compressed for storage as liquid. at different pressures and temperatures.58848 .36 Cal Production Engineering Phase Behavw. Define fugacity. 6. Since the sum of the mole fractions equals unity.Oll5titute the bubblepoint curve. the system is in the single phase allvapor region.r_1 K. at the bubble point. Also.values) can be taken from Figures 425 through 451 in Chapter 4. R Pl.O. 1983). 3. Compare these with the ones obtained using Grieves and Thodos' relationships. at the bubble point: Q uestions aDd Problems 1.258.0 (225) Th . C./K t < l.sure). Fundamentals 37 For critical pressures and temperatures. Show that the fugacity of a substance must be equal in all phases in which it may exist at equilibrium. Signaling the entry into the twophase region. Thus.... T. {XI}.}.v. and c. BubblePoint and DewPoint Curves The bubble point may be defined as the p. the appearance of a liquid phase just begins for an allvapor spitem.1 z.1 z. b.0 . Assume the C 3 . and 13.3125 . The maximum de\'iations were found to be 10. (c) a multicomponent gas to be transported in a pipeline.2. respectively. deter.l Zt/K j > 1. 5./K. is just equal to the liquid composition.3201 42448 for Tb < 850 0 R for Tb > 8500 R Both r. The system composition.x( .3596 2.Quid then (. (d) design of an oilgas separator. psia p.T phase diagram for the following mixture: Component mole % 65 20 15 '" ~ I " x...r_1 KjZt and I:r..t.I . K.~ " J I_I y.apor composition. the total mixture composition. this sum will be less than 1.1 K1Zj and Ep. If both I:r. fraction to be identical to nC5 • The requ ired hydrocarbon equilibrium ratios (K. for the just released liquid phase.Z. and (b) a mixture of alcohol and water? 2. is equal to the . I K.86618 c0.12281 x 10' 2. it is clear that for the gas phase released at the bubble point. provided Kvalues are known for all the components as a function of pressure and temperature.E KIZt '"' 1.2 ""' .. alternath·ely. {Zt}. OF .7 127.  " ~ ~I K. Given the pressure and temperature.
. L.1983. Crieves. and I will only mention the most basic and widely used among these. C. Chern.. 27(12. T.. 556560. Nelson. "Carbon Dioxide Miscible F100ding: Past. R..... as: ¢(p. Chem. Pet. Pet. and Thodos.. May). 3 Properties of Natural Gases Introduction In designing gas production. which are consequently known as equations of state (EOS). 204pp. and Murphy." Soc. 287292.." Soc. 29(12. 14601464.). R.. 23(4. rather than the traditional engineering charts and tables. V. 1984. F." Ind. and T for any fluid and can be expressed. and Yarborough. SocIety of Petroleum Engineers. /.. and Daubert. 683694. Vol. 1978. M." Hydr. ~1. E. and Eng. whereas the opposite is probably true for humans. 1963. Volume 8. "Boiling Points and Critical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures. "Simplify Property Predictions.v. 30(8. /. Simon. M. K. Pet. and Nelson. Watson. "lmpro\'ed Methods for Approximating Critical and Thermal Properties of Petroleum Fractions... because with computers it is far more efficient to solve equations than to interpolate in a huge domain of possible parameter values. C. Stalkup. Aug.0 For practical purposes. Tech .. v ~ ¢(p. "A Critical Pressure Correlation for CasSolventReservoir Oil Sy~tems. Eng.). Normar. much research has been done in the measurement and prediction of hydrocarbon fluid properties. Dec. R. I. SPE Monograph SeTIes. 326pp. "Characterizing Hydrocarbon Plus Fractions. E.}. and Watson. F. 59(3. 15(5. Campbell Petroleum Series. Whitson. M." J. Texas.). Aug. and Eng.. Many different empirical EOS's have been developed over the years..T) . transport. Riazi. processing. 3(4. Miscible Displacement. 1.. E. Present. For this reason. and Eng. Gas Conditioning and Processing.. ClJem.. this form is rearranged to yield a desired parameter.38 GO! Production Engineering References Campbell. The current trend is to develop mathematical equations for implementation on computers. J. Dec. K. Proc.. Stal. These laws are mathematically represented as equations. Sm~th. • Equations of State AJI fluids follow physical laws that define their state under gi"en physical conditions." J. 11021112.}. Aug. 1.kup. F. 39 . L.on. Tech. H. 1980. 880887. and Outlook for the Future. March). The area of property prediction continues to attract significant attention from researchers who seek to optimize design and control of gas and oU systems. C." Ind. 1935. B. M. "Characterization of Petroleum Fractions. and handling systems a complete knowledge of gas properties is crucial.. 1933. Richardo:. 1983. Pet. These equations essentially correlate p. 1937. 1963. B. on a unit mole basis..T). 14081414. F. Eng. Watson. Oklahoma. 25(8." Ind. "The Cricondentherm and Cricondenbar Temperatures of Multicomponent Hydrocarbon Mixtures. 115116. R. K. Dec.).
the simplest equation of state uses a correction factor known as the gas co'l1pressibility factor. ese are longrange forees. More complex equations of state that do not represent the deviation through the Z·factor. Molecules for even a spa~ S\'Stem . es. "" vo ume OCCUpied by the R h of proportionality in Equation 31 is called h . and loss in pressure exerted 2 by the gas due to attractive forces and inelastic collisions. all equations of state for real gases must be regarded as essentially empirical in nature.732 (psia ft1)/(lbmole OR) nZRT (32) Thus. are often used to derive quite precise Z~factor values that can be used in Equation 32. This equation serve. _ (RT 3. as a good approximation only for low pressures. by using v ..0 (34) . there is no interac_ betw th .8) .·een ions and po es..~ 'he P""'I ure an ~emperature of the gas. Z: pV = where p and T are the absolute d number of moles and V . also called Coulomb forces. ese forees eXISt even for a perfectly non~ po ar gas such as argon. 2. for examp e In a mlXture of a polar and a nonpolar gas • Attraction/repulsion fo h' h . though seldom used today. It corrects for the volume occupied by the molecule. The mole) of an . Most gases compress more than an ideal gas at low pressures. betv. instead of v.rees between a dipole and an induced dipole.RT (33) where A and B are empirical constants. The reasons for the deviasumma.73 x 378. • [~d~ced fO. gas. Z. (p + A/")(v . and se\'eral correlations are available for the Zfactor as a result of these studie. From an appli~ cation standpoint.w erepISm kPa T" K d IS 10 m'.6)/(1 x 520) "" 10.Gas Production Engineering Properties oj Na/ural Gases 41 Ideal Cases a gas ~:!h7c~ tthee':. I ea gas aw at applies to such gases pV .IO "h en t. e dOlO ~u. tion from ideal behavior can bel I e . The major limitation is that the gas deviation factor. __~Vlor. but through other correlation constants. plying no energy loss on collision At I are pure }" elastiC.:S 400 psi) most gases can be stated as follow:. Some of ic • !i'ec:rostTa'h forces. is not a constant. ft1 t h R is 10. t e constant value of R can be easily dete .B as the true gas volume.. Intermolecular forces are exerted bern'een the these forces are: molecules. rmm rom t e fact that 1 Ibmole (pound> gas OCCUpies 378. since they attempt to correlate this nonideal behavior using empirical parameters. an collISIOns between the molecules I . + Bp)v'/p + (A/p)v . no attractive or repulsl\.pV'nT .an Behavior of Real Cases In general.73 psia and 60°F (5200R). Molecular collisions are never perfectly elastic. The Corn preiMbi/ity Fador Approach To correct for nonideality.(14. This is the most widely used real gas equation of state. occupy a £jnite volume.732 psiaft1:lbmole0R' I 51 IS. It can also be written as: . such as gas.. n is the . short distances ani T~ w IC a~ generally exerted over very I y. by using p + Alv as the true pressure.314 kPamJ'"kgmoleK.' IS In . The Zfactor can therefore be considered as being the ratio of the volume occupied by a real gas to the volume occupied by it under the same pres<>ure and temperature conditions if it were ideal.6 ft1 at 14. in a gas. 'ed f ~ e universal gas constant. the value of R to use is 8. but it serves as a useful The deviation from ideal behavior is greater for heavier gases because of the larger size of their molecules.C'. . . imexhibit an almost ideal behavior The 'd o~ pr~u~ (.nRT (31) too.'~e cont~Pt ~f an ideal gas is a hypothetical idea. n umts.1L.e forces exist een em. Numerous attempts have been made to define the functional dependence of Z on various other parameters that define the state of the system. gases do not exhib't 'd al beh . whereas the opposite is true at high pressures.! as follows. An ideal gas is defined as tion between th I I P) negllgtble volume. that is.h~ appropriate value of V' . if p is in psia T is in OR and V' . . • \an der \\aals Equation This equation is probably the most basic EOS and.::w::!::~ gas ~~avior. . it serves as a conceptual basis for understanding and developing other equations. R .AB/p . 1.
(v + ~)(v + y) + . and Co are constants for a gi\"cn ~as_ d is the molar density (lbmole/ft3).'2 Go. and R is to use the fact that the critical isotherm.B .. The first and second partial diHerentials of Equation 34 with ~pect to v would yield the results shown in Equation 37 upon substitution of parameter \'aJues relevant to the critical point and use of Equation 38. Other details \\ill be discussed later. PeJlgRobin!lOn Equation • Another \. Thus.~ .\" .."ebbRubin Equation (39) where A and B are functions of temperature. A General Form for Cubic Equations of State This equation was developed by Benedict et al.Co/r. the three roots of the cubic equation in v (Equation 34) are identical.)d Z + (bRT . T are the absolute pressure and temperature. the curve relating pressure and volume al the critical temperature. that is. It has found a lot of application in computing thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria for gases due to two reasons: it gi\'es sufficient accuracy for natural gases.. c. is widely used. y. a. (v + ~)(v + y) (313) . .'}"Q.ST... must show an inflexion point: (38) RT A P . Note that the RK and PH equations cannot be written explicitly in the reduced form. like Van der Martin (1979) showed that all cubic equations of state can be represented in the following general form: RT arT) ofT) p . ~. which makes it applicable in developing gencral correlations in terms of reduced variables. and it can be written explicitly in the reduced form.. RTd + (B"RT . then at the critical point: (36) + (00'11')[(1 + ..~(" + B) (311) These conditions are known as the Van der Waals conditions for the critical point. (~5) + SpiRT) + Z Apl(RT)2 . light hydrocarbons. Van der Waals equation may be written in the reduced form by substituting the values for A..][3v. B. Production Engin«ring Propntie6 oj Natural Cases 43 or. Band R from Equation 37 into Equation 33: where A and B are constants. (1940) for describing the behavior of pure.. b. (1970) (ZJRK).ABp'l/(RT)3 . respectively. The RedlichKwong (RK) equation. if \'~ represents the critical volume. in terms of the Z·factor as: Z3 _ Z2(1 Waals equation.d') exp( . v ..d')] (310) where a.a)d J + aad6 At the critical point. since natural gases are a mixture of light hydrocarbons for which this equation was originally developed. and by Soavc (1972) (SRK). Benedict..0 p . Bo. RedlichKwong Equation Comparing Equations 34 and 3·6.. it can easily be shown that: (37) Redlich and K\\'ong (1949) proposed the following equation: An alternative procedure for obtaining the values for A.· B) (312) thill. along with modifications by Zudke\'itch and Joffe (1970) and Joffe et al. and p. [po + 3/.B v(v + B) + B(.lJ .idely used equation is the Peng and Robinson (1976) (PR) equation: RT A p.
O. acentric factor (w. where Go.m.1)8 .. ffi. Obi Prj' T fJ . 7Te • and Pc is its critical pressure. !li: . and the composition of these liquid ({xil) and vapor ({y. The EOS solution yields a new value.. + ffi2 . Kr· I.. q l (I  xiB) ojk)(AJAS)~ In ~. first proposed by Pitzer (1955). Q<~ and [}g. ~1 + (0. .. symmetric in j and k with Ojj . using an equation of state. which has been used extensively (Wilson. however. = 1 + ~!i.liT.0. 1.(Z .. . and 0" .)) (318) follows: RK and SRK. As expected. with {) ..37464 + 1. SRK: Oaj" 0<.457235529.. is a measure of a flLLid's deviation from the law of corresponding states (see the section on compressibility factors). 1969.TJ'!i)]2. A good initial guess for the distribution coefficient is very advantageous in obtaining faster convergence. Referring to Equations 215 through 217. O. 0 and ffi2 .) for each component i..14) (3. The calculation procedure is iterative.! Production Engineering Propertiet of Natural GaUl 45 where cr and {) are functions of temperature. and the critical pressure (Pci). putting m.. Bi B]ln [(Z + mzB)/(Z + m.3727(1 + wJ(1 .p"\ and Ob! .15a) (315b) (315c) (31Sd) (3.. and Ob are treated as component. This procedure is repeated till convergence is reached. In the$e equations.. and m2 .. A reasonable guess can be obtained from the following equation. E . and 0b are universal constants. 1 .... and Ob'" O!: PH: 0 .(lip. determined by making the EOS satisfy Van def Waals' criteria at the critical point (Equation 38).S)) (317) The Ojk are the binary interaction coefficients.26992w1)(1 . Kr.. for each component i is known.!li: The acentric factor (w).077796074 og In practice. . within a specified tolerance. miT . .. temperature (Tti). between the estimate.. . and temperaturedependent quantities.0. PrJi1~ B.In(Z ..11 + (0. 0 A . PR.)(B + I)B) Z . O. A Jk . r:r _ x.). and critical compressibility factor (1. and is close to zero for gases like methane.4274802. The values of m and flg for some commonly used EOS's are as A Typical Solution Method for Cubic Equations of State The input data include the overall composition of the mixture. the problem can alternatively be conceptualized as being that of obtaining very precise values for K.)BJ[(2IA) . A"x.i(T) and Obo(T): RK: 0. yields the RK or SRK equations.2<15. Peng and Robinson .0.1 .B) + [AI(m. K + " which is then used as r the new guesstimate. Theoretically.In (fiP") .) and the equation of state is then solved with this initial guess.) exp [5. + m. 0: Zl + [(rn. It is defined as: (3. A) .TJ'!i)]2. and the solution... Fugacities can be calculated using the following relationship for the fugacity coefficient. For the PR equation. it is clear that if the equilibrium vaporization ratio..0. we can achieve the objectives. O. derived using Equation 213 (Coats.0. Equilibrium is achieved when the fugacities for any component i are equal in both the liquid and vapor phases.54226w. m. !li: . .B.(m. is the vapor pressure of the f1LLid at a temperature of o.ffi Z B2 (3.1)IB .O. {Zj}.(AB + ffilffiZBZ(B + I)) .574w. 1985): B .08664035 • n: . .xkAi~ I I where p. A value is assumed for the distribution coefficient (K..15e) r:r.0. The objective is to determine for F moles of the feed of composition {z. Coats (1985) presents the following equivalent form of Martin's equation.16) This equation was obtained by assuming that the fluid obeys Raoults' law and that the logarithm of the reduced vapor pressure of each component i is .}) phases that exist in equilibrium at any given pressure (p) and temperature (T).. and R and l' are constants..IJ Z2 + [A + .: like argon. w is equal to zero for noble gase..48 + 1. Thus. K.176w~)(1 . n: . . 1976): K.:}: the moles of liquid (L) and the moles of vapor (V) generated.. Kr.
ed to determine fugacities in the \'apor and liquid phases. beyond which errors in critical pressure exceed 6%. n·CJI" IIC.151 72. H~O 0.281 0. II." 0.H .8 707..6 59..491 + 307.> 0.<\e are equal in both phases for all the components (on an individual basis). Thomas et al.86 28_013 44. (R) Cnt.) Acentric Factor (w) Eykman Mol Refraction" • (EMR) Compound Molecular Weight eH.193 96. Comp. It should be noted that the gas gravity method of obtaining pseudocritical pressures and temperatures is not very acc:urate.232 12. These properties are termed "pseudo" because they are used as a correlation basis rather than as a very precise representation of mixture critical properties.316 44.0115 0. V. Factor (2.529 106. can now be sol\'ed to determine its roots.g iC...274 0.0 737.Si5 86. IT the composition oflhe gas.0.266 0. when the equa.8 913.5 .49. Equation 314.H.263 0.S 300. the new Ki values are determined usin~ the ratio of the fugacity coefficients (see Equation 214). For mixtures.984 23.l 111l. recommend the use of this equation in allowable limits of up to 3% H~.205 114. pressures (Pc.7SO 19.( IIC~'1 i·~1! 16.273 0_2957 0.2 3203. (1970) took data from Figure 31 and other sources to obtam the followmg relationship: Ppc _ 709. Figure 31 may be used to determine (320b) where "fl is the gas gravity with respect to air. com'ergence has been reached.151 86.tion is wived with coefficients corresponding to gas.274 0.lh.8_259 142. C. The gas Zfactor is taken as the largest real roo!. it must be used in accordance With EquatIOn 319. T pc" 170.0049 0.•• Ga.010 34.076 31. Using the Kvalues from Equation 318.828 8.5 1023.1928 0_1756 0.3(\4 0. Equation 317 is sol .H.4 278.015 667.999 2_016 18.6 490. {Xi}.262 0. • From Edmister and Lee (19&1J_ •• I'rom McLeod and Campbell (1969) .3210 uid Zfactor.070 44_097 38124 58.283 0. for the mixture..2234' 0.0355 0.7 .9 396. the reader can refer to published work in this area for specific methodologies and developments.."'" .}.302 65_5iS 7S. C:II.8 616.247 0. nCwHu N.2250 0.0196 . CO. B corresponding to the liquid phase.S 665.6 332. Sewral modifications have been proposed by different investigators to improve the rate of convergence. Since this is an area of acti\'e research.9 1165_1 0.7 765. Corrections may be made for the presence of nonhydrocarbon oomponents: Thomas et . and other useful properties of typical components in hydrocarbon fluids.. a cubic equation in Z. The smallest real root is taken as the liq Table 3·' Physical Constants lor Typical Natural Gas Constituents· Critical Pressure (psia) Critical Temp.2510 0.o nCJi" nC.273 0. 1£ ~he analysis of the gas is available.344 "fit (320a) (3. These Z values are required in Equation 317.4902 0..s Production £Ilgille€ring Properties oj Natural Gases 47 a linear function of the reciprocal reduced temperature (Peng and Robinson.264 0.251 0.178 100. is not known .124 72.3 550. Equation 223 in Chapter 2 can be used to predict the critical properties of a hydrocarbon fluid from its normal boiling point and gravity. The ~VNR (minimum variable NewtonRaphson) method presented by Fussell and Yanosik (1978) and Fussell (1979) prO\ides imprO\'ed comergence and is more reliable than the method of successive substitution previously discussed.407 15.0 1070. Kay's mixing rule can be used to find the effective critical properties: the critical pressure and temperature from the gas gra\·ity..6 672.ed in moot condatkm> Critical Pressure and Temperature Determination For pure components.718 "f.J l~ n_C.292 0. "" _ 0.9 1306. 5% Ni .4437 0.al.8 227.2.741 55. flash calculations are carried out for the mixture (see Chapter 2) to calculate L.). Table 31 shows critical temperatures (T.267 55..4 828. or one real root and two imaginary ones. respectively.3 547._ 0.913 34. and r! is the mole fraction of component i in the mixture.. 1976).291 0.()43 30. or a total impurity (no nhydrocarbon) content of 7%.0908 0.9 lOiO. and hi}' Equations 315{ae) are'. II. If the. {y.259 0.19) where Pp.1 188.604 .:).\ 972.0 w.3978 0.4 436.859 9. Otherwise. Since it is a cubic equation. or to impro\'e the accuracy of prediction in general or for various special cases. Equation 314 is solved again with coefficients A. T po: are the pseudocritical pressure and temperature.0 3040 493. .529..6 343_1 549.2.4 734 7 S45.olved next.58. physical property data are readily available.230 13.213 44.1454 0.. it can have either all real roots. I 488.289 0_28.
H IO .718)(0. 93. N. Producl/on Engineering PropN'tie3 of Natural Gases . 1948.. • • u 0 ~ • .491 + (307.097 58.08. The analysis of a sweet gas.604 .9 Find the gas gravity.0. " " PI'" ..'s equations.4 1070.1 488. 1.8 707..i 845. Using Equation 320b: T.0008 0.344)(0.013 734.6055) • 674.9 332.. Ppc" I: YIPd .670 psia Tpt ..' 360 .0140 M.7 765. i~I!" 0..10.0012 0. and (3) Thomas et al.0023 0. Using Equation 320a: !'po .29. E y.0329 0. is known to be as follows: N2 .'s method.47 psia . Cefi14 .6055 1. courtesy of GPSA.(58.' 170. . 0.54/28. CtHe" 3..iL 0.9300 0.6 490.664.4 828.05 ps. !'po • 670 . nC 4 iC 4 3O.0 493. iC. PseudocriticaJ properties of miscellaneous natural gases and condensate flUids. 0.124 72. CRt . 17.H 10 " 0. IlC. · g • • " v"'~ GUVlfY .4 c. (2) Brown et al.259 28.4 227.360 OR Applying the correction factor for 1.0005 0...8 913. ne.36..93 OR 2.I: YiTe.) Example 31.54 The gas gravity 'Y& .3 ie. 16. <4Ha ..5 • 665 !"ia "'I~' \ T.151 72.4 % N2.59 OR . Assume the ~ + fraction to exhibit the same properties as nCg.05.. 0.12.151 86.0037 0.97.043 k 667..0010 0. Tpt . • •  " 5 ~ M .8 665.17.0136 0. _ 356. Solution ~omp.M 1 .8 616. Ga. and ~HI6+ .355 OR 3. find the critical pressure and critical temperature for this gas using (I) Kay's mixing rule. c..1 549...5.124 58. 0. Co C.37. n~HI2" 0... From Figure 31. (After Brown at aL.709. Also.4 436. in mole%.178 128..0iO 44.6055) • 356. lAO..0 To 343.a Figure 31.23. C.7 529.3 550.
is any term that can characterize the mixture behavior.. Ppr (  ~ IO:! f • ni:': u p/ppc).  TIT~ For gas mixtures such as natural gases. Among several alternatives. E. as a basis have been used for a long time. the physical characteristics of a substance are a function of its relative proximity to the critical point. than to widely dissimilar substances.." and the acentric factor. StandingKatz Compressibility Chart Figure 32 shows the Standing and Katz (1942) correlation for Z as a function of Ppr and T pr for sweet (nonH~ or COt containing) natural gases. Figure 32. For more complex mixtures. The • P~fUOO ~EOu(EO . Thus the relevant temperature and pressure values that express the departure of a real gas from ideal behalioc are the reduced pressure. w. for manual calculations.. different charts are made for different values of z. This chart is generally reliable for sweet natural gases with minor amounts of nonhydrocarbons such as N2 • Wichert and Aziz (1972) proposed a correction factor. According to Van dec Waals' law of corresponding states.£(p"T" () (322) This additional parameter. Zfactor correlations using z. particularly the discrepancy resulting from the assumption in Equation 321. p" and the reduced temperature. the reduced parameters are denoted as pseudoreduced temperature Tp. it is more appropriate to consider the compressibility factor as a function of an additional parameter.50 GO... Z . has become very popular because it gives good accuracy. and pseudoreduced pressure. such as neighboring hydrocarbon comlX'nents of a similar paraffinic type. the Eykman molecular refraction (EMR) approach by McLeod and Campbell (1969) is of interest and is described here. This means that the deviation from ideal beha\ior of gases is the same if they are located at the same state relative to their critical state. (After Standing and Katz. ( = TIT pc)..) applicability of Equation 321 is assumed.f Production Engineering Propertie! of Natural Gas~ 51 The Gas Compressibility Factor Several different correlations are available for this important parameter. courtesy of SPE 01 AIME. The basic correlations use the corresponding states concept.£(p"T. t:  ~ • " " Z . w. z. 1942. The acentric factor.) where p. the two most widely used are the critical compressibility factor. t. and Kay's mixing rules are used for gas mixture properties. The correslX'nding states concept is more applicable to substances with similar molecular structure. to extend the applicability of the StandingKatz Zfactor chart to sour gases: . Compressibility lactor lor natural gases as a function of reduced pressure and temperature.. T. Most equations of state and other computergenerated solutions use the acentric factor. In addition. piPe (321) T. .
n·C.) Camp.042)" . C. Example 3·2.9 1306.1.905.20.(0.0190 0.67)1356. in the gas.0.93 .0400 . the compressibility factor Z g 0.4 T.0.1 493. t. Ppc: = 664. 667.0.0000 0. Pseudocriticai correction factor.1 549. find the compressibility factor at 2. For the gas composition given in Example 31.4 734. f.00.0..0100 0. as follows: C.0100 . j·C4H ID = 0.1L 0.8 707.1.0030 0.0065 0.052)'9 ..3 547.H IO . .) are used to calculate the values of reduced pressure and temperature that will give a valid Zfactor for a sour gas from the StandingKatz correlation.8 616.65..2.356. Find the compressibility factor at 2.8910 0.S 343.010 T.(200 + 459. to correct the pseudocritical temperature (Tp") and pressure (Ppe) determined by Kay's rule. Figure 33 is a graphical representation by Wichert and Aziz (1972) of Equation 323. H.8 665.30.120[(0.0265 0.4.52 COl Production Engineering Properties oj Natural Case:! 53 These modified values for the critical pressure (~) and temperature (Tp.0 1070.000 psia and 200°F using the StandingKatz Zfactor chart. nC~ • iC 4 N..402 .0500. N2 = 0. .3. C. Example 3·3.10. This method uses the correction factor. CO 2 .OOO/664.S • Figure 3·3.7 529.&.7 765. ppr ..20.500 psia and 650 0 R for a sour gas with the following composition in mole%: CH 4 = 89.052)' '] + 15[(0. C 2H6 = 2.3 550. C3HS .0400 + 0.848 Using Figure 32.65.6 672. Solution PER CENT H.47 psia ~ u Tpc . (Atter Wichert and AzIZ.93 OR So.. and B . 1.''' TI'l'  t A .0 TN (3·23) where A is the sum of the mole fractions of H:zS and COt. courtesy of Hydrocarbon Processing. for sour gases. H 2S .7 227. Soilltion u o  From Example 31.(0. and B is the mole fraction of H 2S.042)"] . CO. 1972.4i .10.90.0400 (324) .. .
0.. I 3' '05 .2.848) + 0. " 6 7 8 Ill' 11 '" 12 13 • Mt. C. .4 14+ and 2. + 0.0.042)] .19 and p.0.37 oR Reduced Pressure p. }tnmur/ • 1"hc..p.4752) + 1. 3 and 4 and 9 and 10 <'tin. E'I'.0.0284T.8 12 + and 1.319 T.0 + and 3. .".0 2.OOHT. + D (325) 'OS and 12 1.010)[(0. 09968 Z _ p. . ~. + 0.4 1.2 and 1.0284Tpr + 0.4 + and 2. Ringe Between 0.0 + and 3.) Wichert and Aziz's (1972) correction factor for sour gases is applicable. .( 0. p.0625] + (0.0825) + O. find the comprasibility factor at 2. Ringe Between ~( Equations 1. up to 26 onl). and D are correlation constants (see Table 32).Katz Correlation Gopal (1977) found straight line fits for the StandingKatz chart of the form: Z .0011 . .062IT.900 Compressibility Factors from Equations of State Several authors have reported results using d iffe rent equations of state.4+ and 2.4942) + 4.37 .5222T.66T. An interesting comparison of the various techniques used is provided by Takacs (1976).'f:'l~.63IST. th" where A. .23&( T.696..T~) ""p{ . 2.(696. . the compressibility factor.0.37)/[371. be replacoed b).'· 0."f:' slightl~ brttr.(AT.1.abl~.0 and 1.3871) + J.0+ and 3.522) + 2. CopaJ (l9i7).0. and maximum errors up to 2.6 + Eq.637'(0.9036 p. .0. fur p.( .848 From Table 32. CurveFits fo r the Standing.35iOT. ::.694 Tp.0657f.1.7009 ~I O. + B) + CT. Yarborough and Hall (1974) used the StarlingCarnahan equation of state to arrive at the following equation: From Example 32.0011 • (3.8223T.' . + 0.2(53) + 0.361. Since it attempts to curvefit the StandingKatz chart and uses the same mixing rules.6643T.. TPc .0284)(1.2(1 .071 p. ~ 14 • Tpr = 1. ..0295T.O.9967 p..lOAD .( .Jp.96)(361. + 0.6635 p. + 1.402)(1 .77 .1 O. + 0.2988) + ~I O. + 0.69 psia 1'.96 psia Table 32 Correl.1 O..fU 55 Ppr .2 + and 2. So/lltion ~ folla.676. 0.0 2.69 • 3.9969 p.1 T~)'] (326) .ill g.2 + and 14 1.4714)(1. we Eq. Coomsy of Oil and eo.!: hPc:i .4714T. I for 1. _ 2.1229 ~( O. The major advantage of this method lies in the fact that it is not trial and error type. .2 1. .OOO9T.)!*"' .5%.4 lOS and 1.0607T.tlon Equations tor the StandingKatz Ztactor Chart· Appl}ing the Wichert and Aziz correction.0.0625) + OA714T P' . + 1. .ooorr. .0211T.0984T.Gas Production Engineering Propertia oj Natu ral Gtl.0490 0.0..1.9549 p.1.0 1. .O.0 2.(0.. 6501361. + 0.ing ''''0 equahoru' Z _ p.252JT. 1.4 + and 15. (Gopal (1977) does not report any statistical parameters for the error: it is the author's deduction from the reported results only.4385 0.(0.042)(10. rt:Sults At. ..90.6%.0 2. B.7927 p.06 1 25(p.o .0127T.0.77 + (0.CO.e !emu rna' be 'gnom! b For a "ef) slight 100 In IOCC\1rat'Y.500'6i6.799 Using Figure 32.( 1. Th irteen equations of this type were found to suitably represent the Standing..3.OJXHl' p.010 z 0.2+ and 1. T.5869T.10.000 psia and 2OQ°F using Gopal's method. 00009 T: .( Equation Number J>.3232) + O..\iSII .(527) + 0. + 0.0..848) .8511) . 9 ".711 + 3.0. the applicable equation is: Z = PP.3695)'" lASH T.8 + and 5.O.Katz chart.0.lilIT.6087T. pn:f.1.I39JT.371.3647T.2 Reduced Tempertlture.2 1.0625) + 0. + 0. + 1.B580 ~I 0.. Z ..08 :i T.0364T. with average errors on the order of 0. Example 34.l4SBO Prrif:'f1Ibiy we this equation for p. its applicability is also subject to the same limitations as the Standing.3278T.4. .2114) .0 o.0039) + 0. For the gas composition given in Example 31.Katz chart.0 5.05 and 3..". .
53530771 .5339.05165 .density in gm fcc The Eykman molecular refraction index.7361 . 0. re.00003268 M2 (333) Alternatively. these correlations should be used WIth caution.EMRIM . 2. . The curve fit equations indicated in Figures 35 and 36 may be used. The ~ccu rac). but for the region where T. T he Eykman molecular refraction .n have been reported by him). (328) where the reduced density was defined as: EMR .4)](Mlp ) w here (331 ) Pr . McLeod and Campbell (1969) found the following empirical relationship between EMR and M for normal paraffin hydrocarbons: + (A. Figures 35 and 36 show the correlations determined by them. 0.3265 . Dranchuk and AbouKassem (1975) developed the following equation from the Starling equation of state: n "" refractive index of the gas or liquid using SodiumD Yf'llow light M . 0. and Zc was assumed to be 0. 0.1)I(n + O.0. ror p rogramming purposes. 0.6 Gu Production Engineering Properties oj Natural G6&es 57 where the reduced density. . instead of the figures .6134.0 . By fitting Equation 329 from the Starling equation of state to the StandingKatz correlation using more than 1.)p1 .61232032.1./T . M can be expressed in terms of EMR for normal paraffin hyd rocarbons as follows: M .A. 7/T po  242 .(A.:b~~~~:.31506237. .2971 + 1..4079 + 0 . . In the EMR l . defined.4 )llp is also used for correlation purposes.1844. 'po .l.5475.1056. 0.1)I(n + O./(ZT. the EMR may be determined from the density p using the EMR versus pi plot shown in Figure 34. r 'btl rule is used. 0.1 T1)p1 (330) w here the reduced density is given by Equation 330 as before.0 .l ity chart. but It + (90.500 data points.5 % . EMR '"" 2.IT. deyeloped by McLeod and Campbell (1969). .molecular weight p . 2II2 Tp<' (327) The Eykman Molecular Refraction (EMR ) Method This method.)..p. A different mixture com b· t· ma Ion wei . 0. E~t R.0700.01569.9 76 'T! + 4 58/'T"3 )p' • I pr • ' P" ::7n~:\~!~~e a~.[in' . + A. is not known . and 0.1T.o.57832729. as • (332) EMRI ..3.00008156 EMR2 (334) U the molecular weight. The accuracy of these methods is within 0. .4'Gr) p ~tI8 . very large errors have been reported (Dra~chuk ~d AbouKassem .0. EMRI . and the method also requi~ the use of a dir erent compres. + A. _ 1.(14 76 · T ' 3 ~ p.0. 1975). ! + (1 p. 0.3714 EMR . .04670900. 0 . respectively. p" is calculated by trial and error from the fol lowing equation: p. It is clear that all the EOS methods involve a trial and error type of solution scheme. The Wichert and Aziz correction for sour gases (Equations 323 and 324) is applicable to aU these methods using equations of state. McLeod and Ca:npbell found that EMR correlates very well with the critical properties of hydrocarbons and also the nonhydrocarbon~ generally associated with natural gas. Dranchuk and AbouKassem (1975) found the values of the eleven coefficients Al through All to be.0. of the Copal (1977) method in t his region is not apparent f~om hlS ~ .7210. Thus. z.)3 P.:p. > 1. .270 (329) and the correlation constants AI through Aa are: 0. (1974) presented an eightfactor trial and error type of equation for Zfactor using the BenedictWebbRubin equation of state. M. and 0 . is defined as foHows: Dranchuk et al. .10488813.0.68446549.7293 M + 0.681570001 .pectively. . + P.[(n' . uses a rorrelat ' n between the EMR of a gas or liquid and its properties such as molecular W ·gbt density· and critical properties.' ~ + 42. + A.
1969.. CD it H2S. In the EMR versus T..' I I .I't' I ~. u • i versus T. EYI(. ~" ~ M ~ .00'111 . So.) where Xi! is the normalized mole fracti on of component i in the group j it belongs to. . or using Figure 34 if the density is known .. " W V Al'I O$jIlC ·USSj 1 o.. For each of the two groups of components.\ plot (Figure 35).. IlU1'UU.Ipc plot (Figure 36).M ' . courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.~I ••• '..UI..00 ==" 0.""1· . M •• O... 1..0J ~ '.I ... Eykman molecular refraction (EMR) versus p2.. CO 2.. 1/ VI. _ 0.t'1~ Propertie& of Natural Gases 59 ! ~ ~ ~ . /~ ~# . 1969. (After McLeod and Campbell. Xi!' are calculated as: .'" .O . The normalized mole fractions .00107' (rMA)1  '.I .V V ~" W ~ c_ eo" ....~. courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series. '. and H2 lie on curve I: and all normal hydrocarbon components lie on the upper curve 2. both the hydrocarbons as well as nonhydrocarbons lie on the same correlation. and EMRI is its EMR value determined from Table 31. For fractions such as C. (After McLeod and Campbell...c. O. 0 .. • O.~ / ~ 1/ 'i ~ /j % V/ / (II . 1969. %: ~ ~~ ~ ~ 'j I V 1/. for gases containing any nonhydrocarbon components.. the EMR value can be directly determined using Equation 333 if the molecular weight is known. and hydrocarbon components ahove methane.. Figure 36. ":1' CD" i ~ .MAH NJL[CULAlI REfRACTION (EAA) Figure 35.(Pc)O./p~·.::. two different correlations were found for two categories of components: N2.".~ .J>'''.H 1. .10 ~ :. _ 1111 · 0. IJ UPUllm. ~.::::: :. EMR versus TJ pc correlation.~.. /' ~ /'"" l" ..... IIJonJon '. An ncomponent gas mixture is thus treated as a pseudobinary mixture in this method. V..:::: /. • .. I I I I EVKMAN MOL!CULAR REFRACTION . EMR versus TJp~ 5 correlation.0 .'0 V r.rl~ a 2 ' 51 S! i st:::2 ~ I •.1. " '../ V >.M 0.) . VI V ~ ./ I (>0 .) >0 M ../ . The two curves intersect at a value corresponding to C I ._ " 1." " .::.../ m..ou< I IJII  ••• .~." . 0 . w •• M I 'JI .1 1/ Ij 'l. f • ~"" Pil ' c o. '. (After Mcleod and Campbell. ... it is necessary to divide the mixture into two groups: C h N1. The calculation procedure is as follows (Campbell .ll 0 •• ."_ ~r Ll_ 1f".IK. ..: g ... courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series. ..>0 F · . and H2. I ". rI~ m./ Figure 3·4.IT. O.:.c u (PCU: ~) u • >0 . ~ ..58 Cas Production Engineering .0 _ . 1984): 1. " V IY 19". find the EMR j as follows: (3·35) ~ . that is nC z+. " I . H2S. 0. ~'.II III . .'UI.
0505 (ATJP.0020 0.tPe)mill is calculated as: Solution Comp.)1 and (AT c!Pe)2 for the two groups.1: xJjEMR. here.0.0 S.01053 0.0420 0. Finally. solve for the critical pressure.0. o. o. o.37624 0. 3.94) . .913 34. AlandB .0124 and B .60 GaJ Production Engineering XjJ . (ATJp.(ATJp. o. EMR I . In English units. nC 4 iC 4 X.. Using Figure 36 (or the equations indicated in Figure 36).. .15.O REDUCED PRESSURE..(0.Jt!$ 61 EZDmplt> 3·5.828 13.0030 0. 2.(0.. 0.0005 0. A and B 0.. .0505)(29. Using the mixture ATe/P. find the value (or (ATc!P. (AT Jp.. CO.0 In English units being used.52475 0. ~ 0.741 are 1.2297) + (0.407 15. is the sum of the mole fractions of all the components in group j.0 (BTJp1') . 1969.S C.. is found from Figure 37..316 44 .(ATJ p.8910 0. POI '. courtesy 01 Campbell Petroleum Series.1495.0.. the compressibility factor. For the gas composition given in Example 33. Determine BTdp~5 from Figure 35 (or the equation indicated on Figure 35) for the total mixture using the EMRmiJ for the total mixture calculated as follows: N.9495)(14.14. + X. 5.90 1.X.8596) .X!IX! Propertit!$ oj Natural Ca. whereas in the metric or 51 system of units. I where X. Te. So.984 X.9495)(0.1 Figure 37.0100 0. A . 1. C.  4.0 3.0265 0.2297 • From Figure 36..0 4. Pc. . and BTel p~·5 values. Compressibility lactor chart lor the EMAmethod..0190 0.94 .50 (ATJp.0505)(0.) . The total mixture (AT. (After Mcleod and Campbell.) •• . and critical temperature. 522 EMRm" .00685 0.03960 23. C.0.14.0.04423 0.93839 EMR 9. find the compressibility factor at 2.750 19. H.50) + (0.500 psla and 650 0 R using the EMR method.019 From Figure 35.)m" .243 44. Z. Calculate the reduced pressure and temperature.9495 0.05941 0. " 0..
aJu~ of critical pressure and temperature as pre\iously determined. Burkhardt._.J~5)1 •.14.76 psia T . Cal Production Engilluring Properties oj Natural Gases 63 (T'""Pc)mix .I critical pressure and temperature: '" "'.500/814.522...30 o R Using the . Burkhardt. • ' T"" . and Voo (1959) presented a mixing rule (or pseudo. y.. . extended by Satter and Campbell (1963). courtesy of SPE of AIME. • _. 28.. p~~ .. courtesy 01 SPE of AIME. Generalized compressibility factors ZO as a function 01 reduced pressures and temperatures....Kil].54 implying that p< . Ppt = 2.835.528 Figure 38..) . 1963.522 So...425. to determine 7Y and Zl (Figures 38 and 39). and Yoo (SBV) Method Stewart.i6 650':425.068 T p..Ip~)1 + (213){Er.76) .0.) Using Figure 37.1 Yl(T.Tpo/J where (336) .814.   The pseudocritical pressure and temperature from this equation are then used in Pitzer's (1955) charts...(0.522)(8 14. the compressibility factor Z _ 0.JPc)p~)2 ' K .90/0... . The Stewart. (Alter Satter and Campbell. .. . Figure 3 9 Generalized compressibility factors Z' as a function of reduced pressures and temperatures.  1.. J (1/3)Er.(T. 1963.62 Thus. (After Salter and Campbell.. Z is calculated as follows: (337) This is one of the best available methros for hydrocarbon mixtures and has proven to be \'ery accurate.Er..1 YI(T.30 = = 3. and Pp<: .
76744 1: y.1 549./ ~ 0' .de a correction factor known as the multipole oorrection factor.) '0 t..59749) + (~. and E YI"'I for all components except CO 2 .16. Find the compres. 1'. CO 2 = 15. these methods have not been found to be satisfactory.08012 0.0.0025 . and 'l!l and Zl from Figures 38 and 39. Use the BuxtonCampbell method because the CO 2 content is high. 0...206 0. as in the SBV method.76744)'1 .000 psia and 3OO"F." '0 0. courtesy 01 SPE of AIME.8 . rcspecth'ely.03571 So. It corrects for the deviation in the critical pressure and temperature due to the pre. (Alter Buxton and Campbell...  • • !: : • t.03929 0. w. versus acentric factor.Gas Production Engineering PER CENT Properties oj Natural Gasel .) . )'''''. C.51361 0.5 * 0.S14i5 0...16. '0 > 5 .59181 .0 for English units. 0.~ibility factor for this gas at 3./ V .1454 0.0115 0. The analysis of a sour gas.... C.0949 ACENTRIC FACTOR. CzHe .0908 0.2250 0.0.053 To 343.(To!p. and A . Buxton and CampbeU (1967) pro'v.ence of CO 2.".8 B:i. l. T. 20 10 .59749 Sour gas correction methods described earlier have been developed for sour gases containing H 2S and CO 2 .ili46 13.YcoJI 1:1. The value of T determined from Figures 31 Oa and b is then used to correct the ppc and Til<' calculated from Equation 336 as follows: T.e corrected \'alues are used.1914 w.71490 O.(To/pd") . ACENTRIC FACTOR. (T~E')" Tjp~·5 ""0. H. are the corrected values for pseudocritical temperature and pressure. 0. !: " • 101+: o " .3. Z is determined using Equation 337.030 0..  '0 Solution Com~.6645 26. .5.5 665. versus acentric lactor.ISO 0.2727 20..9 1306.' Figure 3·10•.. The effective acentric factor. 1967.77673 1.0.(1i(1 .561 0. (338) J (''')(0.:: V .3. To extend the applicability of the SBV method to sour gases rich in CO 2.1914 1: )'1(0)1  0." and p.51108 0.7284 18.5 '" !==t==i==t==!=t==!=t==+=Ci"':'::jON{IOXlDE • • 20 ~ S > ~ '" '0 2' '0 where 1:f.. / /' V . The.71667 0. For gases that have a high CO 2 content but a low H~ content. . 547.06946.) (339) where T. for use in Figures 310a and b is as follows: E )'i(Tclfpci)O .1 refers to a summation over all components i except CO 2 .0 T~p.. Finally.)((0. 667. (After Buxton and Campbell. for CO 2 concentrations up to 50%. "'~.8 if metric units are used. courtesy of SPE of AIME..l!. CO.1.88132 1. to determine the pseudoreduced pressure and temperature.riA • . and H 2S . The Buxton·Campbell Approach for COzRich Gases E ). for CO 2 concentrations greater than 50%.8 616.20."Tp<. • • o Figure 310b. Example 36.6 672. Multipole factor. . w. is known to be as follows: CH 4 = 56. A = 1. C. Multlpole factor.0.3 10iO.4 O.6.. as shown in Figures 310a and b. 1967..07. K .8145 16. CJHs . r. in mole%.
. Solution where \1 is the molecular weight of the gas. B~ therefore becomes: z. Mv . .0... find: density in lbmlftl.30 p ZT ". is generally used..12.) and 60°F ( . 0.000 psia and 200°F. and formation volume factor.0.3 I 438.1 'Zll_~. From Example 31. then PI is in lbm/ftl.(nZRT"p)/(nZ". Pt.T..) 30001741. and T p. Ppr" . and expansion factor.98°R Supercompressibility Factor In several applications such as gas flm\ measurement.. can be calculated as: Pt. E. is simply the reciprocal of the formation volume factor.. • Therefore. gas formation volume factor. "" 748. Bg .671438..BT .35... and V"" denotes the volume at standard pressure p" and temperature T.[11(1 ..880. F'p~.54 ..p".. Zl = In oilfield practice.03571) .': Pl~' = 442.) (342) Thus.. PI'< *" T. at 2. K21J . FJ" .9810. Z .59181 ..4.250)(0. Gas Density Using the gas law.(pz.0283 ZT P ftl/scf (343) Some ZFactor Related Properties density.(p.0420 From Figure 3lOb. i3 psia ( . can be assumed to be unity.. 74l.. .25 V'V.(l6. If p is in psia.i48.150)110.52 psia Equation 338. pMIZRT (340) The expansion factor.732 0.98) . .)1 (p.ZT)I(pz. the density of a gas. and from Figure 3·9.. or F"p..0. the moleculaI weight M .. For the sweet gas given in Example 31. If V denotes the volume at reservoir pressure p and temperature T. one must often relate reservoir vol.591BI _ 442." then: B~ . = = 759.17..897 Bg .I Z Cas Formation Volume Factor (34 1) w. T is in OR.66 Cm Protirlction Enginl"ering Properties oj Notural Cases 67 T. urnes to surface volume:!.../p.. T .·1. BOl_ defined as the ratio of the volume Ottupied by a given mass of gas at resenoir pressuretemperature conditions to the volume occupied at standard (surface) conditions.06946) .).3 So.. Thus. the factor l/ZO~ appears very frequently. supercompressibility.68' R p~ia In reservoir engineering applications..68 = 1. T  4. ZO 0. T'. The formation volume factor. ..flft' (344) Example 37.91\ .J:T) .. l'sin~ J 442.250 From Figure 3·8.047.25 ... generally the standard conditions are taken to be 14. At these conditions.68 .880 + (0. It is called the supcrcompressibility factor. E is given by: ga_~ Cas properties that can be derived from the Zfactor are E . 0. and R is in (psia ftl)/(Ibmole OR).52(438. T .1914)2fO..
oPT opl'" ZTp.) [liZ aPr (345) ~ 0.27 az _ !0.Z'T" (3·47) I + (p..732)(459.nRT/If.p( ..008448It'/sc£ ap.27 p"az) ZT p.000)(17. the compressibility of an ideal gas is simply equal to the inverse of the pressure. c. T'" P.(00283)(0.67 + 200)/2.9 At 2..475Ibmft' From Equation 343. For a real gas: V _ nZRTlp . the compressibility factor Z .fZ)(aZlap. Differentiating Equation 329 with respect to pseudoreduced pressure.c.27r.(p"iZ 1 oPpr oPr.27 az ZZ"fp. as follows: cg .27fT.oPr • c. (OV loph '" . With increasing pressure. The isothermal compressibility. aPr oPp.lip . the reduced compressibility can be written as follows: is given by: 1 .) I Substituting for the derivative. Z2'f p.(I V) (aVlaplT az _ az ap. and the compressibility (cJ for an ideal gas can be expressed as: Rearranging this equation results in: I + O.000 . az] _ .) ) 0".. we get: B.ZPpt.. Cp. .27 (aZ!ap." \ 1 + (p.67 + 200)] .1 P (346) [ Thus.p~ (350) . oZlop"" in Equation 348. in Equation 3·48 can be expressed as follows: ~ Compressibility of Gases Compressibility of any substance is a measure of the change in its volume upon changes in pressure.. _  (plnRT)( .AM) .54)/[(0..0..68 Gas Produclkm Engl'leering Propertier oj Natural Case:! .000 psia and 2OO°F. the compressibility decreases. c.rr.(plnZRT)nRT[(lIp)(aZlop) . (348) z ap. is thus given by: <.905)(10. + 5~p:1TI"" + (2A.p1 .!.op... (p. Gases exhibit high compressibility.IZ)(aZlap. ZT. _ (2.(AI + A2/Tp' + ~/'f3p<) + 2(~ + AsIT pr)p.A.ZIP'] 0. It can also be considered as a measure of the change in density with pressure..0.27fT.' P" . .p. iJZlopp.(0.(1IZ)(aZfap) Or. of any substance is defined as: c .nRTip2) ..)(1 + A.) (349) . in terms of reduced variables: Using the Zfactor equation derived from the BWR equation of state by Dranchuk ct al. CR' Thus OZ _ 0. MaHar et al.5. from Example 32..op.) ) 'ap.aZ] az _ 0. which makes the storage of gas under pressure a common occurrence.Zfp'] and the compressibility..p.27! (aZfap.nd (aVfaplT .) [ I ._. az apr' Using the ideal gas law.905)(459. 2.905 The pseudoreduced compressibility..iJpl'" T pi" iJZliJpT .Z . The derivative.nRT[(lIp)(aZlap) . oPp.  From Equation 340.IZ') az] aPr' ~ (az) (0. (1975) evaluated the derivative iJZlop. [az] p. I I [az] PpcPPT . (Equation 328).
.01 Ll.0 Gas Production Engineering Figure 3·11.. cfT.. 1975.) and O.lpp( _ 0. (After Mallar et at.0. as a function of reduced lemperature and pressure in the range 1. (After Mattar al ai.000505 psiI .0. cp. courtesy of the Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology.0..3355 ~ _ Cp.ll.848 .LU.000 psia and 20(P F. Find the compressibility for the sweet gas given in Example 31 at 2. (1975) also presented this correlation in a graphical form as shown in Figures 311 and :J. pP.010 T p. CrT.05 ~ T. Properties oj Natural Gases 71 Figure 3·12. For hand calculations.3. From Example 31.848 Example 3·8. 10." 15.620 c.~I.33551664.664..3.0.4.T pr Thus. 1975. From Example 32.) • • 0 .  1. . Solution From Figure 3·12. at 2.0 P. as a function of reduced temperature and pressure in the range 1. courtesy of the Journal of Cana10 dian Petroleum Technology.620/1. and 0.2~ Pr~ 15. Mattar et al.2~ T..12.0.4" p. .2 '0 P.u 0.000 psia and 200°F.47 psia  0. Ppt .70 10.47 '" 0.
• · ! . known as kinematic viscosity (p). however. (After Carr et aI. the ratio of the dynamic viscosity of a fluid to its density.(FIA)/(dv/dL) The viscosity. as shown in Figures 313. M . (1954) correlation requires only the gas gravity (or the molecular weight) for determining viscosity.000 psia and 200°F. is also used in many flow problems: " . Then.. with 1 cp equal to 0. is not generally possible. Figures 314 and 315 use the corresponding states principle to present " ..72 Gos Production Engineering Properlies oj Natural Ga. In addition. and 315. • ~ Solution From Example 31. courtesy of SPE of A1ME. Examplt: 3·9. Corrections for nonhydrocarbon components N 2 . Figure 314 or 315 can be used to correct for pressure. courtesy of SPE of A1ME.) .f(p"T.. (After Carr at aI. and the gravity 1"1 . is defined as the ratio of the shear force per unit area to the local velocity gradient: • .) Carr et aI. The effect of these components is to increase the viscosity. 314. Find the viscosity for the gas given in Example 31 at 2. Correlation for Natural Gascs The Carr et al.01 go' (em sec). CO 2• and HgS are provided.54. as defined is called dynamic viscosity.. 1954. 1954.17. a measure of its resistance to flow.0.6055 Figure 31 4.fel 73 Viscosity of Gases The viscosity of a fluid. Figure 313. /lJp Viscosity is usually measured in centipoise:s (cpl. Figure 313 is used first to calculate the viscosity at one atmosphere pressure and any given temperature.). Some common methods for predicting gas viscosity are described briefly here. This. Viscosity ratio versus pseudoreduced temperature. It is the most widely used method for determining the viscosity of natural gases. Viscosity of paraffinic hydrocarbon' gases at1.0 atmosphere. or 6. The correlations were presented in graphical form.. p.72 x 10 4lbm/(ft sec). The most accurate method of determining viscosity is obviously to measure it for a given fluid under the desired conditions.
34 X 1O 5T . First. 1954. J4111  The viscosity can be corrected to the desired pressure by using Carr et al.·s reduced pressure and temperature correlations of Figures :J. or any of the several other such correlations available. .  From Figure 313. the corrected viscosity at 1 atmosphere. it is possible to calcu1ate the viscosity of the gas mixture from the comIX'nent viscosities.25)(0. (1959) useful since it provides a good range of reduced pressure and temperature../t!t for Tri 0. Lohrenz et al. Viscosity ratio versus pseudoreduced pressure.00013 .0. p"  3.Il{U. 1964).2. The differences among these charts are.0128 cp 14]et .58Tri . (1964) found the chart by Baron et a1. " _ (1.  x 1O ~(4. however very minor (Lohrenz et al.) From Example 3..5 > 1. at 2.0. Viscosity from SingleComponent Data . (After Carr al ai. the viscosity is determined at one atmosphere (or any "low" pressure) and the given temperature using the Herning and Zipperer (1936) mixing rule: (351) where #lIp = Yl" mole fraction of component i in the gas mixture pure component viscosity at 1 atmosphere pressure and the .14 and 315.Gas Production Engineering Properties of Nalurol G08e$ 75 From Figure 3·14.67)5!8/ tit for Tri 0. for which the correction factor (to be added) from Figure 313 is 0.848 T p.010 1. 14]110 may also be calculated using the following relationship developed by Stiel and Thodos (1961): 14]1t! . If the analysis of a gas is known.4 % N:/:.01293 cp where . ~ .0128 + 0.000 psia and 200°F. 14].01293) .17. the pressure correction. the gas viscosity at 2.00013 cpo Therefore.) (352b) (353) The gas has 1.1.78 < 1. temperature of interest Figure 315. Single component viscosities at 1 atmosphere pressure. So.0162 cp 1 ~ .. Figure 316 shows the pure component viscosities as a function of temperature for some common natural gas constituenl~.5 (352. courtesy of SPE of A1ME..000 psia and 2OQ°F.
C.0. 16. .2 to 5 atmospheres.8 665.000/669.) .01073 From Figure 315. . .4836 BIL 0. (Aller Carr el at.0110 0.04476 cp Therefore.1723 .." 0.7. C.0092 0.2. 0.365. C.0.669.3 Tn 343.070 44.478 E YiM?·:S...50 .5.540/365.. the pressure correction. Thus. Equations 352a and b are valid for pressures in the range of 0. Find the viscosity for a gas with composition.6353 The J.1723 • 1: I'lpYiMf"5 . Solution Come· ~ M. M = r: YIM! .0. and C 3 .697 Ppc = 1: YiPe! .molecular weight Note that units of K for temperature and atmospheres for pressure must be used in Equation 353.01073) .072 0. .097 Jl£L 667.95)(0.04476/4. . for Equations 352a Exampk 3·10.000 psia and 540 R.. courtesy of SPE 01 AIME. 1954.0209 cp Figure 316.critical temperature in K Pa . (1964) report that this method gives an average error of 4. The average error was reported by Stiei and Thodos (1961) to be 1.lli\ values are from Figure 3·16.8 707.481 T" ..76 Gal Production Engineering PropeTliQ of Natural Gases 77 Tn .31 "R p.62%.83% and 1.17.(1.2. = r: YiTe.50 psia T pc So.31 .8 616.0054 5. Lohrenz et a!.0082 and b.023 6. Viscosity of some natural gas constituents allow pressure.7 ' 'M1' 4.90S 0. 90.. 1'1. I~ 200 TEMPERATURE. of o C 1 . at 3..critical pressure in atmospheres M. in mole%.4. 4. respective1y.reduced temperature for component i T c:t . .3.1.3.043 30.1 549. OF .03% for the gas mixtures tested by them. C 2 .
the right side of Equation 357 becomes equal to the gas constant R.2X and p.(0. and c. M . it can be shown that: T pr  1.5 + 986/T + O.011278)exp[(5. and H 2S. the gas viscosity at 3.(11.011278 c.697..78)(10.000 psia and 540"R is: (354) '" _ (0.481 (355) (356) • where h is the molal enthalpy (Btullbmole). Find the viscosity for the gas given in Example 3·10 at 3. 2/ft! x (11778. T is in oR. where pv .745)(1.78 From Equation 340.1. u is the molal internal energy (BtuJlbmoie). the gas density.601846)10' _ 0. c p is the molal specific heat at constant pressure (BtutlbrnoleOR). 4 (9.50290) .4 + O.4 + (0. T (aplaT)~ (op/ovh (357) Z . For an ideal gas. _  From Figure 32.. molal enthalpy (h) and molal internal energy (u). 2 Ibmole OR) x 144 in. It can be measured at constant pressure (cp).50290 Lee ct a1.697) Y = 2.4 .478 c P C.02M)TU 209 + 19M + T Specific Heat For Hydrocarbon Gases One of the basic thermodynamic quantities is specific heat.. and Solutio" From Example 310. the specific heats.02)(17.732)(540) . the compressibility factor.745Ibmlft' . Example 3·11. It is an intensi\'e property of a substance.986 Btu/(lbmole OR) .(3.0. So R must be expressed in the same units: R _ 10.78 C(U Production Engineering Proper/in oj Natural Casel 19 Lee et aI.10 '[9. Using Maxwell's relationships.).000)(17.697)](540")1 [209 + (19)(17. K . resulting in two distinct specific heat values. Cp and c.0211 cp K exp(Xpk) where K _ 10. can be written as: xy  3.~ is in cpo p~ is in gicm1.RT. The problem with this method is that it does not correct for impurities such as N 2 • CO 2.50290)(0. or at constant volume (c.OIM 2. (1966) provide an analytic expression for viscosity that can be used for programming purposes: p.0.~  Using Equation 354..01)(17.2)(5.697) + 540J .11. and c. Correlation For Natural Gases x ~ 3. method.4 .5 + 9861540 + (0. In terms of basic thermodynamic quantities.17.188l4''''''')J . for an ideal gas: P. are Btu/(lbmole OR) in Equation 358.c. is the molal specific heat at constant volume (Btullbmole.732 (lbt ft")f(in. . defined as the amount of heat required to faise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance through unity..000 psia and 54QoR using the Lee et a1.29942 5..°R). are a function of temperature only. Therefore.697)1(0.0. Equation 3·54 reproduced experimental data with a maximum error of 8.R (358) Note that the units for <.2) Btu/(lbf ft) _ 1. Furthermore. 1966).99% (Lee et aI. cp and c.18814 glcm' r\ow. Ppr:Z 4.0.
and c. or the data by Thuloukian et al.0..c. (1969) give the following relationship for calculating ~ in Btu/ (lbmole oF). if the gas composition is known.. for some common constituents of natural gas can be obtained from Table 33. courtesy of lFl/Plenum.) .. D . E _ 0.. and T. respectively. Heat capacity of gases at 1 atmosphere. c. reprinted from Chemical Eng. and using a weighted molal average (Kay's rule). 1973. if the gas comp05ition is not known. c.020603.80 Cas Product/on Engineering Propertia oj Natural Gases 81 and for a temperature range of 0 to 6OO°F: A _ 3.""". Knowing either one of Cp or c. V V /'  V " Figure 3·17. .. + D'rl + E(T'YJ + •• • / .. : i • •• • ...'Vr)17 Ff2 (3·59) where for a temperature range of 0 to 200°F: A . B . . can be determined more precisely using Kay's rulE": .. •• • • _ _ _ _ .0. ..0. . ~. 1970. . .8425. . C .. B .1533. . at any temperature T (oF): ~ ..8 .37 % for the temperature range 0_200° F and 0_600°F.. are functions of both pressure as well as tempera...7. with Equation 359...0 Thomas et al. /' .. versus p. " • For a real gas. F' . Generalized plot for the heat capacity difference. from the gas gravity. (After Touloukian et at.0079997.9.... 0. F . •• .849(10 ') ..0..4 0. C:' as a function of temperature..06 006 010 02 0.• (3·60) • where the cp. F . (1970) shown in Figure 3·18. alized plot for the heat capacity difference... versus Ppr and Tpo' for real gases. courtesy of McGrawHili Book Co..4. (1970) report average errors of 1.0011050. cp.olt+.014609. . (After Edmister..5. . A real gas equation of state can be used to determine the right side of Equation 357. I V1 . D _ 1. .A + BT + C'Y..6435.neers' Handbook.. C . E . ~ A'~ r/ V J.0.. 1948.._ .c. 1'g.7771.. and c. .. and thus the difference between c.. " " . Figure 317 shows a gener I . ture.) .6 0. ~ Figure 31B.....01 % and 1.~ . / The lowpressure isobaric heat capacity. • :~~ . The effective mixture specific heat at low pressure. the other can then be detennined.. ..65621. Cp Determination ..5281.. c p . can be determined primarily by two methods: using the gas gravity. Hankinson et al..
41 16.070 42.00 8. C~H~ 823 9.15 22.13 100·F IUl.99 6.03 8.78 16..13 28.51 2272 27.01 7.89 24.' ... C.!)S 1SOF 8.g'=."d" R. .Jf .mperlh""" and !'.031 ~ ~ Ga.d.89 CII.45 46..96 16.53 24..95 6.97 6.097 56. 124 72.90 38.\'\.178 100...41 32...01 1i. u . . 11. l\.93 44..11 6.. Btuf(lb mOloR··) Chemical formula 0. ~ ><~" ~~~~~.. 3rt! Prlntlnl( 194..32 14..09 6.'.J' _..."()::Ic: < c it ." . 0' c _.'... e:t.53 6.._a o  :I:W· . ::.52 6. _.010 44..' : <~a. /. C.17 6.88 22. I 1 " ~ 1: ll· • ~!!t . April lOS. Crab]." s· ~~Sg _.5 200*F II ..IOS 56.76 15.94 49JII c.56 '1:7. .00 695 8.=....00 8. I'rotl. £nll:.71 10. c...78 8. no' • c ~ n . Sulfide.84 20.5 10.73 29.114 86.64 II I.81 28...3 0 .H. MAmmon!. n _ <r.so ~ ~~'.'''OJ  ~ o""c.03 36.. .....95 'O:J 6...02 18.l'l.00 6.1..9.m9.. IH.78 60*F IU6 10.3 6Q' 5' _.22 13.65 17.• "N. M J..108 58..Jl".90 17.earch "roJee! 44.29 8.\: !t'0N~ ~~ o o N o po.'Rk! ' 2.081 44.80 24. ~ 0 [ .)7 G... ... 3~o " (i' .95 8.91 111..Table 33· Molal Heat c.:..... S J "" .. l'ro.. ~ <.·rtle.08 29..r :l_"'o.3 ._.(O~cg' til &.~ • ".99 24. Q.I I. (O!: 1i:l p i 3 • g..17 14.14 38. .96 8.85 20. c.04 2023 22.98 6. III :::r'c".II...076 28.16 12.} M Hrd. 'I>.H7 8.. '< ~ (i' jI!1 .96 6.oPentane APentane Benzene n·lieul'ie "Heptane Ammonia Air .39 300·F 10.·~ ~ It> :::.016 34.8 0 .63 17.78 33. *" : . 124 58..999 28. (11 (/I =0° !!' .' J..30 38.63 15. ~ .23 723 7...g~.96 8.287.99 8.::: .17 27.~ 0:~~ ~~~ ..c:l .73 24.043 26. _~~".. ..CD~ " ~ ~ c 0 0 ~ 1 ..OCleI5OI"S Supp1i<:...~ ~o ..".~' ~ "'~ ~ ~0 :::" =~ J. ".."' 7.09 14.'.42 10. { ~ 5 1:' i . c 1.' C. Water Ol')'gen Nitrogen lI ydrogen Il ydrogen sulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon diol'ide C.05 • Comley of Ca~ P.. ...'" ~~ 0 .72 12. II.H" Nlll 16.. n III It'ro 10> o 11 3 = III . iJQ~c~g ~~i § :l ~I»~ w"<0 <0 o~ · 0 _ 0 .07 .54 111.C..'1 . "0 jijii~ o:ll~~ <p ::tI ~ '< . 3 g ::I._.odyno". 0 C:IIlCo.17 21 18 1!).34 12.lI lo C.97 6.52 8..:l ~ ~ ~~~ ti (i' <is 0 r.12 712 8.15 45. C.33 11.r .CTIIl . II.46 7.. ~ .111 UTi 6" 6.61 18.054 30.4.·16 40.87 33..~ n::T..[l~ • ::r 3 S :l g :.. or p.59 '1:7. C.::'\:~ ~ ~:" 0 . 11 41 13.. . ~I ...2Bulene iwButane AButane L.! ~..71 20.' 0'" (!) "o. 44. :l 111 III .o 0. R \\est. "'"o.'" 0.. Thrr". C.·c.1.38 27..:\ \ 1// /I ~..07 3 1 II 30.69 16. of hydrocarboru.. Vi' :::.008 28.97 9.HI~ H).::: ::J p "..81 31..010 6. g!ll~ >w 9.61 23..I 0 N • • o o N • • go 0 : • .".. "'.97 8.26 22..._ ~ :~~ .52 22.88 19...:: (\> ..." C..U5 15.25 25.ns1"II.41 30.95 8.44 13.·0 <.77 2.. Qii03 .61 IButene (Butylene) rlf2Bulene fro"s."~~" .964 H. elll fig ·moIeW K I ob o 0 0 0.n.:' Kec.IMn ~"d K~.015 31.1I 11 34. C~HII C. • • '" • 5 ~ 2300 25. 03~ ..95 6.205 17.E. ~~. un ....lf_.108 56.53 7.68 9.96 '00 6.33 10..36 699 956 8..94 25." ~iiia. ~ :~"'..< c 2 0 n ~ . 2.16 25. C...17 7.151 72. ~ 8 !. O~ I I I .00 25. C~m.".:I 0'<.1I 1t 29. "I'! Iler. N.'''1\ ~~ .64 11. co.." r~ .76 703 6.74. 191. .~~~~~ ~ . '9~ I~~ o '" ..operti.04 "I< • • " i .52 "'•.59 18.013 2..94 250*F 9.I :l if.0 § ~ :..98 6.tlon •• Da~a !IOO1'Ce: Selfded .61 8. of AmlllurI. 0 :I o ..52 6.l~ " " ::I 0' ~ T ..49 18.SS 12.. Methane Ethyne (AMylene) Ethene (Eth)lene) • Ethane Propene (Propylene) I'ropo~ O·F WF 8. c:lr. F..23 36.  a 3w~!i"· 3'~. 10> ~ if Ii..47 27. ~ 3.H.pacrty (IdealGas State) . 'lhermod)·nomlc P"'p. ()" 0_ is."8 (]> ... .52 38.98 855 703 10. III ~=.00 6.94 8. 21.5 18.00 6. " ~.36 52.reQ..96 8..08 26. As•..3 ..22 10.II.J ~ . n ~ ~ . • • .Q1 25. 0 o ~ 5·  .90 12.01 8. ..27 6.151 78.~ft:r r.40 20.61 28.01 12.5t 21...SS 33. ~~.~ 0 ..53 7.~ Z_ 3 ... :I ~ o 1Il"C _ a~i=f3 ~ 0 e.37 .. '" '0"~'> ~".60 31.. ::rf5.01 9..I> '< .5 CO CO.·12 29. .116 2245 37..46 35. wt 16..70 6. ~ ~ ...c° e.02 12.....34 20. 0 () ::i" ::: _0.86 8.01 8.'''''pt'n'lI' "AI.97 fj.. 18." 0..37 27.0 g. at "'!d' 11..H.38 6.34 19.95 6.~ gO' I !:..5·8...7..'j(] 22." . til E. \~ ).~ n3~ ?r 5' :e .<? 9 .80 19. .J~ Propt"ftlr" of Ilk Wiley.. "" ::I&. C~I! 23..
"') . 0.  QuesOOm .697128.33) + (5.5 .6109) + (l. M .1 %. 'YK = 17. and (2) the gas analysIS.. find the gas compressibility factor at 1.500 psia to an average pressure of 300 psia? Assume that at the prevailing temperature of 85°F the gas has a compressibility factor of 0. C l . H 2S .0.503 JL 0.6%.(079997)(80. 0.905 0.l533)(0. are converted IOto Btu/(lbmole oF) by multiplying by the molecular weight.. 15.1%. C 3 . ID. find the viscosity and compressibility at 200 psia and BO°F. A gas pipeline consists of a lOmile long 12in.33') .6. 4.200 psia and 95°F using all the applicable methods given in Chapter 3.046 + 6. The gas gravity.849)10"(80.9. and j. 4. and (ii) the pseudocritical pressure and temperature for the gas..5 (80. 0. . Mh in IbmJ lbmole.4 and 15.4%. ' 0 From Figure 319. and a reduced pressure between 0..7.. Find ~ for the gas given in Example 310 at 540 R using (1) gas gravity method of Hankinson et al.530 0.33~F) Therefore.8%. 5.020603)(80.5%. 0.0 .780 18.046 BtuJ(lbmoJe oF) .6109 From Equation 359. the specific heat correc (c. ID pipe section in series with a 20mile long section of 8in.4.  1.8.C4 .. ..478 . How many Mscf of gas must be removed to blowdown this gas pipeline from an average pressure of 1.1 %. 5 %. Solution From Example 310. 2. c. This gas is being sold at a contract pressure of 1. T p.0%. C. A sour gas is known to have the following composition: N2 . 5.6435 + ( ..043 30. nC 4 . What is the error introduced in the calculation of the sales volume by assuming Z .7. G..15.070 44. Comp.69i PI" . C 2 . CO 2 ..075 Btul(lbmole OR) 2.95 at 1. C l . Pmblems '" • .4.9. Find: (i) the gas gravity.072 0.546 Btu{(lbmole OR). and 0. "" 1.! Production Engineering Properties oj Nglurai Go.: 1. obtained from Figure 318.(X)() psia and 540 0 R fOT this gas.5 %. Example 312. Assume the C 3 • fraction to be equivalent to nC~.097 Btu/~lbm C. ~ .478. For the gas in Problem 2. Use the value for cp from the gas analysis method to find '1> and c at 3.. and T pr tion. cp  I: y~ .425 12.. at Pvr .481 (c.Go.1. 77.481.6109') + (0. For the gas given in Problem 4. oF) Btu/(lbmole oF) 8.0. 0.17. 6. c" . 9.425 0. 0.:. 5.023 ~ 16. 2.6109) + (9. find the viscosity and compressibility at 800 psia and 65°F.IQ 85 cumbersome method and is subject to limitations of nonhydrocarbon gas content of less than 7 %.8425)(0. Thus.. C.85 at 300 psia. We have a sweet gas of known composition: N2 .5%..500 psia. a reduced temperature greater than 1.89%. 9. ~) . 3.! .741 !he CPI values in Btu/(lbm oF). For the gas given in Problem 2.000 psia at 120°F... and C 3 + .9.85? Use the best estimates of Zfactor from the available corre1ations..0 Therefore.046 Btu/Qbmole OR) 1b find cp and c.33)(0.:.546 BtuI(lbmole OR) • from Figure 317..97 '" 0.546 .
1974. "An Empirical Equation for Thermod}'namic Properties of Light Hydrocarbons and Their Mixtures. Pet. R. 1979. Pet.. K. May). Oct. J.. N.hqUld Eq~l libria with the RedlichKwong Equation of State. \'QI. Tech. Soc. R. Edmister. L. 1. 69.... B. Redlich. Bray. R.. M. 8. and Yanosik. and Campbell.Gas Production Engineering Properties oj Natural Ca. D. and Katz. Brar. 1969. CPSA. 1973.sem. Eng. Reviews 44. Fund. McCrawHili Book Co.7(1. H. Eng.. Perry and C. and Burrows. and Rubin. and AbouKas. D. Tech. D. Tech." O. M. "Predict Nat· ural Cas Properties. A. Proc.. C16. D." /. Joffe.. N. "Densit}' of Natural Cases. Fussell.. New York. 203210. 14(4. 1977.• 1959. Buxton. J. L.) Gulf Pub!. A." }.. and Eng. and Robinson. J M.. Methane. Vol. H."]' Pet.. 48th Ann. L.• Webb. [P 74008. C. "Calculation of ZFactors for Natural Cases Using Equations of State. and PhiUips. Dec. C . and Wells. Dranchuk. and Lee. 496498. 333347. . Edmister. Apr.. Applied Hydrocarbon Thermodynamics.. J. Eng. B.. 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"An Iterative Sequence for Phase Equilibria Calculations Incorporating the RedlichKwong Equation of State. Purvis. Oklahoma.).• 14(3. Roof. \V. Z. Jr. Sci.]. 1972.). M. 1. and Alden.. Feb. D. 1. "Viscosity of Ilydrocarbon Cases Under Pressure. D. Texas. Chern. 1973. J. Rejiner (Nov. D. T. "A New 1\. Dec. NaWral Gawline and \'olatile Hydrocarbons.). S.. K." Ind. B. 9971000. Eng.). Lee.. D. Tulsa.. "A Tcchnique for Calculating Multiphase Equilibria. 233244. VAn Equation of State. and Zudkev. H. and Robirson. and Propane at Elevated Temperature and Pressure.. D. July 5). 5964. D. 19(4. Tulsa. F.. Soa\'e." Chem." Soc. F.). Co. C. Benedict. 334345. Conzalez. p. 27(6.). Perry and C. B. Vapor Pressure. "Calculation of the Viscosity of Technical Cas Mixtures from the Viscosity of Individual Gases." Trans. and Campbell.. Fund.)." J. 1942. Petrol. C. 1950. Lohrenz. July). "On the Thermodynamics of Solutions. R. 18(8.. 140149.. 11711176. Schroeder. 1975. "NonIdeal Behavior of Cases and Their Mixtures. K.." }. V. 54 (6. AIChE J. Oklahoma. Tech .. "The Viscosity of Natural Cases. Peng... E. }. 18(2. 1977. 283288.. P. May). 1061OB. H. B." So('. (Dec.). C.). Thlsa." Tram. Pet. H . 3436. L.. WasserJach 79(49). M. R. B. Chem.oConstanl Equation of . Engr. L. L. 37(10. W C. 1967. 1985.. 5th ed." Cdll. 264272. Chilton. and Clark. Mattar. W C.. 16(10. Chilton. . 1975. Series. OcL). D. C. Eng. 15(1. Chemical Engineers' Handbook..and ThreePhase Equilibria Calculations for Systems Containing Water. Chem.. Campbell Petroleum Series.. Wand Campbell. and Entropy of Vaporization. Chern... J. 613... 1948. 8(4. Copal. 5th ed. 11971203. H. Bro~Ol. Oklahoma. C. "Vapor." J. 58611. Houston. 1949.). K. Perry and C.Dec. edited by R H. 1973.itch. 595599. Carr. 3(4. T K. NCAA." Soc." Soc. C . 1954. J. J. 808£. 48(4. "Cubic Equations of StateWhich?" Ind. Cas Conditioning and Processing.. McCrawHill Book Co. 201. C.).. Campbell.. 1963. . No. Aug. Kobayashi.. B. and Cas J. Am. OK. 1940.Y. 16(3. C. Aug. R.. AlAtE. L. Pet. 1976. 'Compressibility of Natural Cases. 77(13.. N. 8). "Prediction of the Critical Temperature and Pressure. Apr. 1964. Cllem.. Oberfell. Prausnitz.. Dranchuk. Peng.). Oct. and Aziz. Fussell. D. and Eakin. C.rer 87 References Baron. S. C. McLeod. O. J.. C. C. "Computer Calculation of Natural Cas Compressibility Factors Using the Standing and Katz Correlation. D.. F. and Sherwood. (3rd eeL)... JulySept. McCrawHili Book Co. T S. Lippman.. 1936. 688pp. Pet. Eng.. and Zipperer.. 326pp. Nat. Coats. Cdn. 19!0. 18701886. 233pp. Aug. 8197. Standing. New York. L. Pet. "Calculating Viscosities of Reservoir Fluids from Their Compositions. M". Satter.).. R. B. Curl. M. Pitzer. "Viscosity of Nitrogen. Norman.. M.. June).. 1979.. 1948. C . W .. J.. J." Gas U. 1976. 1984. Katz. w. 1978. H. and Density of Natural Cas. J.. "Two.. 75(32.. June). J.. Thomas. Fugacities of Caseous Solutions. "Simulation of Cas Condensate Reservoir Performance. and Eng. and Robinson. Edmister..... Huggins. oj Petr. Chilton (eds. 4(3.
~_~~puter ZFactor Calcula. E. 5. oil. L. A.. cntlcaJ Parameters for Mixtures" P . Gas dehydration processing to remove from the gas condensable water vapor that may lead to the formation of hydrates under certain conditions (see Chapter 5).. K. and VOO. 4 Gas and Liquid Separation To~ou~a. hydrocarbon condensate. Proc. S. Sti~.1~1: ~j. M d r tions. and gas.n. . Further cleaning of the gas and oil streams after separation.. and Lee T Y SpecifIC HeatNonmetallic liquids and Case..8688. D.. 2.. C..h~~hii'. plication to General Physical Data Calculatio~s "q~atlOn of State..~ ~~ ~. IFIIPlenum .:" T~ 'h' ~. Clevel~nd. 1970. 1959 "Pred' .. Often.'. 1969. Y. Nev.. • Wilson. M.~ . "Correlation and Prediction of Va r+ 16q(1 J EqUlhbna WIth the RedJichKwong Equation of State" A/ChI:. .. 89 . w. ~'." J. "A Modified RedlichKwon E .. It is important to remove any solids and contaminants. 51(5.). an as.ab~i~0~1!~~!. ' . R. C. Cas and liquid separation operations involve the separation and stabilization of these phases into saleable producU.. intermediate hydrocarbons in the liquid state fetch a higher price. which are handled and transported separately. 1970 . 18). 1970.. K.. Pet.V~~r5~f Gas ~ankinson. 1976 "Co .eZ+Factors'" 0 d G ' J' R. 119122. therefore. Nonpolar Cases at NorTakacs. or low temperature separation techniques are used. .~.~:l~~h National ~eet. CaIcuJahon of Z's for Sour Cases" H Yd r. lchon of PseudoKansas City. and Phillips.~c ..__ ~!5~COUstiC Velocities for Natural Cas. ~tll!3 oj Matter. a~d }~ffe. Production Engineering Ste\\:~. and the entrained solids. 72(7. intimately mixed with water. 1974. Gas and liquid separation operations to remove the free liquidscrude oil.os Ga. Typically. in the liquid and gaseous states.. ' aper presented at the AIChE Meet. York City 6' OP YSlCal PrapWichert E and Aziz K 1972 .. Generally. it is desirable to maximize liquid recovery. W.. R. Kirby. ApIntroduction Only rarely does a reservoir yield almost pure natural gas. and water. 112119. and to separate the produced stream into water.. with components undergoing rapid phase transitions as the stream is produced from a several hundred feet deep reservoir with a high temperature and pressure to surface conditions. Removal of contaminants or otherwise undesirable components. h' . 4. and carbon dioxide (discussed in Chapter 6)." O. This chapter describes gas· liquid separation and gas cleaning techniques. . F. S.. How to Solve Equation of State for Z dk . • 1. Taylor. a produced hydrocarbon stream is a complex mixture of several hydrocarbons. K. . MO.:. Recovery of condensable hydrocarbon vapors.a~).ULp~:~~. Field processing of natural gas includes: Ya::~:. Th~mas. May).. Det 22(7~r~~~. such as hydrogen sulfide and other corrosive sulfur compounds. The produced stream may be unstable. Burkhardt. }. E. and /. 3. " .' Tech.' . uu e. Stage separation.~i:(57. R. solids and other contaminants are also present. Feb. an..
devices for indicating the liquid level. A false cone bottom can be easily fitted to handle sand production. Ad"antages and disadvantages for these separator types are cited from Campbell (1955). centrifugatioll. different modules assembled to achieve different functi?ns in a single vessel. hnriuUltal (singletube or doubletube). The gas from the primary separation section flows upwards. and the economics. Remove the bulk of the liquid from the gas in the primary separation section. turbulence is quite detrimental to removal efficiency. the design of a separator comprise<. until they become sufficiently heavy to fall into the liquid accumulation section.f the gas .and liquid streams is induced by allowing the liquid to stand for a penod of time. 4. Equilibrium is attained in the piping and equipment JUst upstream of the separator. The tendency of the liquid to revaporize is also minimized. The smaller liquid droplets that are carried along by the upwards rising gas stream are removed in the centrifugal baffles near the top. Prevent reentrainment of the separated gas and liquid. It is desirable to quickly achieve good separation at this stage. Beggs. 3. . a tangential inlet to impart centrifugal motion to the entering fluids is generally used. and provide low enough gas and liquid velocities for proper gravity segregation and vaporliquid equilibrium. and handle any slugs of liquid (usually known as "liquid surges" ). For this purpose.ng the entrained liquid mist from the gas by gravity settling. Have proper control device. Have a large settling section. large liquid slugs without carryover into the gas outlet. Adl. The liquid particles coalesce and accumulate. 7. Selection of a particular type depends upon the application. and many separators therefore have sections where turbulence is induced for this purpose. Turbulent flow allows gas bubbles to escape more rapidly than laminar flow. Further refine~ent ?. 6. and spherical. Minimize turbulence in the gas section of the separator to ensure proper settling. thermometers. On the o~her hand. It thus provides better surge control. P~vi~e reliable equipment for ensuring safe and efficient operations. Liquid level control is not as critical in a vertical separator. It occupies less floor space. and gas and liquid discharge ("dump'') "alves. Have a mist extractor (or eliminator) near the gas outlet to capture and coalesce the smaller liquid particles that could not be removed by gravity settling. S. 9. ltntrifugaJ action. 1984. Vertica1 Separators The wellstream enters the vertical separator (Figure 41) tangentially through an inlet diverter that causes an efficient primary separation by three simultaneous actions on the stream: gravity settling. a particularly important advantage for operations on an offshore platform where floor area is at a premium. the separator il<. To efficiently perform its separation functions. for controlling the backpressure and the liquid level in the separator. safety relief valves to prevent blowup in case the gas or liquid outlets arc plugged. so that any dissolved gas in the liquid can escape by the formation of smaU gas bubbles that rise to the liquid surface: a~d remo\.eci into thf('(> hasic type. Finallh a mist extractor at the gas outlet removes any entrained liquid droplets from the gas in the micron size range. impmgt:mt:nt ."antage3 • A vertical separator can handle relativel).elf serving only as a "wide" spot in the line to refine the vapor and liquid streams resulting from this basic separation. Vertical vessels can handle more sand. Control the accumulation of froths and foams in the vessel. 2. of sufficient \'olume to refine the primary separation by removing any entrained liquid from the gas. fOr the removal of liquid droplets from the gas by gravity setthng. ThIS Includes pressure gauges. Control and dissipate the energy of the wellstream as it enters the separator. while the liquid falls downward into the liquid accumulation section. A conical baffle is provided as a separation between the liquid accumulation section and the primary separation section to ensure an undisturbed liquid surface for proper liquid le\'el control and release of any dissolved gas. because less surface area is available to the liquid for evaporation. __________________ T~nx~~o~f= SC~p=a~'~at~o~~~___________________ Separators can be categori7. Thus. 8. and impingement of the inlet fluids against the separator shell in a thin film. a well designed separator must (Campbell. 1984): 1.: certicoJ. and is often used on low to intermediate gasoil ratio (COR) wells and wherever else large liquid slugs are expected. and other means.90 Gas Production Engineering CO$ and Liquid Separation 9' Separation Equipment Separators operate basically up:m the principle of pressure reduction to achieve separation of gas and liquid from an inlet stream.
_. but with ~ greater liquid capacity. a Berry Industries Company...'.. ..__ . (Courtesy of HTISuperior._. AdditionaJ liquid generated is drained into the lower section through the liquid drains provided aJong the length of the separator. . and Liquid Separation 93 ...... It strikes baffles placed at an angle of 45° .. In the doubletube type... . The liquid generated in ._....... ' .. __ . _.... 0. ... ..1  "" ..'. since the upwards flowing gas in the ver.._.. ~.. . (Courtesy of HTISuperior. strikes an angle baf£1e and then the separator shell.. _ _ "  _...'...) ~ .._O<. A vertical separator for the same capacity is usually larger than a horizontal separator.... '0.... ..._.1 """ . Cas flows horizontally in a horizontaJ separator. via horizontaJ baf£1es as shown in Figure 42... a Berry Industries Company. In the singletube horizontal separator... _ ....... __ ._. thereby releasing entrained liquid by impingement. Thus the doubletube separator is similar to a singletube separator. ."CCUI04IIU Figure 4·1.... ._.ST""'GAIIO ACCUSOIIIf. .... .__.. HORlZONTAL LOW PRESSURE SEPARATORS .. A mist extractor is usually provided near the gas out1et. ACC(....._....1 . . tical separator opposes the falling droplets of liquid. STAN DUD ACCUSOIIIES ~.) .... _ . 0I"ll0N""'.._ .1 .. These baffles act as Sites for further release of any dissolved gas.. _ _ ._ . ...___.. while the lower tube merely functions as a liquid accumulation section. .A(NUQ Figure 42. and also more expensive to transport to location.. ' . _ Of'flONAI..~ . the upper tube acts as the separator section. ... 10' _ _ ........ ' . The wet gas flows through the baffles in the upper separator tube at hig~er velocities...92 Gas Production Engineering Ca.the primary separation section near the inlet is immediately drained out mto the lower tube..... Horizontal Separators These separators may be of a singletube (Figure 4·2) or a doubletube (Figure 43) dt5ign.. .. the wellstream upon entering through the inlet.. • DiMulvantagn Vertical \'~ are more expensi\'e to fabricate.. The liquid drains into the liquid accumulation ~ion.__ ..... resulting in an efficient primary separation similar to the vertical separator........ A horizontal singletube separator. '.. A conventional vertical separator..
1984). and are therefore not advisable to use where the well produces a lot of sand... for foammg well streams. can be minimized by stacking several of these on top of each other for stage separation operations.". cheaper than either the vertical or the horizontal separators. Spherical Separators Figure 43.H?rizo?tal separators have a much greater gasliquid interface area.zontal separators are almost always used for high GOR wells. (After Sivalls.. G"~k p .. ~orizo~tal separators minimize turbulence and foaming.) Adcolltaga Liquid Ic. however. A. For a given capacIty.. perImttmg . They are cheaper to fabricate and ship than vertical separators. They are \'ery compact. ~oTl.I~IOf The spherical separator is designed to make optimum use of all the known means of gas and liquid separation such as gravity.94 Cas Production Engineering INL[f Gas alld Liquid Scporatum 95 OIVERT(R " . "". A mist extractor is used for the final removal of smaller liquid droplets in the gas (see Figure 44). Spherical separators are applicable to well streams with low to intermediate GOR's. Separation Principles The several different techniques applied for separation processing can be broadly classified into two categories: mechanical separation and chemical separation techniques based upon thermodynamic vaporliquid equilibrium principles.. and offer better cleanout and bottom drain features than even the vertical type. Because of the limited internal space. They occupy a lot of space. •• 2~G~"~W~'. it is difficult to use a spherical separator for threepha'iC (gasoilwater) separation. and the surge space is rather limited. The liquid is split into two streams that come together after going halfway around the circular vessel wall and then fall into the liquid accumulation section. 'M I NlU  """" Liquid level control is critical for horizontal separators. handle large gas volumes eco~omlcally and efficiently. They are much harder to clean. and surface contact (Craft et a!.. A spherical lowpressure separator. centrifugal force. A horizontal doubletube separator... 1977. They are also easier and cheaper to install and service. 1962)... Adlxmtagf!ll Spherical separators are very inexpensive. ?onzontal separators are smaller and cheaper than vertical separators. . The space requirements. 0'011'0 O.'"~===I(~~~V.. the mechanical . An inlet flow diverter spreads the entering wellstream tangentially against the separator wall.hlgher gas velocities.IiJlngPlpe FluidtuU". They have very limited surge capacity and liquid settling section. In separators. and for UquidIiquid separation (SeW.... Liquid droplets from the gas are removed mostly by the velocity reduction imposed upon the gas inside the vessel.'el control is critical to the spherical separator performance.. Disadmlltagn • Figure 44. They can. low velocity. courtesy of C. therefore. Sivalls and the University of Oklahoma..''' F'fe . Mechanical separation includes several techniques that will be discussed later in the section on gas cleaning.
Centrifuge Separation where Cd . acting in opposite directions must be equal in magnitude.)" wtl(3CdP~" Solving for t: In the analysis that follows.droplet velocity 2. • and integrating. gra\"ity settling.. the heavier liquid droplets are thrown outward to the centrifujOte walls as shown in Figure 45.(HI .drag (or friction) coefFicient P. . q n . as shown in Figure 45. Figure 4·5.. The residence time t for the fluid in the centrifuge is given by: t .2~ 1 J h 3Cd P.Hf)h!q GAS • • 0 v2 _ 4~P1W2R • • • • • • • • • 0 • • F. with a uniform diameter d p • The area A projected by a droplet is therefore equal to (T/4)~..96 GeM Production Engineeri'lg CO. (42) Separating the variables. ..HI ')(3C""J" q (dpPl)o·:sW . Therefore. Therefore. there are two forces acting on any droplet at a radius R: Substituting for t from Equation 41 into 43: 1.HI') . Forces acting on a particle in a gas stream in a centrifuge .. and impingement. it is assumed for simplicity that the liquid droplets are spherical. So: nuid (41) .! and Liquid Separation 97 separation methods that are applied are of three types: centrifugal action..2(d.(H! .. given by: Consider a centrifuge of radius R2 .gas density v . due to angular acceleration. given by: (43) .p. the two forces Fd and F.H!)h _ (HI' . due to friction. the sum of forces on the droplet must be equal to zero. Feed enters at a volumetric rate q.. centrifuge volume/volumetric flow rate of where PI . Fd . • • • ~ • 0 liquid film FEED al rOI. As the centrifuge rotates at an angular speed w. we get: 2(Hj' . height h.. The drag force. liquid density At equilibrium conditions. The force F. and inner shaft radius Rj. As shown in Figure 45.
centrifuge separation involves using several relatively small. The residence time for the droplet in a separation chamber of circular crosssection.dh/dt given by: Upon integration. v _ hit assuming a constant \' where g . The forces on the droplet are: 1. or increase the rotational speed. and is called the separation coefficient.(. as shown in Figure 46. w. In practice. v: (45) d\.h(R! . of the centrifuge.> I. To achieve good separation in a centrifuge.F. it is therefore essential to have as large a centrifuge column as possible. increase the height. Forces acting on a particle in a gas stream in a gravity settling chamber. At lower rates. h.. and to operate the centrifuge at as high a speed as possible. whereas higher rates lead to an excessive pressure drop through the centrifuge or cyclone. Therefore: (48) . of the centrifuge. given by: Substituting for t from Equation 47 and rearranging. we get: q _ (.98 Gas Production Engineerillg CO! and Liquid Separation 99 Solving for the droplet diameter ~: Solving for the droplet velocity. Thus.h'L)l4q (47) • Cravity Settling Consider a liquid droplet of diameter d" suspended in a gas stream flowing at a rate q. w~ have three options: decrease q. The constant K relates to the liquid droplet diameter and the drag coefficient. is given by. Properly operated.Rl)pP 'w dp '" 3(R~ s .RP)2CdPfl2 72h2(R~ _ Rj)2PIW2 (44) Equation 45 for the droplet velocity is often written as: (46) Equation 44 gives the size of the smallest droplet that can be removed b\ the centrifuge. separation is poorer. Fd . Force Fit due to gravit)~ The velocity v at which the droplet falls in the vertical direction is given by: v . which is not quite feasible.R!')(3C dPJ"q .acceleration due to gravity.hLl4) v Substituting for v from Equation 45 into Equation 47b: At equilibrium. standardsize cyclones in parallel. This is known as the SoudersBrown equation. Centrifuges (or cyclones) perform best when the gas flows at a constant rate and pressure for which the equipment has been designed. t . centrifuge separation can usually handle liquid droplets down to a size of about 2 microns. f'" L I h ~ I Figure 4·6. FEED 01 role . to decrease the droplet size d p that can be removed.' _ (R!' . and 2. Force Fd due to friction. with length L and diameter h.
Gravity settling can effectively remove liquid droplets of size greater than about 80 microns.100 Ca. or the temperature decreases. because a greater pressure drop is synonymous. The wellhead pressure. ~ sides vapor· liquid separation considerations. due to the effect of temperature on the flowing volume and gas and liquid densities. operational problems. and the composition of the fluid feed to the separator. In the final analysis. it is usually desirable to produce more liquid because it sells at a higher price in most cases. by its obvious relationship to the wellhead pressure and the transmission line pressure. gasliquid separation is affected by the separator operating pressure. The idea is to maximize the income from a given wellstream. the extent to which it should be cooled. since this determines the size of the impingement surface needed to remove droplets up to a given size: and the pressure drop resulting from the flow of gas through the impingement medium. The wellstream flowing temperature is generally higher than the usual separator operating temperatures. economics is the foremost concern. in turn. Controlling the Operating Conditions The two parameters that can be controlled are the pressure and temperature. are specified for a given design by the manufacturer and are beyond the scope of the present discussion. and the wellstream therefore. however. it may not be possible to Operate at this optimum point because of the costs involved. with increasing pressure. respectively. all are subject to an economic analysis. In practice. the separator capacity usually decreases. Limitations in separator operating pressure are imposed. Other parameters. we must maximize the height hand length L. backpressure valves are used. the gas capacity of the separator increases. are also used. One of the goals. • Factors Affecting Separation As is true for all vaporliquid equilibrium processes. gas with entrained liquid particles strikes a surface such as a baffle plate. Vaporliquid equilibrium flash calculations will yield the optimum pressure and temperature quite easily. the flow direction is altered several times to achieve better gasliquid separation. and the product mix (gas versus oil). however. such as pressure drop through the separator. it is clear that as the pressure increases. cooling towers. In addition. and the allowable velocity through the separator. temperature. and the liquid capacity of the separator. is to minimize gas compression expenses. to allow smaller droplets to settJe. In actual oilfield practice. The pressure drop caused by the impingement media is also of concern. The type of separator chosen. For example. The impingement surface size can be determined using laws governing the £low of particles suspended in a fluid. With increasing temperature. The design parameters for an effective impingement surface are the distance across the flow path necessary to stop the liquid droplet. The most widely used cooling method is the simultaneous pressure and temperature reduction by expansion of the wellstream through a choke (JouleThomson effect). although other cooling methods such as heat exchangers. ProdlJCtion Engfnurlng Gas and Liquid Separation 101 Thus. the operating conditions. doing so may strip the gas of its intermediate components to an extent that it may not meet pipeline specifications for the energy (or Btu) content per unit volume. Separator sizing is essentially quoted in terms of the gas capacity. Generally. Separator Design The design aspects encountered by a petroleum engineer only involve choosing the correct separator size for a given field installation. or wire mesh. but the momentum of the liquid droplet tends to mOve it straight ahead and impinge and collect on the surface. it is really the economics that determines whether the wellstream should be cooled. the required chamber size becomes too large for any practical application. the product sales specifications must be considered. or enhanced storage system vapor losses. The gas flows around this flow obstruction. Impingement techniques can handle liquid particles of size greater than about 5 microns. up to a point referred to as the optimum. . has to be cooled to the desired temperature. to higher compression costs for the gas. there will be greater liquid recovery. actual flowing volume. and the cooling method applicable. such as the terms derived in Equations 42 and 45 for the particle velocity in a centrifuge and a gravity settling chamber. while the transmission line pressure requirements are usually fixed by its design. such as those in Chapter 2. relates to the flowing characteristics of the well. Impingement In the impingement process. and refrigeration. For pressure. From a practical standpoint. Temperature control is usually available to a certain extent. in engineering terms. For removing smaller particles. From the general phase diagrams for naturally occurring hydrocarbon mixtures. The reasons are the effect pressure has on gas and liquid densities.
" gener~lly reported in units of MMscfd (million standard cubic feet per day). and Liquid Separation 103 Separator Design Using Basic Separation Principles where A . VL  0. and the retention time of the liquid within the separator (Sivalls. The gas capacity at standard conditions (14.liquid density at the operating conditions.pJ/P. is based upon total separator area . spacing. the SoudersBrown relationship can also be used for other designs where v".35 K "" 0. CIg. can be calculated as follows: • The gas capacity of spherical separators ill based upon the capacity of the mist extractor.35 0.' Z(T + 460)p~S (410) Cal Capacity The SoudersBrown relationship (Equation 46) has been traditionally used for calculating the gas capacity of gasliquid separators: where vll '" allowable gas velocity at the operating conditions.40 to 0. operating temperature. or to calculate the gas rate that a separator of a given size can handle.liquid settling volume. MMscfd p .0. determined using Equation 46 with K _ 0.16 for 24 in. min (1440 is the conversion factor to convert bbllday into bbl/min) The liquid settling volume..(. qg. Am. . is an empirical constant given as follows (Craft et a1.40D'Kp(PI. can be obtained as follows: (411) Separator type Vertical Horizontal Range of K 0. ft Note that the gas velocity v. 1962. Sivalls. Liquid Capacity The liquid capacity of a separator depends upon the volume of the separator available to the liquid.1399D2h for vertical separators .. K . spacing.. Ibm/ftl K . psia T ..167 with a mist extractor 0. and it is therefore more appropriate to refer to it as the superficial gas velocity. .. 1977): Most commonly used K value where <u:s<.50 0.117 without mist extractor 0..35 with a mist extTaetoT • Besides calculating the diameter of the separator required for a given gas capacity. is the gas velocity through the mist extractor.gas density at the operating conditions. 1977): W . (412) Using Equation 46. the gas capacity at operating conditions. bbl t _ retention time..pJ'. K. is thus given by: 2.102 Cal Production Engineering Ga. and for sizing mist eliminators. O F Z _ gas compressibility factor al the operating conditions Equation 49 or 410 can be used to calculate the separator diameter required to handle a given gas rate. The area of the mist extractor required.gas capacity at standard conditions. V L .1440V LIt such as bubble cap or trayed towers for dehydration and desulfurization units. f~ D _ internal diameter of the \'~ . bbl/day V L .35 for mist extractor (wire mesh type).382 with a mist extractor Spherical· 0.Av./4)(D')K ((PI . fllsee <lgsc "" PI . 0. Ibm/ft' PI .06 to 0. in ftl/sec is given by: q.. The K values given by Sivalls (1977) for these are as follows: Wire mesh mist eliminators Bubble cap trayed columns Valve tray columns K .7 psia and 60°F) .I" (49) where W . operating pressure.18 for 24 in.liquid capacity.crosssectional area of the separator.separation coefficient The separation coefficient.
are subject to the opposite constraintthey require a high liquid capacity. must be provided.lJe 41. where V . standard vertical separators less than • Spherical separators are generally operated at halffull of liquid conditions. For a vertical separator. the gas capacity of the separator is usually the limiting factor. for a horizontal or vertical separator shou1d be kept between 3 and 8..CLR·t Some of the basic factors that must be considered in designing separators are (Lockhart et aI.V .O.. the feed enters just above the vaporliquid interface that may be offcentered to adjust for a greater gas (or liquid) capacity as needed.. from the top of the vessel. the retention time t decreases. however.separator length (height). as CLR increases.Wt On rearranging: • 1. an operating temperature equal to 110° F'. and (3) spherical separator. t. For a horizontal separator..2)0$ because spherical separators have greatet rurge capacity due to their Ulape.VI. used generally for low gasliquid ratio at low pressures. and 112 full of liquid conditions.V ."" VL  Cal Production Engineering Cas arid Liquid Separation 105 O. etc.80..e been suggested by Sival1s (1977): Oilgas separation High pressure oilwatergas separation Low pressure oilwatergas separation 1 min. . is given by: Vc . 3. the \'olume is increased by a factor of (0. a retention time t . ideal gas with gravity . to be operated at 1. t ~ cW~(=Go'LR~+~I) V Thus.000 psi a. Highpressure separators are generally used for highpressure. E:ram. 5 to 10 min.. Note that as the gasliquid ratio (C LR) increases. the following liquid retention times ha . Therefore. Lowpressure separators. Assume a liquid (oil + water) density of 52 Ibm/ft3. LID. min. 1977). The volume of the separator occupied by gas. 2. the liquid discharge (or dump) valve should be designed for the pressure drop available and the liquid flow rate (Sivalls. ft For good separation.1399i)2(U2) for horizontal si. The separator chosen must satisfy both the gas as well as liquid capacities.ngletube separators VI . The length to diameter ratio. high gasliquid ratio (gas and gas condensate) wells.Wt by Equation 412.O. Also. novel design techniques violate these rules of thumb by providing additional features. 1986): Therefore: W.S for spherical separatorswhere h .Wt 2 to 5 min. A separator. foundation costs. Determine the separator size required. Also. ft L .CLR·t. at at at at goOF BOoF 70°F 60°F because VI. for a fixed separator volume V and liquid capacity W. for: (1) a vertical separator.40 bbllMMscf. V . retention time t decreases. In this case. the vaporliquid interface (at which the feed enters) shou1d be at least 2 ft from the bottom and 4 ft from the top of the vessel. V c.04660l(D/2)O. (2) a horizontal singletube separator. The vaporliquid interface.. This implies a minimum vertical separator height Qength) 016 ft.total separator volume vc is also given by: Vc = cut  W. min. must be kept at least 10 in. 6 ft and standard horizontal separators of diameter less than 26 in. .height of liquid column above the bottom of the liquid out1et in the vertical separator. the relationship mentioned assumes this cue. In practice...3 min. is required to handle a wellstream with gas flow rate 7 MMscfd at a GLR . from the bottom and 16 in. are available and have been used successfully. at > lOO°F 10 to 15 15 to 20 20 to 25 25 to 30 min. From field experience. . due to considerations of fabrication costs.1399IYL for horizontal doubletube separators VI. This implies a minimum horizontal separator diameter of 26 in. . 0. min. a sufficient retention time.
5 ft is required.. For a minimum LID ratio . the diameter of the horiwntal separator required is: 0 .5 . 3.. x 6 ft is required. separator length required .40)(IOOO)(52 ..Z(T + 460)p1' 2.583 Therefore.[0. Therefore.77 ft._ tio . 19n.17~1 _ 1.583/[(0. A better design can usually be made using actual manufacturers' field test data that account for the dependence of gas capacity on the separator height (for vertical) or length (for horizontal).t< ~ 1. • 2. VL  Cas density.. K . a .382]03 .0. So.27 £t ( .67 ft (~ 20 in.77/2.1.. 0.6 So.(2)(0. The LID ..(lOOO)(2B. Gas capacity of vertical lowpressure separators. the diameter of the spherical separator to handle the required gas capacity is: Figure 47 .) O. The liquid capacity. For horizontal separators.583 bbl 1..466065/0. PJ" (7)(1)(570)(3..49 ft. 1. 1.. Thus.466065/0.67 2)] = 1.1399!)2(Ll2) . VL . 3.583 3_.67 .1399IJ2h '"' 0.. ~ 2. 2.789 IbmlCtl From Equation 4. the liquid settling volume required for each separator type is (Equation 412): v. (After Sivalls.1399)(2.466065/0.. x 6.789''') K(2. K . 167? . ( .. courtesy of C. Therefore...10 ft ( . a spherical separator of diameter 2. L .0..106 Ca.5 ft. [(2'>~)(0. The LID ratio . D .17 (t) should be used.466065 K For a retention time t of 3 min.583 The. a vertical separator of size 20 in.. Therefore. 3 X 2.167.27 ft based upon liquid ca D' _ q.15 ft The liquid capacity.0. a horizontal separator of size 26 in.73)(570) _ 3.35. the minimum separator diameter of 26 in. K .).17 .. [0. P.(40)(7)(3)/1440 ~ 0.1399)(1. R. . 6. The liquid capacity. Therefore. 27 in.) is required.efore.17 . 0. 0.583)/[(0.3.pM/ZRT .40Kp(p. which does not satisfy design criteria.8)/(I)(JO.20 in. Field experience shows this dependence that is not accounted for by the SoudersBrown equation.0466IY(D/2)O!l .0466]1 pacity requirements. VL. For a spherical separator with mist extractor. Thus.789)" So. 13. the diameter of the vertical separator required is: D . the minimum separator length of 6 Ct should be used. For a horizontal separator with mist extractor.0. For a vertical separator with mist extractor.35?' . 0.) .583)10. Figures 47 through 414 show the gas capacity charts for various separator types as a function of their si~ and operating pressures.382. Sepa rator Design Using Actual Separator Performance Charts The SoudersBrown relationship provides only an approximate approach..  WtlI440 . h ..[0. Sivalls and the University 01 Oklahoma. 6/1...10: O. Production Engineering Cas and Liquid Separation 107 Solution D .0.97)(0.816. 3.
pressure vertical separator.. From Figure 4. use a 30 in...... • correction has to be made for the extent of liquid (onequarter fuji.. courtesy of C. .76 bbl. 11...4... onethird full. ". Sivalls and the UncverSlty 01 Oklahoma. VI. V 1C1O . of 0..• • . Figures 415 and 416 are the sizing charts for the liquid capacity of horizontal singletube separators. ~: . Gas capacity of vertical highpressure separators... From Figure 4·8.. (After Sivalls.~ 1~' • ~ V • • " • ·I • J •I • • . WI $00 . wh~reas (7)(40) ...33) = 125... and Liquid Separation 109 . 19n.. x 10 ft horizontal separator is required.. 19n. Sivalls and the University 01 Oklahoma./100 ..6 bbl/day. which is greater than the required VI.. _ Figure 4·9. ". 280 bblJday liquid capacity is required. .. _ 1. From Table 4.• • ..lOS G/U Production Engineering Ga.. ..~~ ~. _Il00100 lOCI . VL • for standard separators can be determined from their specifications given in Tables 41411. R.583 bbl. " .• . are linear. assuming l J4 full liqUid conditions..4 bblJday.. Liquid capacity from Figure 4·15 is (380)(0. using actual manufacturers' field test data... . which is still insufficient. A.. (Iext continued all page 114) Example 4·2. Hence. a 12 in... a JO·in. the liquid capacity is (720)(0. Such charts are useful because they take into account the worlcing pressure.." _ . based upon a liquid retention time of I min. Corrections for retention times other than 1 min ... (After Sivans. Figure 48.. 1. 237.. or onehalI full) in the liquid section as shown in Figure.33) . • • • .. Solution The actual liquid settling volume. . Gas capacity 01 vertical high:pre~sure separators.. full of liquid conditions. _ _ " .• .. 410 to 412. x 5 £t from Figure 415. . Repeat Example 41.. and assuming II. and are shown in these charts.) " . . Choosing a size of 24 in. 2. x 5 £t high. courtesy 01 C.)  " .• • . x 5ft vertical separator is required.. • ~ ~ ..
. .) i~ ~ . courtesy of C. 1977. . .' ..::. (After Sivalls. .~: .. . _ /.i"! . R.: ~P' ~ ~ I J i • /' '1. •i :.. Gas capacity of spherical .""• /.) . . R. .• :.• • • . .~ • 1 • .. 1977..• ..•• ' IjAiI Oklahoma. • • p ~~ . . " • •• • .~ . 10 . ~t " C".) • separators.. (After Sivalls.. • • • • • . Figure 410 . ." '" . (After Sivalls.'00''''.• • " .. . Gas capacity of horizon tal highpressure separators.~ >7 % • . .110 Gas Production Engineering Ga...• • . .. • • . •• lil .. ~ •• 'j .. "'. Sivatts and the University of Oklahoma. • • • • • . . . . courtesy of C.I J .. .VlA:"" •• . courtesy of C. I J • .. Gas capaCity of horizontal highpressure Ill: • lowpressure separators.::"iI• • . .. . 1977... cour· tesy of C. ":: . • • . 1977.s alld Liquid Separation 11l • . .. . . :. .. m . . .. i . • • "• • . •! •J I " . I XI U 1IO " " 40 10 . :"'""1 II .. .... "1 . ill ~.1iI •.go '" 'IO 100 :roo . • • . • . Gas capacity of horizontal lowpress ure separators (After Sivalls. R. Figure 413. Sivalls and the University of Fig u re 412.. .. • .. . . II . " . .. ... ~ IfAII ~' • • • " .. H J •• • I • t'o .... SivaJls and the University of Oklahoma. . I .r:::: I ~ " . . ' / I .) " ott'. • • Figure 411 .• • . . R.I:. Sivalls and the University of Oklahoma..
If..k~. I. liquid capacity of horizontal singletube • • • 19n. 2" Thd 2" Thd 3" Thd 2" Thd 3" Thd 4' Thd 4" Thd Shipping Weight.~ .. 24' x 5' 24" X i1l2' 30" x 10' 36" x S' 36" X 7112' 36" x 10' '25 '25 '25 '25 '25 . R.!. 2" Thd 2" Thd 3" Thd 4" Thd 4" Thd 4" Thd 011 Outlet Standard Valves 011 or 011 and WIIter GIS 2" .00 '200 6400 7600 . ' » Figure 416. .' >.> '" '" '" IlSO 2" 2" 2000 2000 2350 "'" 12' '25 '25 '25 '25 48" x 10' 4S" xiS' 60" x 10' 6" F1g 6" F1g 6" F1g 6" F1g 6" F1g '" '" 60" )( IS' 60" x 20' • After S" .~ highpressure separators.. • >. 1977.. T.. Sivans and the University of Oklahoma. . ~I.. " i • • 'j • • I .~ . ...'!... 100 . . _ . " .' Inlet and GIS Outlet Conn . 'OIII """J . Sivails and the University of Oklahoma. (After . .. Sivalts and Ihe University of Oklahoma. .._Table 41 Specifications 01 Standard Vertical Lowpressure Separators" • roo>. (After Sivalis.> .112 Cos Productwl'I Engineering Ga! and Liquid Separation 113 ." ._wi" " .l :::1 ::q  Working Pressure. '25 4" Thd 4" Thd 4" Thd 4" Thd '" . A. ~. 1977...' """ 11 . _ _ ' . ! I Sivalis. A.!. '. courtesy of C... liquid capacity of hor izontal singletube highpressure separators (After Sival1s. ." 2" 3" 3" 2700 3400 ... . .j.. Gas capacity of spherical highpressure separators.Lf. • .11•• urn.... .'0 • .~ .." 2" 3" '" '" . • . Figure 415. ...hbh!W *"' . courtesy of C.) ~f~ ! i .. 'j  .) u .. • ...... ' .H. . .I" 1 • . .. j I ..±.. II p. I." . • i: </ ..> Conn. . courtesy of C.' 1. .• • • • • Figure 4·14.) .
6i 36" X .d "orl::ing pn'\.700 9.48 ". From Figure 414.000 '.65 15.850 3. where the smallest horizontal separator size with a VI. O~r st_nda. 0. a 30 in.FIg 3. '63 7.x 10' 3O"xS' 30')( 711~' 1000 1000 3 F1.500 2.93 18.06 14.000 10.ailing atmospheric temperaturf'. 500. 1440.17.112' 36" x 10' 48" x 10' 48.. 1977 .114 Qu Production Engineering Gas ond Liquid Seporation Table 4· 3 specifications of Standard Vertical High Pressure Separators ' Working Pressure. 3.583 is of diameter 42 in.FIg 3.j' 110 1.x 7112' 00. The prftSUre csn be controlled.400 8.82 3.100 12. (text continued from page 1(9) ChOOSing the next available size of 20 in. use a 20 in.323. and It is too expe~. Thd un 2.44 16.116 2.4 bbllday.400 12.x 71/z' 24.x 10' 60. Modern digital metering devices can easll)' correct for tempera ture or pres!iure." The storage tank.lb. also called stock tank because it is generally kept at standard conditions (14..xiS' 5.X i112' 4S" x 10' 48" xiS' 54' X 71/2' 54" x 10' 54x 15' 00. I.FIg 3.400 12. From Table 411.500. 10.( 1000 FIg FIg FIg FIg 1000 1000 6" FIg 6. use a 42 in.FIg 1000 4' FIg 4 . 230. The same result could alternatively be obtained from Table 48. ttling 'vlume b usually split ~"cn bet" .x 15' 60.Thd 2' Thd ~..&6 9.01 24x7 1f1 30" x 10' 36" " . Liquid settling volume. i"IU_ble a".200 1.x 7112' 42.1lOO 1.x 5' 2Ox7 112' 20.400 6.( 6' FIg 6' ~1g " " " " " " 2' 2' 2' • After SI. x 10 ft for a 1/4 full of liquid condition..75 1000 2.7 psia and 6(PF) to • This III not always true.FIg 6" FIg 6" FIg 6" FlI.33) .Thtal .>U . 19TI.tt. as shown in Figure 4.FIg 3. whereas 0.650 4. x 10 ft from Figure 415. n oil and ".700 i.x 10' 24"x5' 24.200 2. a twostage se~a ration includes one separator and one stock tank. psi" Inlet and Gas Outlet Connection Standard Liquid Vel ve I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' 115 Table 4"2 Sen llng Volumes of Standard Vertical Low"pressure Separators " (125 psi WP) Size. 1. 30' x 10' 36' x i112' 36' x 10 36" x 15' 42.300 3. greater than 0.900 20. bbl OilGes Septlrlltors OUGasWater Septlralors "' Siza.23 12. a three stage separation means two separators and one stock·tank.x 10' 42" x IS' 4S.x 10' 50" xiS' 00" x 20' 1000 4" FIg 4" FIg 4" FIg 1000 66" 6' 6" 6" 6" FIg FlI. which is sufficient.500 • enable accurate metering of the proouced hydrocarbons. Dis x HI 16. Dia x Ht Z4"~5' Sen Ung Volume. diameter highpressure spherical separator. Therefore.OB 12.JollZ 4" FIg 1. VL • from Table 411 is only 0.30 bbl.200 Si<ilh...· constitutes the last separation stage.x 10' Shipping Weight.583 bbl is required. Hence. greater than 0.200 3. diameter spherical separator is required.x 5 16.500 32. x 10 ft highpressure horizontal separator.500 26. Hence.500 1.400 16.4) 304 5.5OO 00.64 20. and so on.400 li. the process is termed ··stage separation. the smallest spherical separator with a VI. 600.100 1. but the storage tank temperaturf' is subject largel)' to the preo. and 2000 psi " " " 2' 5.65 l.51 00" x 20 • Mt~. the liquid capacity is (980)(0. 3. Stage Separation \Vhen two or more equilibrium separation stages are used in series.300 14. lroo.'e to hnt or 0001 the contents of the tank to OO"F... . ..x 7111' 16..583 is 20 in.
. . n_.000 psi wP··) Size..78 3.. •." Flash vaporization also differs from differential vaporization in another respect: in differential vaporization. but in flash vaporization.SO = ~gn~ ~ 4.TlOM 2. 8 .53 4.45 5...44 0. requiring an infinite number of stages.. IU." _r_"" FOR THRfESTAGE S' .." .u.~  1'0(" .63 12....82 0.76 10." Table 4·4 Settling Volumes of Standard Vertical Highpressure Separators' (230 to 2... In practice.21 1.48 1.13 1." fOUR.02 4.STAGE SU'ARATIOH 0.."...65 0..68 6 .03 27..1 on lIXlO psi WP Rp'T~tO" Tot...i8 13.27 004\ 0.  TWO STAGE S'P"RATION '=' differential liberation is approximated quite closely by using a few separation stages (two.l ~tlinl ""lume b u...H 0.51 O.97 1.15 1. .plit .73 15..36 7.. 1m St. . "on .....47 3.64 ..  THREE STAGE SEPARATION Senling Volume.80 Figure 417..nd.20 Arm Si ••IIs... orking p""""'_ "..80 2.73 15. or four)...116 Gas Production Engineering Cos ond Liquid Sep6rotio n 117 •.79 9...12 12.._..." would maximize the IJquid recovery and yield a more stable stock tank liquid.13 3. where the pressure is reduced in very large steps.. this is not feasibl e and 7.Uy . IIXlO.13 .81 5.." whereas differential vaporization is called "diHerentialliberation. " We" ....05 1..70 12. ..79 633 .32 10.71 1."wCCT! oil and .. the \'apor is removed as it is formed .  ~ ALTERNATIVE ARRAM""!NT ~.. ~ Uoac _ .. 1440....  . 0.66 0.d ....... 00.83 22. three.il.. The latter process.08 9. is termed "flash liberation... . This same principle is employed in designing columns 'With mu1tiple equilibrium trays for separation purposes (Chapter 5).bI" • .54 4... Such a process. 52' i.. 1iOO. '" l•.0 "". flash vaporization is also termed "equilibrium vaporization" or 'nash equilibrium vaporization.15 l.65 17.31 i... . Readers who have a background in phase behavior will immediately recthat liquid recovery is enhanced on using a greater number of equihbnum stages for separation. For this reason. the liquid and vapor are kept in intimate contact until equilibrium is achieved . t~r. 15OO •• nd 2000 psi.29 5.60 10. bbl t OilGelWater Separalors tl OilGes Separators 0. Die x HI 16"x5' IS" x 7 1 /2' IS" x 10 ' 20" x S' 20' x 7 1 /!' 20' x 10' 24 'x5' 24' X 71/8' 24 ' x 10 ' 30' x 5' 30" x 71/2' 30" x 10 ' 36" x 71/1' 36" x 10' 36' xiS' 42" x il!l' 42" x 10 ' 42 ' xiS' 48" x 71/2' 48'x 10' 48" x 15 ' 54' x illt' 54' x 10 ' 54" x IS ' 50' )( 711t' 50" x 10' 60" x 15' 60" x 20' • •• .02 2... termed "differentiailiberation. Schematic diagrams for stage separation.12 8..72 0 . The ideal separation process is one in which the pressure is reduced infinitesimally at each stage.7S 2. 230. 1200.
..76 12.. . precise stage separation calculations are very difficult and require the use of a computer. bbI Size..!!O e8 • • c..72 19... .66 3. For practical purposes.. depending upon the wellstream composition. ..47 10..K'tion Engineering Cru and Liquid Separation Table 46 119 Settling Volumes of Standard Horizontal Lowpressure Separators(125 psi WP) SetHing Volume. ..48 0... ...26 1l2l 16. . . .71 9. it is quite satisfactory to use other shortcut methods and correlations that yield acceptable results... ....Si 1.... ¥ Twostage separation is desirable for wellstreams with low gasoil ratios such as lowAPI gravity oils.... Futl '/4 Full 24' x 5' 24' x 71lt' 24' x 10 ' 31)")(5' '. For the complex mixture of hydrocarbons produced from an oil well ..89 2. and low flowing pressures... Sivalls (1977) reports that the actual increase in liquid recovery for threestage separation over twostage will vary from 2 to 12 %. and high flowing pI"e$ures. . ..22 '. Threestage separation is most applicable to wellstreams with intermediate to high gasoil ratios (intermediateAPI gravity oils)..21 1:I..85 7.79 4.06 36..50 28._  (413) where r _ pressure ratio n _ number of stages ( text contilllJed Oil 1)age 123) .. . Fourstage separation is used for high gasoil ratio (highAPI gravity) wellstreams....118 Gas Prodl.43 1! ~ • • c ~  30" X 11/1' 3{)'x 10 ' is • .55 ...86 I 12 0 . 1984): r _ (PllpJl D • ill Ii i:Hl:!Hl Ii ill ::Hl Ii i!Hi _ . . .77 2..M"':. However.59 0.88 5. ...... \977 21. 1.I 2..Us. .. 36' x 10' 36" x iS' 48" x 10' 48" x IS" 60" x 10' 354 4..07 10.24 17...16 6O'x IS' 60' x 20' • After S. Fourstage separation is also used where highpressure gas is needed. ~ ~ : > " ~~ =~ o c • • • e.. From an et. The simplest of these methods assumes an equal pressure ratio between the stages for optimum performance (Campbell..'Onomic standpoint...MM!. ...36 1..89 12S I. . _ c _ 0 c_c c. . additional recover ies as high as 20 to 25 % have been reported for some cases. .59 3. a threestage separation is usually optimum for most oilfield operations..63 'Q.71 6... and the operating pressures and temperatures..... .66 7.59 6.. ..82 14. and intermediate flowing pI"e$ures. Ole )( Length lh Fun 1.23 0...
100 1.02 15.900 0..63 2..n 9.. pn:ssUmI . I~.44 a~ 4. .200 .:It 7 1231.93 8.38 4...700 19. 1440. 1977. I' I' 1.200 9.900 10.800 0.79 2O"xS' 1000 x 7112' 20" x 10 24" x 5" 24' x j llt' 24"xl0 24"x 15 30" x 5' 30" x ill~' 30" x 10 ' 30" x 15 36" x 71/2' 36" x 10' 36" xiS' 36" x 2(} ' 42' x illt' 42"x 10' 42" xiS' 42" x 20 ' 48"x71I2' 3" F1g 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 48' x 10' 4S" xiS' 48" x 20' 54' x 71.55 0.119 7.68 5.83 lIB 1. . .Thd 2' Thd Z" Thd 2" 2· 2" 3Thd Thd Thd F1g Standard Liquid Val ve Shlppll"lg Weight. •• StAn<brd worl<inll. . bbl t SIu.100 13.600.200 12..52 2.54 4.3110 5." x 5' 12¥..28 II 77 16.400 12lf.x 10' 16" :It 5 16:It 7 l l!' 16" x 10 2O" x 5' 20" x 7 112' 20" x 10' 24° x 5 24")( 71!2' 24" x 10' 24" xiS' 30" x 5 3O"x71!2' 30" x 10' 30" x 15' 36" x 7)!2' 36" x 10' 36" x i S' 36" x 20' 42" x 71It' 42" x 10' 42" x IS' 42"x20' 4S" x 71/t' 48" x 10 ' 48" x IS 48")( 20' 54" X 7112' L..8i 3.21 0. " F1g .96 6.22 0.83 6.61 088 0. Outlet Connection 2.32 0. .000 3. Ii 11.01 1.05 18.900 2.500 .200 3. " F1g . .43 3.38 0.74 21 il ]2. Full 0. 500.500 10.40 4...Ire m.30 9....87 8.400 16..73 S.17 10.400 32.900 13.49 5.ure.Iz' 1.30 6.90 230." 5.400 3.51 5.6 1 3. 1500 .1g S" FIg S" F1g .300 1.43 • '.iO 0.66 7.000 21. F1g 4' F1g 4" Fig 4" Fig .400 16. .700 17.50 0.34 0. .67 12.21 1..62 16.J on 1000 p5i WI' ~r. 1977.400 16.24 0.91 1..68 34.86 15.100 7.21 13. S' .7 1 12.92 3.24 54 " x 10' 54'x 15' 54"x20' 60" x 7112' 60' x 10' 00' x 15' 00"x2O' . 600.000 8.47 0.iI..)( 10' 16" x 5 16 " x 7 llt" 16" 20:It 1000 10 I' I' I' I. .900 26.42 11.39 1. .99 6.. 145 I.63 3.S1 15.38 055 0.300 2...i8 0.96 2.52 3..32 3. • nd 2000 psi • After Sh·.ndard ""<>ficin!! praru<a .IIs.72 0.iI.30 4.67 2. 1000.68 5.bk .29 1..500 22.32 6. 500.200 1. 1000 Inlet and GIl.900 12. I..57 6.93 26.1g .·..45 3. 1200.2O 10. OI.i50 2.'" 1811 IOJ 0.".54 O. 2' .40 16.17 12. Ba. . '. 2' 2' 2' 2' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' I' 0.. AIter S"IIIs.4 1 9.tor 1440.12' 54"x 10' 54" x 15 54" " 2(}' 50" x 71/2' 00' x 10' 60" x IS' 50" x 20' 1000 1000 3" F1g .49 27.66 0.5 0. • • Other st. 15OO. " Fig .44 1) 12114 ":It 71/1 12·lI.28 0. lh Full 113 Full 0.S1 2.55 0.83 12.3i 6.100 1.51 4.42 1.3.800 6.65 2.120 Gas Production Engineering Table 47 Specifications of Standard Horizontal Highpressure Separators' Worttlng GaJ and Liquid SqxJr(Jtion 121 Table 48 Settling Volumes of Standard Horizontal Highpressure Separators' (230 to 2. 15 0. 2' 2' 7.98 "' 2. .. " F1g 6" F1g 6" F1g 6" Fig 6" F1g 6" F1g 6" Fig 6" Fig 6" Fig 8" Fig S" Fig S" Fig S" Fig S' FIg S" FIg S' F1g S' f1g S' J.200 26.49 6.nd 2000 pIoi .. .90 2.:It Ht 12:l!~' :It Preu..08 860 10..38 19.35 4.000 psi WP**) Size Ois :lt Len Settling Volume.hIt.38 9..8110 5..
12l! Gal and Liquid Separation Table 4·9 Specifications of Standard Spherical Separators· Wor1ling 123 (text continued from page 119) Shipping Inlet and Standard P. >1.0 (air ..ii 1. 'SI. .rator • DIU"'" .02 J7.k"'l!: prrsm . 1400 ]BOO 2800 3700 . 2000.15 0. P3 . 3" F1g 1700 1100 14lX.v. 1440. 1958. 00 001 O. Relationship between second·stage pressure (psia) and stock·tank recovery (gaI/MMscf). SOO. ].bl~ Ire 230 • ... • Aher Sin]"_ 1!)7i . ". Figure 4·18 from their work shows the rela· tionship between the pressure at the second stage and stock· tank liquid recover)'.18. • • • .r"l.100 Kilt! 3000 p<i. the Iiquid. 6' 2' Flg 2" f1g 3' F1g "'1/: 2' ] .. 1200. 2O(X). . P2 .. _ pressure at the stock tank Thus.r ". I.• • .*UmI .. ". and in general.G[ '''USUIII[. 1200.UGE ~USl""l.~~ " . ~.r"itl (414) 3· . 1977. 3400 ]300 ]. .hl~ K. 00· "..H. courtesy of SPE of A1ME. 'ow 00 ••P 0. for separator stage i is given by: Pi '" p. and 3000 psl • Sued on 1000 pM WI' .. lHO.o.1000. From an empirical analysis of these results. SECOND Sl. • •• • • • g . _ ApI""" + (A .) .500. p...500..057)10..0.vapor ratio).. Diamtlt." ~ ..  Figure 4. 1..000 psi WP)" Size.rd "". ~ .. 30· 42' 54 '" !!SO IIX)!)' • . ". •• •.... Settling Volume.F1g 6' F1g .. "' • • ". Whinery and Campbell (1958) derived simple relationships to calculate the optimum pressure in the second stage for a three·stage separation... 100 Table 4·11 Settling Volumes of Standard Spherical Highpressure Separators' (230 to 3.'" 133 221) • Arkr SinU•. 24 ". ~ Settling Volume. 2" 2 Weight..~" .pressure at the first (or high.0233 (415) Table 4·10 Settling Volumes of Standard Spherical Lowpressure Separators' (125 psi WP) Size.esaure.P1 r"2.Othl:r ..kinJj: I'.Standard ". l. \ail. F1g 4 .000. Whinery and Campbell (1958) studied threestage separation for ~"eral different t)'pes of wellstreams. 1000 1300 PI . the pressure p. (After Whinery and Campbell."'" • 0.. Note that Equations 4·13 and 4·14 bear no relationship with the magnitude of separation (Le.. I1i ') ~.' Gas Outlet Connection 4" Thd 4' Thd 4" Thd liquid Valve "'.tand. They found that two cases can be specified: 1.30 054 ~. For streams with specific gravity> 1.".. p. .' ... • ~_ .0): p. .. • <C'. .stage) separator p.IlOO.
43 .(800. The EqtMd Pr~re Ratio Cmw. I) .08 0.626128. . (C. C~ C.012 where PI...1 = 2 is r . the pressure ratio with n .0233 ..0. _ (0.03 )'1 Mol. r: C..l I 1/ I • 'Til I I'~ " I .7)12 = 7.43 . J~ rr. asshown in Figure 419.Co! Production Engineering Gos and Liquid Separation 125 2. psia and 6(}0 F) A .25 + 0.ApI '" + (A + 0..7)(7. if PI . Example 43 illustrates the calculation procedure. Using Equation 4·13.2. (14 .. MOL" C I + Cz + C) g s :1:1 ? 7 019 p.18 p'ia.19.0): Solution p. pre!mJl"eS in the first and second stages. • • • ~ z 2 z ~ Tn I // I Using Equation 415 for wellstream gravity> 1.a function of the stock tank pres.0 (air .~ure and the system composition Whiner)' and Campbell found that composition could be expressed in terms of the specific gravity of the feed and the mole% of C I + C2 + Ca components in it. 16. 0. 38./ . courtesy of SPE of AIME .) Low Temperature Separation Lowtemperature separation (LTX) units are based upon the principle that lowering the operating temperature of a separator increases the liquid recovery. • • . Even the WhineryCampbell method is only an approximation. DIMENSIONLESS .626 Therefore. Figure 4·19.9.15 . Besides recovering more liquid from the gas than a normal. For a wellstream haVing a composition shown as follows.3 .043 30.057)/0.3. (Aller Whinery and Campbell.. . the specific gravity with respect to air Mole% C I + C 2 + C 3 From Figure 4.151 86. C. ..04 0. For streams with specific gravity < 1.. P2 . This example illustrates that the equal pressure ratio assumption is far from precise.1.178 128. respectively (the third stage is assumed to be the stock tank at standard conditions of 14 .44 psia. .259 c.35 0....0.09..15 0.35 + 0. find the optimum secondstage pressure for a threestage separation. 800 psia. flash calculations using equations of state must be carried out for determining the amounts of vapor and liquid that will be reco\'ered.) YiM . tem .. and compare the result with the equal pressure ratio assumption. 80°F) . . I I " ' z • " • z 8 ' • I I".. Example 4·3. Wherever possible./ It .. 1958. r.. .. l " III / .4 I ~~ ItJ. Comp o Mol.25 0.028)10.3772 " 2. PSU[OD S PECIFiC GRAVITT or rEED.070 44.43)(800""") + (0 . wt. M. Relationship between A and pseudospecific gravity 01 leed (T . A :z 38.)4.124 C. 1. . and the composition of these vapor and liquid streams from the separators. Use the \VhineryCampbeU method.58. • . C~ .7 From Equation 4·14 .5 0.. 58. P2 .108.10 0. 33  0. fr.
. for an initial pressure _ 4... .• .'#. A rorrelation by the Cas Proces.. .·.to 3. '. " I. the temperature is also reduced. fo r controlling the rate of flow or reducing the pressu~ of the flowstream. ~i~ . ~ " 0 'I " ~l !(. .3. Example 44 iJlustrates that the cooling process is more effective for gases at high pressures.. e~ '! 'I t.000 psia and 150°F and the pressure is reduced to 200 psia. the temperature drop" 1320F. so ~ ~ • § . • v i I I 6 5 • •• • • v .! ! . it may not be economical. From Figure 420. The choke is mounted directly at the inlet of the highpressure separator. fIP § 8 " Salution 1. • I t ". What is the temperature drop if the initial pressure is: (1) 4. • • • . The heat content of the g:as remains the ~ame across the choke.500 psia~ (3) What is the final temperature if the gas is initially at 4. one or mOre Pressurereducing chokes·. " " .SoF. AD. .. The wellstream enters the separator at a low temper_ ature and pressure.000 psia and a pressure drop ." ! ! S . and (2) 2.2. • A choke is essentially an orifice plate. 7 gravity gas. Examl)/e 44. E:tampie 44 illustrates the procedure for using this correlation. where they are heated and melted by the heating coils provided.separator.. the temperature drop _ 380F. ! • • • • • .200 .000psi pressure drop must be available before an LTX unit can be considered for use.4. so that any hydrates formed downstream of the choke fall into the bottom settling section of the LTX unit.500 psia and a pressure drop . " v • • ~ • t ! ~ ~ 'i " i' il~ 0 ' j! If ~ hi . · . 1• .soI'\ Suppliers Association (CPSA) to determine the temperature drop through the choke for a briven pressure drop is shown in Figure 420. LTX units have another advantage: they are able to dehydrate the gas. JB !I ~~! ~ ! . ~ .. that its pressure i~ reduced by 2. .• §.. • l . A low.. hut it. From Figure 420. ..000 psia. frequently to pipeline specifications. with a specified hole slu. temperature and pressure are reduced.#.000 psia and a pressure drop . As a rule of thumb.500. the tempel'ature drop _ 86.000 psi. •. This irre\'ersible adiabatic (no e..126 Ga! Prodllctian Engilleeririg Gas and Liquid Separation 127 perature . ..800 psia. the final temperature _ 150 . When the highpressure wellstream is expanded by pressure reduction through a choke.2. Therefore. and a better separation results.132 _ 180F.000 . 2..000 psia. and heat e:tchange equipment. Otherwise. for an initial pressure _ 4. J . for an initial pressure _ 2. • • • .temperature separation unit comiists of a highpressure separator. . . where a large pressure drop can be provided to the gas in an LTX unit. From Figure 420. at least a 2.• i ~' 1 .000 psia. . o . at 150°F is expanded through a choke. oeRli!~51 .. 3.~change of heat with surroundings) simuJtaneous pressure and temperature reduction process is called the JouleThomson Or throttling effect.
vStok"". 1984). and is essentially anything in the flowing stream that is not gas. filters. N R~. of a part!· cle railing through a fluid under the influence of a force that exerts an acceleration a on the particle. for the case of particles suspended in a gas is defined as being equal to d"vpjI.. glycols. from Stokes law: (418) General Equation for Particles Suspended in a Gas The well known general exp~ion for the terminal velocity. by visualizing that larger particles fall so rapidly that they create considerable turbulence. Smaller particles settle much more slowly. since other factors vary within a relatively small range for a given application. Some of the cleanup occurs initially at the wellhead by such means as drips. is written as: \. and solids such as drilling mud.2(1{}') 1. such as for gas .3 0.6 0 where the Reynolds number.p . and syphons. The Cunningham correction. Thus. Generally. Ibmiftsec. Cas cleaning is also neces'iary to prevent solution/catalyst contamination in downstream processes on the gas.lpK' The equations derived earlier for cen· trifugal separation (Equation 4·2) and for gravity settling (Equation 4·5) can be verified as being applicable to the turbulent flow regime.0 18. Ibm/ft1 I'g . we proceed to smaller particle sizes. such as dehydration and sweetening. For intermediate size particles. Another phase of cleanup is carried out in the gas. Cas cleaning involves the removal of two types of materials: (1) gross sol· ids and liquids.liquid separators..." is used to correct the settling velocity. water. The drag coefficient. and its removal is absolutely necessary. and Stokes law is used to calcu· late the settling rate.0 0.128 Ga" Productwn Engineering Ga. Pipeline trash consists generally of liquids such as heavier·end liquid hydrocarbons. A clean gas transmission averages about 2 Ibm/ MMscf particulate matter in the gas.acceleration on the particle. ft/. Further cleaning is generally required before the gas arrives at a processing plant. Pipeline trash is also referred to as sludge. is deter· mined as follows: (419) 4ad n+ l (p [ P 3CdI'. where P. Flow reiQme Laminar Intermediate Turbulent Nile Law Stokes Intermediate Newton Cd 24. ft Pp . a laminar flow regime is maintained. It is even more important in other instances. LTX units in an oil field are usually operated only in the temperature Tange of 0 to 20°F. Pipeline trash collects in the sags and low spots in the pipeline. and gas hydrates. methanol) carried o\'er from processing operations. and before any processing is begun.310' 10'. They are carried over by the gas as suspended solids/liquids. K. For this reason. respectively.terminal velocity of the falling particle.5 0. carbon steel is used. v.  This is called the StokesCunningham equation. ~.density of the particle.44 n <0. A!. other dirt picked up by the gas during production and transport operations. and for sales to consumers.density. The Reynolds number is controlled largely by the particle size. called "pipeline trash. smaller than about 3 microns. The correction K.20' F. v . Stokes law is no longer valid. for which embrittlement occurs below a temperature of . Ibmiftl. Particulate matter and aerosols are much more difficult to remove because of their ultra·small particle size. This can be understood in physical terms . chemicals (amines. ftJsee a . The particles are now so small that they slip between the gas molecules at a rate greater than that predicted by Stokes law. and the exponent n in Equation 417 are as follows (Lapple. of the fluid through which the particle is falling Gas Cleaning Cas cleaning is important for pipeline transmission systems in order to reduce operational problems.! and Liquid Separation 129 The lowest temperature at which an LTX unit can be used is governed by the properties of the material used in its construction.p~ P PJ] n H2"1 (417) ." and (2) minute solids (particulate matter) and liquids (aerosols). some turbulence is gener· ated. pipeline scale.sec! d. and to maximize their operating efficiency. Cd. and viscosity. Newton's law would be applicable to larger particles that would ~ a higher Reynolds number. and the intermediate law is used.particle diameter.~torage.
rlg Gas and Liquid Separation 131 where M .lns ".ECTIOMLIC.... Lapple.O ....' R) T .j TO l'U .~. 10.l. 17 Ibmftdbfsec2) For particles smaller than 3 microns. _~ . . C""NYU CC"HII.molecular weight of the gas R . The droplets then cling to the bottom of the wiremesh by surface tension forces. ..cu. demister. Brownian mo..) knitted into a mesh fabric with a high void volume (9799%)... nTnlN~ ._ • • "  .. dimensionless proportionality factor g. until their size becomes large enough to drop downwards through the void spaces. =t". there are three possible results.. MICRONS FOR PARTICLESIZE ANALYSIS ~•..~ IU .IIOSCO"~ "'ClIOlcor."'CA. 1984. . . Figure 421 shows the range of applicability of these methods in terms of the size of the particles that can be removed..t.. centrifugal action.. Gas cleaning methods and their range of application. ~ • . r _ •• _ O (... This is the most common problem. . ... abo bt!g1ru to occur.(U..~~ •• ~ ... The mist extraction section in an oil and gas separator uses impinge ment methods of two basic types: wire· mesh pad and vanetype mist extrac· tors. 1981): f... Proper maintenance is therefore essential for these devices.:! .b. •... A wiremesh separator consists of a 4...\ed upon the particle settling velocity. with the vapor flowing upwards.6 in. ..~ .. . .0030.I ··~r· 1.. 1.) There are several types of impingement separaton as shown in Figure 422. __..'~i~ ""L. Agure 421.. The incoming particles bypass the cleaning element and enter the out· flowing clean gas stream... .. methods with greater particle removal capability usually require more elaborate maintenance schedules..'ement becomes the dominant phenomenon. known as Brownian mO\t:m~nt . 2. . Brownian motion will not be discussed here. TOIl1 ~"C"""CI..f ~_N . . ..011 in.(. The cleaning element may become so impregnated that it interrupts the flow completely. E.U. filtration. until they become sufficiently large to overcome surface tension . 1 micron.UTgRS OF GAS'CLEANIN G EQUIPMENT ... .OUIO nOYM . Maintenance requirements are generally proportional to the removal ca· pability. ' ' 'C' '.. and for particles under 0.~n>M~ '1i~"u!ITY o"". 1.11O" _ . a random motion .. •.10 "'C. are described below.. Since gas cleaning is never really pursued to such levels. In cleaning methods that use a physical separation device (cleaning element...'"' .."CjU'OU' . besides the gravity settling and cen· trifugal methods discussed earlier. _ . 'OC~fD . leading to rupture or dislodgement of the cleaning element.°R ( .• •• I .". . CEMU .~ .". thick pad of fine wire (diameter of 0..4 cm..130 Gas Production "~nglnt!e._l.~~L. TYPES •• _ u...gas constant..~ UIOIIHIO 4~M~:. 'UI.732 psiaft'/lbmole.. such as gravity settling. Some common gas cleaning methods.nNOC' .. Liquid droplets impinge on the wire and collect and c0alesce with other droplets..~I r< I I '. . Note: I micron. The pressure differential becomes too high.C"o. rUJ. 32. (fI: I Cas Cleaning Methods There are several different techniques for separating liquid and solid particles from gas.  ro .. _ "~v"l~S I I . Its effect is superimpc. ..'t~1 t... . and electrostatic precipitation..... once the cleaning element has accumulated to its capacity. Here they coalesce again to a bigger size. all of which are detrimental to the cleaning process (Curry. filter..~ l"CI[M.".It... conversion factor ( .).. The pad is mounted in a horizontal position. .1l~ I< _ . _. ..r~I.. impingement.546 ftIbfl lbmole. . temperature in oR K. Thus. 10.'C'it•• '... etc. . scrubbing.1. . (Data from C..~. "'"""4 E. 3. ...HCTOItI {N . MU u"c~o . METHODS _PARTICLE DIAMETER.
But these materials break down in the presence of liquids. 1963).. A higher rate would flood the pad and lead to re. (After Perry and Green (eds. called vanes.. A mist extractor should not be used where the gas has a high concentration of solids. into the liquid collection area. => Non.98%. out of the gas flow path.! 422.). Fiber mist collectors offer extremely high collection efficiencies up to 99. using woven fabric or compressed felt fabric as the filtration medium.. it can handle solids in the flowing gas stream. This uses a packed bed of fibers between two concentric screens. '" 1/' Flgu. Even with these synthetic materials. 1981 ). Liquid particles find their way through the filter pad and coalesce on the downstream side of the pad in the form of a liquid film. since this may block the flow of gas and result in high pressure drops across the pad. which disintegrate and are reentrained in the gas. with liquid collection pockets. The gas passing through this film leads to the formation of bubbles. Another development of interest is the fiber mist eliminator. and drain out by gravity. The liquid droplets are forced into the liquid collection pockets. ChemICal Engm86fs Handbook. 0. TypeS.) A scrubber is defined as any equipment that uses a liquid to aid the removal of particles from a gas.132 Gal Production Engineering GO! and Liquid Separation 133 FlO . During this flow. Liquid mist collects on the fiber surface as a film .q'l '~ '" '" . except that a scrubber is designed to separate only small volumes of gas and liquid. and have a high handling capacil}'The vanetype design uses an intricate array of metal plates. a change in direction is induced several times. and it may . Filters • Botlln '" ". It is similar to a separator.OI impingement separators. and downwards by gravity. which is moved horizontally by the gas. can remove droplets down to 4 microns in size.entrainment of the liquid.<I '" and the force resulting from the upward flow of the gas. and can handle mists smaller than 3 microns (Brink. courtesy of McGraw Hill Book Co. A flow velocity of 510 ftfsee provides maximum operation efficiency (Curry. resulting in a centrifugal action that aids the primary impingement separation mechanism in removing the finer liquid droplets entrained in the gas. Bag filters. Ira. and can remove droplets down to about 40 microns in size. Synthetic materials such as glass fiber overcome this disadvantage. The pressure drop across a vanetype mist extractor is very small. The vanetype mist extractor is mounted such that the gas stream flows horizontally through the vanes. whereas a lower rate may permit the liquid to circumvent the pad and avoid impingement. are widely used. 1984. For liquid droplets. '>I These have been traditionally used to remove solid particles by using a filtration medium that allows only the gas to pass through. liquid separation with filters is always a problem. wiremesh pads are efficient.
at a given system temperature. It can be seen in these figures that at relatively low pressures. F_I_L+V and Fz. This section describes some methods that can be used to accelerate convergence to the correct resu1t. Dry and oilbath type of scrubbers can be effective down to almost a 4micron particle size. must never be used for gasliquid separation in the field. Oilhath scrubbers are extensively used. K.} split into L moles of liqu. using centrifugal force to effect the separation of solids and liquids from gas. K. and hydrocarbons C. For liquid removal. is required. Currently. require constant maintenance and cartridge replacement. The calculation of Kvalues from equations of state has been discussed to Chapter 3. F moles of feed with a composition {z. and cartridgetype scrubbers.3 micron. Kvalues are almost independent of convergence pressure: at higher pressures approaching the convergence pressure. The chart method for estimating Kvalue:s is subject to an important constraint: Kvalues have been found to exhibit some dependence on the mixture from which they are measured. a comput.. where the dirt settles down by gravity. it is assumed out on the basis of a unit mole of feed (F . 1981). A sharp distinction exists in Kvalues for the same components in a nat~ral gas liquid versus a crude oil. A scrubber. Production Engineering Gas and Liquid Separation 135 use some fluid such as oil to more effectively remove particles from the gas. convergence pressure for a system IS the pressure (at the given system temperature) at or beyond which va~~ liquid separation is no longer possible. however. The gas is retained for a long enough time for the particles to migrate to a collection surface.000 psia. The three types of scrubbers used in gas cleaning operations are: dry scrubbers. They may.z. and therefore there is no single Kvalue chart that is superior for all possible mixtures that may be encountered.. The most efCecth'e scrubbers are the cartridgetype scrubbers (Curry. Kvalue:s are very sensitive to convergence pressure. whereas a high oil level will cause carryover of the oil into the gas. Figures 424 through 450 show the Kvalue charts for H 2S. Convergence pressure. ThEre differences among Kvalues for dIfferent mixtures have been characterized by the concept of conoergence pressure.} and V moles of vapor with a composition {YIl· For simplic~~~ in the present discussion that flash calculatiOns are carn .o for convergence pressures of 1. .id with a . For manual calculations. in the future. • These units induce an electrical charge that attracts particulate matter. which represents the composition of the vapor and liquid phases in equilibrium. Thus. Clean oil l~ recirculated. and quite often the convergence pressure IS taken to be the cntlcal pressure of the system at the given temperature. through C.LxI + VYI Also" ). Flash Calcu1ations Twophase flash calculation techniques were described in Chapter 2.134 Ca. The next best thing is to use equations of state for consistent predictions.000 psia and 3. . however.and provide internally consistent values for all thermodynamiC properties In a convenient form.ure gas is quite limited. surge capacity is neither necessary nor provided. These methods are used for implementation on. and that the proper le. that can remove solid particulate matter down to a size of 0. though. and x. It is important in an oilbath scrubber to ensure that the oil is clean.·el of oil is maintained. Dry scrubbers are similar to centrifuges. are related by the equilibrium ratio. The particles suspended in this partially ionized gas become charged and migrate under the action of the applied electric field. and cling to it. . n {. The nomenclature used here is the same as in Chapter 2. although similar to a separator. the application of electric precipitators to large volumes of highpresc. . Thus. A lessthanclean oil or too low an oil level will reduce cleaning efficiency. Experimental values for the particular system are the most reliable source for Kvalues. where even a reJatively dry gas well may produce some liquid surge and lead to severe separation problems. Nz. A strong electrostatic field is provided that ionizes the gas to some extent. They use cleaning cartridges stacked in parallel. mist extractors are also provided sometimes.. these pollutionfree devices may prove to be more useful.er. in difCerent configurations. is defined as the pressure at which the Kvalues of a fixedcomposition system conver~e toward a common value of unity. Kvalue charts are also useful. though they may not be very accurate.: cause solid particulate matter to impinge on a surface constantly flushed with oil. This is similar ~o the concept of cr~~ cal pressure.. . be used as secondary separation devices. oilbath scrubbers. Cartridge scrubbers. ~ ity. Unlike separators. and are more expensive than oilbath and dry scrubbers. the equilibrium ratio. The circulating oil washes the dirt down into a settling chamber.1). They . Ehctric Prropitoton Determination of Equilibrium Ratios To enable flash calculations.
.13.'" Figure 423. PSIA  Figure 424. for methane for a convergence pressure of 1. 4. Temperature of the system is generally known. an interpolation of the two critical loci must be made. A shortcut approach good for most hydrocarbon systems is to compute the weighted average critical temperature only. Therefore.. The total feed composition may be used as a first guess if no better estimates can be made. (From . Calculate the weighted average critical pressure and temperature for the remaining heavier components in the liquid to form a pseudobinary system. 2. but the composition of the exit liquid stream from the vaporliquid separation is not known in advance (v. has been found to be a function of two parameterstemperature and the liquid phase composition. ~'< .  (K c. Identify the lightest hydrocarbon component which is present at least 0. I I I '1 I ~ • ll' " PRESSURE. 1981): 1. Gal Production Engineering Gal and Liquid Separation 137 For CO 2• the Kvalue can be calculated from methane and ethane Kvalues as follows (CPSA.. required for selecting the appropriate Kvalue chart. When the averaged pseudoheavy component of the binary is between two real hydrocarbons.) '""". 1981.. Convergence pressure PIc of binary hydrocarbon mixtures... Kc.' Engineering Data Book. 3. courtesy of GPSA.000 psia..)" The convergence pressure Pk. the procedure for determining the convergence pressure is iterative.. Assume a liquidphase composition.. 1981): 1Ct. •• • . (tm continued on page 164) • i I r:Q ( ~ ~ .'e are trying to determine both the vapor as well as liquid stream compositions using Kvalue data).. 1" . Equilibrium ratio. K.12. 1981.) . courtesy of GPSA.1 mole% in the liquid phase..00CI . (From Engineering Data Book.Q ~ .<>. as described in the following (CPSA. Trace the critical locus of the binary on Figure 423. . .~ .
for ethylene lor a convergence pressure 01 1. PSI. 198'. courtesy 01 GPSA. Equilibrium ratio.) .138 Go. K. 1981. Production Engineering GO! and Liquid Separation 13.) Figure 426. Equilibrium ratio. K..000 psla (From Engineering Data Book. PSI"' Figure 425. (From Engineering Dat8 Book.. for ethane for a convergence pressure of 1. courtesy of GPSA..  PRESSURE. • PRESSURE.000 psla.
(From Engineering Dat8 Book. PSI"  PRESSURE. K. (From Engineering Data Book.140 Gas Production Engineering Ga" and Liqldd Separation 141 1 • PRESSURE. 1981.000 psia. courtesy of GPSA. K. for propylene for a convergence pressure 01 1.) Figure 4·27. lor propane lor a convergence pressure of 1. courtesy of GPSA.000 pSla.) . 1981. Equilibrium ratio. Equilibrium ratio. PSI"Figure 428.
I . for isobutane for a convergence pressure of 1.) Figure 430.@ PRESSURE. 1961 . ~'" . ~~ • . I' II . .: .: • . . PSIA · . " . 1981 .. (From Engineering Data Book. ~... . . . K. PSIA  . IS. . . Equilibrium ratio.. PRESSURE. .. (From Engineering Data Book.142 Gas Production Engineering Gas and Liquid Separatioll 143 .5.000 psia. " " .000 psia. It" 1IIc r'·.. "1'" . . · • K K ' I. for nbutane for a convergence pressure of 1. Equilibrium ratio. . ... fC N. Figure 429. '"'" l~0:: . courtesy 01 GPSA. K.p.. courtesy of GPSA. . . .) ...' . . . " .
. (From Engineering Data Book.) Figure 432.'. . • "t +r" l!. llif" . Equilibrium ratio. . 31. I" t/ 1 . for npentane for a convergence pressure of 1. .144 Gas Production Engineering Gos and Liquid Separation 145 .. . • .::: .000 pSla. . I . I·j I' 1.~ ::. ~W . I . .000 psia. . . I. 1981 . . . . 1981 .' .: . courtesy of GPSA... . It: lb N. • K f'. i~ _I~~:. l . I . _I . PSI A   ... . 'l":." 'i l . . PS tA  Figure 4. K. ' : hi PRESSURE. I" . PRESSURE. . K. "I " . .~i+ III. Equilibri~m ratio.PSl~ . courtesy of GPSA. ~ . for I·pentane for a convergence pressure of 1.'l'> . (From Engm98ring Data Book. .) .. .' . . . ~~ '~.•.
PRESSURE. courtesy of GPSA. K.000 psia. for hexane for a convergence pressure of 1. Equilibrium ralio.) Figure 434.) . (From Engineering Dara Book. courtesy of GPSA. 1981. Equilibrium ratio. K. 1981.000 psia.146 Gas Production Engineerillg Gas and Liquid Separation 147 '[ . for octane for a convergence pressure 01 1. (From Engineering Data Book.. PSIA  PRESSURE. PSIA Figure 433.
........ 1981. . ~. for hydrogen sulfide for a convergence pressure of 1. Equilibrium ralio... 1981. ""'_" .. 1 . courtesy of GPSA... ...000 psia. ( . (From Engineering Data Book.) ... Equilibrium ratio...... .... ' . Ole .. . PSIA Figure 435._ .. _"_c""'..... K..000 psia.." A_' ... .. ' • "S... "... for decane for a convergence pressure of 1..... . PSIA  PRESSURE.... (From Engineering Data Book. ._. courtesy of GPSA.~... K..0<....) Figure 4·36. ' • PRESSURE. .(..148 Gas Productioll Engineerillg Gas and Liquid Separatioll 149 ..
courtesy of GPSA. Equilibrium ratio.) . Equilibrium ratio. (From Engineering Data Book. K. courtesy of GPSA. for nitrogen for a convergence pressure 01 1. for methane for a convergence pressure of 3.000 pS18. 1981.150 Ga. (From Engineering Data Book.) Figure 438. Production Engineering Gos and Liquid Separation 151 • PRESSURE. PSI"  Figure 437. K.000 psia. 1981.
.) Figure 4·40.000 pSla. K. ··~······ :3! . K. lor propane for a convergence pressure of 3. • " ..000 psis. courtesy of GPSA.152 CQ~ Production Engirlf'ering Cal and Liquid Seporation PSI' _ 153 tmt _ I . for ethane for a convergence preSSure of 3. courtesy of GPSA. PSI"' Figure 4·39. 1981. II II PRESSURE.. (From Engineering Data Book. PSIA _ PRESSURE. (From Engineering Data BOOk. 1981. ' " K· '11 I~ ..) . Equilibrium ratio.. Equilibrium ratio.
courtesy of GPSA.) PRESSURE. PSIA Figure 442.000 psia. for nbutane for a convergence pressure of 3. for isobutane 'or a convergence pressure of 3. (From Engineering Data Book. courtesy 01 GPSA. 1981.'5< Gas Production Eng/neering Gal alld Liquid Separation 155 • PRESSURE. K. (From Engmeering Data Book.000 psia.) . PSIAFigure 441 . Equilibrium ratio. Equilibrium ratio. K. 1981.
. PSI"Figure 444. Equilibrium ratio.156 Gas Production Engineering Gas and Liquid Separation 157 • PRESSURE. (From Engineering Data Book. K. courtesy of GPSA.000 psia. courtesy of GPSA. K.43.000 pSla.) Figure 4.  PRESSURE. for ipentane for a convergence pressure of 3. 1981. PSI . Equilibrium ratio. (From Engineering Data Book.. 1981.) . for npentane for a convergence pressure of 3.
K. courtesy of GPSA. K. courtesy of GPSA. PSI" Figure 4. Equilibrium ratio. 1981. PSIA  PRESSURE.000 psia..000 psia (From Engineenng Data Book. (From Engineering Data Book. for hexane lor a convergence pressure of 3. Equilibrium ratio.5.) Figure 4·46. for heptane for a convergence pressure of 3..158 Gos Production Enf(inf'f'ring Call and L/qutd Separation 159 • PRESSURE.. 1981.) .
160
Cal and Liquid Separalion
161
•
PRESSURE. PSI"
Figure 447. Equilibrium ratio, K, for octane for a convergence pressure of 3,000 psia. (From Engin99ring Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)
PRESSURE, PSI ...
Figure 448 . Equilibrium ratio, K, for nenane for a convergence pressure of 3,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)
162
Gas P,aduction Engineering
Cas and Liquid Separation
163
•
PRESSURE, PSI .... 
PRESSURE, PSI ....
Figur e 449. Equilibrium ratio, K, for decane for a convergence pressure of 3,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courlesy 01 GPSA.)
Figure 450. Equilibrium ratio, K, for hydrogen sulfide for a convergence pressure of 3,000 psia. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)
164
Cas Production Engineering
Gas and Liquid Separation
165
(text continued from poge 136)
5. Read the convergence pressure P1 at the temperature corresponding to that of the desired flash conditions. 6. Using Pl from Step 5, together with the system temperature and pressure, obtain KvaJues for the components from the appropriate convergencepressure Kvalue charts. Interpolate for convergence pressure between the charts. if necessary. 7. Make a nash calculation with the feed composition and the K.values from Step 6. 8. Repeat Steps 2 to 7 until the assumed and calculated PI< check within an acceptable tolerance.
This method is similar to the simple trial and error scheme just outlined. The only difference is in assuming a new value at the end of an unconverged lrial (Lockhart et aI., 1986),
(V/L)"  (V/L), + [(V/L),  (V'L)• .J
Thus, the new assumed value of VIL is made as far beyond (VIL)e as (VIL)e is beyond (V IL)d' This scheme gives a much better convergence rate.
Lockhart·McHmry Method
Lockhart and McHenry (1958) proposed a method that reduces the number of trials required for flashequilibrium calculations for multicomponent mixtures significantly. In this method, a multicomponent mixture is treated as a pseudobinary mixture with a "'light'· component, and a "heavy" component. Components with a K value greater than 1.0 are grouped into the light component, and those with a K value less than 1.0 are grouped into the heavy component. Consider I mole of a multicomponent feed with a molefraction Zj of the light components, and zt, of the heavy components. The total number of components in the mixture is n. with n1 number of light components and nh heavy components. In this technique, a parameter v· is defined as follows:
V·  z,/(1  Kh)  z,,/(K,. I)
F1ash Calculation Methods
Simple Trial and Error ScMme
This is the simplest method. A value of the vaporliquid ratio is assumed. Using this (V/L)al in Equation 216 (or 217) along with the appropriate component K values, a new V (or L) is obtained. The value of L (or V) is obtained by difference (L  1  V). [f this calculated (V/L)c is equal to the assumed (V/L).t within a specified tolerance. the assumption was correct. Otherwise. a new value (V/L)a2 for the liquidvapor ratio is assumed as follows:
•
(V'L)"  (VIL),
This procedure is repeated till convergence is reached. After one or two iterations, it becomes quite obvious whether the system is predominantly gaseo~ (V < 0.5), or liquid (V > 0.5). For a predominantly gaseous system, Equatton 2.16 is used to calculate V, and L is obtained by difference whereas if the system is predominantly liquid, Equation 217 is used and is obtained by difference. The use of either Equation 216 or 217 is entirely analogous; the only difference is in the accuracy of the results. .Lockhart (1983) has made an important observation regarding the use of tlus method: the value of the calculated L, as compared with the assumed L. gives the direction of the correct L. Thus, if at an assumed value of Ltv of 0.5 the calculated (Ltv)c < 0.5, then the correct UV will be less than (LI V)c' H the calculated (LlV)~ > 0.5, then the correct LlV will be greater than (L/V)c' Of course, if the calculated (UV)" '"' 0.5 exactly for an assumed L/V of 0.5. then convergence has been reached. where Kh and Ktdenote the K4 values for the heavy and light components. respectively, in the binary mixture. The K· parameter is defined as follows:
V
K· 
Ez,
E(z,/K,)
for (V) ...umed

1
K* _
EZi _ I for (V) ...um«l 0.5 E[z,/(K, + I)l
K·  (UV) [EZ,  1] 10'
ELx(
(V)~",,",  0.5 to 1
166
KO 
Ga! Production Engineering
Ga. and Liquid Separalion
167
L,V
(E7;!!:VyJ  1
for (V).d  0 to 0.5
The summation E in these relation.'ihips represents the subtotals O\'cr all pure components i for the light component and the heavy component, as the case may be. Thus, in calculating Ktfor the light component, the summation E is done for i  I to "I' Similarly. for a Kh calculation, the summation E is carried out for i  I to nh' For different values of V...1Om«J, V· is calculated. At convergence, V'  V.:!. Alternatively. a graphical method can be used.. where tv.·o lines are plotted on a Cartesian graph: (1) V' versus V .......... and (2) V' _ V.I' The intersection of these two lines gives the correct answer. A Note on Flash Calculations for Stage Separation For an isothermal flash calculation, the separator temperature is known, and is kept at a constant value by suitable heat exchange devices in the separator. The trial and error flash calculation procedure involves determining the separator pressure. If there is no heat exchanger, or the temperature is not known, an adiabatic flash calculation is made, involving a double trial and error: one for separator pressure, and another for the temperature. Usually, a separator pressure is chosen, and trial and error done for a corresponding separator temperature that makes the feed enthalpy equal to the product enthalp)'. A reasonable separator temperature is assumed, and flash calculations are made exactly as for an isothermal case.
(c) low COR well producing oil, water, and gas? (d) heavy, waxy crude (GOR can be assumed to be low for heavy oils)? (e) gas condensates with a hydrate problem? (f) nearly dry gas at high pressure?
4. A 20 ft x 10 ft 1,000 psi
(working pressure) horizontal separator used on a well with a gas flow rate of 9 MMscflday and a line pressure of 500 psig? If a gas backpressure valve were put on the separator, what pressure should it be set at to handle the gas flow rate? 5. Design a vertical separator, with a mist extractor, that can handle 6.66 MM.scflday of a 0.80 gravity gas. The oil gravity is 45° API, operating pressure is 400 psia, and the operating temperature is 60°F. Use ba~ic separation relationships for this design, and compare the results WIth SivaJls' charts. 6. A gas field delivers 13.4 MMscflday of a 0.68 gravity gas and 300 bblJ day oil with a 50% water cut. For an operating pressure of 1.000 psig and temperature of 8O°F_
is operated at 112 fullofIiquid conditions. Can it be
w.P.
(a) Determine the ID of the spherical separator required to accommodate the liquid and gas, assuming a retention time of 5 min. (b) How much more gas can be flowed through the separator without worrying about the gas capacity? 7. A 1.25 gravity gas condensate stream at 1,200 psia and 110°F is to be separated into oil and gas using a threestage separation. (a) Assuming that the mole % C) + C 2 + C 3 in the gas is 80%, what is the optimum secondstage pressure? (b) Choose and design the appropriate separators for each of these three stages.
."..
Questions and Problems
1. Describe the three major components of oiJwaterga.~ separators. 2. What happens to separation quality and the separator when
8. Describe the applicability of the various gas cleaning methods in natural gas production and processing.
(a) the gas flow rate exceeds the allowable rate through the separator? (b) the liquid flow rate exceeds the allowable rate through the separator? (c) mist extractor becomes plugged? (d) the wellstream produces slugs of liquid (oil and water) into the separator? References
Beggs, H. D., 1984. Gas Production OperatiQ1ls. Oil & Gas Consultants International, Inc .. Tulsa, Oklahoma, 287pp. Brink. J. A., Jr., 1963. "Air Pollution Control with Fibre Mist Eliminators," Cdn. J. Chem. Eng., 41(3, June). 134138. Campbell. J. M., 1955. "Know Your Separators," O. & Gas J., 53(45, Mar. 14),107111.
3. What type of separator(s) should be used for(a) offshore production platform? (b) high COR well, with liquid surges?
168
Ga! Production Engineering
Campbell, J. M., 1984. Gas Conditioning a11d Processing, Vol. 2. Campbell Petroleum Series, Norman, Oklahoma, 398pp. Craft, B. C., Holden, W. R., and Craves, E. D., Jr., 1962. Well Design: Drilling and Production. PrenticeHall tnc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jer"'Y, 571 pp. Curry, R. N., 1981. Fundamentals oj Natural Gas Conditioning. PennWell Pub!. Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma, 118pp. Cas Processors Suppliers Association, 1981. Engineering Data Book, 9th ed. (5th revision), GPSA, Thlsa, Oklahoma. Ikoku, C. U., 1984. Natural Gas Production Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 517pp. Lapple, C. E., 1984. Cited reference in: Chemical Engineers' Handbook , by R. H. Perry and D. W. Creen (cds.), 6th ed. McGrawHili Book Co., Inc., New York, pp. 563. Lockhart, F. J., 1983. Personal communication. Lockhart, F. 1., Chil ingarian, G. V., and Kumar,S., 1986. "Separation of Oil and Cas," in: Surjace Operations in Petroleum Production, Vol. 1, by G V. Chilingarian. 1. O. Robertson, and S. Kumar, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam. Lockhart, F. J. and McHenry, R. J., 1958. "Figure Flash Equilibrium Easier, Quicker This Way," Petro Refiner, 37(3), 209212. Petroleum Extension Service, 1972. Field Handling oj Natural Gas. 3rd ed., Univ. of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, 143pp. Sivails, C. R, 1977. "Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Separation," Proc. Cas Conditioning ConL, Univ. of Oklahoma, 3lpp. Whinery, K. F. and Campbell, J. M., 1958. "A Method for Determining Optimum Second·Stage Pressure in ThreeStage Separation:' /. Pet. Tech. , 10(4, Ap'. ), 5354.
5
GasWater Systems and Dehydration Processing
Introduction Water vapor is the most common undesirable impurity found in natural gas. By virtue of its source. natural gas is almost always associated wit~ water, usually in the range of 400500 Ib water vapor/MMscf gas. The pmoary reason for the removal of water from gas is the problem of gas hydrate formation. Liquid water with natural gas may form solid, icelike hydrates that plug flowlines and lead to severe operational probl:ms. Oth~r reaso~ for removing water are: (I) liquid water promotes corrOSiOn, .pa~hc~larly In the presence of H2S and CO 2; (2) slugging flow may result If liqUid water condenses in the flowlines; and (3) water vapor reduces the heating value of the gas. For these reasons, pipeline specifications for natural gas restrict the water content to a vaiue not greater than 68 Ibm/MMscf. Because most gas sweetening processes involve the use of an aqueous sol.ution, dehydration is often done after desulfurization. Nevertheless, part~al dehydration. or hydrate inhibition. are commonly necessary at the wellstte itself.
•
Water Content of Natural Gases In order to design and operate dehydration procecoses, a reliable estimate of the water content of natural gas is essential. The water content of a gas depends upon: 1. Pressure water content decreases with increasing pressure. 2. Temperaturewater content increases with increasing temperature.
169
170
Ga., Product/on Engineering
y",  pJp
GasWater Systems Gild Dehydratiofl Processiflg
171
3. Salt content of the free water in equilibrium with the natural gal> in the reservoirwater content decreases with increasing ~alt content of the associated reservoir water. 4. Cas composition  higher gravity gases usually have less water. The terms dete point and deu.:point depression are wideh used in deh\"dratian terminology. Dew point indirectly indicates the water content oc" a natural gas, and is defined as the temperature at which the gas is saturated with water vapor at a gin'n p~ure. The difference between the dewpoint temperature of a gasstreambetoreandafterdehydration i.Halled: the dewpoint depression Consider a gas saturated with water at 500 psia and lDO'F. It~ dew point is 100° F. and its water content i.~ approximately 100 Ibm MMscf gas. The gas is to be transported in a pipeline at 60' F. Under ~ipeline conditions of 500 psia and 60°F, the water vapor content of the gas IS only about 30 Ibm/MMscf. Thus, 70 Ib water per MMscf of gas exist as free water in the pipeline. If the dew point of the inlet gas to the pipeline i~ reduced to 60 °F, no free water will exist in the pipeline at the pipeline flo\\ condjti~ns. In other words, the dehrdration facility should give a dew point depressIon of 100  60 = 40°F. In practice, although a dew point depression of 40° F is just suffiCient, a 50°F dew point deprasion may be desirable for operational safety. T~le methods a\aHable for calculating the water content of natural gases faUlIlto three categories: (1 ) partial pressure approach, valid up to about 60 psia (gases exhibit almost ideal behavior up to 60 psia in most cases): (2) empirical plots; and (3) equations of state. Partial Pressure Approach Assuming ideal gas and ideal mixture beha\ior. the partial pressure of water in the gas is gi\'en by p..  Ph. and also by po.. _ p,X". Thus.
(52)
This simple approach has limited applicability at the pressure and temperature of interest in most natural gas production, processing and transport systems. Empirical Plots For engineering calcuJations. empirical plots are widely used. ~umerous Investigations ha\"e' resulted in several plots. such as by McCarthy et al. (1950), McKetta and Wehe (1958). the Gas Processors Suppliers Association (GPSA), Campbell (l984a), Robinson et al. (1978), and others. Since. the real danger in design is to underestimate the water content. all correlations assume the gas to be completely saturated with water, and most correlations are designed to slightly overestimate the water content. Nitrogen hold~ about 69% less water than methane (CampbelL 1984a). Therefore. nitrogen is frequently included as a hydrocarbon, providing a small safety factor.
McKetta and Wehe COfTf'intiofi for Sweet Case,
The McKetta and Wehe correlation (1958), shown in Figure 51, includes correction factors for gas gravity and formation water salinity. It gives acceptable results for sweet gases.
Robifl1lOn et aI. COfTf'lotwn for Sour Case.
,
Ph  p..x"
where p  absolute pressure of the gas
(51 )
y..  mole fraction of water in the vapor (gas) phase p,  vapor pressure of water at the system temperature
K" 
The Robinson et aI. (1978) correlation for sour gases. shown in Figures 52 and 53, is based upon the SRK (SoaveRedlichKwong) equation of state. The hydrocarbon portion of the gas is assumed to be pure methane. Robinson et at. found that CO 2 carries orny about 75 % as much water as H.,s under the same conditions. To reduce the number of \·ariables and th~reby simplify the graphical representation of the correlation, Robinson et aI. assumed that this condition was true throughout. Therefore, to use this correlation, one has to multiply the % CO 2 in the gas by 0.75, and add it to the % H 2S in the gas to get the effective HzS content.
Campbell's Correintion for Sweet afld Sour Cases
mole fraction of water in the aqueous (liquid water) phase associated with the gas phase under equilibrium conditions
Since water is almost immiscible in the liquid phase with oil K is usuallv assumed to be equal to unity. Thus, the water mole fraction i~ the gas, can be calculated as:
y:,
Campbell (1984a) presented a composite chart, shown in Figure 54, for sweet gases based upon earlier charts and other available data. This chart gives values very similar to the McKetta and Wehe correlation, but dot!S not include corrections for gas gravity and water salinity.
(tm continued Qn page 174)
...) .... . Robinson at at correlation tor.s.... s s " i • • • e ... (After McKatta and Wehe.. 1981.. ~..) o o I. . M~... • .... .. i i _.. ... M~~04 3D"/. water content of sour gases In ~he 3002. 1958."'010 Figure 52...... reprinted from Engineering Data Book.172 Gaa Production Engineering CIlS.... __ H .... • I ... IKo '0". courtesy of 0... (After Robinson at aI.''''' . lO1.... '. .of_ .... Wilt" e.4 CM.... 1978.. . ~.. o o 100"1... .001) psia pressure range.s._.... ...1 • . I l aa. __ ... 1 .. _.. .... H .oIlI.. lD"Xo CM.. 0 4O"fo. with corrections tor waler salinity and gas gravity.. .Water Systems Qnd Dehydration ProceDing 173 _.Figure 5·1. courtesy of GPSA. 'll"~"  . The McKettaWehe correlation for waler content of natural gases.. It"/.1 & Gas Journal.
W . ClIo I.1 from Figure 55 WH~" .6I'1tx. Robinson at al.77 Ib H 2 0fMMscf gas. G 11% M. ""'" ~ tr. MIll] o l00"t.0006. W a~ .0I0 o . 7rf.".s. and 11 25.174 Goa Production Engineering Gas\\ater S!lstem. 1978.2 Ib H 20/MMscf gas. Find the water content of a 0. W = 781b H 201 MMscl gas.. Figure 5·3...000 pSla pressure range... Continued. Campbell (l984a) proposes a weighted 8\'erage water content.. Thus. Correcting for the gas gravity. (After Robinson at aI... and Deh!ldratlon Processillg 175 (ted cont/nlled from page 171) To correct for large acid gas (H2.. CO!. correlation for water content of sour gases in the 3.000 psia. the water content.) .(0.500 psia and 120°F.1I. '. •• f. courtesy of Off & Gas Joumal." M.I. T. and at 10.water content of CO.water content of the hydrocarbon portion of the gas from Figure 54 • Figure 53. ~ 010 G 201. \V. YC02' YII~ . HzS from Figure 56 respecthely •• Wottr content" natural gos mixturel Exam"le 5·1..water content of YHC. the two methods gi\'e very close resu1ts for most practical purposes.75 gravity gas at 1.o O ~1. W .S and CO 2 ) contents. Using Campbell's correlation (Figure 54).mole fractions of hydrocarbon. Solution From the McKctta and Wehe (:orreiation (Figure 51).99)(78) 77..S. for the gas as follows: (53) where \\'HC ...s.1IO"J..
1984a.2.1. 59 Ib H20 MMscf He ~. courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series. \'H{:'" 0.025)(67) + (0... fIC~HIO . Waler 3000 ..5%. The gas composition is as follows: CH 4 .80 + 0..89 YHzS . Find the water content of a gas at 1.9 Ib HzO/MMscf gas "00 • 1 1000 ! • " • Figure 5·4." 30 • '00 200 300 400 )00 1000 ~ooo Figure 55..015 + 0.000 psia and lOO°F using (1) Campbelrs methcxl and (2) Robinson et a1. C 2H 6 .. •• pd.8.2. W llti Using Equation 53. Nt . and H2S ..as 67 Ib H20~1Mscf CO 2 From Figure 56. Campbell's correlation lor waler content of sweet gases. \\. 1984a.t Production Engineering Gas\\uter Systems and Dehydration Proces. IV ~ (0.80.5..0. method. CO 2 .0%.0%. (After Campbell. . (After Campbell... He: From Figure 55.5%.5%.89)(59) :z  150 Ib H20fMMscf H:S + (0.05 + 0..085 FrQm Figure ~4.02 = 0.005 + 0. " . content of C02 In saturated natural gas mixtures.0. C3HS .5%.176 Co.085)(150) 66.0%.Ting 177 Solutim) 1. "'" .) E%ampl~ 52. courtesy 01 Campbell PetrOleum Series.l ! . W C02 .) .
fugacities are reported in terms of the fugacity coefficient.4 Ibflt')(5.. ~ '000 • • c ! where f. "" vapor pressure of water at the system temperature p . first the EMR critical pressure. Thus. Cenerally. By interpolation.)(plp. Equation 52 can be . Alternatively.6146 1t'lbbl) = 61.10.(0. Note: Solid curved Imes ar.375% In Figure .75)(2. the fugacity coefficients for water at its vapor pressure (t'. and f". I) (5\) i · lill .5 .. Referring to the vapor.. c '"" empirically determined constants • Figure 56. 1984a. In general. The fugaci· ties. system pressure a.178 G~ Productiorl Engin«ring '0000 Co!\\ater Systems and Dehydration Proceaing 179 liquid equilibrium principles discussed in Chapter 2.0049 is a semiempirical constant. _ I.0. f. at equilibrium conditions can then be calculated as: i " sao • • . (After Campbell.ll _ (1. the pnx:edure is as follows: 1. and for the gas at the system conditions (y) are calculated using any equation of state (see Chapter 3 for further details). lOOO p. _ fugacity of water at il~ \·apor pressure and system temperature f" _ fugacity of water at the system pressure and temperature f _ fugacity of the total ~as mixture at the system pteS!iure and temperatun' In practice. the line<> for 0% H 2S and 20% H 2S at 1000 psia are very close together. and Z factor are determined using the Mcleod and Campbell method discussed in Chapter 3... Find the value of the parameter k from Figure 57. " 8 • .175 bbl!MMrl)(62.TiUen for a nonideal system as: y. rlement smce they reqUire the use of a computer. Equation 54 is modified in different ways to account for the discrepancy. courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series. It has proved to be accurate and reliable (Campbell. (55) 100 :: where " >0.)(1.) and at the system pressure and temperature (Y . Y. but difficult and expensive to im.. (0.) 2. One such method has been de\eloped by Sharma and Campbell (1984) for predicting the water content of sweet as well as sour gases based upon the EMR mixture combination rules.). critical temperature. for water can be found from Figure 58 (as described in "ep 2). b. Water content 01 H~ in saturated natural gas mixtures.3 Ib H2 01 MMscf gas k .e lor pure H2 S only. .ithoul water vapor in it. where the exponent 0. Effectiye H~S content .5) + 8. The mole fraction of water in the gas (in the vapor phase).(fJI.11.175 bbl'MMrl . Thus. In this method. Thereafter..5. Equation 56 can alternatively be written as: .. k can be calculated using the following equation: IV . 1984a). the fugacity f used is for the gas stream u. y".2.)""" (56) Equations of State Equati~n of state met~ods are rigorous. no line for 10% HiS is shown.
. Z.tem p~ure p and temperature T.. .. as follows: 0.. Ind. Figure 58. . 2... 3.7) 2. since the EMR critical pressure and temperature were used for calculating the critical properties of the gas. 0.' . 10 0.'iller System! and Dehydration ProcQ8ing 'I.01 • .. and K.. the criticaJ pre'iSure and temperature for water only are applicable. courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series. (Alter Edmister and Lee. . Chem. Find the water fugacity coefficient. Produclion Engineering Gas'1.. O. and Engr.. Calculate the mole fraction of water in the gas (in the vapor phase).001 0. Note that since i'".. S.0001 200 . (After Campbell. Constant k as a lunction of pressure and temperature. Jr. 1958.. 1984. find the fugacity coefficient "t for the gas mhture (without water as a comiXlnent) at :oy:.. 1984a. Using Figure 58 and the critical pressure and temperature for the gas determined from the E~1R method.. . F. lOOO '''' Figure 57. Pitzer. ... from data by A. must be that determined from the EMR method.. Curl.0) 0.00'''. 181 (s.. _ 0.1'" Go... Yw. Generalized fugacity coefficient chart.) 4. from the generalized fugacity coefficient chart shown in Figure 58.ooos Feb. if".. represents the pure component fugacity for water.) "0 (58) where the gas compressibility factor.
carbon dioxide. So.005 0.195 andT p.8602 0. "t .0.SfO.. (T"p. 0.(0. and (T..$..5359)(836.tft" 56011. .165.5359 . Ppr" I.31 . notably methane. .atn''' 3. k .. ~atural gas hydrates are formed when natural gas components.·. random moyement.050197 Ibm/seC .0. and (T.) . can a\'oid entrapment because of their smaller size and rapid.0215 EMR 13.481 Natural ga~ hydrates are solid crystalline compounds.015)/{ (1)( 10.5 .7143 0..(f.'p)".S N~ y. Hydrate formation is governed by the size of the host molecule. lines to T.800 0..1.ip{"h" 0.371 x 10 ' Now.0714 Y..5. 0. 1.1 R..93)(14. Therefore.0. . and Tpr" 560/448..388 From Figure 35..3J2. Solubility affects the rate of formation because it governs the availability of the guest molecule to the water. (P. 15. (T. and large enough to get entrapped..OOOf836. the water content of the gas EO EMR~ "" E Y2IEMRj . and Tpc" (0... 0.59 (1. 448..913 34. and (T• .249 From Figure 37.020 0. resembling ice or wet snow in appearance.. 't . and its solubility in water.085 0.050 0..182 Ga& Production £n~ineerlng GasWater Systems and Dl'hydration Processing 183 Example 53.0269 0. the density of ".750 19. 0.73)(491.88) . propane.5O. 0.1. H.07)(27. y. ~ (0.OOl95)[0. Gas Hydrates So. .S15 from Figure 5S for a Pp.l~iMscf ~ (14.. ~IMscf gas From Figure 36.. 0.) . 1.. the compressibility factor..535 on extrapolation of the T. nC 4 0. causing the water to solidify at temperatures considerably higher than the rreezin~ point of water..984 15. hydrogen sulfide.1.371 x 10 3 MMscf wateriM~lscf gas) . 0.2143 0.88. (50.  Thus. Enough gaseous molecu1es must enter the lattice and occupy the voids to stabilize the lattice crystal.) •• ~ (0." 0.00195 From Table 31. implying that Ppc" 836.. such as those of methane..) ..59) • 15. 7)(18.56 psia. C. 0.249 Using Equation 58.828 C..837 From Figure 57.197 lb watcriM~tscf \\'ater) _ 68...0914 0. CO. ethane.31°R Thus.51) + (0.00013. (P..IPch . Size is an important parameterthe molecule should be small enough to properly orient itself within the water structure to best use the available space.).025 0. the mole fraction of water is equal to: Solution Comp.195.53510..07)(0.165. Smaller molecules.015 y.'ater vapor at standard conditions . lS..197Ibm.40i 23. From Figure 58.93)(0.47) + (0. 1.243 \'1  C.«" 1.. enter the water lattice (which is looser than the ice lattice) and occupy the \acant lattice positions. 27.930 0.. They are included in a general class of compounds known as clatllratl'. For the gas (without water).51.203.56) .316 44.67) 1 9.203. which have a structure wherein guest molecules are entrapped in a cagelike framework of the host molecules without forming a chemical bond.S2 Ib H20. ~s (Tr1p~ 5) . and nitrogen. 28. Z . isobutane.070 0.6 psia.923.56 .815f"" • 1. Repeat Example 52 using the Sharma and Campbell method. but much less dense than ice.6 .5359 • And (EMR) •• ..
the hydrocarbon exists in the liquid state. The number of water molecules associated with each molecule of the gaseous component included in the hydrate is known as the hydrate nllmber.9 to 8..O iC. no specific hydrate number can be given for tt particular hydrate. (1970) report experimental values for methane in the range of 5.. If these conditions are met stable hvdrate formation is possible under certain conditions governed by 'the hydr~te phase equilibrium behavior. HFCI is the vapor pressure curve for the hydrocarbon gas. 17H. it must satisfy two criteria: (I) it should be of the covalent bond type. called Structure I. 2.. rium representation. although hydrate structures are stable at less than 100% occupancy of the voids.T( IF _ _  c • HYDROC .. but it is very unstable. BHzO Normal·butane does form a hydrate.. the region towards the left of the line EBFC wiJI hard1y ever be encountered. and hydrogen suJfide. I . RBDH V"'POR I • IHI'~~S I. Structure II is a diamond lattice. and EBFC is the curve representing the solidliquid equilibrium for water (or. Above the vapor pressure cun'e HFCI.ertical at the point where it intersects the hydrocarbon . 1981). when in the liquid state....drate system. . the gases mentioned earlier as being hydrate formers. t R • '" .... Hydrates exl~t in the pressuretemperature region above the hydrate cun·e ABeD. I w.O H 2S. no hydrates can form. I I I HYQfl~T[ CliRVE • ..5. water will be in the liquid state. I I I I "".. 17H2O Nitrogen: Carbon dioxide: Hydrogen sulfide: N2 .O .. except perhaps in extremely cold areas. and (2) the gas... hydrate molecules can typically be represented as: Methane: Ethane: Propane: lsobutane: CH 4 • BH2 0 C. I KYOR0CI0R90H V~POR PftESSORE CURVE.. C. For the largest molecuJes associated with Structure II.. the water freezing point curve). and to its right.6H. Hydrate Phase Behavior Figure 59 shows the phase equilibrium diagram for a gaswaterh). • Note that in Figure 59. with molecules smaller than 8 A0 units.8 to B.·apor pressure curve. For molecules in Structure I. must be immiscible with watcr. TER .H 10. and 7. POR + FREEZING POINl ClIIIV( L. Thus. These lines delineate different regions in the phase equilibrium as follows: 1. and for ethane from 7..n LIQlIlD HYOIIQC4RSQ Two types of crystalline structures have been pro~ for gas hydrates.667 for medium sized gases (CZH6)..l. Since different number of guest molecules can enter the water lattice and stabilize it into a hydrate.. The hydrocarbon gas is assumed Singlecomponent to simplify the phase equilib. . satisfy these cri .H.184 Cos Production Engineering GasWater Systerns and Dehydration Processing 185 Hydrate Formulas :G HYO:. such as methane..75 for the smallest gases (CII I ). Smaller molecules. On the right of EBFC. Below the hydrate curve. 3. BH. In natural gas systems. This intersection. the hydrate cur . Towards the left of the line EBFC. The gas hrdrate that is formed will be stable if the hydrate is water resistant and no Van der Waals' forces arise between the hydrate molecules. In practice. the limiting hydrate number is 17 (CPSA.3. Cas mixtures (orm both Structure I and II type hydrates.O C.. therefore represents the maximum hydrate forming temperature. formed by larger molecules. .. such as propane and isobutane. Line ABCD represents the hydrate curve.e becomes .. Conditions Promoting Hydrate formation For a gas to be a hydrate former.. ethane.. Paraffins higher than butane do not form hydrates.W~lEII HlDIIOCAR80N VAPOR + '" " lZ"F CO. Calloway et al. a theoretical quantity determined using the size of the gas molecules and the size of the voids in the water lattice. water exists in the solid form as ice. I • · • I · • : ~ " HYQRUE .lIeOH V.H. Phase equi librium diagram for a gaswaterhydrate system.. form a bodycentered cubic lattice. The limiting hydrate number.r HYDIU. serves as a useful parameter. BH. the limiting hydrate number is 5. I HYDIIOtJ. I llQlIlD NTtlROCloIIe WUER __  Figure 59.
hydrates will form at or below a temperature of 54°E . Figure 510. Hydrate formation can be divided into two categories (Ikoku. Example 54.2 O. Secondar~ JOOO 20 10 2000 factors that aid and accelerate hydrate formation are (CPSA.186 Gal Production Engineering GasWater Systemf and Dehydratioll Processing 187 teria. and backpressure regulators (sometimes bot. are used to avoid sudden expansion. or equation of state methods disclliSed in Chapters 2 and 3. 1984): (1) hydrate formation due to a decrease in temperature (or increase in pressure) with no sudden expansion (or compression). courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series. or agitation. Figure 511 can be used for predicting the approximate pressuretemperature con ditions for hvdratc formation. • 7110 ~OO 5._ 3. The primary conditions necessary for a natural gas to form stable hydrates can be summarized as follows: 1. Natural gas at or below the dew point with liquid water present. such as in flow strings and surface lines: and (2) hydrate formation due to sudden expansion. Correlations for predicting the hydrate curve are disclliSed here. 1000 7. To what value can the temperature be reduced without hydrate formation? Solution From Figure 511.5 " 30 20 0. of a gas with a given gravity.SOf<> Suppliers Association (cPSA) charts shown in Figures 511 through 516 can be used. :. I High .e\ocities.3 0. at or belO\\ the hydrate formation temperature for a gh'en pressure and gas com}X)Sition. orifices. In particwar. Hydrate forming conditions lor natural gas components. Figures 512 to 516 are used for determininK the permissible expansion. (After Campbell.) Approximate\ferhod for SWl'f'1 Gases As a first approximation. and the part CD of the hydrate curve is a vertical straight line).. A 0. and consequently.300 • • .vithout hydrate formation. 3. Stich as in flowprovers. ! ID!. or pressure pulsations. 0.. avoid hydrate formation). Figures 512 to 516 are used for estimating hydrate fon~ation conditions for situations of type 2. The hydrocarbon vapor pressure curve can be predicted using any of the several available correlation~. BHe.0 . Hi~h operating pressures. . tomhole chokes. Presence of a small "seed" crystal of hydrate. For hydrate formation of type I. nenl~. that may raise the hydrate formation temperature to the operatin~ temperature. These charts do not account for the presence of H 2S and CO 2.• • • . the data presented in the Cas Proce. 2. Presence of H 2S and CO 2 aids hydrate formation because both these acid gases are more soluble in water than the hydrocarbons. ro.0 1981)..'o hydrate formation is possible if "Cree" water is not present.0 1. chokes.__~__""'__""'__""'__:::__~" ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ro F 00 90 Tf"iPtnture. Low temperatures. and only the portion BC of the hydrate curve (operating conditions in the region AB are never encountered.0 2. o. • · • Prediction of Hydrate Formation Figure 5·10 shows the hydrate forming conditions for natural gas compoReferring to Figure 59 it ean be seen that the general procedure for hydrate prediction would invoke prediction of the hydrocarbon vapor pressure curve (line HFCI).685 gravity gas i. 1984a. 2.~ at 500 psia and l(x)°F. 3. .
l7// t?' //// rP' 0/' Hence.. (From Engineering Data Book. courtesy of GPSA..685 .685 gravity gas if it is initially at (a) 1.000 psia initial pressure line for a 0. 1981 . ..188 Ga$ Product/on Engineering CQ~·Uat('r Systems alld Dehydration Processing 1•• Erampk 5·5...5 psia.yfx..490)(0. f ]I) 00 ~=. Pressuretemperature curves for approximate prediction of hydrate formation for natural gases. (From Engineering Data Book.~ Figure 512...~.f 1/ . gives a final pressure of 490 psia.( • J . 6000 4 000 .6)/(0. Similarly..500 psia and 100' F. The Katz et a1.\(ethod 00" 40 Y> ee • 00 Te"'P"'.000 psia and 100°F. tion to a pressure .0. OF I 4000 1//1/ '/ / ~V:b'/ ~/.6gravity natural gas without hydrate formation. r!l ~ 1000 f1 (b) Refer to Figures 512 and 513. . K .500 psia initial pressure line with the 100°F irtitial temperature CUT\'£.0. they increase in density. the intersection of the 1. r. courtesy of GPSA..490 + (800 .. / / • ""'f/r:'++++++1+tttt.mole fraction of hydrocarbon in the solid on a waterfree basiS .6) 753.685 gravity gas can be expanded without hydrate forma.7 gravity gas..ahJ.... the gas at these conditions can be expanded to any pressure without hydrate formation. • ~ 2000 Q. The lOO"F initial temperature curve does not intersect the 1.7 . Approximate permissible expansion of a O.~ co JOO • • f •..) ~ ~ • < zoe 1.6 gravity as well as a 0. K.) (59) where y .7 gru\'ity gas... from Figure 513 for a 0. Figure 511..6 gravity gas. and (b) 1. Solution (a) From Figure 512 for a 0. first proposed by Carson and Katz (1942). (1959) method is based upon the principle that the gases entrapped in a natural gas hydrate resemble solid solutions. It uses vaporsolid equilibrium ratios. 4 "... How far can the pressure be lowered without expecting hydrate formation for a 0. INITIAL TfM1fUTUU. .r pr . By interpolation. the 0. because on release during the decomposition of the hydrates.mole fraction of hydrocarbon in the gas on a waterfree bas~ X. ] • 4 3 / / / / 4 ff . the final pressure is equal to 800 f6ia. '" '·~me. P"" t < 150 4 1. Katz et aL .. 1981.
. 1981./ . ..~I:cc=  (511) (y K. 00 1!oOO 2ODO 3OilO • Figure 513.8gravity natural gas WIthout hydrate formation..) From this de£inition of K. Thus. ~ . . 1 ¥II '..000 psia. Heinze (1971) gave the following relationship. valid up to a pressure of about 5. this is incorrect.V /1/ :.7gravily natural gas without hydrate formal1on.' V . .'l'/ ~ V/ / v. Theoretically.'90 CD' PrOOtlcljoll Engineering GasWater Systems cmel Dehydration Proces$ing '9' ~ NlTLAl I Efro'o'UAtUtf f II.. K .:././/.800 psia: " E (y. (From Engmeenng Data Book 1981 courtesy 01 GPSA) • • Figure 514. ~ ! i i ~ .. caJculation of the hydrate forming condition is similar to the dew point calculation for multicomponent gaseous mixtures. has the same K..... ApprOXimate permiSSible expansion of a O. . ." V" r. ~ ! i ~ ?7 1 ..0 (510) Thus.. and that nbutane. where Th . To account for gases that contain large amounts of nitrogen.. e\'cn using a K..0..i .../ '/ V j .K~) T h" .. ._. j i~  "" y .. A gas with an H ~S content greater tha!l 20% can be considered to behave like pure HzS regarding hydrate forming characteristics. K" is CD.~ equal to 00 for both nitrogen and nbutane gives acceptable results (Campbell. it is clear that K" is equal to (XI for gases that are nonhydrate formers./ Z/ . but from an applications standpoint. K" values for components in a gas can be found from Figures 517 through 5·22.445 . for hydrocarbons heavier than butane. . (From Engineenng Data Book. / ~/// '/ . 1984a).' . if present in mole fractions less than 5%.:) . Hydrates will form when the foUowing equation is satisfied: Er~ I This method accounts for H2S and CO 2 • and has proved to be very reliable up to about 1. • .. Approximate permissible expansion of a O.0: 1 .hydrate formation temperature. The original method assumes that nitrogen is a nonhydrate former. courtesy of GPSA. ..1. value as ethane.
.'. . :::: I I !:: • • .. .. Further guesstimates may be made to converge to the temperature value that makes r: Yi/Kvo.0633 0. / ~ I ! ~.S N. ~ a . The gas given in Example 52 is at 500 psia. H. (From Engineering Data Book.. .) Examplr 56.8801) .800 0.0 0...System" Qnd Dehydration Processing 193 • INITIAl TEMf'flAMf " H!\1 \iii .23 0. 11'1. .1159 .gravity natural gas without hydrate formation.050 0.60 .'92 GQ" Product/ou En~illf~mng CQ". Figure 5·15.79 0..0 0. 1981.. courtesy of GPSA. ... 0.0.. At what temperature will hydrates form? Solution At 60°F Coml2' At 55°F Thus.4969 0. .5°F TrekellCampl)eU Method JOt" /'lighPrntnlre Gas .61 0.9gravily nalural gas without hydrate formation..1. C.0 0. . "'" "'" .0407 0.0625 0.55)(1 .8801 2.005 0..V I t . ~ / Y..iL 0.' . Hf / 1>. courtesy of GPSA.3038 0.1415 0. the hydrate forming temperature corresponding to a 500 psia pressure is between 55°F and 60°F.. . From a simple interpolation. Approximate permissible expansion of a 1. "" .)  1500  8(X) 101» IlCX) 2000 JIXD ~ .0094 0.I .28 ~ 0." .8801)/(1. The TrekellCampbell method uses (text continued on page 197) l.0. nC~ ~ 1.DJ5 0... ..0 0. to'..020 K'~i y. 1981. C...065 0. Approximate permissible expansion of a O.Water. the hydrate forming temperature can be calculated as: T...69 1./ ~ l~ '.57.21 ~ Trekell and Campbell (1966) provide corrections to the Katz et a1. V / ~ f.% Ii:' / / . 0. . / I . IJ I ' . . .025 0.4734 0.0.24 ~ ~ CO.()..0 1. .lK':>I C. Figur e 516. method to extend its applicability to higher pressures and account for the negative effect of the presence of nonhydrate forming molecules that are too large to fit into the voids in the water lattice.(60 .106 ~ lI/K. .:" . (From Engineering Data Book. l' .001_.J 159 .4048 0.65 0. .
19<
COl Proouction Enginunng
Gas WatN Systems
GIld
Dehydration Processing
195
Figure 5·17. Vaporsolid equilibrium constants for methane_ (After Carson and Katz, 1942; reprinted from Engineering Data Book, 1981 ; courtesy of GPSA.)
•
,_....
Figure 518. Vaporsolid equilibrium constants for ethane. (After Carson and Katz, 1942; reprinted from Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.) Figure 519. VaporSOlid equilibrium constants lor propane. (After Carson and Katz, 1942; reprinted from Engineering Data Book, 1981 ; courtesy of GPSA.)
...
08
Cas Water Systemr and Deh!ldration Procuring
'97
"
" o·
OJ
t#+
,00/r , c
",}
,O~ 'I> ,0
,0
./
02
0
l".l
K
0'
f
iI
oce
008 00
,01
"
.,
'"
10 80 Tempera"". , O f
80
'3 0
~1:co L '
,.,.
,.,.
I
./ol,lbetu.
Figure 522. Vaporsolid equilibrium constants for H2S. (From Engineering Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)
A"~.. : • . .
TEMPERATURE of
(!ext continlled from page 193)
"
"
"
"
Figure 520. vaporsolid equilibrium constants for isobutane. (From EngineerIng Data Book, 1981; courtesy of GPSA.)
J0
,
0
.0
8P7,091\
,. ' ,0
, , , , , , , , ,, , , , ,, , , ,, , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , ,, ' , , , ' ,, ,, , ' ,
~
" ,
methane as the reference gas. The additive effect of other hydrate forming gases, Cz, ell nC., i·C~, and H~, at different pressures is determined from Figures 523 to 5·28. CO i is ignored. Nonhydrate formers are grouped together into the pentanes plus (C 3 +) group, and their hydrate depression effect is determined from Figures 529 and 530 as a function of the mole% pentanes plus, and the mole % pentanes plus on the basis of the gas fractions from 4 to C~. This latter parameter can be written as:
•
I
I I
, , ,
YC3t (100 %) lYc\ Yc 3+
•
o•
oJ
•
0
, ,
,00
,
;::::
:::: v. ; / •o
o
, "
"
I~
60
Figure 5·2 1. vaporsolid equilibrium constants for CO;2 (From Engineering Data Book, 1981 ; courtesy of GPSA.)
where YCI' Y 3+  mole fractions of methane and pentanes plus, re;pecC tively. in the gas. Figures 523 to 528 indicate the hydrate forming temperature for methane at various pressures. To find the hydrate forming temperature at any pressure, the appropriate chart is used to read off the temperature displacement for the gas components as a function of their mole% in the gas. These temperature displacements are added to the methanehydrateforming temperature. U any pentanes plus are present, their effect (negative) is also added. The sum then gives the hydrate forming temperature at the pressure of interest. These calculations may be repeated for several pressures to obtain the hydrate curve for the gas.
(tnt continued
OIl
page 204)
19.
Ga, Production Engineering
Gas Walt'T S!lstNru and Dehydration Proces.nng
199
•
,
KYDltATE i'UOICrtOti CKAl.T VOl 6.9 I'!P. {lOOO pd_]
7
9
:K)
II
12
l)
K'(DRAT'! fttOICTION CIV.IlT rOf. D.8 1'1" (2000
p.tO!
Figure 523. TrekellCampbell temperature displacement chart for hydrate formers al 1,000 pSia. (After Trakell and Campbell, 1966; reprinted Irom Campbell, 1964a; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)
Figure 5. 24 . TrekellCampbelltemperature displacement chari for hydrate formers at 2,000 psia. (After Trekell and Campbell, 1966; reprinted from Campbell, 1984a; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)
200
Co, Production Engineering
Cos· Water Synenu and Dehydratwn Processing
TEI'IP!lATt/U. OlSPlACEK[IIT. AT. DC
201
,
,
.
TDtPlIATlJU DISPlACIllENt OT.
,
°c
•
'0
HYDRATE I'UDlCTlOJ( CHAJ.T rOIl 20.1 M" [lOOO poh]
KYDlAT! PUOICTIOll CKAJlT
,01.
27.61'1P. (4000 pol_1
Figure 5~2S. TrekellCampbetltemperature displacement chart for hydrate formers at 3,000 psia. (After Trekell and Campbell, 1966; reprinted from Campbell, 1984a; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)
Figure 526. TrekellCampbelltemperature displacement chart for hydrate formers at 4,000 psia. (After Trekell and Campbell, 1966; reprinted from Campbell, 1984a; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)
202
Go" Productum Engineering
o
TDtNU.nru DlSP1.o\C!HZIIT.o. T
Cos WaIn SyJteml and Dehydration ProceMing
•
"c
203
2,
•
,
•
o.
o
,
tn'lIRAn PI.l:DU:tION C1tAI.T rot. 34.5,.. ()OOO pd_)
o.
Figure 527. Tr~kellCampbell temperature displacement chari for hydrate formars 815,000 pS18. (After Trekell and Campbell, 1966; reprinted from Campbell, 1984a; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.)
tn'DIA.T! lUOICTIOII C1t.UT
roa
41.4",_ [6000
p"al
Figure 528 . TrekellCampbelltemperalure displacement ?hart for hydrate formers al 6,000 psia. (After Treke!! and Campbell. 1966; reprinted from Campbell, 1984a; courtesy of Campbell Petro/eum Series.)
204
Cas Production Engineering
Co.tWaler Sysleml and Dehydratian Processing
205
(tert continued from page 197)
The TrekellCampbell method is applicable to gases in the pressure range of 1.0006,000 psia.
,,
TDtPEItATIJU OISPUCDWIT (6T), DC
,
Exampk 57. For the gas with composition given below, nnd the hydrate formation temperature corresponding to a pressure of 6,000 psia.
Soilltion
)',~.(1 00.J I)"L)'C~'
Comp.
1L
0.810 0.050 0.025 0.Ql5 0.010 0.015 0.025 0.050 1.000
.c:1T. of
75.60 0.75
4.1
C, C, C, n_C.
i·C~
• • .,
C" CO,
H,S
0.25 1.9 1.17 0.0 0.0 81.43
~
'l~
, ,,
,
,
•
•
In this table, the aT values for CI. C 2, C 3, nC•. and iC~ are obtained from Figure 528. Note that H~ has a negligible effect on the hydrate fo rmation temperature at high pressures and is therefore not reported in Figure 528. The value of ()'e,.)(IOO%) / (1  Ye,  Ye,,)  (0.015)(100) /(1 _ 0.810  0.015)  8.57 In Figure 530, interpolation is made between the 8.0 and 9.5 lines to get aT   1.17 corresponding to C 5 ..  1.5%. Thus, the hydrate forming temperature corresponding to a 6,000 psia pressure is 81.43, or B1.4°F.
M cUodCompbeU Method for \'ny High Pre&YUre Su:ut Ca.
Figure 529. TrekellCampbell temperature displacement chart for nonhyd.rate fOfmers (pentanes plus) at 1,000 psia. (After Trekell and Campbel!, 1966, reprinted from Campbell, 1984a; courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Serles.)
Table 51
~ Values for the McleodCampbell Method for Predicting Hydrate
For gases alxwe 6,000 psia, the TrekellCampbeJl approach is not quite valid. For the 6,00010,000 psia pressure range, McLeod and Campbell (1961) propose the following relationship:
Formation '
Pressure
K. VIIlues
(512)
where Th  hydrate forming temperature, DR The KJ values are as shown in Table 51. The mole fractions of the components, Yr. are normaJized to the C 1 to C~ content. All other components in the gas are ignored. The method, therefore, has limited applicability.
MP,
41.4
Psi.
C,
C,
20806
20 848
0, 28 28 28 29 29 38' 700 784 182 200
'e,
'" 696
nC.
17 340
17 358
0000
7000
".3
55.2
"933
"096
19246 19367 19489
30 913 31 109 30 935
0000
9000 !O 000
20 932
62_1
00.0
. After McJ...oood .nd C.mpbell,
"094 21 105
'" 935
17 491
17868 17868
""
another adjustable parameter to the Parrish and Prausnitz (1972) algorithm to improve prediction of the dissociation pressures for multicomponent gases.025 0.S 1.0 Several complex computer solution methods have been developed for predicting hydrate (orming conditions.382 17.810 0.' 0.015 0. CO. Van der Waals and Platteeuw (1959) used the LennardJones 126 potential. 1984a.015 0.0 0.ru·ers and should be used with caution. 1966. Commonly used dehydration methods include .010 0.78"') _ 541.0 0. reprinted from Campbell.398.00010. Most equation of state methods are based upon the Van der Waals and Platteeuw (1959) statistical thermody_ namic equation for the chemical potential of water in the h}'drate lattice.) (~).206 Gas Production Engineering Gas\\ater Synem.OC 1 Solutio" YC5·{lOClSj Compo " " C.1 • o o o.0 ••• '.0 '.0 ~ 1. Preventing Hydrate Formation The permanent solution for hydrate problems is dehydration of the gas to a sufficiently low dew point. nC 4 iC 4 20.806 28.0110 K.050 v v . (After Trekell and Campbell.89)(19. Nagata and Kobayashi (1966) used the Kihara potential that they showed to be better than the LennardJones model. 0. The different methods essentially use different intermolecular potential functions.YC5.O I.025 0. Holder and Hand (1982) presented a modified form of the Parrish and Prausnitz (1972) model. courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series. 0.0 0.\'IIIJ. Parrish and Prausnitz (1972) expanded the concept of fitting hydrate parameters to develop a generalized method for predicting hydrate dissociation pressures for gas mixtures. '0. H. These methods too can at best give only approximate an.~ t. using the McLeodCampbell method. TDG'lUtvU aluactlOll h~r) .0275 0. C. C.. T.0 Using Equation 512.000 pSla.8 oF.8901 0.4°F determined using the TrekelJCarnpbeU method in Example 57. using the Van der Waals and Platteeuw (1959) equation and the Kihara spherical core model..80 oR _ 81.0 1. 18.050 0.y and Dehydration Procnnng I'DIP'U. Figure 530. Ng and Robinson (1976) have added.0165 0. TrekellCampbell temperature displacement chart !or nonhydrate formers (pentanes plus) in the pressure range of 2.0549 0.S i I.696 0. ~ (3.933 1 .0 C. EqlUlhlnl of State Methods i u 1.YCl .340 30. Note that this compares well with the value of 81. Repeat Example 5+7.! DUP'UoCEHEH'I 207 Example 5·8.) The complexity of these models precludes further discussion here.' S E m '.
In some cases. This resulted in a generally sporadic injection and poor inhibitor dispersion.::M!.molecular weight of the inhibitor K . Since positive displacement pumps do not sense any buildup of discharge pressure. ely mild. The water phase of the process liquid contains the EG or DEC. Metering devices are installed to permit chemical injection at a proportionaltaflow rate. or inhibition is done in conjunction with a primary dehydration system.v. Whereas most additives are recovered and recycled. Otherwise. As a precautionary measure in field operations. 2." 100M . gravitytype injection systems were being used.. w. a rupture disc is put at the discharge end of the pump.000 for the glycols.:. precise chemical requirements can be predicted and bulk purchases made at possibly lower costs. or periodic. does not require recovery. Methanol. newer systems that feed the additive at a uniform rate into the gas stream. gas being injected into a reservoir for st(lrage purposes also requires the addition of certain additives to protect the casing.335 for methanol.a constant. reo quired to lower the gas hydrate freezing point by dOF. because it disperses well in the gas stream. Prediction of Inhibitor Requirements The weight percent inhibitor concentration in the aqueous phase. and diethylene glycol (DEC). Continuous injection is also desirable from the standpoint of field personnel who can then operate on a regular basis. At the wellsite. and.wM (514) . The tee functions as a sort of mixing valve.offs (hydrates formation) during the operations.coo:. Methanol is used the most. The injection pump is usually of the positivedisplacement type. adsorption dehydration using a solid dessicant. inhibiting hydrate formation by injecting ad. Further. tubing.( ~. methanol recovery is often uneconomical. is given by Hammerschmidt's equation: w _ ". Types of Additives The mast common additives are methanol. so that it pumps a constant amount of chemical into the gas stream. Hydrate Inhibition by Additive Injection Additive injection is generally required for gas streams from producing as well as storage wells in order to prevent corrosion and hydrate formation in the gas gathering and transmission systems.. is the least expensive. a sight glass. To counter these problems. and sand face (Curry. regardless of the pressure of the gas against which it must inject the chemical. Note that in practice.t) K+dM (513) • where M . inhibitor injection is only a temporary phase In the field deVelopment program. two techniques are applicable: (1) heating the gas stream so that it becomes undersaturated. Equation 513 can be rearranged to calculate the lowering of the gas hydrate freezing point for a given weight percent inhibitor in the aqueous phase: d _ =. Any brass or copper components in the pump should be avoided. and maintaining flowlines and equipment at temperatures above the hydrate point.. 1981). . leading to freeze. such as the pneumatically powered chemical injection pumps.. It is preferable in cases where hydrate problems are relati . consequently.)(l:. since these metals are subject to severe physical breakdown in the presence of sour gases. ethylene glycol (EC).::K. and (2) in cases where liquid water is present and the flowlines and equipment cannot be maintained above hydrate temperatures. The pump injects chemical downward into the running end of a vertically installed tee of a size about one inch. Methanol injection is very useful in cases where low gas volumes prohibit dehydration processing. This latter technique is discussed in the following section. have been designed. dith'es that depress both hydrate and freezing temperatures. is readily available in bulk. eliminating frequent manual adjustment. however. hydrates are a problem only when allowed to accumulate and grow to a size that restricts or stops the flow. and a valve manifold to maintain equal pressure across the chemical and to regulate its entry into the flowing gas stream. 4. and ~imultaneous dehydration and gasliquid separation by expansion dehydration. A gravity injection system consists of a capacity tank. EC and DEC are used primarily at lowtemperature processing plants for extracting natural gas liquids. infrequent. all valves and accumulator systems where free water may accumulate are precharged with methanol to prevent hydrate formation. they are of no consequence. which can be recovered and regenerated.208 Gt» Prodlll:t/on Engineering CasWater Systems Qnd Dellytiration Processing 209 absorption dehydration using a liquid dessicant. Injection Techniques In the early years. can cause contamination problems in plants.
121 0.316 474.·.0157 <.5 6. almost all the plants use TEG because of lower vapor losses and better dewpoint depression (Table 528). full y used for dehydrating sweet as well as sour natural gases to effect a dewpoint depression of 40 to 140°F.1 103< 1.it}' lit 68~F Spceific weight. 2. Equation 513 would predict injection requirements of 23 gallons of methanol per MMscf of gas. and tetraethylene glycol (T. Thus. No operational problems when used in high concentrations.inst predictive techniques arE' no bttter than a rule of thumb.375 "'24' " 45_2 174 3&1 23' Absorption Dehydration Absorption dehydration involves the use of a liquid dessicant to remove water vapor from the ga. This is usually determined in field operations by reducing chemical amounts to a point where hydrate fo rmation (freezeoff) begins to occur.091 23 15.EG). soud dessicant will cost about 53% more than a TEG plant..Flit) 0_14 0.1184 9.52 0S35 0" 0. Consequently..500 psig and 40_160°F (Ikoku. TEG has been success O F 50 75 100 125 150 175 Sp Gr I 134 Viscosity 88 56 Thenul Conductivity. diethylene glycol (DE C). and plant operation is continuous. Aft. For a lOMM. and then keeping chemical injection just s1illhtly above this rate.12.o:.1 • 200 225 250 300 LOBO L068 1. No interaction with the hydrocarbon portion of the gas.635 0. These impurities must be thoroughly removed. come the closest to satisfying the<>e criteria to varying degrees. Equation 513 is designed to overpredict chemical requirements so as to yield "safe" numbers.125 0.138 0.130 0. The wet gas is first sent to a scrubber to remove any liquid water and hydrocarbons. maintain.113 1123 I III I 101 1.scfd plant. F Fn=. and no contamination by acid gases.0 3. High absorption efficit::nc). Process Flow Scheme Figu re 531 shows a typical flow sheet ror a glycol dehydration plant de. In practice. triethylene glycol (TEC). Although many liquids possess the ability to ab.48:s 6.55 9.0 106.orb water from gas.. with process reliability and lower initial capital and operating costs. 3. Siv.17 1.210 Go" Produclion Enginet'ring GaJU'tI:ter SyJtem. 5.i 91 47. economics usuall)' favors glycol dehydration over other processes (GPSA.25 gallons per M\1scf may be required in most cases.. dvnes/cm Hea't of . glycols can be used in the presence of materials that may foulup a solid desiccant. it is advisable to correctly evaluate chemical requirements by fieldtesting. Ib. Easy and economic regeneration. and other solid matter. the process of inhibition is really quite economical if the minimum re<luired amount of chemical is injected. 1979)..65 Temp. because they . only about 1 to 1. and for a 5OMMscf/d plant. and automate.4 IR 0 44. Wherever it can meet dehydration specifications. Table 52A Physical and Chemical Properties of Glycols" Ethylen. Noncorrosive and nontoxic.00 0. the liquid that is most desirable to use for commercial dehydration purposes should possess the following properties: Table 528 Variation of TEG Properties with Temperature" Sp Helt.~.1 6. Glycols are preferred because they offer a superior dewpoint depression. The glycols.t and Dehydration Processing 211 Typically. Furthermore. for operating conditions ranging from 252. and can be regenerated . sand.118 0.57 0585 0. scribed in detail by Si\'alls (1976). Of all the glycols.lls. 4. Btu/(hr Itl . Of Surface tension at 77" F. Btullb F 0. but acid gas absorption necessitates certain precautions (Table 52A). particularly ethylene glycol (EG).12 1. drilling mud..'" 0. it will cost 33% more than TEC (Guenther.022 L' L5 .07 I 1155 9_292 387. Glycol Molecular weight Specific grll.:gal Boiling point at 760 mm IIg. 1. 1984). 1981). The equipment is simpler to operate. 1976.8 150. 19i8_ Diethylene Glycol Trlethylene Glycol 62.ing point. \. Glycols can be used for sour gases.132 0.porizalion at JOO mm Hg. Btwlb • After Siulb.
because these liquids may. or dewpoint temperature. The reaction products form a sludge that collects on the heating surfaces. 1976). leading to corrosion in the reboiler and still. Foam inhibitors are normally used to avoid such a situation. Sudden liquid surges should be avoided to minimize solution carryover losses.15) • where W I. and the permissible lower limit of glycol viscosity the plant and equipment can handle. The amount of water to be removed. This ranges from 99. the inlet gas temperature is known. Cenerally. increases the heat requirements in the regeneration system.IV. to ensure good gasglycol contact. H~ghly concentrated glycol is very viscous at low temperatures. A low pH accelerates decomposition of glycol. 1984).5. especially in cold climatic conditions where the nowlines may solidify completely.) (5. because methanol cannot be vcnted directly to the atmosphere due to en· vironmentaJ hazards. Heavierend hydrocarbons will cause coking in the still and reboiler.07. This can be calculated easily as the difference between the inlet and outlet gas dewpoint temperatures. Aqueous methanol is corrosive to carbon steel. Ib waterlMMscf gas. operating pressure (psia). the inlet and outlet gases are assumed to be saturated. To prel'ent condensing of any hydrocarbons in the contactor. Concentration of the lean TEC from the regeneration system. \V.5 ft shell height is used. A heater may be required. however. helow approximately SO°F. tilled water. W ° _ water contents. glycol will be carried out of the stiJI along with the gas and water vapor. They may lead to vapor flooding in the reboiler and still due to the increased vapor load. measured at a 50·50 dilution with dis.9%: most designs use a 99.0% to 99. Finally. A methanol recovery unit is required at the water \'apor outlet. Glycol to water circulation rate. Presence of oxygen in the gas stream. 2. may be used for this purpose. is determined using any of the available correlations. Liquid hydrocarbons carried over into the stripping still cause severe damage. dehydration requirements are expressed in terms of dewpoint depression. 2. most field installations use 2. Generally. reducing process eHiciency and in some cases. MMscf). 3. for the inlet and outlet gas respectively. Lean TEG concentration is determined by what the regenerator can deliver (which is primarily a function of the amount of stripping gas supplied to the regenerator). A conversion factor of 24 is used in Equation 515 to convert the gas rate q from MMscfd to MMscf/hr. tactor. . High methanol injection rate. can be calculated as follows: IV. with both low as well as high boiling products. in Ibmthr. and the outlet gas water content is specified.ty. . In either case. and may also hinder glycol reconcentration. . This can be avoided by installing a filter at the downstream end of the glycol pump. 1976) The primary variables required for the design include gas now rate (M~tscfd). gas gra\. The data shown in Tables 53 and 54. and their water content. 4. two criteria must be selected for the design: Any dirt or impurities can contaminate the glycol solution severely.. a twophase scrubber with a 7. Glycol Plant Ocsign (After SivaJIs. Frequently. absorbed by the glycol along with water from the gas stream. Requirements are generally in the range of 25 gal TEC per lb water removed (CPSA. pH is controlled in the range 6. over long periods of time. For this reason. The glycol to water circulation rate depends upon the lean glycol concentration. 1981 ).214 GO! Production Engineering CasWater SyslemJ and Dehydratian Processillg 215 1. and Figure 532. Removal of all liquids from the gas is necessary before sending it to the contactor. I"let Scrubber The inlet scrubber is generally chosen based upon the operating pressure and gas capacity. Consequently. and carryover of slugs of liquid methanol can cause flooding in the absorber and regeneration system. all absorber trays must be completely filled with glycol at all times. 1. Sometimes. Corrosion may also be a problem in the presen~ of acid gases. leave crystalline deposits in the con. a dry gas blanket is sometimes provided on the glycol surge tank. and the number (and efficiency) of trays in the absorber. Methanol. In addition. 1981 ). Overheating the glycol can lead to solution decomposition. Glycol becomes quite corrosive with prolonged exposure to oxygen (GPSA. 1981). maximum working pres sure in the contactor (psia): gas inlet temperature rF): and outlet water content required in the gas (Ibm. the inlet dry glycol must be maintained at a temperature slightly greater than that of the gas stream (Sivalls. to avoid glycol decomposition (GPSA. mav require special precautions.5% lean glycol concentration. Carryover of liquid hydrocarbons can result in solution foaming. causing complete flow stoppage.(q/24)(W.5 to 4 gal TEC'lb H 20 removed (Ikoku.
range from 0. 1976). The water vapor leaves the unit from the top of the still column through an atmospheric reflux condenser that provides a partial reflux for the column (Sivalls. poor efficiency.000 psig absorber pressure (CPSA. soh'ed or entrained gas is removed. Here the regenerated glycol is cooled by heat exchange with the wet glycol stream. The separated gas is used either as fuel gas for the reboiler. thereby allowing more water to vaporize from the glycol: and (3) it provides a sweeping action (a combination of absorption of water. Using a valve and a pressure regulator. Clycol from the bottom of the flash separator is sent to heat exchanger coils in the glycol surge tank to preheat it by heat exchange with the hot.. A mist eliminator is also provided at the scrubber outlet to ensure good gas cleaning. and creation of a pressure drop for the water vapor to flow) to drive the water vapor out of the reboiler and stripping still system. 1976. injected at the wellhead for bydrate inhibition.05 gallMMscf for highpressure lowtemperature gases. which pumps the dry regenerated glycol to the contactor. The preheated wet glycol is then sent to the stripping still. and maintenance problems in the glycolgas contactor (also called absorber). The glycol flows downwards through the packing (that acts as equilibrium separation stages for glycolwater separation) into the reboiler Water vapor liberated from the glycol in the reboiler passes upwards through the packing. Flow diagram for a glycol dehydration plant. 1976). Dry gas from the top of the absorber is sent through a mist eliminator (to remove any entrained glycol droplets) to a gasglycol heat exchanger (shown as glycol cooler in Figure 531) where the gas cools the hot regenerated gly_ col before it enters the contactor. it passes through the shell side of the glycolgas heat exchanger (glycol cooler).212 Gas Productwn Engineering ~ Co. providing heat and picking up some water from the wet glycol flowing downwards. _ 0 ' .5% or more. higher glycol losses. can lead to several operational problems in glycol dehydration plants: .) may lead to (oaming.30 gallMMscf for lowpressure hightemperature gas streams (CPSA. to escape. Glycol usually absorbs about 1 sci gas/gal at 1. A threephase flash separator rna}' be required if the wet glycol also contains an appreciable amount of liquid hydrocarbons absorbed from the gas stream in the contactor. flooding. to as much as 0. R." Water SysUms aod Dehydratian Pr~og 213 L. The energy of this highpressure glycol is then used to drive the glycol pump. the dry gas leaves the dehydration unit. Sivalis and the University of Oklahoma. it is usually necessary to add some stripping gas to the reboiler (Sivalls. After this heat exchange. and vaporization losses from the contactor and regenerator. .type (or other types) packing.. Absorption is more in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. (Afler Sivalls. glycol is heated to approximately 350400°F to reconcentrate it to 99. and is accumulated for feed to the glycol pump through a strainer. entrained in the glycol due to the high viscosity of the glycol. (2) it lowers the partial pressure of the water vapor in the reboiler and still column. From the pump. The wet glycol from the bottom of the glycolgas contactor is first sent to a highpressure filter to remove any solids that may have been acquired by it from the gas stream. 1976): (1) it "rolls" the glycol in the reboiler to allow any pockets of water vapor. These losses comprise mechanical carryover from the contactor. In order to obtain glycol of such a high concentration. This results in a considerable energy savings for the process.. the wet glycol flows to a lowpressure flash separator where any dis. The clean gas is then sent upward through the absorber. 1981). dry regenerated glycol from the glycol regenerator. excluding spillage.. which also serves as a surge tank. 1981).  Figure 531. courtesy of C. The absorber consists of several trays that act as equilibrium separation stages where water vapor from the gas is absorbed by the glycol. Total glycol losses. a small amount of gas from the fuel gas system is injected into the bottom of the reboiler through a spreader system. In the reboiler. countercurrent to the flow of glycol. The cooled glycol enters the absorber from the top. Glycol Plant Operational Problems • Methanol. This gas aids the removal of water from the glycol by three mechanisms (Sivalls. From the pump. mounted on top of a reboiler. into the top of the absorber. which is a tower packed with ceramic saddle. The reconcentrated glycol is sent to the shell side of the heat exchanger. or is vented to the atmosphere.
.
/' .. gravity gas al1000F (After Sivalls. Gas capacity of Irayed glycolgas conlaclors.. or Figure 534 for a packedtype design.0.. based upon a .00 . .r~ • • • ~~ • • • :2 /' . .1 ~. (Atter Sivatls.~ ~~ i • • • ..gas capacit)' at the base conditions of 100°F for a 0. V_ ~r. :.gas capacity at operating conditions.:V .7gravity gas at 100°F. MMscfd qb ..:r· o~ 'V VV 'V V VV • ~ ~ a a . Gas capacities determined using Figure 533 or Figure 534 must be corrected for operating temperature and ~as specific gravity as follows: ..0 0 ..I :. based upon a 0.! .:.) ..7 gravity gas.../ /' ~ "7 I J V /' .~ .q. 1976..DO .. courtesy of C.218 COl Produt:tlon Engineering GalWater Systeml and Dehydration Procasing 219 • • • " . A..... Ity.. Sivalls and the Umversity of Oklahoma...correction factors for operating temperature and gas grav .7gravity gas at 100° F.I.. . respectively...~ ~~ "~ ~~ i • • ~ 'p / .~ Figure 5·32..... COl1 tactor Contactor diameter can be selected using Figure 533 for a trayedtype.. Gas capacity 01 packed glycolgas contactors. p .. V• I1 :. ~ ~ ..~ Figure 534. .7... (After Sivalls. 1976... Sivalls and the University of Oklahoma.....V ·v f010 • V . .. MMscfd C" C.00 I • • • ~ • . ....~ . 1. as shown in Tables 5·5 and 5·6 for both the contactor types Additional specifications for contacton.:  .()!I '= .• • • • 0. Gas capacity of vertical inletgas scrubbers.)(CJ where q .. courtesy of C.. .  . courtesy of C... are given in Tables 5·7 through 510.00 ~ q . .1. 1976. A. 00 11.()!I 10'0..J ~. The approximate actual number of trays required in the contactor (for a traytypecontactor). r~ •... . ..... A.. or the depth of packing (for the packedt}1Jecontactor) • V .00 ... Sivalls and the Univer sity of Oklahoma) Figure 533.. V ~  ..) • Clycol·Ga.e..••.(C. • • 'V. 0". based upon a 0..
. metal pall rings are used as the packing material in the packedtype contactor. 100 110 100 0.. 3 ~ u . .. 1984). A more accurate procedure for calculating the number of trays (or the depth of packing) required is to use the McCabeThiele diagrams.." 0.."II. • • 0. BOTTOM OF COLUMN required..14 gravity Packed 113 .. widely used in designing equilibrium separation process equipment..98 100 1.." O F 40 50 00 70 110 90 106 105 1M 1.00 0.. 0. The procedure for constructing this diagram .1" H... " • I ! • \ "f'. . can be determined using Figure 535. " .02 120 • After Si\'alb.. ~ Figure 535.97 0.. u'.ti't •.97 0. .. 1976 lOB 104 100 0. Gas specific C. This figure assumes that the depth of packing in feet for a packedtype column is equal to the actual number of trays for a traytype column. Trayed 1.O ° • • ..) I'.93 0.o I I I "'10 .07 Pock." ~oz ffi .93 0.· Opeqtlng temperature e.01 1. "".. IQ76 I • .9.99 {..88 lOB I(). required for glycolgas contactors. shown in Figure 536. ApprOXimate number of trays.. A minimum height of packing equal to 4 ft should be used.. courtesy 01 C. " " 10 .ture Correction Factor.55 0. " GlycolGas Contactor.220 Cal Productioll Engineering GasWater System! and Dehydration Processing for Gas Capacity of Trayed and Packed 221 Table 55 Temper." i'. A. ..70 0. '" ~ . . (After Sivalls.! 100 0.. t:::: e .02 1. is as foll ows: (tert co Fltinlied on page 226) Figure 536. Ct. C hemical Engineers' Handbook .01 ".91 0.' _ " .. g • tor Gas Capacity of Trayed and Packed GlycolGas Contactors· I... or depth of packing.75 0110 0. .85 0110 • After <ii •• llt..• • ° Table 56 Gas Specific Gravity Correction Factor. 0. .00 065 0.. ... 1((... Corrections for other packing types can be made fairly easily (see.'" 0.88 "r. McCabeThiele diagram lor Example 59. Tnlyed 1. • . Sivalls and the University 01 Oklahoma. w. '. 0. pIe.. for exam. .. This is only true when Iin... 1976. TEG CONCENTRAT ION " .
.. 6' 3' 3' 3' 3' .100 4.300 3.S 7. ". ' ".>. 16" lB' Cliptlcity. ". S ize Gal Inlet and Outlet Glycol Inlet Glycol Shipping Weight.2 ".. lB' 20' 12 1'. . 00' 600 35' 44. 2' 3' 3' 3' 3' 6' 6' .300 1.500 11.500 1. 3' x S' 3')('>' 3' x 5' 3' x S" 4'x6' .200 26..Nominal Table 57 Conllnued Nomina' Nominal WP ~ Go.000 '.2(X) IAOO "'. .. 36' .·mO 3.200 2. 2' 1'2" .. ".3 6U O· 6' .. 27.. " '" .. ... 30' 36' 2.900 3.i 60 i.':. x 6' 4' )( 6' 11.elworking prtSSll.300 13. 2' 2' "...100 1.x 4' "'" 900 1.... ... ' '. .3 11. 3' 3' 3' .300 7. MMscfd" G•• Inlet and Outlet Glycol Inlet end Outlet Glycol CooIN 1000 _.222 G(U Production Engineering GUJ. 0. ' ] i/2' 11."00 16..1 49.. 1976 . C.1.3 5.4 .500 1.100 . 2' Cooler s". 48' 00' " After S. SIz..5 8...500 11.' I' Pli!" 36' .8 12.' . Z' x 4' 2 .000 4.'.900 6. . ..6 62.3 32.000 2..:2" '" ".5 37.j' 36' ". .05 05. " .. .300 1. .1 ]9..0 j7. 20' 31)' .." I' Jl. ..0 61 147 30' 36' 9' ".000 105. .'4 " 3'...3 18.000 25. .. 1112" lilt" x 6' 6' x S' 6' x S" 6" x S" 2" x 4" 2" x 4' 3" x 5" 3" x 5" 3" x 05" 3" x 05" 4" x 6" 4" x 6" 6°xS6"xS6" x S2")( 4° 2" x 4° 3. 4.1 j(I' " O· .. . 24' 31)' 3' 3' 3' 3' ".3 32 .400 11 . ." .000 13.000 12. .• 40. ..p IT.:100 I." 1. ..300 '.500 '200 ".3 22.900 6.'.S 11 2' 4.e '" W 500 " "'.1 4. ..0 .800 16. B' 6' 6' 2' .000 • I. . 000 .9 6.000 32. . 6' 6' 6' .. '" 68' SSO 3..400 23. .. 30' 36' 3. ' ..' "..500 8. and v. 6' 6' .." . . . 3' .4 6' 2' 2' l' 3' 2' 112" ....000 ".200 1.2" 4.400 "..3 74..0 4.500 5.200 5. 3.. 07 Ip . 2' IS' s".' 39.5 143 " " " .. Gat e&P"rit)' Ins«! on IOO'F. "..' 49..500 29.. IS' 20' 24' 31)' ]2114" 55 ...800 3.1.JOO IS. .000 7.300 8. .0 91.700 2. ..7 26. " " Ji12" 1112° 00' ". '12 29.4 'J :1.400 10. Cl[lIIcily bibed un lOO°F.700 10... 1/2 " 20' 29. 1112° 2' 6' )( S' 6')( S' 6" x S" 2" x 4' 2" x 4" 3" x 05" 3" x S" 3" x S" 3" x 05" "" x 6" 4' x 6" 6")(S6" x S" 6" x S" 2")( 4" 2" x 43" x 05" 3" x S" 3" x S° 3" x 05" 4"x64"x66° x S" 6° x S" 6" x S" 6..400 "'..200 54' 00' 6' 6' 6' II l' 2' 1.00' 19..2 2i..000 2.3 5... Ib 3' x 5' 3' x 5' 3' x 5' '" x 6' '.3 '.Wotn Systems and Dehydration Procesring 223 Table 57 Specifications for TrayType GlycolGas Contactor. " Size Size 2·)(4' 2' x 4' Shipping Weight. lB' 00' 121.000 0.. s".....8 41A 2' 3' 3' 3' 3' .000 '. Size CliPKity.S 44. " 3' . .. lB' 20' 123i~" ..700 9..3 13.600 1.Z . Ib WP P~' DO 12 ...000 7. ".3 13.900 2.JI~.nd contactor worklnll P""'u./lOO 2.7..0 32 '. ...x S3" x 05" 3"x5" 3°)(05" 4)(6" 4" x 6" 6'xS" 6' x S" 6" x S" 20.6 . MMsc'd ' • Nominal Ga. 00 12.3 58." '.000 1. and Outlet "" IS 2.700 14.000 3.4 " . .
6 41 3' 3" 2" 2" >..3 ." 3' x 5' 3' x 5" 3' x 5" 1000 251lO • 3100 4500 • Mm S." 8 10 12 14 • Mtff Siulb.' 3' x ..' 5.5 500 "" "" "" . " 7' 7' rings of:AU 00" ." 3" 2' liz" 1. Inlet and Outlet Glycol Inlet and Outlet 13 13 13 '" 13 13 13 13 13' 1.8 16.." >..' li. 00 IQJ. MM..awctor.3 12. ' 123f..Wafer Systems and Dehydration Processing Table 59 Continued Nominal 225 Table 5·8 Specifications for TrayType GlycolGas Contaetors' Add to Height 51.." I" >.5 11 20" 10 25 3A 4 ." 600 I.· 12~4 ' W Capllclty. 2' ." ..6 3..224 Gas Production Engilleerillg Cas.9 26.' :li.. .x 3" x 3" x 2' 2' 2" 2' '" 4' 4' ~' 1lOO 650 1lOO 900 11 00 11lOO 1lOO 700 24" 9." 5. 51lO .. .' 00 81 23 ..5 3.bl. . 19711." 20" .9 7.· 12:1/1' l4" l6' IS' 2A 3..." 1" 112 " li2 " 11~" I'Z' 3' x S' 3' x 5' 3' x 5' 2' 2' 2' 2" 3' 3' 3' 2' 2' 1800 2300 3500 1200 1300 1500 5A 6. 2" 13 15 22 2. Size 00 IOJ.7sp gr... 00 10 Size Size Glycol Cooler Size 3' 3' 2' 2' 2' 2' x S' x S' x 4' x 4' x 4' x 4' Shipping Weight.pecfty.' 36 5.." 112 " li2" l().8 20. 1976 •• St.'3' 00" .ll •• x 4' x 4' x 4' x 4' x 5" x 5' x 5' x 4' 1700 2200 2800 4000 1300 141lO 1600 G." . ." "" . Table 5·9 Specifications for Packed Column GlycolGas Contactors' Nominal Nominal WP 1440 ..\.0 8." .'.2' liz' li. c." "'" •• ]C).8 " ." 00 .. Tray..nl nrmn... 2 2 2' 2' . rr. 1976 " Cas t'apK1t} ~ on IOO"F.. el .. 1231. 9' 0' I' x 4 ' I' x 4' " x 4' lis~ • Afu." 42' •• For ..6 .!~ndltd 13 13' {mlf·!ray ro.S 1. ' l4" l6" Standard Glycol Cooler Helghl 7' 7' Standard Contacting Element" I' x 4 ' " x 4' I ' x 4' I ' x 4' Glycol Charge. Table 510 Specifications for Packed Column GlycolGas Contactors' Standard Shell Height 0' 900 75" 1(). 9' 9 9 9 9' 9 .. 0'.. ...7 2" 3" 3" .t IJ carboa steel nwtal ptll1 " in 1lt.I.. MMscfd' • pslg 250 Gas Inlet and Outlet Size 2' 2' Glycol Inlet and Outlet Size 112' 12' 12"'" Glycol Cooler Size 2' x 4' 2' x 4' 2' 2' ." >." ....r Si"a1Is. • 12"'.. <P IU and r:ontactor "'orLng p .2 66 8.. 1976 •• CIlJ capr.55' 2" x 4" 2' x 4' 1000 151lO 251lO 650 Size..• .." Shipping Weight.. 9' .0 5...'•• • Ahcr S.6 32.8 4.'2' 112" x 4" 2' x 4" 2' x 4" . Stlndard Shell Height" • Standerd G. 25 36 53 73 16 1000 .A ""orkinl pn:515llrr "" ..5. . ' x x 4' 4' 3" 3 11. . ' 22 2.ci1r htowd on IOO'F. g" 6 7 9' 9' 9' lit' li2' 3' li.._ .' 3.. and ..1i.." 3" 3" 3" 2" 2" 2" 2" 3" 3" 3" 2" 1/2' .l< 12Ji.. ." .:5 1..rd oontact... Size 00 12 4· 10" lB' 24 30' Glycol Cooler Height' • 9 9 9' For Add..9 85 12..8 2..'.2 11. 00" " 2' 1i2' 1. 20" liZ 137 1200 }(}1." .nd.3 2.. O.~" I (}l.' 3" x :5' 3" x 5' 3' x 5' 3' 22" 2' 2' 3' 3' 3" 2' 2' 2' 2' 1liz' I.2 11.cfd" Gal.6 I." 3A 44 1."a1Is.' l' liOO 2iOO 900 1000 1100 1300 .7 I" 1/2' 1/2' x x x x 3.7 45 .5 i..5" 2' x '" 2' x '" lloo 750 1lOO 950 7' 7' .II •.
./' /. . " .3% for valve trays is used.~ ..led An approximate calculatIOn of t be d iog the following empmcal reboiler heat load).Water Systems and Dehydralian Processing 227 (text corltinued from page 220) /'/ ~ 1..:/ /' /' /' _c ~ ~ <" >I!.. till the top of the column is reached.OOOL (518) The glycol circulation rate in gallons per hour.L. . (After Sivalls.~ . Q in Btu/hr.o~ ..~ n. The equilibrium line is drawn using data shown in Figure 537. 4. Starting from the point representing the bottom of the column.. S. Figure 537. the theoretical number of trayx required are stepped off by triangulation. and the concentration of lean TEG. Gas Production Engineering Gas...r~ atglo:d may be made from the folA more precise estimate of the re I er e lowing procedure: (519) . W.. 1976. Reboiler ..22.. Draw the operating line as the strai!(ht line connecting the top and bottom of the contactor column.dY V • • . Dew points of aqueous TEG solutions versus temperature..ressure dehydration designs. respecti\'ely. . the top of the column is indicated by the water content of the outlet gas from the contactor./ .~ V . courtesy of C./' /' / /.density of lean TEC solution in Ibm/gal L. <" . 3. .. in the plant is given by: L . as shown in Figure 536. On the McCabeThiele diagram../' .) /' . and 33. ".. Similarly. For the packedtype contactor.. Equation 518 gives good results fbo°r.. a tray efficiency equal to 25% for bubblecap trays. R.glycol to water circulation rate in gal TEGllb water 2. L. and the rich TEG concentration./ V/'" V /.P /' • <" /' ~ /' ~ ~ ~ ./ <" V/ ' I/' .\ :/' :/' %/' V. he heat required in the reboiler (also c~l... C. and the figure for the actual number of trays is rounded off to the next higher integer value. Determine the concentration of the rich TEe leaving the bottom of the contactor: (516) ~ " ~ ~ where C Roch . This line represents the water content of the gas that would exist in equilibrium with the various TEe concentrations. ~ ~ ~ ~ . can rna e us relationship: Q .~ .2./ /' /' /' V /' ..(ql24) (517) hi h. "" concentrations of rich and It!an TEG.. the bottom of the column is repre.. I ~ ~ ~ ~ L / i ~ ./' . sented by the water content of the inlet gas to the oontactor. ~ .Theoretical number of trays/tray efficiency Cenerall)'. and any of correlations for the water content of gas as a function of pressure and temperature. expressed as a fraction PLntn ../' /' /' ~. Use the tray efficiency factor (or packing factors) to calculate the actual number of trays (or depth of packing) required: Actual number of trays . Sivalls and the University of Oklahoma.~ " " _M • . a minimum of 4 ft height of packing must be used../ /' yP ~ ~ I ! ~.
...IV") (521) (522) (523) Qr . Btu. . . heat required to vaporize the reflux water in the still.ambient air temperature (the temperature of the surroundings).228 Gas Product/on Engineering Ga. heat of vaporization required for water. . where 0. " ..total exposed surface area of the reboiler and still ft i T.r_ r r .) ... Stripping still size for glyCOl dehydrators..Water Systems aFid Dehydration Processing 229 where QI" sensible heat required for glycol .' of T.. .(T. courtesy of C.... .. Qt. generally in the range of 2 to 10 ft'/gal TEC circulated.J)(\V .. temperature of the glycol leaving the reboiler. heat loss from the reboiler and stripping still.t... ... glycol density at the average reboiler temperature.average temperature (of the fluid) in the reboiler. G.. f •••••• The surface area of the firebox...estimated design heat flux for directfired reboilers This calculation of A enables determination of the o\"erall size of the reboiler. R... ...• .. assuming a 25% reflux 5. Sivalls and the University of Oklahoma. For a packedtype design..00Q (525) where 7.T...970. ..' hr Q.. whereas the liquid load consists of rich glycol and the reflux flowing downwards. of 0.. Qh . The vapor load comprises water vapor and stripping gas flowing upwards through the still... This height should be increased with increasing glycol recon p ..1 .Sin.. 1976).~ I_""QOC:'''''''~''''' .. 1976.Q17. (After Sivalls.000 Btu/hrft2 ....'hr Stril"nng Still These heat requirements are estimated from the (ollowing relationships: OJ  Lpc(T.. ... Figure 538 includes stripping gas requirements. can be more accurately estimated using Equation 524: Q.25 Q. ) (520) Q..l' ~. . [f a traytype design is used.000. temperature of the glycol entering the reboiler... Ibmfgal c . " . .3 .....'ol/'" ~ ~ I US§ §  Figure 538. specific heat of the glycol at the average reboiler temperature. OF 970.... can be determined as follows: A . heat of vaporization of water (Btu/lbm) at 212°F and 14. . a minimum of 4 ft packing height is provided..<> 0' llill If the size of the reboiler and stripping still is known. Btu/( hr ft 2 oF) '1 . ~ . A (ft2). Btu/hr Qh ...... . .000 to 20.O.. Btulhr Q . the heat loss. • • . Btu . Btu/IbmoF T J . . depending upon boiler size The diameter (or crosssectional area) of the packed stripping still for use with the glycol reooncentrator can be estimated from Figure 538 as a function of the glycol to water circulation rate (gal TEGllb water) and the glycol circulation rate (gal/hr)..24 . consisting general I)' of l....T J where ~ ..an approximate heat transfer coefficient for the reboiler and stripping still. O F T 2 . The size of a strippingstiU is governed by the vapor and liquid loading conditions at its bottom.? • (524) A.. • .3(q2......24A.7 psia ~ . ceramic saddletype packing. . one theoretical tra)' is usually sufficient for most cases (Siva11s.
x Len.6" 35 40 70 00 100 I'" 210 250 3" <56 456 456 18")(3'.6' 8'11s" x 4'. is used for glycol circulation.J. should be designed for a liquid retention time of at least 5 min . 1976..I1n.5 45 49. used downstream of the pump.5 72 76.6" IS" x 5' 18")(5' 24")(5' 6'Vs" x 4'.O 5. IS')(3'.200 2.000 350.5 S. x HI.6 I" I" I" I" I" lilt" I!J. Size." I" I" I" I" :l/~ " ".700 Generally. Glycol Hash Se.6 75 75 105 lOS 100 100 2tiO 375 2.000 7.S 90 9015 PY 66 79 92 lOS 118 131 144 157 171 184 197 210 21015 PY 166 200 233 266 300 333 366 . 32 3436 3840 " " Reboller Heet Exchanger gph" • Size. The glycol flash separator.c:onlrolled b)' the' m:. Size gal I" '" 1·2li.6" R.: tahlt ~lItmpt 10 run pump/> al 'I~ 1_ or greater than Ihose indlCat"':! in It.6" Stripping Stili Size. psig 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 Cu ftJgal at 14..s. Table 512 also gives data on the amount of gas released by the pump as a fu nction of the glycol circulation rate and the contactor operating pressure.1 pi TECllb HtO and l.l6· IS" x 5' IS" x S' 2.200 3.6 102. Stflliner Size Size Elements Elements l/4 " Iii" lit" 3. Additional specifications for glycol reconcentrators can be obtained using Table 511.1 6.5.211.2 7. 6" 18")(3'. Clycol Circulating Pump Model The size of the circu1ating pump required can be determined using the glycol circulation rate." I" I" 11'2" 1i~ " I" 1 2Ji~")( 9JI~' 1'2' 1.6 102.7 7.1 102.rol S PY 28 28 30 27 31.4 3. 01 • . "" 24 . 0" 1""x8'.. 6'{$")( ~~.4' x 5' 24")(5' 24")(7' 24')( 10' 30" )( 10' 36' )( 10' 36" )( 10' 36" x 10' 36" x 10' X 4'. l/2" liS" lit" lll" .ndard HighPressure Glycol Pumps' Circulation RalaGallona/Hour Pump SpeecI.~" x 5'. 6" 8'11s"x4'.1. O' 14")( 8'.0" ~8")(2'.1.StrokHIMlnule Count one stloke for each discharge of pump" 231 centrator size. Table 511 Specifications for Glycol Reconcentratora · R. 6'1'8")( 2'.000 850.lnge CoIl Size.· Jilt' .11 is not rooommtndnl II. Ole.> abov.0" 8:118')( 2'.Water Systems and Deh ydration PrOCessing T.0" 1{). 6SI~')( 2'.lI.")( 2'..1 311 44.~· Pump Model 315PV 17JSPV and 815SC 40 ISPV and 2015SC 90ISPV and SOISSC 210ISPV and 1001SSC 4501SPV and 200 ISSC lit' I" 1·2lw.. Condenser Size.2 " .5 54 48.2· 1. Size Coli Area.boller Glycol Cripaclty. x HI. 7. 1976).000 175.'~' x 9li4 1" 11'2" 13" x IS" 13")( IS· 13" x 18" 13" x 36" 43" x 18" 43" X 36" .000 500.00 433 466 45015 PV • 10 12 14 " " ..250 3. 01•.'.3 Highpressure Filter Lowpressure Filter Size Pump Conn." )( !J3i~' I" Il!2 " 4·21.000 400. Btu/ hr Number 14 IS 20 26 2B 30 3436 38 '0 1715 PV 8 10 11 IS IS 20 22 343B 38 '0 .230 eo. sq ft 12")( 12')1 16" )( 16" )( IS" )( IS" x 16" )( 20" x 20" )( 24" x 30" x 30" )( 30")1 4S" 4S" 4S" 48" 4S" 48" 4S" 4S" 4S' 4!1' 4S" 4S" 4S" LIt" Glycol Pump Model 17 15PV 4015PV 4015PV 901srV 9015PV 21015PV 21015PV 2101SPV 45015PV 450lsrV 45015PY 45015PV 45015PV HigltPressure Glycol Shipping Glycol Filter Charge.)(lrator 2" 2" m 880 990 1175 '" '" '" <. Surge rank Ole ..000.3 233 31." III" 12.4 and 6O"F 1..000 125.6" 1()li~")( 2 .9 23.0' O· O' O' O· Gas Consumption O perating pTeSliure.000 175.000 <. 6" 24")(S' 24" x 7' 24")( 10' 30" x 10' 36" x 10' 36" x IS' 42" x IS' 48" x 16' 6'1/~' x 4'. " 20 " " .8 84.000 20 IS" x 3'.500 10.O" x 2'.'4 " I" (L12" Flash SepiflItor Haat Exch..200 3. • .3 2.6 6. as mentioned earlier.5.000 150.6' S'I/~" x S'..6" &~. 2'.8 82. L.000 1. For other (motordriven) pump types. 0" 16'x3'.500 8.000 250.0" l ()li~" x 6'..5 36 40. 0" 1O.7 4.5 SI &5. 6'i/8")( 4'. Table 512 by Sh'alls (1976) shows sizing data for this type of pump. data supplied by the pump manufacturer may be used . 2'.0" 1"" x 3'. such as centrifugal pumps or positive displacement pumps.7 2. x Len.9 12.. to a maximum of about 8 ft for a 1 MM Btuthr unit (Sivalls. 3. Production Engineering Gas.100 2.6" 14')(3'.000 125.oilC'rC'&pKlty or pump C'&pKll) . 2.ble 512 Specifications for St. WI.0" 1211~" X 7'. T he size can be calculated as follows: V 'OK LtJ60 (5"26) . " 8'11~")( 2'. Die )I Ht.")( 931~' I" 2. and the maximum contactor operating pressure.6" 1211.")( !J3i~" 1.100 2.000 7.000 "25 • Afler Sh. capacity. h~ b .5 63 67.tle.500 7.9 8.8 3.)( • Afw Si"alls.ma.. 1976 • • CI~ C'&pac!h • Instd on drwJating 2. the glycolpowered pump that transmits energy from the rich glycol to the lean glycol.O" 16"x8'." )( 9Jr4" 82.
O F 10 12 30 • Ib H.5% TEe Solutio" From the McKetta and Wehe correlation (Figure 51): Water content of inJet gas at 1. This is apparent if a tray efficiency of 0. Size a glycol dehydration plant using Sh'alls' method to meet the following requirements: and gas gravity are both equal to 1. specific gravity of lean glycol at 100°F"" l.266 + 113.20.0 97.563.4.9.1. the actual number of trays required for a 3. CRI ~h '" (0.liquid retention time.5<'10 TEG Bottom of column: 61 lb 1l20lMMscf and 96.0 95. From Table 52. use a 36in. This gives a tray requirement of 1. implying a glycol density .1 3.266) / (9.1. It appears that Sivalls (1976) intended this figure for a valvetype contactor column.0.5%.7.5 gal TECflb H20 Lean glycol concentration . 0.400psig working pressure.6.333 is used to calculate the number of trays required from the McCabeThiele diagram. min E%tJmpl~ 59.OMMrl 1.6) . vertical scrubber is required for a 1.5) 0. and assume the followin~ additional criteria: From Figure 535. with a 1.. x 7.0. 0.000 psig and 100° F . the actual number of trays required . W t (20 1 24)(61 .5ft vertical twophase scrubber.25. as shown in Figure 536. This result is not in reasonable agreement with the approximate number of trays determined using Figure 535.400 psig Cas inlet temperature . 3.(1. the required dew point depression = 100 . the contactor can handle a gas rate up to 9:l MMscfd and is suitable for use.0.995)(9. or 7 trays. the correction factors for operating temperature The McCabeThiele diagram constructed lIsing this information. For a more precise determination.83 Ibm/h.0 MMscfd Gas specific gravity . amount of water to be removed.. select a 36 in. Thus. and 1.7 13. 61 Ib H 20 /MMsd gas Dew point of exit gas with 61b H 2 0 / MMscf water content _ 28° F Water content of gas at dewpoint temp. Jllid Scrub"" Size 99.6.965'" 96.0 96.440 psig working pressure.25 . Ccmku. construct the McCabeThiele diagram.5 gal TEGI lb H 2 0 glycol to water circulation rate and 72° F dewpoint depression = 4.3 9. .0 Ib H2 0 /MMscf gas Use a traytype contactor with bubblecap trays. gal t . gives the number of theoretical trays required .111)(8.232 Ga .000 psig Maximum oontactor working pressure .0.7 Operating Iinf> p~lJT(> .Water S!ls/ems and Deh!ldration Procesnng 233 where V .563/0.0 98.1. Number of Tra!lS Rt:quin>d i.5% TEe Data points for constructing the equilibrium line are as follows: Eqlbm.5..000 psig (Figure 51). % TEG Clycol to water circulation rate.111. or 5 trays. at 100° F (Figure 537).5631 0.0 6.6 99.2 ]hus. The same result is obtained using Figure 532 (with suitable extrapolation).99.45.1 tht: ContactOf'" Gas flow rate .0 11. a 36in.1. From Tables 55 and 56.266 Ibm/gal Using Equation 516. contactor with a qb _ 27 MMscfd . approximately 5 trays are required. 100°F Outlet gas water content .28 _ 72°F _ Using Equation 515. Thus.34) .333 . Therefore.3 40 47 51 From Table 53. Therefore. Production Engineering Gas. So.settling volume required in the separator. the operating line points are: lOp of column: 61b HzO/MMscf and 99. dewpoint temp..lor Size From Figure 533.
Sft reflux condenser.P. Glycolgas contactor: 36in. The latter process. 1200. l.56 x 1()5 Btulhr approximate. a 20 in.45 x 10' Btu/h. Ga' Production Engineering Cas. and 3. twophase £lash separator. 1981).45)10' ..0. Stripping still: 8. based upon a 177. Thus. (2 .: 20 in.:rom Equation 517.440psig W.. 20. Commercial adsorbents can remove practi • . the settling volume of the flash separator required assummg a Itquid retention time of 5 min. x 2.4 x loe to 3. Reboiler: 289.0.5ft height. 1984b): 1.92)(5)160 .lv from the apprOXimations m\'oln~d in reducing a multivariable problem to ~ few select parameters.92 gal/hr. is termed "chemisorption.000 Btu/hr reboiler. 0.. 1O. 0. this discrepancy could simply be a reflection on the poor quahty of ~e ~rrel~tion shown in Figure 535.0. Qh . Glycol flash sep. 0.'o types: physical.peed.0.o. 2. i~. consequently.75in. 350.440psig working pressure.ation 526.25)(4. h om Equation 518. and good activity retention with timeluse. 28 spm. 1 u. x lOft. in terms of standard size units: Q. x 5ft stripping still.92 galihr glycol circulation rate.effl8 and Dehydration Proceuing ~mmary 235 On the. the minimum internal diameter required for the stiJi .000 ) (lTI . and chemical. x 7.: 2Oin.89 x lOS Btulhr Stripping Still Adsorption Dehydration Adsorption (or solid bed) dehydration is the process where a solid desiccant is used for the removal of water vapor from a gas stream. the reboiler heat load.. Using F~gure 538. with 28 strokes/min pumping .0.35 bbl From Table 54.14..7Sin.S·ft height. Glycol pump: Model number 21015 PV. Q.92)(1. Glycol Pum" Fro~ Table 512. For physical adsorbents used in gas dehydration.. For detailed calculations. v (177.. l. x 7.. 1.35 + 4.. Large surface area for high capacity. with 1O. assume PC(T2 . Good "activity" for the components to be removed.1. 1..2 10.2. the following properties are desirable (Campbell.11 x 10' Btu/h.23. L . Reboil" Ileal Load of Requirements Equations 520 through 523: _.000 . x 19ft height. twophase. Some solid desiccants can dehydrate gas down to 1 ppm or less..45 + 1.other hand." Chemical adsorbents find very limited application in gas processing. 1. (21.(177. Contactor: 36in.. .8. 3.0. glycol circulation rate.440psig working pressure.3)(20/24)(61 . Q .0)10 1 = 2. Q. with 7 trays. Q . . with 7 bubblecap trays.(0. Commercial adsorbents have a surface area of 500800 m2/gm ( .OOOBtu i hr heat load requirements. used over several adsorptiondesorption cycles. The mechanisms of adsorption on a surface are of tv. Reconcentrator: 24in.35 x lO' Btu/h..11 + 2.. x 4 ft Pump: Model number 21015 PV.5 gal TEe·Ib H 20 glycol to water circulation rate. pump model number 210IS PV. (3. Glycol Flash SeIX1mtor Usi~g Equ. The solid desiccants commonly used for gas dehydration are those that can be regenerated and.92 gal hr.Water Syst.0 x l()" Btuihr Scrubber: 36in. with 28 strokes/min pumping speed. Then .2in .5}(61 )(20 '24 ) . .0. Flash sep. .21.4. Or. twophase separator is required. 0. . involving a chemical reaction.440psig W.200) . 0. Adsorbents that allow physical adsorption hold the adsorbate on their surface by surface forces. these desiccants are wide1y used on feed streams for cryogertic processing (CPSA.92) . 0. 2. resulting undoubted.(970.T 1) .8 gal .9 x loa ft 2/lbm) . is required for a glycol circulation rate of 177. using Inlet gas scrubber: 36in.6) .P.
5. Molecular sieves offer a means of simultaneous dehydration and desulfurization and are therefore the best choice for sour gaS$. boos. permit higher gas rates. 6.ell These are a cr~qallint' form of alkali metal (calcium or sodium) aluminosilicates.e. and tend not to adsorb bigger molecules such as the heavy hydrocarbons. the inlet gas stream is thoroughly cleaned to remove all liquids and solids. these contaminants can be removed without Gels: Silica Gel and SilicaAlumina Gel Gels are granular. sulfur can deposit and block their surface. alumina: silica gels and silicaalumina gels: and molecular sieves. and methanol. Nevertheless. chemically inert. It produces an excellent dew point depression to dew point values as low as . Silicaalumina gels are a combination of silica gel and alumina gel. i. Bauxite also is not used much because it contains iron and is thus unsuitable for sour gases.3H 20 ) by heating. High mechanical strength to resist crushing and dust formation. or acidic chemicals used sometimes for well treating. Therefore. The adsorbent also must retain enough strength when "wet:' Cheap. while the other adsorber is being regenerated by a stream of gas from the regeneration gas heater. high bulk density. but requires much more heat for regeneration. molecular sieves exhibit selectivity towards adsorbates on the basis of their molecular size. 1981). Molecular Siet. it is alkaline and cannot be used in the presence of acid gases. Activated carbon. and consist almost solely of silicon dioxide (Si O z). are: bauxite ore. posses. alumina is the least expensive adsorbent. Alumina gels consist primarily of some hydrated form of Al 20 J . High mass transfer rate.'>eS no capacity for water adsorption and is therefore not used for dehydration purposes. Most adsorbents tend to adsorb heavy hydrocarbons. Types of Adsorbents Some materials that satisfy these criteria. Special acidresistant sieves are available for very sour gaS$. so that the pressure drop through the dehydration system is smalJ. Manufactured by ionexchange. nontoxic. Molecular sieves are alkaline and subject to attack by acids. Small resistance to gas flow. amorphous solids manufactured by chemical reaction. 4. and very high surface area. Although there is no reaction with HzS. economic regeneration.'e and for a longer desiccant life. but release them relatively more easily during regeneration. Also. Therefore. These components are difficult to remove during regeneration.236 em Production Engineering GasWater System8 and Dehydration Processing 237 3. The tendency to adsorb heavy hydrocarbons is high. Since the pore size range is narrow. Easy. is sent upward through the adsorber to ensure thorough regeneration of the bottom of the bed. but not alkaline materials such as caustic or ammonia. a Widely used adsorbent. and it is difficuJt to remove these during regeneration. molecular simes are the most expensive adsorbents. Since they are acidic. Alumina A hydrated form of aluminium oxide (A1 20 J ). Regeneration gas. . They are highly porous. two beds are used in parallel. It is activated by driving off some of the water associated with it in its hydrated form (A1 z0 J . It has good resistance to liquids. They possess highly localized polar charges on their surface that act as extremely effective adsorption sites for polar compounds such as water and hydrogen sulfide (see also Chapter 6). which is the last area contacted by the gas that is dehydrated. Gels manufactured from sulfuric acid and sodium silicate reaction are called silica gels. noncorrosive. in the order of increasing cost.the £lowing gas. They can produce a water content as low as 1 ppm.. with a very narrow range of pore sizes. on the other hand. though it may be used for the removal of certain impurities. and therefore. 7 cally all the water from a natural gas to values as low as 1 ppm (parts per million). • Process Flow Scheme The general flow scheme for solidbed gas treating processes is shown in Figure 539. Most contamination occurs at the top of the tower. Gels can dehydrate gas to as low as 10 ppm (GPSA. The regeneration temperature is very high.lOO°F. and small volume changes upon adsorption and desorption of water. For continuous operation. They adsorb heavy h)"drocar . very similar to natural clays. sieves are subject to contamination by carryover of liquids such as oil and glycol. but little resistance to disintegration due to mechanical agitation b. The adsorption process is cyclic. consisting primarily of alumina (Alz03_xHZO). and have the greatest ease of regeneration of all desiccants. gels are useful if the H 2S content is less than 56 % . The clean gas flows downward during dehydration through one adsorber containing a desiccant bed. glycols. Gas flow is downward for dehydration so as to lessen bed disturbance due to high gas velocity. they can handle sour gases. and by sending the regeneration gas upwards. resulting in contamination and a reduction in desiccant capacity. a high rate of removal. for efficient desiccant performanc.
. • · • :.. " SU.. to obtain additional desiccant life. the bed acts as a sort of regenerative heat exchanger. are sent to the regeneration gas cooler to remove any adsorbed water.238 CaJ Production Engineering Gel.J. The hot regeneration gas and cooling gas.. respectively. the hot regenerated bed is cooled by letting the regeneration gas bypass. . IIIOIHI • . [NO O' TWOTOWER ADSORPTION PLANT t eyell etel[ Figure 539.. bons and contaminants. and the ambient ji!.. some cases. It shows the relationship betw(''en regeneration gas te~perature at the inlet and outlet. Oxygen. " rowER 2 (O<Y"'II) INlit UN!! 0 . is sent to the desiccant bed.. 1984b. water begins to vaporize. so that only the top of the bed may adsorb any water from this gas. Flow diagram for a twolower solidbed dehydration plant. (After Campbell.. as shown in Figure 540... • • • flushing them through the entire bed. is often assumed in design to be about 250°F (see Figure 540). to"" 0""" . Refer to the regenerationji!.. ~ !. even in trace amounts. only the inlet (top) part of the tower is recharged with desiccant.. greater than the fi.. Thus. Initially. to'''' ~. There are four discrete intervalsA.. " '. or the gas flow direction reversed.. L1QY". ) < .as outlet temperature curve (curve 2) in Figure 540. and T D. • REGENERATION GAS COOLER OUTLET G"S FILTER .. Heating is continued (from T3 to T~ in Figure 540) to drive off any heavier hydroca~. The average temperature of water desorption. U oxygen is c\'en  "Gn A typical temperaturetime plot for a dry desiccant plant is shown in Figure 540.'. T B. T B.as temperature for a tYPlcal8hr ye. Sometimes.. Figure 540."et' '< . insufficient gas dehydration (GPSA. generation cycle. special design modifications are required. can react with hydrocarbons during the regeneration cycle. The Regeneration Cycle .t and Dehydration Processing 239 ~::Spected in the inlet gas stream. First ..\\'Olcf Syste/11.. B..) • • Trill • .. C. '.l ION . For a cycle time of 4 hours or greater..' • .). " • • . 1981). IUI[N[IIIiI. in order to minimize desiccant replacement expense.. A typical temperaturelime plot for regeneration gas and dessicant bed for a solidbed dehydrator. or by completely shutting off. until point T3 is reached where all the water in the desiccant has been desorbed. Subsequently.ItT 0' • ". with average temperatures of T A. and Din the regeneration C}'cle.cr. the hot regeneration gas heats up the tower and desiccant (from Tl to T2 in Figure 540). • e. T c. The regeneration gas now has a high water ._.. The bed heats up at a slower rate (the curve Flattens). This cooling gas is usually sent downward through the bed. forming water and CO 2 which are adsorbed and lead to..f . because a considerable portion of the heat input is used in vaporizing water from the desiccant.. To . the bed 15 COnsidered to be properly regenerated when the outlet gas temperature has reached 350_375°F (point T. the regeneration gas heater. after flowing through the bed. Desiccant bed may also be rearranged. At about 240°F (T 2). regeneration gas heated to a temperature of 400_000°F. The regeneration cycle consists of t"':o parts: heating and cooling. nal bed regeneration temperature by about SOlOO°F. • • • • • > .. courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series.
. Very short cycle lengths are becoming increasingly popular. the process variables that must be considered are (Campbell.( l~r(l?\ <l '" c. subject of course. 1984b): 1. C le o is equal to 0 until the zone front reaches the bed outJet (breakthrough) at time tb· SubsequentJy. sorbed at different rates. a series of adsorptIOn zones appear. The ordinate ClCo is the ratio. This ends the heating cycle. Curve 1. (. In a dry desiccant bed. and finally by water that constitutes the last zone. becomes greater than 1. 1984b. Hence. the adsorbable components are ad. Regeneration and cooling equipmentdepends mainly on the adsorber towers.( 4 38 MESH sure drops that may result from doing so. The cooling cycle is Wiuall}' terminated at about 125 ~ F (point T 5) . Adsorber towers.orption of a given component. (After Campbell. versus t curve is related to the efficiency of separation.240 Gas Production Engineering Ca. the more difficult it will be to delineate dry gas from partially wet gas when water breakthrough occurs. and bed cooling is begun. Note the adsorption sequence: C L and C 2 are adsorbed almost instantaneously. A schematic 0 representation 01 the adsorption process. Water displaces the hydrocarbons on the adsorbent surface if enough time is allowed. a \'crtical straight line.. 3. Thus.. Behind the zone.. Usually a 14mesh (Tyler screen) size is used. followed by the heavier hydrocarbons. BED LENGTH 0 \1 ' '" j. C/c. as shown in Figure 541b. the concentration of that component is zero (unless some residual adsorbed concentration exists from a previous cycle). Analysis of the Adsorption Process (After Campbell. of the mole fraction of a given component in the exit gas to its mole fraction in the entering gas..'OIPl OO~ 1IME(. Figure 541c shows the character of the breakthrough CUf\o'e. to constraints of higher pres 1~r1' tU:\f~~~Of"il a!([ <l '" Figure 541. better and sharper is the separation obtained. 1984b) Figure 541a illustrates the movement of an adsorption zone front as a function of time. Note that the greater the spread. In practice. cycle length is critical. 3.' .) BED LENGTH _ h. C lc. 1984b). . In designing these components. Although Figure 540 is for an Shr cycle.0 for a short period of time when one component is replaced by another... the relative heating and coolin$! times shown are t~llical for any cycle above 4 hoo . Cycle time/length. smaller the desiccant size. Desiccant capacitydesign capacity as well as the effective or useful capacity. The distance bet\\'een sllC<. 2. The shape of this C/c. since they can simultaneously control water and hydrocarbon dew points at minimum cost. at any time. (Campbell. Allowable gas flow rate. the smallest size desiccant possible should be used. A short while after the process has begun.' ' \ c. because any further cooling may cause water to condense from the wet gas stream and adsorb on the bed. 2.USivc adsorption zone fronts is indicative of the length of the bed involved in the adc.LO MESH 3~6MESH ( 'b)2 TIME (. Desiccant pellet size has a pronounced effect on the spread (or length) of the adsorption zone.!''\'Oter Systems and Dehydration Proce&ring 241 (plus hydrcxarbon and contaminant) content. Piping and equipmentprimarily a function of the allowable pressure drop and the flow scheme desired." whereas curves 2 and 3 are for a real case where the adsorption zone front spreads through a finite bed length. Almost all the hydrocarbons are removed after 3040 min and dehydration begins. As shown in Figure 54ld. increases until time teo after which no further primary adsorption can occur. Design Variables for the Adsorption Process • The three basic components of an adsorption plant are: 1. all of the entering component has been removed from the gas: ahead of the zone. Thus.2")' L L420 MESH 2 8. represents an ideal case where the movement of the adsorption zone front is essentially "pistonlike.
their useful life being in the range of I ·4 year<>.gas compressibility factor at the operating temperature T (OR) and pressure p (psia) D . that cannot be remO\'ed by regeneration and effect great reductions in capacity in a vcr)" s.rate and pressure drop.2). Degradation is termed normal if there is a loss of surface area only.32. the product of its ve10city "'. w.e.ements. Assuming a monolayer adsorption.gas density at operating conditions. since this generally salty water in the inlet gas will evaporate and fill the bed with salt. and desiccant bed geometry. (527) where Vg  All desiccants dc~ade in service. and corrosion inhibitors. . a desiccant exhibits rapid normal degradation in the initial stages. to operating conditions: 6.t'1"}uence they are calculated. A more dramatic reduction in desiccant capacity occurs when the small capillary or lattice openinwo that contain most of the effective surface area for adsorption are blocked. Cycle time and des. During its useful life. Relationships for these are discu~ in tht' <. \ 'g . Total amount of water to be remO\"ed. Cycle Tillie Varies from less than 1 hr for a rapid cycle unit to greater than 8 hrs. q.molecular weight of the gas Material Alumina Alumina gel Silica gel Molecular sieves For downward flow of gas. ft g .bulk desiccant density. Ibm/ftl d. Adsorber Bed Design (After Campbell. ftlseci C . and others are \'aried to )ield an optimum design. zone length. ft/hr q . 7 Allowable pressure drop. and density: (528) where w _ mass f10\. water loading (rate of removal of water from the gas). the potential desiccant capacity where P. of cour<.·elocity.0250. 1984b) Adsorber tower desiWi is gO\'erned by the desiccant capacity. amines.O/ IOO Ib des.. Some properties of common desiccants are (Campbell. It is determined by converting the gas rate at standard conditions. is given by: SO55 5255 45 4345 210 350 7SO83O 650800 47 79 79 912 The design capacity must be such that an economic desiccant life is obtained. .p . known as the superficial gas \·elocity. Ibm/ttl Pd . tion.diameter of the adsorber bed. :':ot all of these \'ariables are independent: some are fixed for any calcula. Also. ft Allowable Call HQW RlIte .1scfd Z . the maximum allowable gas mass flow velocity.Cas Production Engineering GaJ·Water Systems and Dehydration Processing 243 4 Required outlet water dew point. limited by desiccant capacity so as not to exceed outlet !?:as spedfications. An oftenused term in the context of adsorber tower design is the "elocit)" of the gas based upon bed diameter.gas flow rate at standard conditions. 1984b): Bulk density Ibm/ft' Surface area m2/gm Design capacity Ib H.average desiccant particle diameter.033 . 5. Ibml(hr ft2) Mit . The cycle time is. tion. which then becomes more gradual.empirical constant in the range of 0. Mt>. the cycle time must be long enough to permit regeneration and cooling of the tower~ not currently dehydrating. . is proportional to desiccant bulk denSity. breakthrough time. This is generally expressed in terms of the mass flow \'elocity of the gas. Regenm'lon requ. gl}'cols. This latter process.aC(:eleration due to gravity ( . and allowable gas f10\\. is caused by materials such as heavy oils. and the available area for adsorp. termed abnormal degradation.hort time. No liquid water should be allowed in the inlet gas. sicant capacity are the most important variables in designin~ an adsorption plant. superficial gas velocity.
TUR£ • 0. C · has been found to vary only in the range 0.31 is multiplied by 0. courtesy of Campbell Petroleum Series. and desiccant loading capability.useful capacity of the desiccant.0 .) From extensive tests.S.. " ~ .428. the zone length determined using Equation &.45 is generally used for design purposes. . can be estimated as follows (Simpson and Cummin~.8 and 0.]''' (5·29) " SILICA GEL nat" Loading Also known as the rate of removal of water required per unit bed area..600 converts the mass £low rate from Ibm/(sec ft2) to lbmi(hr (1.(h.0531q\\'•• D' 70 where q.  C'x..!. . .20. ~ . " " '"0 1\0 120 110 TDlPE .dynamic capacity of the desiccant. Ib H 20fMMscf gas ZoUt' " L .24) /(. a function of zone length The breakthrough time for the water zone formed..lh.. The use/td desiccant capacity. ~ .) (5·32) x .0..244 Co.2). the zone length. respectively. x.. relative water saturation. water loadinll can be calculated as follows: •• >0 " . where h. . E ~ ~O . Productihn Engi'leerilig Gas·Water Systems and Deh!Jdratwn Processing 245 The factor 3. in hours. % For alumina and molecular sieves.I'ngth The zone length depends upon gas composition.f ~LE~~i~£vt:S . t TEMPERATURE • DC '" >00 [. can be estimated as follows: (5·33) .relative saturation of water in the inlet gas. . .. .. 1.. '" ~ • '" The dynamic desiccant capacity.2 ft/sec2... . x" is shown in Figure 542a as a function of the relative saturation of water.r~~ f"".. (After Campbell.22 [Cp".6. lb H2 0/lOO lb desiccant C· . J'. h~..O..(q\\'. Ib H 20/tOO lb desiccant X. For silica gel. The temperature correction factor is shown in Figure 542b. '0. 1984b..water loading. Breakthrough l 'ime xwhere x.) ..water content of the inlet gas. • o.~/ ..400. K.. I:t.52 for a wide range of applications.' . Substituting g .D'·4) . and an average C· . ft S.::..an empirical corntant. flow rate. . q . w becomes: w . but not for molecular sieves.. V /' . The eHect of (a) relative water saturation and (b) temperature on the dynamic capacity of dessicants.. 1964): (5·31) 0'" " 3D " I' f. " J'...32.. " RtLATtvt WATER SATURATlON (l. This temperature correction is required for gels and alumina. generally less than the dynamic capacity. o. is given by the following empirical equation: Figure 542. lb Hp/(hr ftl) W...zone length.
the minimum length of desiccant bed reo quired can be written as: (h. Then.321V. heating and cooling time intervals. is the distance from the inlet to the front of the water 7. (1. From Equation 532. .094)115 . inert balls. and dry gas will be produced.~afety factor to account for future desiccant degradation .63 hr is greater than the cycle time of 8 hr.341 Since the breakthrough time of 10.. QA.406..198 . B.: 540) The total heat load is the sum of the heat absorbed by desiccant._ 14. can..34 Ib H.total cycle time. From Equation 533.800)(8.198 Ibmihrft2 From Equation 531..one. the total cycle time constraint must also be satisfied: t. Solution From :igure 5·1. 0.'il· . (20)(6 1) .. from Equation 527: D .t.. x.34)(45)(15117. if ht is less than the total length of the bed. en by On rearranging this e(luation.." . cant. the water zone will not reach the outlet..45)( 14.. For these intervals. has a ..tWater Systems and Dellydratioll Processing 247 where the factor 0.3 ft Thus. Design an adsorber for dehydrating 20 MMscfd of a O. E i • must be equal to the heat absorbed.0'' 100 Ib d es. Qj. . E~am"'f' 5·JO..time spans (hr) for intervals A.36)''''''(100)' . te. ~ume a gas velocity of 1. W . amount water to be removed per cycle.. the total heat load. is givcn by. Choose a bed diameter of 3 ft for safety.". vessel shell.(297.499. a 15 ft bed length allows a safety factor.61 Ib H1 0. 1. _ (0..tablishing the regeneration gas rate.642. 2. These calculations are simply heat balances for various parts of the regeneration cycle.OI IOO Ib d".. implying D .88.67 Ibm/cycle. ta. \\' (Ibm). the Heatingjrom T/ to 1'2 (ltlteroai A ill Figl". Production Engineering Ga.(0.4 .73)(20)(0.642...). since it prolonl'S desiccant hfe. to ..094 It where i represents the interval.  (O. MMsd gas.32)(406.800)) _ 8. .000)(1.oo ..01)(11.. and water.+t8+ t C:+ t O (536) where t.kcant From Equation 534. The ~mount of water that can be removed per cycle by the desiccant.. The design.000 psia and 100°F.) _ 7.2118 ft'.800 ft/ hr.' 24) . (h. Thus.87 ft. V..4)(7. hr tA . From an operations perspective.63 h. So. hydrocarbon desorption.11. the rate of removal of wa. ter .34)(45)(9)) ~ 11. C.. In addition. therefore.36 ftlhr From Equation 530. Regeneration and Cooling Calculations (After Campbell. heater load.246 Ga. t) From Figures 542a and 542b.2118/9) . Assume a twotower plant using an Bhr cycle WIth a 15 ft long silica gel bed. The gas compressibility factor.1.ic Minimum B~d LhJgth . 14.01 takes into account the units for x (Ib H2.c .. Therefore. it is desirable to continue ~nhl the water front reaches the end of the bed. .053 1)(20)(61)19 _ 7. water content of inlet gas . h. For each interval. 198)'. and 0.i graVIty ~as at 1.10.·1[(1. (535) Note that (ht)m". zone length is given by.67)1[(11. it means that not all of the bcd. water loading q" . hydrocarbon.220 Ibm/da\". respectively QI and E J terms are derived as follows.7)(7. the breakthrough time is: . is being used. and condenser load. Then.(1.(0.88)(560)1[(1.4 lb H 2 0 /100 lb deo.(127.). Z .(127. (1. Assummg all of the inlet water is removed. 1984b) Regeneration calculations are done for eo.220)(8. IS gi . the heat supplied by the gas.9){16) .)I('PdD') (5.
c.. for desiccant (d)." and Deh!ldration Processing  249 Q. only.7 if the vessel is insulated. which is chosen in the range 4006(X)°F. hydrocarbon (HC).T i ) + m..water contents of the regeneration gas at temperatures T Band T I. H" + m. Btu/(lbm oF).T~) (S39) where the heat of desorption of water. inert balls (ib). is usually taken to be 1. and 1. however. the term for heat absorbed by the vessel shell is multiplied by 0.(Tt  + mlbclb(T2 T I) + T I) (S37) ffiHCHHC + m .. Ibm c . _ molecular weight of the regeneration gas (usually the same as the gas being dehydrated) _ Wt In this final cleanup step. and inert balls. Qs: is given by: Q8 .ailable from the regeneration gas. and Equation 536.m<!Cd(T 3 . Temperature T4 must be kept as low as possible. Energy available from the regeneration gas. Thus..T i ) + m"c. vessel shell (5). Ec.specific heat of the regeneration gas. E[). the unknown parameters are the regeneration gas rate.T I) + m. the term for heat absorbed by the vessel shell is multiplied by 0. W TI . Ibm \V TB. which imposes the total cycle time constraint.essel is insulated. vessel shell.:essel shell. cooling available. Thus. m<i' and the lengths of time intervals. The entering gas must be heated from a temperature Tl to T H. and inert ball~. and is generally in the range 350_500°F. the total heat l~ad. and inert balls. and to.(TJ .. only. H".b(TJ . Assuming that the cooling gas rate is the same as the regeneration gas rate.400 Btu Ibm for alumina and gels. The minimum regeneration gas flow rate and water adsorption capacity must be enough to handle the water desorbed from the bed in time tB' Therefore: (S4S) • where total water removed per cycle from the gas being dehydrated. Nonnally. As be. the maximum heat load occurs in the interval B. the total heat load.Water S!lstem.<. Energy a .. te. is given by: (S44) The total heat load is the sum of the heat absorbed bv desiccant water water desorption.800 Btullbm for molecular sieves. The number of equations are also 5: four for the heat balances.mass flow rate of the regeneration gas.248 GIlS Production Engineering ffidCd(T2  Goa. is given by: where m .(T2  Til As before. ...(T 3 . Ibm/hr erg .mass. respectively. is given by: (S40) IIeatingfrom 1'3 to T4 (lntert:al C ill Figure 5·40) In Equation 544.. Qo. Ibm waterfMMscf gas M. is given by: (S4I ) Generally.7 if the . the term for the vessel shell is multiplied by 0.specific heat capacity. usually taken to be 200 Btu'ibm . a total of 5 unknowns. Qc . Btu/(lhm °11 I/eatj"gjro'" T2 to T3 Untf'rOOl B jll Figure 540) As before.. is given by: (S38 ) The total coolin~ load is the sum of the cooling requirements for desiccant. Ea. Energy a. Theterm for heat absorbed by the vessel shell is usually multiplied by 0. the total cooling load.7 if the vessel is insulated. the regeneration gas rate is about 10% of the main gas flow rate. and the minimum regeneration gas rate m" is chosen on this basis.7 if the vessel is insuJated. For a given cycle time 4. Thus. vessel shell. EA. fore.bc..  Til + mHL~dT2 . less than TH by 5O~100°F ..T 2) + m. is given by: (S43) where m'K . \. ta. tA. a solution is thus possible.ailable from the regeneration gas. and water (w) (542) Cooling from T4 to Ts (lntert:al D in Fig""' 5401 The second Jast term in Equation 537 represents hydrocarbon desorption with H lle being its heat of desorption. c. the total heat load is the sum of the heat abo sorbed by desiccant.
.. Other relevant data arc as follows: • Gas flow rate . What are gas hydrates? List the factors that promote hydrate formation. the heater load. as discussed in Chapter 4 (in the section on "LowTemperature Separation"). 5. 11C~ . Tf. fraction has a molecular weight of 140 and specific heat or 70 Btu/IbmOF at 300°F. lOoF GI)'col circulation rate . Condenser loads can be calculated sim ilar to heating loads. A TEG dehydration plant is to be designed to dry the follov. 16.654 Btu/lbmoF .. as OaF..0. eft" 0. except that the heating/cooling coils are no longer necessary. 1. Generally.5%. Name three different types of solid dcsiccant~ used for natural gas dehydration. 1981).. 1IC 5 " 0. the gas entrapped in ~e hyd tes is recovered using heating coils to heat the hydrates.1%. 0.06 Alumina Silica gel Molecular sieves Liquid water V~I )h~1l 0. iC.4%. taking into account the components in th(· regeneration gas and their specific and latent heats.5%.. Two types of c:tpansion refrigeration techniques are used: one with a hydrate inhibitor to prevent hydrate formation that may result upon expansion of the gas.0%. 2. condenser loads are the highest for interva1 B. 0. That IS why It IS :. 11 Specific heat of glycol . The c.Water Sy"temt and Dehydration Processing 251 (usually 100°1'). When hydrate inhibitors are used..20 MMscfd Inlet gas pressure .~ used as precoolers for the gas stream: the gas passes throu~ the i~id.. and another without an inhibitor.5 %. 0. A sour gas at 1000 psia has the following analysis: N1 = 8.sure drop allows the desired water dew point to be obtained without the formation of hydrates (CPSA.' drop in temperature leads to condensation of the water vapor and condem able hydrocarbons associated with the gas.. the process is similar.3%.2. C 1 . and fC s " 0. QII in Btu/hr can be written as: Questions and Problems A condenser is used to cool the regeneration gas after it comes out throu... and are collected in a low ::perature separator (LTX). 1000 psia Inlet temperature _ l(X)OF Required outlet water dew point . CO 2 . iC.5..9 %.1%. E:tpansion refrigeration without an inhibitor is used only when the pre. to temperatures as lov.6%. What is the water content of this gas at 120°F? Use all the methods applicable and compare the results. 5. providing enough heat to melt the hydrates..a .I{h the adsorber bed.250 Gas Production Engilleering Ca. and the conclcnS('r then designed to handle the maximum cooling load expected.6 %. Thus. Thi.5%.. C 2 . In this technique. H2S . C 3 = 1. Cool. 400°F Specific gravity of glycol . determine the hydrate formation temperature. Values for specific heats needed in regeneration calculations are as follows: Component Specific Heat.. and are replaced by a gas expansion valve. 1.t this precooli?g stage for the gas. 0. CO 2 . Use all the methods applicable and compare the results..9 %. ing loads should be calculated for all the three inten'als. C 3 = 8. Hydrate. Dehydration by E. 6.oportant to ensure that no hydrates are expected to form a. C 1 .. the gas stream is cooled by adiabatic expansion through a choke.7%.xpansion Refrigeration Dehydration can be achieved by expansion refrigeration when su rHcient pressure drop is available..8%.12 allowed to form at this second stage (choke). An inhibitor must be used if hydrate formation is expected in the precooler used upstream of the choke. 7 gai/ib water removed from gas Glycol reboiler temperature . This cooling is done in order to separate the condensable components picked up by the regeneration gas from the desiccant bed.e f the cOils. and T3 are generally equal to 230°F and 260 G F.8%. nCo( . For the sour gas given in Problem 4...0. 3.3.ing gas: N2 .1. These COils are o. The heater load consists of heating requirements for the regeneration . . mist eliminators must never be used In the LTX umt.1%.6 '7~.2%.. Btui(lbm F~ 0. In the LTX unit. and iC$ '"" 0. List three methods for preventing hydrate formation at wellsites. since they may be plugged by hydrates.0 0. Also.05 1. and C.1.9%.65. 4.22 0. C~ .77.
.. Vol. 1984a. Btu/hr.).• 1958. Flmdaml!1ltais oj Natural Cas Conditioning. E. McKetta. PcnnWell Publ.. Applied Hydrocarbon Thermodynamics. 1959. assuming heat loss '"' 5000 Btu/hr..'· Ind. New York. Chern. W. 9th ed. Oklahoma. 440447.. M.. E H.. L. The glycol circulation tate L~ 4 gal TEG'lb water. Maximum gas rate that can flow in the system. J. & Eng. 466469. I. 118pp. 293298. Norman. "The Measurement and Prediction of Hydrate Formation in Liquid HydrocarbonWater Systems. "Use This Chart for Water Content of Natural Gases. J. 1971. (f) Heat required to va}Xlrize reflux water in the still. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 8. Cooling load. L. Heinze. L.. 189. L. and Hand. 9. Carson.. Oklahoma.. H . B. D. Ng. Poettmann. and Robinson. Taastrup. "The Water Va}Xlr Content of Essentially NitrogenFree Natural Cas Saturated at Various Conditions of Temperature and Pressure. For an exit water content of 10 IbIMM<. Btu/hr. 1984. ~1cCraw. Norman. D. Tech .. C. References Curry. Determine the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Internal diameter of the towers required. & Eng. and Reid. 1981. U. and Kobayashi. 1979. T. inJet gas temperature is 120 c F. "Hydratbildung.243. June). Perry and D. and the absorption tower uses bubblecap trays... 13(6. 1984b.). W." J.Vater Systeml and Dehydratwn Processing 253 For this plant. "Natural Cas Hydrates at Pressures to 10." 1)a1lS. 237 . 241. ~ework Problem 6 using a twotower desiccant plant. Regeneration gas rate. Natural Cas Prodllction Engineering. and Campbell. 398pp. Engineering Data Book.000 Psia. Refiner. (5th revision). 5(4. 802pp.. and Kobayashi.. Edmister. Regeneration heater heat load. determine the following: Contactor diameter. ThIsa. S. Campbell Petroleum Series.. Cas Conditioning and Processing. 1966. 7 A glycol (TEe) dehydrator plant is to be designed for handJing 13. Gas Processors Suppliers Association. H. C. D. lkoku. It is desired to use glycol inhibition to prevent hydrate formation for the case given in Problem 7. and the towers are regenerated to a final temperature of 450' F Assume internal insulation. I (2nd ed. & Eng. 1961. J. J.5°F approach is desired. A. J. Campbell. C. employing !oilIcagel on an Bhour cycle.. N. Ruska. 146. "MultiplePhase Equilibria in Hy· drates from Methane. D. 1984. 1. Houston.. Campbell. Gulf Publishing Company. Kobayashi. 590594.• Chappelear. Btu/hr. 1327 to 1335. Btu/hr. 0. "Prediction of Dissociation Pressures of Mixed Cas Hydrates From Data for Hydrates of Pure Cases with Water. A. D. Chern. S. McCarthy. "Experimental Measurement of Hydrate Numbers for Methane and Ethane and Comparison with Theoretical Values:· Ind. Fund. R. calcuJate the following: (a) Clycol circulation rate in galimin.5 \1Mscfd of the SOUT gas of Problem 4. J. 28(3. Cornell. R . H. Nagata.. and Lee. J. R. D. Fund..).. (b) Glycolglycol heat exchanger load in BtuJhr if a 2. 233pp. MMscfd. Holder. Inc.. GPSA. 2. Chern. 1981. Btu/hr. H. 326pp. Co. Tulsa. AIME. Elenbaas. 517pp. "Natural Gas Dehydration. Katz. Guenther. "Natural Cas Hydrates. Texas.). April 26.10.. Assume that the glycol enters the absorber at 125°F. Green (eds. J.13 von der Bergakademie Freiberg. Handbook oj Natural Cas Engineering. H. G.." Petr. AIME. Pet. Fllnd.·' Paper presented at Seminar on Process Equipment and Systems on Treatment Platforms. 150158. 37(8. Amount of silicagel required in Ibslcycle. J. R. W." Ind. lean glycol concentration is 99"'~. May). Oklahoma. (g) Reboiler heat load. New York. Propane and Water Mixtures. 153154. Nov..243. M . 1976. R.cf gas..• r\'e\\ York. Nov. 1982.. Cas Conditioning and Processing. D. Aug.). and Weinaug. Vary. Calculate the amount of TEG required in lb/day. F. J. McLeod.. McGraw·HiII Book Co. John Wiley & Sons. May). B.. Jr. and Wehe. R. and Katz.." Lehrbogen 3. glycol specifk gravity is 1. M. Oklahoma. Inc . The actual number of trays needed in the oontactor. Campbell Petroleum Series. Chemical Engineers'Uandbook. 6th ed . L. The regeneration gas leaH~ the heater at 55O"F. 9(2. Boyd. E. Heat of vaporization required for the water.. P.Hill Book Co . \V.. 1970. B.• pp. Denmark. Vol." Trans. Sensible heat required for the glycol." AIChE J. 15(4. I. 1984.252 Cos Production Engineerlllg Cal·\. 1950. Btu/hr. 1942. J. Vol.. Galloway. • . Ethane..
Vol. Penn . 54(12.. however. besides H 2S. H 2S is deadly poisonous and at concentrations above 600 ppm it ca n be fatal in just three to five minutes. Produced gases from reservoirs usually contain HzS in concentrations ranging from barely detectable quantities to more than 0.. Urn\". HzS and CO 2 are commonly referred to as "acid gases" because they form acids or acidic solutions in the presence of water.s. Prog . Univ. Other sulfur derivatives... 39pp.. M .).• Wichert. 6 Desulfurization Processes Introduction With i.eum Extension Senice. and Platteeuw. & Eng. by J." Proc. Soc . G . W P.000 ppm). :\foore. 1976. 2635. 11(1). R. edited by I. J .. 57 60. W. 3rd ed .. M. and may lead to premature failure of most such systems.. the concentrations of which are generally in the range of 1 to 4 %. Inte~ience Pub!. Oiv. Thus. 2. I57. . a diVISion of John Wiley & Sons. "Clathrate Solutions" Advances in ~?~mical Physics. it cannot be tolerated in gas that would be used as domestic fuel. • 255 . and Prausnitz.' J. Thus. J. Prigogine. 60 (4. A. H 2S is corrosive to all metals normally associated with gas transporting. Dec... 1. and Cam~~Il. Trekell. and Campbell. Further. SIlica Gel Performance. B. O. Van der Waals. In gases devoid of HzS. are usually completely insignificant or present only in trace proportions. Gas CUll dltlomng Conf. Robinson. Unpublished." and those that are H 2Sfree are called "sweet" in processing practice. E. and 1'\g. N . Reasons for Removal of HzS and CO 2 Besides emitting a foul odor at low concentrations. 151st Meet. it forms sulfur dioxide. "A Practical Way to Predict . Campbell. and handling systems (although it is less corrosive to stainless steel). "Glycol Dehydrator Design Manual.. E." Chem. Proc D' & Dell. R. a sulfur removal process must be very precise since the initial product contains only a small fractional quantity of suUur that must be reduced several hundred times. M. Apr. 1959. Field Handling oj Natural Gas. Austin. p.. . A characteristic feature of all H 2S bearing natural gases is the presence of carbon dioxide (C0 2). J. Chem.. E . 143 10: Gas CondltlOlIIng and PrOCessing. 326pp. Slva. Chern." Ind. Natural gases containing H 2S are classified as "sour. natural gases containing hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) are also being tapped for utilization after purification. of Oklahoma. "Dissociation Pressures of Cas Hydrates Formed by Cas Mixtures. Petr. R. R.254 GO$ Product/on Engineering Parrish.. H.. 959£:. Slm~n.. R~~inson. 143pp. Texas. 19ih Charts . 1964. R. 1972.30% (3.' .U. C. Chern. and Cummings. • ess €$Ign Petrol. Most contracts for the sale of natural gas require less than 4 ppm (parts per million) in the gas.). of Am.ncreasing demands for natural gas. "Prediction of the Behavior of Hydrocarbon Clathrate Solutions. A. Norman. Pittsburg. processing." Proc.• 1975. New York. Cited reference on p. of Thus Press. "Improve H\"drate Predictions" Hydraco Proc. Oklahoma. and Heidemann. 1984. March 2326. H. On combustion. 61.. M. Its toxicity is comparable to cyanide. ~. Sharma.. Content of . Engr. Campbell Petroleum Series. 1972. 1. Vol. 1966. J. such concentrations are rare. J.
For gas being sent to cryogenic plants.eet process (Oil & Cas J. Some processes remove both H 2S and CO 2 .. 2. HzS and other sulfur compounds can also cause catalyst poisoning in refinery prOCt'!SSeS. Others remove to ultralow values.. it is important to consider the selectivity of a process for H 2S versus CO 2 to ensure desired extent of removal of these components. and outflow conditions to meet pipeline requirements. while others lose their economic advantage when large volumes of gas are to be treated. promote hydrate (ormation . some gases may contain other sulfur derivatives such as mercaptans and carbonyl sulfide.. 1980). 3. hot carbonate processes (Benfield. and absorption into a liquid (wet process). and thfO p~n('f' nf (:0. CO2 to H 2S ratio in the gas. Application of these latter types of processes has been quite limited. 4. However. ization operations. Cas com • cesses. Some widely used processes wIll be bnefly mentioned.e it. Some processes effectively remove large amounts of acid gas. With growing environmental concerns regarding sulfur emission. 1. Regenerative processes ·with recovery as HzS.). and the Siurri~. DEA. desulfurization processes are primarily of two types: adsorption on a solid (dry process). but cannot handle large amounts of acid components in the incoming stream economically. 5. The HolmesStretford process. removal of CO z may be necessary to pre\'ent solidification of the CO~. These include the physical absorption processes (water wash. 2. Both the acid gases. removal may also be required because it forms a complex. and at which the sweet gas is to be delivered. Regenerative processes with recovery as elemental sulfur.. but not to low enough le"eis. Criteria for Process Selection There are man)' variables in gas treating. the amine processes (MEA. of the impurity (H~S) being removed or recovery of the materials (process chemicals) employed to remo . and the CiammarcoVetroooke process fall in this category. ative volatility difference. Selectivity of a process implies the degree of removal of one acid gas component relative to another. F1uor solvent. For this reason. which is quite corrosive in the pre. The concentrations of acid components are important to consider.·en process very difficult Among c:ev· eral factors... 3. Alkazid processes.·ered in these pro. and liquid fractionation techniques that exploit the rei.). if any. NCA process (Sun. Operating conditions affect the performance of several sweetening processes. if none of these situations are encountered. The presence of such impurities may eliminate some of the sweetening processes. while others are designed to selectively remove only HzS. Catacarb). etc. CO. the following are the most significant that need be considered: Removal Processes The processes that have been developed to accomplish gas puriCication vary from a simple oncethrough . Temperature and pressure at which the sour gas is available.ence of water. different processes discharge the sweetened gas stream at different pressure and temperature levels relative to the conditions of the incoming stream. or economics. drocarbon and H2S. The materials used in treating the gas are not reco. It may be economic in some cases to alter inflow conditions to suit the process. Thus. the inlet and outlet conditions desired are significant Variables to consider. Some processes are economic for large gas volumes. there is no need to remove CO So many sweetening processes are in use today that it would be ~possib~e to describe them all in detail here. Economics of the process. Selexol. 6. C02·CO~.256 Gal I'rodllCtiori Engineering DesulJumation Proca&et/ 257 which is also highly toxic and corrosive. Like dehydration processes. such as the cellulose acetate membranes that rely upon the different diffusion rates for hy. Also. and its hydrocarbon composition. may not be desired for this reason also. etc. Generally. Both the adsorption and absorption processes may be of the physical (no chemical reactions involved) or chemical type. these processes have acquired a prominent role in desulfur. in one form or another.. and the degree of removal desired. 1981). There are a few processes that use other methods. and some important ones among these will be presented in a little more detail. These processes may also be classified into the following categories: 1. CO 2 has no heating value and its removal may be required in some instances merely to increase the energy content of the gas per unit volume.. 1979). Volume of the gas to be processed. molecular sieves. H2S and CO!.. . such as Chemsweet process (~Ianning. which makes the precise definition of the area of application of a gi. the process complexities arise from the need for recovery. In many cases. Nonregenerative. The types and concentrations of impurities in the gas. CO 2 to H 2S ratio in the gas is also an important parameter.ash operation to complex multiple step recycle systems. etc. DCA. The desirability of sulfur recovery due to environmental problems. Selectivity of acid gas removal required. Besides CO 2 and HzS.. 7.
m"""~ 11£. thereby showing that the selectivity of the process is quite good. DemljurlUltioll PrOCes8n 261 ~ p ~ na"E l~ 4tOO"I~ ~:'" .COS + H. For gas streams containing CO 2• carbonyl sulfide may form as shown in the following reversible reaction: H. These processes offer fair to good selectivity. a water wash operation followed by an amine process is 12 to 15% lower in capital investment. Molecwar Sle\~ are also prone to poisoning by several chemicals such as glycols and reqUire ~horough ~as cleaning methods prior to the adsorption step. the saving5 can be as much as 40 % in investment.s + CO. and ahout 50 % lower in operating expenses as compared to a Single amine unit for an equivalent sweetening job. Selexol Process This process uses dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol (DMPEG) as a solvent. The rich water solution from the bottom of the tower is sent to an intermediate pressure flash tank for recovery of dissolved hydrocarbons. These components are very detrimental to the performance of most sulfur reco. Initial capital investments are high.O ~101ecular. The problem has been studIed extensively. 1960. with high acid gas content and high H 2S to CO 2 ratio.) Besides regeneration losses. little or no heat is required for regeneration or other purposes. Thus. countercurrent to the water (see Figure 62). . Flowsheet for a molecular sieve desulfurization process. (After Fails and Harris. sieves tend to catalyze this reaction. and regenerahon reqUires a lot of heat. The partially sweetened gas from the top of the to\. Unsaturated hydrocarbon components such as olerin~ and aromatics tend to be strongly adsorbed (Conviser.. Because only physical absorption is involved.1(11 '" <= ttEATIN. Most solvents currently in use have a relatively high solubility for heavier hydrocarbons. Froning et al. and new molecular sieves have been developed to retard the COS formation. sour gas is sent upward through a contactor. particularly unsaturated and aromatic components. since it is batchtype.? Figure 6·1. 1965). Solubilities in Selexol solvent of HzS and CO 2 and other acid gas com • Physical Absorption Processes These processes rely ~pon physical absorption of acid components as the gas sweetening mechamsm. (1964) presented calculation procedure:. gas is also lost by the adsorption of hydrocarbon components by the sieve. particular care must be taken during the regeneration step to prevent their entry into the acid gas stream that is to be sent to a sulfur recovery unit. and 60 to 70 % in operating costs. In the water wash sweetening process. for sour gases containing heavy hydrocarbons (heptanes plus) or unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons.1.. But a sulfur recovery unit is required since these pr~ do not alter the acid components chemically in an)' manner. For gases \\:i. an amine unit). Some processes in this category offer simultaneous dehydration. for estimating the performance of a water wash and provide data required for such calculations. A power recover)' turbine is provided for repressurizing the water before sending it to a low pressure flash tank where all of the acid gas is removed.!.th a high HzS to CO 2 ratio.ery processes and may yield an unsuitable.. er is sent to further treatment units (typically. courtesy 01 Oil & Gas Journsl. . ir 4_WilT VALVE 1'" C'" '? • OUTLET $WEET CAS •• T f< ~ corrosion and fouling problems are generally minimal. with a cycle time 0. Water Wash (Aquasorption) Process I . and the lean water obtained is recycled. According to Maddox (1982).. Their results show that HzS is about three times more soluble in water than CO 2 . So. The solvent used is generally recovered by flashing the acid componentrich solvent (called rich solvent) in flash tanks at successively lower pressures. This process is effective for high pressure gas.260 Gas Production Engineering INLET SOU" IJU ~ ." the order of 2 hours. contaminated sulfur as the product. The process reqUires a cyclic operation.
Severa! grades of molecular sieves are available. Therefore. According to Rushton and Hays (1961). about 12% of the gas treated is lost in this regeneration process. These processes are best applied to gases with moderate concentrations of H 2S. fort'. rulfur recovery may be aUracth'e from an economic standpoint also. This . The Iron Sponge Process Sour gas is passed through a bed of wood chips that ha\'e been impregnated with a special hydrated form of ferric oxide that has a high affinity for HzS. generating a higher removal efficiency as well as better regeneration. 1961). shown in Figure 61. Molecular sieves remove components through a combination of a "sieving" and physical adsorption process. Details about this process are avail· able from various SOllrC't'S such as Taylor (1956). The process flow scheme.tanCf'S. temperatures above 120°F and neutral or acid condition_\ lead to the loss of the water of crystallization of the ferric oxide. high selcctivity (onl~ H~S is generally removed). formed by the removal of water of crystallization. for about 1. and orrer a continuously high absorption efficiency. is quite difficult and incurs excessive maintenance and operating costs. Fails and Harris (1960) conducted several pilot studies on sieves and other adsorbents. An optimum pressure of about 450 psia was identified by Fails and Harris.5 hours to heat the bed. is similar to the iron sponge process. sulfur eventually covers most of the surface of the ferric o~de particles and further regeneration becomes impossible. Iron o~de is regenerated by passing oxygen/air over the bed: The process operates in a batchtype reactionregeneration cycle. are adsorbed on the sieve surface. The bed then becomes very diHicult to regenerate. They remove water also (a polar compound) and thus offer a means of simultaneous dehydration and desulfurization. It is relatively inexpensive. and increases with increasing H2S/C0 2 ratio.t>veral in. ~enerally in good demand by the fertilizer and chemicals industry. such as simplicity. where small amounts of oxygen or air are added along with the sour gas at the inlet. and a process efficiency almost independent of pressure.258 Cos Production Engineering Demlfunzation Processes 259 position should also be considered.. e\'Cn in low concentrations. and absolute selectivity. which implies less gas shrinkage because COz is retained in the gas. inability to remove large amounts of sulfur. though the effect of pressure was found to be quite small. The pores.product. it releases the adsorbed H 2S into the regeneration gas stream. They found that the adsorptive capacity of molecular sieves for H 2S decreases with increasing temperature. with each grade corresponding to a very narrow range of pore sizes. They are highJy selective in the removal of H~ and other sulfur compounds from natural gas. Also. latter process gives an improved performance. they offer advantage'.. Regeneration of the bed. in <. The sieves possess highly localized polar charges on their surface that act as adsorption sites for polar materials. • The temperature must be kept at less than 120°F. they discriminate among the adsorbates on the basis of their molecular sizes. may require upstream dehydration (Rushton and Hays. Although not as widely used as the liquid absorp. There are several disadvantages. The sour effluent regeneration gas is flared off. The chemical reaction is as follows: Synthetically manufactured forms of crystalline sodiumcalcium alumino silicates. polar or polarizable compounds. beyond which there is no effect. and where CO 2 is to be retained in the gas. Kohl and Riesenfeld (1985). The bed is regenerated by passing a portion of the sweetened gas. High water content gases. however. According to Kohl and Riesenfeld (1985). since it does not produce sulfur in a saleable form. The desirability of reco\"eringsulfur as e1ementaJ sulfur reduces the choice considerably. while others may strip the gas of some of its hydrocarbon constituents. Thert. molecular sieves are porous in structure and have a very large surface area. and will become so worldwide in the near future due to environmental problems caused by sulfur emissions. tion processes. such as difficult and expensive regeneration. and suUur disposal problems. Increasing contact time is favorable to H 2S removal up to a point. excessi\"e pressure losses through the bed. A continuous regeneration process has also been developed. Molecular Sieves Solid Bed Sweetening Processes These processes are based upon physical or chemical adsorption of acid gases on a solid surface. and Duckworth and Geddes (1965). are uniform throughout the material. Because of their narrow pore sizes. however. Sulfur is a useful by. As the temperature of the bed increases. This process offers advantages of simplicity. Processes with sulfur recovery have become very important in America. preheated to about 400600°F or more. since some processes are adversely affected by the presence of heavier fractions.
In the second flash stage. 61. . Selexol'" based plant for a low H2S to CO 2 ratio gas.. tlAO IRf'IQ. to a high pressure flash.17 LOS 0_058 0_0063 0. The solubility of H 2S is about 10 times greater than CO 2 • and hydrocarbon solubility is quite small.010 0. Most of the absorbed methane and some of the CO 2 is released in this flash. ( H OCJH. Heavier hydrocarbons. Rich selexol from the bottom of the absorber is sent.I 58 46 51 • MItt Maddo.JII"" "'·~j ( '''~" ) '"'~ '.08 iOS..) Chemical Absorption.' ~ ~:. >: :~. and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA).14 148. Presa . Here. Formula HOC~ H.. 14 133. and intermediate flashe> are generally required for hydrocarbon remO\:al. is dehydrated.lI ~ h . via a surge tank to remove entrained gas that is recycled back into the absorber. HilS and the remaining CO 2 are flashed off as the vapor stream. (After Froning at aI. H~'er and Hanis (1970) describe three plants installed for a wide range of H:zS to CO 2 ratios: one plant for a high HzS to CO 2 ratio. n . usually called diglycolamine (DCA). 1964: reprinted from Hydrocarbon Processing. vent.The AlkanolAmine Processes The alkanolamine processes are the most prominent and widely used processes for HtS and CO 2 remo\>·al.160 0.:. They offer good reactivity at low cost and good flexibility in design and operation.).19 lOS. Sour gas. 1 t Figure 63.•.262 Gas Production Engineering De!tIljurizotlon Processes 263 ponents are directly proportiona1 to the partial pressures of these components. cooled to 40"F.i I .. . Wt.. 100F.l L i~ L .\l 11 Figure 62. which is operated at 16 psia. and a power recovery turbine for pTeSI>urizing the solvent.paclty 100 Amine Type MEA DEA TEA DCA DIPA MDEA Chem.\lll t ( HOC~I.1 . the Selexol is sent to the low pressure flash. however. fJ/3' hydroxiethanolamine. '<C. 1976: reprinted from Hydrocarbon Processing. Finally. another for a 10\\ H~ to CO~ ratio. .ltN n Mol. most of the vapor reJeased is CO 2 and it iii \"ented after power recovery.. which is vented to the atmosphere. triethanolamine (TEA).)~ II(OCtll. diethanolamine (DEA).) (HOC 2 H. and the third for a ga~ containing large amounts of both H2S and CO 2 _ Figure 63 shows a flow scheme for a low HzS to CO 2 ratio gas. and sent to the absorber for a countercurrent contact with Selexol sol.hNCH. A typical water wash process.19 119. mm Hg Ret C. have greater solubility. diisopropanolamine (DIPA).0061 58 . and iii recycled to the absorber. Some of the commonly used alkanolamines for absorption desulrurization are: monoethanolamine (MEA). fuJly.. pretreated to remove an)' solids and free liquids. h Different Selexol·based processes have been designed and used success. 1982. Table 61 shows some or the Table 61 Some Characteristics 01 Ethanolamines· Yap.l. (After Raney.NH J ( H O~ H .
Formation of a bisulfide of the ethanolamine on reaction . MDEA. Solution Concentrations and Reactions For MEA. the g1}"COIamine combination does not dehydrate as well as an independent glycol unit. A sidestream reclaimer is provided in an MEA system. which implies lower solution circulation rates in a sweetening plant. Thus. and the lowest molecular weight among the amines. DEA is used in 2030% or more concentration. with CO 2. solution losses. The plant is very much like an absorption dehydration system. the carbonate salt of the ethanolamine is formed. MEA. although it has a higher vapor pressure with increased chances of greater chemical losses. Rahman. MEA. At high temperatures. 1981): 1. High vaporization losses put a limitation on the operating temperatures. and poor solution filtering. Among these. For MEA and DEA. The reaction rate of HtS with MEA is greater than that of CO 2 . DEA is quite similar to MEA. a solution containing 10 to 30'?'. however. RNH2 + H~ ~ RNH. however. In aqueous solution. DlPA and MDEA are typically used in 3050% concentration in aqueous solution. primarilv because it has lesser reactivity and problems are encountered in sweetenin'g the gas to pipeline specifications. Operating temperatures are di£ferent. MEA has the highest reactivity. with CO 2.Cal Production Engineering Dewljurlzotion PrOCf!:SM!Jl 265 important properties for these six alkanolamines. and even beyond. MDEA has received renewed attention because it has a fairly good ~Iectivity for H 2S. DEA can be advantageous to use in some cases. and TEA are as follows (Batt et aI.. and is used in the Sulfinol process by Sheil. 45 to 85% by weight TEC (triethylene glycol). General Process Flow Scheme MEA is usually preferred over DEA because it enables a smaller circulation rate of the solution. The exothermic reactions in the contactor coupled with the low boiling point of MEA make solution loading a difficult problem. which must be kept low. suffers from relatively high solution losses primarily due to two reasons: it has a relatively high vapor pressure that causes greater vaporization losses. More elaborate filtration and heat exchange equipment is required. There are other problems relating to the high vapor pressure of MEA. The problems encountered arc also quite similar. This is a slower reaction. that is. TEA does not have this reaction with CO~. The presence of sulfur intensifies the corrosion problems by introducing stress corrosion.. so CO 2 can be retained in the gas: and it offers some energy saving in the regeneration step. is con· ~idered to be almost nonselective in its removal capacity for HzS and CO~. DEA. 1982). Some plants use a mixture of a glycol and an amine for simultaneous dehydration and desulfurization. DlPA is also able to treat gas to pipeline specifications. Generally. Solution loading. The reflux requirements are greater. may not be commercially competitive with other amine processes by weight MEA. 1982). and a reasonably low \'apor pressu~. so filtration problems are less: and its vapor pressure is lower. Some such problems are corrosion.ides dehydrating the gas. is critical. an appro:timately 15% concentration (by weight) solution is generally used. The contactor contains man)' more tray sectiOns. up to 20 or more. and therefore the highest acid gas removal capacity. 5. 1980. whereas the reactions leading to buildup of solids necessitate efficient filtration schemes.. the mixture becomes very volatile and difficult to handle. It has the same reactivity as DEA. because even the slower reacting CO 2 is rapidly and almost completely re· moved. MEA is able to remove acid gases to pipeline specifications. therefore vaporization losses are less. 4. Also. MEA is chemically stable (minimal solution degradation).ith H 2S. Therefore. the amount or level of liquid MEA in the contactor.S + heat 2. • (Maddox. DCA has found application in recent vears. foaming. 2RNH2 + CO 2 ~ RNHCOi + RNH:i + heat 3. 3. The process. however. except it is not as reactive. The reactions for the ethanolamines.. it offers the highest removal capacity on a unit weight or unit volume basis. The main differences are (Curry. and the AOlP process. while DCA is used in the 4070 % by weight concentration range. 2. TEA has been almost totally replaced by MEA and DEA. and 5 to 25% by weight of water is used. and it reacts irreversibly with carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide. though in a more severe form. 1. so H 2S removal to pipeline specifications may cause problems in some cases: its reactions with carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide are slower and lead to different products. MEA and DEA processes are the most widely used. . This process removes both CO 2 and H 2S be<. the carbamate salt of the ethanolamine is formed.
. __.. using a packed column instead of bubblecap or valvetype trays in the contactor and the stripper.. Fullflow filtration is most desirable... The CiammarcoVetrocoke (CV) process is an important development.. Usually a secondary filtration system is installed in paraliel to enable crossover and allow time for cleaning Of removing a used filter.'1" ..5 seC acid gas per gallon of solution.. . ..... Remember that most filtration problems resu1t not from the failure of the filtration system.. For H 2S removal.. etc.. . After passing through a heat exchange with lean solution (which preheats this rich solution)... ... A retention time of about 2 minutes is usually sufficient.. and fouling of mechanical equipment. " ..5 to 4.. In the contactor (also called absorber).... .. Some of these are: 1.. .  "" " .. Temperature is kept high to keep the potassium carbonate and the reaction products. The design of heat exchange and reflux systems var)'.. this resu1ts in high temperatures in the contactor in this region. A highly concentrated solution is used to improve process performance..• . but from inefficient gas cleaning.. There are several CV processes for different applications. the rich solution enters the top of the stripper where it is stripped by steam that is generated by the reboiler. . reprinted from Hydrocarbon Processing.1++.... those containing an activator to increase the activity of the hot pota~ium carbonate solution are more popular. Figure 6·4. The rich solution from the bottom of the contactor is sent to a flash tank where absorbed hydrocarbon gas in solution is vented... such as the location of the Hltering system .. . . which can • 3. ~ .. Among carbonate processes. 2. The acid gases re1eased at this stage are flared off.... Benfield.... Outcomin~ steam from the top of the stripper is sent to a condensing unit to recover MEA liquid in a reflux accumulator.:. usually DEA.  _"00' . CiammarcoVetrocokefor CO2 removal. Besides its performance. This can be used to determine the MEA circu1ation rate in a preliminary design ... countercurrent to the flow of MEA .. (After Olngman and Moore..... Diatomaceous earth (DE) filters are commonly used to enable removal of particulate matter up to almost I micron.. ".. ..... Iron suUide (FeS) is the most common solid in MEA systems that requires filtration..~ ....... ... arsenic trioxide most commonly used.. Another commonly used filter is the disposable element type. Lean MEA accumu1ated at the bottom of the stripper is continuously recircu1ated through the reboiler.. 1968.. ..266 GO! Productwn Engineering DelU1JuriUltion Processes 267 . A comparison of a MEA and DGA system lor treating 100 MMscfd of natural gas.. A typical process flow scheme is shown in Figure 64.. The process requires relatively high partial pressures of CO 2 . It is also difficult to treat gas to pipeline specifications with this process. u_.. 1981).....) Chemical AbsorptionThe Carbonate Processes The Hot Carbonate Processes The basic hot carbonate process uses an aqueous solution of pota~ium carbonate.. in solution."" .. Both the absorber and regenerator are operated at high temperatures of about 230240°F.. ~'Il'i"'"f ' ... although some plants use sidestream filtration where only a part of the stream is filtered.several activators.. but it is quite expensive and used only where severe problems warrant its usage. almost 90% of the acid gases are removed within the first three trays at the bottom.... The reactions being exothermic. and cannot be used for gas streams that contain only HzS.. An efficient filtration will generally reduce foaming. The liquid accumulated in the re£lux is sent to the regenerative system... alkaline arsenites and arsenates (usually KH 2As0 3 and KH 2AsO t ) used. .. • •• ~. There is one process for the removal of C02t another for a highly selective H 2S removal and . Catacarbamine borates used as activators...... A sidestream reclaimer mayor may not be used. Sour gas is sent upward through the contactor tower. which results in considerable savin~ in heat exchange and heating equipment... ..... absorb approximately 3... There are several variations.... . ". . :1... sclenous acid and tellurous acid are also used.....1'. corrosion . the location of the filtering system is critical to plant operation (Curry.... The flash tank also serves as a sediment accumulator and provisions must be made for sediment removal. KHCO J and KHS. Usually a 20 % (by \\eight) MEA solution is used in the contactOf... ..
. and the sodium salts of 2. 4. Sodium salt of 2. ThL.to elemental sulfur. it can be designed for larger pressure and temperature ranges.268 Gas Production Engineering Deroljurizotion Processe$ 269 subsequent sulfur recovery. 1959). is used to prevent the formation of a complex vanadiumoxygen precipitate that removes vanadium from solution. The HolmcsStretford Process This process converts H2S to elemental sulfur of almost 99. or carryover. In the presence of ADA. 5. The postulated reaction mechanism invol . Details on the mechanism of the process. and the operating conditions. Alkazid S uses a sodium phenolate mixture and is applicable to gases containing impurities such as carbon disulfide. 1973. the process is best operated \\. is not able to handle gas streams with H 2S concentrations greater than 1. 3. (2) reduction of ADA by addition of h)'drosulfide to ~ carbo~yl up: (3) liberation of elemental suUur from reduced ADA by IOteraction ~th oxygen dissoh'ed in the solution: (4) reoxid. however. and can reduce the H 2S content to as low as I ppm. 1978. etc. A sequestering agent to prevent precipitation of metallic ions from Stretford sol ution. and (5) reoxygenation of the alkaline solution. The HolmesStretford process. Alkazid M uses sodium alanine and is effectivc in removing both H~ and CO 2 . It is a flexible process.7 isomers of anthraquinone disulfonic acid (ADA). There are three different alkazid solutions.. 1974: Ouwerkerk. Moyes and Wilkinson. and by suitably selecting the pH of the solution.6 because .V plant and concluded that it functioned satisfactorily with minimal problems. and it can reduce H 2S content to less than 1 ppm. impurities such as carbon disulfide.5. HCN. the arsenite and arsenate content. however. It is used for the selective removal of H 2S from gases that contain both H 2S and CO~. Vasan. Another carbonate process in acth'e use is the Alkazid process.7 ADA.5. The circulated solution (also called Stretford solution) consists of chemicals in a dilute water solution as follows: 1. The GV process for HzS removal produces elemental sulfur of high purity as the byproduct. Jenett (1962) presented data on the performance of a G. whereas the conversion to elemental sulfur (Equation 62) is adversely affected by pH values abo"e 9. There are no problems of corrosion. carlxmyl sulfide. The 2. such as Chel 242 PN.5 to 9. This provides the active vanadium.. a modification of the Stretford process developed by the North Western Cas Board in England. The economics of the process are also quite good (Riesenfeld and Mullowney. mercaptans.5. etc. Sodium bicarbonate added to reduce the absorption of CO 2 • The overall reaction of the HolmesStretford process is the atmospheric oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur: • The reaction .alence change of vanadium from five to four. mercaptans. The process uses an aqueous solution containing sodium carbonate and bicarbonate in the ratio of approximately 1 :3. provldmg dlSSOh'ed O)(yp~_m Sevcra) possible additives have been tested to Increase the solutIOn capacity for hydrogen sulfide and the rate of conversion of . and still another for the removal of both HzS and CO 2 _ The GV CO 2 process offers substantial savings in steam consumption for solution regeneration. CO 2 content remains almost unaltered by this process. and consequently. Sodium potassium tartrate (Rochelle salts). 1962). .9% purity. Sodium meta vanadate. was developed by PeabodyHolmes. with a ~imullaneous . 2. Operating costs are lower and the process has better £lexibility in application. 1978). Therefore. The process.ation of t~~ red~ced ADA by air. 6. resulting in a pH of about 8.5 to 9. Used as required to maintain total alkalinity. solution degradation.hyd~osulfide . Sodium carbonate. have no detrimental effects on the solution. Alkazid DIK uses the potassium salt of diethyl glycine or dimethyl glycine. occurs in the following steps: (61) (62) (64) The absorption rate of H~ in solution (Equation 61) is favored by high pH.. The arsenic trioxide inhibits corrosion. The process is se1ective for H~. and the solution is therefore usually noncorrosive in nature.5% (jenett.7 isomer is preferred over 2. The reduced ADA is easily oxidized by air. solution foaming. Alkali vanadates proved to be outstandmg In reducmg hydrosulfide to sulfur. the process can be made to be highly selective for H~ or remO\e both H~ and CO 2. the vanadate solution can be regenerated to a five valence state.·cs five steps: (1) absorption of H2S in alkali.6 and 2. three different processe<i in this category. of the greater solubility of the former. and its performance are reported in several publications (Nicklin et ai. that is.ithin a pH range of 8. As for most conventional carbonate processes.
the reductive incineration process is the most common since it results in a zero effluent discharge. an excess of vanadate is used in order to avoid overloading of the solution with sulfide and subsequent formation of thiosulfate during solution regeneration.  . . This. The sulfur processing section includes a slurry tank and an autoclave for melting sulfur. If there is air in the feed gas. • .. F1ash vapors may be used as incinerator fuel .._..S and CO 2 and a liquid stream containing reduced vanadium salts. "/. The reductive incineration process cracks the bleed liquor containing sodium thiosulfate into a gas stream containing H2. It may take a year or longer after plant startup to reach this level. flaked.. In general..0CI0 ppm. Oxidation of ADA by contact with air is a fairly rapid reaction.. Flowsheet for Holmes·Stratford process.. According to Thompson and Nicklin (1964) the reaction is second order. . cover}' unit. The reduced vanadate is oxidized by ADA (Equation 63). and reductive incineration. In the gas absorption section. The reduced solution from the bottom of the absorber is first piped through a flash drum in the oxidation section. The di~ solved solids such as thiosulfate are allowed to build up in the solution to concentrations upwards of 250. and finally bagged for storage and shipment.."" . gas is first subjected to the inlet scrubber unit to remove any liquids and contaminants that may be detrimental to the process. The chemicals could conceivably be used indefinitely with only minimal replenishments for losses that occur in the absorber or within the sulfur n. / Thiosulfate formation may be due to the fact that NaHS has not reacted with the vanadate (because of insufficient time in the absorber) and there· fore is carried to the oxidizer to react with oxygen there. be accelerated by the presence of small amounts of iron salts kept in solution by a chelating agent (i\icklin and Hughes. disposal b~ purging in"olvC$ very little of the active chemical.. a concentration of SOI00 ppm of iron combined with about 2. The rate of oxidation can..270 Cas Production Engineering DestllJurizatiml Processes 271 The comersion of HzS to sulfur is quite rapid and is essentially a function of the vanadate concentration in the solution. The effluent stream from the Stretford process. In practice... "10 .." /. Molten sulfur from the bottom of the autoclave is cooled. Primarily. must be treated prior to discharge.. At these high concentrations. biological degradation.... ~I'" UI " . The oxidized Stretford solution goes to the circulation pump and to the surge tank for recirculation to the absorber. 19i8). Liquid from the flash drum is sent to the oxidation tank where air from the blowers contacl~ the liquid at the vessel bottom. cannot be done indefinitely because side reactions produce undesirable dissolved solids. some of the undesired material can be formed in the contactor itself. 1978... with all the products from the step being recyclable. or returned to compressor station and mixed with sweetened gas. however. containing sodium thiosulfate and in some cases sodium thiocyanate.. all of which are recycled. to reduce the size of the absorption unit and achie\'e a better degree of absorption since it provides a larger surface area for mass transfer. . High temperature and pH also favor thiosulfate formation. courtesy of Oil & Gas Journal... instead of the conventional packed bed type.) Figure 65 shows the process flow scheme.700 ppm of ethylenediamine tetracetic acid (EDTA) is satisfactory.. . Figure 65.. however. oxidative combustion.. and hence chemical usage is kept low. sodium sulfate and sodium thiosulfate arE' formed in reactions such as: .. Of these. Holmes developed four alternative methods to handle effluents from this process: evaporation or spray drying. A venturitype absorber is used. (After Vasan. The clear Stretford solvent is scnt to the effluent treatment section. The outlet scrubber prevents carryover of any entrained Stretford solution in the gas into the sales gas stream. These solids are permitted to build up to extremely high concentrations until eventually some solution must be discarded. and sulfur froth is isolated at the surface...
Lindsey. and Wilkinson. J.o. 138140. 1982).. Dec. R. Jacob). 1961. Rushton . "How to Desulfurize Natural Gas. Ap'. and their rectification.. 99102." Hydr. Oct.·er. Apr. 2. Culf Publi.. 63 (49." O. Raney. RtO pp. 31). July 11).). W. & Gas /." Hydr. R. T. R. D..9496. F." O. J. A New Process for Sweetening LowValue Sour Cas. 9427601. Heg.8087.." lIydr.. Gas Purijication'4th ed. 8&90. Oct.. 1982. 55 (4. Kresse.." Paper presented at the 12th World Gas Conference. Sept. A. Vaz. 6062. edited by J. Oldahoma. Campbell. R. What types of desulfurization processes are available for natural gas? What factors are important in selecting the applicable process? 4. N. P.s. 1960.. T.. & Petro Ref·. A." O.139. E . C .. Oklahoma. M . Oklahoma State Univ. Manning. and Harris. 8490. la.. D.. Kohl. Pmc. "Development of the HolmesStretford Process. & Cas I . Sun. A. C. I \Vhy must H 2S be removed from natural gas? Give at least three reasons... 130133. F. Froning. Ouwerkerk. 1964. Norman.. p.58 (28. just as in any sweetening proce.. J. Norman. Nicklin.. F. Ap'. 13)." O.. "The Application of the Stretford Process to the Purification of Natural Cas. 8994. Nicklin. L.) . 54: Nov.. C . Cas Conditioning ConJerence. tered. p. O. Aug.. E. R. W. and Mullowney... C. Conviser. "Compare DCA and MEA Sweetening Methods.)..). E. D.." Hydr. Jan . J. & Cas /. C. Apr. Proc. Questioru and Problems ' . & Cas}. R. Abst. 1981. 60 (l8. 1982. 38th Ann.. R. J. S. Moyes. Compare the alkanolamine and carbonate processes. "Packed Beds for Best SulFur Removal. & Gas J. Fundamentals oj Natural Gas Conditioning. Dec.. p. 4: Cas alld Liquid Sweelellillg/ 3rd ed. and Hughes. C.. L. NCPA Meet..' O. Oklahoma. H. 1981. J. Sept. 1978. Ph. 1965. 1980. • . 1974. Proc. 1965.. 1959. 12). and Riesenfeld. T.hing Co . 19.. 6). No. "Six Case Studies Throw Light on t~e GiammarcoVetrocoke Process. C.. N. "New CasSweetening Process Offers Economical Alternative. 370 pp. July) . W. Gas Couditioning and Processing . 7375.• 1978. YC. & Cas 1. R.S. 1981. Alkalinity.. 125 . 59 (38. "Natural Gas Desulfurized by the Iron·Sponge Process.147. Corrosion problems are encoun. 103104.I2S: Nov. 8.. L. 15). in two plants using this process. 88. N." 79 (35. 1962. H. "New KOata Show Value of Water Wash. Thesis. H. 1956. Maddox. T. & Cas I. A." O. In what cases arc the physical absorption processes useful? 6. "Remove Carbon Dioxide With Selexol. M. and Moore. Jenett. 30). "Removing HzS From Cases and Liquids... Oldahoma. Proc. A. Fails." Chern. T. Apr. 77 (42. of Oklahoma. J. 59 (10. ··Chemsweet. 1976. . Texas. Riesenfeld. and Maddox. (May. D .. and amounts of the active chemicals change slowly with time and replenishments need only be done quite infrequently. i9 (2. 3. . PennWell Publishing Company. and Wadleigh. and Richards.. T... and Hays. W. 1968. S . Proc. R. Compare the ironsponge and molecular sieve desulfurization processes.. N. Mains. 1985. Why are chemical absorption pr~ the most widely used desulfuriza tion processes? 7. M. 1973. Rahman. H." 0. 57 (4. Thlsa.. "Molecular Sieves Used to Remove Mercaptans From Natural Cas. Dec.." Tile C1Jemicaf Eugineer (Brit.272 Gas Production Engineering DerolfuriUltion Processes 273 The process is fairly easy to operate. 5." Hydr. 7271. ). Dingman. Curry. p. and VaelJ. multiple issues of Vol. France.. Proc. Which of the processes described in this chapter hold the most promising future? Why? References Batt. 1979. and Harris.Vol. "Selective Adsorption to Remove H. D.. K. 1980.. "PracticaJ Way to Sweeten NaturaJ Gas. 102103.. W. Rahman. 5. E. Univ. ).. June 1973.." 0. Duckworth.. \V. 118 pp.. 63 (37. 1970. 122124. Why is it necessary to remove CO 2 ? In what cases is CO 2 removal not necessary? 3. G. M.).2oo.. and Geddes. 282 (Feb. 49 (4. Campbell Petroleum Series.. Nice. (1981) provide an interesting discussion on some problems encountered. "Design for Selective H 2S Absorption.D. "Stretford Plants proving Reliable. "Selexol Solves High HzS/C0 2 problem. concentrations. Proc. F. Riesenfeld. April 2224. Kresse et al. Taylor." Hydr.. & Cas]. 18). 47 (7. & Cas J. Houston. P. 43 (4.
7880. inclined.274 Gas Production Erlgineering Thompson.. There are no spillage or other handling I~. can be expressed as: AI} Change in internal energy + Change in kinetic energy + Change in potential energy + Work done on the fluid + Heat energy added to the fluid . and through constrictions such as chokes for flow control. S.erne a . They are convenient to fabricate and install. "HolmesStretford p~ Offers Economic H~S R v I" Oil t/. Operating costs are very low. for a steadystate system (no timedependence of flow parameters). ." paper presented at the Congress of Association Technique de I'Industrie du Cazen. i6 (1. France. unless the line develops a leak.~ Cas J. J. 19i5. which can be easily located and fixed for surface lines. R..Shaft work done by fluid on the surroundings 0 275 . and vertical orientations.: 1~. and provide an almost indefinite life span. with good control (an installed pipeline can usually handle a wide range of flow rates). T. S. "Le Procede Stretford. 2). at either end (field supply end. Because flow is continuous. This chapter introduces some basic concepts for these flow type<. The flow of gases through piping systems involves flow in horizontal. . and the consumer end). • Gas Flow Fundamentals fluid flow equations are derived from a basic energy balance which. and NickJin. Vasa~ . Jan . minimal storage facilities are required. 7 SteadyState Flow of Gas Through Pipes Introduction Pipes provide an economic means of producing (through tubing or casing) and transporting (via flowlines or pipelines) fluids in large volumes over great distances. and flow is guaranteed under all conditions of weather.
conversion factor relating mass and weight·. IN . to flow phenomena. ftJ/lbm Q . ftIbf/lbm W. the energy balance for a fluid under steadystate flow conditions can be written as: dv' g dU + . . represents the pressure drop due to friction . Equation 71 becomes: Ydp + dv' + (glg.)dz + clio . In metric (Of 51) units.6z + . and multiplying throughout by the fluid den(73) where U .dw.. ds ~ .specific fluid entropy..276 Gas Production Engineering Steady State Flow of Gas Through Pipn 277 Thus. .lbfllbm g .8 kgm: (t. ds.dQ/T. NRe: • Nae . . Since no process is ideal (or reversible).v2 + (gI~)p. defined as . . and concluded that the flow regime that will prevaillS a function of the following dimensionless group known as the Reynolds number... 1 Ibf . g.ion. All the terms in Equation 73 have units of pressure.T<h + Ydp where h .17 h /secf)I g. Ibflft2 V . secI) .O 2g. . implying that g..0 2g. (1 kg)(9. is the lost work due to irreversibilities such as friction. on a unit mass basis. Implying that g. where d _ (inside) diameter of the conduit through which the fluid is flowing v _ velocity of the fluid p ...6p + pil. four times the hydraulic radius.0 2g. Reynolds applied dimension~1 anal}~IS.. ftlsee z .dQ + clio where I". In British units. (75) T<h . oR s ..dh . (7. ft. .0 2g. p: (72) w. 9. .)dz + dQ .volume of a unit mass of the fluid.shaft work done by the fluid on the surroundings. Neglecting the shaft work sity..6p.gravitational acceleration.prarure.lbfllbm T .£luid velocity. Rh • is used instead of d: • F .+ (glg. 1 N·N.. . ftlsec'l g.elevation above a given datum plane.dvplp. ftIbfllbm Equation 71 now becomes: dv' T<h + Ydp + ..)ptu + p61.specific fluid enthalpy. or: dp + pd. an equivalent diameter.internal energy.dw.17 Ibm fti/lbf sect). transit.lbfilbm \: . (74) where .dz + d(pY) + dQ . ft p .' + (glg.+ . ft. 32.8 mlsec")Ig..6Pf ...heat added to the fluid. ft. 0 2g. (I Ibm)(32. critical. Com.dw.. and turbulent (see Figure 71).viscosity of the fluid For crosssections other than circular.0 2g. This basic relationship can be manipulated in several different ways. Equation 73 can also be written as: 6p + p11v' + (glg.temperature. mgll<..inertia forces/viscous forces . .. <1".density of the fluid Il . For an ideal process.dQ/T. . monly. and is dependent upon the prevailing flow conditions.1) On this further substitution. Types of SinglePhase Flow Regimes and Reynolds Number Four types of singlephase flow are possible: laminar.)pdz + pcll.. it is converted into a mechanical energy balance using the well known thermodynamic relations for enthalpy (h): dU + d(pY) .
(cp) x 6.s Through Pipes 279 d" . One such consistent set would have d in ft. v in ft /see.. This volumetric rate. q. d" = 4(a 2 /4a) . in lbmf(ft sec). • • • • • The units for parameters in the Reynolds number should be consistent. 4R" .) r(d.J Production Engineering Steady State Flow oj Ca. at standard conditions of pressure (p"". as follows: .278 Go. the flow rate is commonly expressed in Mscfd (thousands of standard cubic feet per day).... O . 4[area of flow/wetted perimeter] (76) . psia) and temperature (T"". (Mscfd).6.4a Thus.. + clIO) . frequently given in centipoises (cp). can be converted R) into mass flow rate.('lI"/4)(~ ~ Wetted perimeter = rltz. • .7197 x 1O~ Ihm/(ft sec). and p.. For example.. for a flow conduit with a square crosssection (a x a): Crosssectional area of flow = a 2 Wetted perimeter .i • '" ~ • o Z § Th verify the applicability of this approach. consider the case of a pipe with a circular cross section of diameter d: Crosssectional area of flow'"' rd 2/4 Wetted perimeter = .d . _ d(ft)v(ItJ=)p(lhmlft') _ I 488 d(ft)v(ftlsec)pQhmlft') ... can be converted into lhm/(ft sec) using the conversion factor of 1 cp .a '0 • For flow through a casingtubing annulus. The dynamic fluid viscosity /l..7197 x 10" .(cp) (77) For gases. m in Ibm/sec. Thus: N. p in Ibm/ftl.. so that a dimensionless number is obtained.. with casing inside diameter equal to da and tubing outside diameter equal to <ito: Crosssectional area of flow =.
4) T.gas gravity (air .temperature at standard conditions.  Laminar (or viscous) Critical Transition (or intermediate) Turbulent Pipe Roughness <2. absolute roughness is determined by comparing the observed friction factor to that given in Moody's chart (Figure 7·1).36 p. defined as the mean height of protusions in uniformly sized. ft2 M .7197 x 10. d is used in inches for most gas flow equations.(p'... However..>.p.n. T.0003.>..(XHSO 0.672 20.P. estimating pipe roughness is quite difficult.>. IO')(q.d') Substituting for vp in Equation 79 for NR~: N R~ _ d(3.39p.1T.12 0.l(T.(Mscfdh.123 20.73 15.(3. OR gas compressibility at standard conditions ( _ 1) 1'. O.d2(J.006 0. po is in cp. As shown in the Moody friction factor chart (Figure 71). glass) Aluminum pipe Plasticlined or sand blasted Commercial steel or wrought iron Asphalted cast iron Galvanized iron Cast iron Cementlined Riveted steel i.l(f..ure at standard conditions. the Reynolds number for a gas is given by: Commonly used well tubing and line pipe: New pipe 12months old 24·months old O.p. 0.OOO5Q.39 2.P.Gas Production Engineering Steady State Flow oj Gas Through Pipes X 281 m _ Avp where (I. • (7·8) in....gas constant (.00175 . _ 7l0. Usually..0006 in. Initially.~d') .pra.0360. 1991q.000 (m 10..." oR 71O. _ (3.0004. Thus. flow regime is related to Reynolds number as follows: ~ow A . is in Mscfd.(4)(3.978O x lO")q. a value of l .a)IT..00006 0. d(.OOO7 (7·9) where q.000 2.>. The fluids may also increase roughness by erosion or corrosion.600)z.) <Cp) Friction to flow through a pipe is affected by pipewall roughness.dJt Generally. The factor 710. psia TE . T. or by precipitating materials that stick to the pipe wall.. for a circular pipe of diameter d (ft). Some typical values for roughness are shown below (Chemical Engineers' Halldbook.4 T.0018 0. 19.10. for some common standard conditions is as follows: 0. _ 59. This roughness may change with pipe use and exposure to fluids.p.0002 0. If no roughness data are available.025 520 520 520 520 (60°F) (60°F) (60°F) (60°F) Thus. vp is given by: vp . N Re becomes: No.1) type NRh smooth pipes z. and d is in inches.00020.. tightly packed sand grains that give the same pressure gradient as the given pipe.9780 x 1O")q.h.0120. lead.39(p..OOOq. psia 14... can be used. the pipe contains mill scale that may be removed by fluids flowing inside the pipe..000) Thus. therefore. pipe roughness is not easily or directly measurable.526 14.0102 0.732 psiaft3/lbmole°R) Poe .1243 x 1O")q. for most practical applications.0048 0.)Mp.RT.crosssectional area of flow.(OR)]q. .molecu1ar weight of the gas R . and absolute pipe roughness t is.000 3.000) >4.t x 6.1243 (24)(3.65 14.014 20.JT..000 (0' 10. 1984): Type of pipe Drawn tubing (brass.0003 0. For d in inches.
ft gas gravity (air .. Z. 46. psia downstream pressure.(fpv'/2g. (ZTP.. independent of length) since isothermal flow i~ assumed. is the general equation for steadystate isothermal flow of gas through a hOrizontaJ pipe.0. an average temperature. Equation 728 becomes: and gas velocity v: . stead of T in the previolls relationship.ll densit) p: p  pM/(ZRT) 0'. ft In practice. PI _ _  PI! d 'Y~  and the logmean temperature.OR and g. . OR upstream pressure. is made independent of temperature and pressure by using an average compressibility factor. The two types of averages used are the arithmetic average. _ q. and with R "" 10.d ~"'d' p ZRT L (7251 [10'1(3.. attributed to Weymouth. both these averages are quite close since temperatures T J and T2 are used as absolute temperatures.d) dL Substituting for frictional losses: cally expedient. (728) Any consistent set of units can be used in Equation 728. _ (( 10. Z.9644 )(It)((pi . f L  gas flow rate measured at standard conditions..)(~) 2 pTJC rd we obtain: _ d _ (_f)( pM )(IfX&Z'T'p!. I dL ~ R.. .PI)d') Pi. (726) where q..I Z dp . with q.lt Thus. T. The gas compressibility factor. In common units.J d 2g. because an analytic description of the variation of temperature along the pipeline length is rather difficult and introduces some complexity. ")'gZ TfL (729) .. psia temperature at standard conditions. T in OR.1 basis) flowing temperature..32. at the upstream) to PI! (at L "" L. (727) T _ Zo.17)(1112)' 0'. Using an average temperature is practi Equation 729. p. p in psia. Implications of the . at the downstream end). Note that T is constant (or.. Equation i2S becomes: Substituting for g..'d'g.732 psia ft1f1b mole.17 Ibm ftllbfsec2. OR average gas compressibility factor Mocxly friction factor length of the pipe. Otherwise.. psia diameter of the pipe.q!.~. 000 x 24) ]'q!. Lin ft.. d in in. See last section in this chapter for expressions for temperature profiles in flowing gas systems. Integrating over the pipe length from 0 to L and p~ure PI (at L . in Mscfd. T. 732 x 144)(32. is commonly used in.286 Gas Production Engilleering Steady Slate Flow oj Cas Through Pip/!$ 287 Frictional losses for a length dL of pipe are given by (Equation 711): pd!. for simplicity..8fMTp!. Msc£d pressure at standard conditions.
In customary units. Generally.3Irn where d is the inside pipe diameter.7d) + O.0056 + 0.32. the Fanning equation becomes: "PI . p is in lbmfftl. Colebrook's equation is the basis for most modern friction factor charts: f~"  . besides roughnao>. is used in computing the magnitude of the pressure drop due to (ric tion.210g [. this results in the well known Fanning equation: "PI .000 < NRt < 3 x 1()6 (Drew.7d) (7·20) "PI . the friction factor is only very slightly dependent upon Reynolds number (see Figure 71) .f(N •• . or DarcyWeisbach) friction factor. equal to 4f' . only some of the most accurate ones are presented here.64/N IW (7·13) whereas for smooth pipes.~ _ 2 log (NR. Any consistent set of units can be used in the previous equations. defined as the ratio of the shear stress at the fluidsolid interface and the kinetic energy of the fluid per unit volume. and ~ is therefore equal to 32. In terms of the Moody friction factor.282 Ga.3164 NRe.16 log (N~·~/0. Koo.5676 NR~o..32. 0. the Mood~ (also called Blasius. friction factor f' .d) (7·11 for intermediate flow (714) (715) f . For smooth pipes.<vLl(g. the ratio of the absolute roughness and inside pipe diameter.171bmftllbfsec2.! Production Engineering Steady Siale Flow of COl Throllgh Pipes 283 From dimensional analysis. the friction factor is independent of pipe roughness in the laminar flow regime. intermediate or partially turbulent flow is included in turbulent flow for purposes of developing correlations.Turbulent Singk·Phme Flow For partiallyturbulent flow./d) Laminar SingkPhaM Flow For rough pipes. the follOWing relationships are applicable: f'"" 0. tid. it has been deduced that relative roughness. Several correlations have been reJXIrted for the dependence of friction factors on Reynolds number and pipe wall roughnao>. affects flow through pipes.1(3.d') (7·12) 0'. is used.d) (7·10) Thus.16) (7·17) f . rather than absolute roughness.628/(N R. friction factor is a function of both Reynolds number and pipe roughnao>.2f' Lpv'I(g. rartiollyTurbuknt and Full!l. ~Pt is in psi. .J")] (7·19) The pressure drop for laminar flow is given by the analytic HagenPoiseuille relationship as follows: For very rough pipes.<vLl(g. r64 pJdvp .d) . Usually.'5 for NRe up to 1()5 (Blasius formula) f . Colebrook's equation reduces to Prandtl's equation (Equation 716). however. Friction factor f' is called the Fanning friction factor. Swamee and Jain (1976) have presented an explicit correlation for friction factors as follows: (7·21) . and McAdams) • The friction factor includes.fLpv'/(2g. For fully turbulent flow. d is in ft.0.7063) for partially turbulent flow fO.f'~/0.5N Rf03! for 3. Friction Factor For convenience. For steadystate flow in a uniform circular conduit such as a pipe. L is in ft.o 2. It is therefore a function of Reynolds number and relatin' roughnao>: (718) f . f. the flow characteristics of the flow regime.628) for fully turbulent flow (prandU's formula) (7. Colebrook's equation (Equation 719) reduces to: fU __ 2 log (f/3.d') Equating Equations 711 and 712: fLpv'I(2g. v is in ft/see.
8 for fusionwelded and spiralwelded.. adiabatic. . ((28. equal to l.97'YgZT)05 p. Equation 723 can be wnUen as: Ve "" 100 lOO(ZRT)" (p~1 ZRT)0's "" (28. Su~ituting for C and the gas density (p . ..732 psiaftlllbmole. _ 0 Assuming horizontal.8 < f/d < 10 2.e)Y (722) I(lO(pR)o..). T. a constant ranging between 75 and ISO . pipe thicknes:>. outside diameter of the pipe..10. with negligible kineticenergy change.. scf/see d '"' diameter of the pipe.Gas Prodllclion Engineering Steady State Flou: oj Gas Through Pipes 285 Equation 721 is applicable for 10. 0. . in. etc.:). isothermal flow of gas. (q")... can be obtained as foUows: 2(.... 4 . The velocity at which erosion begins to OCCUr is dependent upon the presence of solid particles. (723) where (qe). limited by the maximum stress the pipe can handle. erosional velOCity.012. longitudinal weld joint factor (i.OOO°F and greater Allowable Flow Velocity in Pipes High flow velocities in pipes can cause pipe erosion problems. gas compressibility factor at pressure p and temperature T Substituting for p. 14.. ft p .... . C is taken to be 100 (Beggs. c .. as shown in Figure 71. Horizontal Flow Many pipeline equations have been developed from the basic mechanical energy balance (Equation 73): dp + (pI2g..435 d' [Y~Tr' (724) where (q... 520 OR. psig t .000 < Nile < lOS. Allowable Working Pressures for Pipes It is desirable to operate a pipe at a high pressure in order to achieve higher throughputs.. and 0.. The following equation can be used as a simple approach to this problem (Beggs. . 0. ..e. in Mscfd. p is in psia. This is. . temperature derating factor. especially for ga5e'l that may have a flow velocity exceeding 70 fUsee. allowable stress (minimum yield strength) for the pipe material. fluid density.gas constant ( ." ga~ flow rate for onset of erosion.maximum allowable internal pressure..0 for seamles:> pipes.73 psia.. erOSion. their shape. psi E .. Y ...I basis). difficu1t to determine precisely..c\. The g!s flow rate at standard conditions for erosion to occur. fUsee p .)dv' + (g/g. however. 1984). OR R ..5 for 950°F. d is in inches. in. the anomaly due to weld seam).. Ibm/ftl C .)pdz + pdt. .2(. sum of mechanical allowances (thread and groove depth). psia T "" flOWing temperature..97P"rJ05 where 'Y is the gas gravity (air . flowing pressure.4 up to 900°F. equal to 0. so a composile friction factor chart is used.6 for buttwelded pipes do .°R) Z . S . corrosion. )(TE)«d') where Pm. and 5. solutions to the equations presented for friction factors are cumbersome. and 0. and converting to field units of d in inches and (Q... The maximum allowable internal working pressure can be determined using the following ANSI (1976) specification: In most cases. 1984). with errors within 1 % when compared with Colebrook's equation. we get: • (qJ•• 1. etc. 0 where v~ ... in. steadystate. and T is in OR. is in Mscfd.7 for l. and is. pM/ZRT). In practice. . therefore..elSE Pmu . Equation 73 becomes: dp + pdl .
. "" _ 0. variations in operating conditions. A plot of pressure versus distance in a pipeline carrying gas.x) Average Pressure in a Gas Pipeline For an incompressible fluid. Constant (average) gas compressibility factor: This is a reasonable approximation. (After Szilas. flow is never truly horizontal. '~I"''U I')i 3. The mean pressure is given by: . a compressible fluid. 1975.v i~ computed at the average pressure given by Equation 732. variations in withdrawal or supply rates.==========~======~B "'r.: p.0775543 (T<)('YgZ(piTfL(l . A~.2B8 Gas Production Engineering Steady Stole Flow oj Cos Through Pipe! 289 various assumptions made in the development of Equation 729 are as follows: l. Horizontal pipeline: In practice.oll.P!)f' For a gas. Heat of compression is also dissipated rapidly.)d')" p"" "ygZ. Isothermal flow: This assumption is usually met because buried pipelines are used which are not affected much by atmospheric temperature variations. 4. This condition can be satisfied easUy by putting pressure measurement stations such that no mechanical energy is added (by compressors or pumps) between these two points. Negligible kinetic energy change: This assumption is justified because kinetic energy changes are negligible. this is not true.) and. • (73 1) Equating these Equations 730 and 731 (with the assumption that the difference in Z. the following two relationships are true (from Equation 729): "" _ 0.If. Reasons for : pressurelflow rate pulsations or surges. 5.P!)d' p. No mechnnical work: It is assumed that no work is done on the gas between the points at which the pI'eMures are measured. Consider a pipeline AB shown in Figure 72. • . (T_)(Pj .L.. For a flow rate fk in the pipe.0775543 This suggests a pressure profile as shown in Figure 73. for very long pipelines. Equations developed to account for elevation changes will be discussed in the section on inclined flow. For small temperature changes. . one can derive a simple formula to determine the pressure at any point C along the pipeline at a fractional distance x from the inlet end. . 2.~ Solving for p. the average temperature given by Equation 726 or 727 is generally satisfactory. liquids in the pipeline. usually within a few miles downstream of the compressor station.. compared to changes in pressure. 6. such as commercial transmission lines.v for the two pipe sections is negligible): ~p~=pip~ x (1 .._____ L_C_ _ _ _<~_l'' • Figure 72.TfLx (730) ~(p.+~) 3 PI + P2 .(PI + Pt)/2 [1'1  x(pl . ... especially if Z. the average pressure is simply the arithmetic average of the inlet (PI) and outlet (P:2) pressures: p.. etc..Figure 73. Using Equation 729 for gas flow.x) )" . Schematic of a gas pipeline for determining the average pressure.
00.0768)" .). Therefore.309468 (T_)(Pi P!)"(.pi "2Oq. engineers use the equation that best suits their conditions. . As we have seen earlier.5 I'g Thus: q..) Equati<m This equation assumes that f is a function of Reynolds number only as P. psia P2 ."".(0..'.J (732 p. none of these equations is universally ap..average pressure. at high values of Reynolds number. + PlI/PI 3 PI + P2 llpl .364 (T_)I.downstream pressure. at high flow rates. 'Y !'~ 0...Z.c: NonIterative Equations for Horizontal Gas Flow Several equations for gas flow have been derived from Equation 729 as. . Thus.6491 p..p.O...O. Z T p$''''''(lj'''''"' d""" (T_)""'''(PI. number and pipe roughness.. _109.."T. q.~L 'Y !'i.upstream pressure.1 follows: f _ O. y (}0730.P!)""'(lj"" d"'" p. Panhandle (Panhandle .. In gas field operations.!..."T..." "'''''' d" Po Z••T. Z.·' The pipeline flow equation is thus given as follows: (734) q.j'' ' ' de.". psia (735) Substituting 10' Il<om Equation 735 into Equ. _ ~ (PI + PIP.l. (738) This is known as the Weymouth equation for horizontal flow. plicable.~~~~~ 5.:. "" 32. It is used most often for designing gas transmission systems because it generally maximizes pipe diameter requirements for a given flow rate and pressure drop. ". or use their own modified versions. ''''''' ~ 25.07881 (736) The Panhandle A equation is most applicable to large diameter pipelines. the Panhandle B equation assumes that r is a function of Reynolds number as follows: (733) f .0321d 1tJ Substituting for f from Equation 7·3.4..0768INR~I461 ~ (H) where P..P!)d"~" Pte "Y.<l . 0'. p~ Z T L ...290 C(u ProdllctiQII Engineering Stead!J State Flow oj Gas Through Pipe! 291 Rearranging and multiplying both numerator and denominator by (PI . q. suming a friction factor relationship to avoid a trial and error computation. These equations differ only in the friction factor relationship assumed.3 into Equation 7·29: q. must be computed using Equation 732 for average pressurt'. psia PI ..p.5027 One of the most widely used equations for long transmission lines. friction factors vary over a wide range with Reynold. The Panhandle B equation is most applicable to large diameter pipelines.(PI. _ 31..tion 729.00359/N~039U (737) (T_)(W .6353821 (T_)(PI .... . Z. . • Modifu:d Panhandle Weymouth proposed the foUowing relationship for friction factor as a function of pipe diameter d in inches: (Panhandl~ B) EqUlltion f .
. > E . um mu nm um • i! ~ This is known as the Clinedinst equation for horizontal flow." Typically. (= 32.reduced pressure (p. To account for the reduction in pipeline capacity that will result from the presence of these materials. psia P...• . . • . tion.pseudocriticaJ pressure of the flowing gas mixture. Some solids. In practice. For this case.9 is usually considered "clean. the follOwing efficiency factors may be encountered (l koku." is not used in this method).Inm nm §§m um mn "I~~~~~ ~i~~§ §§~~~ ~~~~! ~~~~~ 'I~i~~~ :I~~~~~ :I~~~~~ ~I~~~~i ~ .. 1984): (text continued on page 303) " 2 • . leading to a trial and error solution scheme. !~~~~ ~~~~I :I~i~~~ ~~~§§ §§§~~ !~§~~ ~!~I. • . ~~~~~ I :lm~~ :i§~~~~ ~~~~§ §§i~~ ~~§~~ §~!~I ~g~§1 ~g~~~ ~~~~§ §§~~~ ~~§~~ ~~~ii ~i~~~~~~~~~§ ~~§~I i~I~~ ~~~~i ~I~g~~~ ~~~§§ §~~~.292 Gas Production Engineering Sleady Slale Flow oj Gal Through pj~ 293 A More Precise Equation for Horizontal Gas Flow: The Clinedinst Equation The Clinedinst equation rigorously accounts for the deviation of natural gas from ideal behavior (an average gas compressibility factor./Z) dp. Only very rarely does a pipeline exhibit an E equal to 1. _ pip"..BfMTp!q!. E "I N • 0 _ e • 0. such as pipescale and drilling muds.0. .1. which collects in low spots in the line Over long periods of time. . Z.. .! 0 I "I~~~~~ ~~~~§ §§~~. Equation 725 becomes: '• " • g ~ ~ ~ il " 1". and substituting for R ( '"" 10.p./Z)dp.  1. • " !l~~~~~ ~~~~§ §§~~~ ~~~§~ ~~j§~ ~l~~~~~ ~~~~§ §§~~~ ~~§§~ ~~~§~ ~I~~~~~ .l[(p.. [1 0 (p.lZ) dp. even for singlephase gas flow. are given in Table 71.17Ibmft/lbf_sec2): . mole. • :c " . f. 0 Rearranging this equation.:. The integral I (PiZ) dp must be evaluated. it is converted into the following: ! I~~~~~ ~~~~§ §§~~~ ~~I~~ §~~~~ 1l ~I~~~~~ ~~~~§ §§~~S ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ Inm l(p/Z) dp . ~ jl( 1  ~~~~§ ~ii~§ ~~~~§ ~i~§§ §§~i~ §§~~~ §§§~~ §~~~~ ~!~~~ ~I~~~ ~!~§~ ~~~§~ ~§~Ii !~II~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ I d d d o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 _ a~~~~ ~~~g~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ . (p.. In order to generalize this evalua. some water or condensate may be present.. T in Q d in in. with CJ:oc in Mscfd. .~~~§ i§i~~ ~~§!~ ~~~~i um mu um nm 1. Lin ft. ~~§~§ ~~~~i ' I~~~~~ ~~~§§ §§~~. Pipeline Efficiency The pipeline equations developed here assume 100 % efficient conditions.) .L . an efficiency factor E is generally used as a multiplying factor for the flow rate predicted by the flow equations._ _ _ . 0 ~ ~ ~ J! ~ .." ' . p in psia. a pipeline with E greater than 0.p:" j(p. ~ :g..oR) and g./Z) p"dp.) Values for the integral function j(p. where ~ . on Reynolds number and pipe roughness. and using common units.732 psiaft1l1b R.lZ)dp. . may also be present. ~r'd'~ T1. and the dependence of friction factor.
..... ~ ... ......294 Gas Production Engineering Steady State Flow oj Gas Through Pi~ 295 III • 111 1 l:!2:~~~ . ..g~:2~~ .....
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"" ~'... ~~ '0 ~m . " · 0 0 • • ".cOB 3~8 §~... . 0 8 . 'S 0 • "0 ~ ..a:5H~ . i ...E Z '.. '" r'~~~ g:s:s:sa oaiU .•• • 0 . Productwn Engineering Steody State Flow of Gal Through Pipel 299 /i" ' ~ < 0 .. g: s: s g: 22222 ~qn:~ . i: :u:. ...  n ..~U::!:S aas8il .....Ga. ~l:!~~g 000 ~~ Hi •• g ~~.n ..•• m m a: • • • • ..o03¢ ig!§i . . " " .l • " .. • l ..:!~i ! n"" ~~~ 66000 .2iae:'! ....... . .. " • ~ c c iE " ..• :. • ~ oo'...•• > . • mH ...: "" .
!S..§ nm Hm ihH ..::..... ...S ~S:8"" .~i bbbSS .i . ....HH ~:.... iIliHi!l! .1:. 81:..g '·i O:....~ 'T§§ H!U ss mH mn . .. nm .... ~~Sbb ~~~§.21"!. H"~ .SJ. l51:..§. ~im Hm mn i~~"~ um u·" mu .oS~ U~..!~:.....So S 0000 . j~~§i mH nm nm m.  . .... lL!!'! ~i*"~ _0 !. ".'§ mil n·· mn mu nm nm h.15:'.. ~ n~ft~i s~ss 815S::....$...~ !!!!!!!:!!:! . :!~!1~ 81515153 Z:g: .3"" iiis~~ .::!~ .ill§ 'T mn ·"~·i r"rI nm i§~li h~ ~ !jji~ ll..:::~ 00000 U§ •• 888&g .. ~ ....~ i n.. ~...! ~ :38: !::~~~~ =s: 3 ~:2 ~pl. .~ Sl:... ~~~~. n.. !a$~~ "'"I mu nm ~~. n"''''''''St o nO... iili h !S! .. gggg ""!Ii U'" hi! il mH hm nm is! mH um um §ji§~ i.300 Cal Production Engineering Steady State Flow of Gas Through Pipes 301 "'"S' md .:..:ft • ~1=li!.._ .:~I! ... ~~.S~SSS g~~~.. '" §..§ ..::.mH§ .... ..>1 !l~:8~ "'".......8:. .: 00000 ~~~~~ ~S~~~ ~ mH ..... '" sfiP..g~F: . _"1"0 .. S81:. ~:. ! mu ··i"' .! S:. § . l:i:..I:....C...0:::.:t... ~~!1:~C> "'c>~n'" "'''' .1r. ..S .. ~ !l!~U 1:.. $::iI ~m~ rr mu ~~~~i mn..l5bb :::~. 8g8g8 8"'..nm um §on •••• . ". . ..:"!~ ~s gS888 ~rHHH~ ~!E~. nm a:..SSSS OSO:...: ~~g~: "'~n .a ..0::': ......" 0'.. ~ '"'"'I'" "_0:20 ~~ • ~!.i i3i i~ . 8~.(.. d~!!! 000 ~iE~a bObSS :g .. . 1..soh hhii Hm nm Hm ••••• .....:: "'18"' . 0 ..  "'~I ~i~!i ~~~!> 1$... SS  r··· ~!i~ ". . .~:. . 88888 .. ~iii~I'" !St:R:!!: ~~ ....bo ::!.... ~~r.... . nm um ~Tf~ '"r.~..............00 .... :... b l:iS 1...SSS ~.. .~~ s!...........gg~~ ~QQQ:.~~..«. 00000 "'§"'~" :::. jli~~ mn m. ~i.....~.. •• §  8"'1 ~§§§~ !:!!:!!:!!:!!:! ~ird~. ~·i_..&00 SI:..!~a:.SoS <!o.:.... . "ilT !isii i"'~ Hm mu 8Sgg§ U. co .......:t§ !O... 0 . ...~.".!.iiE ~~~::..b!:. U .. um ~B'i :...!ig!. r: ~ § gg8 ~ ~i~l"!~ ... s .e !!!:!!:!!:!!: i:~ liPol8 85::e2~ ::':::'::...... "'s . .~. ):..nm mn .t. ~~!:!!:!!! . i~i r'" w. 8 ..... ~.i ...'.' ~~§ ~!'?. . ........ '.1~:::~. "' ...m...
c.. and (b) Clinedinst equation.75 . Assume 0.100°F. 0.05. h\:ophase flow conditions exist.0. • mouth equation.0.02 in. Lo.0 (seamless pipe).73 .. What is the maximum pressure at which a lO·jn.05)(35.0.40. T. nominal size pipe (0. Y .)(M (Poe ..0) _ 4.T.. Example 7·1. unnecessary. Using Equation 7. but it remains one of the most difficult parameters to evaluate accu· rately.01 cp.02 .60 For high liquid conten~.0.22.92 0.75.ous case shown above for gas with condensate. E _ 1. and different equations that account for twophase flow must be used (see Chapter 8). . 0 _ 2(0.75 .70. 0.2 600 E (£Taction) 0.L  The factor (lIf)05 is known as the transmission factor.' f )'gZ.. .a 10.92 ps.Gas Production Engineering (text ccmtililled from 1Hlge 293) Steod!l State Flotl. of Gas Through Pipes Type of gas in the flowline Dry gas Casinghead gas Gas and condensate Liquid content gallMMscf 0. is just an· other way to represent friction factor and further discussion is.2(0. using (a) Wey.73 in. '" . Assume tId . Pipeline efficiency can no longer represent the complex flow behavior..6353821  T. Transmission factor.10. _ 10. 0. frequently used in pipeline literature. Transmission Factor Equation 7·29 can be written as: q.0. ~uch as the pre\.. 1. S . Several correlations have been developed for the transmission factor (derived from the friction factor) .663.0. . Solution Pipe thickness. t _ 10. therefore.05)(0.000 psi.1 7.pI)d')"(l)'.35.4) ..002.10.5.77 0.0 psia minimum pressure.73 .0.000)(1.) can be operated? Calculate the maximum throughput for a 40mile pipeline of this type. .
265.2.1.7 x 10' Consider the flow scheme shown in Figure 74.74 + (23.0)/(6. f .024 was used in the Clinedinst equation.3()4 Gas Production Engineering Steady State f'low of Gos Through Pipes 305 To provide additional safety... Tpr . . _ A second trial is not required because the friction (actor plot in Figure 71 shows an almost constant ( in the turbulent region applicable here.02)] _ 3. 0.0)/(4.39 M".447 q".033.000/663 .7)(560)(40 x 5. Land z are related as foUows: .1.280) J f' .000 psia.05 . to calculate the maximum throughput.6..000' .21 MMscfd (b) Clinedinst equation (Equation 739): PrJ" 4.5027)(520/14.lZ)dp. = 23..JZ)dp.666.67/663 .024.6.0.fd ~ 202.fd (0.4.D)] _ 2.j: (P.14..(2/3)[(4. From Table 71: Thus. ./Z)dp. J' _ 6. 4. Ppc ~ 663 psia.02)1" (0.265.11)" _ 202174.(20)(265.7)/[(0.17 MM".0)(10. 88 o j '05 (p.73) [ q". 0.6.6.000' .88)(6.2606 [j"OJ:! ( IZ)d f05 0 p.0. p•• .01484.88 Using Equation 7·32. 23 From figure 31. Prjf' g. p. PI .22. the mechanical energy balance expressed by Equation 73 becomes: dp + Pg dz + fpv dL _ 0 1 [ j : OJ:! (p. the upstream pressure...033 . . • (7. Z. This example shows the differences in results that may sometimes occur from using different flow relationships.74)(560)(40 x 5.000' . From Figure 71.15 Mrid . P2 . P" .11 (a) Weymouth equation (Equation 734): _ (3 1.515.. T" . Most of the difference results from the friction factor values used in the two equations. 520 oR..206.7)(0. 8 is the angle of drift from the vertical. and the downstream pressure.. 265 MMscfd U~ng Equation 7·9. psia.02)' (0.Z)dp.0) + 460)/387 .73 psia jo "OO (P.0 psia Assume T . q".280)1 J fS Vertical and lnclined SinglePhase Flow of Gas Neglecting changes in kinetic energy.d (740) First trial: Assume Ck . L is the total length of the pipe.000 psia. and assuming that no mechanical (or shaft) work is done on or by the gas. whereas an f = 0. Pr2 .lZ)dp. . 2g.. the maximum pressure specification is chosen as 4.000)(0. _ (6. and z is the vertical elevation difference between the inlet (point 1) and outlet (point 2).22.024)" ' (4.(100 From Figure 3·2. Tpc 387°R By interpolation: j'·OJ:!(p.969634)(663)(520/14.447 o Thus.23 .01)(10. .73) [ (10.666. we can calculate that the Weymouth equation used an f = 0.2606)(23. From Equation 733. N..022. _ 22.515. 0. = 23.
sec2).7393 x 10 . lO'fLq!.43.65 psia and diameter din ft.. is assumed constant in evaluating the right integral in Equation 741. . niques have.".306 Cas Prodrlction Engineering Steady Stale Flow of GO!! Through Pipes 307 2 GROUND SURFACE I.. . and Equation 742 simplifies to: . Substituting for p. ( .14. The left integral cannot be evaluated easily because Z IS a compl~ fun~on of p nd T and the temperature variation with depth z is not easJiy defmed. .)/(zP'ltg.(Liz) dz Using this relationship between Land z. by gauge measurements. In many cases.zlcos 6.Z'T')/(zp'd') (742) 9 • 1 L ..73 psia).01875. Equation 740 can be written as: In the left integral of Equations 742 and 7.tc) is equal to zero... and converting to conventional units.7393 x 10 ·'fLC&Z'T')I(zp'd') I (ZIp) dp _ O. z ... . 2g.17 Ibm ftflbf. Equation 742 is the general equation for vertic.Ct.81057fLq!. Some methods for vertical flow assume an average temperature. Till' ( _ S200R).. in which case this constant becomes equal to 6. the constant becomes equal to 2.. is frequently required. implying that dL "" mlcos 8 Substituting for cos 0 ... and L. 'Y.d z P'ltr'd' j (_r 0'. The :ario~ simplifying assumptions made in the evaluation of this integral form the basis for the different methods that give results of var}ing degrees of ac· curacy. .. P.. (ZTlp) dp I'I (gig. Gas flow In an inclined sectlon_ (ZT/p) dp X .. .. Equation 741 can be written as: I. and ~ (.7393 Figure 74..0. the flow rate (q or CJ.679 x 10 . Still others use Pte .". been developed to calculate SBHP from wellhead pressure measurements. m which case Equation 7·42 becomes: I.. it may be difficult or expensive to obtain p. In this latter case. and the pressure P.. Poco equal to 14. where the units are: p _ psia: q.z/L.28. p.. T = oR. the value of the constant is 6. in. For a shutin well. hole pressure. (744) Equation 744 describes the relationship between the pressure measured at the surface (or wellhead).0.97 I'I"'lz R(74 1)  Almost always... (ZT/p) dp . ~hcfd. d .11.01875.6663 X 10.d') .)L ZRT g. Note that the pipe length L has no effect on the static pressures.01875')'gz TO' (743) dL .14.4 .4 • Some authors use a standard pressure. Static BottomHole Pressure (SBHP) For production and reservoir engineering calculations... Substituting for gas density and velocity (as described earlier for horizontal flow): _ dp _ [28. 1 + (6. therefore..) + (0. at a depth z.Z'1Y.][.97""..al flow calculatio~...' 1 + (6.ll + )(!:)(I&&z'1Y. h. Tech.32. the shut·in (or static) bottom.65 psia.
in the range of 1. An average temperature and Z.000438) + (0. (ZlPp. up to 3. 12792 .) k . the bottomhole (B~.21463 .h Z. sour gas wells. and B up to 70..002268 ) T ~ (text continued on page 336) . p" . Thus a Ina 'ben "ndd er~r type of.0 to 12.65 psia.)dPp. (dp/p)  "'. 18011 .0187s. but accounts for the varia..21 + BZ2. determined by Messer et al . ~ is the pseudocritical pressure of the gas (gas mixture). of 1. "al llfelSrequired (. It can be estimated from the fact that the temperature gradient IS usually of the order of 0. t~on of Z W1~ pressure. a conversion constant of 6. PI" PI" . They reported re..solution is necessary.21216 ..factor is used to simplify the lefthand side integral in Equation 744: Z••T" j .. (1974) presented an extension of the SukkarCornell method.002628) .r Pmdll£. the flow rate 'be is zero (or.T1y In Equation 750.015178) T" Sukkar'CornelJ Method .. and q. F. where B  (750) jp. 15 BHT' the average temperature.0.1 s Tp. A good initial estimate of 1>..  (1..28026 ... Messer et al..0. and 1. 1.TI' \ (745) .(0.0187s. These values are shown in Tables 72(am). shown in Table 72a is applicable to SBHP determination .6663 x 1O ~ in Equation 750 implies a Pot of 14..005528) F . P ..037s.. I'ptI 1 + BZ!/~ (6. For caJculating Z the average press· ".. In p •• _ 0.65 psia and 520 0 R (instead of 14.5.002748) Tl.wag~ T~mlJemtun and ZFactor Method ~is ~ the simplest method. 0. (75 1) Generally. and B in the range of 0 (for static) to 20 (flowing).6. Messer et al.u1ts in tabular form for reduced pressure Pp.z Vpon integration.015 ° F/ft For a static column of ~~ • . PI" up to 30. ere e n~ nown.7393 x 10· (as in Equations 742 and 7·43) implies a ~ of 14.7. +Clnppr I~ (752) • (748) where E.01875>".73 psia.. ~M an m Ie a .tioll Ellgineerillg Steady Stote Flow oj Cas Through Pipe! 309 (749) At. erage temperature is satisfactory to use. ddition to average temperature). 10:s pp< s 30. whereas a conversion constant of 6.)dPp.')determinesurface temperature should be known In c ••temperature and the wh th Sukkar and Cornell (1955) evaluated the left integral in Equation 749 by numerical integration.r..O. 1. The case B co 0. _ 0.(0..0... h &2 (746) (747) where s . B = 0).(0.02246 . As stated earlier.0. pwh exp [_0_.01875>.... SukJcar and Cornell (1955) converted the basic equation (Equatton 743) into the pseudoreduced form : (0. Tl... This method also uses an average temperature. showing its applicability to deep..I. this is written as: p..>. and Equation 749 becomes: "'"" (ZI )d _ 0.0.'J Z~. (1974) as follows: For O:s B:s 25 .2 E+ Fpp. and C are regression constants. p. E . For computer programming pur~. (1974) have also proposed the following equation to Fit the tabu1ar data: . can rna e using Equation 748: 'S ." zd~ 1O4)~11... (Zl17...6663 X T. T . \ 0. and presented the values of the integral in Equation 749 for T p.:S 3.73 psia and 520°F).308 Ga.87"5.(0.. For the case of SBHP.. is the rate at 14. T 0'. reduced temperature T p. .)/( Z.0..
5966 1.3132 5.2100 3.5145 4.2872 23522 2.3018 4.1215 31794 2f1OS7 2.00l0 0.1847 3.50 1300 1:"1 ~n 38694 ~.3622 2.2428 4 2900 4.8253 4.8293 3.3073 5.9447 4.5095 4.3347 5.2826 5.2044 5.6059 :!.3494 5.2483 52819 5.5012 3.8934 4.7761 4.7391 3.7050 2.0211 2.7512 28171 28814 2.3746 2.3291 4.9690 3.5202 '.7610 3.0541 5.1560 4.5872 4.7896 2.5394 5.0031 5.4129 5.7144 ).7173 3.6486 3.4282 4.3400 .3624 5.6141 4..5374 4.0630 3.4603 2.'" 900 .5802 4.8926 2.4898 2.2284 5.49827 5..8421 4.8200 3.7841 4.8I!97 1.9397 4.9014 49449 49882 5W12 5..4779 5.59J7 2.2631 4.S719 1.1950 4.2739 4.00 17.3162 5.8853 3.0473 4.7928 4.1953 '.3483 4.6909 2.4S02 2.5323 4.4836 1.' 00010 0.8152 4.3740 3.4773 4.4834 5.4047 4.2143 4.2147 4.1612 3.7315 3.4393 5.9467 3.2440 5.4 2.7 129 4.4165 2.1169 5.8 00010 0.9147 1.50 27.7276 4.0298 2.2067 4.0182 4.0843 5 1245 51646 5.9699 3.1966 5.6012 3.4796 5.50 18.31o.2727 3.6522 4.5606 4.7277 3.01165 4.2712 4.0158 3.l<l82 5.9217 49660 5.0979 5.7775 3.8327 4.3744 44214 4.6518 46933 0341 4.9693 2.8974 4.6041 3.2450 5.1488 5.4158 4 4636 45112 4.3942 4.0058 1.9851 5.3355 3.00 22. 9721 II' "'" 0.2980 3.12 15 4I7Il2 4.0351 5.2932 '.7392 4.0741 5.1455 5.3720 34470 351SO B6S7 Jt\S04 3.2208 5..4054 5.9859 4.6148 3.1129 4.4629 3.0552 5.9206 1.2500 5.7484 2.3368 4.1742 3.9969 4.9457 49288 4 "'I '.6065 4.2427 3.5488 4.1 020 0'" 100 150 ~ 0 1.9621 5.5738 2.5460 3.6360 4..00 '..2144 5.6190 2.fIOJ8 L7149 1.0224 40722 4.1050 5.0513 50895 5 1275 5.6998 4.5OR7 ).6285 3.9739 5.2U23 2.3589 4.1833 42316 4.0750 5..3414 43874 44327 4.2215 3.44 10 4.7289 2.3195 4.4775 46224 45663 4.4239 JAII38 28223 2.5452 2.4933 5.1850 5.2612 3.7100 3.4440 1.7922 3.5648 4 6017 4.5442 3.5162 2.]763 3.OOOO 11.5231 3.50 4.2893 2.0394 21100 211'" 29.3957 4.6329 2.9928 3.3823 4.2968 5.9569 3.50 22.6776 3.3138 4J")8 4.5176 3.5.2403 5.3623 3.3795 3.4555 4.8527 48911 48835 4 9211 4 9582 4908J "'" 2100 21.2778 2.3138 24570 2. 3.1105 5 1455 5.4681 4.8577 4.2398 4.7512 3.00 1050 95" 3.6148 2.0 0.2950 5.2716 5.2025 5.5844 46036 4.7254 4 9969 5.6857 3.0146 5.3345 08..2214 2.0240 4.11'1 .4538 4.1260 5.7907 4.3760 4.7048 4.3237 4.2221 4.9()48 4.7675 48067 4.4681 3.7822 4.7480 2.5617 3.4272 5.9211 34068 3 Jh27 .' 0.54 11 3.1134 0.00 27.0571 3.3147 5.0114 3.9470 4.1622 I 1872 4.2185 4.5594 4.5116 5.00 19.4219 5.0274 2.1658 4.8420 3.5909 4.6011 5.5720 4.4577 5.6847 3.00l0 0.2739 5.~"7 J to::' I 3.1322 3.2650 4 21l7.1594 5.68R9 3.5285 4.0469 '.J688 5.9869 5.9411 3.0063 2.9772 5.SO 16.0740 4.29W 3.6582 42472 4.8536 4.1798 2.2744 2.8250 4.4330 2.0879 5.0599 4. 'M' 3.8450 3.0192 5.9961 4.4803 4.5781 L9f109 2.02f!O 3.8704 4.2862 5.2709 4.1309 4 ISJ5 42:\66 om 4.2273 2.3144 l 1 t~7 l 1"2.6354 2.3494 4.6523 '71 ~4 :"I 7.3065 3.1599 5._ 4.0525 4.3204 5..'" 200 2.4367 3.8675 4.8152 2.5735 3.3546 4 4007 44462 4 4913 4.6184 2.529 1 4.5287 4 .1605 3.1496 3.5945 2.1010 4.2307 5.7894 3.2 0.4335 3.1086 4 1351 4.9441 3.6094 4.6971 2.4117 5.5878 4 6J02 4.5677 2.5·m 3.0686 5.~)\(1 12.2324 2_ 2.1452 3.8148 3.6148 2.5359 Ogol 4.5617 4.4900 2.6501 4.11151 4.2294 5.3830 4.50 12.8382 o 0010 600 6'" 7.6741 3.1997 .0039 3.0258 3.7365 5.8459 3.5081 2.2186 4./i323 3.9218 1.7675 4 822{) 48764 4.2195 3. 1024 5 1374 5 1720 52083 5.3720 5.0659 5.6574 4.2014 3.9068 4.3497 5.9348 4.0533 4 1048 4.7575 4.2579 4 . Extended SukkarCornellintegral for Bottomhole Pressure Calculation Reduced Temperature for 8 '" 0.5583 1.2965 5.9536 5.9194 0.5163 5.50 3.3996 2.9209 4.5543 2.0157 2.8244 4 8633 4.00 1.6833 2.5005 45446 4.0230 "'" 2600 26.87 16 3.5973 3.2766 5.2999 3.4903 5.9082 1.6963 4.2101 2.4001 5.4 0.4465 5.6101 3.0024 5.4460 5.00l0 0.00 23.8138 2.9098 4..3617 4.0645 3.t)676 2.9497 40016 4.0867 ] 14~2 2~ml 32J69 J.9308 4.1104 5.7392 4.6053 4.1 2.1616 3.32K2 5.nSI 3.9050 3.0977 4.1126 3.4767 '.1142 5.6467 3.2882 2.7715 2 8558 2.00 2_ 2.6606 3.0101 5.4289 44741 45183 4.9662 5.5213 4.8108 38484 ).8052 2 0689 2.4095 4 .0359 3.7727 38:m!1 38872 3.0274 3.4906 3.9421 3.9538 10.1241 5.4516 U.2656 5.1.5'704 5.5M2 2000 43086 4.6239 4.4792 3.00 7'" 800 8.3774 l.00l0 0.5013 2.'" 300 J.cX>42 2.3934 3.6297 3.5654 1.6877 4.8336 2.5369 4.6091 46587 4..0828 3.9367 3.9177 1.9774 5.3859 5.5722 4.7451 4.7883 3.6698 2..4092 3.0893 3.Table 72 (a.8454 47006 4.1651 5.2941 4.5993 36552 3.8996 3.00l0 0.6555 4.4843 4.3403 5.50 47081 4.4H4 3.1547 2.50 3.1532 4.11515 2.9350 3.1080 4.2488 5.5326 5.0871 3.9354 3.9330 3 0146 HI911 3.9540 4.2597 33600 3.6654 2.5J47 2.00 29'" 30.9OOl 3.3678 4.)013 2.5 1Rl 3. 1547 4.9108 3%34 40150 4H~~7 ~ 1.5432 2.'107 2.0392 5.1165 4 11lJIl /4 00 100 15.2575 3.~ 4.0670 5.5638 .9951 2.1400 3.7463 4.2397 2.8067 4.4532 r .8784 2.5223 5.8449 2.5111 1.95111 4.0751 5.7373 L9116 1.0151 2.6793 2.2507 US13 2.1955 5.0755 4. 1595 .1585 5.2899 3.2441 5.00l0 08824 1.4697 5.3178 3.1415 5.1119 3.9921 4.5474 3.9108 1.1631 2.8319 4.4395 4.6154 4."'" '2JlO2 5.8750 3 91199 3.2557 3.9532 3.0438 5.8966 LS514 1.0523 3.9017 4.2413 3.7532 4.4497 4 4939 4.4743 4.7189 28589 2.7425 4.6204 3.4.3950 5.7170 3.1438 5. 24641 2.7 00010 0.7376 3.U 1100 11.5433 4 6042 46461 4.1176 5.9867 3..t 2.3296 5.8773 4.S012 5.4695 47f1n 48138 4.6996 4.9690 3.9422 2.6128 2.'" 400 4'" '.4475 5.3590 4_ 4.7806 3 !02R .8916 4.3338 3.3428 3.4931 3.0128 5.3227 5.9982 3.2041 4 2.3408 34085 3.6583 4.41SO 5.3565 34126 3.14SO 4.2 00010 0.2609 4.6382 3.""" 3.2 131 4.5390 2.0066 4.50 17.0265 5.6058 4.4289 4.I ~HO 1947.0764 5.4245 3.2019 5.3605 '.1635 3.3829 4.79 19 3.1993 5.8456 3.4436 3.8391 3.2663 4.1255 2.6723 3.2118 3.7465 3. 41346 4.3003 5.7928 4.2713 3.3151 5.7602 23607 2. (. 1I511 3.9017 1.6976 47428 4.9736 4.8582 1.6223 4 6638 4.3480 2400 24.4363 '.5.0511 "00 44940 4.1129 4.7325 2.5935 5.3 189 3.8499 3 .5823 1.0178 2.9341 HXl79 3.4376 5.00 15.8026 38573 3.4595 4.3506 40090 40627 411511 4 21 ~Il l.00l0 0.2634 5.6522 4.6181 J 6934 37646 3.1808 5.6832 3.' 2.2924 2.2589 5.7104 4 7531 4. 43 \6 4.50 23.58119 1.3780 5.9958 41)·H2 40994 4 14'l~ l I'IH'I 3.193() 3.37OJ 34393 3.4075 4.9958 48853 4.50 '.8662 4.1482 5.3870 3.6959 4.5334 1.6119 4.0262 2.9935 5.9798 2 25](.3577 5.5129 18565 1.5455 4.3296 3.0979 5.8171 3 .4591 5./i387 1.9079 1.9192 21709 1.1237 4 1731 4.8969 3.~ 28896 3.8558 4.0 0.H9JR 3.8222 2.4855 4.5125 2.7743 UI38 4.2397 5.8554 48953 4.0579 4 IOR4 ~.00 18SO 19.3 0.6863 2.0029 5.384\ 44391 4 6360 46808 4.5722 3.S(.7732 3.4005 4.8 0.9291 4.0781 3.0391 5.7432 3.8911 2 J3)1 2.4401 5.7995 IS7~ o 0010 0.00 2.207\ 4.1260 3.5 1.2360 3.3100 25234 2.6921 4.2546 4.1634 4.2795 0271 4.8760 3.2380 4.9977 41llHO 2.0000 3.4797 .5193 "'l8O 4.0027 5.4993 3.9228 3.6718 3.3122 4.5586 4.3700 5.8969 3.9426 3.2187 4.00 16.5647 36198 3.7336 3.7561 2.~777 3.4325 3.9065 2.0311 5.11078 2.1824 5._ 3.9314 4.5029 5. 2048 5.4027 5.7879 4.6528 4.7844 3.9588 4.1802 5.5052 35665 3.7955 4.9603 3.7746 4.8376 48794 4.05&3 4 U814 4.0514 5.1803 5.7335 4.
4851 1.7343 2.1901 0.6291 0.3160 2.3745 2.'\11 ~ ~ 1.SO 1000 10.4.5179 2 5529 2.%22 2.2121 2.\2 1(1) ~{' I 7(.1167 2.4 0.9278 1.1026 2.00\6 3.00 21.00 .690.3361 0.7069 2.7619 1.3248 2.5131 2.0890 00886 0.4756 2.5715 634<.8271 I 8742 J 92()J '~I t> J '/J(I5 14.7043 1.7734 2.3304 2.8440 0.64 17 1 684Il 1.8429 1.0<120 2{1812 21201 2.1082 2.5112 0. 0.3133 2.62511 2.7118 17195 1.01194 0.00 2O.9573 2.SO 16.8294 1.5808 16081 1.6885 1.2396 2.j().4056 0.0215 2.25S7 2.0814 0.7323 I.1010 I.6123 0.8701 J 'I J(iJ 1.9643 2.5912 1.7153 '.2588 2.4117 2.3758 2.7254 l.1438 2.0209 0.0433 2.3773 14357 14922 1.00 22.4781 2.8653 09393 07702 0.2504 1.0201 00201 00205 0.8109 1.00 'SO '.).4102 2.1789 2.00 6.3812 2.Table 72 (b) Extended SukkarCornell Integral for Bottomhole Pressure Calculation P.51311 051}4 0.2461 2.50 22.0759 2.4970 1.0098 30SfW 3.3383 1.1256 1.CXl26 2.5377 1.5176 1.0954 0.0504 1.6970 2._ 0.6R95 2.1155 2.7104 0...12 2.00 15."" 1.J073 2.5.0001 1.8191 2.4581 2.7811 1.4659 1.8229 0.5032 2.0723 2.7133 0.95511 0.0934 0.7575 1.5729 1.5125 06154 0.1722 2.}7 1.3463 2.2704 1._ 0.5368 1.6833 17085 1.6339 2.1269 2.8314 1.RIM I S295 I :i).5073 2.1173 2.1336 2.3845 I 3914 14434 1.2447 13020 1.4854 0.4226 2.1429 2.SO 21.5!!!!3 1.8247 1.22U7 2. 5860 1.5174 1.6401 1.90AA l.'2 2Jl40 2.6835 11308 1.3579 14125 14661 15187 1.SO 19.5701 1.0030 1.8117 1.5(JgS 2.2799 2.2142 1.6691 2.0551 I 1131 0.8756 1.50 20.0Il61 2.8859 \.{1441 I 1162 1 1848 1.6429 1.9737 2.8895 09222 0.S399 2.1954 0.6360 J . ~ 0.2698 13248 1. 20m 2.U97 2.0 1.fI\I()<} 2.5637 '.6677 2.7713 2.6152 0.6553 16999 1.0359 2.7296 11790 1.S053 2.7575 I".8078 1.0566 2.00 16.6594 0.8785 0.7485 2.4S06 1.SOI5 UI4!N I IN.7537 1.5167 16611 1.2728 2.744(1 1.5910 1.00 11.3596 IJ9.1326 1.5758 2.5032 0.8499 1.7411 17906 1.6155 06155 0.50 27.9560 3. 17817 11«1h7 I .6035 1.5SS1 1.7212 2.7887 2.7821 2.50 17.1689 18097 1.8879 09682 1.0873 2.50 12.2828 2.5216 2.3494 2.1551 2.S067 1.3476 2.008 2.4126 0.7961 1.9626 2.9634 2.5124 2.9123 2.8601 0.5014 0.6005 2.4133 0.59.1642 2.6692 16043 I .6805 2.2783 2.1on 2.5668 2.0921 00909 0.3133 2.614/1 2.8162 2.0773 2.6587 1.8941 09732 0.3034 1.SO 700 'SO 8.3\151 24'31 2mJ\l 2.0000 00204 0.5698 2.8818 1. 1.0458 2.9536 0.00 '.7666 18407 1.8151 2.2350 2.264\ 2.6839 1.480.7926 26575 2.635 1 1.1927 0.5386 2.421S 2.1 0.2841 1·3403 13961 14515 1.2112 2.694.641'12 2.0000 1.3253 2.5705 1.7601 0.49Ul 2.on4 21079 2.3 0.SO 26.9151 1.1775 2.2260 2.4723 2.1613 1.5108 0.SO 400 4.0105 2.0544 I 1236 1 1284 1 1932 I 1987 1.6941 1.3001 04107 0.1330 1.6S4l 2.0156 1.4733 1.0984 I 1060 I 1552 I 1649 I 1734 12182 1.5 lOS 2.6526 17034 1.0213 10289 10354 10896 1.7".6 104 1.0020 2(""..9224 1.7081 0.6857 2.2121 0.722" I.0721 2.9592 2.3440 2.29.S116 18505 1.2983 0_ 05143 0.1882 01868 0.7311 1.4739 2.912~ 26.5353 2.I3 14066 14173 14497 14623 1.7296 17tf}9 1.6237 1.6286 2.3937 V1275 2A611 2.7320 1.0000 00000 0""" 00000 0.ms 18230 18680 1.5921) 2.0723 2.0824 21229 2.1113 1.3847 2.2286 1.2523 2.9795 I05SO 1 1324 12031 1.6074 1.6267 16789 I.2188 1.1995 0.• 00000 2.8827 0.9265 1.33 2.1964 07994 0.' ' /<lS RIlIll unsx 02954 02943 0.1 11111.2822 2.5894 1.6912 1.8872 1.w 2.2432 2.1232 2.8836 0.1970 2.8833 19232 1.1069 .50 1300 \3 .2754 2.1324 2.:! 2.9175 1.5443 2.5877 2.4431 2.6785 0.441'11 2.4422 2.\ 2.0360 2.' 2.7530 0.9127 1.5275 2.5212 2.1765 2.n97 08560 0.8288 2.6214 1.7868 0.0507 2.50 25.2137 1.2033 2.2379 1.2060 1.7393 I 7879 I lOOS I 1578 1.2657 1.2851 2.6741 1.9175 1.I8 2.6575 1.2143 2.2131 2.8888 1. T:'~.4233 2.1149 3.7331 2.5557 2.7 1.772] 2RI14 H2O) 2(7) 26941 18020 1.0025 2.6090 1.(1141 2.' 1.0029 2.3Ot! 2.75119 2.00 19.5982 2.3791 2.81192 2.0442 I 1058 1 1656 1.2024 1.77811 2.8382 1.3687 1.0983 0.0220 1.0877 0.5342 2.1UM2 2..3041 1.5847 05983 0.00 2.7221 20007 2.0446 2.1346 1.7.1298 2..7446 2.~69 U!M4 0_ 0.7154 0.11996 2.6027 2.5603 2. 1.9138 09803 1.6486 1.' 1.7271 l.9252 1.0592 2.n49 18231 1.1126 2.8689 2.00 21.00 /4 .0013 2.6443 1.50 18.~Z"""' / .0000 00000 0.9493 0.7188 1.5166 2.2457 2.7108 1.9628 2.7389 1.4394 2.0614 1.6312 2.0 00000 00204 06065 06915 0.8232 2.3165 240M 2.3102 0"" 0.5459 2.7151 1.8094 011980 0.9711 2.6002 16S09 1.7(1.9412 2.4637 2 ~\.0226 01036 0.J921 1.1924 0.1484 2.' 0.\05 '~511 16S65 1.. • .12S4 2.1859 0.00 25.20 OSO 1.6999 2. 1.7(J\I.72~0 V\''i(1I 2.4126 1.5652 1.5716 1.3791 14328 1.3125 0.31OJ 2.5387 1.6333 2.311(5 2.3349 13967 14561 1.7029 0.0416 2.1191 1.7834 1.0881 o 19]8 0.s036 2.2667 2.4003 14599 1.6272 2.2914 0.3779 2.2325 0.9619 1.3002 0.5650 2.009S 10764 I 1406 l.2621 13201 1.0365 20004 2.63114 2673'1 2.9280 0_ 10620 1 1249 I 1857 1.1848 2.9242 1.'".5694 1.4719 2.6957 0.6062 1.4658 1.6226 1.5365 2.2116 2.7274 1.2597 1.R2n 1 8778 1.2965 0.SO 2.7M3 2.08.3435 13983 1.4005 2.6016 1.m5 1.50 30.2563 2.4860 1.9585 2JXl16 2.\ 7·1 ~f.8567 19602 2.4030 04020 0.3124 2.6490 1.8197 I ~O3 1.5873 2.18 0_ 15"'" 0.1699 2.6862 1.S027 0.SO .181\ "901 02889 0_ 05103 06156 0.0871 o 1816 0.9431 1.1850 0.50 2800 28.~!132 2.3826 2.8579 2.8675 29118 2.1926 2.2792 2.1 2.9992 2.4526 13907 14443 1.2111 2.5616 1616' I f>7!111 1.9251 1.50 1 5.1770 2.00 27.61.5550 2.7993 I .6662 1.6723 1.50 11.8883 1.6214 1.6290 1.5077 15555 1.00 23.60'91 1.6133 1.6721 1l7Jl6 12275 2.7579 08185 08184 09378 09967 1.5182 1.3597 2.3531 24001 2 .)033 2.6261 I 6767 1.SO 21.\4 2.6.00 I..1SO~ 1.3234 1.2 0.7960 0.18487 1.2900 12999 Ll374 1.4(}16 OSI40 0.1627 2.4938 2.3741 0.0216 00214 0.7171 2.4952 2.5 04124 0.6157 0.0388 2.7794 2U14] 1.66UI 2.2462 2.Hfl'R 2.2231 12805 1.S065 LS601 1."9.4.5457 2.9179 1.00 18.9626 1.5594 0.0423 1.7530 I.o2~] H567 2.6558 2.02U5 0.0072 2.4313 1.1425 2.6 163 1.2981 2 .9829 1.35113 2.8862 1.4419 0 .3492 1.8114 1.6898 2.3615 2.5406 2.1429 2.0212 00210 0.'\(17 2.60117 26'1" 2.3397 2.6605 1.6764 1.3757 24208 2.4473 241'127 2.6687 1.8275 1.6902 1.6147 0.5706 26196 / / .6060 2.2896 04012 0.5753 1.4066 0.8734 0. 661!5 2.7187 2.4 00000 2 .2906 2.1632 2.2199 2.8225 o 06966 0.1777 2.0005 2.8916 0.1011 2.00 12.2883 1.8333 1.0758 Reduced Temperalure for 8 "" 5.5472 16006 1.2052 0.6982 0.5031 15165 15278 1.3453 2..8m I.9257 1.5955 2.57~1 18799 1.1}612 3.1122 I.4149 2.7269 2.2204 2.3932 2.9315 0_ 0_ 0.3222 2.9261 1.5794 1.9212 1. J 00206 00201 0.6589 2.1941 2.50 29.7878 1.961 I 1.7121 0.\69 2.5988 1.S.5675 2.6717 17213 I.4470 2.8051 0_ 0.0216 2.6901 1.8714 1.5865 2.2020 22411 2.24!!6 1.8746 1.9765 1.6223 1807Il I_ 1.1773 2.3060 2.7~211 1.1761 1..1587 2.4761 2.2298 2.0366 2.2 0""" 0.0901 0.2.3141 2.4115 2.\ 2.160 2.3764 1. 77114 1.69'11 2.50 23.5003 1.9585 3.7778 1.714(} 0.6211 16326 1.2926 2.0017 2.5144 06101 0.5490 1.9634 1.7215 1.~52 .5118 0.5105 0.2118 2.7673 z.00 2SO 300 3.6718 1.00 17.1829 o 1822 0..0000 0.SO '00 '.1489 2.4953 2.9631 19996 2.0 00000 00000 0.5630 1.3161 1.7304 .S899 16335 1.3299 1.2419 2.5135 "<04 I 1351 1. 1.00 29.8472 1.7294 0.
Table 72 (c) Extended SukkarComell Integral tor Bottonlhole Pressure Calculat ion
P,
1.1 020 OSO 1.00 I. SO 200 2SO 3.00 00000 1.2 0.0000
•
~
Reduced Temperature for 8 '" 10.0 1.3
0.0000 1.4 00000 1.5 0.0000 1.' 00000 1.7 00000 1 .• 00000 1.9 00000 2.0 0.0000 22 0.0000 2.' 00000 2.' 0.0000 2 .• 0.0000 3.0 00000
3.SO
400 4 SO '.00 ,SO 600 6SO 1.00
1.SO
.'"
'00 ,SO
800
0.0115 0,0561 0, 1292 0.2028 0.2684 0.3300 0.3897 0.4485 0.5065 0.5638 0.6204 0.6765 0.7321 0.7873 0.8421 0,8965 0.9506
l oon
I 0575 I 1104
11 630
10.00 10.50 11.00 11.50 12.00 12.91
11 UO
~
1,2 153 1,2674 1.3 192 1 37118 1 4 ;>~~
~7
0.0 112 0.0525 0.1 187 0.1968 0,2723 0.3422 OA08O OA708 0.5315 0.5904 0.6480 0.7045 0.7602 0.815] 0.8697 0.9236 0.9769 1.0296 1.0819 1 13311 I 1852 1.2J63 1.2871 1.3376
I3R71
0.0110 0.0507 0.1132 0.1891 0.2677 0.3427 OA130 OA793 0.542] 0.6029 0.6617 0.7190 0.7752 0,8304
08846
0.9381
0_
10·131 1,0947 I 1458
11964
1. 2466
1 2964
1. 3458 1 W~q
14 377
~I
ill
,
73
"'Ie
0.DI08 0.0494 01098 0, 1837 0.2624 0.3399 0.4135 0.4832 0.5492 0.6122 0.6729 0.7]16 0.71!O8 0.6447 0.8994 0.9531 1.0059 1.0580 I 1094 I 1601 1 2102 1,2598 1.3089 1.3574 ] 4n~o 1 4 ~Jl
I '1)11
0.0107 0.0486 0.1074 0.1797 0.2578 0.3364 0.4123 0.41:146 0.5533 0.6 189 0.6818 0.7424 0./1010 0.8580 0.9134 0.9676
1.Q201
1.0729 1.1242 1 1747 1.2245 1.2736 1.3222 I 3"702 I 4171'1
] ·11,1'
0.0107 0.0479 0.1056 0.1767 0.250 0.3332 0.4102 0,4841 0.5545 0.6217 0.6!!6 1 0.7481 0.8079 0,8659 0.9221 0,9770 1.0305 1.0829 I 1342 1 1847
1."''
1,2834 1.3317 1.3"794 I 4 ~'..o
,.
,.
0.0106 0.0474 0.1041 0.1743 0.2513 0.3302 0,4080 0.4830 0.5547 0.623] 0.6891 0.7522 0,8JJ1 0.8720 0.9290 0.9845 1.0385 1,0912 I 1428 I 1935 1.24]2 1,2920 1,3402 1.)876 1 4l4~
14 ~n
0.0105 O.OHO 0.1031 0.1725 0.2490 0.3278 0,4061 0,4820 0.5549 0.6248 0.6919 0.756] 0.8182 0.8781 0.9360 0.992 1 1.0467
1.0999
I 15 18 1.2027 1.2525 1.3013 1,3494 1.3967 l .wn
4);<1:
0.0105 0.0468 0.1024 0.1713 0.2475 0.3263 0.4047 0.4812 0.5549 0.6256 0.6934 0.7586 0.8214 0.8819 0.9404 0.9911 1,0522 I 1057 I 1579
1.2090
1.2689 1.3078 1,3559 1.4032 ]44<)7
0.0105 0.0465 0.1018 0.1703 0.2461 0.3248 0.4035 0.4803 0.5546 0.6260 0.6946 0.7605 0.8240 0.8852 0.9443 1,0015 1,0569 1 1108 I 1633 1.2 145 12645 1.3135 1,3(>16 1.400
1.4~5 ~
0.0\04
O.OW
0.0104
0.0160
0.0104 0.0458
00997
~I'II
L ~ ;!'oI
I
~.1l{,
".
1.9121 1.9580 2.0032 2.0478 2.0918 2,1353 2. J783 2.2209 2.2630
2._
")~
I
~(lnl'l ~H'
0.1009 0.\687 0,2440 0.3225 0.4014 0.4787 0.5538 0.6262 0.6959 0.1629 0.8273 0.8895 0,9494 1.00')2 1.065] I 1197 1 1726 12242 12746 1.3238 1.3719 1.4190 1 ~MJ I.SIOt'
I
~~.
0.1003 0.1676 0.2426 0.3210 0.]999 0.4776 0,5532 0.6263 0.6967 0.7M5 0.8297
0.8925
01667 0.2413 0,3195 0.3985 OA764 0.5523 0.6258 0.6967 0.7650 0.8307
0.8940
0.953 1 1.0115 1.0681 1 1228 I 1760 1.2278 1.2783 1.3275 1,3756 1.4227
I 4NtR
0.9550 I,OJJ8
1.0106 11256 11 790 1.2309
0.0103 0.0456 0.0994 0.1660 0.2403 0.3184 0.3974 0.4755 0.5517 0.6256 0.6968 0.7654 0.8314 0.8950 0.9562
0.0103 0.0455
0.0990
I.om
1.0123
0.1653 0.2394 0.3174 0,3964 0.4746 0.S511 0.6252 0.6967 0.7655 0.8311 0.8955 0.9566 '0160 1.0732
11286 11822 I.DO 1 28SO
I 1275 I 1810 1.2331
12836
1.2814
1.3901
1 3788 1 4258 I 4719
U /t>9
I ~r.r I
1.3329 1.3810 1.4280 ] .4140
I ~/w 1 ......111
1 ~ Ult 1. ~51'1J
1.3343 1.3824 1.4294 I 4753 1.5202
, .IM:? '
14.00
14.SO
'.7250
1.7191
1.7711 1.8212
1.8750
15.00
15.50
1.8330 1.8867
1.9402
16.00 16.50 J7.oo
17.SO
1.9266 1.9780
18.00 18,50 19.00 19.50
2000 2O.SO
1.9936 2.0469 2, 1000 2, 1530 2.2059 2.2587 2.3113
2.3639
2.om
2.0802
2.13 11 2.18 17 2.2323
2.2826
1.7965 1.8470 1.897] 1.9472 1.9970 2.0465 2.0958 2.1449 2. 1937 2.2424
2.2909
l/i216 1.8706 1.9192 1.9675 2.0154 2.063 1 2. 1104 2. 1575 2.2043
22509
\.8480 1.8960 1.9436
I. _
2.0371 2.0842 2. 1303 2.1762 2.22 17 2.2670
2.3120
1.8667 1.9142 1.9612 2.0071 2.0538
2.0996
18830
1.9298 1.9760 2.0217
2.0669
2.4164
2 ....
21.00 21.50 22.00 22.50
2300
23.50
" 00
24.50
"00
".SO 26.00 26.50 27.00 27.50 28.00 28.SO 29.00
295{) JlJOO
2.mO 2.5733 2.6254 2.6774 2.7294 2.78\3 2.8)32 2.8849 2.9367 2.9883 3.0399 3.0915 3. 1429 3. 1944 3.2458 ].2971 3.3484 3.3997
2.3329 2.3830 2.4329 2. 4828 2.5325 2.5822 2.6317 2.6811 2.7304 2.7796 2.8'...88 2.8778 2.9268 2.9757 3.0245 3.07]3 3. 1220 3.1706 3.2191 3.2676 3.3 160 3.3644
2.3393 2.3875 2.4355 2.4834 2.53 11 25788 2.6263 2.6736
21209
2.2973 2.3434 2.3893 2.4350 2.4306 2.5259 2.571 1 2.6 1 61 2.6610 2.7057
27S03
2.3567 2.40 12 2.4455 2.4895 2.5333 2.5770 2.6204 2.6637
2.1068
2. 1450 2. 1900 2.2347 2.2791 2.3233 2.3671 2.4107 2.4541 2.4972
25400
2. 1117 2. 1561
22000
1.9001 1.9463 1.9920 2.0372 2.0818 2. 1260 2.1697 2.2131
22560 2.2%5
1.9227 1.9681 2.0128 2.0570 2. 1005 2. 1434 2. 1858 2.2276
2.2690
2.2437
22869
2.3299 2.3725 2. 41 48
2A568
2.3407
2.3825 2A24 1
2.3459
2.3868
2.7680 2.8 151 2.8620 2.9088 2.9556 3.0022 3.0488 3.0953 3.1 417 3. 1880 3.2343
3._
3.3265
2.7047 2.8390 2.8832 2.9272 2.97 11 3.01 49 3.0586 3.1022 3.1457 3. 1891 ].2324 3.2756
2.7497 2.7924 2.8351 2.8775 2.9198 2.9620 3.0040 3.0459 3.0877 3.1294 3.1710 3.2124 3.2537
25827 2.6252 2.6674 2.7095 2.7514 2.7931 2.8346 2.8760 2.9172 2.9583 2.9993 3.0400 3.0807 3.1212 3.16]6 3.2019 3.2421
2.4986 2.5401 2.58 14 2.6224 2.6632 2.7038 2.744 1 2.7843 2.8243 2.8640 2.9037 2.94]1 2.9824 l02 1S
30604
3.l1992 3.1379 3.1764 3.2 148
2.4653 2.5062 2.5468 2.5872 2.6273 2.6672 2.7068 2.7462 2.7854 2.8244 2.8532 2.9018 2.9402 2.9785 3.0165 3.0544 3'()<)22 3.1297 3.1672 3.2045
2.4273 2.4675 2.5074 2.5470 2.5862 2.6252 2.6639 2.7023 2.7405 2.7784 2.8 161 2.8536 2.8908 2.9279 2.9648 3.0014 3.0379 3.0142 3. 1103 3. 1463 3. 1821
2.3100 2.3505 2.3906 2.4303
2._ 2 S086
2.5472 2.5855 2.6235 2.66 12 2.6986 2.7357 2.7126 2.8092 2.8456 2.88 18 2.9 177 2.9534 2.981:19 3.0242 3.0593
3.(1942
1.94]0 1.9858 2.0298 2.0730 2. 11 55 2. 1574 2. 1987 2.2394 2.2795 2.3191 2.3582 2.3969 2.4350 2.4728 2.5 101 2.5471 2.5837 2.6 199 2.6558 2.6913 2.7266 2.7615 2.7961 2.8305 2.8646 2.8985 2.9320 2.9654
2.99KS
1.9485 1.9927 2.1)364 2.0792 2. 1212 2. 1626 2.2032 2.2433 2.2828 2.3217
3,0314 3.0641
3.0966
3.1289 3. 1635
].1288
1.%12 \.965\ 2.0053 '20091 2.0432 2.0485 2.0523 2.0857 2.0910 2:0946 2. 1275 2.\326 2. 1362 2. 1686 2. 1736 2. 1TI0 2.7090 2.2138 2.2172 2.2488 2.2535 2.2567 2.2925 2.2956 22880 2.3266 2.3309 2.]]39 2.3600 2.3646 2.3688 2.37J7 2.3979 2.4022 2.4062 2.4089 2.4392 2.4431 2.4456 2A353 2.4723 2.4158 2.4795 2.4819 2,5 11 9 2.S 155 2.5171 25088 2.5449 2.5477 2.5510 2.553 1 2.5806 2.5830 2.5861 2.588 1 2.6159 2.6 179 2.6209 2.6226 2.6508 2.6524 2.6552 2.6568 2.6854 2.5866 2.6892 26906 2.7 197 2.7200' 2.7229 2.724 1 2.7536 2.7540 2.7562 2.7573 2.7R72 2.7872 2.7892 2.7901 2.8206 2.8200 2.8192 2.8226 2.8536 2.8526 2.8543 2.8548 2._ 2.8850 2 . _ 2.6867 2.9189 2.9 170 2.9 182 2.9 184 2.95 12 2.9488 2.9498 2.9497 2.9f132 2.980] 2.98 11 2.9809 3.0149 3.0 11 6 3.0 122 3.0117 3.0465 3.0426 3.O·no 3.0424 3.077f1 3.0735 3.0736 3.0728 3. 1089 3. 1040 3.1040 3.1029
1.9556
1 99911
•
Table 72 (d) Extended SukkarComell Integral lor Bonomhole Pressure C8lcu a.tlon
P, Reduced Temperature for B 15.0 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0
0=
~
~
1.1
0,20
1.2
0.0000 0,0075 0,0359 00838 0.1453 0.2093 0.27]0 0,3302 0.3874 0.4430 0. 4975 0.5508 0.6034 0.6553
0.7068
1.3
00000 0.0074 0,0345 0.0793 0.1371 0.2008 0,2648 0.3267 0.3862 0.4435 0.4992 0.5535 0.6066 0.6590 0.7105 0.76 13 0.81 14 0,8611
0.9 ]02
1.4
OOIlOO 0.0073 0.0336 0.0765 o 1319 0.1943 0,2587 0.3222 0.3837 0.4431 0.5004 0.5561 0.6103 0.6634 0.1155 0.7666 08170 0.8666 0.9151 0,\1641 1.0121 l.0595 1 1065 I 1530 \ 1992 1.2449
I2'Xn
1.5 00000 0.lM:J72 0,0330 00146 0,12/12 0.1/192 0.25)3 OJI76
0.~805
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
0.0000 00069 0.03!)9 0.""'" 1l.lln7 o 1124 0.2331 0."'" 0.36JJIJ 0.4252 0.4888 0.55 12 0.6121 0.67]5 0.7291 0.7852 0.8397 0.8927 0.9442
3.0
OSO
1.00
v.oon
0."""
0'.11.)
OU011
0.O.l2~
00000
O.U01I
o.txXXl
0.0071 0.3119
0.0113
O.OOOU
0.0070
orxXJQ
O.lwno
0.0316
'SO
2.00 2,50 3.0n 3.50
'''' 'SO
'.00
'SO
600 6.50 7.00 7.SO 8.00 8.SO '00
1000
'50
0.03RS 0.0939 0.1571 0,2162 0,2725 0.3275 0.3818 0. 4355 0.4S87 0.5413 0.5936 0.6454 0._ 0.14R2 0.1991 0,8497 0.9000 0.9500 0,9998
0.7517 0.8082 0,8582 0,1XI78 0.9570
1.0059
]0,50
]] 00
I.o·m
I.(l985 I 1475 1 1963
1.2449
l~q:u
1.0544
1.1026 I 1506
]150
12,00 12.50
1 1983
1.2458
nuo
0.9588 10011 1.0549 1 1024 I 1496 11964 1.2430
1.2~91
0.4415 0.5006 0.5579 0.6135 0.6676 0.7205 0.7722 0.8230 0.8729 0.9220 0._ 1018 1 1,0653
I 11\9
0.0732 o I2.H 0.11157 0.2493 0.31.18 0.3174 0.4393 0.4994 0.5577 0.6143 0.6694 0.7230 0.1754 0.8266 0.8768 0.926] 0.9146 1.0223
I .....
0.0322 0.0721 0.1236 U 11127 0.24511
0.3102
0.0317 O.121l
0.1790
omos
0.2413 0.3055 0.3699 0.4335 0.4956 0.5561 0.6 149 0.6720 0.7216 0.7817 0.8344 0.8858 0.9360 0 .9852 1.0334
II1JJ(16
0.1220 0.1!104
U.2431
0.0703 0.1202 0.1777 0.2397
0.3O~8
,
!.:!931
I ~ ·lt l ~
I
.,.
1 1580 J.2037 1.2490 I:!'JW .UR1
I 1159 1 1618 \.2072 1.2522
12%7
, 'IU
0.3743 0.4369 0.4918 0.5570 0.6144 0.6703 0.1246 0.n76 0.8293 0.8799 0.9295 0.9782 1.0260 1.073 1 I 1J95 1 1653 1.2105 1.2551
L299~
0.JU74 0.3717 0.4349 0.4966 0.5566 0.6149 0.6715 0.7256 0.7802 0.11324 0.8835 0.9334 0.9824 1.0J()4 \.0776
I 1239 I 1696
0.)683 0.4320 0.4945 0.5554 0.6147 0.6724 0.7284 0.7829 0.8360 0.8878 0.9382 0.9876 1.0359 1.003
1.1298
(J.)UI2 0.3657 0.4298 0.4928 0.5543 0.6143 0.6726 0.7293
0.7M4
"(1.0313 01111') Om8
0.2)74
II " ' " O'_)7U
0.11391 0.8914 0.9423 0.9920 1.0407
1.0883
O.()OO.l 0.(.)70 Il.OJII 0.0692 0.1 ]/10 1l.174'; 0.2357 0.2<)94 0.3679 0.4281 0.4914 0.5534 0.6138 0.6721 0.7299 0.7854 0.8395 0.8920
0.9432
°
(IIWJQ
0()(K)9
U.U~1O
0_
0.0308 0.1J682 0.1161 0.1716 0.2320 0.2952 0.3596 0.4240 0.4877 0.5503 0.6113 0.6708 0.7286 0.7848 0.8394 08925
00000
0""",
0.1172 Om3 U.2342 0.29711 0.3622 0.4265 0.4900 0.5522 06129 0.672 1
0.7296
0.9932 1.0420 1.01:197
1.1364
1.1271
1.1128
I 1349
I 1807
1 2 147 1.2592
I "lCl.' 1
1.2118 1.2622
I lI)OCl
1 1755 1.2205
1.2048
.l!1lW
~ I .t
1.2256 1.2698
.l nl
1 1822 1.2270
11711
1..114.1
IQO
".'
,
0.7855 0.8398 08926 0.9440 0.994 1 1.0430 I 090Jl I 1375 I 1832 1.2281 1.2720 I .1/~2
1
1~7~
0._
1.0434
l.OOIJ
0_
I.o·m
1.0914 1.1311 1 11839 \.2281 1.2725 1.3156
l.l.UX
0.9441
11380
I 1837
12285 12724 I.JHS
.~7.~
1400
14 .SO
15.00
15,SO 16. 00
16.50
11.00 I1.SO
18.00
18.SO ]9.00
19.5O "'.00
1,3899 /.4380 1.4860 1.5338 1.58 15 1.6291 \.6766 1.7241 1.1714 1.8 ]87 1.8659 1.9130
1.9600
1.3870 J .4337 1.4803
1.5266 1.5728
1.6 189 1.6649
1.3812 1.4268 1.4722 1. 5174 1.5625 ] .6073 1.6520
1.6966
1.7107
1.7564
1.8020 1.8475 1.8929
1.9382 1.9834
2O.SO
21.00
2 ],SO 22.00
"SO
23.00 23.SO
24.00
24.SO 25.00 25.50 26.00
26.50
21.00 21.50 28.00 28.SO 2900
"SO
"'.00
2.0070 2,0539 2. 1007 2.1475 2.1943 2.2410 2.2876 2.3342 23807 2.4272 2.4736 2.5200 2."'" 2.6121 2.6590 2. 7053 2.75 15 2.7977 2.8438
\.1410 \.1853 1.8294 ] ,8134 1.9173 1.9611
2,0048
1.3802 1.4247 1.4689 1.5129 1.5S66 1.6001 1.6434 1.6865 1.7293 \.1720 1,8146
1.8.\69 1.8991
I._
1.3825 1.4263 1.46911 1.5130 1.5559 15985
1,\1412
19831
2.0285 2.0736 2.1185
2, 1634
22082 2.2529
2.2976
2.3422 2.3861 2.43 12 1.4756 2.5200 2.5643 2.6086
2.6520
2.8899
2.6969 2.74 10 2.785 1 2.829 1
2,0484 2.0918 2.1352 2.17&5 2.2217 2.2648 2.3019 2.J501l 2.3937 2.4366 2.4793 2.5220 2.5646 2.6072 2, 6497 2.692 1 2.7345 2.7769
2.0248 2.0665
21080
2,1494 21906 2.2318 2.2728 2.3138 2.3546 2.3953
2.4360
2.4766 2.5 170 2.5574
2.5'F77
2._
2.6051 2.6444 2.6830
1.6830 1.7249 1,7666 1.8081 1.8493 1.8904 1.9314 1.9721 2.0 127 2.0531 2.0934 2 1335 2 1135 2.2134 2.2531 2.2917 2.3322 2.3716 2.4109 2.4501 2.4891 2.5281
1.3845 14278 1.4708 1.5\35 1,5558 1.5979 1.6397 1.6812 ].1225 1.7635 1.80·n 1.8449
1.8RS3
1.3862 1.4290
1.47 14
LS134
2.6380 2.6781 2.7182
1.9255 1.9655 2.0054 2.04SO 2.0845 21239 2.1631 2.2021 2.24]0 2.2798 2.3184 2.3569 2.3953 2.4336 2.4718 2.5098 2.5478 2.5856 2.6234 2.66 10
LS55 1 1.5964 1.6374 1.6181 I.7II!6 1.75117 1 7986 \.8382 1.8176 1.9168 1.9557
1.9944
2.0330 2.0713 2 1095 2. 1415 21853 2.2229
2.2~
2.2978
2.3550
2.3120 2.4089 2.4457 2.4824 2.5189 2.5553 2.59 16 2.6278
1.3694 1.4319 1.4739 1.5155 1.5567 1.5976 1.6381 1,67113 \.71111 1.7577 \.7970 1.8360 1.8741 1 9132 I 95 15 1.9895 2.0273 2.0649 21024 2. 1346 2.1766 2.2135 2.2502 2.2867 2.3230 2.3592 2.3953 2.4312 2.4670 2.5026 2.5382 2.5736 2.6088
1.391 8 1.4339 1.4756 1.5168 1.5575 1.5978 1.6378 1.6773 1.7166 1.7554
1.7940
1.8322 1.8702 1.9079 1.9453 1.9824 2.0193 2.0560 2.0924 2 ]286
21~
1.3938 1.4356 1.4769 l.S 117 1.5580 1.5979 1.6373 1.6764 1.7150 1.7533 1.7912 1.8288 1.866 1
1.903 1
1.3977 1.4390 1.4797 l.S 198
LS594
1.5984 \.6370 1.6750 17127 1.7499 1.7866 1.82.10 1.851X1 18947
I. 9300
1.3984 1.4395 1.4798 1.51% 1.5587 1.5973 1,6354 1.6730 1.7100 1.7466 1.711211
1.8186 1.8540
1.399\
\ .4400 141102 1.5197 U5f11 1.5911 1.6350 1.6123 1.7091 1.7455 1.711]4 1.8169 1115 19
1.39'11 I 4401
1. 4802
1.3m I 4400
1.4800
LS I97 1.5585 1.5968 1.6346
1.6718
1.5194
L5582
1.9397 1.9761 2.0122 2.0481
2.007
2.2005 2.2.361 2.2715
2.3067
2.3418 2.3767 2.4115 2. 4460 2. 4805 2.5148 2.5489 2.5829
2. I 191 2. ]542 2.1891 2.2238 2.2583 2.2927 2.3268
2.3607
2.3944 2.4280 2.4614 2.4947 2.5278 2.5607
1.9650 1.9997 2.0341 VJMI 21019 2.1355 2.1687 2.2017 2.2345 2.2671 2.2994 2.3315 2.3634 2.3951 2.4266 2.4579
2.4890
1.8R89 1.9236 1.9H8 1.99\7 2.0253 2.0586 2.0916 2.1242 2 ]561
2.1~
2.5200
2.2207 2.2523 2.21B7 2.3 149 2.3458 2.3765 2.4070 2.4373 2,4674 2.4974
1 9549 191:184 2.0217 2.OS46 2.1:»172 2.1196 2. 15 16 2.1834 2.2149 2.2461 2.2171 2.30711 2.3384 2.3687 2.39g7 2.4286 2.45g3 2.4878
,_ 1 \ .85(111 1.8853
1.7085 17441 1.71105 ].8158
1.5964 1.6)4\ 1.67 12 \.7018 1.7439 1.1196 1.8148 1.8496
1.9 180 1.9517
19m
1.9195 1.9532 1.9867 20148 2.0525 20850 2] 17] 2.1490 2.1806 2.2119 2.2430 2.2738 2.3044 2.3347
2.3648
1.9850
2.0179 2.0506
2.0829
2.1149 2.1466 2.1780 2.2092 2.2401 2.2707 2.3011 2.3313 2.3612
2.3909
2.3947 1.4244 2.4538 2.4831
2.4205
2.4.t97
2.4788
•
Table 7·2 (e) Extended SukkarCornell Integra' for Bottom·hole Pressure Calculation
~ ~
P,
1 .1 1.2 00000 00056 1.3 00000 1.4 00000 1.5 0.0000
Reduced Temperature for 8 = 20.0
1.6 0.0000 1.7 0.0000
1.B
0.0000
1.9 00000
2.0 0.0000
2.2 00000
2.4 00000
2.6 00000
2.B
00000
3.0 00000
0,20
0.'" 1.00 200 2'" 300 4.00 4.'" 5.00 5.'" 6.00 6.'" 700 7.'" 800 8.'" '00
00000
I.'"
0.0058 0.0294 0.0740 0, 1295 0, 1832 0,23SO
02860
3.'"
0.]365 0.3865 0.4360 0.4852 0.5341 0.5827 0,6]10 0,679 1
0.7269
0.0272 0.0649 0.1156 0.1712 0.2264 0.2801 0.3]26 0.3841 0.4346 0.4843 0.5335 0.5821
0.6304
10.00 10,SO I LOCI 11 ,50 12,00 12.SO
,.'"
0.n45 0,8219
0.8690
O .ms
0.8 196 0.8661 0.9123 0.9582
1.0089
0.6782 0.7257
0.0055 0,0262 0,0610 0.1071 0.1614 0.2172 0.2725 0.3264 0.]790 0,4305 0.4809 0.5305 0,5794 O,62n 0.6755 0,7221 0.7695 0.8 159 0.8620
0.9077
noo
r
~l
0.9159 0.9626 1.0091 1.0554 I 1016 1 1476
1 Iq15
1.0494 1.0946 11397
llR4h
0.95JO 0.9981 1.0429 1.0874
11317
I
17~~
0,0055 0,0255 0,0587 0.1030 0.1547 0,2099 0.2657 0,]208 0.3747 0,4273 0,4787 0.5291 0.5786 0.6274 0,6754 0.7228 0.7696 0.8 160 0.8618 0.9073 0.9523 0,9969 \.0412 1,0851 1 12Rl1 11721
I '." I
0,0054 O.()2.IO 0,0572
0.0998
0.1498 O.2OW 0.2597 0.3154 0,3703 0.4240 0,4765 0,5279 0,5783 0,6276 0,6761 0,7238 o.nos 0.8m 0.863\
0.9083
0.0054 0,0246 0,0561 0.0976 0.1465 0.1999 0.2553 0.3111
0.J664
0.9531 0.9975 1.0414 1.0849 1 12112 I I7IH
1 )116
0.4208 0,4740 0,5261 0,5n1 0,6270 0.6760 0,7241 0,n14 0,8179 0.8638 0.9091 0.9538 0.9980 1.0418 1.0851 I 12110 17Ut>
~ I:
0.0053 0,0243 0.0561 0.0958 0.1438 0,1964 0.2514 0.307] 0,3629 0,4177 0,4714 0,5241 0,5756 0.6261 0,6755 0,7240 0.n16 0.8184
0.8644 0.9098
0.0053 0.0241 0,0545 0,0945 0,1417 0.]937 0.2484 0,3041 0,]599
O,·USI
0,4594 0,5226 0.5747 0.6257 0.6756 0.7245 O.n25 0.8 195 0.8658 0.9113 0.9561 1.!XXl2 104]8
1.0S68
0,005] 0,0240 0,0541 0,0937 0,1404 0,1920 0,2463 0,3020 0,3578 0,4132 0.4678 0.5213 0.5738 0.6252 0.6754 0.7247 0.n29 0.s:!02
0.B666
0.0053 0.0239 0.0537 0.0930 0.1393
0.1~
0.2445
03000
0.9545 0.9987 l.o·m 1.085S 1 12112
I '7HI
I
1 1294
11714
I ~I1H
0.9123 0.9571 1.1))14 1,0450 l.OH79 I 13U4
I 72.'
0.3559 0,4114 0,4662 0,5201 0,5729 0.6246 0.6752 0.7247 0,n32 0,8207 0,8673 0.9131 0.9580 1.0023 1.0459 1,06!!1I II.H2 17.111
12q:>
0,0052 0,0237 0,0532 0,0918 0,1376 01SN2 0,24]9 0,2972 0,3531 0.4088 0.4639 0.5182 0.5714 06236 0.6746 0.7251 On40 0,8218 0,86lS7 0,9147 0,9599 l.oon 1,0479 I.()IX)!! IIDI
0,0052
')()2)6
t),0528
')09 11 11.1364 0,11i67 (j,2401 U.2952 O.35!O 0.4068 0.4622 1).5]67 0.5703 ()6228 11,6741 11,7244 IIn35 11,8216
11,8687
0.0052 0.0235 0,0525 0.0905 0,1354 0,1853 0,2384 0.29]4 0.3492 0.4050 0.4604 0.5151
0.5689
0.0052 0.0234 0.0522
0.0900
0.6216 0.6732 0,7237 O,n3(l 0,8212
08684
\J,9148 0.9601 1.0045 1.0481 1 ''''~ LlH r 174~
0.9146 0.9599 1.0043 1,0479
10908
"
1,~9
'n
'I.'
Inn
r
I Il!!!
i 1"4:' I : \1'1
~
0, 1346 0,1842 0,2371 0,2919 0.]476 0.4034 0.4589 0.5137 0.5676 0,6205 0,6722 0,7227 0.m2 0.8205 0.8678 0,9141 0.9595 L{)039 1.0475 1,0903 1 1,123 1 ,.,ltI
J
~I·JI
0,0052 0,0233 0,0520 0,0895 0,1339 ]8.12 0.2359 Q,2906 0.).162 0.4021 0.45n 0,5125 0,5665 0,6194 0,67 12 0.72 1 9 0.n14 0.8198 0,8672 0,9135 0.9589 1.0034 l.o·no
°
10698
J iJI8
I 17.11
:1.1(1
"
\.2559 \.2957 1.3349 1.3736 L411 8 1.4496
\.4869
"
/4.00 14.50
15.00 15.50 16.00 16,SO 17 ,00 17.50 1800 18.SO 19.00 19,5O
2000
1.3304 1.3759 1,4212
,4665 LSJl6
1.5567 1.6017 1.6467 1.6916 1.7364 1.1811 1.8258 1.8705 1.91 50 1.9596 2,OOU 2.0485 2.om 2.1372 2.1815 2.2258 2.2700 2.3 142 2.]584 2.4025 2.4466 2.4907 2.5347 2.5787 2.6227
2.6666
1.2739 J.3183 1,3625 1.4067 1.4507 1.4945 1.5383
<5820
1.283] IJ(l68
1.6256 1.669 1 1.7125 1.1558
1.mo
20,SO 21.00 21.SO 22.00 22,50
23.00
1.8421 1.8852 1.9282 1.97 11 2.0140
2.0568
2J.SO 24.00 24.SO
,,'"
26.00 27.00 27.SO
2800 28.'" 2900
".00
26.'"
2.0995 2.1422 2.1849 2.2274 2.2700 2.3124 2.3549 2.3973 2.4396 2.4819 2.5742
2.5664
29.SO lO.OO
2.6085
2.6507
2.7106
1.3501 1.3933 \.4363 1.4792 1.5219 1.5645 1 6069 1.6493 \.6915 1.7336 1,7757 1.8176 1.8594 1.9012 1,9429 \.9844 2,0259 2,0674 2.1087 2.1500 2, 1912 2,2324 2.2135 2.3145 2.3555 2.3964 2.4373 2.4781 2.5 189 2.5596 2.6003
1.2579 1.3005 1.3428
1.3~9
\.2558
1.4267
14684 <50"
1.2977 1.3394 1.3808 1.4220
1.4629
1.5512 1,5924 1.6]34 \.6742 1.1149 1,7555 1.7959 1.8362 1,8763 1.9164 1.9563 1,9982 2,0359 2,0756 2 1151 2 1s.lit 2.1939
2.~2
1.5036 1.5441 1.5844 1.6245 1.6644 1.7042 1.7438 US32 1.8225 1,8616 1.9006 1.9395 1,9782 2,0168 2.0553 2.0937 21319 2.1701
2.2002
1.2541 1.2962 1.3375 1.3784 1.4191 1.4595 1.4997 1.5397 1.5194 \.6190 1.6583 1.6975
1.7364
2.2724 2.3115 2.3S05 2.3895 2.4284 2.4672
2.5060
2.2461 2.2840 2.3218 2.3595 2.3971 2.4146 2.4720
2._
2,5447
1.7752 1.8139 1.8523 1.8906 1.9288 1.9668 2.00n 2.(,.t25 2,0801 2,1!76 2.1550 2.1923 2.2295 2.2665 2.3035 2.3404 2.3772 2.4119 2.4504 2.4870
1.2537 1.2948 1,3355 1.3759 1.41SO 1.4558 1,4953 1.53045 1.5735 1.6 123 1,6508 1.6891 1.7271 1.7650 UI027 1.11401 1.8774 1.9146 1.9516 19684
2()2.1O
2.0615 20919 2,1341 2.1702 2.2062 2.2420 2,2778 2.3 134 2.3409 2,3843 2,4195 2.4547
1.2542 1.2547 1. 2949 1.2952 1.3353 J.J352 1.3754 1.3749 1.4151 1.4142 1.4544 1.453\ \ ,4935 \.4916 1,5323 1,5298 1.5108 1.5678 10090 1,6054 1.6470 I,().n? It)g.17 1,6797 1.7222 1.7165 L7595 L7530 1,7965 1.789] 1,8334 1,8254 I.S7OU 1.8612 1.9065 1.8968 1.9428 1.9322 1.9789 1,9674 2.0149 2,0025 2.0507 2.0373 20863 2,0719 21218 21064 2.1671 2.1408 2.1923 2.1749 2.2274 2.2089 2.2823 2,2428 2.2971 2.2765 2.31!8 2.3100 2.J66' 2.3435 24008 2.3768 2.4352 2.4100
2.2549 1.2952 1.3349 1.3743 1.4132 1.4517 1.4898 1.5275 1.5649 1,6020 1,63M \.6752 1.7114 1.7473 1.7829 1.8183 1.8534 1.8882 1,9229 1,9573 1.9916 2.0256 2,0594 2.0980 2.1265 2,1598 2.1929 2.2258 2.2586 2.2912 2,32 17 2.3560
2.3882
,,561
1.2949
\ .2549
U541
\.2':135 1.)322
1.:\7~
11S3<,
1.3339 U723 ].4101 1.4475
1.4~
I 5238 1.5603 1.5%4 16121 1.6675 1.1025 1.7372 1,7716 18056 1.8394 1.8730 1.9062 I. 9392 1.9719 2()().l4 2.0367 2.(1687 2.1OUS 2.1321 2.1636 2,1968 2.2258 2.2566 2.2873 2.3\78 2,]481
1.52Q8 1. 5588 1.592·'
l.tl275
1.6623 1.6967 1.7308 1,7645 1.7979 1.8310 1.8638 1.8963 1.9286 1,9605 1.9922 2,02]7 2.0549 2.0858 2.1166 2.147 1 21774 2.2075 2.2375 2,2677 2,2967 2.326 1
1.2463 1.3331 1.37 13 1.4090 1.4462 1.4829 \,5191 1.5549 1, 5902 1.5252 \.6597 1.6938 1.7276 1.761! 1.7942 I.R270 1.8595 1.8916 1,9235 1.9551 1.9K65 2.0176 2.0484 2.0790 2.1094 2.1395 2. 1695 2.1992 2.22117 2.2540 2.2871 2.3 161
\.2921\
14080
14451 1.4KI7 UI7S 1.5584 UK\? 1 6235
I.M79
\3315 1.3695 1.4071 \4411
\,4S06
1.6919 1.7256 1,7589 L7918 I.R24S 1.8568 1.AA89 1.9206 1.9521 1.9H32 20 142 2,0449 2.0753 2.1055 2.1355 2,16S2 2,I94H 2,2241 2.2662 2.2822 2.3109
1.5166 1.5522 1.5973 I 6220 1.6563 1.6902 1.7238 1,7570 1,7898 1.!:!22l I.R545 1._ 1.91110 2.9·19] 1,91;04 2.0112 2.0417 2,072(} 2.1020 2.\318 2.1614 2.1908 2.2220 2.2480 2.m7
2.3063
•
Table 72 (f) Extended SukkarCornell Integ,.1 for Bottomhole Pressure Calculation
Q
~ ~
P,
1.1 1.2 O.<ml 1.3 O<ml 00044 1.4 O<ml 1.5 O<ml
Reduced Temperature for B = 25.0
1.' 00000 1.7 00000 1 .• 00000 1.9 O<JOOO 2.0 O.lnlO 2.2 00000 2.' 2.' O<JOOO 2 .• O<JOOO 3.0 00000
ow
OSO 100 ISO 200 2.SO '.00 'SO '.00 '.SO 5.00 5.SO 6.00 6.SO 7.00 7SO 800 '.SO '.00 'SO
O<ml
O.OOH
0,02]7
0,0611 01106 0.1598 0.2079 0.2554 0.3025 0.3492 0.3957 0.44111 0.4878 0.53]5 0.5790 0,6241
0 .....
0,0045 0,0219 0,0529 0,0961 0.1 453 0,1952 0,2444 0.2930 0.340!! 0.3879 04345
0_
10.00 10,SO ILOO \I.SO 12.00 12.SO
0.7143 0.7591 0.8036 0.8480 0.8922 0.9362 0.9801
1.0239
0.526] 0.57H1 0,6169 0,66 18 0.7063 0,7506
0._ 08384
0.8520 0.9254
09686
om
\' \11
1.0676 11111
\ \',.j,,,
1 0117 1.0545 I 0973
,'1)\
0,0211 0.0496 0.0!!1!8 0.1352 0,1846 0.2346 0.2840 0,3]25 0,3803 0.4274 0,4739 0,5198 0,5653 0,6104 O,65SO 0,6993 0.7433 0,7870 0.8303 0.8735 0.9163 0.9590 1.0014 1.0437 1 n~~7
oOW5
0,0477
0 .....
0.0044
0,1287 0,1769 0,2267 0,2766 0.]260 0.3745 04223 04694 0.5158 0.5616
06069
0,6516
0.6960
0,0043 0,0201 0._ 0,0818 0,124\ 0,1711 0,2202 0,2702 0.]200 0.369] 041711 0.4656 0.5126 0.55119 06045 0,6495
0,0043 0,0]98
O,04~4
0.0198 0.1211 0.1670 0.2 156 0,2654 0.]154
0.3650
",
0.7399 07834 0.8266 0,8695 0.9120 0.9542 0.9961 10HI! I 079:'
1 1.\
o""'" 0,7380
0,7814 0.8245 0.8671
0._
0.9514 0.9930 1 1n43 1 117~~
1\1>\
0,4139 0.4622 0,5097 0,5564 0,6024 06477 0,6924 0.7365 0.7800 0.8231 0.8657 0.9078 0.9496 0.9910 LO.m
1.072<1
!l:..l
o,oon 0,0]96 00446 0,07113 0.1186 o 1637 0,2117 0,2613 0.3112 0.3610 0,4103 0.4589
0.5068
0.5539 0,6003 0.6459 0.6908 0,7351 0,77Sf! 0.8219 0.8645 0,9056 0,9483 0.9896 UnOl lU7m 1111
0.<.1042 0.0\94 0,0441 0.0771 0.11K{! 0.1612 0.2087 0.2579 0.3078 0.3578 0,4073 0,4563 Q.5(M5 0,5520 0,5987 0.6447 0,6899 0.7344 0.7783 0.8215 0.8641 0.9063 0.9679 0.9891
].0298
OJX)42 0,0]93 0,0.08 0.0164 0,1156 o 1596 0,2067 0,2557 0,3055 0.3555 0,4052 0,4543 0.5028 0.5506 05975 0,6437 0.6892 0.7]38 om8 0.82 12 n.8639 0.9061 0,9477
0.9889
0.(1042 0,0]92 0,0.05 0,0758 0,1146 (J,1581
O,~9
0,2537 0.30]6 0.3536 04031 04525 0.5012 0.5492 115966 0,6428 0.6884 (),733] (I,77N
08208
0,0042 0,0191 (I,o·no 0.0749 o 1131 0,1561 0,2024 O,251J8
(),3004
Ol~O3
0.8636 0,9058 0,9475
0._
1 U292 I 1)(,91 I 11189
I 07111
I llul
10295 101'>'1)\ I If;
0._ 04498 049R8 0.547\ 05946 06415 0.6874 0.7325 07769 08205 0.8635 0.9058 0.9475 0.900 I ()2l()
I (1M')
I til
O,IJOO) O.IK)42 O.IJlS9 0,0·'21 0.0742 0.1171 (J 1547 0.20m 0.24K8 0.291\2 0.3481 0,3<J80 0,4477 0.4969 0.5454 1)5932 11,6401 1),68112 0.7315 11,7760 I),B198 1J.8628 1J.9052 0.9468 11.9879 1,()283
1,(I(~1
O,O(i4;: 0.0189 0,0424 0,0737 0,1111 o 1534 0,1991 0,2470 0,2962 0.3461 0,3961 0,4450 0,4951 0,5437 0:'917 O,6J88 0.6850 0.7.'\04 0.7750 0.8 189 0.8619 0.9043 0,9459
0_
0,0042 0.0198 0,0422 0,0733 0.1104 0.1524 0. 1978 0.2455 0.2946 0.3444 0.3943 0.4441 0.4935 0.5422 0.5902 0,6374 0,6837 0.7292 0,7739 0.8178
0.8609
0.0042 0.0187 O.OUO 0.0729 0.1098 0.1515 0.1967 0.2442 0,2932 0,3429 0.3929 04428 0.4922
0.5409 0.5690
0.6362 0.6826 0.7282 0,7830 0,8169
08600
] .0273 I (1(,70
I Tit.:
0.9033 0.9449 0.9854 ] .0262 I06W
I
0.9024
0._
IfI)
'0,(1
0,9850 1.0253 1.0650 I III_HI
1.1979 1.2412 14.5() 1500 1.2844 15.SO 1,3275 16,00 1.3705 16.50 1.4135 17,00 1.4564 17.50 1.4992 18,00 1.5420 18.SO 1.5847 19 .00 1,6274 19.5O 16700 20.00 1.7126 ".SO 1.7551 21.00 \.7975 21,SO 1.8400 22.00 1,8824 22.SO 1.9247 2300 1.9670 23.SO 2.00B 24.00 2.0516 24.50 2.0938 25.00 2. 1360 25.SO 2.176 1 26,00 2.2202 26.50 2.2623 27.00 2 . _ 27,SO 2.3'61 2800 2.3885 28,SO 2.4305 ,.00 2.4724 ,.SO 2.5144 30.00 2,5563 J4.oo
I HIl3 J.2146 1.2668
1.3089
I 1693
1.2109
1,3509 1.]928 1.4346 1.4763 L5180 1,5595 16010 1.6424 \.6837 I.72SO 1.7662 1 8073
,......
1.8895 1.9J04 1.9714 20122 2.0531 2.0938 2, 1346 2.1753 2.2\59
2.2566
1,2523 1.2936 1.3347 1.3757 1.4166 1.4574 \.4981 1.5387 1.5792 1 6196 1.6597 1.7001 \ ,7403 1.7803 1.8203 1.8603 1,9001 1.9399 1.9797 2.0 193 2.0590 2.0985 21380 2.1775 2.2169
2.2562
1 1614 L2021 1,2427 1.2X30 1,3232 1,)632 1.4031 1.4428 I 4823 1.5217 1,5610 , 6002 1.6392 \.6781 1.7169 1.7556 1,7942 1 8327 1.8711
,
2.297 1 2.3377 2.3782 2.4186 2.459\ 2.4995
2.2955 2.3348 2.3740 2.4132 2.4523
I Ins I 1934 , '968 1.2368 1,2331 ' 2766 1.2725 L31 16 1.3161 1,3555 L3505 I.3H92 1.3947 14336 1 4218 14M1 14724 1.5042 L5111 1,5422 1.5496 1.5879 1,5800 1.6176 ] 6261 1. 6551 16641 1.7020 1.6924 \.7296 1.7398 1.7667 \.m5 U\036 I 81SO 1,1!404 \.8524 I lf171 1.R898 1.9270 1.9 136 \.9477 1.9SO] 1.9858 1.%41 1.9S64 2.0239 2,0011 2,()618 2.0380 2.0226 2.0998 2,0749 2.0588 2.1376 2.1116 20948 2.1754 2.1403 21307 2,1848 2.1666 2.213\ 2,2507 2.2213 2,2024 2.288] 2.2578 2.2..180 2.2736 2.3258 2.2lJ41 2.3632 2,3]()4 2,3091 2._ 2.3666 2._ 1 1566
11509 \.1904 L2296
1.2685
1.1496 1.1889 1.2278 1.2663
1.
I 1489 I 1879 1.2265 \.2647
1. 3026
1 1481 11868 1.2252 1,2631
1,3071 1.3455 1.3836 1.4215 \.4591 14')65 1.53311 1.57U11 1,6076 1.6443
1.6808
1.3426 1.3803 1.4178 1.45SO 1.4920 1. 5287 1.5653 1.6016 1.6377 1.6736
1.7U94 1.7450
1.3402 1.3775 1.4\45 14512 14876 1.52311 1.5597 \5954
1.6308
I._
1.7011 1,1359 \.770S
\ ,8049
1.7171 1.7532 1.7892 1.8251 ,8608 1.8964 1.9318 1.9671 2.l1023 20373 2.0723 2.107 1 2. 1418 2.1764 2.2110 2,2454 2.2797 21119
1.7804 \.8156 18507
],AA56
1.92{)4 1.9550 1,9895 2.0239 2.058] 2.0923 2. \263 2.160 1 2.19]9 2.2276 2.2611 2.2946
1.8392 \.8733 I 'J072 1.9409 1.9745 2.0079 2,0412 20744 2.\074 2.1403 2.1730 2.2056 2,2331 2.2705
I 1472 1.\459 \.1840 1.1855 1,2234 1.22 \7 \.2588 1,2008 1.2978 1.2954 1.3007 \.33 16 1.3343 1.3379 \ ,3674 \.3705 1.3748 1.4028 1.4062 \4114 1..4377 14476 1.4617 1.4728 \.4767 1.4835 U065 I ~1 14 \ ,5192 \54l)4 1.5458 1.5546 \.5739 1.5799 1.5997 1.6246 16137 1,6071 1.6400 \.6472 1.6592 , 6IIQ.I \.6726 1.6936 1.7049 1,7 134 \.7278 1,7460 1.7370 1.7617 17(~7 1.7785 1.7955 1,8107 I.IIIKl2 I 8290 1.11115 1.8427 11\623 I.M25 1,8744 1.8955 \.11933 1.9060 1.9285 1.9238 1.9373 1. 9613 \ ,9'il2 19939 1.9843 \.9994 2,0264 V1l42 2.0S!!7 2.0301 20909 20607 2.0440 2.0735 2,1229 2.0911 2.10211 2.1548 21213 2.1H65 2. 1913 2,1320 2.1812 2.111 J(J 2.2181 2.2496 2,2110 2. 11191'1
,
I 14)5 1 1415 1.1441 I 1615 \.\004 \.1827 1.218lJ 1.2177 1,2202 1.2558 1.2546 \,2572 1.2922 ,2909 1.29)7 1.3281 1.3268 \.3298 \.3637 1,3623 L3653 1.3987 1.3973 \.4005 14.\34 \.43\8 1.4353 1.4677 14(197 1,5015 \.4998 \.5036 1.5351 1.5332 1.S373 1,5706 1.5692 1S663 ].6011 1.5990 1.6035 1.63]6 1.6614 1.5362 1.6658 1.6635 1.5M5 1.6977 1.6953 1.700~ 1.7322 1,7243 1.7267 1.7606 1.7579 1.7637 1,7916 1.7889 1.7949 1.8258 1.8224 L8195 \ .8530 1.8499 1.8565 1,!lg7() l.fUl33 1.8801 1.9133 \.9100 ] 9172 1.9431 1.9397 1.9728 1,9692 \.9769 2.(X)65 20022 19964 2,0359 2.0314 2.0275 2,0650 H)60) 2,0563 2.0940 2.0891 2.0849 2,1228 2.1178 2.1134 2.1462 2.1417 2.\514 2. 17')8 2.1744 2. 1698
,""'"
,"
.
•
Table 7·2 (g) Extended Sukkar...comell Integral tor Bottom·hole Pressure Calculation
~
~
~
P,
1.1 020 0." 1.00 200 2,. 300 3.50 4.00 4.50 '.00 0.0000 1.2 0.0000 1.3 00000 1.4 0.0000 1.S 0.0000
Reduced Temperature for B .; 30.0
1.' 0.0000 1 .7 0.0000 1.' 0.0000 1 .' 0.0000 20 00000 2.2 00000 2.4 00000 2.' 0.0000 2.' 0.0000 3.0 00000
I."
.00 '.50 700 7." 8.00 850 9.00 9.50
,."
0.0039 0,0199 0,0521 0,0967 0,1422 0,1870 0,2314 0.2756 0.3195 0.3632 0,4067 0,4500 0.49]1 0,5361 0.5789 0.6216 0.6642 0.7066 0.7488
0.7909
0.0038 0.0184 0.0447
0.0823
1000 10.50 lUll) 11.50 12.00 1150
13 Ol) \\.511
0.8329 0,8747 0,9165 0.9581
U""""
0.1264 0.1719 0.2174 0.2625 0.3071 0.3513 0.395\ 0.4386 0.4817 0.5247 0.5574 0.6098 0.6521 0.6941 0,7360 Q,m5 0.8181 o8roI 0.9()16 U.942/1
U.911~~
0.0037 0.0176 0.0418 0,0755 0.1164 0,1608 0.2063 0.2519 0.2970 0.3416 0.3858 0.4295 0.4728 0.5158 0.5584
0.6007
0.0037 0.0112 0.OW1 0.0718 0.\103 01531 0.\980 0.2436 0.2891 0.3343 0.3789 0.4230 0.4667
0._
0,0036 0,0168 0,0390
0.0692
0,106(} 0,1474 0,1914 0.2367
0.2823
0.6428 0.6846 0.7261 0.7674
0.808S
0.8"94
08901 OmOb
0.5527 0.5951 0,6372 0.6789 0,7204 0,7615 0,8026 0,8430 0.8833 0.9234
(I9f,:n
U 9710
'.11!1~
1.0~1I
I 11411 1IIIQ4
1 H2J~ I 0(>4"
1 unn I 0425
0,3278 0,3729 0,4175 0.4616 0,5052 0.5483 0.5909 0.6331 0.6749 0,7163 0.7573 0.7980 0,8384 0,8785 0.9183 O.YS711 (19'173
ll1.lM
0.0036 0.0166 0.0382 0.0676 0,1033 0,1436 0.1869 0.2318 0.2n3 0.3229
0.3683
0,4132 0.4576 0.5015 0.5149 0.511n 0,63(11 0.6719 0.7134 0.7544 0.7951 0.8354 0.8754 0.9150
n.9~4'
1I.'J'lJI,
l.()'~'
0,0036 0,016\ 0,0375 00672 0.1010 0,1404 01831 0.2275 0.2729 0.3186 0.3641 0.4092 0.4539 0.4981 0.5417 0.5848 0,6273 0.6693 0.7109 0.7520 0.7926 08329 0.8728 0912.l o 9~1~ n,'I'/I14 1.02'HI
O,(lIns 0,0162 0,0371 0,0652 0.0993 o 1381 0.1801 0.2242 0,2693 0.3149 0.3605 0.4059 0.4508 0,4952 0.5391 0.5824 0.6252 0.6674 0.7091 0.7503 0.7910 0,1013 0,11711 0.9106 U'HII7
" W~X4
0,0035 0,0162 O,036!l
0_
0.0963 01366 0.1782 0.2219 0.2669 0.3124 0.3580 0 ...t035 0.4486 0.4932 0.5372 0.5808 0.6237 0.6660 0.7078 0,7491 0.71199 O,R302 (J,87()(' U YO')5 U II'X~
II
<}1017~
0,0035 0.0161 0,0365 0.0640 0,0974 0,1353 0.1765 0.2199 0,2647 0,3101 03551:1 0,4013 0,4465 0,4913 0,5355 0.5792 0,6223 0.6647 0.7066 0.7480 0.71!S8 O,82Y2 0!i690 U.90114 U.9'74
(J,i)SW
0,0035 0,0169 0,0361 0,0632
0.0960
0,1334 0,1741 0.2112 0,2617
0.J069
0,0035 0,0159 0,0351:1 0,0626 0.()951 01321 o 1725 0.2152
O,25~
0.3525 0.3981 0.4·05 0,4&14 0.5329 0.5767 o 62()() 0.6627 0.7048 0,7463 0.71173 O,II2n O,I!676 o 9()7U
U '1J~1I
0.3046 0.3501 0,3957 0.4412 0,4863 0.5309 0.57411
O,61~
0.6612 0,7034 0.7451 (),7!S61 0,11265 0.""" () ()I]57
n" 'Jo
1I'11oI:.'S
0,0035 0,0158 0,03.56 0,0621 0,0943 0,1309 0,1710 0,2135 0,2675 0.3025 0,3480 0,3937 0.4392 0.4843 0.5291 0.5712 0.61bR 0.6597 0,7020 0,74]6 () 7847 0.8251 086:'iO 0,90·n
0.'1'.11 lI'Jlln
onoo
0,1697 0,2120 0,2559
0.3008
0,0035 0,0157 0,0355 0,0618 0,0937
0,0035 0,0157 0,0353 0,0615 0.0931 0,1292 0.1687 0.2108 0.2545 0.2993
0.J448
0.3462 0.)919 0.4374 04826 0.5274 0,5716 0,6152 0.6582 O,71()6 0.7'23 0.7833 0.1I23R 0.11637 0.9()]() 0.9117
U97W
O,39(}.\ 0,4359 0,4812 0,5260 0.5703 0,6139 0.6570
0_
n \//1.1:'
, .11.'
0.7411 0.71122 0,11227 0.11626 0.9019 09'06 II.Y7117
! IJJN
1 ml>s
, leM
1.02.11
11:.'11(,
1 1l1'!1
1.11171>
14.00
"50
1 1237 I 1649
1.2060
15.00
15.50 16.00 16.50 17.00 17.50 18,00 18.50 19.00 19.50
20.00 20.50
21.00 21.50
2200 22.SO 23.00 23.50
\.2471 1.2881 1.3291 1.3700 \.4109 1.4517 1.4924 1.5332 \,5738 1.6145 1.6S51 1.6956 1.7361 \,n66 1.8171 1.8575
1.8979
I 10Sol I 1459 I 1862 1,2264 1,2666 1.3067 1,)467 1.3866 1.4264
14662
10912 I 1310 1.1707 1.2102 1.2497 1.2890 1.3282 1.3674
1.
1.0318
11209
1 1598 119116 1.2372 1.2757 1.3140 1.3522 1.3903 1.4282 1.4661 1.5038 1.5414 1.5789 1,6163 1.6537
1.6909
1 0753 1 1139 I 1524 11907
1.2287
1.0710
1 1091
1,0673
1.l054
1.~9
106J4
1,2666
1.
1.3419
1.37~
1.5059 1.5456 1,5852 1.6247 1,6642 1.7037 1.743\ 1.7824 L8217 1,8610
1.9002
24.00
24 SO "00 ".50
26,00
26.50
27.00 27.50
28.00
28.50 29,00
29.SO 30.00
1.9383 1.9786 2.0189 2.0592 2.0995 2.1397 2.1799 2.22{\1 2.2603 2.3OCl5
2._ 2.J807
1.9393 1.9785 2.0176
2.0S66
2.4208
2.0957 2.1346 2.1736 2.2125 2.2514 2.2903 2.3291 2.3679
1.4454 1.4843 1.5231 1.5618 1.6005 1.6391 1.6n6 1. 7160 1.7544 1.7928 1.8311 1.8693 1.9075 1.9456 1.9837 2.0217 2.0597 2.0976 2.1355 2.1734 2.2112 2.2490
2.2868
1.7281 1.7651 1.8021 1.8390 1.8759 1.9127 1.9493
1.9860
2.0226 2.0591 2.0955 2.1319 2.1682 2.2045
2.2407
1.4167 1.4538 1.4908 1.52n 1,5644 1,6011 1.6376 1,6740 l.7i03 1,7485 1,7826 1.8186 1,8546 1,8904 1.9262 1.9618 1.9974 2.0330
I 1475 I 1855 1.2232 1.2607 \,2981 1.3352 1.3722 1.4091 1.4457 14823 1.5187 1.5549 1.5910 1.6270 1 6629 1.6987 1.7343 I. 7698 1.8053
1.8406
I 1431
1 1606
1.2179 1.2549 1.2917 1.3283 1.3847
1.4009
1.4370 1.4728
1.S08S 1.
1 1027 1 1402 IIn4 1.2144 1.2511 1.2876 1.3238 1.3598 1.3956 1.4312
14666
11009 1.1382 I 1751 1,2117 1.2481 1.2842 1.3200 1.3555 1.3908 1.4259
1
1.5794 1.6146 1.6497
1.684<>
1.8758 1.9110
19460
2.11684
2.1038 2.1391 2.1743 2.2095 2.2446
1.9810 2,0159 2.0507
208S4
1.7194 1.7541 1.7886 1.8230 1.8573 1.8915 1.92.56 1.9596 1.9934 2.0272
2.0609
2.3245
2.2769
2.1200 2,1546 2.1891 2.2235
2.0945 2.1280 2.1614 2.1947
1.5019 1.5369 1.5718 1.6065 \.6410 1.6754 1,7(1% 1,7437 I.7m 1.8115 1.8452 1,8788 1.9123 1,9'56 1.9788 2.0119 2.04J9 2.0779 2.1107 2.1434 2.1760
1.4954 1.5298 1.5MI 1,59S 1 1.6320 1.6657 1.6992 1.7325 1,7657 1.7987 1,8316
1.
1,8970
1 ,92~
1.9618 1.9940 2.0261 2.0580
2.01199
2.1216 2.153]
1.0618 1.0992 1 1362 I 1729 1.2092 1.2453 1.2610 1.3164 1.3515 1 J864 1.4211 1.4554 1.4896 1.5235 155n 1.5906 1.6239 1.6570 1.6899 1.7226 1.7551 1.787<1 1.8196 1,8516 1.8835 1.9152 1,9468 1,9782 2,0095 2.0407 2.0717 2.1026 2.1334
1.0596
1.il966
1~79
1 0917
I 1332 116<J.i 1.2052 1.2<W7 1.2757 1.3105 1,3449 1.3789 1.4127 1.4462 1.4794 1.512.1 1.5449 1.5773 1.6095 1.6414 1.6731
1.7~6
1 1311 1 1670 1.2026 1.2377 1.272'1.3067
1.J407
I 374.I 4077 1,4734 1 ~58 I ~379 1.5697 160iJ 1.6326 1.6636 UJ9.5 1,72S0 1,7554 1,7855 iJ!l55
I.~S2
"107
I 056~ 10930 1 1293 I 165\ 1,2005 1.2354 \.2700 1.3042 1.3380 I 3714 1.4U45 1.4373 1,'698 1.5019 \.5338 1.5654 15967 162n 1.6585
16890
1.0547 1.0914 I 1276 I 1633 I 19K7 1.2:'15 1.2(>110
1.3021
1.7358 1.7669 1.79n 1.8284 1.85119 1,8891 1.9192 1,9492
197'JO
1.7193 1.7494 1.7792
1.8088
2.0086
2.03AO 2.0673 2.(1%5
11047 1.9040 1.9332 1.9672 1.'J910 2,()196 2.i)4S1 2.0764
1.8382 1.8674 1.8964 1.9252 1.9538 1.9R23 2,0105 2,0386
2.0666
1.3358 1.3692 1.4022 1.4349 1.4672 1.4993 1,5310 1,5625 1,5937 1.6246 1.6552 1.6856 1.7158 1.7457 l,n54 1,8OtS 1,8341 1.8631 1.8920 1.9206 1.9.91 1.9774 2.0055 2.0334 2.0612
\ U5.lS 11110\ I 121>3 1 I"2U I 1972 I.HW 1.2665 1.3005 1.3.\41 I 3674 1.4003 I 4329 1.4652 1.4971 I .S2RB 1,5601 1.5912 1.6220 1.6525 1.6828 1.7128 1.7<126 1.7722 1.8015
1 1<306
18595 1.8AA2 1 9167 1 9.51 1.9732 2.0012 2.0289 2.0566
•
Table 72 (h) Extended SukkarCornellintegral for Bottomhole Pressure Calculation
S1
2.' 00000 0.0030 0.0136 O,OJ07 0.0537 0,0819 0,1142 01499 0.1880 02279 0.2690 0,3107 0.3529 03951 04373 0,4792 0,5208 0.5619 0,6026 0.6428 06825 07217 0,7604 0.7987 0.8364 08737 U9106
11'117(1
w
P,
1.1 0.20 O.SO 1.00 I.SO 2.00 2.SO 3.00 3.SO 4.00 4.SO '.00 '.SO 600 6.SO 7.00 7.SO 8.00 8.SO 9.00 9.SO 10.00 10.50 11 .00 11.50 12.00 12.50
13.00 BStl
1.2 0.000l 0.0032 0.0158 0.0387 0.0720 0.1119 0.1538 0.1960 0.2382 0.2800 0.3216 0.3630 0.4040 0.4449 0.4856 0.5261 0."" 0._ 0.6466 0.686S 0.7262 0.7657 0.8051 0..... 0.8836 0.9227 0,9617
1.{){X)(,
1.3 0.000l 0.0032 0,0152 0.0361 0,0657 0.1022 0, 1425 0.1844 0.2266 0.2688 0.3106 0.3522 03934 0.4344 0,4752 0.5 156 0.5558 0.5959 06357 0.6753 0,7147 0,7539 0.7930 0.8319 08607 0.9094 09479
{) <)101/,1
1.4 0.000l 0.0031 0.0148 0.0346 0.0623 00965 0.1350 0,1759 0.2179 0.2601 0.3023 0.3442 0.3857 0.4270 0.4679 0.S08S 0.5487 0.5888 0.6285 0.6681 0.7073 0.7464 0.7852 0,8239 0.8623 09006 0.9386
II <J7f15
1.5 0.000l 0.0031 0.0145 0.0336 0.0601 0,0925 0.1295 0.1694 0,2108 0.2529 0.2951 0.3373 0.3791 0.4207 0,46 18 0.5026 0.5431 0.5832 0.6230 0.6625 0,7017 0.7406 0,m3
0.8171
Reduced Temperature for 8  35.0 1.' 1.7 1.6 2.0 1.'
2.2 0000l 0.0030 0.0137 0,0311 0.0546 0,0834 0,1165 0,1528 0.1916 0,2320 0.2734 0.3153 0.3576 0,3998 04418 0.4836 0.5247 0.5657 0.6062 06462 0.6858 0.7250 0,7637 0,8019 08398 0,8m 0.9141 (1'150
2.4
0.0000 0.0033 0,0171
0 . ~S4
2.6 0.0000 0.0030 0.0135 0.0305 0.0534 0,0813 0.1134 0.1487 0.[866 0.2263 0.2672 0.3089 0.3910 0.3932: 0,4354 0.4n4 0.5190 0.5(;)2 0.6009 0,6412 0.6809 0.7201 0.7589 0.7971 0.8349 0.8721 0.9089
f) ()l~.1
3.0 0.0000 0.0030 0.0135 0,0304 0.0531 0""" o 1127 0.1478 o 1855 0.2250 0.2658 0.3014 0.3495 0,3918 0.4339 04759 0.5175 0.5588 0,5996 0.6398 0,6796 0.7189 07576 0.7958 0.8336 0.8708 0.9076
f) 9~.19
0.086 1 0.1283 0,1703 0.2 120 0.2536 0.2950 0.3362 0.3773 0.4183 0.4591 0.4999 0.S405 0.58 10 0.6214 0.66 17 0.7018 0.74 19 0.7818 0.8217 0.8614 0.9011 0,9407 0911.03 I 0\97
08559 0.8939 0.\)317
11 9(,(j,
0000l 0.0031 0.0143 0,0329 0.0585 00900 0.1259 0,1650 0,2059 0.2477 0.2899 0.3321 0.3742 0,4159 0.4573 04983 0.5390 0.5792 0.6191 0.6586 0.6978 0.7367 0.7753 08136 0,8517 0.8895 U9271
{)(jM~
0000l 0.0031 0.0141 0.0323 0,0573 00879 0,1230 0. 1613 0.2017 0.2433 0.2854 0.3276 0.3698 0.4117 0.4532 0.4944 0,5352 0.5756 0.6156 0.6552 0.6945 0.7334 0.nI9 0.8 102 0.8481 0.8858 0,9232
lL'MI4
0.000l 0.0030 0,0139 0.0320 0.0564 0._ 0,1208 0.1585 01984 0.2396 0,2816 0.3238 0.3660 0_ 04198 0,4912 0,5822 0.5727 0,6129 0.6526 0.69 19 0.7308 0,7694 0.8076 0.8655 0.8831 O,92U4
()
(j~7.1
0.0000 0.0030 0.0139 0.0317 0.0559 0.11055 0,119.1 0.1567 0.1962 0.2372 0.2790 0.3211 0.3634 04{l55 0,4473
OA~
0.5300 0.5707 0.6109 0.6507 0.6901 0.7291 0,7677 0.8059 08438 0.8813 0918.'1
11
(J~S~
0000l 00030 0.0139 0.0315 00554 0.0847 01182 0,1550 0, [942 0,2350 0.2766 0.3187 0,3610 0,4032 0,4451 04867 0.5280 0S688 0.6091 0.6490 06S85 0.7275 0.7661 0,8043 0.3422 0.8797 091611
II "'~1~
o000l 0.0030 0.0136 0.0309 0.0542 00826 0,1153 0,15 13 0.1897 0.2298 0.2710 0.3128 0.3550 03972 0,4394 0,48 12 0.5227 0.5638 0.6044 0.6445 0.6842 0.7234 0,7621 0.8001 0.8381 08755 1)'112l
J 'qXl
1400 14.50
15,00 15.50 /6.00 16.50 17.00 17.50 18.00 18.50 19.00 19,50
20.00 2O.SO 21.00 21.50 22.00 22.SO 23.00 23,SO 24.00 24.50 2500 25.SO 26,00 26,50 27.00 27.50 28.00 28.SO 2900 29 SO 30.00
1,0591 U1985 1.1377 I 1770 1.2162 1.2553 1. 2944 1.3334 1,3725 1.4114 1.4504 1.4893 1,5281
1.5610 1.6058 1,6446 1,68)3 1.7220 1.7607 1.7994 1.8381 1.8767 1.9153 1,9539 1.9924 2.0310 2.0695 2 1080 2,1465 21850 2,2234 2,26 1 9 2,3003
1.0394 1.078 1 1.1167 1.1552 1.1937 1.2321 1.2705 1.3087 1.3470 1.3851 1.4232 1.4613 1.4993 1.5373 1.5752 1.6130 1.6509 1.6887 1.7264 1.7641 1.8018 1.8394
1.871 1
1.9146 1.9522 1.9897 2.0272 2.0647 2.1021 2,1395 2.1769 2,2142 2.2516
1.0246 1.0627 1,1008 1.1388 1.1767 1,2 144 1.2521 12898 1.3273 1.3648 1.4022 1.4395 1.4768 1.5140 1.55 II 1.5882 1.6252 1.6622 1.6991 1.7360 1.7729 1.111m 1.8464 1.8831 1,9198 1.9564 1.9930 2.0295 2.066 1 2,1025 2. 1390 2,1754 2.2118
1.0143 1.0519 1.0893 1.1 266 1.1638 1.2008 1.2378 1.2746 1.31 13 1.3479 1.3844 1.4208 1.4571 1.4933 1.5294 1.5655 1.60 14 1.6373 1.6732 1.7089 1.7446 1.7802 1.8158 18513 1.8867 1.9221 1.9574 1.9927 2.0279 2,0631 2.0983 2.13J3 2. 1684
1'(l067 1.0439 1.0809 1.1178 1,1549 I 191/ 1.2275 1.2638 1.2999 1.3359 1.3718 1.4075 1.4432 1.4788 1.5142 1,5495 1.5848 1.6199 1.6550 1.6900 1.7249 1.7597 1.7944
18291
1.8637 1.8982 1.9326 1.9670 H)014 2.0356 2.0698 2.1040 2.1381
1.0017 1.0386 1.0754 1.1120 1.1484 1.1846 1,2207 1.2566 1.2923 1.3280 1.3634 1.3988 1,4340 1.4691 1.5041 1.5390 1.5738 1.6084 1.6430 1.6775 1.7118 l.7461 l.7803 1,8 144 1.8484 1.8824 1.9163 1.9501 1.9838 2.0175 2.051 1 2._ 2.1180
0.9913 1.0340 1.0704 1.1066 1.1426 1.1784 1.2140 1.2494 1.2846 1.3197 1.3546 1.3893 1.4239 1.4584 1.4927 1.5269 1.S609 1.5948 1,6286 1.6623 1.6959 1.7294 1.7627 17960 1.8191 1.8622 1.8951 1.9280 1.9608 1.9935 2.0261 2.0587 2.0912
0.9941 1.0305 1.0667 1.1027 1.1 384 1.1739 12092 1.2443 1.2792 1.3139 1.3484 1.3828 1.4170 1.4510 1.4849 1,5186 1,5522 1.5856 1,6U19 1.6521 1.6851 1.11110 \.7508 1,7835 1.8161 1.8486
1.8810
0.9920 1.0282 1.0642
I.Il999 1.1354 I 1705 1.2055 1.2402 1.2747 1,3089 1.3430 1.3769 1,4105 1.4440 IA773 1.5104 1.5434 1.5762 1.6088 1.6413 1.6736 1.1{)58 1.7379 1.7698 1.8016 1.8333 1.8649 1,8963 1.9277 1.9589 1.9900 2.02iO 2.0519
0.9900 1.0261 1.0618 1.0973 1.1325 1.1674 1,2020
12364
0.9869 1.0226 1.0500 1.0931 1.1278 1.1622
1.1962
0.9848
1.9133 1.9454 1.9775 2.0095
2.~14
2.0732
1.2705 1.3044 1.3380 1.3714 1.4046 1.4376 1.4704 1.5030 1.5355 1.5677 1.5998 1.6317 1,6634 1.6950 1.7264 1.7577 1.7888 1.8198 1.8506 UI814 1.9119 1.9424 19726 2.0030 2.033 1
1.2300 1.2634 \.2966 1,3294 1.3620 1.3944 1,4265 1,4583 1,4900 1,5214 1.5525 1,5835 1.6143 1.6448 1.6752 1,1054 1.7354 1.7652 1.7949 1.8244 1.8537 I.M29 1.9119 I.1.9696
1.9982
1.0205 1.0557 1.0905 1.1247 1.1590 1.1928 1.2262 1.2592 1.2970 1.3245
3166
,3885 ,4201 ,45 15 ,4826 ,5134 5440 5744
6()'16
6345 6642 .6937 ,723 1 I. 7522 1.7812 1.8100 1.8386 1.8670 1.8953 1.9234 1.9513 1.9791
0.9ln9 0.9812 0,9793 1.0184 1.0\67 \.0\53 1.0536 1.0517 I.OS03 1.0883 10864 1.0849 1.1226 1 1206 11191 11566 1.lS45 I 1529 1.1 88() 111164 1.1901 1.2234 1.2212 1.2195 12563 1.2540 1.2522 1.2889 1.2865 1.2847 1.3212 1.3187 1.3168 1.3531 1.3506 1.348S 1.3848 1.3822 1,4162 1.4135 1,4112 1,4473 1.4445 14422 1,4782 1.4752 1,4120 1.S088 1.5057 1.5032 1.5391 1.5360 U333 1.5693 1.S66il 1.5632 1.5957 Ism 1.5992 1.6288 1.6253 1.6223 1.6583 1.6546 1.6S15 1,6837 1.68Ol 1.6875 I. 7165 1.7126 1.7093 1.7454 1.7413 1.7378 1.1698 1,7662 1.7740 1,7981 1.7944 1.8025 1.8306 1.8262 1.8224 1.8542 1,8502 1.8589 1.8868 1.8820 1,8779 1,9/46 1.9096 1,90S3 1.9422 1.9370 1.9327 1.9696 1.9643 1.9598
"""
•
4381 1.2049 12006 1.5078 1.4900 1.4530 1.7760 1.0912 0.4513 1.K859 1.7398 0. 0.00 14 SO 15.6780 0.7571 0.2391 0.0738 0.0765 I 1129 1 1492 I 1855 1.7045 0.2767 ] .' 0.3423 0.2136 1.8226 1.0251 1.15 1.8557 I.0774 1 1149 r 1525 1 1"'.0075 2.50 1.2831 ] .6957 1.2663 1.4743 0.3727 1.8264 1.4982 1.1039 1.6386 0.3634 04023 0.0573 800 0.0228 1.50 18.SO 29.2155 1.106] 0.2367 0.4J.2405 0.2498 0.3694 1.6874 1.5792 1.0000 1 .2]95 0.6780 1.3153 13116 1.4723 1S4<J6 1.9551 0.0434 I 4620 J 4957 1.2182 0.5617 1.7052 0.2743 '00 0.79.3395 1.0119 0.8596 1.0118 0.7164 1.4449 1 4373 1.0281 0.1565 3SO 0.0561 1..9596 0.0026 00118 0.OJ)) ].SO 0.m9 0.5573 0.6059 0.6143 1.6797 1.4073 0.4885 1.2 00000 2.612S 0.7362 1.0194 2.3695 1.1 0.0505 0.m5 0.0903 J 12S5 I 1607 1.1758 0.5133 0.7429 0.6 0.3763 1.6227 9SO 0.02112 1.50 11.3168 ] .95n 0.7415 1.6139 1.9727 1.7181 1.00 23SO .3560 0.6873 0.7229 1.051\6 1.7584 1.1297 II"" 1.5031 0.6761 1.5 164 1.9674 2.7172 0.0034 10400 1.11283 1.7762 0.3675 1.4920 1 4887 1 _ I.4856 0.4143 1.SO 0.8 0.8591 1.6871 1.3816 0.8J91 II ~7'i~ n ~~n~ " 'I' '.3594 0.6249 1.987i 0.0026 0.2336 1.0917 1.1'\ 0.9450 1.5904 0.0468 0.4593 1.8511 ().0188 1.6324 1.2084 0.0038 2.5072 1.5834 1.50 17.0755 2.6833 97203 0.3247 0.2780 1.2211 1.' 0.9373 0.1393 0.1112 ].6755 1.0355 1.0765 0.5151 1.K!2J 0.0777 1.0127 0.2686 0.3283 0.9914 0.8105 1.0027 0.5396 1.9325 1.0027 0.6612 0.2579 12940 0.6582 1.40.04n 0.0853 I 1245 I 12111 I 1196 I 1179 I 1541 I 1008 I 1570 I 1519 1 1501 I 1934 I 1S92 I 1862 I 1839 ] 1820 l.0103 2.8717 1.7770 1.7988 \.9705 2.2790 0.0548 ].4037 0.8966 1.3181 0.3942 1~281 1.4072 1.7664 1.1681 0.0870 1.4383 0.0341 0.4553 0.5963 1.2762 0.5358 1.0516 \ .1005 \.00 21.1667 0.6163 16519 1.5553 0.2913 0.• 0.78JO 0.4171 1.1901 0.8121 0.1520 0.3642 0.7290 0.3952 1.330) ].0208 1.lid' 0907:' 011.9188 0.4905 0.0000 00026 2.2159 0.0718 0.0486 J .3199 0.SO 0.4038 1.0409 2.4662 1.5859 0.00 IBO 0.3360 0.1668 0.249~ 1.0276 0.)659 1.!Q43 !1iWIZ 0.~~I 0.8439 1.2152 1.00 18.3750 0.7819 0.3912 6.7301 1.2776 1.5503 1.1757 1.1714 0.OLSO I.7573 0.'Il~ 0.6743 1.0 120 0.5O 20.7279 1.4019 1.9155 1.5820 I.6292 1.2432 1.0125 0.9044 1.2017 0.1013 0.4270 1.5707 0.6572 1.0027 0.6818 0.6660 " 0.2382 1.0378 2.0731 1.4028 13999 1.5300 1.9891 0.11259 1.2576 0.7059 1.7954 1.0000 1. .3101 1.7729 0.0121 0.Table 72 (I) Extended SukkarComell Integral for Bottomhole Pressure Calculation ~ ~ ~ P.3731 0.7143 1.5650 0.2854 0.S85O 1.8579 1.0776 2.3433 1.3838 1.K393 1.6836 Ui713 Ui997 1.4646 0.7403 1.3989 0.0279 1.$479 0.8299 n.4431 0.0000 2 .9697 2.9982 1.00 23 SO 26.3261 1.1416 0.4466 0.089\ 1.3 0.\ 1.8999 1.8579 1.5227 1.3955 0.0246 0.6417 1.6461 0.7936 0.0730 0.00 19.S057 1.2941 0.7634 \.0193 1.3042 1.9'201 0.5673 0.8952 1.5244 0.3678 0.1551 2.3021 1.00 11.8]34 01490 (l .• 0.1005 0.1477 0.6030 06407 0.8216 1.7081 0.5954 1.2029 0.2829 0.3502 13868 0.SO 28.8035 \.OJ05 0.5755 JS725 1.0057 2.5918 0.00 0.8m 1.5325 0.6423 0.8X4U 1.4687 7.44{)5 0.3422 1..0 1.$458 8.2633 0.7988 l.0749 0.0517 0.3939 0.9313 1.50 19.7031 0.5439 1.7498 0.3476 0.0328 \.00 28.9636 1.0273 0"".0398 1.7645 1.2548 0.5975 0.1114 2.0000 O.SO 0.4910 0.4941 0.2074 0.lJI5 0.""" 1.6802 0.4834 1.9421 0.SO 00029 1.4795 0.3081 0.9920 2.6927 1.8308 1.8132 0.3244 0.4140 1.0000 2.5657 1.0717 I.386!1 0.5525 1.0026 0.7359 0.0009 0.7703 1.6315 06690 0.2062 0.5629 1.3575 0.6991 0.SO 12.1075 I 1417 1.0037 1.1348 0.4747 1.00 0.2045 0.1050 0.0640 1000 10.7903 O.6 171 0.7150 0.4350 0.8412 1.0027 00122 0.1780 0.3373 US23 1.1442 0.1812 0.7855 1.7792 1).1787 0.3136 1.5746 I """ 1.0530 0.3616 0.0558 1.7098 1.8754 1.2068 12422 1.8773 1.9352 1.5920 1.9627 09250 0.2574 1.2528 1.3602 1.8292 1.0821 0.7318 1.8265 1.5843 9.7812 IUIl7I II S~:>7 0.20 00000 O.1714 I 11'075 1.1187 I 1536 11884 1.00 27.9856 1.7946 1.7839 1.9559 0.4735 1.0268 0.om 0.SO 0.7126 1.6363 1.5 0.4754 \ .llS6 1.7 0.6319 0.9267 1.2422 0.0698 1.4011 0.0034 2.2521 0.1958 4.0837 1.1H06 1.7938 1.9356 1.3349 1.5293 1.3369 1.7965 1._ 0.0079 1.no I'~I n Q~t.4097 0.3308 0.n53 0.8726 1.2402 ].7560 1.9532 0.7765 1.9826 0.0139 0.9939 1._ • .'1300 7.9\14 0.2655 ] .3376 0.1341 1.7484 1.3768 1.8190 0.2894 1.4328 0.6919 0.2JJS 0.0000 0.0488 0.0541 1.5093 1.4258 0.7659 0.0429 1.4963 1.2230 1.0928 1.J 713 1.2808 0.4797 0.3831 1.2095 1.7372 0.3523 6.9120 1.2450 1.5294 0.5955 0.3133 '.6606 1.0949 I 121!O 0.9816 0.76] I 0.6609 1.5936 0.SO 23.6*.47]4 0 .8098 n~66 0.4503 1.3703 0.6559 1.4093 1.9015 1.3768 1.7715 1.7882 n.3166 0.5492 1.1123 1 14611 I 1811 1.6760 0.5535 0.5793 0.819n US.0123 0.6266 I.6S43 1.3698 1.6646 1._ 0.3221 0.81186 1.SO 21.7440 \.1362 0.1853 0.9704 2.7977 OSJJI IlInm II )1111.6851 1.0779 0.0000 '" 1.0403 2.8529 18487 1R667 ].2889 0.5932 ] .4124 0.6010 1.1\612 1.2586 0.1208 0.2240 0.8562 1.5574 1.J(]68 1.6246 1.1'0297 1.8176 {) 1<827 HINIJrI 'K"I.6439 0.6886 1.8940 "806 I.7120 1.95\1 0.5450 1.0471 0.1958 1.1696 0.7624 1.5213 1.6237 0.0641 I 1000 \ 1357 I.0582 0.1005 O.8324 0_ 0.0133 0.1182 2.5719 16041 1.1095 0.9667 1.0318 0.5747 0.5367 0.9594 1.2980 0.00 17.6001 1.4328 I 4297 142n \.0026 0.0000 2.00 0.0!!\3 2.6673 0.2851 0.4586 1.SO 0.O 0.7867 1.5148 0.0028 0.2113 0.0027 0.1281 0.3K34 1.3156 0.2713 J .7539 0..8797 1.0192 1.0271 O.4598 1.9021 1.0551 00858 D.7071 0.7000 1.3975 1.9107 1.6500 0.2648 1.3210 1.~' 'I!'SiO 14.8849 1.0000 Reduced Temperalure for 8 .7448 0.42{)8 0.7517 0."'" 0.0525 1.1920 0.5097 0.5677 0.50 22.3395 1.0473 0.977J 2.0129 0.4138 0.5]87 0.7466 0.6334 067\0 0.0027 0.2175 0.4879 0.9516 1.50 1.0 0.0798 0.1324 0.4879 1.1034 0.2760 1. 13&3 0.(JO?.IQM II IIO~J II ~'Il'il 0.6052 0.11274 IKI16 1.6429 0.5559 1.44\0 0.7862 Q.5413 0.0122 0.2469 1.6041 1.~ J/)I~l 16."00 24.6298 0.~.5257 15629 1.0761 2.0296 0.00 26.2063 0.6696 0.8645 1.7412 0.9335 0.0270 0.00 20.(k) 22.0756 0.3970 0.5521 0.1335 0.0)85 1.7196 0.4567 14673 I 462.7505 1.4181 1.9310 09287 0.9661 0.1156 0.3462 1.5593 0.2292 0.449(} 0.9336 1.9477 098.0279 0. 1.5166 0.50 27.0284 0.9921 1.t 1 1.4819 0.7491 1.0497 0.]584 0.7799 1.6353 06728 07099 0.11940 1.851'01 tUN'1 L)?'N 0.79fl9 1.9778 I .6987 0.5468 1.8026 ().0714 0.2034 1.so~'1 0.4970 1.2180 1.9439 1.1740 0.0724 0.4163 0.0667 1.4365 0.2842 1.2217 1.19 ]2274 1.5213 15178 1.00 15 .2988 1.3336 0.3504 1.2492 1.AA~ 0.1170 300 0.2307 1.7293 1.nt46 1.2 0.52{)8 0.9228 0.2577 1.6630 1.50 23.74K5 1.X II .3170 0.5940 0.7207 1.2351 4SO 0.6284 0.0267 n 'JI n H'iSO /I.4233 1.5266 0.3311 1.2769 1.2457 0.8892 1.3128 13480 1.0000 1.5560 0.4983 0.8673 1.4421 1.0000 1.7676 1.2465 0.7434 1. 0.6962 1.7114 1.6009 0.4758 0.S691 \.8106 1.9302 19680 1 \l996 0.]973 0.4019 1.4597 0.2918 1.5265 1.1656 0.4525 0.1378 1.00 0._ I.00 0.9204 1.0000 00026 J.6362 1.0444 2.1474 I.6427 1.2442 0.5290 0.0493 0.5327 1.7130 0.4)77 1.7243 0.30)2 ] .4776 0.00 2950 3000 10022 1.11152 II H~17 7 II '~IL' 0.6 0.2969 0.1122 0.7443 1.00 O.0119 0.4516 0.5628 0.nt6 0.MI2 1.9588 1.3549 0.1398 0.' 0.3028 0.6472 1.~4· 0.7128 1.3633 1.1023 0.8229 1.5179 0.0290 0.6372 1.
8101 1.2871 1.5965 23.5338 1.9016 0.2 0.3871 0.0254 0.3202 1.0000 0.7959 IIK!'I'J 0.0671 0." '.7937 1.0000 0.4215 1.9652 0.2126 12447 1.0024 0.6552 1.5153 0.7783 1.42]9 1.6741 1.0266 I .3660 1.2001 0.5961 0.6978 0.0915 1.7969 1.9875 15.1005 1.4916 1.7 1.9157 0.9382 0.00 4.5428 1.4785 0.0699 00986 0.3279 1.2637 0.5]23 0.2705 1.9744 1.3823 20.0000 0.5375 1." 10.89S3 0.2838 0." 8.9094 0.1378 0.764] 0.8408 1.4388 1.4520 1.5 0.4824 1.1645 0.6200 1.00 1.0024 0.8078 1."" 0.4270 0. 1872 0.00 \.5658 1.7212 1.5599 0.3005 1.8100 26.1542 1.0240 O.7914 IUC:I.1321 1 1636 11948 1.7916 1.1019 I 1358 1.6134 1.00 5.0000 0.3367 1.8635 0.0134 0._ 0." 3.0823 0.5883 0.2949 0.2608 0.0 0.2511 1.00 1._ 0.2045 0.00 2.0242 0.6712 1."'" 0.1072 1.0729 1.5728 1.5984 0.7153 0.87\5 0.00 1.4]79 1.9847 0.7244 i.8238 ].0586 0.8797 1.4733 1.4414 0.0093 1.6406 1.5566 1.3811 0.34()9 1.2223 0."" 0.2327 0.4920 0.0930 01229 0.6856 1.6945 1.0462 0.0000 0. l !l 2.0912 0.4SOO 0.0878 1.2917 0.2562 0.4591 1.0654 0.0475 0.4912 1.SO 1.2172 U474 12n4 1.2032 18.00 7.2949 1.5308 1..4766 0.1012 0.7832 1.6995 1.2366 0.9839 2.4043 1.0494 1.0025 0.5996 1.6677 1.3937 1.2528 ) 2854 I_ 1.850] 1.1643 0.0023 0.8354 0.4360 0.0019 1.20 0.6867 ].0110 0.2566 1.9712 1." 200 00000 0.Il8.1215 o 1534 0.3351 1.30·'1 IJ020 1.6210 0.6224 0.00 1.2258 1.2544 0.7381 0.3112 1.7523 1.6301 06664 07023 0.1484 1.00 0.4038 1.3757 0. P.2370 1.0]64 1.SO 1.]706 1.6498 0.6108 1.3465 20.63.6977 0.Table 7·2 (j) Extended SukkarCornell Integral for 9oHom·hole Pressure Calc'" II.00 1.1126 1.9355 .3704 1.9931 1.66TI 24.4552 0." 1.1811 1._ 1.6008 1.7 00000 0.0 1.on2 0.9663 1.]908 1.3175 1.0247 0.6342 1.0272 0.2665 1.7314 1.4182 0.2618 1.3158 0.1155 1.5561 0.4524 1.2466 0.6698 0.3692 04064 04436 04806 0." 5.6015 1.0106 0.3919 IJ"" 1.8 0.0576 0.7157 07509 0.8097 14074 1.3676 0.6136 1.5730 06090 06447 0.l D.2153 1.0105 0.4129 0.592] 0.3107 19.5436 1.0533 0.9510 0.1674 17.9297 0.4699 1.2Q82 1.5286 05649 06009 0.4607 1.' w 1.3071 1.0186 2.1614 0.9262 1.3852 0.0119 Reduced Temperature for 8 = 45.8968 0.6242 0.6573 0.5826 1.7795 1.\l\ 2.0209 1."" 0.0115 0.2187 0.2936 0.5251 22.0160 1.6]73 1.2 0.0661 0.0331 1.7251 1.3669 0.7940 1.5686 0.5O 1.7645 1.1 1.00 I.4264 1.00 \.3697 1.7705 0.\'1 0402.00 12 .3173 1.9584 ) "" 0.7478 1.3951 1 4239 1.0910 0.3264 0.50 I' Ull \ '\ \II o &.1715 1.8 00000 00023 0.7200 1.4292 1.2207 1.1441 0.2278 0.5501 0.50 1.4538 21.7343 0. I t kl>I.5150 0.2096 0.00 10.7427 0.0748 1.8184 0 .00 1.1614 1.2497 1.109] 0.0 00000 0.27]5 0.6706 1.4369 1. 7402 1)'775 1 O.6]24 1.9825 1.1283 1.6248 0.2565 0.7001 1".3629 1 3605 1.70]3 25.644] 1.1273 0.2978 1.7503 1.SO 1.2721 1.7076 0.2658 1.3997 1.3583 0.8902 0.7320 1.0679 1.3425 1.1 0.6723 0.50 1.6275 1.9514 0.1211 1.2850 1.8782 0.0430 0.0235 15.9429 0.9176 1.0108 0.1523 0.0284 0.3503 U825 1.0205 0.5058 1.5655 1.J315 17.9458 0.4973 0.6214 0.2172 0.4526 14811 1.6613 0.2033 1..0418 0.0452 0.00 1. _ 1.4092 04459 04828 0.3 00000 0.5635 1.6619 0.4147 08809 0.7029 0.7820 1.6212 1.2204 0.38SO 14187 \.6794 1.3501 0.4395 0.0105 0.1893 02246 0.2928 0.0305 H)623 1.6934 0.6828 1.264] 0.0420 0.3635 0.8664 0.0250 0.5009 1.0362 0.7177 1.00 1.422] 0.no o R"7<l2 \I 'HS] 0.6067 0.2 0.1892 0.0024 0.9521 28.00 1.~6 1.2460 1.1338 0.0000 0.SO 1.869 1 .5055 0.0941 14.5623 0.00 0.6430 0.7209 0.5538 1.8005 • .7380 0.9307 0..6112 1.0522 0.0938 I 1250 11560 I 1867 1.0445 0.2812 1.2976 0.3211 0.8456 27.0437 1.5419 0.0967 0.7404 1.7478 1.3105 1.2530 0.3012 0.'11 U.2264 0." 1.7210 1.0124 0.7798 1.3554 1.4n6 1.9517 1.0494 1.1203 0.4029 0.5866 1.1872 1.9793 1.2909 0.5853 0.8811 27." 4.4288 14577 1.4323 0.8558 1.0039 1.5]39 0.4592 0.0919 0.0947 1.6930 0.20]3 1.5077 1.1438 1.1193 0.5585 ] .1 0.2426 1.1394 1.1619 1.3750 0.0271 1.9865 2.3744 1.1112 1.~ 2.1185 0.7342 0.4256 1.3179 1.6963 1.3337 1.4493 1.5716 1.00 1.0897 0.2301 0.8162 1._ 1.6320 0.0305 0.0422 1.6759 0.6580 0.00 2.2193 0.5174 0.9144 1.0024 0..3650 3..4958 1.1520 0.5196 1.00 1.0915 1.0025 0.7343 1.2145 1.0248 0.3107 0.4042 0.7027 1.00 .7630 (l 7974 OH.1953 1.8047 1.5704 0.6803 0.8756 0.3719 0.64]9 1.3038 U354 1.7626 \.9489 0.6209 1.3038 0.9863 1.0000 00023 0.00 1.3782 0.00 3.5120 0.0436 0.2200 1.3O 0.9995 1.S86t 1.9589 0.6567 1.IJ.5580 0.0707 0.50 14.4748 1.0113 0.5128 0.9639 0.5216 0.9533 0.3290 U599 1.5947 1. 900 9.1840 0.8617 1.0967 1.9984 1.2667 0.5492 0.1732 0.4638 1.0009 1.4397 0.9 121 0.7113 0.1821 0.5]27 1.9193 0.7102 1.8844 1.5942 0.6357 1.0678 0.2286 1.0024 0.3009 0.2834 1.1517 I 1842 11823 UI46 1.50 1.7817 1.7616 0.5741 1.8248 1.4852 0.0565 1.7864 L8195 1.5196 0.0785 1.8961 0.7745 26.TI]8 a 8Il94 II S4l'J (\I!I'._ 0.8868 1.5135 0.0108 0. 2.0609 1.0027 1.7562 0."" 05650 0.3608 1.4895 22. 7776 IUll 22 () KI(.3410 0.5687 1.7284 0.7184 \.0586 30.l761 1.4788 1.50 1.0023 0.0107 0.2746 Im4 1.7752 1.0650 1.6676 0.3439 0.0955 16.4525 04893 0.0583 1.5933 1.5029 1.2136 1.7670 () XHU d.4118 0_ 0.1942 0.3]14 1.5540 0.7323 0.5308 1.8449 1.5259 0.50 1.3297 0.5526 1.O·U) 0.9525 ).8851 0.2015 0.278] 1.7051 0.4751 0.4665 14958 1.0111 0. 7994 n K\47 lJ .7514 0.25113 0.0239 0.2749 19.0000 0.1263 0.2403 1.7375 17646 1.0640 0.8376 1.1921 0.902S .3278 0.6534 1.9762 1.0125 1.7389 25.4008 0.5890 1..7728 Okl'l7) ) )0(1 11.7491 1.0595 16.1248 0.1208 1 1536 1.4062 1.3954 0.6982 1.4 0.1437 J.7498 1.XlI'J7 !I X4_h! 2.9184 1.0716 0.4371 1.5150 1.I('I.1281 1 1592 1 1901 1." 1.5029 1.6397 1.3289 0.7649 II 7IN2 " "II.6598 06952 07302 0.9312 0.6483 1.1696 1.0091 1.0374 1.50 11.3512 1.0231 29.7042 1.0426 0.7K14 {) KIM !I h ill7 1' 1\.""" 05368 0.3528 0.3131 0.9332 0.7565 1.2544 0.9166 28.2388 0.9684 1.8136 1.5106 1.9 0.4 00000 00023 00106 0.1855 0.0944 0.5235 0.0026 0." 1.2391 18.1304 0.5531 1.5358 1.7055 1.5903 06262 0.1791 1.5617 1.75!8 1.4763 0.0697 U227 1.4603 1.6140 0.7MO OIQm f) k~' o"'" 0.4959 0.50 1.7532 1.1828 0.4782 0.5893 l.]384 0.1576 0.6257 1.0000 0.8712 1.6 0.6681 1.52]9 1.5323 1.0338 1.4414 0.6535 1.9492 1.0644 0.1469 1.8857 1.6916 1.9187 1.3981 1.0825 1.9246 0.4860 1.5242 1.4865 1.6876 1.9306 0.6621 1.7874 OR2]] 1))1<.1496 0.7642 1.3319 0.02J8 0.0258 0.4154 0.8650 0.4207 1 4181 1.9048 09396 0.5517 0.7136 1.6854 0. 1594 0.7297 1.3668 1.40'5 0.2695 0.5765 1.1962 1.1507 0.6 0.5424 1.1016 o 1449 0.31X15 1.0544 1.4180 21.2760 0..9876 29.6687 1.1811 1.8526 1.8534 I.7801 ] .1084 1.1685 0.5780 0.0685 1.583] 1. 7.l 0.1>')\ o 46()7 8.2783 0.8293 1.2895 0.3900 0.542] 1.3477 1.0440 0.2310 1.7690 II tI ~n~ 2. 0.8940 1.0214 1.6451 1.3n6 .3039 1..6756 1.3480 0.0648 0.1966 0.0024 0.9002 0.]373 1.9050 0.8068 1.%23 0.9408 0.2412 0.0738 o 1043 0.3306 0.0903 0.00 1I.8086 1.1265 1.7742 1..2174 0.50 2.9963 09946 1.8455 1.7464 0.1.6283 06639 06993 0.3347 0.6920 07270 0.2494 1.6792 0.1163 0.6057 1.9872 1.SO 12 .8773 1.0782 1.6168 1.1552 0.3380 0.0244 0.2350 1.7286 0.0955 0.0283 1.0264 0.9]50 0.6]21 24.9091 1.5519 05882 0.1279 0.6367 0.5608 23.810] 1.0024 0.0109 0.IS03 0.0456 1.5249 ].
0858 0.5835 1.9722 1.31W4 \.3900 1.0921 0.7956 1.0096 0.2129 2453 2m .4341 0.8 0.3868 0.7155 0.8486 0.3513 0.6194 1.9172 0.2784 0.7373 0.3576 1.3990 0.2410 0.3011 1.0988 1 1345 1 1287 I 1312 1 1644 1 1609 1 1'" 1 1941 1 1905 I 1878 1.7104 1.5772 1.5938 0.3035 1.7673 1.859l 0.6 \03 1.3069 0.8822 0.822 1 0.6.0634 0.8649 1.6505 0.4504 0.7011 0.6332 0.2579 0.2006 0.7392 1.0021 00098 0.7226 1.4481 0.0022 0.0023 Reduced Temperalure for 8::0 50.2590 1.1440 0.8930 0.0097 10075 1.7243 ] .9024 1.2749 2819 .6815 0.6984 0.2454 0.3399 0.0788 \ 1133 1.5612 0.4908 1.2143 0.9266 0.2 00000 2.4791 0.6164 1.2356 0.1477 0.0226 0.1 (I '.8882 1.7670 0.4333 1.2807 0.6972 1.4897 0.0430 0.7558 1.0 00000 2.6305 0.(\521 0.6494 1.6672 0.00 10.SO 23.5287 1.4m 0.0031 1.3140 1.8163 n 1'<'111 0.7~ 14.4408 1.1192 f) 1.2942 1.5962 0.3865 0.2436 0.]587 0.1417 0.0399 1.1258 1.1073 11409 1 1745 U081 U416 1.9341 1.SO 15.7~S~ .2686 1.1401 0.3841 0.0000 1.9297 0.5171 0.3365 0.5875 0.3135 0.2227 0.1923 1.6558 0..7721 1.0100 0.6079 1.0824 1151 1478 .00 850 900 9.0649 0.4474 04823 0.8781 1.6184 0.8504 0.1191 0.3190 0.6076 0."" 0.9935 \.0107 0.1507 0.0601 1.4458 0.6435 0.4151 0.0423 1.306S 1.9051 0.4493 1.4752 I.33SO .SO 16.3803 0.3488 0.3158 1.6976 1.5664 1.4567 0.0021 0.5093 0.6181 0.5259 1..3029 0.3960 1.5193 1.1703 0.4992 0. 1.9678 1.0000 0.3001 1.2778 1.0471 10779 1 1086 11390 1 1693 I.0736 1.7337 0.9475 0.Table 72 (k) Extended SukkarComell Integral for Bottomhole Pressure Calculation 0 w w P.8776 0.5944 1.1387 0.SO IHO 1:\ ~~l 0.6R49 1.4221 0.0160 1.6815 II 1210 n1~~ 0.4iJ3 1.5355 1.00 16.3177 1.0835 0.6 0.6291 1.1660 0.9057 1.1375 0.0000 2.6621 0.4692 0.1261 0.5685 0.8545 0.0]82 1.]514 0.8576 0.1151 0.4747 1.59t11 ] .7403 1.0897 0.4046 l.388\ 4245 1.3469 0.8672 1.9706 1.1583 1.3718 0..2726 1.9379 0.0827 0.0998 0.0061 1.6312 1.4868 1.0405 1.8187 1.0 0.1322 0.1749 0.5!n8 1.3565 1.2489 1.2461 2528 1.5490 0.00 12.6243 1.5294 1.0021 0""" 0.5227 0..6656 1.5271 0.4292 0.0111 0.4832 0.1237 0.6629 1.50 7.3066 0.1933 0.2700 0.3 0.2090 1.2063 0.3619 1.1350 0..5645 0.0538 1.2274 1.0599 0.1222 0.0709 10686 I 1043 1 1012 1.8814 0.6842 0.0095 0.S927 0.519 0.6219 0.2933 0.0021 0.1l67 0.8347 0.0364 10668 10969 I 1268 11.1084 1.50 27.5739 0.6617 1.5629 1.9504 0.0095 0.on4 0.4155 1.2511 1.2577 0.0355 1.4618 1.6531 l.0495 ._ 1.4876 0.69'J.1671 0.7131 1.1\030 0.8435 1.0621 1.7494 () 7K1~ OI'lh'l 0.0095 0.2667 0.00 II.5392 1.2602 1.7347 O.0852 1.2377 0.3743 1.4193 1.00 2.0096 0.7127 0.6553 1.9265 0.9601 0.8133 1.1521 0.5761 1..0750 0.5854 0.3979 1.1173 0.8198 11.4424 O.5081 1.3285 0.9749 1.9381 0.8866 0.9059 0.6087 r.0702 0.50 1.4643 0.2712 0.2365 1.0021 0.4525 1.50 17.1457 0.8510 0.4573 0.0021 0.6328 1.5142 0.50 0..9108 0.8617 0.3774 0.00 23.5892 1.1761 0.1733 1.3014 0.3380 0.7075 1.50 25.lnf>5 U 0. 0.1873 0._ 0.0740 1.5537 1.2263 21.0021 0.1839 0.0583 0.2008 0.SO 19.0098 0.98 14 0.00 24.00 6.31OS 1.2236 1.6287 1.5990 0.3419 1.7JSR 0.889] 0.8722 0.1209 1 1522 1 1834 12144 ] .4633 1.20 0.0218 0.3422 .5618 0.1l1168 0.6992 1.0593 0._ 0.50 300 3.2326 0.4810 0.5178 1.4954 1.7818 0.1066 0.0269 \.9536 0.8001 1.~2.5476 1.0844 0.0220 0.6280 0.6027 1.5342 1.5841 1.7329 1.3542 13886 0.7724 II !«I~ 0.0000 3.199J 1.2681 0.7531 1.9751 IJYJ97 1.2151 1.4682 1.4340 0.3238 1.0395 0.8340 1.0902 1.9366 1._ 1.2198 1 2171 1.3450 0.9044 0.0121 0.0217 0.3636 0.6029 0.7122 1.5517 1.7437 (17774 o II to'1 0.SO 22.2094 0.8704 0.2761 1.4 0.7421 1.5391 0.4678 1.6418 0.2181 0.00 29.8443 0.21\7 0.0749 1.1545 0.7333 • .1591 0.6712 0.4385 1.4543 1.3395 1.5024 1.5530 0.0933 I 1266 I 1595 1 1925 1 2254 1.50 0.7 0.9384 0.9454 0.0223 1.1575 11890 1.1119 0.6476 1.6319 1.0409 0.S039 0.6410 1.0378 0.0260 1.8972 0.5416 1.1243 1.6022 1.2517 12829 1 1320 1 1639 I 1957 1.0385 0.7094 1.8245 0.1882 0.4194 0.308S 1.4277 1.3940 0.7680 o 1'022 (I II 'In~ 0.4372 1.5732 0.7656 1.3419 0.0328 0.4197 1..6209 0.4123 0.9008 1.0894 1.1474 1.4250 0.6130 0.J680 1.953\ 0.9052 1.2589 \.50 8.~P n 1~K1 0.4436 .0622 0.00 22.9213 0.4951 0.3302 1.SO 12.0579 0.3957 1.I 0.3097 0.8li16 1.6626 0.9788 0.4229 1.9139 0.0951 0.5794 1.2488 0.5256 1.2529 0.7394 1.6413 0.8 0.00 1.50 6.9620 0.3821 0.6897 0.50 1.00 7.2583 I 2911 1.2402 0.6948 1.6809 0.6304 0.0402 0.4218 1.8096 1.3219 1.8645 0.6J72 1.4547 0.5851 1.6R911 1.4916 1.5897 06240 0.3638 0.7453 1.3319 .2022 0.0000 1.6590 1.6194 1.5225 1.1804 0.6815 1.3897 0."t.5552 0.4855 0.6164 1.0000 1.2292 1.7295 n.4803 1.5246 0.6!l53 \.0125 1.4745 0.3005 1.5526 ] .4 0.2339 0.5160 0.9 0.4601 0.3676 1.1402 0.606 1 1.1095 0.50 26.2453 1.5959 0.0 1.2395 12699 0.1138 0.2809 0.6299 1.6709 1.0380 0.0398 0.bRl8 1.2763 0.2RR4 1.3233 0.4983 1.01179 0.5O 2000 20. 1.0021 0.1710 1.7665 1.1993 0.0099 0.9'}41 1.9836 .00 27.0022 0.6741 1.1714 0.6553 0.0166 .5340 0.3116 0.2461 0.4788 1.3733 0_ 0..5821 0.1697 0.2929 0.00 2S.4525 0.5744 1..05R7 0.0220 1.00 15.4593 1.3601 3.9586 0.5700 1.7320 (I.72~ 0.0021 0.3161 0.2985 0.SO 18.4395 0.6179 0.7664 11.2359 0.950 1 0.9438 0.5308 1.7831 1. 11858 \.7410 1.S 0.8722 1.0:251 0.SO 30.6537 0.6581 0.3914 1.8839 0.7690 1 79117 1.00 21.3421 0.6487 1.6295 1.6759 01099 0.8391 0.0000 0.5565 1.I~ 0.3100 . 1.0000 1.1781 0.6068 0.5786 0.7314 1.6857 0..4911 1._ 24.50 28.8111 1.9193 0.0000 1.0434 1.2905 1.8942 0.6634 1.3892 1.2149 I 2439 1.5021 .""'" 0..5983 1.5954 1.7821 1.2721 0. 0.00 26.00 14.1998 1.9766 1.0023 1.9123 0.3633 1.5042 0.0578 1.0022 00104 0.2632 0.5494 1.00 19.4419 1.9878 1.5223 1.2044 1.63H9 1.7509 07/HIj Ill' " IS7 (1 nl ' 'I n 71.3752 0.5748 1.5590 1.1578 II 7')17 n K.0058 1.1775 1.0447 0.0474 0.8337 ].3067 1.6656 1.4923 0..7240 !.3758 1.3295 1.0000 2.5660 1.0301 1.1078 0.4456 1.3753 1.0022 00102 00238 0.3692 0_ 0.7100 1.3339 0.0670 0.4160 1.5518 0.3161 0.2880 0.7872 1.8842 0.0233 0.0678 1.0215 0.9004 0.1100 0.5127 0.8502 0.50 29.0000 0.3372 1.5264 0.1365 0.7505 1.1K!Q II 'hl/l 0.2101 0.4071 0.6372 0.0246 0.28]8 0.0229 0..3544 0.7160 1 7114 1.0997 10.5204 0.9!85 0.3282 0.4173 0.7529 1.6362 1.9906 1.83 17 0.9107 2.3048 0.9847 1.4775 1.3449 1.2281 0.8290 0.0096 I'" .3602 1.2 0.5313 1.3324 1.4216 0.0276 0.0216 0.3772 0.9768 1.8063 1.6922 1.7177 0.6277 0.50 400 450 500 5.0814 0.3989 0.3643 ].1074 I 1398 I 1121 1._ 0.1 0.0561 1.2040 0.6574 \.0418 00610 0.6788 1.5475 0.4513 1.0615 0.1822 1 2167 1._ 1.6927 1.9979 1.4295 1.8393 1.4902 15184 15465 1.0820 0.6197 0.6 00000 2.8178 0.6959 0.0000 1.00 28.0442 1.50 11.2855 1. 0.5602 1.5577 0.S018 n.0222 0.9405 0.lOBO 1.66J5 0.0835 0.7473 0.7]89 1.6611 1.0049 1.6919 0.3280 1.00 17 .7M4 0.3199 1.6649 0.9438 0.7051 0.8500 1.12]2 (l1~M 00382 0.2747 0.0524 0.1<r72 1.1734 0.5593 0.3532 I.0389 0.1164 1.00 150 2.8850 0.9656 0.4280 1 4581 14880 1.2057 0.7323 0.1683 0.2226 0.4690 0.9331 0.5299 0.0940 1.4128 0.4984 .4471 .4439 0.7241 1.9160 0.5508 0.6441 1.1477 \.IOS5 0.S2S4 0.6974 0.8\8] 0.2204 1.4916 0.4704 1.5182 0.00 18.4711 1.5440 0.5386 0.5835 0.4105 0.6006 1834<> 1.3855 1.
4232 0.J530 1.50 0.2046 1.4411 0.2606 0.0734 0.5619 26.6143 1.5255 1.1188 1 1168 I 1530 I 1493 1.1389 0.1079 0.5507 0.2946 0.6151 0.6148 U.3169 1.2962 1.0311 0.4512 1.4665 0.(mO 1.8492 0.2324 1.0728 I 1015 1 1301 I 1584 I 1867 12147 12.0331 0.2667 1.6292 1.2942 0.9208 0.4817 0.1551 0.9835 1.1811 1.1153 19.4832 1.4940 0.00 1.00 1.7309 11 76:\11 tl '7'1<"\ \3.7738 0.4344 1.1438 0.0692 0.0000 0.0851 0.9065 0.0950 0.4722 0.5215 0.00 1.8011 0.5300 25.3563 1.0870 0.6255 27.4917 0.0115 0.5973 1.9826 1.4662 1.7005 1.1775 0.9630 0.9501 0.9233 16.8705 0.5701 1.4014 1.MH t 2.4248 1.2419 0.2807 1.1253 1 1562 1.18 1.35n 03894 0.4316 0.6892 28.8233 0.2563 0.7110 0.1887 0.8667 0.7528 29.7482 0.0399 0.7429 n7'7l1) 1.SO 10.3274 1.2832 1.5454 1.0]23 1.3652 1.0535 0.9527 0.2986 0.2301 0.7409 0.2032 0.00 1.8940 0.2562 1.7934 0.3664 1.8580 0.5941 1.1209 0.4799 1.6284 0.0447 1.3756 0.9269 0.0019 0.0989 0.4937 1.4958 0.)671 O.1826 0.7929 0.50 1.3074 1.0069 0.5043 0.9820 0.6314 1)11629 f) .9598 0.0812 1.4714 1.2157 0.6023 0.9751 10110 1.00 0.6359 0.3251 0.50 1.5556 0.0019 0.5775 0.6459 1.0714 0.9408 0.1624 0.0321 0.3403 0.3054 0.4231 0.1161 0.50 \) .1428 0.1419 1 1741 1.2198 0.6872 Q.4242 1.00 8.. U~ O.6168 .00 1.7168 1.0093 0.8542 0.4417 1.697S 0..457) 0.2382 0.7613 0.6758 0.9219 0.5695 1.7876 0.6722 1.6461 (t oM (t.50 1.2869 1.5547 1.4875 0.5818 0.1529 0.4982 25.2979 1..9 2.9711 1.0769 I 1083 1.8298 0.0000 0.8451 0.6449 1.0534 1.5624 0.1170 0.4554 0.5988 0.3190 1.5534 0..2o:!4 \.0993 0.6344 0.5075 1.4026 23.2357 0.6570 1.5305 0.0183 00323 0.0060 0.4539 0.6438 1.1245 0.7667 0.20 O.0631 0.3569 U871 1.8913 15.2431 21.(.0017 0.IX)l9 0.2801 0.2158 0.2834 0.9195 0.00 7.3766 0.1736 0.2166 1.6762 1.0000 00000 0.5159 1.3143 13458 1.5666 1.00 I 147) 19 .0141 1.3m 0.2051 0.8978 0.0698 0.S 1.3681 \.3131 1.6385 1.0181 0.4344 24.5500 0.1642 0.<.9510 0.SO 3.\135 0.5195 0.0018 00063 0.2908 12862 \.0933 1.SO 2.1181 0.5196 0.7625 1.0549 0.9701 1.6021 1.00 2.8371 0.4613 1.0192 0.4128 1.0494 0.5813 1.2515 0.5765 1.2261 1.5181 0.5260 0.00 IO.4273 04596 0.2630 0.3 1.0343 0.6189 0 6503 ')M I ~ 2.0398 1.50J6 1.2635 1.7671 0.3375 0.1831 0.1837 0.3774 1.SO 9.0188 0.2791 OJJl I 0.6674 f) (''»1(' f) 7~W 0.8763 0.9668 0.4364 \.2592 1.0514 18.4663 24.6656 0.0200 0.50 1.8728 0.2470 1.8617 08596 0.0908 1.1043 0.2981 1.5413 1.3251 0.0830 1.8043 0.0065 00084 0.5237 0.0966 0.6555 0.6337 0.9478 0.1104 1 1395 1.3951 0.6204 1.4413 0.2320 0.4721 1.7764 0.4297 0.2902 1.'~ 0.SO 11.2268 1.4021 1.6153 1.6 1.453\ 1.9791 0.60. I 194 01466 0.5333 0.2306 0.4617 1.6237 0.7979 0.f>S99 0.6868 1.)803 1.0612 1.4332 1.6070 1.6465 0.0194 \1.2547 1.3574 0.5349 1.9236 0.4861 0.7566 0.1974 1.6 2.00 1.4775 1.8069 0.1306 0.7863 1.8120 0.402Q 0.6149 0.0000 00000 0.00 II.0000 0.9462 0.6695 1.3768 1.0607 1.3898 1.0 1.3015 0.4343 0.8355 0.3179 1.2108 0.3707 23.4521 1.4079 0.62~9 1.4192 1.9907 1.6075 1.3443 0.5937 26.2475 0.3284 0.0705 0.0512 0.50 0.2337 1.0490 0.2932 0.5407 05725 0.8762 0.0232 0.5985 1.9!!58 1.3069 22.5851 0.2511 1.7463 0.0018 0.0342 1.12 14.1685 1.0 2.SO 1.0752 I 1056 "360 1 1663 "965 1.3586 03928 0.8562 0.2697 0.7 1.9342 O.0519 1.5447 1.7210 28.(1929 1.5742 1.2003 0.6607 1.9~64 0.5896 0.1211 0.1711 J.5742 1.0976 I 1277 I 1576 I 1875 1. 1..3896 0.1583 0._ 0.SO 1.0373 1.6856 0.00 1.3348 0.5718 0.6274 1.2928 0.1694 0.2337 0.4445 0.2481 1.50 1.2568 1.4454 1.0566 0."" 0.409J 0.8318 0.2283 0.2075 02383 0.6166 0.4211 0.4959 1.0079 0.7457 0.2538 1.7549 1.127 1.7534 0.0195 0.0651 1.2033 1.2018 "995 \.2472 0.4123 0.2703 OJ124 0.6042 0.2827 1.10 o 1~15 (1 ns~ 0.9928 1.5413 1.3340 1J399 1.0J41 1.4863 0.8643 0.4157 1.1879 1.0912 1 1210 1 1507 1 1803 1.0504 0.2650 1.0000 0.7924 0.4646 1.1804 0.3156 0.5056 0.0920 0.2 00000 00018 00060 0.9554 16.5674 1.3469 1.5378 0.00 1.0559 0.SO 6.SO 1.6176 1.5114 1.2016 0.00 0.0967 1.50 1.00 12 .4632 1.2795 1.2832 1.0944 1.0000 0.217) 1.9076 0.3100 1.3081 0.SO 1.3116 1.6571 () (fi 12 II.6300 1.7846 29.5374 1.7320 1.5579 0.50 21.5903 1.34.5013 0.5678 1.4432 1.8068 0.4554 0.0889 I 1214 1 1250 1.8612 0.2 00000 0.6257 0.0079 00180 0.00 1.2670 0.5832 0.5461 1.sure c.4401 0.0018 0.3267 1.0067 0.9767 1.4735 0.SO 8.5295 1.OW 0.7730 0.2062 0.4767 0.3631 1.3336 0.0626 \.8914 0.1709 0.5407 1.2705 1.00 5.77J " 71ft I /I 7(1.0443 0.4719 1.5457 0.00 1.5191 1.5 Reduced Temperature for 8 .0594 0.62J2 n 6526 I).00 0.5087 0.8592 15.4143 1.1291 0.4496 0.0018 0.5555 1.67W 0.2393 1.7026 1.6574 27.8291 0.5651 0.5137 05515 0.1137 1 1443 I 1748 1.8850 0.S 3.3628 0.1485 0.4521 1.7166 1.5868 1.4637 0.8184 0.3399 1.3026 0.1562 1.1521 o 1435 0.7991 0.3256 l.4219 0.2616 0.7139 0.9768 0.0564 10860 I 1155 1.0000 0.0979 0.761'1 0.5076 1.9024 0.Sln3 0.8482 0.0011 0.1850 0.02TI 0.2357 1.5148 1.0 00000 0.3206 0.0181 0.2361 1.5242 1.0013 1.6563 1.0018 00060 0.0726 0.3833 \.8879 0.4692 0.4089 1.7235 1.2153 0.5185 0.1014 0.4173 1.2444 0.4823 1.3716 1.00 3.140 1.1374 0.5599 0.9030 0.SO 7.1229 0.1505 0.0101 O.2798 OJ120 0.1466 "800 I 1770 1 \143 1 1721 1.0017 0.0523 1.6446 0.1246 1.51)98 0.5405 1.2195 1.17\4 0.0675 1.9461 0.6272 1.0316 0.SO 1.3264 0.4985 0.4619 0.0634 1.0184 0.9977 1.0215 00206 0.0080 10056 1.50 1.5833 0._ 0.5582 \.9288 0.4R81 1.0267 1.71m 0.50 0.3763 1.9368 0.Table 7·2 (I) Extended SukkarCornell Integral for Bo"omho~ Pre.1263 0.8425 0.0334 0.9968 1.0518 0.5552 1.0186 0.9389 0.4066 0.6438 1.oot8 00018 0.8i3S 0.6'N J 0.5008 1.8892 0.8164 30.4894 04875 0.3895 1.1397 1.3651 0.8042 0.3529 0.032~ 1.5954 1.0062 0.27.4174 0.7005 0.8151 0.2179 1.1616 1.8387 0.0455 1.0081 0.0160 0.6093 0"" {l6409 ()67}15 06725 II 7w I II 7(1.0215 1.7982 0.5056 0.8876 0.2319 1.5279 05698 0.692\ 1.1745 0.5296 1.7()67 12.5370 0.6579 1.0:\66 1.8449 0.2761 0.8246 0.00 4.0012 1.4388 1.3265 0.3477 1.3725 0.1721 0.0913 0.4541 0.2291 1.9103 0.1510 0.1962 0.3478 0.2648 0.n' " 1171'Jf> 'q'l " 'I.6732 1.8343 0.5918 1.0487 O.2132 0.0524 0.00 1.3357 1.6722 0.9529 0.0018 0'<X)81 0."" 0.6666 0.9331 0.4048 0.3388 22.3769 0.2267 1.5847 1.6205 1.0224 1. 1931 0.\.2053 1.SO 5.0834 18 .2245 0.3&51 0.5377 0.0150 1.00 '.0683 1.8272 14.1189 0.5363 0.3909 0.5143 1.3910 0.0613 1.3062 1.0913 0.1326 0.6155 1.5180 1.1).4734 0.5353 1.3366 1.3801 0.5231 1.3715 1.7065 1.1451 0.00 I.15 \.0361 0.1509 0.00 1.9874 17.0000 0.6987 0.3962 1.0499 0.5942 0.2112 2O.2099 1.3605 0.0351 0. ""'" 0.0745 0.0326 0.3976 0.5515 0.3587 0.0189 0.1903 1.3983 1.4774 1.4238 1.8971 0.6018 0.0319 0.4251 0.5997 1.2735 0.5628 1.SO 1.3586 1.4 00000 0.5581 0.lculatlon ~ ~ ~ P.8601 0.4048 1.1783 0.5851 1.7315 1.1.7 IH'J 11 72'n () 761 \ tl15H~ 0.0295 1.0781 0.8282 0.4210 1.4474 1.2614 l.SO 4.8798 0.4935 1.5664 1.0808 0.0928 0.4327 1.1672 0.4898 1.2620 0.5701 0.4<6 • .7843 0.00 1.0038 1.4973 1.3929 1.6325 1.3102 1.8177 0.2661 12964 0.50 1.MIIO 0.3271 1.5828 0.0338 0.50 1.3697 0.1014 0.6851 1.01) 0.7820 0.3604 1.1325 0.9170 0.2086 1.4 1.8911 0.9186 0.6133 0.39.3867 1.1984 0.1792 20.0313 1.5978 1.3409 1.0 0.2479 0.9156 0.00 6.1369 0.1 0.3433 0.
0016 o00I<l 0.3374 1.4092 1.4476 1.8269 0.Wl 41 1>1<)(7 00069 00158 0.5330 0.4092 0.9 146 0.611\8 0.0016 0.85U5 0.1585 0.95118 0.461l 1.7911 0.14 I 1(1)5 I 1955 122]4 1.0689 1.0431 0.5165 C'Olltleoy of'iI'E (39131.6146 00442 /l (.8658 0.0077 0.0943 0.2015 1.5791 14622 1.' 00000 0.5270 05566 0.9013 0.0599 0.1029 01268 0.7656 0.6793 n.0490 0..5553 0.50 L2089 22.4563 0.3909 04208 0.00 1.03&5 1.5018 0.0S86 I.3217 0.4656 1.0291 00453 0.0462 00000 O.2347 1.4829 1.4974 15218 1.4729 1.00 1.98 15 10099 1.3713 0.7597 0.8435 0.0·n8 1.5402 0.0000 0.4362 14655 1.3940 1.8662 0.9798 1.9107 17.)403 1.1946 0.9&\9 1.2390 0.11997 0.2191 1.2081 0.98511 1.3764 0.3071 0.9656 0.00 II.67~1 0.0129 I.155 1.5692 0.51SO 1.1040 0.3834 04133 0.4832 0.2210 1.2221 0.5919 14721 1.5747 1.6013 1.9831 1.50 1.0665 UJ947 1 1229 1 1509 1 1789 12069 1.SO .3662 1.1926 0.9437 0.5257 1.2619 1.1014 I 1297 1 15SO 1 1862 1.5 0.0185 0.67'.3280 24.6256 29. ' '1~ o fl.4948 1.4895 1.1 020 OSO 100 I.1760 0.0749 I 1020 1 1289 I 15~1I I 11125 12fl1X1 1 2.8203 0.1381 1.4769 26.IOX /l1>llli' 0..0521 1.4456 0.3578 24.4379 1.1475 0.91174 1.2941 0.1010 0.3031 1.3514 0.4689 0.3368 0.5825 1.8442 O.7682 0.2745 011629 0.3185 1.11864 0.2599 0.3759 1.l I ! (.SO 1.7479 0.:!I'(' II ('5'<.6170 0.8112 0.4698 1.8632 0.SO 1.31123 1.2125 0.9362 09657 0.2762 1.9!U7 I'{KlS7 1.0123 0.Il1<08 13899 1.5 102 1.3354 1.8765 /4. 0.3757 1.7941 0.2685 23.31162 J.0000 0.0892 1 1170 1 1448 I 1724 1.4730 0.0072 0.2742 1.1246 0.(1 /5.2525 0.2775 0.0515 0.4830 0.6702 0.2824 1.~S60 \) su <I t.3641 1.3369 1.7632 0.3812 0.0069 0.7093 0.2944 0.7854 0.1907 0.5456 0.1756 0.2982 23.7585 0.70.1~ I l l>hH.4720 0.0017 0.44113 1.00 1.5127 0.5909 1.1634 0.5364 27.2000 1.50 1.2243 0.5850 0.309Il 1.3560 0.3650 1.7n17 11.08S4 0.9311 0.00 8SO 9.7031 0.50 0.5031 0.1066 0.4204 0.4307 0.6207 0 .7AAO 0.402] 14272 1.1195 20.0303 0.2313 0.OOIS 0.6420 0.7059 0. .1104 0.4805 0.Table 72 (m) Extended SukkarComellintegral for Bottemhole Pressure Calculation • 2.3262 0.00 /4 .4421 0.0815 0.0000 0. 1264 0.5661 28.j·t 'i " 0.5463 1."'" 0.3667 0.0000 0.()701 IO%S 1 1235 1 I~no 1 1763 1.4030 0.2164 0.i_ 0.27511 1 .3710 oom 0.2540 0.7270 0.29~ U2Q9 I 34117 I.0325 0..7898 0.363 0.2625 1.8537 0.9486 0.392U 141711 14414 146'10 1 ~9~4 I 511.7062 0.'100 0.4282 1.0806 0.0637 0.9204 0.2870 0.0837 I 1132 I 1426 1 1721 1.0599 19.5()J4 1.5067 1..7189 0.5159 0.4007 1.0015 2.4042 1.2807 1.0423 0.0074 1.8609 0..2574 0.0105 1.895 1 0.H3R L39117 142:\<\ 1.00 IBO 13 nn 1.28111 1.2425 1.951\6 0.1578 1.5259 0.5502 0.6117 1.8854 0..0 1.2716 03014 0.5052 1.9340 0%15 0.3~~4 06929 0.2050 0.5621 0.00 I 1791 21.5256 0.4310 0.4764 1.6603 1.3934 0.9.' 2.""'" 0.SO 200 2.9530 0.7737 0.5910 0..3135 0.00 1.2061 0.7\08 0.7916 0.4708 0.1497 0.9953 1 0248 1.0070 0.2106 0.5798 06()t}4 O.0068 0.1667 1.809~ 0.)184 0.2613 0.2045 0.9203 0.~ {/7615 079/3 0.5629 1.01.7448 0.0157 00278 0.11159 0.8958 0.4861 0.0679 0.00 1.4537 1.3611 0.9076 0.m4 0.0285 0.5209 1.3827 1.4432 0.0894 0.4!1R6 1.5203 0.3536 0.3481 0.5675 0. 650~ 02820 0.3657 1.9728 10018 1.1162 0.5627 1.00 1.5700 0.5997 0.6X22 n .(.4135 0.0015 0..8495 0.4069 1.0015 0.2{126 1.5396 0.2706 1.6313 1.SO 1.()(]()2 18.5959 28.9164 0.0420 00625 0.0564 1.7397 0.7479 0.2192 0.3793 0.2546 1.6016 0.7969 0. '>4 11 Hf.2680 02973 0.0 0.2347 0.1545 0.3946 1.4627 0.2702 1.0985 1.8474 0.4063 0.2517 0.9727 I.5629 0.711\ 0 .om 0.4942 1.5523 0.0910 0.2 O.3318 1.6489 1.4503 0.50 1.2630 02922 0.1493 21.1391 0.7562 0.7619 0.5822 0.(54 1If>.0000 0.0070 0.0161 0.7325 0.3022 1.0840 0.96~4 0.2482 1.3M8 1.7370 0.11841 I 1116 I 1391 I 1665 I 1938 1.{)432 J.5240 1.3190 1.4972 0.00 1.45~6 1.3710 1.n69 0.0897 20.2447 1.8363 0.1282 1.~987 001<25 0.3471 1.4182 1.0392 1.2032 0.7419 0.3836 0.""" 0.4933 1.5547 1.0618 0.4[01 1.9769 1.8170 o.0 1.2039 1.hJ.9245 0.2 0.1606 0.31lJ 0.OW!! LOM6 10933 I 1198 I 1461 I 1723 I 1984 12243 1.5066 27.5718 1.8224 0.6718 1l.99:\0 1.8025 0.5J03 0.00 1.9289 0 .1202 0.0622 l.0163 0.6 1.0597 1.8198 0.8918 0.4733 0.5 104 0.2453 0.'N \ IJ(.3824 0.~I.4581 1.0288 0.6226 0.4187 1.28 15 0.4241 1.[340 0.0345 0.)23~ 0.1073 0.2326 1.0475 0.9563 0.2337 0.7513 0.2652 0..4157 0.00 10.00 9.3607 0.1629 0.S058 0.0332 Ul612 1.00 I 4173 25.5599 0.3625 1.6898 a!.01n 0..1706 0.8162 0.5800 0.SO 1.0994 0.3483 1.4471 26.00 1.1464 0.7717 0.2363 0.5580 0 .1322 0.<.0160 0._ 0.5915 1.0168 0.2238 1.5099 0.3772 1.9366 0.3309 0.2287 1.5524 1.3779 0.5052 05349 05645 O.\n~5 1.0000 00015 3.4222 1.3610 0..5179 1.nl!!! 09066 0.1)792 0.50 11 .8345 0.1063 0.2550 1.5613 0.3905 0.9945 1.00 15..6308 1.8786 0.68SJ 3000 1.1\4511 011737 () 9()14 0.41\01 0.o·m 1.2501 1.6 0. (197~).0051 1.5916 II f.fl721 0.2427 02718 0.3433 0.1282 0.2890 0.~1j 0.SO )00 ).7183 0.73\\ 0.4434 0.5325 0.3337 0.3142 1.4507 0.0274 0.3495 0.5893 O('IIH f)'W N 00198 01018 0.~~2 0.0233 1.1953 1. [787 0.4831 1.8178 0.4264 0.9245 0.9272 09545 0.8254 0.2838 0.2lfl 00068 00156 00276 0.6410 1.4520 I 47611 L.70~'1 11.~~ 0.4328 0.3912 1.2170 1.50 0.3965 0.2281 0.1881 0. 1756 0.00 0 _ 17..ISOB 0.4376 04675 0.0000 0.047 1l(. 0._ 0.0300 19.0000 0.0015 0.02Jl4 \.0015 ~ ~ P.0015 2.0095 1.0374 10641 10907 I 1171 1 14.7684 0.2466 1.5204 0.36)5 0.9501 0.6294 JU..5316 0.0312 0.07.1256 O.4660 0.0000 00015 00071 0.3520 1.4009 0.1522 O.50 1.6121 0.5284 0.3198 0.4958 0.0296 0.6897 0.3858 0.8178 0.2140 0.4754 0.10 1.9538 0.1129 0.2805 1.8312 0.2233 0.3097 1.1827 0.8311 0.43~7 0.1n2~ 0.111 I 54'iO 09036 0.2613 1.5502 0.7346 0.5375 1.7976 0.024(1 oom 0.5752 0.0070 0.3167 0.4531 0.4011 0.29(1.SO 1.98~5 1.2899 1.1087 0.2452 1.8 2.5028 0.0286 1.3460 1.61 89 06977 0.2144 1.1356 0.)876 25.SO 10.fm!l7 1 1151 1 1413 I 1674 1 193) 1.8479 'un~8 1l.SO 12.4331 1.3013 0.6098 06396 ()M9~ 04609 0.5225 0.4206 1.2986 1.7MI 0.3116 03414 0.54/15 1.0273 0.(XlIS 0. 1.2482 0. • .4926 0.1054 0.SO 600 6SO 7..!XKXl 0.4452 1.6036 0.S014 0.2387 22.5127 1.6030 1.8724 0.1651 0.8907 0.8510 0.SO 1.4905 0. I 1175 I 1463 1 1751 1.:" .9317 0.W40 .7326 0.4504 1.1874 1.3716 1.0199 0. 0.0000 0.6524 O.3312 0.4987 0.1833 0.0554 00799 0.' 0.3456 1.4079 1.1299 o 1558 0. [805 0.()OO7 1.5927 0.1175 0.1360 0.6867 0.5761 1.00 08809 /6.2632 Reduced Temperature for B .3525 0.00 1.5341:1 1.0016 1.7158 0.0851 0.'\\JI3 1.SO '00 '.1947 0.1664 0.00 4.4390 0.3411 0.0016 OJID3 O.3321 1.0543 1.1346 0.7804 0.44~2 0.3573 1.0281 00435 0. 6554 29.8.2644 0.t'.0742 0.0443 0l1li87 0.2752 1.7612 0.5005 0.2045 0.2343 0."" 0.2522 1..5424 0.3732 0.3180 1.3239 0.0160 10445 1.11597 0.0165 0.1991 0.5533 1.1772 0.2420 0.3265 1.4110 04409 0. o (.4989 1.0611 0...00 7.3538 00660 0.7222 0.5412 1.4327 1.1095 1.0383 1.8 0.4362 0.2903 1.0181 1.5O 1.9446 0.R881 0. o.0707 I Il999 1 1290 1 15tU 1 l!m 1.0 00000 O.7148 • After M.]267 1.2309 1 2602 12896 1.3226 0.7388 0.3239 0.6m 1.1538 O.50 /6._ 18.1429 0.3732 1.7 1.0308 1.']] n (.21(>2 1.5721 0.8818 o 909f! 0.0426 00068 00155 0.3 00000 0.3058 1.4233 0.1 0.0703 0.'>4 0.2276 1.5875 II f.SO 4..4907 0.4786 1. 'It.8069 0.3465 0.8145 0.3290 1.867 1 0.4 122 0.5079 15327 1.5423 1.2471 1 2727 129111 J.2929 0.2326 0.5340 1.
603..70.~ ~ (160 + 460)/387 .. 10.1. + (0.(0.000)/[(0.001435B .65 psia For 2O:s 8. p .107041) T" + (O.602 Solution From Table 72a: T" . . T .(0..967 (7·53) U.' 1.. No trial and error is involved. p.0.107041) T" (b) SukkarCornell method: P 'wh .' 0.019112 .049)(0. For these reasons. _ (0.OO6320B . wellhead temperature.17584 .7)(5.0.(580)/387 .663 psia.6642 pm Thus.BOoF..425 + (1. wellhead pressure. _ (0. the SukkarCornell method is widely used. .336 Cas Production Engineering Steady Stale Flow of Ga. + (0.ing Equation 747. which simplifies the calculation procedure conSiderably.23402 Using Equation 746.001259B . .0IS75)!7)(5.'l Through Pipe$ ~ _ 4251663 .00771B) p..(0. 1.0.5.6 1. E%ampk 7·2.0. 1..(0.0. .440.6642)(663) .ool963B .210 .)dp. 0.1 sTp. and (b) SukkarCornell method. .2 1'''" 0.(SO + 160)/2 .OO967SB .499 337 (tt'%t continl/ed from page 309) G .. h  (80 + 460)/387 .1.11315 .10392 0.400 eO 234012 .049) .15235 .188162) A second trial is not needed. Using Equation 748.)dp.42964S) F .0. T. From Figure 32. . 'YK ..SI075 .)dp.049 1.395 G . I.641.1. ?pc . 0. (Z/P.~ .0001100) _ 450 psia Thus. 160°F." (Z/p.oool7lB)"fl.0.000941B ...0..297336 .. 0.)dp.)dp..212139)"fl.1.s30. 1 0. T pc = 387° R 1 (Z/p..08235 .(400 + 450)/2 . 0.120"F _ 58O"R From Figure 31.36 psia .0. . p.7  0.' Using Equation 751.6)/(1.1..000 ft.0.. T . II ..O. given the following: Depth.25(400/100)(5.0.2 (Z/p.b ..400 psia.. p. gas gravity... Use (8) average temperature and Zfactor method.0392 + 0.' p.(0.001594B) T'~ + (O.449.967)(580)1 .)dp.400/663 . E .6 07 By interpolation. .(0.(0.(O. . z .210 (a) Average temperature and Zfactor method: First trial: 1 (Z/p. pO' .002628) + (1.· (Z/p.15235 T. . bottomhole temperature.000941B .ooo) • Thus. T" .0.1003890) (754) From Table 72a.s3.400 + 0.0.:5 Pp.01474B) T" .0.O.1.0375)(0. by interpolation This method is simple and quite accurate: Equations 753 and 754 give errors of less than 2% in the parameter ranges associated with them.1664290) T" .:5100..0. Z. Determine the SBHP in a gas well. .
69"5"7C:x.75 p.Po)(1. an accuracy equivalent to a fourstep solution scheme can be obtained by using this twostep calcula.OOO) + (6. (pITZ)'I(I... metic average of T .' P 2 2 P. 4. If this recalculated value is not within 1 psi (or any other small pressure tolerance) of the p"" calculated earlier. forevt"ll n. p) dp ....h • 3.75 >"z .. h) + (P" .OOO where Equation 761 can be separated into two parts.338 COl Product/orl Engineering Steady Slale Flow oj Gas Through Pipes 339 CullenderSmith Method I"" 1. + I .d' (757) The expression in the left integral in Equation 756 is represented by 1: 1_ p/(TZ) As demonstrated by Cui lender and Smith (1956). + 2n + . ..p...OOOzd') ...h)(l~ + l.. y. 2. For the upper half: (756) and.1.. + 4ImI + 1.(1.37..L ... I reduces to: 1 .. and T .] . _I + yJ Sim pson's rule (more accurate than the trapewidal rule): J~ f(l) cb ..p.) + ..f(I).. requiring the use of a computer.). Takin~ mto account the umts used by Cullender and Smith.U1O""'("'f1"4)~q.18..7393 x lO")(4)(fl4)<&L1(I. The left integral in Equation 756 can be evaluated by numerical integration techniques. For manual calculations. Recalculate Pms from Equation 762 ..~ (764) (759) The following solution procedure may be used: L Calculate 1.f(1J: Trapezoidal rule: fIx) cb & (h/2}(yn + 2)'.. + 2y. (pITZ)'/l. + 10) + (p... gral in Equation 756 can be written as: • For y . + 1=) (760) p"t. Calculate Ptru from Equation 7·62. for the lower half: (763) (762) • F' _ 2. This is tedious.OOO(TZ/p)II' Greater accuracy in SBHP calculation can be obtained using more steps...h II.)(I. Using the value of Pm and temperature T .'ostep procedure is generally used.2YI + 4YJ + ." "' p where In _ 1.' (755) I"" F' + (p/TZ)dp . + 2Yo_1 + 4yo_' + yJ.)(I .000= p.. .000 TZ d p = 21 [(P. accounting the dependence. where only the value of pressure at the midpoint. assuming Ims . n .' (P/TZ)dp 1 "2'...... Equation j·42 is rear ranged as follows: I"" 0'...I .. (PITZ)'(TZ.... ( ')'+(P=/ Equation 755 is generally expressed as: Substituting for the integral from Equation 700 into Equation 756: >. and acceptable accuracy can generally be obtained using trapezoidal or Simpson's rule·..000 (TZ/p) (758) p.000)(0.... .11 (using the general relationship given by Equation 759) at the known wellhead conditions of pressure and temperature. 5. repeat stem :l anrl 4 until this condition is met . Pnu is considered: ~or Cullender and Smith (1956) used a more rigorous approach.01875»" 1 18.6957 x 1O·(f/4)q1.5 . one for each half of the flow string. For the static case. calculate Ims using Equation 759 . a tv. 1000 TZ dp = (p~ .~'L~/'i!:m~ TZ=)'"/l.. tion scheme and then using Simpson's rule (also called parabolic interpolation) to obtain a more accurate value of bottomhole pressure as follows : F' + (P/TZ)'/l.p". P. (h/3)(yo + 4)"....OOO For the case of SBHP determination. (obtained as the arith..... + .of Zfactor on both temperature and pressure. the inte..
5 + 4(1. 7..395 From Figure 32.7)(5..426.(I..5)(0.7393 x 10~fL(~.306.72 psia Using Simpson's rule (Equation 7&1): Exampk 73. similar to the static case.95 Using Equation 7.. to simplify the left integral in Equation 742: + (37.96)/(426.1.7393 x (ZT/p)dp 1O<fLql. 8... = 0.306.306. the temperaturedepth relationship presented by Lesem et aI.T.425.0. Using the value of p....93 Using Equation 7·59. calcu_ late I. Calculate Pw. P"h.400 An average Zfactor (and temperature) is used. from Equation 763...340 Gas Production Engineering Steady State Flow of Gas Through Pipes p. I.96 Average Temperotun! and Z..306.000) or. 450. the logmean (or even the arithmetic average) temperature gives satisfactory results.61 + 1.. Repeat Example 72 using the CullenderSmith method Solution [(p.(37.. Use Equation 764 (Simpson's rule) to obtain a more accurate valuE' ('Of the bottomhole presstrn' P".72 psi. .400/663 . z..61 psia Thus.61 psia. If this recalculated value is not within 1 psi (or any other small pressure tolerance) of the p. using Equation 759.5)(0.61 For the lower half: Assuming IWI . p dp _ 0.61) ..4(0)(1..7)(2.....499.500)/(1..(1.. 0..000)(540)(0. and the pressure Pwf at a depth z for a flowing well: P'wh ..Z'T')/(zp'd') Yi'I • (p= .68. _ 425.01875 I.306.72) ..1. PIN .0. p.. In most cases.61) + 1.1.. _ 450..255.(1.4(0) /3][1. however..5 _ 0. Z._ ~ 580/387 .)!/(zdS) Z.ssuming I..14 psia p..5) .1.. (1957) or by Ramey (1962) may be useful for greater accuracy.540/387 ~ 1. T.. . PI"IIlI .01875. from Equation 763.0..255...306. calculated earlier. . and lIDS ...620/387 .255.5 + 1.500)/(1. ..5)(0... a. ..721663 .000)/2 Thus... + (37.306.61.602.. Using Equation 762.93)/(400)  1. p.I ..603..61 + 1.255.. and using Equation 763..OOO)(620)(0.5)(0.0" pi + 6.426. . v (7·65) .5) . 14) .255.1..425. 10.. I.. . 9.798J .Foctor Method Using Equation 7·59. 450.0...14/663 . p.. p. I.7)(2. and the bottomhole temperature T . .. T'wh . T .000)(580)(0.1. Izns..55 psia For the upper half: Flowing BottomHole Pressure (FBHP) Equation 742 describes the relationship between the pressure measured at the surface (or wellhead). repeat steps 7 and 8 until this condition is met. .306. p~ .. Recalculate p.(37.450.643..61 Using Equation 762._ .798 Thus... . and For nowing wells. 1_ .T.7)(5.61 341 6. 1 + (6.306.95)/(4SO.59. and z.
and using Equation 732.I)q!. Po.ia p" ~ 2. p.000')1 (2.. using Equation 7·27.p.~~(~~:)(5. tomhole pressure.. with tubing length equal to 5...16386 0'. 0. T" ~ (580.2. · (0.ia..·f  2.0..500fl deep well is producing a 0. (O.000613 .!In (C'+p') 2 Therefore.Z••T.196' .. 0.400' . as given by Equation 747.400' .ing Equation 79.000 psia.500)/((0..' 358°R = The logmean temperature. Second trial: A$uming P.017 cp (assume constant).0.342 CO" Production Engillcering Steady State Flow oj Gas Through Pip~ 343 The integral of a function Solution pdp 1C'+p' .p.95)lln (ISO/95) _ 580....4PF where s . respectively. 1967).000)' P..283 • X .206. f .000)(0.000')/(2.. N" • (20)(7... tubing.06 ".0375Oy. I..828 U~ng Equation 747..0375'Ygz)I(Z.0375)(0.. p" • (2/3)((2.400 psia. + '''''=~=="''''.621 120. 2..196 "......196' . + 2..828)(580.... Tp<'.0...6)/((0.L zd' 6.000')) . The well is deviated.0002 X 10' In C.. /: par • C'(e' .1)(7. BHT .D.. T .I) From Figure 3·2.51 psia. f . Using Equation 766: P<r • .000 (t deep.0..z••T"fL(e' .5272 x 1O ')(0.647 lid . A 3.1.41)). T.f " 2.).. From Figure 31.1. .2.000)'.0 ''''' This method...6 gravity gas at 7 MMscfd through a 3in.000')] ~ 2.2.000 ft....I) + .. c: From Figure 7.41)/358 .206.· (213)((2.7393 10 'fL(q.41°R.1 .0006 in. 2.06/672  Substituting (or C: . should not be used if the change in kinetic energy is significant (young. First trial: Assuming P.6)(3. >d' (766) P<r  (2. . " (ISO .6)(0828)(:. and Pox . The flowing wellhead temperature and pressure are 95°F and 2. Solving for p... . Zn .)'(e' . ~ = 672 psia.. To.h 0'.. Equation 765 becomes: U.4 psia Example 7·<#.2. tubing roughness. applicable for wells up to 8.1. 0.b 3...196.i.ooo)(. Estimate the flowing bot. + (2.z Z.099.5272 X 1O'y.'" ..014 + ~'" • 0.017)(3)) .. 150°F.o.
6)(0.f ..830)(580..so: 1O4n. r .6886 02 30 + (2.16347)(3)' p.(3. 0.5 JP"""I ..(0. but accounts for the pressuredependence of the Zfactor.1.500)1582.2 0.4 psia.511672 . 0.830 _ (6.2 I .t (ZIp")dp. are used in evaluat with the expression in the left integral represented by I: I_ pl(1'Z) ing the value of the integral. ..0 (3.155..000)(7. .0 Us.83O)(58O.6663 x 10')(0. 1 11.3« Gas Production Engineering Steady State Flow oj Ga. CuUenderSmith Method This method uses an average temperature.. s .2.000)('" '0'" .75 "rrz (P/TZ)!/l. Z.7562 0. where only the value of pressure at the midpoint. a twostep procedure is generally used.(2... Example 75.196..2. Thhles 72b through 72m..5)' _ 2.. .3. the integral Using Equation 749. which is quite close to the earlier result of 2.•. it does not require any trial and error.0375)(0. I"" P.099.ng Equation 747.OOO Pwto B ...208 p.5272 x 10')(0.0 psia.2.41)J _ 0. P. .000)..q~.1.55.'" "'" Interpolating from Tables 72a and 72b.196..65 psia and 520°F).208)(672) .(0.70 pi. 2..000)' (0.6)(3.000)'(582. pm! is considered: Using Equation 7. B is calculated using Equation 7.6)(3.. and accurate.1)(7."" . or Equations 753 and 754.so: (767) ..196..500)1[(0.(150 + 460)1358 . Equation 749 stated earlier in the section on SBHP ~ used. _ 2.0 psia.ooo As for the static case.8 ps.· I'"' F2 + (PITZ)dp _ 18..I' .3..014)(5.. .41)(0.2.01875)(0.500)(672)'(3)' p.! Through Pipes 345 p. T.976 ~ 3.014)(5.1.0001672 .z 1 + BZ:Z/~r . 0.2 Interpolation using Tables 72a and 72b yields Pr". consistent. SukkarComell Method 1 1 . T. Solution F' + (PITZ)'Il..a. 6.02 ~ 2..16347 Using Equation 766: T. Thus.124 B From Figure 32.01875y.6663 x zd'p1.n. Repeat Example 74 using the SukkarCornell method. The SukkarComell method is preferred because in addition to being simple." • The Cullender and Smith (1956) method uses Equation 756 as stated earlier in the section on static bottomhole pressure: For a given rate (corrected to 14..(95 + 460)1358 ..
. •. it cannot correct for inaccuracies introduced upon using large trapezoidal integration intervals.. Simpson's rule cannot be used when a discontinuity occurs. the tubing flow equations developed earlier must be modified to reflect the proper flow conduit diameter. d 2612 . 1.ooo dp _ 1.3<6 CIlI Production Engineering Steady State Flow of Gas Through Pipe! 347 Equation 7·fJ7 can be separated into two parts.37.r (768) (700) + Imf) . For accuracy in determining the pressure traverse.d.. is also included..277 in. the pressure loss due to friction is given by: "I'< . the friction term becomes: a KifLpq!. the pressure change for that interval should be set equal to zero.000 z (7731 where 1. r .000 ft deep. • 1 . one for each half of the flow string: (pm( . Also. based upon an absolute roughness of 600 ~in.) d.. 4. 1975). Although Simpson's rule can be used to get a better approximation..... however. especially if the flawing wellhead pressure is below 500 psia.. F. F 2. The CullenderSmith equation (Equation 7.(d1. neglected in the equations developed earlier. 1" + (pITZ)'ll. I'< .2g..5 'YrJ2 for the lower half And finally. The following must be borne in mind when using the CullenderSmilh method (young. the kinetic energy term. h) . Change in kinetic energy can be ignored if the well is greater than 4.J(d"p) is the kinetic energy term.111 x lO·ql... Gas Flow Through an Annulus Although gas wells are generally produced through tubing. for d > 4. be simplified using Nikuradse's friction factor equation for full~ turbulent flow. An integration interval of 1.. the kinetic energy term.r: (770) Calculation of F involves the use of the Moody friction factor f. Smaller integration intervals obviously result in greater accuracy in the trapezoidal integration of Equation 756 (or Equation 773). Thus. From Equation 711. which can be found using the friction factor chart (Figure 71).  d1o)'(do . velocity is related to diameter as follows: Thus. a discontinuity can develop when Equation 756 (or Equation 773) is numerically integrated. 10... F_n __ . The calculation can . ..IIin.56) be... Simpson's rule is used to obtain a more accurate value of bot tomhole pressure p.. where KI is a constant.) . some wells may be produced through the casing·tubing annulus.<tc. For this latter case.0797 X 1O .K1q. comes: The velocity v ..4q.4q!.·. the friction loss term in the energy balance can be written as: I'" (lJO. For the case of gas Injection. however. f or d < 4217 m.111 x 1O . When this happens.Jd1 .PmlHI". (771 1 and F .r + I. 1967): l.5 yrJ2 for the upper half (p..J(d·p) . or the wellhead flowing pressure is above 100 psia.. should be included. 37. 1 in For the case of annular flow.Pwh) (I. to givt' (ERCB.. • 1 0337 X 1O .. where the outside diameter of the tubing is ~o and the inside diameter or the casing is~.01875yJ(pITZ) + 1.4q.. (microInch) .fLpv'I(2g"d) . The equivalent diameter relationship of Equation 76 cannot be used because the diameter exponent is 5 in the flow equations derived. d2 5o!l2 (7721 Frequently. 3.000 ft (or less) is recommended..
This section on flow over hilly terrain essentially deals With the situation where gas is flOWing through pipes that are nonuniform in thei~ slope. Departure of the actual temperaturedepth relationship from that assumed in the method of calculation... Some serious uncertai~tie. • where s is given by Equation 747: Gas Flow Over Hilly Terrain Transmission lines often deviate conSiderably from the horizontal depending upo~ ~e ter:rain o\"er which they are laid. 3.348 eo.5027 [T. In some cases.. no correlation charts are even available. 2. Thus..) .. Inaccuracies in flow rate. lWophase flow relationships are necessary if liquid amount is significant. For pseudoreduced pressu~ greater than 15.. For example. s is positive for uphill flow.)'(do .'0. however.)' (774) . Gas now over a hilly terrain.e'»l)d'·'f' 1>... .e"'2 po 1. gas ~'ells may also exhibit sectiOns of different slope. such as the directionally drilled ~ells from off~hore platforms. the change in com{XISition \\ith depth is even more significant. The three approaches applicable to such a flow are described in the follOwing sections.j by.d/. negative for downhill flow. Imprecise friction factor. . OUTLET Limitations in Vertical flow Calculations 75. and negative if the inlet is higher than the outlet (downhill flow). and pra<>ure measurements. Presence of unknown amounts of liquids in the well bore.:\oz is positive if the outlet is higher than the inlet (uphill flow).. the Weymouth equation for this situation can be written as: q. As described earlier in the section on static bottomhole pressure. d5 in the vertical flow equations must be repl. the outlet pressure po must be corrected as follows (Equation 746): p~ . and po the outlet pressure.. the simplest approach is to modify the outlet pressure for the pressure exerted by a static gas column of height equal to .laboratory measurements are strongly recommended for greater reliability and accuracy.~ T nL (/75) Similar expressions can be written for the Panhandle A and B equations. SECTION I (di. pressure are rairl\" ae Static Correction To account for the difference in elevation between the inlet and outlet. Equationofstate methods can be used. 5..)'(do z + <1. different techniques are available for evaluating the pra<>ure exerted by a static gas column.31. Since the static correction method is itself an approximation. Inaccuracies in determination of the Zfactor from the available correlabOns.. Note that .(do . .. for the case of annular flow. assumed constant in the calculation methods. A~y flow terram can be reduced to the form shown in Figure 75 by approXImating the actual flow profile with small pipe sections of uniform slope. such as a hypothetical situation shown in Figure 75.<1.. Thus. the average temperature and Zfactor method is quite satisfactory to use. 'Y. Let PI be the inlet pressure. specific gravity. frequently gives an adequate approximation. 4.][(P1... 6.<I.z. Variations in gas gravity with depth. In bottomhole pressure calculations.:\oz. inevitably erist because of: . Then. The flowline shown in Figure 75 is equivalent to a horizontal line with an upstream pressure equal to Ph and a downstream pra<>ure equal to e"'~o' This correction can be incorporated into any horizontal flow correlation to give the flow through such a flowline. For condensate systems. . ~urate for most engineering calculation purposes. though imprecise. and the Clinedinst equation. Production Engineering INLET Steady Stote FlolL oj Cas Through PipC8 34. .:\oz.. This approach.
pipeline from A to B is 2 miles.\T. A section of a gas transmission system consists of three stations. A.JI4.000 ft. For the general case of nonuniform slope where the profile is d~\']ded mto a number of sections n of nearly uniform slope (as shown in FIgure 75)..5272 x 10 5')'~Z.T. Chapter 11 provides some insight into the modeling of gas flow in pipelines and networks. The 7in.6353821 in Equation 729 due to roundoff errors..000 psia. Similar expressions can be written for the Panhandle A. z . and is generally used where flow is almost isothermal and the pipe is essentially horizontal. Ppc _ 672 psia.. 0.63538 [T.. the effective length is calculated as follows: Equation 777 gives the expression for the effective length for a single section From Figure 31. Stations A.fI.634814 [T. and Po: <& _ Thus..000 ft. the most rigorous method is to use a horizontal flow relationship such as the Clinedinst equation (Equation 739) for the horizontal section of the pipe. Clinedinst.1520) ][ (p1 (2. Panhandle S.1) where s. This average temperature and Zfactor approach is not exact. and 2. q.6. and the outlet pressure from the pipeline at station C is maintained at 2. 0)..}"J' 2.. and C.Z. and C are at elevations above sealevel of 4." (7.re rigorous ~rrection for the flow profile accounts for inclined flow ~n t~e dIfferent sections of the pipe.. and the pressure at station B. e'p'}d'j' P. 85°F.T"fL(e' .T. The ~nstant 5.I) L s (7·77) Solution o~ ~ f1o~line.e'pO}d'j' Po.. _ (0' . . Equation 766 gives the relationship fOr mcllned flow.. and replacing the pressures with the inlet and outlet pressures P.][M. and other equation. and from S to C is 5 miles long. '* 0 (7·78) 'k . The inlet pressure at station A is 3. Assuming )'It . (pI . Example 76.e'".000 ft. \\'ith relatively small and few sections that are not horizontal. T.£L.200 psia. Note thaI: if S.5.350 Caa Production Engilleering StC'od!J Stall' Flow of Gos Through Pipes 351 Flow Correction . represents the section i of the pipe. assuming aa average temperature and Z. the equivalent length term for that section is replaced by the actual length of the ~·dion.634814 is slightly different from the constant 5.. and f .. coupled with an inclined flow relationship such as the Cull enderSmith equation (Equation 756) for the nonhorizontal portion of the flow..[ (T . B. Usually. find the gas flow rate through the system.~. General Method '" ~[)' s.v . to enable design optimization for a complete gas flow system. the computer program that is written for this purpose also has an economic analysis package built into it.JL(e' . respectively. • 'k  5.: 'YgZ. 0. A mo. S.factor: +~ I{e'ul)I Rearranging this equation.73} >.5272 x 1O·')"(p. 7.. 'YItZ.I} e'p~}"J' j' 0'..76) where 4 is given by: 1. Thus: If more precise calculations are necessary.025.][(1'1. T pc _ 358°R . "" 0 for any pipe section (this will happen if the section is horizontal. This results in quite complex relationships that require a computer for solution..
eO· I.353.000' .550. .58 psia L.780 PH .(213)[(3.0.782 For section AB: p __ (213)[(3. p" .000' .620..0375)(0.025)( ll. Z_ . s .63538)(520/ 14.~ ps.500') /(3.0.2.7. " 0. Pp.000 . Z" .000' .000' _ 2. .90.787 Us.585.4. Using Equation 7·76: 111.379.0. (eD 1.757.2..2..0.7.585.620.4.. Z.2.4.0375)(0.000) /[(0.51 Ppr" 2.000) /[(0. 0.154) J Using Equation 7·78: (el.16 Mscfd .2.2..200')1 .6' .0375)(0.436.(213)[(3.000 .550..177.6' . 2.  .19 ps..093 P. .550.57 37 Pi)O ..000' .26.1)(5 x 5.280) _ ll.000' .2.919.2OO')(7') 1" (0.798)(545)1 .200')/(2.58.352 Gas Production Engineering Steady State Flow oj Gas Through Pipa 353 First trial : Assume PH .0375)(0.6 psia s.111..200')1 .73) [ (0.782)(545)1 _ .0.2.541.0375)(0.()()()2 .73) (3.ng EquaHon 7·47.26464 p __ (213)[(2.6)(0.280) + eD 1 s.on 7·32. 104 From Figure 32.365 ft 0.504.353.2.1)(5 x 5.15520 For section Be: L.1)(2 x 5. and.000)/[(0.(2/3)[(2. (3.~ ""'1'1)(7') 1" [ (0.10559 Using Equation 7.778 S.500' .51/672 .16 . 3.6)(2.4.~ .0.15737 • For section BC: 0'. .000' . 2.  0.139.5.0.78: p.280) + eO·15i37(eO.26532 (3.6 psia Second trial: Assume PH .ng Equat..(0.546 ft .200')1 .798 s.6)(0.111.38.781.2.15737 . and.000' .6')1 .15520 0..780)(545)1' .000) /[(0.200') /(3.62 ps.502.a p" _ 2.191 672 .550.2.757.4. .(0.2.365) J Z. 2.6)(7.'520 _ 1)(2 x 5. .(0.2. 3. 1.500')1 . • "" 0.025)(38.379.26532 .6)(2.2.000 ..38. Zn. _ 2...63538)(520/14.000 .781.(0.6') /(3.361672 .787)(545)(0.15737 p.200')/(2.280) 0.500 psia For section AB: Using Equation 7·77: For section AB : Us.ls.92 MMscfd .154 ft Using Equation 7.3. .62/672 .919.76: q" _ (5. _ (~"''''' .000) /[(0.5737  1)(2 x 5.550.436. and.e"''''''2.672 .6)(2. and.787)(545)1 .2.y ..000 .2.(5.550.\32 .26464 For the complete line ABC: P•• .6)(7.36 ps.778)(545)1  .500' .782)(545)(0..280) L.520(eO.0. s.
782)(545)(0.036. are the most common restriction devices used to effect a pressure drop or reduce the rate of flow.025)(38.)l pf' (760)  1.280) _ 11 423 443 It 0. Cd. the gas must pass through relatively short restrictions. Gas FJow Through Restrictions In several instances in a gas production system.549. of the flow restriction. .63538)(520/14.)(7') (0.63538)(520/14.485y1 k .000 1958). d2. [3. (28.185.< (3.. • PB '"' 2.p. or choke) is expressed as follows: (779) . ft pipe diameter. . and the pressure at station B. protect surface equipment andior prevent water coning by controlling the flow rate. the gas flow rate. ft gravitationaJ acceleration..24 Mrid .1 PI (1'2)""')J' (783) . are to maintain a precise wellhead flow rate.112.9 psia = 2.6)(0.000 psia and exit at 2. [2g(p. 2 ViCd [ {p k ~\~kl ( l~)'>11')1" J (782) where psla or less.8601 where the coefficient of discharge. therefore. They are capable of causing very la~ge pressure drops: a gas can enter a choke at 5. Ibflft Z fluid density.04 MMrid For section AB : Using Equation 777: where K _ a constant representing the entrance/exit loss due to the d1  L. g_ Pit P2  r" v  p _ change in flow diameter diameter at the throat of the restriction device.e' ""'". The velocity of a fluid flowing through a restriction (orifice.423.15520 Using Equation 776: 112. q.443) J . fUsec2 pressures at the upstream and downstream ends. nozzle.2 '"" upstream and downstream side of the choke. and reservoir management. found several applications as control devices in the all and gas industry. cp/c. _ (e' "". PR ""' 2.73) [ 'I.1)(2 x 5.354 Steady State Flow of Gil" Through Pipes 355 Using Equation 776: _ (5.i!< k 1 . Binder.000' .112. and prevent freezeoffs (hydrate formation) in the surface flow lines and controls.550 psia Thus. respectively.e' "'"'". assuming that the gas is perfect and that the flow is frictionless and adiabatic (see for example. Chokes.24 _ (5.112.e' ''''''2.036.97pI'YJ'(RT I).73)[ (3.000' . .f' C.025)(11.6)(0. provide sand control by maintaining sufficient back pressure on the producing formation.000' . Subsurface k _ ratio of the specific heats for the gas.504. consisting of a metal plate with a small hole to allow flow.04 MMscfd.546) J 1" (or bottomhole) chokes are frequently used to reduce the wellhead flowing pressure.. is given by: (781) Application of Equation 780 to the case of singlephase gas flow resu1ts in the well known de Saint Venant equation. Some of the purposes for which surface (and subsurface) chokes may be used. subscripts 1. respectively PI  Substituting for gas density. lbm/ftl Equation 779 is generally written as: 0'. ViCd [ RT.798)(545)(0. Chokes have.200')(7') (0.( l4..550 psia.
Surface chokes are usually designed to provide critical flow. into • 0'.V! . Substitutin~ for"'" .(""4)~. and for Equation 784: VI from Equation 783. Cos Production Engineering Steady State Flow oj Gos Through Pipes 357 The gas velocity Vi is related to the volumetric gas flow rate at standard conditions.constant. Thus. psia P2 .485)''1>. The choke flow relationships represented by Equations 786 and 787 are valid only in the subcritical flow regime. In common units. 0'.. Equations 786 and 787 apply. PI = pressure at the upstream side of the choke. psia TI _ inlet (or upstream) temperature.Vl implying that (785) Substituting for T2 from Equation 785. p.(v. In the subcritical flow regime. (786) . Unlike subcritical flow. the flow rate in critical flow depends only upon the upstream pressure. ('fITI ~l PI [(v.T. once the speed of sound is attained. . and assuming perfect gas (~ .pressure at the downstream side of the choke. Subsurface chokes are usually designed to allow subcritical flow. _ [ r(Rg.100 fusee for air) in the gas. If the pressure For an adiabatic expansion/compression process for a perfect gas.)'" .)'" ""])'" \p. Critical Flow Flow is called critical when the velocity of the gas through the restriction is equal to the speed of sound (about 1.35. the flow rate cannot exceed the c ritical flow rate achieved when the ratio of the downstream pressure P2 to the upstream pressure PI reaches a critical value. 0'. Subcritical Flow Flow is called subcritical when the velocity of the gas through the restriction is below the speed of sound in the gas.73 psia and 520 0 R) dm = choke diameter. ] (4)( 14 .J''T. oR The flow through chokes (and flow restrictions in general) may be of two types: subcritical and critical. however much this ratio is decreased . k _ 1 (1 k [tv. C dp. in. Therefore. The maximum speed at which a pressure effect or disturbance can propagate through a gas cannot exceed the velocity of sound in the gas. pVk . and the flow rate depends upon both the upstream as well as the downstream pressure.61Cd PIrla. up to critical flow when the maximum flow velocity (equal to the speed of sound) is attained. further increase in the pressure differential will not increase the pressure at the throat of the choke.. Mscfd (measured at 14 .)"' ""])'" PI (787) where ~ is the crosssectional area of flow through the choke." as before: Equation 786 is the general equation for flow through chokes.1): q.p.d1h >.v.c  1 k 974. it can be written as: <J. Therefore.)" (v. q. because the pressure disturbances traveling at the speed of sound imply that a pressure disturbance at the downstream end will have no effect on the upstream pressure andlor flow rate. q. p.(rd1h14) (::)(~) where <be'" gas flow rate.
2. Production Engineering Steady State Flow oj GO.275 . that the flow is critical when the pressure ratio is in the range 0. k is usually assumed to be constant.63 gravity gas.80.955.55..71) (0 . D R 1'.choke size.. and set the resultant expression equal to zero) it can be shown that: Solution Using Equation 788: (7881 F10w is subcritical for <Pi/PI) (J>i/pl)c .31. Note that the analysis here assumes a perfect gas. implying from the relationship represented by Equation 788. the value of k used is in the range of 1. generally assumed to be 0.32 Mscfd r' j (789) where q. lOO°F.65)(560) 0. • q. referred to standard conditions of 14.. Substituting Cl>2/p.275.f Through Pipes 359 ratio at which critical flow occurs is represented by (PZ/pl)~' then from elementary calculus (differentiate Equation 787 with respect to 1>2. > (PZ/pl)c.upstream pressure. fortunately. Generally. and k . of a 0.275 approximately. Find the flow rate.86)(750)(28164)' 1 )(1.' ..55"" . because the maximum flow rate through the choke is that which corresp:lOds to critical flow.88)(750)(28164)' 1 )(1.275)127. . 1.5549 (for k .8" '" _ 0.65 gravity gas through a 28f64in. 0. [(0.275) (0.. 0.275 .5439 (for k .. .275 in Equation 787.65)(560)].275) (0. 1.88) (750) (28.gas gravity (air . and critical for <P2IPI) ::S (P~:lPI)< U the operating pressure ratio is less than the critical pressure ratio. The upstream pressure PI ...471. and a more complex analysis is generally quite unnece<isary_ The value of k is also.61)(0..1.31). The critical pressure ratio {pz/pt)c is O. in.5'0. _ upstream temperature. flow is assumed critical when the pressure ratio is less than or equal to 0.33 Mscfd Temperature Profile in Flowing Cas Systems It is quite clear from the flow relationships presented so far that flow calculations require the value of the flowing temperature in order to determine .955..1... (212.55>1 '" _ 0. relatively insensitive to temperature variations as well as to the gas molecular weight for gaseous hydrocarbons.275 . No corrections have been made for deviation of gas from ideal behavior. As a rule of thumb...53 for diatomic gases..61)(0. k :r..293 for a 0.86 psia and 520 oR.0. p. 1) Cd .55.flow rate through the choke. It has been found that these relationships give very good results in field application. . 1.25 to 1.. Mscfd dm .358 CD. 0..03 Mscfd r' j Using Equation 787. psia T. Therefore.25) to 0.55 (a) PIl/pl . temperature Tl .65)(560) 0. 750 psia. . we can get the well known choke design equation for critical flow: q.2.diameter choke for a downstream pressure Pt equal to: (a) 600 psia.. 64 )' q. with an adiabatic gas exponent k. the pressure ratio in Equation 786 or Equation 787 must be replaced by the critical pressure ratio.2. and (b) 300 psia. and k .coefficient of discharge. 600/750 ..(974. which implies a k equal to 1..)" . and slightly higher for more complex gases. Examplf! 77. _ (974.8"'" "') [( (0. "') [((0.73 The same result can alternatively be obtained using Equation 789: (456.4g for monoatomic gases.. which is greater than (pz/p\)" Using Equation 787.
This equation. ftlsec Cp = fluid specific heat at constant pressure.) (I _ e.ZVIQ L V2 . _(v' . . and the fifth term accounts for the . In Equation 792. phase changes (condensation.)[(v _v. and the te~perature (~r heat loss) depends upon pressure that governs the changes in flUId enthalples. TJ. C. Considering these factors. O F (C 1C s)/(C2(C 2 + C a))]CfzIC3 (C 1 + C 2 LJ C 2!Ca (790) Subscripts 1 and 2 indicate the inlet and outlet ends of the pipe. This assumption is not too far from reality. Thus. For the case where phase changes can be neglected (singlephase flow). flow rate. an approximate temperature profile. Btullbm k . = outside pipe diameter. trialanderror type of calculations for which even the amount of data available in most cases is insufficient... Ibm/sec Q = phasetransition heat. and subscripts L and V represent liquid and vapor (gas). more precise temperature and flow calculations may be required.. such as in cases where phase changes occur during flow of the gas through the pipe. ZVICpL . and energy loss (due to friction) during flow that is converted into heat.Cpv)/L ". the temperatu~ of gas flowing in a pipeline depends upon heat exchange With the surroundmgs.v (793) • The ~ble adiab~ticsimultaneow.thermal conductivity. overall heat transfer coefficient. respectively..'L. T ..v. Equation 790 can be simplified to: • _ C4 + Cs1.. the third term represents the JouleThomson effect. is very accurate for short line segments. ft v = fluid velocity.300 Gas Production Engineering PIP2 Steady State Flow oj Gas Through Pipes 361 the effective g~ properties and pressure drop. pres:sure and temperature reduction process that accomparues the expanswn of a flowing gas by pressure reduction is called JouleThomson or throttling effect. equal to 32.v. therefore. Thus. T . the fourth term accounts for the elevation changes. In deriving Equation 790. In some cases. generating a very precise temperature profile requires an enormous amount of complex.] KLCpv k I KL L (792) + (1  ZVI)CpV C2 Ca kim ZVI)(CpL . and generally gives quite good results. the first two terms represent the heat exchange with the surroundings. vaporization) in the gas due to pressure and temperature changes.r'" [T. Pressure and temperature are mutually dependent variables in flowpressure loss depends to some extent on temperature (or heat loss). respectively (except in the numbering of the constants C). (ZV2  where K .. given by the overall heat transfer coefficient· the (pressure dependent) JouleThomson effect.. Btu/IbmoF I'd . and other parameters.v. and velocity and elevation changes. m (79 1) where Zv '" • F10wing Temperature in (Horizontal) Pipelines For a given inflow temperature. assuming steadystate flow of gas. pressure..VI +L VI + ghlL hd. = temperature of the soil or surroundings. Papay (1970) has derived the following equation. + C 4/C 2  mole fraction of vapor (gas) in the gasliquid fiowstream p ". independent of pra<lure.mc. .JouleThomson coefficient. from the pipeline inlet: TJ. and phasetransitions are linear functions of distance from the inlet end of the pipeline. however. ft2oFllbf m = mass flow rate. ft d.17 ft/sec2 h = elevation difference between the inlet and outlet. . + CS(C 1 + CaL. most flow computations assume that the flowing temperature profile is linear. To avoid complexity..) C 2 (C2 + Ca) C2 where C1 .. ft T. for the temperature T Lx at a distance 1. Papay (1970) assumed that pressure.. Btu/ftsecoF g _ gravitational acceleration.)L. and surrounding soil temperature. Ibf/ft 2 L = pipeline length.due to pra<lure changes c.) + (v.L [ZVICpU'dL + (1  ZVI)CpVI'dV 1+ ZV2.used by friction. is satisfactory for most engineering applications.
.I . Thlsa.. 1984. To what pressure must the gas be comp~ at the inlet end to achieve this? Use at least hvo equations and compare the results. An analysis based upon measured temperature profiles in actual gas wells is recommended. A gas production system consists of three sections: Subsurface section I: inclined . Binder. SOmile gas pipeline is to deliver 100 MMscfd of gas at 250 psia. E . A 4. The last two terms are small and may be neglected for most practical purposes.0.4()()() ft inlet temperature .distance from the bottomhole or point of fluid entry. A simplified equation presented by Ramey (1962). ft T l. Vol. similar to Equation 794. If the pressure drop is small.()()()'ft gas well requires a wellhead pressure of at least 100 psia to enable flow of the 0. varies with distance along the flow length due to the geothermal gradient. 10. . D. O F TI . Beggs. AIME. OCCl Publications. Gas Production Operations. O F C T . of Mech.85 gravity gas from the wellhead through the surface facilities. length = 5.0. R. and Smith. The temperature in the surface sections can be assumed to be 85°F. A 12in.0. Equation 792 simplifies to the following familiar form: (7.1 in. 6th ed.0.!J. Code Jor Pressure Piping. United Engineering Center. 1984..5 in. Oil & Cas Consultants International.000 psi. Edited by R. Cullender. New Jersey.'mc. List some limitations of the flow equations described in this chapter for (a) horizontal £low and (b) vertical £low. Oklahoma. NY..temperature at location L. of the earth. Chemical Engineers' Handbook. . What is the maximum throughput through the pipeline in Problem I? Assume c . Perry and D. a.75 gravity gas is 90' F. 1976. and S _ 35. Am. 2. Engrs. °Fm K :w k. H. then the temperature drop due to expansion is also small. Neglecting these terms. find: (a) Cas flow rate through the system. New York. inclined 30° from the horizontal. 'Y. For a pressure of 4000 psia at the inlet of section 1. Inc. 1. H. ANSI B31.. and that the heat loss is independent of time. Soc.geothermal gradient. is widely used: (7·95) where 3. . Repeat part (b) assuming that the gas flows through the casingtubing annulus.. The parameter K is quite difficult to estimate. New York. 1958. 1956.0040.()()()5 for the pipe.5 miles Surface section Ill : 2 miles long.. 287 pp. and the third term may also be neglected.lsooF. 1. The bottomhole temperature is 200°F and the surface temperature is 82°F.\'. The casing is 4. and f .05. Q. The average flOWing temperature of the 0.3.. H. 4. What is the bottomhole pressure for a gas flow rate of IO MMscfd? c. W..oons and Problenu 1. the tubing being 2. (b) Pressure at the outlet of section 111. McCrawHili Book Company. v. Advanced Fluid Mechanics. as gi\'en by Equation 993 • Equation 795 assumes that the temperature of the fluid and surroundings is equal at the point of entry..l) Flowing Temperatures in Wells The case of subsurface vertical flow is a special case of the general equation (Equation 790) where the temperature of the surrounding.500 ft. 296 pp. 5. Petroleum Refinery Piping.0.. ID. and lId . What is the minimum bottomhole pressure to enable gas flow? b. 00..65. "Practical Solution of CasF1ow Equations for Wells and Pipelines with Large Temperature Cradients. Y ." 7Tan.temperature at point of fluid entry (at L _ 0). similar to an empirical equation developed by Shiu and Beggs (1980) for flowin~ oil wells.1. 207. Inc.f.. C T (OF'ft). M.002. R. true vertical depth . References ANSI.. PrenticeHa~l. length"" 1. Creen. outlet temperature" 85°F Surface section II: horizontal.362 Gal Production Engineering Slead!l State Flow of Gal Through Pipet 363 change in velocity head. 281287. C.
Generally. 657664. "Calculation of BottomHole Pressures for Deep.. and Dew and Brill (1973). 1975. ASCE. liquid and gas are transported through different flowlines at the surface. F. J. Energy Resources Conservation Board. John Wiley & Sons. • 365 . ASME. B. by A. K. however. Shiu. Cornell.037. 14(4. H. F. A... 1959.. Cited reference in: Production alld 1rallsport of Oil and Gas. 211. O. Calgary. 204. Inc. Marotta. 1955.. J. 11.. Developments in Petroleum Science. The pressure drop for multiphase flow conditions is usually greater than for singlephase flow and. "Wellbore Heat Transmission.. Hot. F. R. Jr. D. New York.. 563. 1980.. C. Tech.". K. "Direct Calculation of BottomHole Pressures in Natural Cas Wells. 547550.. F. K" 1976. 8592. Multiphase flow correlations are more important for wells with a significant liquid production.. 1984. "Predicting Temperatures in Flowing Oil Wells. Var)" J. For a detailed treatment of multi phase flow per se. its complex behavior has not vet been fully understood.. 1974." 'Irons. 4348. 517 pp. the flow may be considered single phase and the relationships for gas presented in Chapter 7 can be used with minor modifications to }ield close estimates. J. "Friction Factors for Pipe F1ow. Pet. Katz. P. New York..lculations may not always be necessary. J.. Lesem. and such ca. defined as the simultaneous flow of free gases and liquids. Problems. H. 102(1.. Tech. 802 pp. D. Ikoku. but for twophase flow conditions. H. March).·' J.. Tech. When a large amount of liquid is associated with the gas. Sour Cas Wells." J. Pet." J. Inc. AlME. "A Method of Calculating the Distribution of Temperature in F10wing Cas Wells. and Cornell. Moody." 'Irons. rarely do gas wells produce "dry" gas. notably Brown and Beggs (1977). Am.. 210... Amsterdam.. A. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co. Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering. For small amounts of liquid production. and Weinaug.. C.. emulsion. L. 19(4. 1944. or for prediction of conditions for liquid loading of gas wells that are currently producing "dry" gas. 1957. F. 3). Apr. J. and Jain. K. Swamee. "Explicit Equations for PipeF1o. with liquid slugging and pressure fluctuations. Pet.. A. Engr. Meck Eng. Elsevier Scientific Pub!. J. 1955. or bubble flow. G. 1975. Sukkar. Production and Transport of Oil and Cas (Developments in Petroleum Science. Jan. and McKetta. 27(1):014: 27(2):C36: 27(3). The gas and liquid may exist as a homogeneous ~ixture... H. 102(HY5. p.. Jr. Energy Resour. Szilas. .. and Sew. H .. Papa)". Soc. H. 630 pp. Apr. An overdesigned line is not only expensive. C. This chapter outlines methods for handling multiphase flow in the context of gas engineering.). F. Although the existence of multiphase flow." 7rans. 1970. 671684. J. L.). 1975.364 Cas Production Engineering ERCS. it may result in unstable operations. true multi phase gasliquid flow prevails and such simplifications are no longer valid. Theory and Practice of the Testing of Cos Wells. Young. Nisle. P.). 26(1. Co.. J. 1962. L.. 8 Multiphase GasLiquid Flow Introduction  As stated earlier. Tech. L." Petrol. A/ME. 1967. Y. in some cases.. "Steady Temperature Distributions in Producing Wells and Pipelines. "Calculation of the F10w and Storage of Natural Gas in Pipe. Poettmann. McCrawHUI Book Co.. Raghavan. "Effect of Assumptions Used to Calculate BottomHole Pressure in Gas Wells. Greytock. Elenbaas.. R. Canada. and Poettmann. P. Kobayashi." Koola. the flow may be quite unsteady. P.. 3rd ed. 66(Nov. R. Messer. 3.. Alberta.." Trans. e8 Foldgaz.. Hydraulics Div.. Szilas. or as independent phases in other complex flow patterns such as slug. K. Jr. Amsterdam. U. Natural Gas Production Engineering.169176. Some liquid (oil and water) is almost always associated with it. May)..). and Ramey. D. has been known for a long time. R.. mist. Early attempts to use modified singlephase flow relationships for multiphase flow resulted in highly overdesigned or underdesigned flowlines. Ramey.427435. readers may refer to the literature.
. and gas compressibility factor (Zfactor) . If this twophase Zfactor is essentially the same as the singlephase Zfactor. Iha M'..000 scf/stb may be assumed to be singlephase gas.. Wt. 01 2 00 end G"Oil Ratio of ~ 000 SCF ISl8 Z F"::lor '.+ 2" J 0." '~~iT' ~ . Multiphase fl ow For flow conditions that cannot be approximated as singlephase gas.lura $tpal'I'on o.1 ~ ~ ! 1\ 0.9 • I ~l" " i ' .ch the 367 Approximate Method for Tw~Phase Systems F10w streams with a CLR (gasliquid ratio) greater than 10. (After Elfrink et aI.n".::y ! ! 0..gasoil ratio. o ~~ "" '< where ~ . 1959): Z FKlor '1 Des""o (G_Oil Ral'OS lor Low Temp.1) ')'0 .aI_Oi! R. At ISO " F 10 . lor Normal Tempe.) 10 ~ Eumple For Pseudo Rtdu~ed Tanp of 1.. 1949: redrafted by Ikoku.. it is necessary to use more complex procedures.w PO'"" Oev"uon of Flom. F"::lo'l O. )''''' can be obtained by dividing the molecular weight of the flow stream by the molecular weight of air. .. I~..1) at standard conditions M. can be converted to specific gravity 'Yo (water . .r. i ! "'" L':' . can be corrected for the existence of two phases using Figure B1.L~.s . .~ If not known....'.molecuJar weight of the stocktank oil 0.195. gas gravity.~ ' OB • ..N'I for. 2. 1984.. resulting in the following expression (Craft and Hawkins.oil gravity (water . II Of .9 Ii ~ .. 1 basis) for the total flow stream.1 basis) as follows: 141.. M. C   f ::::::: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~... Gas deviation factor correction for twophase natural gas systems. Using these modified properties.SolS. .!o • o ."d eo .00 and G"O. These correlations account for the flow geometry (vertical.. This is commonly the case for retrograde and wet gas reservoirs.Ue. by no MOle Thin T.. . sef/stb 1'... Sep.. .tial .. 1\ . The gas specific gravity (air.. These include molecular weight.366 Gal Production Engineering Multipha3e CatLiquid Flow (.. the mixtu re exists as a single gaseous phase. courtesy of SPE.y be Gliitly Olllllfnl.1'~ . • Liquid specific gravity.. Multiphase flow has been stU?ied in detail by numerous investigators and several correlations are available. Ph_ Z F~lor Coo.5 ')'0 0 r: 1\1\ ~ r. calculations can be carried out with the relationships presented for gas in Chapter 7. ..S..e!lIi~ tI O.6 1 N • " 05 API + 131.. 0 1M lollY o.) The gas compressibility factor (Zfactor) obtained from Figure 32 (Chapter 3) using critical pressure and temperature estimates for the total f10\\ stream (using ")'w). can be estimated using Equation 82: (82) .I Ral'o of RedUCed P'tlwr.specific gravity of the gas (air . frequently specified in terms of °APf. where the oil and gas produced at the surface actually exist as gas within the reservoir. inclined. similar to calculations shown in Chapter 3 for a "dry" gas mixture.. The small Liquid content of the gas can be accounted for by modifying the properties that are affected by the presence of liquid... Pseudo Reduud P'tlWfe o.5"" K'" O::ltn~::r flhase" P'I!SMI (. If Uncorftcltd.om 0 .5 (83) Figure 81. M. Molecular weight of the flow stream consisting of gas as well as liquid can be calculated from the mixture composition.~I .732 Aecu.. 2SO"F. Coo'Kled bel OW 10 0. "' .
bubble. pipe diameters. etc. The unknown pressure is the pressure corresponding to the corrected length determined in Step 3. mist. Pressure traverse curves are simple to understand and use. gas in solution in oU as well as water. it is satisfactory to consider a fairly good and practically expedient technique that uses pressure traverse curves. however. L parameter. it is better to construct a pressure traverse curve using the best applicable method for the range that we are interested in. and other parameters related to flow (Reynolds number. etc. flow rate. if the known pressure is the inlet pressure. (tnt continued on page 380) • • • . Correct this length for the pipeline length by: adding the pipeline length to the length determined in Step 2. They are. 3. fast. or subtracti ng the pipeline length from the length in Step 2. and fairly accurate. go vertically down to the applicable gas/liquid ratio curve. provided the freegas/oil ratio is used for the C. Pressure Traverse Curves for Horizontal GasLiquid Flow The hOrizontal flow pressure traverse curves shown in Figures 82af were prepared using Eaton et al. they can be used for oil. friction factor.368 Gal Production Engineering Mu/tiphose GasLiquid Flow 369 horizontal). density and viscosity of the multiphase mixture). On the pressure axis. Such cun'es can easily be generated for any other set of fluid properties. 4. Some of the most commonly used pressure traverse curves. fluid properties (formation volume factor for oil and water. requiring the use of computers.). 2. To generate better traverse curves. rates.'s (1967) correlation and give satisfactory results except for low rates and low C. Select the applicable curve for the given flowline size. and read off the length on the length axis. Although these curves were prepared for water. prepared usin~ the I.).:orrelations of Hagedorn and Brown (1965). L ratios. if the known pressure is the outlet pressure. Appendix B at the back of the book gives computer programs for two such methods. Since no single correlation is best over all ranges. are shown In Figure 82(av). Pressure travcl"S( curves are plots of pressure versus flow distance for a pipe of a ghen diameter for selected oil and gas properties at various gas/liquid ratios and flo\\. quite complex. surface tension. • Example 81 illustrates this procedure. and gas/liquid ratio. a combination of several correlations and/or experimental data can be useful. locate the known pressure. holdup. flo" pattern (slug. For our purposes. plug. or flow rates using the available correlations for multi phase flow. as follows: 1.
_ _ .... ill • .370 Cas Prodllctioll Eligineering 371 Ii .. 0_"1  .". ~ . ii ..' .. 00. ! . ~ I ! . I~ ~i~ • u: '" ~ J ~ I N .!I !•• i I' • If i  ..p> I • • " !. o'n" • Ii Ii I I .'} II.  III III r III _ ... • i i~ go:.~ ... ~~ •• jJ 0 !j. . lII<tl III "I ! .• N r aJ ~ II d. ~ ! .I . ~ . • .. ~ ~ • ..
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. 00Q'1 ..L. • ..Li.GtU Production Engineering Multiphase GasLiquid Flow 375 .~~l___+~~~~~~~ • i.. • ... II f·Il++Dt4Lj...1hLI.4 • • • • I.LbL~~~ • 1.f........._ .../L....I++AL. • _.1++..
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:H¥.1{ ' I' .... "'. twol1 . 379 • ••• .378 CO$ Production Engi'leering Mulripha~e GasLiquid FIQU.~Etr.. _ .! " .. N • • _ _ .ntD.<+++.L~~ I III .' i.. ~__+___J.l'_+J~I+___1 l· ~~~+~~~~~~~/~~ • . • ..>lIA+."...! " I. • ...
Select the applicable curve for the given tubing size. Calculate the total pressure loss for the d(!\.000 f1. Psev = 400 psig. 4. Pressure Traverse Curves for Vertical CasLi(luid Flow • The vertical pressure traverse curves. For pressure tra. holdup. fmd the flowing bottom· hole pressure P. Erampl~ 8·2..000 ft deep. Determine the frictional pressure drop due to the extra length of the tubing (i. Given that the tubing size is 2.000 .000 psig. go vertically down to the applicable gas/liquid ratio curve. The unknown pressure is the pressure corresponding to the corrected depth determined in Step 3. . <?Iven p..e.000 ft. 2. 4. a well is producing 1.. On the pres.300 sef/stb. and gas/liquid ratio.5 in.. and the average pressure estimated in step (2). 800 sci' stb at a flowing wellhead pressure of 700 psig. the true vertical depth can be used to ascertain the pressure trawrse. tubing is equal to 7. are used in a manner similar to the curves for horizontal flow: 1. q. Using Figure 8ld and the procedure described earlier. 9. ID.1.500 ft. I. 5. A \\'cU is producing 1.8.000 ft approximatel}'. Assume a value for the inlet or outlet pressure. 3..000 ft.000 . and read off the depth on the depth axis. howe\'er.iated well. 2. if the known pressure was the surface pressure: or subtracting the well depth from the depth in Step 2.5in. Also. total tubing length minus true "ertical depth of tubing) using the applicable horizontal flow correlation. P"h . h is equal to the pressure corresponding to a depth _ 9. Handling Directional Wells For directional wells with df"viations from the vertical less than 1520°. whichever is unknown. is im'alid for deviations exceeding 20 0 .500 stb/d of oil with aGIO .100 psig. and calculate the average of the inlet and outlet pressures.·er can be obtained using the vertical and horizontal flow curves as follows: sure for a 2.8·'. Solution Using Figure 820 for vertical flow: A P".000 stb/d (50% water).000 stb/d of oil with aGIO . if the known pressure was the bottomhole pressure. In a directionallydrilled well.. P=f ..100 psig.380 CDs Production Engineering Multiphase Cas·Liquid Flow 381 (text continued from page 368) Examph. shown in Figures 82gv. From this new total pressure loss. This approximation.'f. 1. the true vertical depth is ~ual to 5. differs and rna. Determine the separator pres Therefore. flow rate. and the length of the 2in.f = 2. Correct this depth by: adding the well depth to the depth determined in Step 2. P. Thus. Repeat steps 2 through 4 till the unknown pressure (inlet or outlet) from steps (2) and (4) agree within a specified tolerance.000ft line.e curves. defined lU the volume fraction of the flow conduit occupied by liquid. • Example 83. Determine the pressure loss using only the true vertical depth and the applicable vertical flow correlation ..000 psig corresponds to 9.1. For a bottomhole flowing pressure of 2. Hence freegas/oil ratio is 800 scf/stb.. becall5C a directional well has a greater length than a yertical well for the same depth.h . Solution Assume that at a pressure of 700 psig there is no gas in solution. resulting in a greater frictional head ios. and the well is 8.· be greater for inclined than for vertical £low. an approximate ansv. . h. This is equal to the sum of the m'O pressure losses obtained in steps (1) and (3).. find the flowing wellhead pressure P.100 psig for a vertical depth of 5. Solutioll Using Figure 82m for vertical flow. find the new estimate of the inlet or outlet pressure. 3.~ure axis.er.. locate the known pressure. elL _ 800 scf/stb. whichever is unknown.
00967 P•• .. and T~. the only a\'ailable method that can be applied to field problems without the use of complex computer programs. as follows (F1anigan. (100 + 1...:E:.~ found to be 525 psig. ).PI .550 psig." T.6..1. which is the predominant component in hOrizontal lines. dp! 625 .000 stbld (95% water). Hf" correlates with the superficial gas velocity... psia average gas compressibility factor (at P. P•• psig.382 MIJltiphasl' GasUqllid Flow 383 A trial and error procedure is required to determine p. ft. . 80 ft. the applicable relationship is: 0. . p.. . Therefore..' 82c (100% water chart is a reasonable approximation). Thus.. Flanigan concluded that most of the pressure drop occurred in the uphill section of the line. in. the a\'erage pressure. the downstream pra. the pTe"Sure drop through the pipe is calculated as follows: ~p". .7.5 (86) Thus.6. at P...1.1. average pres.300 pslg. o~ L O. Bakcr (1960) showed that for v>~ > SO. P. From the horizontal flow correlation.. .000 ft long flowline passes over 5 hills having the following vertical heights: 130 ft..h + p"l)i2 . '11.. 40 ft. f .:. 650 ...200 psig. assume P. f  = 31lg. the average gas compra<.{ .7 (air" I).200 psig.200 psig. and using the addi tional length of 2.5.40" API. find the pressure loss due to the hills. from Figure 32 .. and average temperature T •• _ 120"F.. Gh'en ql = 2. Thus. the pressure Ios.f.(ZT) .500 .000). ft. and P"I .. ) inside diameter of flow conduit. such as flow over hills. which is the predominant component in vertical and inclined flows.000 scffstb.L . As a first guess.000 ft of pipe.urt: i. . liquid density.. and pressure drop due to the liquid head. R average £lowing pressure. 0.0. T •• = P.6.p! . and 185 ft.02.ent the fraction of the total static pTe"Sure drop that exists as the elevation component.100 psig.f + . The uphill sections are treated as equivalent vertical columns containing an equivalent amount of liquid.200 psig.. = 1..525 .625 psig) on the horizontal flow correlation in Figur<.200)12 . ).. . G.650 psig. .. 210 ft.1. 2.(100 + 1. Hf''''' ">. M\1scfd avcrage flowing temperature. Second trial: Assume 1.d2 \'1[ (85) where = (lg = P. ele\·ation component of the total static pTe"Sure drop.:H . fraction.550 s 100 psig.500 ft ( = 7.entoo. Flanigan introouceci the term Hf' to repre.1. Because in multiphase flow the pipe is never completely filled with only liquid. Solution For 'YK ..96. (520)p.. I'll = 0. 1958): where L '" length of the flowline. 1... Using H F .. Ibm ftl Example 8·4. v'S.v ( . Flanigan (1958) pre. q. Then.. = (84) (p.<.. A 4·in.150)/2"" 625 where HF .. Flow Over Inclined or Hilly Terrain Inclined f10\\ implies flow through pipes that deviate from the horizon· tal. By conducting several field tests. due to friction in the extra 2.120"F.. Z~. and identified two main components of the p~re drop for multiphase flow in an inclined system: pressure drop due to friction. superficial gas \'(·locity. On locatin~ P. and V'I[ is given by: \.p= 144 • (87) where PI ..300 psig. d . downstream pressure .100 + 100 pw/  = 1. The sum of these two components determines the total pTe"Sure drop. 10.150 psig.'iure P..100 + 100 .sec gas flow rate..· ibility factor Z.H..
it is required to install a choke ("choke the well back'.175 psig. 1. where a = 1.71164 in. " ~ (0. proposed that the choke be installed at a depth of 4. assuming that the flow through the choke is critical (Pu "" 2Pd)' Solution ~ 1.01 . the wellhead flowing pressure. 64ths of an inch R .5)/(131. This well produces a large amount of sand when the oil prcx:iuction rate is above 1. v ~ (31..16 = 279.8 1175 Thus. ~ (1.000 x 1.000)(600)°·5.89.4)(0. b. restricting gas flow. (10)(1.28 p'i. In lowpressure gas .. i.Sin. h.g9". In highpressure gas wells. (88) d1. qui red.546: (89) .: producing gasliquid ratio. implying that Pd = 1.). Using Equation 87.9£)(580) _ 13.8)11 89 = • 19. >.. therefore.95)(1. Most commonly. 1986). 130 + 40 + 210 + 80 + 185 + 40) ~ = 645 ft.000 x 10')(0.000 stb/d oil rate. (b) the flowing pressure.0. the pressure at 1. 5. (a) Using Equation 89.384 Gas Production ElIgilweriug Mu{tiphnse GasLiquid Flow 385 Using Equation 8·5. A well is producing through a 2.. and c. Pu = 1. P .5 0. stb/d pu = upstream pressure. ~ (141..h "" 100 psig. Liquid loading imposes an additional back pressure on the producing formation. d _ (279. Flow Through Chokes The generalized equation for critical multiphase flow through a choke is written as. c = empirical constants Liquid Loading in Gas Wells The liquid loading of a gas well refer:s to the accumulation of liquids in the wellbore of a flowing gas well.. (After Kumar et aI.. . 10 tubing. the oottomhole Using Equation 84.000 ft.e. Cilbert's (1954) correlation is used.9173 fU"". the flow rate drops drastically and Various investigator:s have proposed different values for a.175/2 = 588 psig. For a 1. psia d = inside diameter of the choke.8251) Using Figure 82p.05)(0. where ql = liquid flow rate. at a rate go = 1. (b) Using Figure 82p for Pd . a common operating problem in gas production operations.000 stbfd. liquid loading will result in slugging flow and reduced well deliverability: fluctuations in gas flow rate and casing pressure will be observed.veils.02) + (0.194)(2. 588 psig.1781)(645)/144 ~ 50. scf/sth a. a bottomhole choke must be designed..01 x 62.e. It i<. or 20164 inch.000 stb/d with a CIO = 600 seE/stb. caused by the buildup of casing pressure until it becomes sufficient to blow the liquid to the surface.8251 Therefo. and c .000 ft deep. however. b = 10.0. Thus.000 ft above the bottom of tubing is equal to 1. (520)(300)(16) Example 8·5.175 psig.000 ft above the bottom of the tubing. 1 !:H . Because hydrate problems have made it impossible to install a surface choke. ~p"".
id Removal . d". There are essentially two approaches in solving this problem: prevent liquid accumulation.[4gd.id loading can be recognized by fluctuations in gas flow rate and casing pressure for highpressure wells. the required minimum gas velocity is given by: v. (1969) used correlations for the Weber number to determine the maximum drop diameter that can exist under given flow conditions. and solving for v.5 Substituting Cd '" 0. with a continuous exchange of liquid between the gas stream and the wall film. If the gas velocity is not high enough to transport these liquids to the surface. There are tv. . Equation 810 can therefore be wnlten as: \' = . = v2sP. but because enough casing pressure cannot be achieved. Nw~. rate and the velocity of the produced gas.32p~ p~l" (Bll) I I Turner et at.id Loading: Minimum Flow Rate for Continuous Liqu. According to the wall film model. however.. pJ . A brief description follows of some available methods. the liquid film moving down along the pipe walls eventually breaks into droplets that are reentrained in the gas stream. or remove the liquid as it is produced...44 for Newtonian flow. (812) The maximum drop diameter. According to the droplet model. Thus.: .. of the particle. can now be specified using the fact that the drop will disintegrate if the Weber number exceeds a critical value of 20 to 30: (813) Substituting for dmu from Equation 813 into Equation 811. but do not provide enough energy for the continuous removal of these liquids. or produces onJy intermittently.to the terminal velocity v... The more complex wall film mooel can.. As stated earlier. it agrees with observed data./g... Liquid loading occurs in gas wells that have liquid proouction (however small the amount may be).(PP 3CdPtt: p~r' (810) assuming Newtonian (turbulent) flow. As discussed in Chapter 4 (Equation 417).'o sources of liquids in a gas well: water and hydrocarbon condensate from condensation of the hydrocarbon gas. and the droplet model is applicable.h "t . Preventing Liqu. This process continues until the well dies. ~ [4 g d.... Turner et al. is a dimensionless number expressing the ratio of the velocity forces that try to disintegrate the drop. and entrairunent of liquid droplets in the gas stream. therefore. both these models probably exist.id column further reduces the flo". and water from the producing reservoir. 'furner et al. they accumulate at the bottom of the well The back pressure on the formation due to the hydrostatic head of this liqu. among other reasons. '" . From an analysis of both these models.dp aldp ag.3S6 Cas Production Engineering MultiphaSl! CasLiquid Flau: 387 casing pressure starts to build up. or by flow stoppage and casing pressure buildup for lowpressure wells. _ nfl.oo two physical models for the removal of liquid droplets from gas wells: liquid film movement along the pipe walls.(PI . Pressure surveys and flow computations are very helpful in determin·. (1969) found the droplet mooel to be superior because. be ignored here. liquid loading may completely kill" the well. the minimum gas flow rate to unJoad a gas well is one that enables the largest liquid droplets that can exist in the gas stream to move upwards. Iiqu. The Weber number._~ Substituting for g and g. In a real system. (1969) conceptuali7. the terminal velocity V t (fusee) of a particle of diameter ~ (ft) and density Pp (lbmfft3) falling under gravitational acceleration g in a gas of density PI (lbm/ft3) is given by: Thus. and replacing the particle density Pp by the liquid density Ph we get: v.IS equal . The droplet model assumes that liquid is removed as entrained droplets in the flowing gas stream.[(4)(30)ogg. The liquid film model does not represent the controlling liquid transport mechanism. 4gdp(pp 3CdP. the well is unJoaded by providing a gas flow rate su£ficient to cause the movement of liquids up along the walls of the casing andlor tubing pipe.PJr' L32pjYi o. a particle of diame~er dp will be removed by the gas stream if the velocity of the gas stream V.(PI  1. cannot be determined directly. . and the surface tension forces that tend to keep it together: N w _ C • vjp. the larger the drop. The diameter of the drop. greater is the gas flow velocity required to remove it..
02 (45 .. Beam pumping units cannot be adjusted to handle very low rates and problems may. whereas gas is p~1 2 . (1969) for use when the liquid is either water or condensate: ( V \ v ..\" _ 17. psia ' flOwing temperature. p T Z  required minimum gas flow rate. 1980).0. PI . This time period may be preset by a clock. A .OO3Ip)' . Plunger Lift This method has proved to be very successful in unloading liquids from gas wells (Libson and Henry. The casing pressure builds up.14) ing set as close to the bottom perforation as possible.. arise if they are used for low liquidrate wells. so as to provide a liquid cushion to prevent gas interference problems in the downhole pump.. \elocity.. One advantage of pumping units over other t}1)CS of liquid removal techniques is that they do not depend on gas velocity for liftthe energy for Hquid lift is provided by the pump itself. In this method. may be used on the flowline to control the cyclic rate of the plunger (Libson and Henry.. 67 Ibm/ft'..O. Both gas and liquid are allowed to flow into the tubing through a valve.15 and 816 were derh'ed assuming the folloWing: 1. liquids are produced through the tubing.  20A  00_'~'(~p~. Beam pumping units are quite inexpensive and economical for shallow wells. 3. virtually eliminating gas slippage and liquid fallback. MMscfd crosssectional area of the gas flow conduit ft2 flOWing pressure.. until it is sufficient to transport the plunger and allliqujd and gas abo"e it in the tubing to the surface.. £ produced through the tubingcasing annulus. If a liquid divcrter is provided in the subsu rface tubing string to allow only liqUids to enter the tubing. operated either by a clock or by well fl ow rate monitoring.I . It uses a steel plunger. A motor valve. this valve is shut off . therefore. The gas 'elocit)· VI in ft/sec can be converted to field units of MMscfd as _ 3. (J "" 60 dynes/em. . to enable expressing the gas denslt)' as a function of pressure. For water. O R gas compressibility factor at the flowing pressure and tempera_ ture Liquid Unloading: Removal of Liquid as it Accumulates Nu~erous methods have been proposed for the liquid unloading or dewatermg. .514 .. 2. or surface flow controllers may be used to aUo w the well to flow until the gas velocity drops to some critical value. the optimum time cycle has to be determined by trialanderror. a bumper opens the valve in the plunger.f Productiorl E'I~i1lCf"rlllg Multiphou CosLiquid Flow 389 0"( PI .. Their applicability is best for low gas rates. with a liquid production of greater than about IO bbliday..6 gr~vity gas at a temperature of 120°F. 1972). and preferably below it (Hutla!\ and Granberry. ( V' V""ndellSoo'. If a clock is used.  . 45 Ibm/ft'. CQ. and the well is allowed to flow for a period of time. (815) 4.. the water equation.P~" P. no liquid cushion is required and gas interference problems are minimized . (O.. which gJ\'CS follows: a hIgher required gas \'elocity VI' should be used. For field applications. 1972).OO3lp). For condensate.. type opening at the tubing bottom.  5. 1980). but become very expensive for deeper and more highly pressured wells (Hutlas and Granberry. It is desirable to have the tub(8.16) Equations 8. "" (0. . because they permit the well to flo\\ • '~~en ~th water ~nd condensate are present. the folloWing equations are recommended by Thrner et al.62 (67 . Turner et a!. a.~~P~!L. resultmg m the folloWing equation for minimwn gas flo\.06Apv.... 1980). '" ZT (817) w here Cia . of gas wells (Hutlas and Granberrv 1972· L'bson an d ' Henry. Flow controllers are more desirable.OO3lp)l.. 'II. in the tubing string (see Figure 83). equipped with a valve.OO3Ip)" (8. Following plunger arrival at the surface. Beam PUn/lnng Units As a safety ~eas~re. 20 dynes/cm. Some of the methods that have been successfuJly used in field operations are briefly reviewed here. PI . A 0. (1969) use a 20% (approximately) safet\' factor. When the plunger is at the bottom of the tubing. and all production goes into the casing. The plunger acts as an interface between the gas stored in the annulus and the liquid accumulated above the plunger in the tubing.
 SPRING . CASING peR~S :::!.. until the gaslift valve opens to lift the liquid slug to the surface. 0 . perhaps because the surface tension reduction dynamics were not suitable in the cases tested."... yO' for an optimum time period before shutin. . Small tubing strings of Iin. STOP • .. . . .nON 10AO . Surfactant (or soap) is injected using a chemical pump and a time clock. This method applies best to low volume wells in which friction loss is not severe. . .. Figure 84. . Surfactallt Injection GAUGE CASINQ SHutI'" CASING ...'f'~j~~~~~~~~l~1 TlM£ CLOCK 1oI0TOA VAlVE Small Tubing String This technique operates on the principle of increasing the gas velocity. 1980). . This method has proved less successful for unloading condensate (oil)... 1972: Libson and Henry... with liquid production through the tubing and gas production through the annulus. •• . sometimes more than one if liquid production is quite high) mounted on the tubing at a calculated depth.~ I U U " Figure 83 . courtesy of SPE. 1980._"1 GAS PROOUCED EACH CYCLE UP TU81/o10 0"5 E . • OA. . . to enable liquid carryover to the surface. . diameter are quite common for such an application.390 Gas Productioll Engi'leeririg Mllltiphase CasLiquid Flow CASING PRESSURE 391 '~'~O~':. courtesy of SPE.. 1__ o!4_tWIlTEA PROOUCED EACH . 1980.CTlD ''''''CTOo • . however. Gas well soap injection system. ~ •• IIUA'U II lI.. Water is continuously unloaded in a foamed slug state through reduction in surface tension. . (After Ubson and Henry.. . What is multiphase flow? For what purpose are multi phase flow computations useful in the context of gas production operations and how important are they? . em Lift The gas lift system also uses a liquid flow diverter in the tubing string... Figure 84 shows a schematic diagram of a surfactant injection system.. . Plunger lift operations. Injection of surfactants and foaming agents into the tubingcasing annulus has produced successful results in several wells (Libson and Henry.. This system.) Questions and ProWems 1. TEAS ""''''UlUS FRO'" PAY DURING SHUTIN AS AFTEAflOW TO HIGH PRESSURE GAS FOR NEltT CYCLE LEGEND ... uses a gaslift valve (usually one. " . and actuated (opened or closed) by anyone of the several available techniques."'" II .... and has proven quite useful in several field applications (Hutlas and Granberry. . LIQUID C". by providing a reduced flow area.TUBING ANNULUS 1....UO U'A~'""'O"_ _ J L~ ~ o STORACE O"'S PRODUCEO TU81"10 CAS . .SIHCTUBING ANNULUS . Wells having sufficient deliverability to maintain rates above this critical rate for short periods are ideal candidates for flow controllers. . .) C . ".. TO ". Liquid accumulates in the tubing. 1980). CYCLE UP TUBING LIft . (After Ubson and Henry.
. K. A well is producing 800 bblJd oiJ with a gasoil ratio of 1. respectively.. The total well depth is 5. A. 8. and compare the results. Inc. K..68 Oil gravity (water _ I) _ 0. Ikoku. D. "Design of F10wing Well Systems. Thbing Size Selection. 9. 57pp." In: Slirface Operatiom in Petroleum Production. 1969. "A Practical Approach to Removing Cas Well Liquids.200 psig Use two methods. G. Apr.000 sefistb Length of pipeline "" 4 miles Total elevation of hills .. E. with a safety valve installed at a depth of 2. "The Prediction of Flow Patterns. Halliburton Energy Institute. do not anS\\ler any ow 2. E.100 psig. 6. Hagedorn. Tech.000 psig. and the downstream pressure must not be less than 250 psig. New York. Pet. Tulsa. 916922. Hubbard. 1958. M. 487pp. AIME. 1984. Apr.~O~Ugh~~a~2~. P.392 GaJ Production Engineering Multiphase GasLiquid Flow 393 ~____________~jfA~O. E. and Henry. 1972. 1." J. H. tubing.~c!.f. 1..). R. Pet. S.:ng~at~O~. Flanigan.).. G. H.. 132. bottomhole pressure is 1..cr~d~ili:. T. Aug.. H. 0. 21(11.antages of the known methods of unloading gas wells. Elsevier Scientific Publ. ft gas well.. E. 1976. Oklahoma.ID~t~Ub:.). AIME." J." Drilling and Production Practice. Solve problem 6 assuming a horizontal pipeline (no hills). Pet. A. Hutlas. "F1owing and GasLift Well Performance. 56(Mar_ 10). G. "Experimental Study of Pressure Gradients Occurring During Continuous TwoPhase F10w in SmallDiameter Vertical Conduits. 279326. Co.. Liquid Holdup and Pressure Losses Occurring During Continuous TwoPhase F10w in Horizontal Pipelines. Oklahoma. and Granberry. 1986. "A New Compressibility Correlation for Natural Gases and its Application to Estimates of GasinPlace. J. 32(4.. What methods are available to make this well flow? 3 .. Kumar. E. Pet.. E. C. N. T. Tech. what is the pressure drop across the valve? References 8eg&'. 1949. A. 1967.. Sandberg. and Brown.. E. Tech. and BeW. Halliburton Services.. 475484. 1." }.~~1~95:9~. Natural Gas Production Engineering.200 psig. V. Elfrink. Silberberg. of the parts below. I.. Pet.. Duncan. K." J. 2. Eaton.500 seC/stb through a 2in.141. Design a surface choke.2 MMscfd Gasoil ratio _ 11. 517pp." O. 219223. and Brill. J." J.. & Gas f.. Describe the development of flow correlations for muJtiphase flow. 815828.500 ft from the surface. Gilbert. 126157. Co. 25(5. R.." 7rans. Use the approximate method for twophase systems to answer the following: I . C an t he gas f 1 under these conditions? If yes. Tech. Is the valve partially closed? If so. What is the pipe diameter that will keep this well flowing? 5. 7.. E. Knowles.:________~~~B~. Use NO methods to design the required flowline to transport a twophase gasoil mixture from a wellhead o\'er hills with the follo\\in~ conditions: Gas flow rate _ 3. Repeat problem 4 using multi phase flow charts. U.5~. Andrews. R. 14751482. The pressures recorded at the surface and bottomhole are 150 psig and 1.~....500 ft A\·erage fl owing temperature _ 95° F Gas gravity (air .~a~n~d~~~~M~. 685693. "Analysis and Prediction of Minimum F10w Rate for the Continuous Removal of Liq· uids From Gas Wells. and Brown. H ow much gas injection is required per day to keep this well flowing? 4. W. List the advantages and disad . D...000 ft.5 MMscfd Gasoil ratio = 11.. "'A Study of TwoPhase Flow in Inclined Pipes.. and Dukler. "Case Histories: Identification of and Remedial Action for Liquid Loading in Gas WellsIntermediate Shelf Gas Play.). 1965..n~. and Pollard. H. 17(4. John Wiley & Sons. Vol. K. Brown. Tech. 3.. assuming critical flow through it. 1977. C. for a ~as well with the following operating conditions: Cas flow rate'" 1. W. Thrner. A. R.. Guppy.. PennWell Publ..... "Effect of Uphill Flow on Pressure Drop in Design of lWoPhase Gathering Systems.. 24(8. Amsterdam. B. and Chilingar.000 sef/stb Wellhead pressure _ 1. R. 1973. 1980. API.~25~~1~~~I. O..~75~~~~g~a~S~~ff~IO~"~. The Techrwlogy of Artificial Lift Methods. J~~~~~~~~llc________ • . J.~~ pressure of 200 psig is desired for this.85 Upstream pressure must not exceed 1. Nov. Vol. May). C. What data would you need to consider before deciding on using any of these techniques for a specific well? 437pp." Trans. I) = 0. 240. 186.. 1954. 607~617. Libson. E.
. CO"PR[SSORS • IIEC" "  Types of Compressors Sl.eAl.. courtesy of IngersollRand Co. T his pressure elevation or compression can be achieved in two waysby reducing the gas lI01. . O"'5TON . The two types of continuous flow compressors are dynamic and ejector. partly in the rotating element partly in stationary blades or diffusers. Dynamic compreselement. compressors arc required for circulation of gas through the process or system. 1982.. Positivedisplacement compressors are of two typesreciprocating positivedisplacement compressors.1. and for injection of gas into subsurface strata for underground storage..08( C(NT " 'UO.. the ones currently used in the gas industry arc discussed in the following sections. In reservoir engineering operations..lerate a continually £lo'wing gas stream and subsequently com'ert the velocity head into pressure. or by carrying the gas without volume change to the discharge and compressing the gas by backflow from the discharge system. Figure 91 shows a breakdown of principal compressor types.hoOW Figure 9·1. In gas processing operations. compressors are important in lowering the wellhead pressure below atmospheric in order to produce the well at a higher rate. and rotary positivedisplacement compres 9 son.Jion 395 volume in the enclosure. This chapter presents the common types of compressors being used for these purposes in the natural gas industry. and convert this kinetic energy into pressure in a long venturitype flow chamber.Gao! Compres. Another transportrelated application of compressors is for reducing the gas volume for shipment by tankers or for storage. PrinCipal compressor types. and convert the \'elocity head into pressure."ow The two major types of compressors are positive displacement or intermittent flow. Ejectors increase the gas velocity by entraining it in a highvelocity jet of the same or another gas. Basic elements in the design of these compressors are also discussed."L .. and continuous jlotL'. Continuous flow compressors acce.. Compressed Air and Cas Data. One of the most important applications of compressors is for providing enough pre'iSure to a gas for transport through transmission and distribution systems.LOI( A. . and for raising gas pressure to the required level for a chemical processing reaction. and Table 91 describes their approximate parameters. for reinjection of gas for pressure maintenance or cycling. Much of the material has been drawn from an IngersollRand Company (1982) publication entitled. Positivedisplacement units are those in which successive volumes of gas are confined within some type of enclosure (compression chamber) and elevated to a higher pressure. (From Compressed Air and Gss Data. Among these. Gas Compression Introduction Gas production operations often require compressors to raise the pressure of ("pressurize") the gas..IO'N"YAN( 5TII . an excellent reference for readers who rna}' be interested in further details about gas compression operations. H.) 394 ..
(From Compressed Air and Gas Data. Besides the piston and cylinder. The}' are still very widely used.5..300 Gas Production Engineering Table 91 tor Common Compressor Types· Appro)!.. they have a volumetric rate up to 30. in which two singleacting pistons operate in parallel inside one cylinder. In Figure 92A. The discharge valve opens when the pressure in the cylinder equals or exceeds the discharge pressure..of inltf'. the gas is delivered at a constant pressure as shown in Figure 92C.000 psig. with more moving parts and hence a lower mechanical efficiency and higher maintenance costs. In Figure 92B. filling the cylinder with gas again. Reciprocating compressors are the older type. . Maximum Go. the cylinder is full of the gas that is to be compressed. the inlet valve opens and the intake cycle begins. a suction valve and a discharge valve are provided..wU·Rand Co '~. Rotary PositiveDisplacement Compressors In this type.. the expansion stroke occurs. Mulmum Pr. and is at the beginning of the compression cycle. The discharge valve opens and the delivery stroke begins.!' Compre&8ion 397 Approximate Paramete~ A ComprHSOr TYIM Reciprocating Vanetype Rotary Helical·lobe Rotary Power.000 6. In the next step (Figure 92E). BHP 1(1(). Both valves remain closed.'l~ ""'B o ~S~[ '~~ Reciprocating PositiveDisplacement Compressors Reciprocating compressors consist of a ringed piston that mO\'e5 inside a cylinder. Rotary compressors usually offer low pressure differentials. as shown in Figure 920. pallil Approa:. The small amount of gas trapped is expanded. . and doubleading. the compression stroke has been completed.000 cfm (cubic feet per minute) and a discharge pressure up to 10. 1982. in which the piston com· presses on only onc side.) . the positive action of rotating elements is used for compression and displacement. Next. The suction valve opens when the pressure in the cylinder falls below the intake pressure. The variouS steps in a reciprocating compressor cycle. DIl. They may be of two types: singleacting. 1982: courtesy of IngersollRand Co.000 400 5.OOO > 12.000 > 3. and are available for all pressure and capacity ranges. Typically. Figure 92 shows the various steps in a reciprocating compressor cycle. rourtes\.:500 :500 Centrifugal D)'JIamle Asilliflow D)namk • ~rom C:omp~ "" "" Air and GIl. '~~ 0=E EXPANSION • c Figure 92.ure.!.000 > 100. but can handle large quantities of lowpressure gas at comparaDISCHARGE . leading to a reduction in pressure inside the cylinder. thereby compressing on ooth sides.
) TwoImpeller Stmight·/A. until the discharge port is uncovered by the leading vane of each pocket. the pocket volume decreases and gas IS compressed.lhe Compressors ROTOR WlTl'1 NDNI>IETAlliC SLIDING VANES. with a maximum discharge pressure of 20 psig or less per compression stage. and vacuum pumps. Rotary blowers can typically handle gas at 15. with the light shading indicating gas at inlet pressure. and the dark shading indicating gas at discharge pressure. the rotary slidingvane compressor always compresses gas to the design pressure. while the other is driven and kept in phase by means of phasing/timing gears. The rotors do not directly compress the gas or reduce its volume and there is no internal compression. (\~ I Sliding. (From Compressed Ai. and are used primarily in distribution systems where the pressure differential between suction and discharge is quite small. They are easy to install. . The inlet and discharge conditions are determined by the location of the vanes that move over the inlet and discharge ports. As the rotor turns. One of the rotors is driven directly. It is a simple device. as ~hown in Figure 9~.39B Gas ProdllctiOfI Engineering Gas Compression 399 tively low horsepower. Compression occurs by backflow into the casing from the discharge line at the time the discharge port is uncovered. They are not used much in the natural gas industry.000 cfm of gas. are described as follows. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data. and Gas Data. indicated in Figure 91. The compression cycle begins when the leading vane of each pocket uncovers the intake port. 1982. and rotate in opp05ite directions. GAS IS GRADUAllY COI>IPR[SSEO AS POCKETS GET SI>IAllER Also known as rotary blower. Shdmgvane compressors can typically handle 3.000 cfm.Vane Compres:!lOrs The slidingvane oompr~or consists of axial vanes that slide in a identical in operation to the reciprocating compressor. The two rotors intermesh. boosters. operate and maintain.)sor. Liquid·Piston Compressors • DlSCHARGf AS ROTOR TURN~. The operation is shown in Figure 94. courtesy ollngersoll·Rand Co. with a maximum discharge pressure of 50 psig per compression stage. The operating cycle of a rotary twoimpeller straightlobe compressor. with no contact between the rotors or between rotors and casing. the rotary twoimpeller straightlobe compressor consists of two identical rotors (or impellers) mounted symmetrically in a casing (Figure 94). except that it no valves. courtesy of IngersollRand Liquidpiston compressors use water or another liquid as the piston to compress and displace the gas. They are primarily used as air compressors. they merely transmit the gas from the inlet to the discharge. regard. 1982. The four types of rotary compressors. Figure 94. The steps involved in compression lor a rotary slidingvane comt~. GAS IS TRAPIN POCkETS FORMED 8Y VANES COMPRESSED GAS IS PUSHED OUT Tl'1ROUGH DISCHARGE PORT Figure 9·3. Because this discharge point is prefixed in the design. The rotors usually have a cross section similar to the numeral eight.l~ of the pressure in the receiver into which it is discharging.
Energy is transferred by means of a number of stages of blades. and partly in stationary diffusers following the impeller.O' I STR[Afroj hVOI. They adapt easily to multistage operations.000 cfm. Each stage consists of two rows of bladesone row (mounted on the rotor) rotating. Both the rotor and stator contribute almost equally to the pr~ure rise generated by the axialflow compressor.UTE'I OIHUSE~ VOLUTE LINE SPACER II _~IMP[LL[R:ffl_ / ' . Crosssectional view 01 a typical multistage uncooled centrifugal compressor. The velocity thus generated is converted into pressure partly in the impeller itself. 1982.000 elm. because unlike centrifugal compressors. giving a d~harge pressure typically up to ISO psig per compression stage for gas f10wmg at 3. each with its own radial diffuser. • _ RADIAL _ _\"~ DIFFUSER VOLUl£ OLLECTOR ARROWS SHOW DIRECTION OF AIR FLOW ::::::::::::::::::: Figure 96. A typical overhungimpeller singlestage centrifugal compressor. The discharge pressure from a single stage is about 100 psig. F~gure 95 shows a singlestage centrifugal compressor. largecapacity machine with characteristics quite different from the centrifugal type of compressor. Centrifugal compressors have low maintenance costs because they have fewer moving partsonly the shaft and impeller rotate.) AxialFlow Com~rll Ce1ltrifogal ComprTlflOrl In centrifugal compressors.'00 Gas Production Engineering COlnptTSlJOra Cas Compression . as shown in Figure 96. 1982. (From Compressed Afr and Gas Data. enabling greater compression. but have not found significant application in the natural gas industry. gas flow is parallel to the compressor shaft (axial). there is no vortex action. It is a highspeed. Dynamic Compressors impeller. gas flow is radial. /OIFFUSER VOLUTE f__:____L__:'O:'L':":T. The Olomentum also is subsequently converted into pressure by reducing the gas velocity in stationary blades or diffusers. are often built as a single unit. up to about 100. without cyclic variations..) Figure 95. • Dynamic compressors operate by transferring energy from a rotating set of blades to the gas. but the flow capacity is very high. . and the next row (mounted on the casing or stator) stationary.01 IlelicaJLoJH or SpiraI·Lobe Helicallobe compressors use two helicaltype intermeshing rotors. The mechanical action of the rapidly rotating impeUer vanes force the gas through the In axialflow compressors. and the energy transfer is e~fected predominantly by changing the centrifugal forces acting on the gas. Delivery is continuous.'" . The rotor effects this energy transfer by changing the pressure and momentum of the gas. The impeller has radIal or backward leaning vanes usually between two shrouds. A multistage axialflow dynamic compressor is shown in Figure 97..:. courtesy of ingersollRand Co. Multistage centrifugal compressor units with two or more impellers in series. They are primarily used for vacuum and specialty applications at moderate pressum. courtesy of IngersollRand Co. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data. The three types of dynamic compressors are as follows .
resulting in a high velocity mixture at the pressure of the steam or gas emanating from the nozzle. Temperature changes are similar to pressure changes. so that maintenance and wear is minimum. Some major considerations in selecting compressors are described in this section. Because of the long length required for each stage. do not affect the choice of compressor type. Crosssectional view of a typical axial·flow dynamic compressor (From Compressed Air and Gas Data.SHAM Figure 98. and follow the pressure curve quitecloseJy. known as a thermal compressor.\tixedFfoU' CompreSllOrs These have gas flow that is in between axial and centrifugal. such as for pumping waste gases and vapors out of a system. Pressure and velocity variations within a steam Jet ejector handhng air. The gas is separated from steam in condensers (coolers) that also seT\'e to reduce the gas temperature. The discussion is limited to the two principal types of compressors used most commonly for handling natural gas: reciprocaU'lg. The gas to be compressed is entrained by the jet in the suction chamber. It is best in such cases to discuss the particular situation with the compressor manufacturers themsel\'es. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data.402 Gu. is used for compressing gas from atmospheric to above atmospheric pressures. In some cases. Ejectors are generally used to compress from pressures below atmospheric (vacuum) to near atmospheric discharge pressures. The drop in velocity and rise in pressure along the diffuser length is shown in Figure 98. may be used for compression. and centrifugal dynamic compressors. instead of being wasted. or moisture content. they should not be exposed to a steady flow of liquid. cient.) '" .) • Compressor Selection Several factors must be considered in selecting a compressor for a particular application. the analysis can be quite complex and these general guidelines may not be suffi. and combine some characteristics of both the centrifugal and axial types. courtesy of IngersollRand Co. Production EFlgint'erillf( Gas Comprurion 403 Ejectors generally give a relatively small compression ratio. But they have no moving parts. em Characteristica Cas characteristics such as the ratio of specific heats. 1982. A similar design. Thermal compfeW)fS are used where available energy in gas or ~team. A multistage compression system may use different compressor types for its stages in order to optimize performance or enable more desirable operating features. courtesy of Ingersoll·Rand Co. An ejector consists of a relatively highpressure motive steam or gas nozzle discharging a highvelocity jet across a suction chamber into a venturishaped diffuser (Figure 98). 1982. The diffuser provides the compression by converting the velocity of the mixture into pressure. mixedflow compressors are generally not used as multistage units. Figure 9·7. Cas composi . compressibility. Although they can handle liquid carryover without physical damage. Ejectors .
Were lb" u ncahngOl'1 a~ng and contamination problems are particularly severe. ~ulTlng a foundation that will support their dead weight plus mamtam alignment of the compressor and driver by absorbing the unbalanced forces that may be present. the centrifugal compressor will not compress to the desired discharge pressure. the differential pressure of all but the last stage is lowered. defining a precise borderline between these two types is difficult. and horsepower will also increase. pressure. centrifugal machines may be used for the lower The power source to or nvmg e compressor a.rati?n. The opposite is true for turbines. specific gravity. For the same \'olume. Foundation and Floor Spau atively lower flow rates. Centrifugal compressors are always preferred if the driver must ~ a turbine. if the power source is conducive to turbme operations. In reciprocating compressors.CD.Jer(ltimi • ered. I£ the suction pressure is lowered. Reciprocating compressors can handle enormous flowrate variations with little loss in efficiency.g~ner ally produce some unbalanced forces during their ope. special par~~y_lubricated or nonlubricated reciprocating compressors may be more suitable than the centrifugal compressors. Positivedisplacement compressors are not much affected by the gas molecular weight. and the pressure differential and temperature rise of the last stage are increased. gas specific gravity influences the cost of the centrifugal compressor but not the reciprocating compressor. pressure differential across all but the last stage is increased.J Compression 404 CO. Generally. waste gas use. whereas motordriven centrifugal compressors requue gears for increasing the speed. In general. horsepower of the complete system increases. In centrifugal compresson. F1owrate variation is another factor. however. reciprocating type are preferred if the driver must be an electriC ~otor. Opemtil1g TffllpnTJtUtn The value of lost production usually exceeds the actual cost of repairs. the overall horsepower is lowered. This is so because motordriven reciprocating compressors can be dlTec~ly driven by the motor. and other compressIOn factors. As stated earlier. the discharge pressure ~iJl increase. as a cost criterion.J Production Engineering 405 tion. intercoolers are required to be used between can h st es to overcome high_temperature problems. None of the compressors has any signifiadvantage in this respect. the driver is selected based upon available power source(s). Because too many other factors are involved. '" t For higher rales. if the suction pressure is raised. Centrifugal compressors are less affected by high or low temperature extremes than reciprocating compressors in which temperature limitations are imposed by the lubricants. and other factors. the average yearly availability of both compressor types is very high and quite similar. if the inlet (suction) pressure is lowered while maintaining the same discharge pressure. the heat balance or utilization. be kept within some limit to avoid operating problems such . Variations in inlet and discharge pressures are important to consider also. do not perform efficiently below 5090% of their rated capacity. Centrifugal compressors. while the pressure differential and temperature rise in the last stage are low The centrifugal compressor is usually favorable from the point of vie\\ of floor space and foundation requirements. Often. I uences choice. cracking of the lubricating oils. reciprocating compressors are more flexible in handling various t)'I>es and sizes of gas f10wstreams than centrifugal compressors. or inlet density. frequently beyond the design point. ~y namic compressors can operate uninterrupted for a longer perIod of bme and their malfunctioning (stoppage) is more predictable than reciprocating compressors. and continuity of operation or availability becomes an important ~actor. Reciprocating compressors . Capital C03'~ It is difficult to compare the cost of centrifugal compressors versus rec. the reciprocating compressor can be used for all the stages.iprocating compressors. However. howe\'er. then the centrifugal compressor will be cheaper. However. High compression ratios and higher pressures favor reciprocating compressors. the cost of the driver is used. Cumprnriol1 Ratioll Ulltl Operatil1g Prnt¥Urn Low compression ratios with moderate capacities favor centrifugal com pressors. Flow Rat~ f10y. the maximum discharge temperature must generall). significantly affects centrifugal compressorsmany more stages are required if the inlet gas density is low. Contil1uity of o. If the suction pressure to the first stage is increased.
_ . Very large volumes. and the process is frictionless. Btu llbmole T '* temperature.986 where h . is given by Equation 35i (Figure 3(7): C.l(p. respectively C . gas constant. .T (..986 BtuiJbmole Thus. aT p And c. . isentropic or adiabatic re\·ersible compression.. O R R . The reciprocating compressor is inherentl} more efficient than the centrifugal compressor. can be eliminated.gas volumes at states 1 and 2. are in Btu/lbmole. Cp for ideal gases is given by: C. and low discharge pressures favor the centrifugal compressor from an operating cost viewpoint. Btu/lbmole u '" specific molal internal energy. T) and Cp .Iff) aT. In thermodynamic terms. and under the same terminal pressure conditions. c. and k can be expressed for ideal gases as: . c p and c. and become more nearly equal. for ideal gases is given by: c" _ Compression Processes Gas compression processes can be thermodrnamically characterized into three types: isothermal compression. though the centrifugal compressor will frequently require a little less maintenance. Using Equation 94.r Production Enginemng Ca$ Comprarion '07 (92) Operating CQIIU The operating cost. For real gases. except at very low compression ratios. noncorrosive. (au) _(ah) _R aT.c. 2 The compression process is adiabatic reversible or isentropic (constant entropy) if the gas behaves as an ideal gas. which is equal to the ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure (Cp) and the specific heat at constant volume (c. respectively .  • (94) c. maintenance requirements for both compressor types increase. are functions of both pressure and temperature: where V I.R .  It is generally accepted that for the same gas that is clean.) for the gas (as discussed in Chapter 7 also): (93) where cp and c.. Cp and c. maintenance is less on the centrifugal compressor than the reciprocating compressor. Isothermal Compression Isothermal compression occurs when the temperature is kept constant during the compression process.  Isentropic Compression c.gas pressures at states 1 and 2.c.R  C.Ga.1. equal to 1. c.p/aT). no heat is added to or removed from the gas during compression.constant c" c" . V 2 Ph pz .specific molal enthalpy. and polytropic compression. (ah) . are functions of temperature only for ideal gases. Maintenance COfIU where k is the isentropic exponent. the higher the Cp is for the gas.. consisting mainly of the cost of power. The pres· surevolume behavior of a gas under isentropic compression or expansion is given by: (ap/aVh The more complex the molecular structure. throughout the service life of a compr~r far exceeds the capital costs and is therefore a more important consideration. low compression ratios.. however. .I(T) implying that for ideal gases. The pressurevolume behavior of the gas is given by: (91) . For more difficult compression problems.
in fact .1 Cas Production Engincmng Ga! Compre:Rion (95) '09 k ~ c. such as by using multiple stages with intercoolers between the stages..) if the gas gravity. the compression process is polytropic.. Most positivedisplacement comp~rs. a poly_ tropic ~mpression process for uncooled dynamic compressors typically has theoretical compression work requirements that exceed even the adiabatic process (area AC'EF).. . The adiabatic process is reversible. This low pressure cp can be corrected for p~ure using Figure 3·19 and the gas pseudoreduced pres· Sure and temperature. . courtesy of g. respectively (area ACEF).I~ .. is one important purpose of intercoolers between multistage compressors.NO Cl(l. ~ 0 c . To improve compression efficiency of dynamic units. 1984).. . are known. Adiabatic compression is also not possible in practice because it is difficult to prevent heat exchange during the compressionexpansion C)'CIes. and makes no assumptions regarding the compression Procf'S'i. the low p~ure c~ can be determined using Equation 3·59 (by Hankinson et al. Dynamic compressors. '" • FI gure 9·9. or from Equation 9·5 if Cp is known for the gas. approach adiabatic behavior. however. and k. which includes the effect of nonideal gas under nonideal conditions. A polytropiC compression process for reciprocating compressors with water*cooled cylinders generally exhibits theoretical compression work requirements that are in between the upper and lower limits of the adiabatic and isothermal compression processes. Figure 99 shows the theoretical zeroclearance work (or horsepower) necessary to compress a gas between any two pressure limits for various compression processes.l:Baod Co ) .AAMC[ relationships for .log Yl 2. The isothermal compression process gives the minimum theoretical compression work requirements (area ADEF). because it is not possible commercially to remove the heat of compression as rapidly as it is generated.. where the poi)tropic exponent n applies instead of the adiabatic exponent k: . however..986 (96) i . ..arious gas compressIon pro· S urevolume cesses (From Compressed Air 8 nd Gas A Data. c. On the other hand.. whereas the adiabatic compression process gives the m~um theoretical compression work requirements (area ABEF). ." I . normally without any intercooling. have several stages in the same casing. but not the composition. is known.. Reciprocating compressors most common1y cool the gas to its original intake temperature between the compressions stages that are frequently built as a single unit driven from a single crankshaft. G .c _k __ ~ 1. the area under its pressurevolume curve indicates its theoretical work requirements. I.:"'>. As discussed in Chapter 3. The horsepower requirements for an adiabatic or polytropic compression process can be reduced by making the process approach isothermal compres· sion. their internal diffusers or diaphragms are sometimes water·cooled.328 (981 • . W \~ . (k) 1!'iO'~': 2.< 1. For natural gases in the gravity range O. Exponents for the Isentropic and Polytropic Processes The exponent k can be determined using Equation 9·3 if Cp and Co. Theoretical pres· Polytropic Compression For "real" gases under actual conditions (with friction and heat transfer).~ ~~. and are designed using the adiabatic compression/expansion process. For a given process.. M:POLYTfIM'IC AI·AOI . 986 .~. ~~ TKEOA(TlCU I . ATIC ACPOLTTAOPIC • ~ ~ ~ ~ '\ \:~ ..e. " ' AOlSOTH(AM'L . or by Kay's mixing rule if the gas composition is known. Other compressors are designed using the polytropic cycle.55<y.r:sol.  c. and the gas is intercooled in external heatexchangers after every few stages of compression. k at a temperature of 150°F can be determined using the following empirical relationship (Ikoku.738 . VOLUME 1 H (97) Characteristics of Compression Processes Isothermal compression is difficult to achieve. This. 1982. while the other two types are irreversible.
. • .. respectively. nRT) along with the polytropic compression/expansion relationship given by Equation 97. respectively pressure ratio.:::::...rlon 411 Although the exponent n actually changes during compression.. pressures at states 1 and 2... as shown in Figure 911.'~ " . • Figure 911. is generally used...11) • "lip .. The value of n is experimentally determined using the ideal gas law (Pv . relates nand k as follows: (k . resulting in: T! "" /P2)(nll..:..n _ T(n II'n Tl ~I (99) where Ph p~ = TJ..' .•' ' . whereas the opposite is true for uncooled dynamic unit~ due to internal gas friction... k 1)/n (9. I .(n so IHLET VOLUME . to T2 ... or the isentropic compression cycle if n is replaced by k: . " ..~. :::. INLET YO\.. .UfIj[  I. '.. PI and P2 are the compressor inlet and discharge pressures. determined experimentally for a given gas and compressor type. .... The pol~1ropic efficiency.. equal to P2iPI polrtropic exponent • In compression terminology. respectively temperatures at states 1 and 2. . (From Compressed Air and Gas Dara. 'lp.) ~ " ~ " • • • ~ " n .. Another way of estimating n is by using correlations for polytropic efficiency. 0 IIZO 100)010000 THOUSOlNOS ~ cr . . Equation 99 relates the intake pressure and temperature and the discharge pressure and temperature for a compre. (From Engineering Data Book. .]oil/MIN 100 tOO _00 toO 1000 :000 • • ... (9.w>r using the pol}tropic compression cycle. 1982: cour· tesy ollngersoURand Co./ : I VZ 1 . ::':~'::::':' . .~ Productwn Enl':ineering GO! Compres. .10) Figure 910 may be used for solving Equation 99 or 910. courtesy of GPSA. Theoretical discharge temperatures for single·stage compression Read r to k to T.. The value of n may be lower or higher than k: n is usually less than k for positivedisplacement and internallycooled dynamic compressors.410 Ga.) . V  . 1981 . T2 = r _ n .. Figure 9·10.l ).... . . Approximate polytropic compression efficiency of a dynamic compressor versus inlet capacity. " ~ u • u ~ • u < ""'. 4 _ .. an effective or average value. and r is called the compression ratio..
1)/k and (n .. Pressure rise or differentialdynamic units. The gas has the following composition (expressed as mole fraction): C. 9.612 _ • ))pc.9B6) . C. for Pl"" O. muJtistaging may be required from a purely optimization standpoint.C~ . For example.043 30.677.0 C.578 + 0.8 707.52 25. " 1.097 58.313 psia.728 _ 1. 1'1 .0017 Solution Camp. Cp .986) .1)/ n.1. M .728/(9. A gas is being compressed from 100 psia and 150°F to 2.4 '" To c" 8. (2) enthalpy versus entropy charts. k . . n . which are reqUired more often than k or n.81 31. = p/Pp.te that '1p relates the quantities (k . .I:ylT d 363. i .rion NO. compres· sor design involves only the determination of compressor capacity and power requirements for a given application. Compressor Design Methods Exampk 9.9. Mechanical stress (rod loading) problems.8 665. 16. i . C. frequently provided by compressor manufacturers for quick estimates. ..0488.97 = 0. 6.95 13. and the consequent volume changes of the gas.I:Y4 .c. The limitations vary with the type of compressor. 3.0.7 734. the gas Z factor at suction == 1. for ideal isentropic compression processes.578 Btu/lbmole°R From Figure 319. and (3) empirical "quickie" charts.737lbm/lbmole Therefore." 100/667.0..0017 M. .0055 0.M. The three methods used for compressor design calculations are: (1) anal}tic expressions derived from basic thermodynamic relationships.1.. very great accuracy is not required: compressors . Z. multiple compression stages must be used.8 616. Compressor Design Fundamentals From the perspective of compressor users such as gas engineers. PP. 4. if a greater compression ratio is desired.9. Compression ratiodynamic units. condensation (if any) of water vapor from the gas.C4 .0. and include the follOWing: Discharge temperatureall types. compression efficiency decreases and mechanical stress and temperature problems become more severe. 9.MI28. commonly known as Mollier diagrams.97 . and most lX>Sitivedisplacement units.124 58.1.15 .7 490. ACp" 0. 17. 0.0039. Compression efficiency (energy requirements)all t}1JeS.0. y. and TI'" .: + ACp . 'YJ at the suction end... 17.728 Btullbmole°R .0185 0.737/28. especially for high compression ratios.0.500 psia.C~ _ 0.77 25. 0.GQ3 Productiorl Engineering Cas Compres.313 _ O.. c. Therefore.9216 0. . C. 5.66 343.7 765.9216.all types.. Multistaging There are practical limits to the permissible amount of compression for a single compression stage.78 19.4 828. it becomes necessary to use multiple compression stages (in series). .ISO and T p. C.15 Btul lbmole°R. 2.8 1.2565 The design of each compression stage is best considered separately because of pressure losses and temperature changes in the intercoolers and piping between the stages.831 oR Therefore. with increasing compression ratio r. Therefore. The method to use depends upon the accuracy desired and the amount of data available.  TlTpr " (460 + 150) /363.548 Btu/lbm·oR Fwm Equation 95. Whenever any limitation is im'olved.3 529. Determine its compression parameters (k.1 549.0039 0.151 C. .070 44. Ey. and T p.0055.831 "" 1.1 550. Effect of clearancereciprocating units.I:YiPci" 667.677 From Figure 32.J(c.0185. iC 4 nC 4 iCs 667. in order to select the t}1Je and size of compressor required.0488 0.124 72. Intercoolers are generally used between the stages to increase compression efficiency as well as to lower the gas temperature that may become undesirably high (as given by Equation 99 or 910). In many cases.ISO. Furthermore.
where r . 1 Ibm/min ____ sef/min _ 1O. Using this and the fact that 1 hp .. Equation 913 becomes: w _ The gas flow rate in Ibm/min can be converted to MMscfd as follows: z. _ (1440)(10. AC'OOrding to the general energy equation (Equation .. We usually need. O R gas specific gravity (air . the theoretical work required to compress a unit mass of gas from pressure PI at state 1 to ~ at state 2 is given by: w  Jp. ft1llbm p .732)T. (t/sec z .s. pressure.."M 28. and substituting for Ci PI from Equation 92.345)T. (28.97)(IO'h.17Ibmft Ibfsec') Neglecting frictional losses. we get: w .732 psiaft1llbmole. ft I" '" lost work due to friction and irreversibilitie.lb£/ min: ~ k CI k. and the changes in kinetic and potential energies. ftIbf.lvz!2g.'T OlIO p. Bnd application in determining the compressor to use.!.000 ft. gravitational acceleration (= 32.\".gas flow velOCity..lbf/lbm V .J. Vdp + .33. PlY'  (28.(P2. All three methods.t.'lbmole gas compressibility factor at intake conditions gas constant ( 10. Now. '" ~ .. to compute the compression power per MM..scfd of gas flow. the energy baJance of Equation 9·12 can be written as: w  Substituting for R and neglecting ZI which is unity for intake conditions at or near atmospheric. elevation above a datum plane. therefore. ft.97h~ (915) Substituting for PIV I from Equation 915 into Equation 914: w~_ • (916) k (53.conversion constant re1ating mass and weight ( _ 32.414 Cas PrUc/llcti(m Engilleerillg Gas Compressioll 415 are rarely chosen to satisfy a given requirement very precisely.p.97)'iCP.O R) gas intake temperature.6z + I" I':l (912) where w .RT"" __ ~I .. k 1 PI(C/pl)Ik[(Pt/PI)lkllk ..1 basis) ZIRT I ZIRT..k _ p\kI)'k] . Ibm... M "" Z ~ "" TI "" )'~ "" intake pressure. for a unit mass of gas: Analytic ". psia intake volume. volume of a unit mass of gas. (913) 1 ft+lbf _ 1 ftIbf/min Ibm Ibm/ min J where C is a constant. :.. Ibf/ft 2 v . . MM"'lday (28..732T".1 k(~k I). rather than the work \v required per poundmass of gas.9i h K where PI '" V. Upon integration. Overdesign is quite common in order to provide an operating safety factor and to ensure that expensive compression equipment is not required to be enhanced or replaced for relatively small capacity increases in the flOWing system. ftlbfllbm g .17 ft /sec2) g. we get: . we obtain: (10.lbm Substituting for V from Equation 9·2..·2 in Chapter j.IJ Converting pressure p from units of Ibf/fi2 to lbf/in.'ork done by the compressor on the gas. ((k r kl )'11: Ii k _ 1) JPt Vdp p.pproach PI V.732)T.Cl k 1'1 p lkdp p...'PI) is the compression ratio w _ compression work.. Th~ (914) From the ideal gas law. ft1 molecular weight of the gas. + (glg.
" as fol1ows: Equation 916 can now be written in terms of the ideal horsepower per MM. (text continued on page 419) 1) To< k.) .p.T I _k_ TIC (r1kllk _ 1) k. (Cpl. ..IP..(II33.0 are shown in Figures 912 through 917..o..1 (9. (Alter Brown.v.constant pressure molal specific heat of the gas at cooler pressure and average cooler temperature.sing Ck MMscfd gas measured at pressure PO(' psia and temperature To< oR is given by: IHP _ 3.) _k_ (rHI" _ I) 2Z 1 k. Toe hp Mr. of where PI<' (psia) and T sc (OR) aTC the standard conditions of pressure and temperature.416 Cas Compression 1 ft·lbf _ (28.gravity natural gas. i > < I i • where q. 1945.. psia and suction temperature Tl oR.ts the ideal (or theoretical) horsepower required for compre.. Thus.1 (917) ..1n be calculated using Equation 99 for polytropic compression or Equation 910 for isentropic compression. respectively..0303 Q. MMocflday _ (O. "T where (921) through a compression ratio r as follows: IHP M~""fd _ 3. .o. One such modification is: (919) • i.97)(IO'h. Btu n>l. IHpiMM.(c.0303 q. Equation 918 is empirically modified in several different ways.1 (920) ". This analysis assumed an ideal gas.(ZI + z.... heat remo . The heat removed in the intercoolers or aftercooler can be calculated using the average specific heat at constant pressure. Btu/lbmole°f . Enthalpyentropy diagram for O.numher of mole«: of gas being cooled (Cp). A similar analytic expression can be deri\'ed for the polytropic compression process also. Where deviation from ideal·gas behavior is significant.If k _ Mol1ier charts for a gas are plots of enthalpy versus entropy as a function of pressure and temperature.T! _k_ (TI1.0568056h. courtesy of SPE of AiM E.732)T.inlet temperature..scFd (hp MMscfd). ~ .60. Mollier charts for natural gases with specific gravities in the range of 0. at which the standard cubic feet is defined.gas compressibility factors at the suction and discharge.l is the gas flow rate in MMscfd measured at any arbitrary pressure p. oR Temperature can be eliminated in Equation 919 if the gas flow rate is measured at suction temperature Tl (OR): IHP _ 3.ed..0303 p.p.H .scfd.T '" difference in gas temperature between the inlet and outlet of the cooler..000) hp Ibm (1440)(10. Mollia Cha.lscfd The compressor discharge temperature C. respectively Tl . required for compressing the gas "H .n.6 to 1. where Zl..18) where k is the specific heat ratio at suction conditions. Figure 9· 12.).
Thus. (After Brown. respectively. i '.. Enthalpyentropy diagram for a. a constant·pressure (isobaric) process. enthalpy..) EntrOO>Y. 1945. Inter· cooling. an ideal compression process can be represented on a Mollier diagram." f . '. Enthalpyentropy diagram for O. Figure 913. Figure 914. The dotted line 12 . Enthalpyentropy diagram for O. and the state of the gas (pressure. . 8 10 12 Figure 915. provided a Mollier chart is available for the gas being compressed."'0'". 1945. • . BIY I*' " 1>OU"Id_ 1* <Io9rM . such as the reciprocating compressors. Figures 918 and 919 show such a procedure for a sin· g1estage and twostage reciprocating compressor. entropy) at the beginning or end of a compression process can be determined directly.. In Figure 918.l • f .70gravity natural gas. an isothermal compression PI"()CeSS can be traced by following the constant temperature lines. 1945._ _ ." I I . [tt. (After Brown. 8tu poor _ " " . • > i.) This method is a fairly good technique for solving comp~ion problems for compressors that exhibit isentropic (ideal) compression. .SOgravity natural gas. Figure 919 shows a twostage compression process with an intercooler between the two stages and an aftercooler. Point 1 is determined by the given pressure and temperature conditions at the suction end. courtesy of SPE of AIME. On a Mollier chart. whereas point 2 is known from the desired compression ratio (or dis· charge pressure).. . . courtesy of SPE 01 AIM E. is represented by following the constant pressure lines. '.. • < ! • • • .. inlet gas is compressed isentropically from the inlet conditions repre· sented by point 1 to the outlet conditions represented by point 2.41' cOJ Compression 419 ! ." i. .) • (text continued from page 417) !. temperature. .".90gravity natural gas_ (After Brown." '. courtesy of SPE of AIM E. whereas an isentropic compression process can be traced simply as a verticalJine parallel to the ordinate.
Similarly.~ . 1945.6.) • • I ~ f. 2 0 2 . • • • • . and line 4·5 shows the isobaric cooling in the aftercooler..70gravity natural gas containing 10% nrtrogen.. the energy balance can be expressed as: (922) where w . the work done in the second compression stage can be calculated using the enthalpy change (h. Intercooling requirements (heat removed in the intercooler) are given by the difference in enthalpy beN'een Figure 916.. . I indicates isentropic compression in the first stage.Ogravity natural gas. E~""". . 1945. courtesy of SPE of AIM E. (After Brown.. lbmoles hI> h2 "" enthalpies of the gas at the compressor inlet and discharge. Enthalpyentropy diagram for O.hJ).420 Gaj ProdllC'tion J.number of moles of gas being compressed. Line 34 shows the second isentropic compression stage... Btu n. lost work due to friction.H . as shown by line 23. courtesy of SPE 01 AIM E. I I I I' z c • 11 '4 12 10 I I _ . . The gas is then cooled in the intercooler at constant pressure. I • 10 12 14 1 • ENTROPY ("''''''Y. ""  111._ """" Figure 917. respectively. and kinetic energy changes. Btu . ferred from MolHer diagrams_ Referring to the Mollier diagram of Figure 919 for example. (After Brown. " .0><1"""" po. and the work done in the first stage of compression can be computed using Equation 922. . A lot of useful information regarding the compression process can be in_ .:lIgineering COJ Cornpre3rion 421 .. Mollier diagram of a singlestage compression process._ 8. Btu/lbmole i • .dtW.h i) is known. ! . the net change in enthalpy (h z . Enthalpyentropy diagram lor 1.change in enthalpy of the gas.work done by the compressor on the gas.) Figure 918. Neglecting heat transfer from the gas to the compression equipment and surroundings. .
422
Gas Production Engineering
Gas Compression
'23
hi  enthalpy of gas at intake, Btu/lbmole hz ,., enthalpy of gas at discharge, Btu/lbmole This power requirement in Btu/day can be converted to horsepower, IHP in hp, as follows:
STAGEI
o
1 hp 778.2 ftlbffmin ng(hz  hlH Btu/day IHP ,. 33,000 ftIbf/ min Btu/m in 1440 min/day 1.6376 x 10  ~ n,:(h z  hi )
t
(924)
(i)
where IHP  ideal compression horsepower required. hp.
G) ® <V KNOCKOUT ORUMSnO REMO .... E CONOENSEO LIQUID" ® @ COMPRESSORS .FIRST AND SECOND STAGB.
Empirical "Quickie" Charts
® ®
INTERSTAG[ COOLER/INTtRCOOLER AI'"TERCOOL [R
PRESSURE, PSIA

This method uses actual compressor manufacturers' charts that relate compression horsepower requirements to the applicable compression process variables. This method has its advantages it is simple and easy to use. and it directly gives the actual requirements that include efficiency and other factors for the actual real compressor. However, because only the most important compression variables are considered and the charts are quite spe_ cific for some assumed gas and compressor type, this method may not be very accurate or more generally applicable to all cases. Usually, it gives slightly higher results than the other two more exact methods. Further details regarding this approximate empirical method of compressor design are discussed in succeeding sections on the design of reciprocating and centrifugal compressors. Estimating the Actual (Brake) Horsepower From Ideal Horsepower
•
[NTROPY, Bhll'lbmol ·F _ _
Figure 919 . Molher diagram of a twostage compression process.
points 2 and 3. Similarly, the heat required to be removed in the aftercooler
is equal to the difference in enthalpy between points 4 and 5. The ideal compression power (or rate of work) required is given by:
The actual horsepower supplied by the compressor engine or driver is known as brake horsepower (BHP). The BHP required by a compressor is always greater than the ideal or theoretical horsepower IHP. The energy Iosseo; are represented by two t)1>e5 of efficiencies: compression efficiency, "lie. and mechanical efficiency of the compressor, "11m' Compression efficiency is the ratio of the theoretical work requirement for a given process (IHP) to the actual work required within the compressor cylinder or shaft to compress and deliver the gas (CUP):
(923) where P  compression power required. BtuJday ng  number of moles of gas being compressed t  time for compression, days
oc.
(925)
Cal Compression
425
The compression efficiency fie includes effects due to thermodynamic deviations from the theoretical compression process (such as gas turbulence and heating of the incoming gas), and fluid friction and leakage 1U'iSeS. For reciprocating compressors, it may also include a factor known as volumetric efficiency, to be discussed later. Compression efficiency does not include mechanicallU'iSeS. Besides some factors related to the compressor itseU that may affect the compression process, compression efficiency is significantly affected by the operating conditions, such as suction pressure, compression ratio, and compressor ~~ and loading. The degree to which these factors affect compression efficiency, however, is different for different compressor types. Mechanical efficiency, defined as the ratio of the compression power required within the compression chamber to the actual horsepower supplied to it, includes frictional JU'iSeS in compressor packings and bearings, piston ringo;, and other moving parts: BHP
=
compression to overcome the several limitations. such as compression ratio achievable, inherent in singlestage compression. In designing reciprocating compressors, the compression ratio r is rarely allowed to exceed a value of 4.0, and a r ::S 6 is considered the practical limit. Theoretically, the total power required is a minimum when perfect intercooling is provided, there is no pressure loss between the stages, and the compression ratio in each stage is the same. Thus, the optimum compression ratio for each stage is given by:
(928)
where rop< r, .. n,. .. Pd .. P...
optimum compression ratio per stage total compression ratio desired total number of stages final discharge pressure, psia suction pressure at the very first stage, psia
GHP + mechanical losses "" GHP
'm
(926)
The mechanical efficiency. flm' is related to the compressor type, its design details, and the mechanical condition of the unit; the operating parameten; of the compression process do not affect it significantly. The BHP can be directly computed from IHP using an overall efficiency factor, fI:
If intercoolers are provided between the stages, reduce the theoretical intake prac;ure of each stage by about 3% to allow for interstage pressure drop. This is equivalent to dividing the theoretical r from Equation 928 by
(O.97)'·~.
BHP~ IHP
where the overall efficiency, fI, is equal to the product of the compression and mechanical ef£iciencies:
•
(927)
In practice. although Equation 928 results in minimum power, the net work or energy required varies oo1y by a fraction of a percent for relatively large variations in the compression ratios for individual stages. This is an important fact, often used for flexibility in design for economic and technical reasons.
•
Exam,m 92. For the problem given in Example91, what is the compression ratio and how many reciprocating compressor stages are required if: (a) intercooUng is not provided, and (b) intercooling is provided.
In most modern compressors, 'Ie is in the range of 83% to 93% and '1m ranges from 88% to95% (Ikoku, 1984). Thus, the overall compression efficiency 'I (  'le'l",) ranges from 73 % to 88 % for most modern compressors.
Solution
(a) Without intercooling. Designing Reciprocating Compressors Number of Stages The first parameter in designing a compression system is to determine the number of stages. As discussed earUer, it becomes necessary to use multistage From Equation 9.28, rop!  (Pd/p,V"'''' (2.500/100)]· ... ., 25!· ... For For
n. ... 1, r .. 25, which is too high and hence unacceptable. n. .. 2. r .. 5, which is less than 6, hence acceptable.
Thus, 2 compression stages are required, giving an r ... 5.
426
GaJ Prod'lclioll Engineering
CD", Compression
427
(b) With intercooling.
Allowing for Intcrstage pressure drop,
Copt
'.!
=
(25:'0.97)1 ... _ 25.773 L ...
Repeating the procedure, for n. ,., 2. r  5.077, which is less than 6. hence acceptable.
Thus. 2 compression stages are required, gi~;ng an r  5.077 ,
Horsepower Requirements The ideal horsepower IHP for reciprocating compressors can be obtained using either the analytical method (Equation 919 or 920) , or Mollier charts along with Equation 924. For the anal}tical method, intercooling requireme"l~ can be calculated using Equation 921. provided the specific heat for the gas being compressed is known. In the Mollier chart method, intercooliog requirements can be determined directly from the enthalpy change indi o
•
PISTON
_ __ _ YOlUIU
!<'CfU.l
c.p.an
OtSPl .. t[~("T
Figure 920, Pressurevolume diagram for the compression cycle of an actual reciprocating compressor showing the effect of clearance.
cated on the enthalpyentropy diagram. The IHP can be converted to brake horse{XIwer requirements using Equation 927 if the overall efficiency "If is known. For reciprocating compressors, volumetric (or clearance) efficiency is an important component of compression efficiencY"If< and, consequently. the overall efficiency "If.
Volumetric Effu:irtlCy
(930)
where V I and V3 are the volumes on the pressurevolume diagram shown in Figure 920. Volume V3 , representing the ....olume at the cylinder end not swept by the piston, is called clearance volume. Clearance, usually varying from 0.04 to 0.16, limits compressor throughput, and also results in horsepower being wasted in ~imply compressing and reexpanding the trapped
,
The ....olumetric or clearance efficiency. "If, . of a reciprocating compressor is defined as the ratio of the \'Olume of gas actually delivered, corrected to suction pressure and temperature, to the piston displacement. It represents the efficiency of the compressor cylinder in compressing the gas. and accounts for gas leakage, heating of gas as it enters the compression chamber. throttJing efrect on \·ah·es, reexpansion of trapped gas, etc. The theoretical volumetric efficiency, "If" is a function of the compression ratio and clearance, as follows: "If,  1  (rlk  l )CI where r .. compression ratio k .. isentropic exponent for the compression process CI .. clearance, fraction
(929)
g",
The actual volumetric efficiency includes factors for other effects such as incomplete filling of the cylinder, leakage. and friction (A), and lubrication (Lu), "lfvlALuCl where
," (z~2  1 )
(931)
A _ factor for incomplete filling of the cylinder, leakage, friction, etc.; it is usually between 0.03 and 0.06 Lu _ compressor lubrication factor, generally 0.05 for nonlubricated compressors and zero otherwise Z" ~ _ gas compressibility factors at the suction and discharge, respectively
Clearance is defined as the ratio of clearance ....olume to the piston displacement (see Figure 920):
From Equations 929 and 931, it is obvious that the volumetric efficiency 1). increases with decreasing compression ratio, r, increasing isentropic expO
428
Gat Production Engineering
G<u Compression
429
nent, k (for r > 1), and decreasing clearance. CI. These parameters can be varied to alter the volumetric efficiency and, consequently, the flow capacity of a reciprocating compressor. Sometimes clearance is added to reduce the capacity for fixed operating pressure conditions, or to prevent overloading the driver under variable operating pressure conditions by reducing the capacity as compression ratio changes. Figure 921 shows the effect of clearance on the volumetric efficiency of reciprocating compressors. The effect of compression ratio (all other factors
CLEARANCE
RATIO4
60
,'.'....,
r~l":
..." "",<' y. ~
141.
.~
,l'~
\~~ '"
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~
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o
114
PERCENT PISTON DISPLACEMENT
16." 'IE
o
881""'[
114 100 121 107
60
40
20
o
Figure 9·22. Effect of different co.mpression ratios on the vol~metric efficiency 01 a reciprocating compressor cylinder. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of IngersollRand Co.)
PERCENT PISTON DISPLACEMENT
Figure 921 . Effect of clearance on the volumetric efficiency at constant compression ratio for reciprocating compressors. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of IngersollRand Co.)
60
u
w
~K.ll ",~
", ,,, k.140
being the same) on volumetric efficiency is sho","T1 in Figure 922. Figure 9·23 shows the effect of the specific heat ratio or isentropic exponent, k, on the volumetric efficiency, for a fixed compression ratio and clearance. This discussion may lead one to believe that the clearance CI should be kept as low as ~ible in order to maximize the volumetric efficiency. How· ever, lower clearance may reduce the compression efficiency 11< which de· pemis primarily upon the valve area, just like volumetric efficiency depends primarily upon clearance. To obtain lower clearances, it is necessary to limit the valve area (size and number of valves). Thus, the designer must find the optimum clearance and valve area, depending upon the application desired for the particular compressor design. Direct Determination of Brake Horsepower Brake horsepower (BHP) requirements for reciprocating compressors can be estimated direct.ly from "quickie" charts. These charts plot the brake horsepower required per million cubic feet of gas per day (BHPIMMcfd),
~ 40 r ~
'" " t~~ '" w '" 20 :t
1:'
~
·N: '~12~2<
,,
•
..
~
~
~
I
100 80 60
PERCENT PISTON
"
~,
62,\V[
V[
n.,\
o
14''\V[
1l~
40 20 OISPLACEMENT
o
Figure 923. Effect of specific heat ratio k on the volumetric effICiency for a given reciprocating compressor cylinder. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of Ingersoll·Rand Co.)
referred to some defined suction pressure and actual intake temperature, versus the compression ratio r for different values or the isentropic exponent k. Figures 924. 9.25, and 9·26 show such charts by the Ingersoll. Rand Company (1982), based upon the analytic solution (Equation 920) cor(tn' continued on page 433)
430
Gas Production Englfleering
Cas Compression
431
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56293 031
Figure 924. Compression power requirements for reciprocating compressors_ (From Compressed Ai, and Gas Data. 1982; courtesy of IngersollRand Co.)
Figure 9·25. Compression power requirements lor reciprocating compressors. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of IngersollRand Co.)
.32
GOI Prodl4ction Eng/neerlng
Gal Compre.ulon
'33
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rected for overall efficiency. These figures are applicable for designing each compression stage individually and require the following considerations: 1. Suction pressure of 14.4 psia and actual intake temperature is assumed. The correction factor for intake pressure is generally included in the calculation of BHP (as in Equation 932 or 933), or obtained from Figure 927.
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Figure 927. Suction pressure correctIon factors for compression power requirements for reciprocating compressors. (From Compressed Ai, and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of IngersollRand Co.)
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COMP~ESSION
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Figure 926. ComPn:tsslon power requirements for recIprocating comressors. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data, 1982; courtesy of IngersollRand Co.)
2. Gas specific gravity of 1.0 is assumed. Correction factors for gas gravities other than 1.0 are shown in Figure 928 . 3. Cas compressibility factor of 1.0 is assumed. Corrections for gas compressibility are frequently included in the calculation of BHP (see Equation 933). 4. A mechanical efficiency of 95% and a compression efficiency of 83.5% is assumed. BHP value:; should be corrected if this is not the case. 5. The gas volume to be handled in each stage should be corrected to the actual intake temperature and moisture content at intake to that stage. 6. Allow interstage pressure drop if intercoolers are used. As discussed before, reduce the theoretical intake pressure of each stage by about 3%,
: . Find: • (0.12 in. ft L . Neglect any gas comPressibility factor effects . gas temperature at the compressor suction (Inlet). II 13 COMPRESSIO .80. A .'unit time 'I. ". strokes.Gos Compression 435 " .. (OR). A reciprocating: compression system is to be designed to com· press 5 MMcfd of the gas in Example 91.) where q". respectiyely... (b) Brake horsepower using ~tol1ier diagram method.. the factor p. ftl/unit time d = piston diameter. MMscfd Tl . t~ .?: ~ " ~ .. I( ~ci ~ ~ II . the required BHP can be computed as follows: (932) where BHP .. brake horsepower required. The BHP from Equation 932 is corrected for gas compressibility as follows: (933) " . . OR (BHPiMMcfd)fil . E:tamplf! 9·3.97)1 _. (c) Estimate the cooling requirements from the results of part (b). I'" ~ '0 ""' CURVE [ 0' •• •• : Q :.. . \ " . ~ ~ ~tOM 09 O· " ~ • . ft S .'ote that this procedure should be applied for one compression stage at a time.OS.compressor ~. with intercoolers and an aftercooler that cool the gas to 150°F. (d) From the results of part (b). 0.O Figure 9·28. the actual capacity of a reciprocating compressor can be in· creased by increasing compressor speed and stroke length. the mlume occupied by the piston rod should also be accounted for_ Thus.05."'~ IZ 0 ~ . . BHP/MMcfd from Figures 924 through 926 (a) Brake horsepower using the analytical method...o l Compressor Speed and Stroke Length The stroke length and/or compressor speed arc selected based upon the following relationship for the flow capacity of reciprocating compressors: (934) . Assume 'I .I'. Gas specific gravity correction factors for compression power reqUirements lor reciprocating compressors. besides increasing volumetric efficiency. (From Compressed Air and Gas Dat8.. gas flow rate measured at pressure Po< (psia) and temperature T"...  SPECIfiC GRAIIHf . which is equivalent to dividing the theoretical r from Equation 928 b\" • For a given gas flow rate of Clot MMscfd at standard conditions of pressure p. " '. > . (psia) and temperature T .. RAT. O..y~ " ~ " " .volumetric efficiency For doubleacting reciprocating compressors. .. .. and CI .stroke length..4 should be omitted. piston diameter . Note that Equation 932 includes the correction factor for intake pressure and if Figure 92i is used for correcting the BHP for intake pressure. 1982. and stroke length .O. 100 0> . courtesy of IngersollRand Co.200 rpm. .o. I".3 ft.. (OR)... hp ct. ~~ "" I~ C . '"..~ 0 where Zl and ~ are the gas compressibility factors at the suction and discharge of the compressor.' 14.. determine whether the first stage can be handled by a compressor with a speed 1. Lu . = capacity of the reciprocating compressor..../ " " .0.
0.732)(610) . BHP for first stage .rion 437 Solution Similarly.(76. the number of moles of gas is given by ". the flow capacity of the given compressor is • Point Process Enthalpy.{1.1. for the first stage. k .2 hp.  «14)(1~(3)(1.1.46)[5.1 . Using Equation 9·1ti. Using Equation 931.039.376.077..pVIZRT . niP .1 hp.( .2565)(150)· .3.6376 x 10.2.077' . For a. 1'.648. repeat Example 93 using empirical charts. r .80 .2565.46 Ibmolesl d ay From Equation 924. 150°F 500 psia.300 200 Thus.039. n.200)(0.500 psia. (d) Compressor speed for the first stage.310 .300 .(1.5.4.~ .76.919. "Y~ .3.(100)(5 x 10')1(1)(10. ..200)].722.2 stages. For the first stage.077.3 hp. Use of this diagram results in: ". Example 94. and BlIP for ~nd stage . forthesecond~i...5. .Z2 . . .6 hp.2565.0 MMcfd Ibmole) B80 3. 98.376.9 hp. And cooling load for the aftercooler (after stage 2) .0 . h (Btu p (psia).I ) _ 0.500 psia.46)(5. 1 2 3 4 Entering gas After isentropic compression After isobaric cooling 5 After isentropic compression After isobaric cooling 100 psia.31O _ 880)1 1 .20 x 10' Btulday.06 cr'min .1. 368°F 500 psia.. From Examples 91 and 92: Thus. (c) Cooling requirements. " .612.46){3.08)(5. Cooling load for the intercooler (between stages 1 and 2) . "" . From Figure 926. the BHP required for 5 MMcfd gas measured at suction conditions of 100 pSia and 150°F is given by: =0 Using the gas law.80".46)(3. T(°F) q".310 725 5. 490"F 2. for each ot the m'o stages: IHP (3.1.5)(76. (b) Mollier diagram method.3.0303)(5)(100)(150)(1. 150"F Solution From Example 93.799. Assuming interoooling.0.05 ..436 Gas Productioll Enginemng Gas Compres.310. the enthalpyentropy diagram of Figure 912 is approximately applicable.300725)11 .80. r .7385 Using Equation 934.80. 3.0 Applying the appropriate correction factors. and BHP for second stage . P Therefore.0. the gas gravlty correction .6376 x 1O5)(76. 1.110.376. PI ""' 100 psia.age.612. IHP .612..2.2565) (5077"""" "'" _ 1) _ 2 9191 h (0.1/0.0.9 hr.1 hp.5. BHP for first stage . with Zj .7385) . k .376. 7.722. .0.725) . BHP/MMcfd From Figure 928.(0.97 x 10' Btulda. (a) Anal)1ical method.088. 150"F 2. . the given compressor cannot handle 5 MMcfd gas.(76.648.3.152.3.376.5.
1 296.944.181.. • PI PIM _ (150)(17. Number of stages.45 Ibm ft' (1)(10.944. 6.1 ftlbflbm . 3.I % of CHP.5)(17. for an intake volume of 6.382Ibmllbmole.. SoIutioll r .4 dm From Figure 911..296 ~ 0.97)(0. . BHP _ (900)(150)(0. 6. Compressor speed.4 cfrn al 150 psia and 80°F. M "" 17.333.4 cfm. 0..333. r . 30 hp. and intake volume . K""JT .944.292..15. (28.33/9. ~ From Equation 936. (10 x 1(1)/(24 x 60) .9 181.. ti.1 • _k__1 _ 0. Find the horsepower required by a centrifugal (st raight.OOO ftIbf Ibm.725 From Equation 9·11.60) '" 17.01)(9.944. for Cjl . Flow capacity'" 10 M\tcfd . 0..60.000)(0.315 n k" (1.333. 6.944. k = 1. From Equation 943. the number of stages is equal to: Therefore.967)(28. for r .97) .97) .725) • p Using Equation 938. m is equal to m_ qlPI _ 10 x lQ"lftl/day 0.333"'" _ 1) _ 70. with the assumption that HPL m _ 1\ ""' 75. the compressor speed S . (17. From Figure 931. 8 stages 3... 3 h (33. Assume ")'q . 3. From Example 95.3 15) • Cas density at suct ion conditions is equaJ to From Figure 930. 296.. \1.748. From Equation 942. . the mass now rate.967)(28. Example 96.2 hp (14.. For the data given in Example 95.382) _ 0.3) + 30 9. 1) ..440 min/day ftJ ' From Equation 938. and Z" Zz Solutioll := 1.382) .748..005. n . HPLt.97hll = (28.97 :::. Ill' = 0.500 _ 7.. molt' 1. h _ (47 . basic head .3.296)(0. BHP .. (17..967.0..33 ftlbf'lbm.545)(460 + SO) (3.44' Go~ Produdiorl EfI~ineering Gas CompressiOIl 447 Example 9S. 6. (3. 3.382)(0.382 Ibm lb. through flo\\. for q .800 rpm ..4 cfm and r .RT.382) 2.4 drn.725) From Figure 932.303 hp.000)(0. design a centrifugal compressor using the empirical chart method.1.333 and k ...296.(1..8. 125)(70. and From Figure 929.732)(540) Z.75. h _ (1. no intercooling) compressor for compressing 10 M~tcfd gal> at suction conditions of ISO psia and BOoF to 500 psia.. k .. 500 150 . GHP.292. the basic BHP ~ 900 hp.. Horsepower.45 Ibm = 3 125 Ibm/min 1. From Equation 941.
4)(0. BHP _ 'kPY (BHP/MMcfd).704. similar to Equation 919 for reciprocating compressor\. (9·35) Mollier Charts where.theoretical horsepower required for compression. ft·lbflbm 6h . CHP.pol)1ropic exponent r . OR ZJ. Subsequently.80) .(Z. hp m . MMscfd. can be derived.835) (14.704.8 hp..000 '1p (9·38) (r" "" _ I) where 'lp is the poJ}1ropic compression efficiency (fraction).II n _ • Mollier charts. psia and temperature T ..gas molecular wei~ht. where hp .factor to convert from psia to Ibf/ft2 _ (5)(100)(98. by replacing the i. psiaftl/lbrnole°R M '"' molecular weight of the gas. Btullbmole 'lp . hp q. with the assumption of isentropic compression. if available for the gas.8 hp The parameters for the second stage are the same. second sta..2 ftlbf/Btu in Equation 939 gives the desired units conn'.2)(0. OR n . The polytropic head hp is then calculated as: (939) where hp .polytropic head. respectively TL .'rsion.isentropic efficiency M .gas inlet (suction) temperature.) _n_ 2ZJToc ni The gas horsepo\\"er. Ibmfmin 33. mass flow rate of the gas.pol}1rOpic head.gas flow rate. Therefore. as before: IHP .gas compressibility factors at the compressor suction and discharge. An analytic expression for the ideal horsepower.000 .835) 14. Ibmllbmole 144 .4 11 f. the theoretical work required for compression is represented by the polytropic head hp. The procedure outlined earlier for reciprocating compressors is used. the ideal compra<>ion horsepower.'iOrs are vcry similar to those for reciprocating compressors. lbmllbmole The factor 778. (0.enthalpy change for isentropic compression determined from the Mollier diagram. + z.2.polytropic efficiency 11k . measured at pressure p". Thus.) I) 2Z j M n. can also be used for determining the compression parameters. the gas horsepower CHP can be determined using Equation 938. ftlbfllbm R "" gas constant.1 (936) . . IHP. for a gas mass flow rate of m Ibm/min is given by: (937) where IHP "" ideal compression horsepower required. 1) 2Z j M _ 1545TL (ZL n . Zt .a:l" brake horsepower reqUired is also equal to 2.. is given by: GHP mhp 33.95)(0..factor to convert power requirement from ftlbf/min to hp Designing Centrifugal Compressors Analytical Method Calculations for centrifugal compres.438 Gall ProdUCtiOll Engineering Co¥ ComprC8Sioll 43.. IHP.0303'kPYT. similar to the theoretical work requirement w for reciprocating compressors (see Equation 916): hp _ (144)RTL(Zj + Z2) _n_ (rn .1 _n_ (rnI) n _ + Z.~ntropic exponent k by the polytropic exponent n: IHP _ 3.compression ratio For centrifugal compressors.95)(0.
. machines with greater polytropic head per stage can and have been designed. .. the !tterpressed Air and Gas Data. Although the latter is true for most industrial units.) Compressor speed can be estimated using Figure 929 as a function of the intake volume.\. whereas hydraulic losses decrease. Compressor Speed Empirical Charts Centrifugal compressor performance is highly dependent upon speed.. hp Mechanical horsepower losses. .500 (9·41 ) ."' h 9.. With increasing Si7. The corrections required in the computation of the actual polytropic head for a givcn case are as follows: 1.. The capacity varies directly as the speed.500 rtlhfilbm. use Fi~~ 931 for.3% to 2. and the required horsepower varies as the cube of the Centrifugal compre5S0r parameters can also be obtained from Figures 930 through 934.. the head deve10ped varies as the square of the speed.peed. repectively. (Surpnslngiy. + HPL.Rand Co. (From Com· where 9. hp • is an indication of the number of stages required for centrifugal compression. and that each deve10ps a polytropic head of 9.396. For a polytropic exponent n other than 1.. courtesy of Ingersoll. Figure 930 shows the polytropic head. mechanical losses increase. the compressor speed is obtained from Figure 929 by reading directly ~t the center of the shaded area that indicates the range usually involved.mechanical and hydraulic horsepower losses.e. vary between 0. K. depending on the speed and casing size of the unit. Number of Stages The polytropic head.500 ft·lbf%m is a common limit assigned to each centrifugal compression stage. The number of stages required. is given by: n. ~ • Figure 929. Equation 941 assumes that all impellers are running at optimum design speeds.sus thc compression ratio r for various intake temperatures T 1.440 COl Production Engineering Gas Compression 441 Estimating the Actual Horsepower The BHP for centrifugal compressors is generally estimated br adding the mechanical and hydraulic losses to the GHP: BHP .5% of the gas horsepower CHp. consisting of ctl5ing and piston leakage losses. Straightthrough flow centrifugal compressor speed. 1982. (940) where HPL"" HPLt. consisting of losses in the COmpressor seals and bearings.. are generally in the range of 7 to 50 hp. depending primarily on the size of the unit. Cenerallv. . ver. Hydraulic horsepower losses. .GHP + HPL". determining the "k" value correction factor. h p . S.
.18.005 VdS. and 0.. C 2 . same theoretical relationships.. You have been assigned to a gas field where you notice an old compressor that can be repaired and used in the future.28 and )'.. If the gas in the second stage is compressed to 7. monoatomlc Ideal gases For a reciprocating compressor. The losses are minimized by operating at or near the builtin.. The compression requirements are as follows: Cas flow rate" 17. Capacity control is provided by var}. The inJet pressure was 1.0. Factors that increase slip losses are high pressure differential or rise across the compressor. The total rpm determined from Equation 9 46 is used in horsepower or capacity calculations.6. show that: . why is polytropic efficiency primarily a function of the intake volume? Discuss the basis and applicability of Equation 939 for determining the polytropic head of a centrifugal compressor from Mollier charts. List the applications of the various compressor types. total rpm qd . Slip is usually independent of speed. What are the desirable traits for a compressor? 2. . discharge pressure _ 6.ng the speed.1. and the outlet pressure? (b) Assume that the compressor is used as the first stage in a twostage compression system. Slip is generally reported as capacity lost.c.0. 0. n. .35.83.1.0. (a) What is the compression ratio (assume k . cfm V d . is volumetric efficiency the same as compression efficiency? Why? Also. . some differences and empirical corrections introduced by the speciHe design. The capacity of rotary twoimpeller compressors also is subject to leakage or slip losses rather than losses related to clearance. Determine the polytropic exponent from: (1) thermodynamic charts (Chapter 3). given an intake volume of 10. giving appropriate reac:oos for the5(>.000 psia.6). 5.R (b) Cp . or by installing multiple units.some amount of the gas escapes past to the suction side."ring Gta Compreuion 449 Designing Rotary Compressors Rotary positivedisplacement compressors follow the same basic theory as reciprocating positivedisplacement compressors and are designed using the ciprocating compressor. dm (cubic feet per minute) at suction conditions. the discharge temperature of a rotary compressor is substantially higher than that for an equivalent watercooled re .66..448 Gos Production Eligillt'f.1. .000 psia. fixed compression ratio for which the unit is designed to give optimum performance. rpm hp. 3. displacement. S. iC~ . There are.000 Mscfd. . and c.c. 5RJ2.desired capacity. • 7. 3R/2 for 4.55. Lowclearance scaling is the usual method for controlling slip losses. It may also be accounted for as the additional rpm (rotations per minute) required to deliver a given amount of gas: (946) 1. (c) Determine the theoretical horsepower for the second stage in part (b) using Mollier charts. and low gas density.005 is a constant.1.C~ = 0.1l. what is the outlet temperature? Use Mollier charts.000 psia and the horsepower was 200 (a) cp . Calculate the isentropic exponent at 100°F and 500 psia for a gas with the following composition (in weight %): C l .000 dm. These Ios. In practice. slip. There are.. Searching through the company records you find that the ratio of the inlet temperature (O R) to outlet temperature rR) was 0. efr (cubic feet per revolution) S.05.of the rotary that provides relatively little time or surface area for gas coohng. and (2) polytropic efficiency. and are generally estimated from actual tests.(dp) (947) where ~p is the pressure differential (or rise). Using basic thermodynamic principles.89. The outlet gas from the first stage is cooled to its initial temperature. C 3 . leaka~e or slip losses between adjacent cells across the vanes at their edges and ends . but for more complex designs..769 when the flow rate was 3. . . A compressor is to be instaUed for handling gas supply into a transmission line. Questions and Problems \\elldesigned rotary slidingvane compressors do not ha\'e the clearance typical of reciprocating compressors. it may be speeddependent. howe\'er.5 MMcfd at intake conditions of 450 psia and goOF. and CO 2 . H 2S . The discharge temperature of a rotar}' compressor can theoretically be calculated using the relationship for reciprocating compressors (Equation 910). . where S. as follows: BHP . however. Intercooling to lOO°F or any reasonably low temperature is desired. because of the speed and compactness . and gas gravity 1'.l. Express the relationship of Figure 911 as a correlation equation.es are difficult to theorize. 6.
.. ."2 Gas ProdU{'tioll Engineering h Cas CompressiOlI 443 ature consistently refers to this n" value correction factor as the "k" value correction factor.M ("alp. intercooling temperature.)(K o . as included in Equation 936. Il. .0 1396 ..97 (air). Appropriate adjustment for a gas molecular weight other than 28... . '00 ~o.".) I' 2ZIM (942) ~09 • o ::! 09 uO.) Basic brake horsepower requirements for intercooled centrifugal compressors are shown in Figure 933. Appropriate correction factors need to be applied for the polytropic exponent. (BlIP). . Basic head for straightthrough flow centrifugal compressors (From CompreSSed Air and Gas Dara.97)(Z. In addition to correction factors applicable to head hI" determination of actual BliP requires a correction for intake pressure other than 14. the applicable actual head hp is determined from the basic head (h . Compressor speed can be obtained from Figure 9·29 as before. hI" the number of stages required for centrifugal compression. .. ./ . given in Figure 932 as follows: BHP _ (BHP)".97)(Z. the actual BHP is determined from the basic brake horsepower.. + Z.. and gas compressibility factor."... the polytropic head is inversely proportional to gas molecular weight M." .. . .~~ ? ~ o.)(28. " " ~ .5)Z. • • 08 ~ 0 . .(K. .J. can be calculated as before using Equation 941. . .h given in Figure 9·30 as follows: I h _ (h pli. 1982..' .::~ Knowing the polytropic head.:.5 psia pressure and actual intake temperature.) !/ I . 1 CQtolP"E5SION R4no : ~T"!:':"":"OT::: :~:. " Thus. u .) 2.•fk..~ /v. '0  j 0. . courtesy of Ingersoll·Rand Co..: 0. .: ~ 'i ~ . Correction for gas compressibility factors other than unity. • • • • • • • • • • ~y. courtesy of Ingersoll·Rand Co. kvalue correction factors for the brake horsepower requirements for straightthrough flow centrifugal compressors (From Compressed Air and Gas Data. . I v U " flOM . + Z. Thus. Figure 932 shows the brake horsepower BHP 'ersus the intake gas volume measured at 14. . gas gravity..5 psia. . . 1982.. . I (943) Figure 9·30.' ~ :.y /.(p.)(28. "ATIO (Pz p'l CO~PII(SSION  • ..9 • .) 2(l4..'" / .. Figure 931.. 7. 3. .• t'k .9 u ~ . As shown by Equation 936..~ 7 0.. . intake pressure and temperature.
. c~mpr~~rs for air at 14. Il' I..) • The discharge temperature of the compressed gas from a straightthrough flow centrifugal compressor can be obtained. . and temperature of the gas.1 psla and 95°F intake. T2 . ~ Ifill V . and temperature of the gas. 932. Basic brake horsepower requirements for interCooled centrilu I where Ph V" T J intake pressure.P' J. V\!./ I. Temperature rise multiplier for determining the discharge temperature for straight·through flow centrifugal compressors. '" l.discharge pressure./ V  • • • .) entnfugaJ compressors. using Figure 934. respectively. V 2 .~I~~A~~~ ~~)F).temperature rise multiplier from Figure 934 The discharge volume. / . I. . OR T nn . Flgu~e • • " ~ VII II. I: I rs / ~ ~ ~ '" ~ Figure 934. 1982.I' I. Basic brake horsepower requirements for straightthrough flow 0. (From Compressed Air and Gas Data.ngersolJRand Co.intake and discharge temperatures. courtesy of Ingerson·Rand Co. 1982. I.u:1 ¥OUI' U _ TIt(IIJ$A_ 01< aM ~:u~~e~~ eOI t~~~. • " • • ~ ~ / / / I. Figure 933. as follows: (944) where Tit T2 ./ V / / • • • • • o I  I. of the compressed gas can now be calculated: (945) 1IIT./ . (From Compressed Air and Gas Data 1982' courtesy 0' . 7(1.444 Gas Production Euglucrnllg Gas Compression 445 §/ II '" j V / $I . volume. respecth·cly  . volume. respectively 1>2. r.~ / 'j 1/ ~ . with perfect Intercoollng (int~~ (From Compressed Air and Gas D8t8.
160.. e:tcept for underground storage or other storages such as LNG (liquified natural gas) storage facilities. measurements in standard cubic feet are synonymous to mass flow rate measurement. and also as a basic parameter for almost all of the design procedures. the number of standard cubic feet measured depends upon the standard pressure and temperature conditions chosen.73 psia and temperature of 60°F." Trans. Gas Flow Measurement Introduction Gas flow measurement constitutes one of the more important auxiliary operations related to gas production and transport. Woodcliff Lake. intercooling requirements. "A Series of EnthalpyEntropy Charts for Natural Gases. Tui5a. Compare the requirements and select the one. 5Jipp. New York. Gas Processors Suppliers Association.00/Mscf. C. to make this volumetric measurement more meaningful. giving reasons.1 Bscf year of gas which.. BHP. (5th revision). Compressed Air and Gas Data.). Accuracy in measurement is obviously of prime importance: an error of only 1 % for a typical pipeline delivering 300 MMscfd (109. would amount to a loss of $3. 9th ed. However. using at least two methods. for a reciprocating compressor. etc. speed.3 million to the buyer or seller. 1984. C. The most common basis is the ACA and API recommended pressure of 14. It is required to enable the determination of the amount of gas being produced or sold. C. CHp. U:oku. that is most suitable for this application.u·tion Engineering Cive the design specifications (number of stages. compression ratio. However. IngersollRand Co. 1981. AIME. U. gas measurements must be done on a flowing stream of gas.. IngersollRand Company. This volumetric rate can be converted to mass flow rate by multiplying with the gas density at the standard pressure and temperature conditions. NJ. and a centrifugal compressor.450 Gos Prod. Oklahoma. Natural Gas Production Engineering. GPSA. at a typical gas price of S3. John Wiley & Sons. 1945.6576. Cas is most commonly measured in terms of volume because of the simplicity of such a procedure. Therefore. Since the gas density at the specified standard conditions is a constant for the particular gas under consideration. Engineering Data Book.5 Bscf'year) can result in an er· ror of approximately 1. The produced gas stream is in a continuous state of flow from the instant it leaves the reservoir until it is consumed at the delivery end. • 451 .. 10 References Brown. 1982. Table 10·1 shows some such measurement bases. base or standard pressure and temperature conditions are defined that yield measurements in standard cubic feet.
oul>iana 00 00 00 00 measured rate of 100 MMscfd. a meter with maximum and minimum rates of 50 MMscfd and 10 MMscfd. respectively. for a measured flow rate of 10 MMscfd .1 MMscfd (or a measured rate of 10 MMscfd.. many flow measure~en~ techn iques and devices have been developed for a wide range of apphcatlons.. and AlbertI! (C.. "f Shu. Accuracy is reported in either of two ways: percent of full scale. Accuracy A flowmeter's rangeability is the ratio of the maximum flow rate to the minimum flow rate at the specified accuracy. sometimes expressed as a percent of full scale. This discussion is limited to those devices that have found use in the oil and gas industry.:i. repeatability is the ability of a meter to reproduce the same measured readinw. but a lower overall accuracy. primarily for natural gas measurement.5. whereas orifice meters and rotameters have a percent of full scale accuracy in their <. 8"..=T'::. displacement rate in a measurement chamber. An accuracy of ± 1 % of reading. It is computed as the maximum diHerence between measured readings.:.7 14.:==. API Base pressure psi.n.5 to 50.Measured rate] x 100 % Actual rate (101) Also known as reproducibility or precision. for a looMMscfd flowmeter.:c. Linearity where Abs(x) represents the absolute value of the argument x.9 to 10. for identical flow conditions over a period of time.ltemlmt 453 Table 101 Common Ga. Thus. Thus. or at a given flow rate.. For this and other reasons..to 100MMscfd meter. Accuracy _ Abs [Actual rate .to 5OMMscfd meter. It can be specified over a given flowrate range. but poor accuracy if its calibration curve is offset (shifted). 1984). regardless of the value of the flow rate.452 GO! Production Engineering Gas Flow MeOl1l. Kansas. because it cannot be measured directly like pressure and temperature. This rangeability can be increased to 10: 1 by decreasing the minimum rate by a mere 5 MMscfd to 5 MMscfd resulting in a 5. etc.. a flowmeter may have very good repeatability. or by increasing the maximum rate by 50 MMscfd to 100 MMscfd resulting in a 10. 49. for a specified accuracy of ± 1%. Thus.. a ± 1 % of full scale accuracy means that the measured flow rate is within ± 1 MMscfd of the actual flow rate. Positive displacement meters and turbine meters usually have a percent of reading accuracy... such as the pressure differential over a specified distance. Attributes of Flow Devices A flowmeter or measurement device is characterized using the following parameters. has a rangeability of 5: 1. Notc that repeatability does not imply accu racy.:=. . Rongeability 14 735 15_025 '" Measurement Fundamentals "'ow is one of the most difficult variables to measure (Campbell. It is defined as the ratio of the diHerence between the actual and measured rates to the actual rate.uu.. and Feckul Price Commbuon l. it is between 99 and 101 MMscfd . the percent o( reading results in a better overall perfonnance because the error is proportional to the magnitude of the rate. A linear calibration curve is desirable because it leads to a constant metering accuracy. Arkansas. temperlltur.c Minimum rate that can be measured (102) Rangeability is usually reported as a ratio x: 1. the actua1 flow rate is between 9 and 11 MMscfd.pecifications. 14.73 Ba.::===. It must be inferred by indirect means.. and for a This is a measure of the deviation of the calibration curve of a meter from a straight line.da) California AGA. of t: . Oklahoma. For example.5 for a measured rate of 50 MMscfd. however. or percent of reading.:::. Repeatability • This Is a measure of a flowmeter's ability to indicate the actual fl ow rate within a specified nowratc range... . 99 to 101 MMscfd for a measured rate of 100 MMscfd . For example. speed of rotation of a rotating element.65 14. Pressure and Temperature Bases for Measurement State Thus. implies that the measured flow rate is within 9. with no portion of the sca1e being relatively more ~r less sensitive than the other. 'l' Maximum rate that can be measured Rangea b I Ity .::::. Note that a flowmeter could have a good linearity. etc. . it is important to know the flow rate range over which a quoted rangeability applies.
5: I. Details of this important meter type are discussed later in this chapter.5:1. 7. and its initial and operating costs. This is a rugged.454 Cas Production Engineering Gas Flow Measurement 455 Selection of Measurement Devices The selection of a measurement device depends upon: Accuracy and reliability of the device. consists of a short pipe section tapering into a throat. etc. 1975). Venturi meters have a rangeability of 3. Maintenance requirements. 1975). Range of flow ratemaximum and minimum. 6. 1975). their constituents and specific gravity. 3. courtesy of Chemical Engineering. and very precise and accurate results can be obtained from them. Flow nozzles are used for high flow rate streams. its susceptibility to theft or vandalism. and the second type where the difference in pressure is measured upon impact. The analysis is similar to orifice meters. because they permit. and is a preferred choice where less pressure drop is available. well described in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers' report on this subject (ASME. (After Corcoran and Honeywell. Pitot (]mpacl) l . such as the orifice meter. Fluid to be measuredgas or liquid. 1975. 1975). with an accuracy on the order of ± 0. is presented here. such as simplicity. venturi meter. etc. Flow nozzle. • Figure 102.. with an accuracy of ± 1 % (Corcoran and Hone)'\\!ell . for the same line size and pressure differential . Methods of Measurement A brief introduction to the different fluid measurement methods. ~ ve~turi meter. Other considerations. It gives the flow velocity . (After Corcoran and Honeywell. and economical device. and can handle a wide range of flow rates. a 60% greater rate of flow than an orifice plate (Corcoran and Honeywell. have a rangeahility of 3. and by Corcoran and Honeywell (1975).5% (Corcoran and Honeywell . The dynamics of the relationships involved have been studied in great detail for these types of meters. centered in a pair of flanges in a straight pipe section. Some of the commonly used differential pressure devices are described.5:1. be Figure 103 shows a pitot tube installed in a pipe section. the flow rate is computed using the pressure difference over a flow interval or restriction and other data. Figure 101. Differential Pressure Method 1. availability of power or other inputs required by the device. such as the pitot tube.. simple. 1971). courtesy of Chemical Engineering. Flow nozzle. 2.) In this method.. 5. Range of flow temperature and pressure.52% (Corcoran and Honeywell. Flow nozzles have a rounded edge that aids the handling of solids in the flow stream (see Figure 102). with the advantage of low pressure loss. There are basically two types of differential pressure devices: one in which the pressure difference is measured across a flow restriction. The pressure differential is mea~ured across this plate to yield the flow rate. Flow Nozzlel! Orifice Meter This is by far the most commonly used device for metering natural gas. 1975.) \/fmturi Meter This type of meter. The pitot tube measures the difference between the static pressure at the wall of the flow conduit and the flowing pressure at its impact tip where the kinetic energy of the flOwing stream is converted into pressure. Orifice meters have a rangeability of about 3. shown in Figure 101 . Expected life of the device. 4. It is similar to an orifice meter. coupled with a relatively longer diverging pipe section for pressure recovery. It consists of a flat metal plate with a circuJar hole. with an accuracy of ± 1. accurate.
and it is only necessary to determine the upstream pressure. a criticalflow prover consists of a special nipple equipped to facilitate the attachment of orifice plates at its end. equipped with a flange to facilitate the attachment of different sharpedged orifice plates at its end. Displacement meters are also called positivedisplacement meters because they afford a positive volume at flowing conditions: the flow is divided into is0lated measured volumes. to as rate meters. are counted to give the flow rate. but finds application where gas is at relatively low prm.ses a roundededge orifice. (After Corcoran and Honeywell. instantaneous andlor cumulative. Gas Production Engineering GUIde wine for po$'I'on and dorKtion of ImPKt 1<P~~ Gas Flow Measurement . and slidevalve diaphragm type. critical flow Cvhnders tfourl (two) Figure 104. it is not used very often. the calibration must account for the velocity profile in the flow conduit. It has limited accuracy. To compute the mean flow velocity.) . and it discharges the gas to the atmosphere. and only the static prm. (b) reciprocating·piston meter. Because of the relatively poor accuracy of this device (most of the error is in measuring the static pressure). The tip can be easily clogged by liquids or solids. is based upon the principle of critical flow of gases through £Jow restrictions (see critical £Jaw through chokes in Chapter 7). The rotary type Drove 10_. and the number of these volumes are counted in some manner. sometimes referred. 1975. Displacement Meters . Another factor These meters measure the volumetric displacement of the f1wd at flowing conditions. however. Displacement meters: (a) rotary meter. (Aller Corcoran and Honeywell.<5. II is important to note that the criticalflow prover u. 1975. ~ Figure 103. gas gravity. • This device co~ists of a nipple. courtesy 01 $Iat" pressure. Chemical Engineering . The number of such known volumes through the meter per unit time. The criticalflow pro\'er. except on a temporary basis. This is in contrast with the other meter types. Critical· Flow Proven Similar to the orifice well tester. and the £Jawing temperature (see Equation 783) in order to calculate the gas £Jow rate. Figure 104 shows the two types of displacement meters commonly used: rotary or impeller type. Pilot tube metering.57 is maintained. corrected to the base pressure and temperature.ure just upstream of this plate needs to be measured.ures and is being produced to the atmosphere. because sharpedged orifices do not conform to critical flow theories and do not give a good repeatability.) \~ ImpiICl liP only at a point (at the tip). courtesy of ChemicaJ Engineering . in which the fluid passes without being divided into isolated quantities. that makes the cAlibration of a pitot tube difficult is the low pressure differential produced by it. The device discharges the gas to the atmosphere. In this device. through the meter.
The speed of the turbine is measured as pulses that give the rate. Further details about turbine meters can be obtained from November (1972) and Evans (1973).05 % (Evans. Production Engineering Go.45. shown in Figure 106. The fluid stream is th rottled by a constriction. with an accuracy of ± 1 % (CorCOran and Honeywell . Elbow (Centrifugal) Meter This device. They consist of a turbine or propeller that turns at a speed proportional to the velocity of the gas flowing past it. 1975. An elbow meter. Elbow meters have a rangeability of 3: 1. An elbow meter creates relatively little pressure loss or differential . or accumulated to give the cumulative rate. Both are quite similar in operation. Turbine MetelV"'" The. caused by pressure fluctuations. with valves that channel the gas into and out of these measuring elements. and is therefore used primarily for control o~ other ~ur poses. The flow rate is directly readoff from the graduations etched upon the glass tube (see Figure 107). keeping the differential pressure constant. (After Corcoran and Honeywell . •  __ Pr"~~lJfe IJIJS • Figure 106 . The fluid entering at the base of the tube causes the float to rise. It finds some application in large pipes where a substantial centnfugal force is generated.se. and counters to count the number of times the measuring element is filled per unit time. will cause the turbine meter to give a higher than actual value. (After Corcoran and Honeywell. courtesy of Chemical Engineering. the flow velocity. Thrbine meter~ typically have a rangeability up to 100: 1 for gases. with an accuracy of ±0. art> sometimes classified as positi"edi>plaLtment meters. rotameters vary the size of the flow constriction to accommodate the flow rate. To allow sustained accuracy and troublefree operation. or un· steadystate flow conditions. the radius of the circu1ar bend in the pipe. Flow Measurement 45. ~: other fl uid properties. 1973). courtesy of Chemical Engineering. converting linear velocity to rotational speed (see Figure 105). filters are almoo always used ahead of the turbine meter. Rotameters consist of a float that is free to move up and down in a vertical tube that has a gradual taper down to its base. Ga. 1975. Turbine meters have therefore traditionally been used for measuring liquid flow rates rather than gas flow rate!> Fluctuations in velocity. 1975). The driving torque for the propeller is proportional to the fluid densit~ and the square of the fluid velocity. These pulses are counted to give the instantaneous rate. A turbine meter. turbulence. with an accuracy of ± 1 % (Corcoran and Honeywell. is based upon the principle of centrifual force that is generated when the fluid changes its direction of flow along g irCuiar path.mf"ter. until the annular area between the float and the tube wall is sueh that the pressure drop across this constriction is just sufficient to support the float.c diameter.) FIgure 105. Rotameters have a rangeability of 10:1. The magnitude of this centrifugal force is governed by the a. consists of a rotating element. They contain measuring elements (or chambers) of known volume. but instead of measuring the pressure differential across a fixed sized orifice. 1975).) Rotameter (Variable Area Meter) A rotameter is essentially a variable orifice meter. .25% and a repeatability of ±0. whereas the diaphragm type has a pistonC)'Iinder arrangement.
and separates from it. which occurs when a £lUld flows past a nonstreamlined (blunt) object. Counting the motion or the induced mechanical stresses on a vane that extends behind the blunt body and moves from side to side with the passing of the alternating vortice. S. and offer applicability to large pipes.. A rotameter (From Chemical Engineers' Handbook 1984. The flow is unable to follow the shape of the blunt object... r..) Sr~ff'''Q bOo .Iull. as they alternate on the two sides of the object (a transverse passage is provided in the flow element to allow movement of the sphere or disk). which is generally free from particulates. !. However.on .nq boo 10 . w Figure 108. can be detected in a number of ways. and the contra VortexShedding F10wmetcrs These devices."9 boa _.. . There are some difficulties with ultrasonic meters caused by the effect of solids..q 1)0. The rate of vortex formation and shedding is directly proportional to the volumetric now rate. and a repeatability of ± I % of reading (DeVries... 4.. Publishing Company.. only two types are commercially used (Munk.::::::::. 3. Ultrasonic Meters Although several ultrasonic measurement principles are known. This separation of the flow leads to the forma?on of eddies or turbulent vortices on the surfaces along the sides of the obJect that grow in size as they move downstream..ed mete""o. Shedding takes place alternately at either side of the object (Chemical Engineers' Handbook . 6".... as shown in Figure 109. (8) Idealized Karman vortex trail behind a circular cylinder.~' 10 . Four methods are mainly used: Figure 107.oduahons erched Dead "q""oe pree. etc. Thus.p I~hltn 1984). the flow rate can be inferred from vortex shedding measurements. dt ~. CO~OCI'Y q.·ersely proportional to the diameter of the object.".. (b) vortex flow pattern.e". (After Powers. however.o" ••.s... For this purpose. also referred to as £low element.:==~ se.460 Gal Production Engineering Gas I'Jow MeaSllremelit 461 ours. The formed vortice.tI... only the contrapropagating method is applicable to natural gas measurement. ot Soul/. Thermistors that detect the change in temperature caused by the changing flow of the fluid as a vortex passes. courtesy of McGrawHil'. 1982): the Doppler. Of these two.". t I I 2 ~~~ ~@ =@i ~ \0 ~ @o:::::: w ~ .. The contrapropagating ultrasonic flowmeter computes the flow velocity by measuring the time difference between two ultrasonic waves traveling over the same path.90U lope... It has a rangeability of 50: 1 and an accuracy better than ± 2% (Monk. are portable. cause no pressure loss. ryWoo~ 112 • '# I 2 I .. they do not disturb the flow..IIl on9'. .. because these meters can be mounted out· side the pipe. 1975: courtesy of on & Gas Joumal... 2.n.dt !>ere St~!f". Vortexshedding flowmeters have a rangeability of about 15: 1 or greater. 1982)..bore 00<05'. Additional details on these meters can be obtained from Powers (1975) and DeVries (1982). must remain turbulent over the entire range of flow rate. ~ Inltl 1. .. ..1.0 hom o. gas bubbles.Z5 to 1 % of reading. . The Doppler method. that alternately transmit and receive ultrasonic pulses. !.. is not applicable to natural gas. Ultrasonic transmitters and receivers that detect the vortices using a sonic beam. 1982).are based upon the principle of vortex shedding.. and are eventually shed or detached from ~e obj~ (see Figur~ lO~8a and b). This flowmeter can measure flow in either direction and indicate the direction of flow. using the reflections of ultrasonic energy off particles. t "I~ gMtlltd 0"9" ". an accuracy of ±O. two transducers are used. but with one with the flow and the other against the flow..) propagating (or transmitted energy) methods.. A magnetic pickup coil to count the oscillations imposed on a spht!re or disk by the vortice.. and ino.. The flow regime.'COI..
but with an accuracy of ± 1.52%. The four types of pressure tap locations (see Figure 1011) that have been used are as follows: In addition to the concentric (centered) orifice. they are the most important and widely used of the flowmeters for gases. from the upstream face of the plate and 1 in. accurate. held perpendicular to the direction of flow by a pair of Clanges. rugged. is subject to wear and a consequent loss in accuracy. with an accuracy of ± 0.. Installation geometry of a contrapropagaling ultrasonic flowmeter. and ease of calibration. 1982. Pipe taps: In this type. In the vena contracta type of pressure measurement. 3. 2.lt"". there are two more types of orifices as shown in Figure 1010: eccentric (offcenter). ease of fabrication. howe"'er..5 pipe [Os from the upstream. The concentric type is the most common.5%. A pressure measuring and recording device is connected to the pressure taps. 0.' They have a rangeability of 3:1.:luc:.) Figure 1010. relatively inexpensive. and at the vena contracta downstream.k  o BORE W/ 8 EVEL ECCENTRIC SEGMENTAL Figure 109.462 Ga$ Production Engineering Tn'n. and reliable. An orifice meter consists of a thin plate. courtesy of Oil & Gas Journal. the pressure is measured 1 in. and 8 pipe IDs from the downstream (where the pressure recovery is maximum) face of the orifice plate.398 in. Vena contracta: The point at which the velocity is the highest. This type requires location tolerances 10 times higher than the flange type.l . from the downstream face of the orifice plate. Other devices such as turbine meters have also been used because orifice meters have a limited rangeability (typically 3. The sharpedged plate.. It is used where flow rates are fairly constant. 1. Cas "'lou: Measurement 463 r. The segmental type ~as the additional advantage that it does not retain solids on the upstream Side of the plate. Centering the hole. and segmental (part of a circle). It has a rangeability of 3.r up.5: 1). and it is recommended for use only on large pipe sizes (Corcoran and Honeywell. Orifice Meters Because orifice meters are simple. This is the most common type of pressure tap. and are difficult to adapt to automation. and pressure is the lowest. The orifice fittings are designed to permit easy changing and inspection of orifice plates. with a circular sharp squareedged orifice (hole) accurately machined to the required size in the center of the plate. is critical to its performance. because of its low cost.5:1.1150. pressure is measured 1 pipe ID upstream or the plate. Pressure taps are provided on the upstream as well as downstream end in the fitting that holds the orifice plate. because the location of the . 1975). The Orifice Metering System Oriface Typn The eccentric and segmental types are very useful for twophase flow streams and for flow streams with suspended solids. thick depending upon the pipe size and pressure.I· .l I Ultrnonlc path o  o o Row '''k!'. they are less accurate than the concentric type. Location of Preasure Taps • The magnitude of the measured pressure differential is obviously affected by the location of the points across the orifice between which it is measured. (After Munk. Types of orifice arrangements. the pressure is measured 2. such as dirty gases or slurries. however. is called the vena contracta. F1ange type: In this type.
Corner type: In this type. . swirls. lO. "... 0 ..1l:J Figure 1011." o' . or cross currents caused by the pipe fittings and valves preceding the orifice meter... K . . /1. Proper installation of an orifice meterrequired meter run and straightening vanes. • <1<0250 t'''IOd Straightening vanes consist of a symmetrical bundle of small diameter tubing.. Pressure prolile through an orifice meter and the relative locations of taps.1 ""'" . courtesy of GPSA.. " " " '" . The use of this design is limited..~ 'ti Ul 1 +°1 8 I ..\[1 1'..."". . "...oca/ion of OrifICe C I. and the length to diameter ratio for the tubes must be greater than 10 (CPSA... E " '" '" '" . welded together in a concentric pattern as shown in Figure 1012. For commercial measurement of gases. Vanes...""".e and l. and between 0.l ~73 ~r 8 1J1 1 ""'" V 1 ""'" r8r1~~ """ vena contracta depends upon the orifice size. The lhiclmc<>S of the orifice plate at the orifice edge ~h(l\lld not exceed ltv! of the g ~i 1' t' ! ..15 and 0.. however..l '" '05 '" OII01"1keIO _ _ oI_ Figure 1012.. '". to some European countries only. 1'. ... /3.'" . 1981).'1 "'~ I 11m Jf5.70 for meters using flange taps. ... shouJd not be used unless abso . and the orifice size chosen depends upon the rate.. clog easily.' 11. lIJJ. 1981). . . '"'". • •• .. . ..."" ". (From Engineering Data BOOk. because they introduce additional pressure loss.67 for meters using pipe taps (CPSA.$ ". . ~~ ~ 1' g tc<~~ . .'. The diameter of each of the tubes should be less than li4 of the inside pipe diameter... •• . such as eddies.. '" • • . . the ratio of the orifice to pipe diameter... should be between 0. the pressure taps are located immediately adjacent to the upstream and downstream faces of the orifice plate. 1"1. '" ... _ _ " .". 1981.. that may affect meter accuracy. Installation of vanes reduces the length of straight pipe required upstream of the orifice considerably. " " " '" " . This type of pressure tap provides greater accuracy because it gives a greater p~ure drop." '" '" '" '" 0 H .. u " " . Straightening \~JJJn  r'F~ ~ _..20 and 0..... ... ..464 Gas Production Engineering Gas Plott: Measurement 465 '.. 4. . . ""'" cj ... for the most part. '" . '" '".. '" 17...) . and are subject to erosion. g ~=~ r """" 8 C:CjH." '" •5 1$.. " " .~ 0...!!it!1 'Yo" I. ""'" 6 . " '" '" . .. .lP :i H U I """ l l'k. Th~ vanes are placed in the upstream section of the orifice meter in order to eliminate any flow irregularities. . '" . lutely necessary..0 . a " c ((I 1' l:n ~8 . ". Si:.. . " .
This is also illustrated b\' the orifiC(' flow equations derived a bit later (Equation 1012 or 1014). Figure 1012 shows the minimum requirements of straight pipe section and/or \'anes recommended by GPSA (GPSA. ft3/lbm v "" fluid velocity. The be110ws meter is preferable because it avoids the problems of mercury contamination. The orifice meter is generally equipped with a twopen recorder for recording both the static as well as the differential pressure on a circular reo cording chart. 1981) for this purpose. The orifice location should be such as to have a stabilized flow to ensure proper metering. = conversion factor relating mass and weight.(' prE'5SUIl' variations are quite substantia! through the flo" path in an orifice meter. 1. and mercury loss and the consequent change in calibration. of water. ftIbf/lbm g = gravitational acceleration. ft/see p = pressure. and no work is done by the flOWing fluid stream.500 psia. Two types of circular pressure recording charts are in common usediredreading charts.. Differential pressure is measured using either a mercury manometer.PI) + P. The directreading chart has a pressure scale with lines spaced equally apart. of water where C .. 100 (9)2 _ 81 psia 100 C'(p. average density P. and multiplying both sides by fluid density p (lbmlftJ).. fttbf/lbm I" = work energy lost due to friction.'Orporating the friction loss term I" in the compressionexpansion term to avoid the complexity of referring to the friction factor. a differential reading of 7 is equivalent to a differential pressure of Differential pressure  C2 I l 'dp+l' & I I p vdvO (104) 1~ (7)2 . 100. it is necessary to measure both the differential pressure as well as the flowing pressure.000. I 1 ' I . Static pressure is generally measured with a bourdon tube type of device that actuates the pen on the chart.\lwwritlg aml Recording Cas is a hi~ly compressible fluid and its density varies considerably with pre<ClIrE'.v for simplicity. the elevation change between points 1 and 2 is zero. Equation 103 can be written as: • 1V dp + l & . pressure from a squareroot chart is determined as follows: Actua 1 pressure meter range . x 100 psi. It is important to choose pressure measuring device.0 2& (105) . SO. Measurement Calculations Preau" .GaI PrlHi!lction Engineering Gas Flow Measurement 467 pipe diameter and lIs of the orifice diameter. ..24. . an empirical constant A£suming a constant. we get: and a static reading of 9 is equivalent to a static pressure of Static pressure . The f1owinlo'(' pressure is often referred to as static gas pressure in gas measurement terminology.vj) . Ibflft2 z = elevation above a given datum plane. The chart itself has a pressure scale on it to enable reading the measured pres. the common chart ranges are from 0 to: 100. written between two points in the flowing stream~point 1 bein1! some point upstream of the orifice plate. .. ft WI '"' shaft work done by the fluid on the surroundings. for a squareroot chart with a range of SO in. or 200 in. (v. Therefore.dv + I. Therefore. (chart readmg)100 The relationship for orifice meters can be derived from the general energy equation (see Equation 72). 20.I" lI (k I &c I (103) where V "" specific volume of the fluid. ft/sec2 g. or 2.~ures that it records continuously. we get: For example. and point 2 representing the orifice throat: ~ 1 2 g 2 ·Vdp+l vd\'+1 dzw. Ibmft/lbfsec2 For most meters. whereas for static pressure. 500. or a bellows meter. The common chart ranges for differential pressure are from 0 to: 10. Recau<. and integrating Equation 104. whereas the squareroot chart records the square root of the percent of the fullscale range of the meter. .5 in. 250. that can handle about twice the maximum anticipated pressures.0 Il1<. and squareroot charts.
0270 (1.0305 00311 0.0414 0.0382 0..051>2 00451 0.(471) 0.0)15 0.02116 O.1 . .0245 '''' .0238 00118 00197 0028D 0.SOl 0.'" .0296 0.101 OOlM 00371 0014O 00341 0.0264 0. r.41 O.0S64 0.0278 0.0296 00211) OOll' 0.01]7 0.0221 00211 0..0892 I) n7A~ (I (lOOIIJl 00701 0.06l6 0..0256 0.OS6J 00S6l 0.250 " 10000 100250 10.0358 0..038.osn 00540 0.0254 0024~ 00240 0.0249 0.125 1.05117 00)89 0.01911 0." '" .04111 00'51 GO4&] G.0354 00332 00312 00294 0."" '.0)116 0.7SO O.0401 o.0l16 OOj)8 0. 'J.' .0243 0. 0.0321 00328 oom 0.D'll7 0.0232 0.SOl 4.0271 0.0370 0.]75 'SOl 1).1 0.] OD66S 0.0416 0.!ioM 101Y.062() 0060 00]00 00110 00314 00342 0.0151 o.034) 00)66 0.0226 0.0274 00174 0027'9 0.0]16 00291 0.(10169 0.OIN 0.0375 0.0338 00618 0.01<).0610 0.0207 0.01110 0.osn 00)2() 0.0241 O. 0.~I"'.0275 00281 00155 0."" .175 16n 1.175 '" .0296 00218 0 026J 002S0 oom 002:Ml 0..0204 0.OS74 OOS35 Oos..0496 0.115 ''''' .053& 0.()307 0. 0.l 0..OM 0025J o.0163 0.G'IB 0.02f>J 0.(1463 0G418 0.G491 00441> 0.Olto7 ODJ43 0.0SQ2 O0S67 I) I) 10$4 1).O)n 0.02911 0.0J62 00B7 0.7SO S.0218 0.0706 007lJ (1.0449 95b1 10.Q5.O?ll1 00705 0.SOl S.OXW O~ 0.0178 00179 0.04118 0.750 1.0501 0.om O.0)0 o.0+408 0.0579 o..02':10 00295 0.OHO 0.OJIIJ 0.0248 00244 0.0213 0..03119 00353 0.136 11376 11.0222 0.01'>6 OOllO 00308 002117 O.0714 O.0221 0.1047 O.0543 OOS14 0.I 0.0742 0.!21 0.0254 0..02S4 0..0214 0. '''' '.Dt>W 0.0621 00527 0047') 00640 0.0652 00656 0.0183 00191 00202 0.376 11.019<1 (1.OID 0.138 0.0467 00461 00436 00413 0.625 'SOl .0254 00223 0. 1.(471) 0.625 l."" "" oam • 8.0429 0(1402 0.0414 00469 0.0271 0."" H25 3.om 00)2' 0.Cr.04911 0.0473 0.0J25 00206 G. 0D4~7 IH1418 0.0314 0.(1174 O.04'iO 0.(1475 00495 0.OS)} 0.0391 00418 0.0)59 0. 0.0654 0.02117 00300 0.0500 O.SOl o.04]] 0. 1125 1315 003811 I) O()44. 2.O}J2 o.OlOll 0.0218 0.0219 0.0612 006111 00419 0.0561 01)137 00430 0816 1).250 '''' 'SOl '''' 00l6e 00)90 0.0301 0.0659 00427 0046l 0.0]].0391 00370 0. DeterminationFlange Taps Onl.wn 0.0214 0020tl 0.06tI0 '''' 2.00t12 0.01016 000402 0G42S 0044' 0.0218 0.'" 3. 0.0489 00501 00526 0..0295 0.0278 0.soo S.0385 I) (1474 OlW7<I D_OOS 00439 00l'J9 01J.7SO .0217 0039& 00Jl\& 0.0457 00416 O.0446 O.0406 0.00tl' 00455 0.0305 00308 I) • 5.om 00300 00195 GO)i6 00}15 0.Ob2J 0361 ().0612 o 0S04 0052) 0.(l)()4 00297 S"" S..02M .027.Ob(4) .0283 0.0517 00602 0_Ob19 Q.0455 0.0261 00251 0." 0." 0336 0_0318 O.0lfit> 0.i~l .02l1 00212 0.020 10136 11. .0230 0.0500 00452 0.04G6 0.(1174 o.0626 0.0224 0.0Sb0I 0.0221 oons 0.0578 00645 Q. 3.0221 0.02~9 0.0513 00521 1..02'13 002&7 00151 (10343 00322 0.750 .0244 0.'" '.os.0)36 0.0410 O.000 15250 " " 0.0458 0.0434 0.0S69 0.QS22 O.0185 0.0111 0.:!4 0.0196 (1.0442 O.9)4 11090 146&& 15.0206 00193 001.0)62 00351 00220 0G435 00390 00179 0.02)11 0..04Ob 00436 0G4611 0.01J4 00354 0.75(1 2.05lJ O0J4S 00]54 OO}72 00398 00430 0..05<)4 O.025) 00241 0.071 00852 01)7'.0367 0.1lf>53 0.(1.'" .027':1 0.OSl1 0.'" .05117 D_OIIl!O 0.02()7 00277 0.02JO 0024(0 0.0214 0.021\1 0.om 0.]75 2.0505 0.0112 O. ""'" S.05:Mio o 06M 0.""" .0322 0.0907 I) 077<.0S09 0052t1 0.0271 0.0"71 0. . • '''' 0.031$ 0.5 0.0445 0.0517 0G47J 0.0492 oosn 0.0302 0.0551 O.0'>92 00597 0.02&8 0.0206 001911 00195 001% 0(1202 O.0114 0.0262 0.0361 0.. 00520 OOS57 00718 1).'" 2125 'SOl '''' .250 ''''' 'SOl 001l)} o.750 '.476 G(U Production Engint't'rlng Gas Flott: Measu rement 477 Table 103 Continued " b " Values for Reynolds Number Factor F. 00178 0. 0.oln 001710 0.0670 00671 0.040£> 0.0217 '''' .0242 O.0650 0.osn 0.(1566 1).02M 0.Q6jl 0.040'.'" 0.0377 0..06]1 00676 O.4 0076) Q.02'9 oom 0.03SO 00J5ll 0.0507 00S4fl 00589 0.0606 0.017& 00176 00110 002211 00210 001% 0.0371 00558 0.0)50 0.06&1 0.02)7 3.03}6 0.0151 0...0401 0.0527 O.0124 0.0f.02()1 0 0254 0.0270 0.0404 0.1 0. "" .01>70 I) 07}4 1).125 .1 00250 0.0229 0.125 ''''' 3.04n 00416 OOS97 0.0S55 00560 0.0216 G.038.041>1 00291 O.01117 • SOl ~7SO S"" 0.034b 0.0467 0.().0200 0023<> O.0511 0.OSOO 00457 DOno 0.9II 005IIII 11.0219 0.0327 .0417 00S60 0.0526 O. Determination_ Flange raps Table 103 Continued " b" Values lor Revnolds Number Factor F..am G.0510 0.1 0.oJS4 0.0]65 0.OS7& 0.0243 0.1 0.0540 0.9lII 12090 lHIIII " " 15000 15.0173 00160 001l1li 0.0615 0.ce DI..021\1 00281 0.0271 0.4 00462 004'316 0.0673 0.0212 0.OJOO 0.0363 O.(l3ro 0.0541 (table continued) .0239 0.QSooIO 0.OSOO 1).0210 0022' 00240 0.0581 0.0251 00246 0.(4).OI!'J.0&60 DOb7b 0.03()(.. .4()() 00569 O.OlOJ 0.~ 0~2 2125 1).ce o.0114 0.0)53 0.0285 00277 001&6 0.0191'1 0.(1307 0.0213 00211 0.375 2.'" 0.019') 00514 0.02711 00lf.0519 (1.if.055'1 .0273 00255 00251 O~ 00265 OOM O.0239 0.0529 00502 004'& 0G452 O.0427 0.erlJl 0.0219 0.11'S UD) 'W .0111 00212 0...Q6O.0347 OIl}44 I) 0J61 I) 0375 0_0403 I) 00119 00501 005111 O.0422 00399 0. .om 0.0635 0.SOl 1.0017 O.0252 0. .0034 0.OS73 00461 000lllS 0.~1 0.OS5J 00}12 0.Ge90 O.0214 0...057') 00615 ODM7 0.0212 0.0259 0. .020II O.02601 • .0438 0.189 S_~1 .03711 O.0401 0.0111 002911 0.0257 00276 ODIn 0..G4la 0.0289 0028.0718 00f02S Q.soo 1.026J 0.0235 0.0255 0000' 0046l OOO} 00S2l o OSSO 0.02Jl 0.0)16 0.0365 OOlll 00319 00146 0.0501 0.0443 0.022) 00216 0.0]95 00344 O_OlD ij.0620 0.055) 00505 00578 OOS11 002~ 0.0245 00240 0.0216 0.315 2625 2.0]66 0./O " 10.02112 0..05J9 000t97 00417 0..0]9(.O)M 00)99 D04H OO<Ul 00464 0..315 "'" •.SOD 10750 11000 11.)15 '''' 00479 0.02901 0.0214 00226 O.
substituting R '"' 10. .»2. Converting to commonly used pressure units of psia (lbf/in..) psla ..p.c..p. Equation 109 becomes: (1011) p~" A~ m' [~_ ~l.. T.gas gravity (air _ 1) P. qp): m _ Let d j and d 2 be the diameters of the pipe and the orifice... (62.~ is in oR.average gas compressibility factor Note that in Equation 1014.(144)(12) where . .ft/lbfsed) (lO.pressure differential in inches of water.~ is in psia.43 Ibmi£t')(g fusec')(&h in. and Z. as: 62.73) (109) m .2(144)g.468 Cas Product/on Engilleerillg Gos Flow Measurement 469 Equation 105 uses pressure p in Ibfl ft2.CA [2(144)g.C'(P. (1013) Using the gas law. which is related to the mass flow rate m in Ibm/sec as fol· lows (m . Equation 106 can now be expressed. for which the mass flo\\rate is constant.. TIC .. (I Il') 0'. . Equation 1014 is commonly expressed as: 1'. the gas density P.) .)'] . AT P ••' p.average pressure. 520 oR.>sP" "h m . R .. (144 in.717. ...p.." we obtain: q.6. as follows: (106) (PI The mass flow rate.. can be expressed as: (1010) Using Equation 10·13 in Equation 1012..  K. in inches. using the relation . up.97)(14.)f' .2) and rearranging.97 h.p .j' where A .RT. {3. is given by: m _ p...43)g.t/ftt){12 in.96 Cd! J" ['h ~... we obtain: (28. N . • Using standard conditions of PM: .dl [ (1. are dimensionless. Defining /3 .T..6.. and C.97)(62..6..h)/~..p.. Using Equations 10·10 and 1011.p.pg(. P.h . Ibm.P"(P' . respectively. oR Z..A 0'. p.. q.000)(520)R >. (28. is generally expressed in terms of inches of water.73 psia...q. psia T•• ..p. d 2 is in inches./A. .) (108) Gas flow is generally reported in terms of the flow rate q.) The pressure differential.Z.C'(p..) (28.. in scf/hr at standard conditions.J f' (1012) m' Aj [I (A.h is in inches of water. we get: vi  vi _ 2(144)g. m (Ibm /sec).73 psiaft31 Ibmole_oR. 7. .152)(144)(12)(1 _ ff')Z.. and the fact that ~ .. This conversion can be achieved.6... (1014) where "f.gas COnstant q.000) z.C'(p. is in sef/hr. (3./ft)(g. PI .dz/d j • and solving Equation 108 for m: m . I.RT.. and solving for cp.average temperature.(3. cp.crosssectional area of flow. (t 2 This analysis assumes steadystate flow conditions. wate. ["h p"J" (1015) .43 "h (p.14. .2(144)g." [(Ill'h.
4 U)75 . ..1&2 n(../7 IIOII. and for the type of pipe tap. 2 1272. '"' differential pressure at 60°F.~ '"'V . .ce DumM .S98 11)..~ n •• 11). In metering practice.temperaturebase factor Ftf . is given by: Table 102 Flange TapsBule Orifice FactorsF b line tempe. or being measured as the mean of upstream and downstream static pressures." ...11 aro5~ 9(16.(.:a.." "''' 21172 210). "''' lSl'" 11l.)75 .0 2511.74 JIJOO2 451. ..5 2005..15 1l .72 S]l.oe DLomet"..~ . 1..02 nT OJ "5" "6 11 92407 71419 81'41 921..orifice thermal e:tpansion factor These factors. ...1R" llIJt. For sizes that cannot be found in these tables....~ "'" ". ..~ . 1.ri1 ." 15].] llt191 10021 1541.IS ..m !II!.flowing temperature factor F~ ..1 5(1 25e ...981 B071 • 18m llZ75 ~ ISlItJ 10119 ....14 SSV'2 6S1J.. Fb can be obtained from Tables 102 and 107 for flange taps and pipe taps." 2OJ..n a." ." ))5. 14. 26'\049 2)1.0 h.n 1149S ~n ~.~ .14 for two pressure tap typesflange taps and pipe taps. 5..ll 6lun 1Il'i1>4 IJOII.." 2001 (101 "'~ 2Dlll 2511. .0 m..m o.lre ." 7 1270." ~.0 1m) no...7a Sll.1 11 ..S 161J'J.foc .gauge location factor F. .supercompressibility factor Fm .] 1405." "W6 1291 a 14H 5 IS11l 1 1700 (I 1727.! ~ S61SIJ 66H2 m.~ M'W 2S(>]1 Fp.'>1 m. .1 1&1].. nU2 .56 ISS..IPr  "h.e .73 ps.9:)9 12701 :u.1ll 1174S lIS BJ '"~ )154/1 }&2 ..ded to account for this Pf being measured at the upstream Or downstream. sci/hr F'. "" U" .~ 1m" 11'!171 2875 .S lID 2 _...2 2174.18 311. ..5) 219'9 .. in Equation 1015.....lJ2 . 1 "5J 9 lrH 1'1514 lU(l~ . 2.689 12MS 1I~~. 11&29 l<W11 1621~ .' 11..s OJ SUO) f>.SO IS1. 6O"f ~ flowm. "M "16'1 m~ . ~'" I1H2 lS7 U 7"" 50)56 so.' SO)I] . llH6 ~~ ".37 J'JI 'P 071.1 (tablc continI/cd) ..70) in. =.625 . .7 1)11.rimly .98 SOl 16 ~" 25995 lB.I 1'1(\" 8 lOIb4 217& S 2':"11 NISI 154S] If>'JH 1143. .J~ on 7'i 5'0116 6lHl .]<I . IS1.~ 50197 n.n 10)1» 1151..5 20ns 2571tJ 119.12 "'~ Jl7J'J 4/1).Jl 100le 2S1 ri1 111..specific gravity factor ". 11(1017 2." . 5." • '''' "" 12.01 1051.1 ...5 U<M J9109 4T. 114 71 lal r 454 57 _v 4H.. and the pipe and orifice diameters.]1 1OOl'J lSJl>'J 11l." p..p. '\()'j 65 roU7 670"" l'/HIG 9]0.~ . • .~ .W 50W " wt (1016) 1~W. Factors are prm..f 2S9(101 111 OJ 7a~ lUro ISS.50 ISS.. n...OJ 0.1.9 l'.r" a. 212 '7 SO S21 " )11 liS I~ lsa'7 no 22 50 OIS where h.pressurebase factor FIb . M'.9S 61761) 7Il'J.fl .'852J III 1] 1'\04.~ .:aJ&.U ..6 2182.7 O.Reynold's number factor Y ... v 1027. Orifd .7a lIJ006 4Sl. lSS )1 112 .aTu..470 eaoS Production Engineering Gas Flow Meollurement 471 where the constant K. 6O"f lIue p.r' lI~. "'" 11101 0 . 7 21J51 "'.manometer factor (for mercury manometer) Fl .Inc: .& 911...(. psia and the constant K is expressed as a product of several different factors follows (AGA.basic orifice factor. .K [h.8 Ilia 0 1&12. respectively.0'1 lW'J5 219.e ." Pr .~ »OM It'. the average pressure P..m. Its va lue depends upon the type of pressure taps.21l'j .125 2. &1212 .71O a~" 3438 12....lS llJ...~ "" . • HI68 3152 1l. . '''' .000 50m 110090 117. 517 " ~P) 4!it191 4!it116 .rJ SO 1&1 78.~ a..'fi 6n no" &I.6 ~ 91J all 111lS.o197 .9J... lemperJIU.1>4 10256 """.17 SO o<.~lq 2067 ')00 lZ.. determined through extensive tests and reported for use as the industry standard by ACA.]<I 9loCUS ""1'!1 10W5 lUS·O olin 1701(.~.n .761 ''''' . Equation 1015 is then written in the following form: q." IS) III ISl:'l . 2 1.$) ~:U4 10'111.~ 5 The factor Fb is simply the constant K.4 U4/1 a l250a lWJ8 1lI0II1 Z. are given in Tables 102 through 10..)1> 1.1:'1 • 7.18 .] 12881 102&.us . "'.. " &I "''' "''' ~ SO) 61 BI19 W .hl J8'i1OJ 066.n 50 ~" ro ).)1'5 1091... interpolation is (text continued Oil page 4. ...e'ss. . .absolute static pressure of the flowing fluid.~ lHI7 1~f.06 103&1 119\19 (IOli) where Fb .. inches of water l." 1001 • 1147. nN 11271 IS1"'" ~...3 1002.J lOOU lIn 9 lJ499 r. is replaced by a measurable gauge pressure Pt... .S 1891' ~.91 151.1tJ J9S 80 017..'" 5(1. .llS .... . Spec:. 1969): il.\ U..il.500 a blS o. 0 SUetNomiw and I'IIbliWcIlns. ".'.~ U"' :'lOll III 011 ISO 27 . : .expansion factor Fpb .m 1.~ SSl Jl 6047.7 1'15~ "..2S0 unl 1lI~'~ am 11)99 156 00 lOS II 1271l U71111 12 ~ .6 2011.
0270 0028& 0.ln99 0.OJ44 " " 19.:4 o.0 0.02bO 0.01)1 00128 00126 O.0232 00214 0(1199 001U 00176 00167 (10161 0.0125 Oln24 O. accounts for the change in gas density with the pressure changes across the orifice.D1W1 0.0348 00355 Q.0114 001. and Ym fo r static pressure recorded as the mean of the upstream and downstream static pressures.01116 00140 0011'1 00140 0.0169 00274 002" 0.1 0.1 0..500 16.0141 0.0530 00S15 00435 0045& 0.0175 00281 0..05'r 0.0187 0.000 2.0226 0.Q2W (1..03$5 0.0181 00174 0 DIM 001'.SIIO 19.0592 00490' 0 0499 O..0387 0.on4 0.04b8 0. (text continued 011 pagc 489) .0394 003&5 0.(1448 0.050] 004'.0195 00199 0.ODl 0.0662 0.0160 00165 00172 001110 110190 00201 0.000 ~.'54'l !lotH 0.0319 0.().02+1 00494 0.Olll2 001"4 00153 001411 0.0479 0.2(.02.ln26 0.021] 0.. These tables indicate the pressure tap from which the absolute static pressure PI is measured.)6(' 0 (16. 2].0~99 14. As with F" an average h".0161 00165 DonI 0.on5 o.0147 0.0241 00230 00223 001).0)97 0061J 00596 00579 00562 0..0511 O.0129 0.0133 0.0176 0.U'l O~ 0!.0578 O.0423 O.000 19250 0. 3125 3250 3.0157 00155 0..1..0395 00378 00361 00345 00129 00..0111 0.000 16.0'118 OOW'I 0.014] 00146 0.0207 0.0339 (10511 0. .O)3J 00~2. l' "'" 8.Ob14 00618 006.49 11.G464 0. 10.03M 0027'.02)6 (I.om 0. Pf should be used . .().75(1 "'" 2500 .0175 o.0271 00215f1 O.500 17.0266 0.IHOS 0.0571 0 0bl6 n(. nso '500 77SO 0. 001'(11 0(1190 (10179 0.0141 0..0146 0.1).on6 (1.0418 0.0165 0.03]1 001&! 0.OW 0. It is computed assuming a reversible adiabatic expansion of the gas through the orifice.Olt15 0.?SO . 0.0156 0. and the specific heat ratio (Op/c.6.0264 002t10 0.01&1 00187 O.02'n 00296 001911 0..0169 0.0145 004')4 00435 00474 OOlU 0.0)06 0. DeterminationFlange Taps OttfOCI! .0/.0153 0.0101 00166 0.049 0.0 O.'" S.0451 O. and 106 for flange taps.0312 6500 "'" ~ooo 00212 (10287 O.315 3500 3625 3.0S09 0.0145 Oong 0..0367 0.0500 0.02811 Oro31 0.\14 0.0)73 0.02.0126 0.".111>46 O.0152 0.0402 0.OllS 00124 11.0320 0.om 00186 0.03hO (1.I() 0ClM4 " 0.28 29..0196 00190 00126 0. .02~ 002304 0.01)(1 00216 0.0429 00103 00616 0.0191) 0.500 15.0161 O.l! 0.147 0. The expansion factor can be obtained from Tables 104.I)7 0.113(14 0.0219 0. 2.500 0.0141 00136 001)2 00126 0.OHO 0.02'if> 00249 0.0511$ 00592 0.8 0.0146 0.0261 0.0312 0.0667 0 OWl O.0462 0..(1525 0.0111) 0.000 1."" VSO "'5 J .0192 0.0424 0.0546 0.0297 0(1304 O.0542 0.01112 0. the ratio of the differential pressure to the absolute pressure.tl(.500 .500 21.0219 o. • .04S5 0.om (1021.0360 O.Oill 0.0122 00328 O.010II 0.0125 00114 (text l'Onlinued }rom page 475) Expansion Factor.0297 0.0150 0.7S0 11000 11.0296 0..000 00'.DoW) 00426 0. .0659 o OSI>J 0 OSM 0.1ll26 0.05$7 (1.0llD 0.0450 O. .!45 00127 O.0210 0.0164 o.lnn 0.om 0.0155 (10157 00160 0.051(..750 3.000 5750 6000 6250 00285 O.O.01.05.01'M> 00lS7 0020II (10112 0.0179 0.l6() 00433 00407 0.0296 0.0423 (10107 00520 (1.". the type of taps.OlSa 0.Q.0J82 0.0154 0.0431 0.0382 0(1359 OOlli 00311.6 0014'1 0.0250 0. Y.0358 0.26 0..0252 00257 00260 0017~ OOll6 0.0220 0.05N 0.Gas Produl't/(m Erlgiflcerirlg Gilt Flow MellSllrement Table 103 Continued " b " values 10r Reynolds Number Factor F.0194 O.0590 0.OJ9O 0. Y2 for downstream . 105.0157 00520 00512 0..0349 0.0170 00161 0.0340 OOJJ2 0.OS31 005111 0.500 18.K1oI 0..0429 004'20 0040B 00267 00255 002411 00142 0.0370 0.00:> 10250 10. 0.000 17.0125 The expansion factor.on~ 001611 001f>l 00157 00155 001504 00155 00153 0.0161 0.000 • 5W 4750 0.0415 00400 0.M]S 0041'1 0.0170 00161 00157 001'>4 001$3 0.02(}1 (I.0155 0.0475 00467 0.{l6.01>08 0.0.875 4.0111 0."" 0011>9 00177 001116 (10196 0.l4'1 0.01lS 00177 0.Ob~2 0037f> 0.101 o (l2i5 00252 (1.0153 0.0118 0.0155 00lla 00118 00211 1I.OIH 0OH2 0. and Tables 109 and 1010 for pipe taps.0160 0.011fo 0.1 0.0213 0.0.W'I O.01411 0.0631 00b}4 00411 0().0&42 0.1250 2116.us ..11 0.SIIO 10.OlOe 00117 00210 0.~ 0 OS11 00471 0().QOC 19250 116.on5 0..0127 0.0310 00]76 0..1ll3) OOllO 00128 OlnU 0012S O.0204 O.0470 0.0155 0.0163 (1.020'.0)22 0.0142 00141 0. S250 SSOU 0. 0.0)70 0.OJOS 0..0].051)4 00486 0.044& 0.143 O. 18814 19. and is a function of f3.0154 0.OD (1.YI for upstream.(1460 0.lnl& 0.01&2 0.(1191 0.0511 0.01~5 O.044& 0.l 0.1l665 0(166') 0.OI~l 001~1 o.0154 0.0455 0.0209 0.MB (1.0485 0.0492 0G4/1S 12500 !looo 13500 14000 00451 0.011>9 0.0493 0.015'1 001$1 0.02G4 (I.O:W.1n]9 0.0200 O.250 .\7)' 0048l 00551 12000 0.J7S ~ .0426 00466 0.0195 0018) ODIn 18.0366 0.14 00W7 0.82 005&6 00550 00534 00S18 004&8 O().02S4 00260 00UI8 0.0150 0. Determination_Flange Taps Table 10·3 Continued "b" values for Reynolds Number Factor F.0144 0.0557 0.0365 O.0SI>2 0 0b44 00&4'1 0.01&6 00172 001110 00190 00201 0.OJl} 00376 0.06.0355 0.) for the gas (generally ignored).0273 0.(1601 0.0502 OOJ'M> O.(10134 0.04&3 00454 0 DoW2 0.ln66 00176 0.0150 00151 0.0412 O.16 0.0141 0.0474 00457 O.0255 0.0144 0.0126 0.OllS 00119 0.t<.01111 0.023& (10241 0 DIn 0.0 00140 00141 00143 0.0471 0028J 0.0J03 00204 00191 0.04]0 00414 0.
125 russ lUll .11'.JO_I '.9 S.55> 15. 112 8) 2&.• 4. .565 1l.0150 U]14 1.61»8 HoSt..0 1. w ~E 10.0 1.0371 l. II(MI) 45110 J"" mn ~" 90UI 1.7 1.61 1.Ul' l.7 "'"z un 1.a.D'll.~ "097 10112 1.07 12.$51.291> 16.19J ~ 1. ~..761 =. 2. H2O I U377 3.~ 6.4>5.te .. 12...' 1.'" "" U)"."50 .s1l lS.72'1 13.1.5 2.1811 1 Hill SIon) 6.I.7'S ..~.9101.000 23 250 211.28 It 1.l'JOl un 1.1J1 5 1.5 H.. 27_51>7 :!'J. 0 1.tio'2 1l..213 11m.09'. .2SO 9.U7S H271 "'" ].toM.ml l_HU UIU H3117 1.0 ".1.SOt 1'. "" . 11. ""2. 1. lln.0'14' It"'" 1 H1'" 5.019.0 '.7 "n .~ 1.~ "" "" ..111.9607 2.41 11]7(./ 4 .1M! '..6bO 14.s.14.'1b2 1.68<17 )..').5 ~.579..7'.1)1 S l_no.19002 I..00.lOS .' =..226.U1 11. 78)11.On ~.:1082 21411 US77 l.600 . 1.tio'l ..260.6/J6 2 2.~' I... 1.8 .6S6 HS'l' 11). 9.'mi' \... 2.511 IS.021 1 Uti} I 1. .m3 22111_ Hlt18 2.1.6 10...0 UV.0\' 8 l.151) 5.5168 I. .~ _.21tZ5 '. .1O'J0 1.821>..~ '..SSO.' SOW' 6.9 D'Jmele'.m.071 'I '.SJa.1151 ".0 .111' /t..U4S '.217 \ .0\IS_8 .ml1 '.S26S !.190 'OWI 11.712..1J 12.1 1.14•. n'n 1001.'.3 6.' '..1)1:0.~ "" uon l.6675 Hm. '10 ~~ =~ ..son .1.9'27 16.60'1 11._1 2. ].) • 2.64iO.1 Hnl.11tS s.l'i6.. • ..~ .1I00I 11m 11.\leS 18. ..QZ7S . """ 1..4&5.S ..46..' 1.nl 10..5191 1.0 .b09 11~ " 12090 9..~ 2.410 UlIIJ ).000 " 15.1t2'I.OO9 &'ISH .''''' I.bla 27.~ J1llO ~" 451 "'" m" .lA lS.meter Inch_ 18814 90511 !.. ".102& n.. ~ .''''\ Ul11 I.. ._' .O 62'11>6 Ul'.'.1Jb 1 USH I.~ .~ 1.505 11_938 9.IIl!' 1.tol9 5.110 28.0 I.8 .6 4.' UII 1 '.' I."..S167 1.• 2 .1 I.~ "" .111'" '.'11>0 I '_'iI6J .u_ 2.0911.'>195 5.• \.(00 10.10.0 .211> • ' .26(1.tio'\ 6 40'J0& '.&415 '''' 'm 2.~'S la..otS' 4 !.5230 1.1 ."." =.Jll_ 6.~ ~'" 2.5 un] 7.0 1.." .8 8.").ll7 11 381 B.111>1..638 ) •.HI.0 2.640."" 13.1). 0. Ul5 2 10. J.l 5.no.60 11.1~7 1 153M '.8 Hj1J UUl ).210.on4 1.~.".:zs.".136 10.llO. 1.6611 7 1. ] 146 1 ~. ) 1.111.0 l. '"~ '~1 72 5)0 ~7 'n UljO }11. .n 'U'IoI ~n "' .')4 Jnes .\81> II 5.JIII..m .551.182 5.1.."".~ .l3&.o _ 1..1101 •.noo '_112 It U81' !. . 2 S.\066.l1S' ~I<'4i un) '''''I •. use] 1..~9' 3. OrirKe o..0215 '11'12 U6)4 91024 1.0912.8'19 ll.~ "" .5l1! a 5..ll'l 110'~ 15.JII).3111>..~e.MS 5 1.0lI07 1.Q6 5.136 l'i) 11.2 1...81lS .67S9 UgH 1.7. 0.s..n8 ) 1.l 1..' 5. 22_626 23..)91.1115 1.0 I.!IE. ~' usn 9. 1.QU.0 '.3 5. \.'H7 2.&\<.1.000 11.'" "" 11M) ltlU lJ6H ~.611/1 9.&06.0lI0 ].\ .~ Uf>oIS 1.ll1 b 19_000 19250 ~~ ~.1267 '.97(..]4.~ 1.~ S.' S.628 29..1441..710 _.124 a 2.~ VS)_l D2S1 2.J90 " 10.~ ~ .\c.1S28 1...0 l.C/20 " 10.090 14688 15000 " 10. 2.m) 1.111)1 6.1280 un.l1li1.ln 7 1.ns 5 6.' 1.826 ...015_1 "'" 1.! 3<135. Vll) 1._S . 2..7 S.ilia 1..'16 ~..)1]6 1.801U .171. l).':i05 • '''' .671 • 1.15611 '''' .1:". .092 I ' .01'.~. l.6126 '260. 'IS 451 ".56J.~ .01.~ HI2/> a ].ll' 1 1.141 19.WoS 2 1.·.~ "" ".b07) ).QOj.S17. (0 '.9'lU 1>"'. 4.0 "" ..1'" ..711 lB.. 4.2 '.mO.'" . B'" H25 I.1 5.:m.n:.2&1 _ UI'S 1.409 11.781.JlJ I 6.'~l5 2_~8 "" .~ .b 1. J_' ].1 5.5 ].2 1.~ .1>13 U815 15190 1...9&11 .BJ.'" u.~ .11 Oro(.IIQIJ 1 "" ~'n . ]r<l6S 2731.DIIO..~ ..nc 451.117.110 J un.6lI." • 5. 10. OrifICe Di~lTH'ter .'" "'''' .1b ~~ ].n .lli'! 9 1. 5.0911 '.0'10 1 Ul41 )...204 1 '.' .~ .1>01>1> 1.~ .531 ) I.. 1.7JOI 14.0 1.071.MS4 U6'1t 1._4 1...7 lUI.56041 S.~ .an."ItoO 15. 18./I'J7.29II_' S.2 '.962 lU169 12.434 B .38' 5 I._ 0 10.'!Wi' ..670.~ 'IIV_' HI'S . " •. '.9 7.'~J 1.' 1.~ ..015 I 1.ll. 1.71\2 7.l18.m' 2.HO' 1. ''''' .~ .~ "''' ..472 Table 102 Continued Gas Flow Measurement Table 102 Continued Flange TapsBasic Orifice FactoraFb 473 Flange Taps. 1.D 7.1 0.1062 5.\1 1 6M) ~. 5)0 63 61611 'IS'II) ~" " m ..0 1.'119 5.O ).11'11 1.6601 ..5&U 6.6711.0 I.' 6._ 1).\' '.1.040.5 '.0191 ).O)I' U1'I4 1.6IcII 7 1.151' 5.1)02 .1 l.431...011..m .W" 1. lUJO 22.9(.0:'15 ..8l'I....Mt1.S una H.m.\ .66Sl I.8 31411 l~li ~" ~.1lJ 9 1 .91. . 1.b070 l.' 2.(.151> 17.. .14110 4.8 1.7 1."9.OJI • 5..a7.1]6 .))"..It _ 61136 1>611'2 1.S61.6Jl 16.~1 • '..1121.10891 7.176 11':1311 12...U .2 7.. . ~~ m" 11)').• n 1. .5 6.) 151B 8 t.II0H.145.. • 3. .5 ). 5)o.61>01 a 1.1t105 • &.n15} 1.0 ~1$81 "'~ ~y blS.ll?.• •• 1 2.8 5.9 2.• 2.IISoI6 1.II 1O.2Sl5 5.7 lnBl .J1.250 25.' '.01110 '.'901' 6. .1l1 . "'" .~ un."'"'./..S60 11>.4Itll 1.] 2.SM.' 24"' • 2.7110 7.10 • 1.s 5.."" '...6 1.9JO 22.2&\5 2.'lI'c06 '.140. a 1.. 1'' "''' .)'15.l I. . """ "".Basic Orifice Factors Fb Onfice o.119] 1.7 I.000 29_250 • ._flWt.'''.141 lin ..1660 1. l.' 2.Wlb 1~IU Ua6' LID' I.2S26 1.~ ..JU~ .1 . 1.no 19.7JO 16..]55 11.11U It.r.'" )1«1.11J..~ . 2...otS7.6 910 )/J 1.Dl n.' 4. .M).110 S 10.Ill1J '.4lI04 10.654 I I.0lI0' '117} 8_f35.0)1.~4 1.P9 (table contilllll'dl .1 1512.281. 6541 I 1240.01'9 1.519 1].5S15 6.S52 22..1'2_1 S. I.0Ib.1Z'l1 1 :l'I2 6 1...5f.564 10.~. ).1 . 1 I.1121.Z '..1>4 2 I.500 1• .lns 1.. 0111 8 ' ..(1207 )119 B 1.. .~ lHIOO 1O..' 1.s1>6 1'.7 5.2 1.l607 I.M.' H'lIII' 2.) 1..J ..'576 T..0025 5..044 S 5. Hl6" '.~ .278' '. 'S.." " 9 .711 ".95.2201> l.1 55.6'JII4 Lilli.~1 .11 6.(109 !.11061 \.l ..11.114' a 8. usa 5 ). 7 9111 In.
'()01 11..bJl '. Il... These tables do not .767 ".. 1969) must be used.45/1 ll.n ~..0618 0..17' 21U9Ib 21.2 . [h" Pff 5.. ".3lO It.04511 0. lS.68') ."'" 9.5>7 .24' lJ.01>46 0.® 15.1>'n 2!l.00 .'12] .lo1l11D ".568 '».A b 1II..Wl '50) '65 51. respectively.0470 0.on5 0.o .OOO 7...~'il IHlOl IH. .0474 o. 114S9 I]On 2J.0 22.'1 11 2'>0 17WJ 11 29.)75 .06II 12. IHOO 35. and is often neglected.I !'..4t>l J~ 001 2'I.6l1> " \Ml 20 OJO /1 IF 2lJ1t> 1)....l4J !2 .1~ 27.817 24. temperature equal to 60°F.1(15.M • ~100 10000 101<.0516 0. ) Il eos lH>6S 1S.5% 1(..140 ". IncMt ". ~ 1+ f'i~ 25.OSOS 0. '"' lS.)& 11116 11..n.2001.429 29.'1n' .'IS(! . " II 500 .mdfr).0524 00574 0.08&1 19)9 2.1111 111611 12.2 9. . • • 2'100 1068 01010 006:16 00695 0058) 004911 00433 00402 O. '" 11.A8 17. "9'1 !'i. in gas measurement l~ quite small.50) 1.114 86.0624 1152 0.11>1 18.017 71510 ''''' '.)86 This factor accounts for the variation of the orifice discharge coefficient with Reynold's number.1)62 'I.I..no .show the value of F. o.025 Il.76t.. 11M 15.II> '00 25.11> 12.0506 0.107.9Jt. Production Engineering Table 102 Continued Flange TapsBasic Orifice FactorsF b JO '8..0B44 0070J 00591 00504 0.9S'1 l~lbS 19.915 I) 9.0679 0.2'10 21.1ST J9.'JI!fj 8.0441 0040J 0.l' m '~~l' 11 ~ 12 .nNomin..082 ".0471 0.250 7.10 '9059 I.911 11. the variation in F.M lHOO SS.. .257 If>4'1'l 27..ol 149Jl Ib. . 'eI! 17.06b9 0.0515 0..0<.>19 IBll 14.1>.0 I SOl 17'.0735 2(. 09'> '5005 l'i.0485 0.9'.012 '.7011 JI. bll.1114 11.0121. 10 OM 1'(\ 71o!1 92441 9 'lSl1 '06ll6 11. . have a general applicability to all sy!.0196 0.9 x 10 6 Ibm ftsec.28J )5.II..0707 0.'951.068S 0(lf.1030 0.971 1l.t! 479) 2HOI 14"~2 " 100 11>''16 24""" .1fl'. C.0 12 000 )0..'" 2~.101' 16. (.nl! Host> 9..500 19000 '''''' " ""..62 I~ 2'.2S0 28.<.• 'i2 lU41 0.Wi 1S o.l'U ~= "".lOS 1O.0648 0.SIlO ]. n.070 117<. 9.9 11 . (text cOIltinll('d 011 20 414 n.z 0.7'10' 86..l 42.0536 0.5~4 on 27..m •. for flange taps and pipe taps.J..0762 00bJD 0.w.15? 17. " " 17.! JI """ ':'".111.tm 141lS& 22.J'IoI 2'160./ 19<XX1 7. blished 1M.b'lJ U.5(10 18. .0576 0.50) O.'lS7~ Cas Flou' McaSlu'('I/INlt 475 (tnt contim4ed from page 4(0) not recommended.. should be some sort of average pressure extension.'" ".<.S)) n.'i41 15.. 2') 24.60~ paf!."" U.0711 00715 O.M.111.040IJ 0(4)5 0.)71 2I)<IOJ '8. D!.0)1 O"fk. DeterminationFlange Taps F. .114 ~l5Il ].0'iM 0.H6 n.626 7.TOII n. and gas gravity equal to 0.00 '.20:1 \04.DSn 00575 87.a.'8./I9'i 1•.<.. In any e\'ent.1>20 'Jill 10.<} \I'ii.' .9)3 1..672 21.114 n.671 .I..on6 0.0&1 .M 4J.0562 0.S4l nl><. 1>7.921 )5.s64 IIll.0:"') 92.72! !I.orn 0.. 0..07S5 0.375 47..~J Si. 12.O/'!i S4.0331 OO}'lol 004211 000457 00500 00549 0.26 0.7112 4J... therefore.0 10 SOO 101<.0427 0.05911 J4)8 0.0478 0. .'" 1)'90< uno 11.7''19 24]81 15.0402 0. m .m • a.0 ' iOIl 'HO 17.375 '''"' '''' ''''' '. In 1.m 1._ 1l0. Tables 103 and 108 .QSOI 0.H3 1I1"'lO " ~ss l'Il. 10 11 ".2')1 ''''' 0.4<..0383 00406 004:16 0.l2'J 0.097'1 007'l2 0.51l 51.0671 00109 0...625 O.0473 0.617 116 lQ.4]1 ..056) 00706 0.'iOoI b l~.~28 2Q.09 II> ~ T1.199 n."\0 7000 • 150 '.l!oO 0.! 't> _ P.OM2 0.9<OJ 15.9136 2J.44 If>S'I1 27.0926 0. 9.11647 I.1014 0.(\416 0..910 1.6 Table 103 " b" Values for Reynolds Number Factor F.05211 00411 001110 O0J6S 0.885 11.0520 O.5" ".bn 18 1:""1 19.0717 Jr...8:'8 21.0 .0477 0..()7 110.0378 00402 00434 0.064 H.2 1~122 22.6(.41 0. values have been calculated assuming average values of viscosity equal to 6.0517 oo.65. These F.o 1.1I09 .lIB r.04% O.m 119:'<1 20 0'1 21 M nUl 17.nd .071l 00'Hl 006211 006n 00566 00486 0041) 0040) 0..• 2to l)b\.tems..ol ..P(U 9.Q..2<.'154' 10.411 29.OJI t.lOb' lM~ 9JoI.0\111 0. The pressure extension. nl' '.059$ 0.0612 0.01124 0..0365 0.015 44. ''''' 2.621 7.~ '.'IO] .(167 2.OOO .j" lU411 'tllOO .416 IllY' M.. .1>lO 17.~JO' . the exact equations or charts given by ACA (ACA..247.Olllb 0.'lI:W.0554 0061] 006b9 0.0506 0.91" '.'11 '.loIO '''''" '"'" (table contilll/cd) ..0559 0.U 'OOl 11 ).062a 00676 m.09S0 0.251 US~ 1 lO.'" \o4.'iOII 10 ~l~ 11. 1125 ..0514 0.0677 0. 737 15.'" '''"' .125 2.~I """ "'''' 1S11M •.0445 0.300 0. !41~ 185'1" '9.11J 19..110 lI.M1S llll.0)8) 0.474 Ga.049$ 00550 00614 0061'9 0.
gog}l 09'llO ''''' ..8 0.!lIIn " o "'" " " " "'" ~ ''''' " 09o'l1~ " 'lIIO~ " o O'~84 " O~ o.9791!1 09796 0.9766 . o 9BSe o ~5 u 0 'M51 091144 0..9646 09&4) 0'J6J2 0.91)8 09135 0972'J 0.~~ "'''' "'" ''''' o9SIIl .952( 0."'" "'" ''''' "'" ''''' .97. 9SloS 0 9560 0.9'Jo4lI 0991S 09987 0.9')40 09<ll'J (99)/1 099)/1 09937 099l1o 09916 .~ o..9737 0.l 0.9'161 0.96&1 0. 0. 0..".o ''''' ".'M..!l?& 09911 099S~ 0.7O 0 '11169 09f058 O'llt....'I7OS 09:'00 0.0.7.~ 0..m.._ 09S94 o 9SII4 09580 0'1628 0.'jIb74 0. 09915 0...9ns O'lnl 0.9aa] O'MOO 0.9659 Q'J9..996) 0991>.."96 09491 D.91127 0..96'O 0. 0<J431 OM2 0.97'..9579 0.'110 09:"07 0.9')11 09918 0'1'111 0..'.'T.""" Ottn 0 .9SSl (95)' ''''' .991S 0..9647 09tol) 09109 09J'06 0.. .9713 097'(19 O... 0'ie'J7 0." ''''' ''''' . .9915 09'J01 0'l8~5 09l!l7S 0'lll74 (1.954) 09Slll 0.) 0. D.9S5t 0...'M17 0 0.9f.'II2O 0 'M18 0..1M5 0.....'6 0'lll1! 0.9770 09:'t.9711 D."" " ". O. ''''' 0..9.57 0.9M) 09l!lllo OW) 0'M18 'M06 (I 'l!IOt) 0'V'l'.. 0997! D.43 09~4I " {I"4... " St....966'1 09720 0... .9988 0 'I'IM (I _ ..U 09611 09601 0.9bH 9f.m 09~6tt 09~1>J " 09~67 09..79 I ."...95)/1 0."'" 0.."0 0.9662 096t9 O'Will 0.§..'illl0 .95l4 09SlO 09551 095042 09S28 09514 0..9&81 0'M67 .l~ 01lllQ2 It 'MOl 09579 09518 0'J561 09"iS6 09SSS 095SJ .. 0'M54 09'/01) 09'/01] 0"". B .] 0'V5(l 0974' 0"4$ 0..9580 0'JS61 om) "".9451 0...~..." " .951) .904 a..'JIIIl6 D'JIOf 0.9I 096& O..)) ..9695 09692 0 9681 0 WI 0..1lI!o'M 0'll69S 0.19 0 0 'MlII 0 IIII..9587 0. O.. 71 0.'1717 09711 0.~ O'~S l.9600 0'9Sl1 0'574 OS1 0..9529 0'lS24 o.ros 09727 0.'I'JlS 0.1 O'l'lllt.0.9111:'\1 0.9516 1I95U 9S01 0 9501 D"" ... .JJ 0 96J I 0 9628 0. '"'' 09717 091001 0.'VliO . O'lllJJ 0·'1111 .9914 0... " " " " " 0. "'" .. "'" ''''' ''''' 09n1 09709 09696 D......"'" 0.. ~ 0M60 0'MS4 D..'WIO 0.9747 0.9&47 D96IO O. 9Sl1 0.'Jb]O 09676 O~ 0967J 0':1661 O'jlbro 0':1667 0'jlb!. ...9528 09515 D. 0'M06 09805 ...'1692 O'IMII 0..9618 (96)9 ''''' ...... ''''' " o o .. (19&10 (I'llMOO '1L17 (I '!111.9519 0. 0.':166' .".'"~ "• o~ O~ O~l " oms ..9155 0..9'110 0. 0.990) 09l!l79 u u " u . ...9616 0.9616 09611 09(1)1 09&01 09'197 09S9] 09610 9S99 0 ~2 09589 0 ~ 0.6 'JeSS 090'151 O'MU (I~3 0 'lII)! 0'Je11 O.. .96M 0'lMl D..'J6II') .".J " 0"" 0 0.."" 0..9ns 0..9586 0... ..9lJ&l 0..'M4D 0.."" 09616 o '1643 0.'l67S 09611 09661 0!l6S1 0. O'Mll 0 '/eOO 0.~~ 0'1526 0951' 0951) 0'1501 O.9716 09]1l 09lD'1 09'117 O.'Jti...9f..~ O!l6OO 09S9D 0'1515 0.957\ 09571 0.9S90 095lll 09SlO O..6' 09761 0975'1 09756 0.Will 0. ''''' o "'" ''''' " "'" o """ 0 'I':lM (I (I .'t. o..9&0 O!li!l20WJl 0.9r072 0.9646 O.9551 0. ".9&t/i 09832 D.'717 0.'M$1 091!137 0'M12 09785 09m 097SB 091149 0.Jl .'i'l6I> . l 0.9SIJa O'K'l) 0'J511 09SlJa 09'!n 1t957) O."" "'" 0. 0 ..97'X1 O"M 09710 Dt77'J 0.96Ol 0.9651 0..'jIb1'9 0.9SSI 09"iS4 0955' " " .9:'95 0 97'12 09." "'" ".l4 0.ll 09610 095')1 09Sl'l 09S71 0~ O. "..n O.....9626 0.''''' .9714 09n) 097]1 097'iO 09743 097 . 05 10000 1."" 0.96OIi 0..n (I'M].'J"".Wo5.99'1 09!l1l 09')19 09932 0.101 0.. 09ll." 09778 0."'" . " " " " " " u " " " " " " 0979) 09792 0...2 0.0. 0.96.'l'lIIt.4 0'jlb7S 09671 0'11169 09661 09(»..9792 09190 0..". ''''' ..S .. ."" ''''' .9921 :!: :: ::..l 09616 (961) 0%09 0'lllOS .9M4 0.ro 'J' ....<..'IS4S 0.95)l "'" .. o " " o ''''' "..99l1 O.9~41 0. O..9712 091\911 O.9140 0. 0.9rn 0......ml om1 . ...9541 0.9511 0 ')191 O.9'1l5 099tJ .91122 .. IDCIIO 10000 'M .\11161 O'l&J 09l!62 09860 0'MS1 0'llSS~ 0l1li51 0'1&49 0 " ..9562 09547 O. " (I.'M1) 0.. ..9'11"4 D.. 'M2O 0..9477 0 .9'40 09715 o ~rol o 9I">S6 0 9653 O .9'1048 0.lb 0'M18 0.. 09'lh] 0.9So18 095lS 09S12 09509 09727 09714 11 mt 0. 0974' 097)8 0. D9745 09731 0.9!064 Q.. 'l'II'I " " " 0 '19119 0 9'M9 0 'l'1li8 09'1b6 045 IDCIIOIIUXI 10000 1000010000 10000 10000 1000010000 10000 10000 0 9'lM (I 9geI! '" 0110 0 61 99& " "' .CQ8 Prodllctkm Engineering Ga3 Flow Measurt'Jllnlt 481 Table 104 Yt Expansion Factors_Flange raps Shltle Presaur."'.." .0... .'lIJ5 0... .. O."" 09442 0.'J8j4 .. '1660 0 w. ''''' ." ''''' 09561 0...9917 0.'1664 0.9610 a..'M16 0.99U 0_ .hO D .9465 0.'Ie06 . l O. ..9624 09614 0..9721 .9'JoI7 09'Jol7 09914 (99)) 0. u U .. 0...64 0.97.'15106 95SJ 09Sq 0.~n O'MOl!l o~ 09781 09767 0."tM 09700 0'M7 01l6'Jo4 0.9841 0\111. 0 '1M2 0 98110 099)1 09'121) 0. .. ''''' ''''' ".")'6 09tlOll 0 9.~~ 096011 O~ 0960J 0'JS95 omJ 0..97'!IB 09:"81 ''''' 09148 '''~ ''''' 09:'54 0.'tSIil 09'iSl 0')'. 09657 0.91\013 o.9'161 0.~ 0'l6lO 0.''''' .f 0'99'i3 O'99'il 0'99'i.9524 .'82 09711l 0978(1 09:8 09m 09m 09:>:"1 09M 0. ''''' . ''''' ''''' ..t'iS2 D.'J692 D'1715 09..0IXXI '" .. 9'lI!~ ~~ 099Jl 09911 09930 O.J5 09S~ 0·. 0'ie'J2 WIllI> 0 tee6 0 ~ 0 . 09:'<15 09784 Ort] 0971"1 09:2 0 980l 097'1.96&1 0%'11 09:'112 0')691 'libel 'K.9690 0'1677 O'l66l 097&] 09?69 0. 0.96tIIO 0. c.''''' ''''' ''''' ...9573 09560 O. .. 0982B 09&14 '"'' 09714 09100 096a5 .95Ol . .." 0.0.:S 0'17" • O.. ..9600 095'iD 0... 'J{64 0 9foSO .S2 0."'~~ 0.. "'" "'" ''''' ''''' .9Sn 11 957V 09561 0'564 O.."" .l! O.99"13 09914 0.....96501 OMl 0%8(1 9:"(W O'~ 0'jlb9] 0.'l'J6/i 0.9'T'4 0.~ 0.9n." "'" .9&26 O!l6.911'1 0"1.0 09919 09'WJ 09919 (991) 09'/012 0'1911 0.95J7 0..'J677 0.. ... .."" .~ . 09<104 0 .95l2 09518 0 t505 0.16 09615 09624 09624 D..w U. O. 0."" '%H " " "..'l6al 964] 0 '11>41 0..1636 0..9981 0.. 09:'41 09736 0.S 09'1601 0...9724 09m 0971' 0..9577 0.~ 09llt."." .'>/15.9436 o. " " o " ''''' " ".9701> 0 ')691 0..S 0. 099&0 D.9511' 0.. 0'1'165 O'l'J(.'J6JI 09625 0. 09&S1 0.'lIIIlO 0.97l4 097)1 0972'1 09722 09'"20 0971B o 97111 D 97111 0.95Jl 11.9576 0'lS7V O." o "'" " ''''' o......"" 09517 0.. oms " 09~12 " oom..'n 0..!IS4S 09542 ..~ 0'192(1 09921) 09919 0 'rn8 09<116 O~ 0'1909 09'l!lll 09901 0'l<iOl. TT~ "~. 10000 D •. 9~&4 ".9t020 0."88 09.0!l874 O.'IS4O 0'1515 '~ll 09528 0. . 0'i'951 0'i'951 099'.'lSO'i 09571 09566 09SS7 095Sl 0.'."'" 0'le5l 0.66 ".9760 o.. .oI6 0 9614 0.9711l O'J77' 0l1li70 09M9 D~7 (I '!IIl~ 0 '!ell 0. .9~1IO " 0~.9716 o 9?OJ O.uI ... ..97<M "'" .jJ 09:'Sli 09758 0'1% 097'.01 0...97'S1 09749 0. 0.~~ 09512 0952') D.99O!I 'iM6 tII83 09$71 0.'P6I D.9571 0...9S15 D'J5lO 0." 11 0992) 09912 09910 0.'"' " " ''''' o " "'" .\11167 09l!l'.9921 0.9659 0.t.9742 09ne . "".9500 090485 "'" "'" g....9914 " " u ".....9'UO 0.96611 0')1:. . ''''' ''''' "'" ..9668 (1.'1816 09!lO) 091115 .'}59) 0. 9I0Il8 O.l 0'l'JS.9'J01 0'1887 09l!l73 0.9l'Jo4 0.9621 0961' 0961S 09628 09625 09622 09617 0962.95lO 0...96]4 09671 0.9742 0... raken from Upstream raps '. 968S 0..9640 0'..~ 0.~le Pressure Taken from Table 104 Continued Y Expansion FactorsFlange Taps Upstream Tsps ~.!J6111 Otli1S 0. ..m3 0. .." "'" o " .! 091>'>1 D'lIIIo49 09646 09&42 0.'JIII9' 0'119'.97)6 O'lng 0..."'.9f. .9910 09914 •• " .997) 0.96IS 0..>W 0 9738 0 978S 0 0 9."11 0.'% 0'..""'} O'llt..5 0'JI6J1 09b1l 0'Jl601 .9516 (95)6 09524 09512 .'M.'Wtl O.''''' ... .
. " u 10111 1.0073 1.020) 1.11155 101611 101M 1.l 1.0016 1(10110 lOO9Il '0014 1.n ...am Taps Table 10·5 Continued Y2 Expansion FactorsFlange Taps Stetlc Pre.... ..." ..0114 1(11)1 10111 10116 10110 1.. ..0110 1.00M...0196 1..~ 10095 '(1101 1 QOIJl 1..1117'9 1...00'19 1..01.0111 1.....0127 101.." .00ll 1....on5 10141 1." '.0IIIIl OJ HID!19 1.0124 10129 1.. \.0124 1.019S 1.0117 tim} U." .llll' 1..01001 10114 10111 101211 10US 1...0056 10055 l00S4 IODS3 10051 l11DSO 1004'1 HOI' 1.0101 1....01M 1...0129 1010] 10099 10109 1...0093 10081 UlOIl6 \.....16 '.... 1.0111 lOll' 10189 1......001S loon 10071 1007\1 .021' 1.0m.0201 1(1)0 1.0152 lOIS/! 1..... un07 1 010& 101001 111101 lOO'lf1 1...." '" O..0111 100Si 1.0109 10114 '0\20 1....0141 1.11011 10083 1......01]) 10113 1014) 10148 10154 1 015~ 1.0151 1.0018 '0011 1..... " ..o2OJ umo UI'I'I UIlIl1 1....0156 101611 101M 1....00)1 1.........••• ..~.0149 1...0173 U 10Zl4 1. .0204 1.1ll1l 1.0146 1.....0116 111120 1.1.0118 10122 1..0119 1.01911 1...0156 '0161 1..m3 ''1210 1. " u " ..0194 1..0129 1. "' " •• .0111 10122 1.0121 1.01195 100'19 1.00'19 100'IS 10087 100&4 " " ..00151.....01S5 10160 1.. . " " '" " u OJ 1.(1109 1.... .....01110 1.........." ..OOU loon !lXlll u " 1~ 1....01511 1.01'" 1.0199 1..OI~ 1..02001 1020t 10215 1...I1JO 10116 10I0Il 1 (Ill.0224 10210 1..0180 10185 10111 10115 10120 1..0124 10111 100ll 1(1)6 10100 10144 100<1a 1015) 10151 1.021' 1024) 1 026.01l7 1(''''2 11'147 1...0156 10160 101M 1...0012 10011 10011 10012 10011 10011 10011 10011 l00U .0104 10108 111111 1.011:16 lOOl4 loon 100511..OI'M '0199 1..0193 '0244 1.0225 1 WI 10202 1.." ...~ ..fo'I 070 0.....0146 101504 10151 '.00113 100111 1...0180 1..0196 1..9 101113 100111 l00b2 10066 10070 lOO7tI 10060 101J601 IOI)6IJ 1007'S • 10105 1._...0251 1..0146 101j(! 1.1llO(.0104 '0109 10114 10'" '0097 1. " ".0116 10122 1. 102001 1..01U 1. 10'121 1.._. ...•• .w ..0116 ..0164 101M 10114 1.......01504 1....0014 1.".0180 1...00n 10182 1...0124 10121 1.t 1... ...0251 I ~ 1.0n..0192 1..0'89 1. 1..0110 10166 10162 1...01'" 1." ..0196 1 OlD) 10210 1.."' •• .(11) 10118 1.0111 1.OIl'S 101110 UlllIi 101't1 1....0163 101611 1.. .0II'J2 10096 1...Ol" .61 10011 10011 IOOIl l00U 1.. 060 g.0212 1..0218 .01D!! 10114 ..0116 llXl'Jo1 1.... ..." ..0214 1.... " 10142 1..0140 Utl<la 1.....D201 10121 10112 1.020".o:zsa " . U I.111l1l 1..0186 a . .......0110 1. u '_~.(10) 1...0012 1....011'1) 100S' 1016! 10166 1011't 101i1< 1. •• .0114 1..01110 ........ 1..0216 llJ222 1OZ2'J l......0117 1..0161 1.01...0222 10191> 10.0165 1.01" 1_020".0121 '0112 10111 10141 10146 1.01504 10159 1.0145 1.110114 1.0087 1 00II1 1...0076 1001>5 UOt.0181 1. IlRoloo D ....0156 10161 1.....0126 1.00&9 1 fX1T1 10082 11)(18] l00'J7 11101'S UlOIlO 101185 '.00lS '0102 10107 '0112 1.'_'_~R'_'_~.0111 1..0121 1.~.1I2ll 1Il221 1."" " "'" .0134 1011' 10144 1...0l05 101'0 10114 1.0121 1.. " .01l1 1.O:ZS1 102)6 ." o •• .....0125 10110 1..482 Gal Production Engineering Gas Flaw Measurement 483 Table 10·5 Y2 Expansion FactorsFlange Taps Static Pressure rakan from Downstr.OIIU 10015 UID14 10014 1..0lj(! 1......1IlTS 1...0041 101141 10CM0 HI013 1.. HilS/! 101504 101SO 10148 10141i 1...0111 1. u " 1....._w»~.02l1 10192 1..0IIII'J l1lO'11 1011'Ja 1..0109 1..00n 1.... l00v l!011i 100801 UIOII2 UIOIIO UlO78 10077 '...._.~....0182 LIlh!O 1.00SI 1..D2lfi Ullll 1.0135 101431 ..01" 1.0182 .0186 10182 1.0215 1.01&) 101~ I..011) 1.." ...0091 1.0lfi 1."'" 101011 1...OIfoO'OIJ1 101115 1. 1..0163 1.11196 101115 1....01601 10110 \.....0lDI 1...0210 1..01&) \.. ure Taken Irom Downstream TIps 8 iloIlO .0119 1..~...0124 1...0102 1.0110 10175 1.01146 I.0l11 '0122 \.0l04 1..1 \.'_'_..0129 1(1)) 101111 10142 1.....0141 " '" ..01&4 1..0105 10110 1.(nn 10171 1.11101 1.....02)6 1.0166 1......n OJ 1...0012I.........M l!MOf unl! 10111 IOID 1.01)3 10131 10142 1.0112 1. .0115 10140 10145 1...0107 'Olll ..........0114 1.."'" l.. ...." .0101 l007'J 1._ 101~ 1.016:2 1..0121 1.14 .Q1lO lill)] 102<44 1.0141 1....021) 10219 1...0092 10011 I.0l07 1. rull 1..'01 1 (P... '.....0189 1... .......00Ql 1...~.0216 1....0114 '0121 1011~ 10121 10124 1...011\1 101m 10011 u !CO" 1..OOM 1001>1 1..(nl0 1.n .01M '0190 1.0013 lOO1l lOO1l 1..011' 10190 1...0151 1..0106 1...0164 'Olfo'l 1....0170 1.0091 1.0142 1.0201 1.~·.".0220 1..0101 10112 1....4 \ 00013 1.. " ... HlO9Il UIOM 1.02)') llmS 1.0164 LIl16...00tS 1.....0lSi 10192 1111911 '.0103 1..0101 10106 11101!11i 10090 10094 loo..._....0147 1...0211 10218 1(1224 1..IXl'JoI 1...11102 1011...0121 1.. '.019S UI200 II1'2l)6 '.01)11.0159 1.0100 1.01'10 .... " " " 10081 1_~ IOU..0192 1.._.01l1 101:16 10140 1.._ 1..0224 1025f .0041> 100015 U)(I.0161 '0111 1.1t117 10107 10TH 1.01211 1. " . ..0120 10126 IOUl 1. .....0\16 1.0102 1..0151 1. IDio4 10255 1........001'9 10081 ItlOll1 10091 lOO'K lOO9'J 10101 10107 10111 lOll' 10120 1..0111 1...0210 10194 10200 1.0l07 1.....0189 1..0124 1...01n 1..0196 l..1 1.11221 HIlJj 1 ~l 10216 1022l 'OlQS I~ 10211 10211 101...0110 HII75 1.
_ OWl 0.996i'I 0991$ 09971 0. Expansion FactorsFlange Taps Stetie Pr. .0 09V'i 0.99]2 09!l6a 0...9'JOII D.9904 0.'JI91 0'lMl 09V'i 14 l.9992 0.'196') 0.9'J5ot 09'JSl 099<19 0.'JISoI 0 .9980 0.')961.9918 09911 0.':I'/9l O_'I'HI 11.9988 O'l'lelJ 09964 O'l'!i8l O<m<! 0'1'181> 0911&1 09'1111 0.'JIS' 0."" 0.S U 1.9977 0.9911 099011 0990S 0.9817 O'llllll 0'lMl 0.1 I.9')4~ 0990lS 0"") 09'J0t6 O".9981 0..91111 0.".99)6 (99)) 0'196) 0995~ 0.'1'116 099Jl o'm~ 09920 0991.9951 0.9')61.~ 0.I 0.99010 09917 099.9'170 0." n 0.!9'16 099'11 09917 O.9')89 69'l1l':I O.9920 099'11 0'9916 099'1 4 0"12 09911 09'129 09927 0'1925 0992] 0.9916 (991) 09910 09906 09901 0.0 0'19.'J95(I 099017 0.'J'Jll1 69'17' 09975 Q."" .9927 09924 09922 09919 09917 09930 0...'IIm 09890 099Sl 099SS 09'lS] 09951 0.990S 0990T 6_ 0... " 09'J17 0 _ 09'1&] 09980 0.'JII7(I 0.9926 09')14 0.1 0.m end Downstr•• m Cas Flow Measurement Table 106 Continued Y..9915 0..9 O'J8oi..'l'ji'fl Q..""S 0...9%& 0'l'ltoS 0.9911 0.." .mo 0.99.'JI18 09942 099" 099.9'1e6 099l!l1 09981 0'197' 09976 0.'lII!I6 0.9927 0'l9l4 0. Expansion FactorsFlange Taps Sqtlc Pr.9961 0.9940 0.99D4 D. ) O.98'1S 0911'1) 098'JO 0_7 0.996] 0."".9'/95 099'1'2 ow.'J1S9 O. 5 0 .9906 0990] 0.'1947 0.'!MII 091!1115 0'lMl 0.. n 09961 0995a 0.'1&b9 0.9927 0992S 0992] 0.91I9S 091192 0.w.'l9Il 09938 0.1 0. II "bO .991.997(1 0'1"167 0."19 09914 0.~ 09956 0995) 0.'/'J69 ••• 1.16 (99)1 O.2 1U 0.9921 0. 099:7 0..!O 09918 09916 0'19'4 0.'9911 09'JO'il 0.'JIII6l 0.9949 09945 0..')'W5 O~'> 0.9'J78 G'l9'I7 O'»i~ 0./ Ca •.9!16S 0.'J'lIIf 09'J8il 0.'1'128 0.5 (9901) 0.2 0"'" 0.9955 09951 0.9'17.99012 0.' 1.99boI O..5 D.2 0.9'r.99<11 099)9 0. O.9900 0.99b1 C.9966 0.9976 O..".~ 09960 09955 09951 09946 09942 09933 099lJ 09929 0992.99" 09916 0..'1977 D~ own 0.'J1S4 O.'J11L6 091162 0'J8S1 0.. """rteoy of AGA .99I\J 0.. 6.9')f.." 0'lll!l6 09119) 09MO D.16 099}< 099)1 0'1911 099)2 09930 o.!iIl6l 0. 0'J17S 0'lll71 0.9'/&1 0.9943 0.*" 0.1 U U U 1..9'JS...")0 09927 09924 0..'1941 09933 D. 0'lll16 0'Jlll 0986'1 0.9'JS1 0.9953 0.9971 o.9'MI~ 69'J16 09982 0.'lII71 0._ D.9910 0.96Ca 0'11U7 09V'i 0'Jl15 0.~ 09996 0.91!I69 09917 09914 09910 0.9112S 0.'lIIIll 0.9'J7'j 0. 0...99" 0.'1927 09'll2 0.9'J70 0.WoI 0.W90 0.'JIISII O.9'I'JII 0998') 0.91119 O!IM~ (992) 0.9'107 0.9911 0991S 09911 0."14 0.9110& 0'JOllD1 097% ).'il&tO (91)5 O.9961 O..999! 0.9951 09951 09')017 0.91!I69 O.9924 0.9907 09905 09'114 0.(1 0.9961 0.'J1166 O.'" 0.'J1S4 O. 1989.99110 0.99.99lO 099'17 09914 0.1ffi7 D'l'I'i.'J'JS/I 09'JSS 0.9'JIIII 0..'lIIf>7 0'Jl6l 0.9971 09969 0.1 0.'il&tO 0'il&tO 0.9901 0.'1M3 0..9921 09918 0.9978 O.998.9'126 Ow. 1 ".9'lfI8 099I\J 0.9919 099)1 0.9'/72 0'l'l7(l 09!l6a 09966 09"1601 0"'" 0'l9S9 0._ 0._ 0.9949 0.9985 O.9II'JII 0..991~ 0.9967 0.')968 09965 0.99)) 09910 0'l9l7 0'1924 0'l9l1 0.1: 09920 09916 09912 09'iOll 09901 0t1199 0.16 099._ O.'JIII6l 0.9902 D.99)S 0")7 09912 0"ll5 0'19)0 0.'1927 0'l9l4 09925 09912 0'1911 0""5 0..'JIS1 0 .. ..G ).l 1.9'I1O 0.9930 0.9957 0.99ll 0.2 O._ 0.9888 09817 0.ft12 0._.} 0..9957 099'S.". 09ll'!6 0..me 09953 0'1949 09945 0'1941 099)7 09911 09929 0992..9956 0.'1B78 0'11U7 0.9984 0.'JIll 0.1 G.'l9I7 099U 09939 09'1). 09926 09924 09921: 09920 0'9911 09916 09914 09910 099211 0.91164 091164 0 _ ' D.9927 0.99'11 D. 6.9918 0991.. " u2 .9'lS5 0995] 09948 09952 D.9906 0990:.'JMS OWl O'JIII?' 0.9984 0...9921 0...99112 09977 0.9962 09960 0'l'Y. 0._ 0.'JII'J'I 0.9'129 0.z.'9910 0..9'1611 099119 0.9'118 O"""'i 0 _ 0.'1992 O'lMil o.91111 0.'111117 0.91192 0.9911 09907 0.99'0 0..99(101 0.9936 0._ O'I'IN 69'1117 0..".'lIIJ1 0.9fI9oI 0.76 0.. 6.9IIn 0 .9966 0.'1'971 0.'lIl6 0.997' 0..')871 0...9911 0..9828 09824 0.9'182 0." o~r."_.'I'/'l0l 0.9993 09991 09916 0. 0.'J166 0..9875 O.'J9611 o.'*" 09l6l O'JIIISII 0'J1S4 09llSO 09846 0.9992 O..9970 o')'m 0997~ 0.9872 0.9!I6a 09'11>1:> 09964 0. 0991D 09'101 0.991S 0." .')11904 09190 0'J111116 0'lMl 09878 0987' 0._ 0'1951 0. 0. 0.9948 Ot9ol4o 09!M4 0.9906 0._ 0_ 0 _ 0'J'J85 0... 0.99)1 09930 D'I92B 0.'"' 0.) 09921 09917 09996 09991 09917 0991ll 099711 0. D..'iI8!M 0..._ 0.9971 09'16'1 09967 09965 0.'J8SI 0.99<19 D.91I9S 0'"' 09817 09lll:.9961 0. D99}< 09910 0.ge20 091115 0"'0 0.9951 0.".9'I'JoD II .9'IOf 0..9977 0.5 O' .99"6 09975 09971 0.) .'lIIlO 0 .9'JH 0.9960 09956 0995\ 09950 O~ 09959 0995.9910 09906 09901 09901 D.9'J19 09925 09920 0.990S 0'l'lO2 0.990 0.9886 0_1 0.99S0 0..'1M3 0.ssure Muo of Upstre. 0.9!162 o.9925 099S6 09952 0'l9l8 09'1+1 0'194<1 0. o.997l 0. .S 0.9123 0.._ 0.9M9 09MS 0_' 0'J177 0.9976 6.991>11 o.9910 0.9'IIl6 DMeJ 699)'9 0'197& 09:l7J 0..1I&l~ 0.':11116 091111 0'lllO7 O.) 09915 09911 09907 0990] 09'100 (991) 09'10'1 09905 0..9'129 0.'11SJ6 0.99)1 D9911 0._ 0.16 D. 0.995S 0....'1'11>1 0~9 09975 0.'JIS§ ''1111:S6 0911S2 From on~ Mnci"l oj N/JI .1&1 0..14 0.9981 09')80 0."'" 0.9846 0 .""" 0.·84 Cos l'roductioll Engineering Table 106 Y".'JIII9!i 09l9l 0'Jl91 0.9951 0'l9l8 09'1+1 099]9 0.99IS 09'1&( 09')80 0997') 09975 0..'" 11..lO O'Jlll.'997._.'l'9bO 09'JS7 0._.9946 0.9907 1.'1'J'i4 D..'IIIMo 0.91129 0.._ 0.~ O'l'l71 0'1910 0.'l9I7 0.") ._ 09'1'11 ij.99$6 0..9960 0'1\157 0.91126 o.91199 0W'16 0'J1192 0...16 0'99)1 099» 0'99)0 0'1'128 0.9\1&1 0911&1 O.9167 0.'IOn O'IWI 0.9'l'IO 0.9966 0.S> 'w DWM O~ G9'A6 099'>& 099'K O~ 0. o 0.9906 099(101 09'101 O.9974 09910 0. 09952 0.9901 0." 0.7 1..1 U l._5 0._.91166 0._7 (I.9925 0992] 099lO 0.'1190 0.'192' 0.9"1601 0._ • 099S) 0'l9S1 09951 099019 0.9'JI'I D..998J 0997') 0.9845 0.'J8SI 0. o._.99'JI) 0.1 0...9948 0.91I9J O. 7 0 .9lI1\II 0.9870 D.9'lO!I 0990T 0..')116.<J971 0.'J176 0.'l9I8 D.._._ 0.9901 091197 0'J89] 0.'II7l 0.'lIIJl O."..9'iOII 09903 09'141 0.9971 oow 099111 09977 0.'JI}(! 0..'JIll 09QJ 0.9905 09'102 0990T 0 _ 0'lll!l6 O!IMl 09D92 091!1119 0 _ 0.911117 0.~ 0'l9l1 099._.. ' 0 96M 09115001 O!l85O 0 .9966 0.9922 0.999) Q..9')')6 0.99'11 0.. OW9lo 0.9965 099101 0.._ 0.9873 09870 0. 0.J 1..'II16II 0...9'J6J O..9178 091174 091!10 091166 09861 O'JIIISII 0.9951 09950 0.9'111 0.9'JbO 09'JS7 0._.m 0991.997'1 0'19" 0..'l981 0..'1921 0992) 09918 0.' 1.9!M4 0.'JI)' 0.997..9'119 0..9952 0. 0'1'109 0.9 0 ._ 0.9o/b) O' OJ 0997.._' 0.9911 0.1 0..9'116 0...99011 09961 O._ O"I~ O .9919 09916 0.7 2.1 l.1 .99010 (99)7 099}< 0.99711 0'J971 ..99011 0.".'JIIISol 0".9900 0....91I5a 0. as 11 12 U '4 I ~ U 17 18 " 20 21 22 2) 14 1.9974 0.99.9'l30 0.997') 0.16 09912 O.z4 09912 09921 09919 09917 0991S 0.99fIl ~ o.'lii')0i 0'J891 0.91)0 O.ure Mee" of Upstream and Downstream 485 "100 .9914 09910 09906 09902 0.9951 0.'J'JS/I O.9920 0.9V'i D.960 0.9Ige 0.'JI6'l 0.9'1111 Q. (99)') 099..! 0.""'.992. 0.'194<1 09'1)5 0.91164 0.'I'Jo'6 099ol} 0...99.1 l.~ O. .' ).'JI'IJ 0.91S4 091150 0._ 0..'I!W'I 0.'9911 09916 0991) 09!\.'l8b2 O.9V'i 0987~ 0.990S 09902 D'lIII99 D.1 3.4 0.S 1.9'J'Jf> 09992 0.9912 0.9'iI'J 0.'iIl196 O.'1972 0.'1'M4 O..99011 0.99(.91)5 0.'lII95 0.9970 0.1 1...'J111S8 O'J1S5 O.".'lII71 0..l6 O.9891 O.'lIS4 0 .'JIJO 0.997. O.9'iOII 0." . 099" 0..'J900 0.'l9IJ 0.'JISoI O'MSO 0. 0997~ 69971 O.91\011 0911]7 O.6 )7 ]8 " ." 0"" 0.9951 0..91121 0.5 0. n )0 l' ]2 )] H )~ 0.9927 0. .'" 09&71 0.4 D. 0991' 0.'l'I72 (I.998.986'1 09866 O'llMil 0'l1lS9 0.992~ 1. 0"" 09')..S U 27 Z.99611 0.9950 0.l 0.996& 69%7 69%6 0.'11&4 O.9971 69985 o.91194 0.9956 0.99011 0.1 1.~ 0'lll!l6 0'J89) 0'Jl91 0.ge76 0.16 099J] 09910 0.9876 0.!iIl6l 0.'1945 0.'JI7V 0.'JISS 0....99l6 09911 0...9%2 0._ 0..9917 09')1) 0991' 0997' 09969 0..4 09991 09990 0"".93 o.9911 0.'I1I.'Me!I 0.9915 099)1 0.>1 0995S 0.99'» 0 .'1'162 0.9960 099Sa 09956 09'J5ot 0.99'22 0.'lI895 09890 O..9914 09909 0..91166 0916) 0987l 0.' 0 .91118 0.' 4" 0"73 0.1 O'lllbl) 0.99._.9954 0.' 69'191 il99"F 0.'len 0.) 0.99010 09'J16 09931 0.9'JM 0.9 0995S 0.9995 09991 oms O"'IGS 0.9942 099)7 09932 0.9957 0.9'J046 0.'JI59 0._ 0.91»1 09llJ5 0.9Il66 09ll6l: 09862 09MI O..'lBSl O.99oIS 09942 (99)') 0..2 3.!leOl 0_5 0'l1!l!lO 09874 0.9922 0.9920 0.
.761 '''' 5O!ol8 11410 7625 1. pr"uute" 14 n flooo.s om 12800 • 2.14&8 l..6'14 s. l16 4~ . 165').mo J.S l..' '4'JU 7lJn 1!60.2. 948." l!olS .550019 7.OU U'iO.1190 lIt. GO .'''5 .. ft ~~ 6'171) J'..045' 6. a m" 1)48.)0 4<'5. .1 1. .612 6 2.ms 9._ltl1..IO 201.~.7S/0.~ .~ an ..7IJ 1l.01 8.91'2 10." f>5]ll 1'S1J9 '17. 11"JOl 1m2 2211 10 ~.21' 14..1172 10.175 .750 14.6) 5l84S 1J62'l n12] 11.9 ou. .1126 12765 lInl 51 591 81. "...1'l 10."'2 11.l ..8 1...as)6 1.~ .101 ~. "' ~" ~..945 12.d) From Orijicllfttnin.1l2..020 2S1> 01 lI6. "'.1U4 4. "'~ 122116 411.~ "'" loIS 10764 .900 1115) 28 ~10 .241 14.m..5249 16112 1.lau I..171 I 2. ~.217 114 )l l!Won ~.196 80103 111.c.16'1 2 4.'" OJ"") .0 9.J 1.817.2'l1 4 1418 7 "'M 11601 1.lSO.~ "'" 11.0551 1./0 .." 501n 114J~ SI89 S.411.87S1 5.. 117U 1415.nd htblishrd '"Jido Di.1 2.1 ~.7ll 12..0 toes S 128'11 91''JII ..02U US17 3.897.281 4 ). _.5SO 10.' 611$2 7.1120.44 5J8 '" 626~\ "'" 5)1.tHl >02U 114.. al~05 7b].112 llU7 '''' 51 2197f1 285.9QS 5 2.Pl n. 6O'f Spe<:ifoc 1I'''VlIy'' \. "''' ""W 1~ ]18'16 15] 20 11' 41 .Jas8 1.7 )112..~ aU!>4 9J1.116 255 \It. . tn..] 'lS1Sl 'lS1J8 10749 !lOb.5~11 u"n 2.~ .0 h.11$..OS16 1.718 28 fo82 1~30 ".5 um6 ' <409 I 1."'l i"mpe'''\UnI! .189 5.4 150011 1l1l 4 ..6&4 IU.. ~ lV12 .1792 8.10 1&2 7..!>48 ~ 1.14'." "'.~ um U~ 11:'22 .m ... .r.. . 19U1 1175 .:.SI\11 5.~.1659 J..100.1160 '.'" .901 11.6 " .1 '.alS ..3 1 .~ ~" 6)4 6~ mu " "" "" .2611 1•• SIIl 15. 2524.041..911 10.0 5.7 .7:H 21.~.~ ..n> ).m..421 a 2.~ "".00 110))1 217.&l2a uJOe '.m "'" .114.'" ".' 216 n 2!1O.0&1 0 .701.'" 1l. _. "'..OJS 14.= 1 PS 1125 " •.~ .\ 7220 M~' 5127.2 Sl543 1Il220 71Sla 45) '12 5)) 27 619 I.0s0. 1S172 1m ) 14".1l1 19. ...74 IJ 212 015(1 'U~ .7f>l 16.116:1. ' 1.6 1.116. 1..91'96 9..4'12 0 1.. :l'Il.1'159 1.Io9'i.7IS l\Il>6'I l1./000 1 1.'" .45.Gl' 4 1. . • ~ .. ."'1 9. .1OJ.. 40'4' )lOn.1OS 1 2.~ '"" "'" ea. " 11 n7S4 '''''10 "'~ J .() 61P~ 1156. U7t.W 26Hl )2&.. "'" "". 14\1t. 1.lOS 1 6.371 9.!>499 1. " . ee .me 1.)0'10 111.l 1.0\& ~'1 51241 80m 118. ~. 12'" 'I' 81 !St./01 4102.]76 11.'" 1.>95 3152 12. 711 71 110" !11101 <lln 5)1.9..'1S4 5 1.1l~ .= .. . 110.000 15250 on" 9.HoB 4"'.4&)9 ""U 1128 1141.~ 5O.~ S49 "" f.~ .02 51 (16. " "".B .1154 7 l. .3 1.1616 1.9 . _ _ _ _~'.~.~" .$ 1. 162S1 'UM 51'014 ~'" 11349 114 ~1 1S6.0 1 .1 "''' "'.~ .Inl 2.019 S 2.5 1 J.9 ~.410.)3 "'~ 455/001 5)566 "'" 1.'71 ...7 lll5 l.~ ... In.1 U16/O 11610 nlS 1 )1051.Iun 116.90 418.7610 l. J .551.II8'J.~ 2.1 'J91'JII 971. .1S1.. 1 2OJ'l. 6O"F Su.4241 1.2 5.~ ).1G1 9. .27 1. 5. 2.~.~.<]] ] 20M.\14.0 .51 . q 54] Jl 66281 8(lJ.9J6 l'U7~ 0... 24.14S' 1.~ Hm 1J223 191.1 .J81 1 3.." .1 U711 2.4600 '611 1..4 .101 IPSO lun 14.9 ~M' lIIli7 4lOS. '''' "...n 1.1:14.01117 121 JO 124 12 ..'" ".2)54 Ul)9 un2 1. Oro(.0 Nn loe) 0 11\6. "'0 .~ 51 nl 81.111 12. n.9154 .4)4.1771 . .125 2150 m.7 127< II ~. ...4174 1. oj Nal". . Sl\tl' ULlO m" 120010 '6Jll n. U mu 'OJll ." ISS.OS75 2.1151. 4 .l1'S 4 1.171 ".7 _.~. 7.52 28166 51..'ll2 1...0299 1. ~ .v6.. '" • 5.r .' 4 . .Jl0S 1. 'm. .80".~ .~ e 1..1 14180 2.lpf" 0 I'i~ Si>:esNom.. .= 1. n41 6..1I1'6 • ISS.162 4 .191.1015 C.044 15.1160 2 J. Z'/.141 1 1.~ 1.15'' 1.107 0 • .7 12056 lo16~.2922 2..119..017 1.7SB4 l.lll.6 1.~ 12.4 lOY) 114]1 12'lJ.&. 11149. 21'" 2446."" ".19 'B . 1511.'671 '124.5 1.J19 6 4.4WI a U19U 6.0242 1..on .622 1 U6l.. 6.339 8 4. ._) 1. 11511 2.1000 11.492 14UU 11.ll1S ).287 8 241)4 2611'91 2.11409 5.912 7 1.71 50~S2 7').17 10500..761 ..56 lAl 1'l <57. '''' 'B .6'1 SSI 24 257!ol 119 \0 251.~ l..414 1 4. " .9 1.'_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ bolaS 1 75n 4 6231.61H 4...""""1 .S 2.16 114119 .4 • 7. "'" uses 21105' 'm' "ft.580. ~.' U17..'" .01II 12.] 1.l 15. .2 'B 2875 "".2901 11.0f69 •.5 4OJ1. ..116 161 11 2U. 21]12 .~ 1190.J 28S1... _.1) ~ ~M >on "'.6ge 1 91' 4) 1.(I9:" u.ms 1.6].2439 2.14 4 7.~.no lIt.16'15 7.J5ooI.lll 12..11145 }.~ ~79 alS 11571 . 2..014. 1M.m.93t1 ~" ]$I 90 2'1 lIS 114 J15.I ".7762 1.. 'm./054 12. IUU 1141.'" ll"' 41S1.ilU 4 . 1..7/001 1 11.~ .0 "143 ill" 71610 .l 11.486 CO$ Production Engineering Gal Flow Measurement Table 107 Continued Fb Basic Orifice FactorsPipe Taps Table 107 Fb Basic Orilice FactorsPipe Taps ~ l"m~'~IUnl! .4 .o ~.9 S..76 1611. .l1 ".16 62).1'i 21S42 o.o/ lOOll.1 1l76S 1..1570 6. OS lSH7 111 0) "" .1lS1 1.125 18102 15110 on . 16.897 I 2.442 17.14O '.~ UJS 6 1.7 1. 16'hl 414 20 Vol 73 6S1oe "''' w.m lG.1S78 6.2114 "49.ns 4 Hl1. 11' 99 20) 27 '''' m" '.n "'ft .9111 80n G.' 7.~ . 11.J )1~.8216 )OJ5 ] US..2'lO 2 1...II4J 0 1.1IS1.6')I6S 1.644 8.ll" 1..f.142) 7.1 9.G (table cOIltinlu. pt.9ol1. 1). Inchn Onfoce 0.177.C ].~ U6S1 1.9<25 I.~ )957.] 1.'" . IU" ~ "'" .153.1015 . IUS 1)1$ ..V .nl) 2..I ..411.9111 461/06 ..a:! 'i6!.1 18)(1' lOll 7 1411.. '''' .1)416 1.141 11. courtsy of .1 5...700 1 USil 2.28 bn.071 .01 .~ >n" 4"'''' ~.2 ' .1907 2.~.. . 6.564 256U 31~ 10.." 187S .~ ..7269 I.0 S.1161 2.24] .57 1lSS1 .7 .2745 1..451 S 7. "'0 ".l'114 1.8 4.~ 1&75 4SB.028 6 U4Il 1..1655 2. . C .125 .~ ..00 ~" ]1402 m .8.1892 711 H 5J29) 6181) 7111) SlO " 1 2150 2 ]:'S lana 1~12 0 2. 16119 12850 ~:m 1939 12 . '''' .n ]A70) '2'91] 525 j.1 1.4J79 6.450 S ..15117 3..111 6 B11S 2.w ~.4 26]I... '" .tO )J7OS .~ '0'____ _ ____'"'____ 15.4080 "'~ "" JUS ..111 10.ll 53971 lJa OJ nl61 1126 6) ~]71a 456..5 11683 1214' '4)l. 'B 5197.~ .lbt 6 1.1 l..6 '.5 "''' "'" "'" 1'l1J7 11711 1622. meter.lII "4 iT lCl'' 118!.... ..MS..892 9 5...)4 U8S4 n. 'B 1125 .11 }5712 "'~.
000 16.21S ]9.. '''' 'B 24..1>2'1 ~.soo 11.IJ1. 15.&110 J.000 3S.~ 17.109 16.m.l'lll 'J 1.' S_10JO .16' )1.m ~1.421 .000 19..261_1 '...250 :m.'iOJ 10.166 lB.0b5 15.'36 ".4729 1.141_' I.1021 7.B "" .O)8 .m.')8 12..1011 1 ' .0 "...2606 1.~ S1.6711 11.737.660.73 psia....0219 1. "'" '"'' N.097 7 2. 1.12' 19..81>54 D .6"'6 '. in. 1.n10 2.m ." 47.&11 26.1'16 LI.~.&11 n.~ '.('{'(' \4 078 )6.2'1 15..1 9. 4'J.~ ]I.628 '" " 000 11.040 0 l.1 "'" 10.~ ".112 • '.9'0 )60426 :13.41U 8. 2.278.010 01.150 S_IOS 0 5.19) 16.l. m ) 1.'1. .1361 ""'" ""'" \'.0 '..4'JS .'" ..S270 UlO' ''''' . ".l6Z0 H " S4 6.. l!oS 0 U)I .Il:1.156 ]7.U18 19..07a 1l.~ . ""'" 18.lll ".21' 1 •.m_o ". 2.7 1.2602 '.111.l 1 U616 1. because the flow relationship assumes a standard pressure of 14.158 ~. 1..l7S • .J7 ".1599 61.0 .5]90 I.)1] • unl un.~'!!I u.m "'"' 1'9.2n.5'.'1'1] l6.074 I2.) . 2.73 psia: .9Ja )4.109 28.78} lto.6 4 .' 1.1516 4.$G1 Il.925 ll.000 aof>S7 '.m n.l97 17.665 F 14.11 1.'57 16_'SO 17..'" hIS .2.~.1 1.TtoI9 9.012 '.6:13 J.'" ."'" 2..21.4'!4 \4.006 This factor corrects fo r cases where the base (standard) pressure.01*.m 11.11) 10. .'" ".155.NII S 7.211 1 .~ 2•• l4 25.488 Gas Production Engineering Table 1C).020 14688 15000 .7.1*1 .1 • 651.1 " 19.4)8. " .911 U.Ill.BO .2)4 I.0t.7 (text continued from page 479) PretllrUre·8aM! Factor.m 11.000 V.". 5.. ll.• 22.')I ».119 6 2.2409 .)!' l'I.7oMl 1.50S 11 .409 28.~.M.100_ I.117 1 • S91._ 27.811.1101.vu l..250 _ 40 911.7)4 1 1..7QS.711.' 1.1~1 n.~ 5.612 ".l'III2 I!W.w 2'. "'" N.4151 10..~ .144 6 1.90) IO.ln 18814 19. ..01.~ 27 ••' to ~5G O·.611 2O.11JO 12. ro lB _ 814 19.60 '''' 2"·.1'1 n.l'Z.08U '.1515 1.3 1.250 18.023 lO.. 6.".)10 1.IOJ ).1.. 7.on 1lJ.OS5 13.llJ.615 .101.052 l'. II.119 J "S'1'J6 5.7179 10.~ ..".'101 41.9t.8 U1S. ".231 74..5J.0 1)(100 212S 22:10 "" " 17SG "" .19J 711.. )..9n JI.~ .73 "" I'b (1018) 11.o 4 .191 ~ 2.9t08.0~6 9.71"19 1 . '.W U..4" 1 10.054 11. I.S01 )IU)9 25.n! U.110 10.210 .73 psia .O 1.l .m n. 11.11l 15.1>6) • 1. Fpb m 1.09) 14 .17 2.27J lO..m' 2..'" 'B .119 12..." s.'" •..~l~ 20.107 ~blS ".7 1.12S 1.J7f> 11.7tIIIO 9 9.101 I lOO_MO 109_1..l746 5.ISS 05.'" 21.'IC1 :r:.3 5.2.)1).1160 127.1 for a desired base pressure of 14.'32 ll.m.99'11 U91.:z50 10.250 28..1«1 1 1.151 ~ ~ 9.06J1 un.656 21.lo<9 U'"'S '.ltoO """ ._ 19$1' 21.1 1.'''' ll.ln )1.TtoI ' 2. 4mo ' .7 7.1M.7 4..' 1.626 " " 000 '.".900 n.0» U.~ 'B U" ~ 2.H un ) 1.136 11. .).oM] Jl.t!I.I'.777..1 7." n . 1011.'150 110. I.150 12.lll N." 6.ln) )..l56 N.n UlIS 2.'" """ .1 1.~Z z.681 1111.. 1l.101.. U.079 10.I7t•• 4 .7)) 11.1001 • '.lOS 1 ).1(.un ".) 1.'~l l058 jA.~ "'" 11.&U' }. . . ~ 7 .'" 1..74& Hlno ))021 1. sa6 '.6611 ".'" ".090 11. 1..euz 2.11 [Mmeter.150 .~ 91.lIl1 "'" Jt"I&4 21.111 0 ~._ 15'l'J 16.OJO 10. m· un I 6.001 lO.15 1.0 '''' U~ 2.)1) ".""'_2 1J. 1l.')) • 6.s27.1'1.w 2').'" 4O.'67' 6.7 1.l'Il 11.150 11 . 1_60.' V'IO nus 2.7 2.on.21...~ 1.)'JI>.ltI .o .~' }.".6. in." 5. (text con tinued on pag€' 498) 16.)912 U155 1.• 7.W 11. t.613 ~.12' 21.136_5 1..0J.~38 A.051 10.1'So4 19.10997 un' l._0 10. at which flow is to be measured is other than 14.W] 2'J.}.141.7fJ ".O '._ "" "'" '5.1)6."" I. """ "'" ".)lS ~'" 18.." 1' .11' 14.)18 16.081 0 8.» l.l'JIII5 1.71 "UI 1.'10) ]I.527.nu "'11>_0 t.016 11.li(e Di~me'e" lLMl )6.'l'Jl 6..16O ".756 lU. Ph in psia..97:12 1.oM7 N.&41.2llS 10.10.l..7') ::".JI..9)2 18.1 2.11>5 23.6011 ""'" a.0:>1 17A15 ".2261 . 7 I!. 6. ".In." sm' 6.M.7i2 14.~.000 '7061 5)...759 1 '.250 11.' 1.1U SoI.116 11...46' tun 14.9 27.411.. 27.41' 17 .160. 22.685 19.OJO 11.1 1. 17.._ 7 2.IJ02 .' I.I.2~~ 28. '. ).no ).7 1.m '.411Z .1 '. .751 ..000 19..2.~ S2.140.6JO 711.'" 21. 117.000 .171 %.~ "" "" .2 ".0'IS 1 )." 2O.0 1.. 1.406 52!!!IO .l11 ~." 90 6. 5.0 5.112.01l 2 .S?1) 1 '.9 1..522 S)lU .9113 19.1011117 Ul2.111 "'" • B '''' .':Ml1 '.90 lO..QlO " ".m 1l.912 67. 10000 ~'" 12."' .207 Z 6.111 29.626 2)000 194W1 11_25O 19.510 4 1.)91).~ lS.& l.169 292$0 _.l4I l'J.7 Continued Gas Flow M easu rement 489 Fit Basic Orifice FactorsPipe rapa Orillce Table 107 Continued Fb Basic Orltice FactorsPipe Taps 18 Orifice 10 12 10..'" lU9): .~ ".1 •..' 2.m_o 2.621 19.900 101.12t 17.561 Dolmeter.'" Fpb .7i7 1l.1.' 23. 2 " 2.p~ 15.7G1 "~ ..&12.1101 2$106 UHa 1.250 17.670 "".094 0 7.564 10.) 1.)'19 Jl.' t..
)75 '''"' ..078':1 0.D3lt> 0.125 o.m .'" .(1668 0.G462 00)62 00379 00195 00281 0.021' 00209 00201 0..0240 0.{lS90 00469 0.{I406 0.O1ll 00512 00501 O()ol7S OOM9 0 ()oI14 0.0442 000158 005)! 0.07QJ 0.0227 00J67 0..376 11.0)2] 0.0240 0.SS 0.OSSO 00509 0..0799 0.06J5 O.0212 0.11810 O.0$32 0.'" 0.4.9) OQ6.004 0.0)91 0.1)176 0.052) 0.0672 0..1)21 4 a.0356 0.0369 00118 00]11 0021!1e 00268 0 02S2 00219 002..00I'.189 5.06J6 006042 00417 0.02" 00232 00224 00218 0.02S4 0.. ...'" . ''''' .1105 0.0252 00296 00111 0.0556 0 0II9S 00l!l02 0.0192 0.0246 0.021>2 00258 0025) 0.07011 0.1091 009)9 0.OJn 0.~ .1}6 11. lJOO 01081 2626 2'100 } 06e • • ) lS2 ) 418 40'16 ."" .J66 00)42 0.Q5.0:02 o.0194 0.0594 O.0466 0.ons 001l) 00)27 002911 00277 00259 0. '.1057 0.0576 0.032f> OOlO6 00291 0.06].04(l0I 0.625 00410 00)80 0.01'.0220 00219 .0&24 0. 0175 ..05lI0 0.on8 0.0281 0024& 0.0512 0.1078 C 10:'8 111080 01081 O.0443 0.0762 o0S90 00li02 OOr.4II 00628 0.0252 O.O!>4a OOSS2 OOSSS 00S68 0.'" '''"' .0175 00178 0.'" .0214 OOlDl 002(1(1 002f>1 00246 001l} 00224 00218 0(21) .'" .0494 8071 1.0497 004118 004M 0.0311 0.0260 0Q26.0685 0..0521 00471 00452 0.0171 0."" .0518 0..OU2 0040II OOlS] 0041' 00167 O.0599 0055S 0.0199 0." ''''' . 0.0194 001117 O.0418 0.0361 0.035S 00129 OOlDS 00Ul 0 om 0()). .125 212S "'" ''"' "" .Olll1 0.~ 00675 0060ll ooser. 1.0203 0.'" un )500 ).0506 0.0190 0.0178 0.0674 0.47 0.0230 0.0405 00379 00418 0.0)42 00)19 0 00W] O()ol14 00la7 00361 00117 O~ OO}l1> 00279 00295 00262 00277 00260 0.lnn 00111 00174 0.0187 001157 0.0452 0.0285 00293 0.0737 0.02'l7 0.0221 0. DeterminationPipe Taps Onfi<e [)o~et'..mn 0.0191 0.020 10.0445 0. 9564 10.0245 0.4 011180 0 02f>2 00243 0. 00351 00336 0011) OO)IS 0032'J 0)58 OO~ OOJOO 002<Jll 00104 00)71 0.49 002')1 00187 002115 00)38 0036J 00192 00281 0027] o 000121 0 ()oI25 00}&t 00)l1li 0.)0 00214 0.0228 0.087'9 00868 Q.0509 00467 • 7.090 146M 00690 0.0555 0.."" un }.9311 11.1)1.9111 8.0200 0.04&1 0.0624 0.()).125 .0111 oom 000112 00489 0.0519 0. ''00 .0478 0.tl OIJ63S 0.0364 0. .07:M oom 00728 0..0492 0.on8 006042 00711> O.019S 0.06&4 0.)75 0.0297 00220 O.112& • 489? 51119 S7f>l fdl6S 7.)75 3...0553 0.om 0.02l8 0.4& 004M 0.()2].0694 00646 0.003 0.0l64 OO2t>5 00261 002t>2 002t>7 00274 00264 oom ODD .. .050 0 Q5.0519 0.0421 00l'Jl!J 00)05 OOOWS 00417 00316 00460 00435 OOlJO 004n 00450 0.0508 00417 00407 00387 0..G400 003711 0 0J56 00316 011317 00300 0026J 0..125 087S "'" ".04'.0152 0.{I541 0.0296 0.0290 0. 2)7S 000407 0..019) 0.625 1.01'7 00182 0.d.07lO 0..03'H O.062':1 0.250 .05n 00578 0.06'J7 0.0207 0.01>16 00552 0.0)60 o.oeso 0.Q.0482 0.0513 0.0625 0.'" ).OM) 0.07011 0.0267 0.~ .0450 00471 0.Df>25 0. >'" .0195 0.0431 0.027l 0.0471 000176 0.lS {IOSJ2 0.'" '''' ''"' '''' 0.0320 0.Ga!1I a 0381 0019) O.1)1.0212 0 0l2I 00220 00:110 00202 0.0S92 0(45) 00461 0.019$ 0. .05l4 0. 11.017(1 O.. Table 108 Continued "b " values for Reynolds Number Factor F.0J65 0.0170 .'" u~ 2.0624 0. U75 .0559 0..OJ14 0.0)52 o.0192 0..IS 0. . 1611') 1919 106..0)58 0.OIR\ 0090S 009(1$ 00918 OOi'Sa O.625 7.02'1 0. ___'.0448 O..071 0.2 011234 0. .0574 O.4 0014] 0.021' 0.0750 OOi'S3 00rb3 Gom 0.125 ..G0t90 00637 006041 OC1601 00$61 00704 00661 0 0610 0.()oI19 00}92 0.0JS(l 00412 00)77 0.0382 00415 00192 004Sf> 0.01>70 0..t9 00)24 00101 O~ 00277 0. '"'00 0. ...0196 00191 0011!1e 001&6 00186 o(n89 00197 0020II 0.0160 0.0575 0.Oln 0.04% 0.45 0.052) 0.0215 0.t8O 00$63 O..02~ 00246 00122 0.0489 00496 D.071)5 O.()).04()oI 00413 • 7.21 O~ 01))18 Q.1S 00$12 00592 OQolO1 0.0601 00570 0.'"' 1.0320 OOJOO 00281 00264 0(12'9 0 (2)5 00222 00212 00202 0.0414 0..0662 00609 0..0460 0..Q11!1e 0.0512 00422 0.02l0 0.G4008 00376 0..0176 001 116 0..0666 0.087] 0.oses 00662 0..0440 O()ol17 0.1l344 0.0._ ).026 4.0211 0.0014 00218 0.ons 00228 00011> 00))9 00'll5 00221 O0JS.0441 00441 0.06041 0.02)0 002:12 oron 00)45 00)20 0(l2'J8 00212 00204 0...om 00209 00200 00192 0018S 00176 O.125 0...4 (10&42 0.01162 006'J7 00747 0."" ' ..Oll1 OOS71 006S2 0.0)04 0.00136 OOMO OO4M 00508 OOS13 OOS').0676 • 0.175 ''''' U75 .42 .490 C08 Producllon Engineering Gal Flow Measuremen t 491 Table 108 " b " Yalue.036J 0.(011) 0.. n.0514 " " lHJOO 15.0247 o.02')7 0.0185 (table contimll.0405 OOoln 00427 0.m .02" 002J2 00220 00210 00200 00193 0.'" '''' . 1.01112 0.04511 0.826 ".0253 0.OlS3 0. ' . 0.0449 0.0314 0.0345 0.0S46 0.0224 0.411 OOS1" 00492 0..0506 0..11'J7 5.05111 0.~ .0273 0.02n DOll' 0.0932 0. for Reynolds Number Factor F.0l40 .11268 0.(I4J5 0..03n O" fice .O~ 0.07ll2 0.0).9$1 '''"' 0.0].761 6065 2.01tIQ 0.1S 00193 0.0614 0.0331 0.QS04 o{lSI1 0.0576 0... .0445 00))9 00]11 0029(1 002n 0.l 00603 00610 OOlAS 0(40) 00407 004504 000175 0 Q.06$0 0.0462 00613 00Sft0 00510 000*66 ''''' . Determ inationPipe Tap. '" ..0268 0."" "n .0213 0. ..0168 0.02S4 002S8 00lt0S 00V4 OOlAS 0.lOl!4 00lI90 0."" .0])2 O.0&46 1lt::1662 .024 0.10'11 0 los. 0.0223 0(42) 00)94 00)607 0.. .03n O.rn ."" .Dll4 O.0261 0..OS'.0215 0.1)4{I9 003117 0.
0211'1 0.01811 0.OlSJ .0311 D.OJOO 0.02&4 oava 0.t)1S6 0_01.0122 0.022S 0..0J.500 2.013& 0.01}.02'.04&& 00492 0. 0.250 0(66) 00667 0.150 " " "500 " 18.0160 0.0187 0." 1..02fa5 0.0140 0.Ol10 00311 0.01&4 0.Ol81 0 0'26J 00251 00207 D.250 28.0171 0..0174 00169 0. o 02n 0.~ 0.05304 0.0161 0.0291 0.02J6 0.0200 0.0226 00212 0.0)99 0..0221 0.011."" .OlllS 0.01&4 001119 0. .".02S1 00175 0..0179 0.0122 0.OJ01 0.0219 00230 0.01611 00163 O..0156 0.0162 0.0601 0.OJ16 0.OJSO O. .t1 O.0279 Q.Onl 00130 0. '. • >SO '500 9.01119 0.0166 0..0136 0.01901 0.0146 0..0142 00146 00156 00"') 001..ons 0.0169 0.).0197 0.0644 00609 0061) 006111 00S8) 00511$ 0.03ll 0.0604 OIlSIll' 0.021l 0.0207 0.0624 0.01"6 0..0425 0.020'2 0. 0.0454 0."" ..060J oosn 0.0133 0.0410 0.04Sl 0..1M8II 00466 0.00t97 o. • uo .0667 00SS6 0.uo .0122 0.500 .0165 0.0222 0.01&4 001n 001n 0.1>Ui 23..0509 0.. 0 0'l10 0. _ _ _ _=.0178 0.020t6 0.. ..0136 0.0121 0.013& 0.0529 0.0195 0.01'.0190 0.Q2611 0.0539 0.0121 0..ae 15000 15.0466 0.02G4 0.0Z70 O.06J6 0.090 " .t] 0 0J2(I 0.06J0 0.0224 0.0)41 DOl]] OOlU 10.l71:o 119311 12.0151 0.0314 O.02S9 0.02..0»1 0.0)46 0.0190 0.01604 ..OU4 00]10 Q.0275 0.0276 0.0242 0.0165 0.0123 0.0435 0.0156 0.17 002711 0.0241 0. .0221 0.05'11!! 0.0244 0.uo 2.000 14.01S04 0.0123 m..OllS " " .56 0.017'6 0.0471 0.750 "..0l69 0.0:)59 00J04 0.623 29000 29.0122 0..0461 0./.0470 00S6ll 0. .OlJ3 0.0)16 0. 19. ".. .000 12.0200 0.0536 00429 0.01&1 om!'! D. .0162 0..01504 OJ). ..0253 0..0591 0.0144 0..125 .02S2 0.O1l7 00135 0..0117 0. '"'" '" .026) 0.0155 00158 0.0236 001)9 0.0132 OOllO 001&4 00167 0.000 1).01)) 0.049(1 0.OJSI 0.D2S5 0. .0V2 0.0299 002113 00280 0.05111 0.WI 00215 0.02n 0.'" . .0219 0.0Z21 O.0571 oasso 0.0232 0.0344 0.000 .m 0_0295 D. 001S11 00191 00102 OOlOb 002117 001SO 0.0110 0..0436 0..ossa 0.0140 0. lH.0180 0...01)9 0.01..0191 O.ot90 0.om 0.0'.OJ(M 0.0JS6 O..1I2M 0014S o.0122 0.crua 0.0141 0. 0246 0 02S0 O.500 '.0129 0..0152 0.500 14.04S9 0046J 0. '"'" .om 0.' 00140 0..0175 001n 00180 00210 0.0379 0.01113 00193 0.ot57 00111 0.0257 0.0127 0.0V2 0.0280 0.0570 00476 0.0126 0.0356 0.02M 0.0210 0.0J040 0.D502 0..01411 00142 0013& 001S11 OOISO 0..ot7) 001n 0.oln 00176 0.0204 00214 0.0151 0.0528 0.0416 0.o:m 0.0 (021) 00262 002S1 00286 00216 00267 '.0122 0.0444 0.250 0.0130 o.0141 0014) 0.0126 0.500 15.OS16 0.'" ..0241 0.01&1 0.05&4 00S61 .0252 0.OllB 0.0616 0.06l0 0.010& 0.0206 0.000 23.0669 ".011S 0.m 0.0561 0..0252 00248 0. .250 ".0141 00140 0.0186 O. 0.0241 0. 0."" " IO..06SII 0..05S04 0.OlllO O.0156 0..0406 O.02fIQ 0.0155 0_0154 G.0121.0144 0.500 16000 16.CI206 0.0405 00409 0.0180 0..0649 O.0230 0..500 '. O.'" .0151 00154 0.01304 0.ono O.0 0.0251 00141 001102 00166 0.0266 00261 00286 00279 0.01411 00151 0.0419 0..0479 o.500 1).~ 0.0562 0.125 .0162 00159 0.."" .250 0..03111 00313 0.1SO 10000 0..01&4 00165 001611 00212 002111 00222 00307 0.0199 0.0140 0.0160 0.016' O.0427 0032.0215 0.0510 0.0155 0.02"6 0.0153 0.0416 0.500 17.04049 0. 0.0549 006042 0.0194 0.04045 0.0635 O.04049 00455 0.02l0 0.0140 0.0189 0.0147 0.051) 00639 0.11210 00204 0.492 Gas ProductioFi Engineering Gas Flow Measurement 493 Table 108 Continued " b" Values tor Reynolds Number Factor F.1lJ.47 D.0142 0015) 0.0)01 o.0132 0..0259 0.0121 0.0)46 0.066S 0.0139 0. " .2S0 .om O.05304 005111 0.0130 0. 0.0591 01M'll!! 0.01110 0.0310 .0117 0.750 11.625 2. .0194 00190 OOl21 O.01611 0.0J69 0..02'J6 0.0140 0.0247 0.0S41 00521 0.0148 0.O1ll 0.500 17.0246 00235 0.0)09 0.014) 0.=__ lU14 19000 19250 22!>26 21000 23250 281028 29000 2'J 2SO 0.500 .031] 0./.0148 00146 001)) 0..0 0...250 • .0341 D.0112 0.02f. 006S7 0. 12.Q2OI 0.03311 00332 0.0522 0.0312 0.0179 0. DQlV 00244 0_0239 0.. '. .0209 0.0262 0.0132 001304 O.s.0)0} 00299 0. •.0163 0.0JJ6 0.. oom O..OlJO 0040l 0..020) O. 0..564 10020 10136 11. .0167 0..03J6 o. .115 3.0229 0.01'12 0.0156 0.0613 0.0259 0. Determination _ Pipe Taps • .or.0244 0..0192 '.02'II!I 002'J2 o112M 0.. .0295 0.0160 0.0140 0.0l01 00211 0. 0.0571 011561 00S45 0..0136 0.0112 0.0)62 0.0198 0 (tI91 1l.0lI.0155 0.ren O."" '..G4$l 0.0349 0.1l:2S6 0.0318 0.0114 0.011.0425 00411 00435 0..02S9 O.0125 O.0292 00022 00]12 00»1 00132 (0)2) 00]1$ 0.0152 0..0&12 0.02J8 00231 '''' .2S0 '.OJ2O 0.0320 D..000 10.0613 00520 0. .011. .0136 001)9 00143 0..0169 0.04&4 0."" .0261 0.0275 0.ono 0.0223 00219 00244 0..0'291 0.0222 0.. 10.0146 00140 0.0229 0.'" '''' '."" '.0142 0.0328 0..04Jl 0.000 19250 22.0221 0_0l0'2 OIlJ26 oo..059S 0.Q3}.OJ&] 0.0236 01X22l 0.2 O.0142 0..0515 00492 0.0176 00185 001901 0.0122 0.Cll69 00274 0.01.01 81 0.OleO 00l&t 5.0191 0.0195 0.0229 00292 0Cl299 0.000 15.0161 0.0202 O.0215 0.0121 0.om 0.011& 00219 01l209 0.0151 0.0240 o.0274 0.0411 "" 0.175 '.2S0 0036) 0.0121 0.O'28e 0.ren 0.01S1 0.011' O.0161 Table 108 Continued " b " values for Reynolds Number Factor Fr DeterminationPipe Taps O"fKe [)o.0150 0.0293 0..0250' 0.0161 00153 0..0161 0.0130 0.0240 00150 0.1l2f>4 002Sl 0.06J5 0. .02811 0.01l1 O.0)!!7 0..0646 0.ot23 0.0191 0.0171 0..0117 0. O.0240 0.06J9 0.0622 0..250 .0l0l 0.0124 0.000 0..D1~ 00151 00132 0.02f.0S82 0.OlS3 0.0128 0.0307 0..0130 0.0236 0. O. ler.0173 0.0282 0_0276 0.0128 0.
91" Q91lf 0..9741 G987~ 0_1 .9950 o~ 0.9677 O.'9' GU$ Prod'4ctioTi Engineering Gas Flow MeaslIreml'llt 495 Table 109· YI Expansion FactorsPipe Taps Static Pressure Taken from Upslre.9ns 0'173011 0...'N08 0.9'62 O.8970 0.9685 0.952S 09500 Ut91 1'1950) 0.'127S 0...97OCI 0_' 09n..90"10 0.....91SO 0.9'iOO O...91018 09122 09091 0'1100 092018 o 92ll 0..9501 09<lSS 0946') 0..997.. .9'II!Il D_'J962 09'loU 0.9S05 0947.. ".9476 D.949] ....M)} O..'lIIl9 0.5841 0.....'lIWI7 09517 0..992'.]117 0.95<12 0. !.9412 09)81 0.''''lI!5 0.9£.227 09196 0...0000 O. 0'" 0911))' 0'J1128 091111 0'Jl109 09812 09821 091111 091!1Xl 097'JO ogn..'ll9 0.!'l&I 0.9)'62 0~1 0. "'" .9'JoI(.'1626 0.95111 0. ...9&J3 09610 . " " " " " o " 098!.17'Jo' 0V6l 0...90100 09J111 090lXl 09410 Q9l'lD D9171 oml 09331 D..1$56 098.92lJ O.9]SS 0..8110 ..91)019 09019 0..91140 0..'9226 0..buo o ..9563 0.1I91O 0.9734 097601 0 9744 Q. .l1li56 OMll 0. 0.~ 0912. .9ID 09511 0.9419 1."" 0"" O'19b2 ft""tl!! 09976 09'J6ol 09951 O.95QS 09oWl1 O9S'iO 0.9lI06 O..9169 O'l8SO (91)1 0.I11III7 0.9lI9 0."" .971) O.9775 09).9$66 o9M2 O'J6Jl 0.9l'lD O.m r.'11145 0. .954'1 Q95lf 09519 0.9600 095)'] 095<17 0.9516 0.. .996~ 0.9JQ6 09187 O.9l9!1 09525 0..9691 0.9129 0.._.95» 0.9S2.~~ ..9255 0'1227 09200 09246 09261 .9blI> 0. .9226 09200 0.'JSoW 09522 0'lSOl) .0000 0.. 0". .9660 0. .t607 US'l .91101 091J11 0.*.9876 0. .9nS 0.4 091n Q."" 0. o"v.9SJ(..' 09851 0.961J 0. 0.m7 0'm9 0. 09928 0. 09SlJ 0... 09J11a 091n O.9710 0.9100 0.~ 09J111 09)60 09})') D.11913 0. " 10000 11..9895 O..9519 0.919'l O....9517 D'MoJO 0"1) 0....9705 0.9151 0...9lI06 0'1782 0.91)'5 09152 ....aM6 0.~~ 09244 0.'J&JS 09677 0.9Sl1 0. 0.9).." .~ 0..'lWS 09660 0.~ O...~m 0.9'T"2 099045 0~7 0.'1272 0.917S O...9691> 09669 0 '16<11 0 9&14 "'" " 09623 0.9812 O...g 09m 0974S 09no 0_ 0."7 D.990& 09M1 0.'9567 0'l6Oll 09587 0.9101 09161 0.91n 0.9609 09Sl7 0.9678 0'J662 0.'lS6 09l9'l 09115 09151 09420 0.'J68..9125 09111 0.99'...6 09942 o ..9574 0.....S 0'11\66 0. .9926 09916 0990S 0'l8'lS (99)9 09'JV 0991S 099V 0991] D .9')lS 099U 09977 09'J5.956S 0.9174 0.1742 0. D....9oIS5 09456 0.925fo..946$ 0..9680 0965) 0 WIl7 om2 0.9n1 0.9'16/1 O. .. .&774 0."•• " " " " " " 05 " u 09'10) 0.'1llO 0._ OtloeO 09665 0'l6'iO 0 "'" 0.!JS2'j 0..) 0_'l601 09891 0..9871 0.95 0.."'" ".~ 090156 0." '" ..9742 0.~ o"'n O't505 0"'7'J 0"5(1 0"'54 0").~ 10000 0.99)8 1I.9"'" 0976/1 09742 09716 09690 0..4 0.9421 0."'" 0""" '~N 0939) 0')65 • 09l'99 0".9196 09115 09153 0.."" ..'Ml 09936 09'JS:! 0.9198 0'222 091>56 O~ 0'1621 0956l 0..9n~ 09n} 097lll 0.'I<I6J .90106 0.96011 097~9 09818 0ge05 091'91 0'781 0.t197'J D..."'" . 09794 .99C/2 O_'iIIIIIl 0..'... 9nJ 09b14 0~3 9TB 09695 096011 095711 O'J6)S 0.<m:! 0. .92'JII 09277 a 92SJ 0.."" " . 099fjQ 09'161 09'1011 09921 09979 Om') 0_9911 09951 O..92M 09249 . .15 0.9971 0."'" 0..9346 D'J11 09ZSl '" 09351 Q.'170 09J111 09)6.9520 0 95116 09558 095)1 09614 095M 0.99S1 O~ . """ .. 'M~ 08951 0. .40 09)16 09)68 093U om) " " u " " .... ..9221 0....9'J07 0..9794 09775 0 ~756 0.SO 09n5 09160 09711 09707 0...9155 09910 0.'JIIJO 0..." 0 97&7 D9I!I9O D91!162 0'Jlllo4 091107 o._ OOJ&ol(l O'MlS 0.9785 0.'" "'" .9975 0.95O!i O.92U 0921& 0.1 09J. 0. '" .~ 0'1<180 0.9296 0.9876 0. 2 D. 09m 0.45 0...94S2 0..9810 119&48 098:16 09l'lOS 0978) 0.59 0...8 O~ O'~" 09n2 O~ 0~ 0 09716 9712 0'16114 0*12 0 9W1 a Wol1 0.<)629 09714 0.... " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " o 9?DS " o " o " " ..9$66 0.9554 D959S 0. "" " .17 0961] 0 9600 09590 09519 0.90176 09461 0.9&<16 O..9512 0..MM 0'354 0.9567 0.9Il8'J 091lb2 1'1. .9m 0'1751 0 9n2 o9811 09796 0'1782 09761 097S2 0'1llll 0972) 09709 0. 091" 0.915<1 0.70 10000 10000 D9'l:"3 099047 o. 06 07 08 0' I{} " " " os 099'10 0. 0944] 0.997~ ~ . 0'710 0.. 0'710 091l'O 09179 097(..n .1 09931 0. " " " " " H 0.pI J1lo1lO Table 109 Continued VI Expansion FactorsPipe Taps Static Pressure Taken from Upstream Taps d d .." . 0.7 09n! 0.9821 0981..'lDn 091)011 0'lOl2 09111 .'JII2J 091!1Xl 0"" 0'11145 09819 0..13 0ge67 0. .9164 0.9452 0...9'1£>01 O.912] O'lllO7 0985' D.98e6 09857 09821 09Il00 09n1 0~"2 0.9662 0960 O'J62S 0')601i 09511 095M 095'iO 0. .91))...96<IJ 09714 0.&171 Oa9S1 089)) .9673 0..9oIJ7 0.."'» 0"'17 o 'J6Jl WIl7 0 ."14 D. 09911 09952 09'Joll o!I'll) 0".9753 0. 09104 091)1 .."' 0.9097 0..9225 0... 0\1811] O'le69 O.97)1 0..9599 09576 09552 09117 o9709 0.91" 0.9t.92S0 09ll') 09X13 09277 OW2 09)(17 09280 0925) 09227 09W 0..9757 09621 09599 09571 0.'11&4 0.." .90)'5 .26 0951.9J"!M 09171 097" 09M2 09859 09l3S 0"'11 097& 0.9418 0.9147 09120 09093 09061 D'lOIIl .92)6 09]16 09195 09174 09611 0 .' .. "...9354 09lJ6 09118 DUll 09213 09362 0!ll41 0.91)015 091)19 .'1142 0W26 0 ~7(..9')6& 0.nl' 0. 09227 09199 09170 09142 0922)' 09198 0..9321 0." 09106 " " " " " " " " " " " 0.MU 09197 om) 09914 O<N(lo .'I68S 09876 0'*'6 09857 093&01 09874 09116) 0985) 096012 . "..9}24 0. '1100 0.9600 09575 095012 09514 0.... 0.101 0990] 09891 n9tl?8 Man 0.M06 0.11941 0.\llIS4 09919 09\W 0'lllS7 09871 0." 10000 09971 09904} 0~4 0.96019 09Wa .. 10000100001000010000100001000010000100001000II100001000010000 0_ &99'" 099611 D99SI " .92S11 0.1III2S 0..95&7 0956) 0 9100 09675 09&50 O.1 09911 09!iOll 0997~ 0995] 09'm 09'J06 099. ..m2 09m am) Q...9115 0..'JIIll D...~ 0 6'J 1.9071 0.1II3'J 0..1 09742 .9oIU 0.4S 0..~..'t621 09EoQS 09581 095010 095<13 O"ill O. UiOOO O.976' 09n9 09718 098M 09Il102 09ll4O 098" O...9)12 o.4 095J4 095" 0.9S411 0...9VS 09850 O.91SO D'llS 0.. " 0... 051 060 .')0(1 0.11603 (1...906<1 0..! ." ..96tt<I o9639 o 961) 095117 09561 095lS 09510 0.101 1.... ..9IilS 0."" O..9550 D95J11 09'. .9515 0.910l "'" Q92S11 0.\Sl 09126 09102 09078 D.969(1 D9Iom 0..9'Jl5 09'lOl 0... ..m 09J111 09435 09414 O.'1'l63 0. O'J02S ~ 0.91'104 MlM 0.9612 0.9436 09426 0..9&7'J 0. " " " ..W' 11.n " .91162 D9&lJ O.
9')45 O.~ 1.'J128 09G24 0.91 111271 10281 1.."'" ''''' 10J06 10)1.w.9'lO1 09199 0.91711 0. 00.996) 0"11 0".<Jl"11 0."" .9939 0.1811 0'JllOl (979) 0. .1817 0'11110 091!lOJ 0..9Bll 0."" .1)108 1.006J \.'I8S5 0'M47 0'M)ll 0.""..9936 09')M 0"30 D9!IS'J om) 0. .0084 10057 1.99% O.9"1(1) 09914 09\112 09962 09959 .I84'J 0'J&l1 0'1eJ4 0'18)0 0 wn O'lel~ 9'J&o1Q 0'lllO 0.9Sn 09562 0.98l1 0'..0021 0._ 0."" O..0114 loose 1. IlO6& .0016 o'l'm> 09972 09967 0.:I 0.1 0.1X/7S 11)01'1) l00J6 10011 10011 HlOS) 10001 llX102 1 oo:n 1.991!2 09981 0991!10 O'J97'J 09978 o 9971 0.'JJ'01 09&'JO 0.9866 0.99U U. ".'.9991 0 9'J'I1 0.'iIWo 098')) U. .9!Il'a O.~. .M?9 0'9927 om4 0'1921 .'1'1161 0.<)111 O..96IoS 10)10 IOXM 1..&! .0116 1.._ O.1101. .)2 OWl 0.0l90 1...9!I2'J .999:' 09997 O.99'12 0.9996 O.9952 0.9927 0.0118 10181 'Ill¥.w 0'J126 0'J122 0'l1li17 0.99£.99'104 0...9642 D..~0' 0.'"" 09'J61 .0Q2S 1.9IJ4O '.."'91 O'J'J'J2 0.'IIlO 09G2! 0. • 10051 10059 .. 0.'11162 O~ 1..9593 09')49 0.951.".0071 0.'~ owao 0. 0.")2 O. 10 10111 .'783 0"n8 09m 0. 0..9750 09740 (97)1) 0.9IJ'IO 0_ 0'1.0095 0. ..'.91&1 0W'"4 0.97f>l 0'127 09no 09713 09707 09lOO 0..992& om4 09nO 0."" .9!UI . ... WI 10229 10lM 10146 10lSS 101S."" .112)7 UI131 1.1801& 0.0266 1019'1 1..ti9Io 0.911111 '00)$ ..me 0.2 o..~ 0.Cf.'JTlJ 0.0010 1.'16J6 0.'i1M7 O.9969 09965 09'Wi 09'MO 0 'l9Jl 099S" 09')f.000'\ 10006 1."'" 0.0061 1..')644 0.lnlll 1.9965 0..991' 09916 O.9950 09M') 099041 0 9ne 099)5 0."" .9582 O.l3 09i')16 21 22 1) 14 1.~ 0.. 1." "'" .9SI16 0..9961 0.00'1) 10014 10014 10015 1..9596 O...'J812 0. 0."91 0.1II!Jl 0'JllSol 0'. OmJ O'l'lSJ 09'l~4 0.0121 I .9917 o..'''''' " " .9.""" 099U 09907 0.911'" 0.99601 D."" .000B 10021 \._ 09615 0. .0019 10020 llXJ21 1. 09'l11 O..'""'" 0.')7b5 09756 0. 0'.91109 0'1811 0'J11)4 09:"18 09791 091N1 09:"t>4 0~'57 D~7~ 09~41 09""20 0..o 0.'J62} 0..ure.. .1J05e 1001>2 1.97811 0~~81 0~n4 0.9M2 0..91178 0.9503 0. 0..0212 '.'JI\lIi 0'1891 0..01."" .9966 0.w.97H O.'J171 0'..97lIl 0.11101 1illOi 1..9IJSII D.99041 0'J\lJ6 0.9970 09!161 09966 0. ."'7 09i)W o !I'M 1 0.9'l'2O 0 9909 0....9995 0.9680 0«.'1&t6 0'J&l1 0.'M4 om} D.9\115 0..0036 1()(1)9 UI()oIJ 11'047 10051 1 0QS.9M2 0.0219 1.' 0.0077 10081 10015 lOCI!') llJO'1l 0. " 0101 .'C::COc.9961 0 9960 099$6 099'53 09950 0..'lQl o 9M2 0.._ 0."" .9!I6oI 0.'.'.0 09~44 0. .. 10Wb UD» 11017 10002 100l)0I 1000II 10000 0. Taken from Downstream ~p.10 umo 100'12 1.It'iN 0.95).0003 UlooJ UIO()4 09'l9!i 09996 0 999S om! 099'10 0 99M '0059 1.9S~1 10H9 1.999S 0 99')01 09992 0_9'19S 0_9!1'12 0 99!10 o79M 0 99'JIi 0 'l'J'J) 0"" 0 9'J86 09982 O~ 09995 0...0001 1. " " .'J605 O.9!i6ft 09J!i& 09965 0.18160 0.'ifi24 0.~7 10197 1 tI:105 10212 U1220 111228 1.0018 UlO21 U1021 10015 1.496 Ga.. ~ _ Ito.0112 1.0082 10017 l. 0. 09902 091190 o 9912 D.2 un69 1.0011 09999 0.'1611 O. .9'i041 .~ 0. 0. 096')01 O.f Flou: M easuremCJl t 497 Table 1010 Continued Y2 Expansion FactorsPipe Taps Static Pra..I8J1 0.'II!IbO 0.1811 0.99')..~ 10111 099ll 09'l18 09'l1] 099011 0.9Iill 0...ur.56 a sa 'OOOQ o 10000 I UOO6 'OOOQ 1 0000 10000 UlooO HUlO 10000 10000 .977\1 0..(1009 1..61 0.9898 0. " oon " un10 . __ Rob<> . 0119 IOU7 LO'l)6 10144 I 1 (11M 10106 10051 100l)0I UlOO4 1.""'} 099'Jl 0.'1A22 0.1 0.l1li'16 1l'J'J'J2 0.~.9962 09957 0. Ito.9'l17 09ll'J'l 09890 "..0085 1 IlO6& \.l 10056 ° 0'.'" 0.or. "..02SII 1. 1(2)0 1.9'JS8 0995I 0.OJ)} '.9992 099'12 09992 O.9~~7 0~711O 0....9915 0'l'9l3 0 991!10 D.91121> 0'!ll\2O 0'1874 0'Jl71 0"'7 0.mll 09'lJ) 09929 09924 09'l111 om7 09!llO 09914 099011 099001 098'))' O'Wll O..'111)2 0.9.OO7fI \.q7q(.. o 1 OOOQ ..1870 '*'5 09l!1bO O'l8SS 0'l8SO O.9'MS 0.'IIlI\3 0. 09"f111 0 .." ...11 099011 0.0. " .'1151 0'M41 0 'J&I1 .99001 09900 D.m2 O.."" .me 09976 0_9't7S 0 9912 ...9976 0.9761 0.9769 0. 1..'I62D 09nl 091'0} 0.9788 09n..'JIS1 0.<JIOoI 09780 097504 097.99117 0.96811 0.000!i 1..ge77 09l'1li1 O'l8n 0'lll64 0..'mII 09969 0.~ 0. CO.9994 D.99of7 0990fl 0. ...'ifi14 Q.'J111118 O.9:'46 09llO5 091'97 09789 09180 0~:7l O.9804 09792 o 9711J 0...1926 091190 O.'J1V7 0')17) 0.. . .9'lJ2 D.'I81~ 09&.'J1)6 0~1 '0121 1.18$0 0.9644 0'/8S1 0.979) 0...'iIIiII1 O.0175 unl' 100')7 1.'162S 0_ 0.'JI4O 0'JllO 0'11116 097)8 09. " """ . 0"}5 O"lI 0992B o 9'l111 099011 0. 10l1l 10112 "'" "m unv 10193 Hmo 1.1)153 1.01011 10114 '1D\6 UI070 0. 'm.992S 099111 09911 09')f9 09911 099)] 0.9972 0.9!IOl 0..OTS6 101r..1 1._ 0.i61 09756 097.'"'" 0991'0 09'l64 0.'ifil4 0.1 0. 10100 15 l' 27 U 2.m.9'184 0.998J 0.V!O D ..0128 t01Jf> TOO9!I 101m 1.s 097'99 09l'94 O.15 0.'lIIIM o. 0.'M41 O.1 0) .'IeIiO 0. 0'l61a 0."J7 D.99I'J o.9II6J 0.97].9757 0."" (I')'JTI 0. " " . umo IOOH 1.9'JS& 0.99lI'J 0 w.9827 0.._~ 0.'l801 0.9995 0.0066 llXJ1i& 1.0026 1.9995 0.9!I7l 0 'J'J5a 09'Ml O.'J'lI&B 0.%95 0. 0.."" ..' OQ740 O.9711 0..95n 09561 0.'1719 • llIIl'il l00!.9'M9 0.t 1. 0. .'J'J'J2 099'1] O.99Jl 0. .0079 1." " " " ". 09')1() 099}! O..'J9O( 0.0025 10028 UlOll '!XXlI 0'" 0.w!. O"l~ 09906 0.0243 1. 0952f.9(10) 0.'.99')4 09987 0991)6 0.'JI08 0..lXM(.9II9l 09']1 09994 0·9994 0.0022 1.0015 1 0053 1 0060 l00~6 1.. " "."" .9:"10 09lOO 0_ 0_1 0.9&19 0'll!..ms 09909 09'lO1 1 .11010 10011 10011 O..'IIJ)'j 0..'.911'16 D'.9'M9 O.9IJGC 0 '189'1 0.021.999!I II " " 0 9997 lOOTS 1002) loon H'018 1 00'24 l000Q 10000 1.96]9 0.. "'" .. "..1120& 1.504 0.01127 100:10 1 0032 100M lIXlJ6 U)(I19 1 0041 1 OOU 1. Taken from Downstream Taps h.9'JI'lQ 099'J04 0.9932 O.50 052 0." >om " .11071 10074 l._ 0!96..I8J7 0'18)1 0."" D.<)667 091176 O.11120 1.'197.9!lJJ D99l! 099Jl 0.9:""57 0. 101\00 0.9bM 09632 0. '11199 098&7 0... 1011>/' 10174 101e2 10189 UI126 !Olll lona 10\.'W12 0. " " ens) " lin"" " " " 1 00)0 '''''' " ..9BS9 0.oI 0 ."" . 0.96611 0.'IIIIl 0.."'" .!lM6 0'11181 0.45 0..99Sot O..(2)5 '0:14) I.9')11 09901' 0.9990 0.'J'J'J2 O...9&79 0.m.11001 '. .9ns 09718 09710 OWOl 0.9')f6 0..01.99'Il O'J'J'J2 O...91J62 O..'.9916 10170 10m .1 0..0014 (999) 09991 0.9991 O._ 0.9'l16 09'lO1 0 'IIlM OW.96Ir'J 0'7'111 0..~ 0.9875 0.'1695 0 .s Production Engineering Table 1010 Y2 Expansion FactorsPipe Taps Static: Prenure.._ 0.Q296 UI2!S 1. ono loon \.'1'/018 0..'J112S 0'.9'11' 0997) (1. 0.'47 09')11 097JO 09nl 0.'111)5 O'J81S 0.'IIl56 0'l8S1 0.m O..0007 101108 UDlI! 1.'M4.
and nonhydrocarbon content of less than 12 mole% N2 andJor 5 mole% CO2 . inve~ly as the square root of the absolute flow temperature: where 'Yg . Because of the tremendous variations in gas compressibility factors with gas composition. that are added to the actual flowing pressure and temperature of the gas. a correction for gas gra\. T in R. respectively. + 2. + 5.specific gravity of the gas (air" 1) yc .ty.mole fraction of N2 in the gas The. Fp.!IS Cas Production En~ineeri"ll: COf Flow Measurement '99 (text continued from page 489) TI'III~atlf""BOM Faclor.ty ("Yg).. total heating value (IIt in Btu/sef). As expected. The specific gravity method uses the specific gra\.Jr' 520 (1020) • The basic orifice factor. as follows: r~ ft~  'YI . F!b . respectively. (1021 ) F~ SU'~lIIprnsibi/ity Factor.0.420)'~ (1023) .' The heating value method uses the specific gra\. using the fact that the gas flow ratc varies R).gas compressibility factors at the base (generally assumed to be equal to 1. fpl> and fth' respectively.05 >. The flowing temperature factor corrects for cases where the flowing temperature.'YI .e C and fIg values are used to determine the pressure and temperapi ture correction factors from Tables 1011 a and lOllb. pressure. as follows: fpl> . is determined assuming a gas gravity of 1. These fph and flk values are used to determine the pressure and temperature correction factors from Tables tollc and 10lId. . 1969) provides two approximate empirical methods for determining the supercompressibility of natural gas mixtures: the specific gravity method. ."Y. respecth·ely. So. as follows: 1 F• . respectivel}'. and the CO 2 content of the gas to calculate the pressure and temperature adjustment indices.472yc . fth .ty is required. it is advisable to determine Fp' experimentally or through proven empirical techniques. that are added to the actual flOWing pressure and temperature of the gas.0.793h. Th~ corrected pressure and temperature values are used in Table 1O11e to estimate the supercompressihilit}' factor. These corrected pressure and temperature values are used in Table lOlle to estimate the supercompressibility factor. AGA (AGA.O.1 for a desired base temperature of 520oR. and temperature.84)'(. F Ih This factor corrects for cases where the base (standard) temperature. Tr (O is not 520 o R. Fp.641yc (1024) This factor corrects for the deviation of an actual gas from idealgas behavior. fpt! and fl~.OO1814H t Ftf  [ T."Y8 .O.75. Fh . Z .13. and the heating value method. at which flow is to be measured is other than 520' R: (1019.0. and the carbon dim:ide (CO!) and nitrogen (N 2) contents of the gas to calculate the pressure and temperature adjustment indices.' This method gives reasonable results for a gas with a gravity within 0.0) and operating conditions.mole fraction of CO 2 in the gas ys .691)yc. It is calculated as follows: (1022) where Zb.OOO5688HI + 3.
'O :/0 .. l'JA 1<. 'OlO S. be .'111 ).'.111 . ....i~"!I:: ..fooI. " . 4 .. >'SlOfo .. _ Of" '.J. I I It ..OI' . 'OM aft 13S1 11111 SOl ..s:a . . '.1U ~" 50" IolSt _~. 70.U ...:"::0 .. )0 '00 120 . 1 ~6a.a.....11 ..7] lUI 'J.~:.::1 I:l 2 0.n "9'1 ••• on ••• •• . ....2 "II 50'1 )4 ft.. ~ 5.s .... .\11 'lAlS ~S1l<S )II'" v.... ... nOJ ".. I I i ...V 11.12 _ 1.OO lOn ·". "'1 U '" • 71.Ill'! 11 JO .. ..11 ••• SI. .1' ... • ." 1l.1"... '111 .... ::!:::.Ob Iln . .'1 ~'1IIl .... so nw leJO '" n 117.'.'1 1111 'UJ IJIJ l'J II J! " • on. I .. Martomeltr Factor..s.ri an 1'1'" UD I7..'" ail )01.n . . . and ambient temperature.ta.• .111 • 61 t1 71.::u::'::o ::n:.....1) .. IJ 17 ftlf. ". ..)4 ".. ...~ l'J 171 'IS ".. .1' _"1lo il'l · ..1.::: " •• .TI 11" . fooI . ..tlll'H!'~ Q~~~~~ .. ....~ ......" .$1 n 'l iIUl 10._~"" .. ...~I!l= ~...:~! .. •• .S' 11 " .. .... .:=:! O.. n...«J:<:e . ...7JO 1) "11 ..n u.~ "'" . • 1Q!!:::' o • 1Il::J.::01ll I " •• ......'«.~ 4/" . n . ...~..lS U" 17l1 lUG . l't $7...:I:... )oil ..111 '..1l "u .)UII )4" "l' 02. :faa::: .! U" "n ~ ! ~~ ~ ~~ o 0 . iIl'i851......'" .ul~." "... It is generally negligible • and is totally ignored for pressures below SOO psia ...'~~Q ~~'§= e:!~~~ ~:!t. y"~.1i\ ~.!::. .. _ . I' 11 71115 ••• 11... t'~q.. ". I III¥ :11. Table 10· 12 gives this correction factor as a function of gas gravity. .!~ .0/ 7. ..~~ i_2~!!~ .00 "I7 ""II ..1< gil ".." "it 71.)8 )00" ".. 'IA ...:::::::::: . ::'~:l •• u. ....Go. .'ll '. .~ .0 '. ... .:.. .....J' i1' 0 SJ'S S" ·1O .0 ..4'1 .. ..."" ....:! • ....:" ~~'_ . ~~$.~. o." .«~:.::':. »_ 4H2 <OJ.1..~:1\ ":. I I I I .~ .:.... '".. ~o. )0'2 '7'1\1 s. This factor is requ ired only where a mercury manometer is used for measuring the differential pressure..t! 11......~..50 . ".tl .......)01 .." 110.21 _71. SJI "" »11 "$II 4/m ))71 l'J07 1))) "''' Y" S'&I n . J St.! ~~.500 Ga" Prodllction Engineering Cd" Flow MeoSllremmt Table 1011b Supercompresslbility Temperature Adjustments." . .~ .\'alural Ca •....y .') • 11. u.... .....~ .:l ~9. :'. S" '015 194'1 _1. . S~~ o....Jl D.~ ·'Ul '''.11111 'l~ ..\ 11 11'" all 11... ftM S' n "" D. . .. 11 " 2UII .. l!el!llQSS "'~ ." . ..._ H'IQo' ......... I I :!::' .11 _lin lJ.______________________"! .. flowing pressure... lOa. .m~"'"'..710 ~ " ts . ..'" lllil a57 Ull . . h..:<$ S~Ii~S!'!l ~:l~. .. " ~::::H~:. .lI!.IIS " ... • •• ••• . LiT (fhsea on Specific Gl'llvity Method) 50) ~ J~ " ~~ . "e"<o·e"!~"~ _______________________ JOS4 1. .." "'..:g: =H:H.:11..fi« M~Itr1"g uf . •• •• ~ .'l. .<:S 0.v .~ o~ 'In J1.~~~~ !=~~~ i~~~~ ~~~..510 . • ..00 .lII 1S_4S UJI $140 II Of iSU ".:ssa:!:f.:...01 SUI S19O 1'11'1 il..s ~II<' :un "IS )D. 5..Ill S..." SIll .. "l'J "11 J201l lSM "111 n "'III JO. ~ .. .. " . .:n Ii'" " . ~ ::'iiI!:J: 00 :ut:." u. 1il::'~!:..Old . = =~~ ~ ~D~'~ .:::'51..j.ll lOfoY Ul'O 11m 10:1'. 0.. 15 17. 1969: oourtelO\ of ACA . . . It compensates for the different heads of gas above the two mercury columns of the manometer. F '" !! .IS . .... 15 Sl .CPt )oW 11. . ...'" ".. 11.'ll as..«1 '}..y . 0 7S 1.It 12S1 'I.l .'" 15" JOIS _<0 oil .~ lJ 'S 'RO . .. 11. 0 . '....  .:....» IU.~ ~ !'J' ~ ·no ·W'l 'Ill ••• os .S.as Y~ n... ..~ e:i~· o 0 ::: S:!:::l!ell: lJ._ ...71 H" ..11) .. . 0<1".)O .. ~ J'la lJ l) %7.. 'n 11. _ ..... •• ..1 .os '50 lS50 1II. .. 0 0 " . (text continued on page 51 i) .: I "" a. . 0 lOIoS:S!::...5..HI '.....J:~1il . oM . 01 '.." 1. ri. '" U" 11111 1C::.n "'! U1 o S. ••• 100.=~~ It~~= I ..U .M 50.. • F rom O.l? '.. 0' SUII 71 .1" 7'S...li .' I!!Q~!!:!:i'i ... "'~.~ ... "''J'OI .
1...Il OJ'I ·11. 70010 n ... . . 1'~ III • ·n.. "a .6' 'US ". ." . Ii s....(13 I.ll~'" .foJ V.n v.'10 n ...S" <1lo1o 0910 ''IOn ".")1 ·.). ".1 II" ·IS .I . I>!' 19'1 )lO' .•.. .'" j'" '1o.. MU .aa . (Bllsed on Helllln" value Method) .\ ._" 1111 OS)1 "" I'" 10" '1'11' ·1"1 ·14" JIo" 15" 10M lIo. "...•• . . ..". ". I:U:. ..".. .. . ..~ ~ • :.21 _" ... .111 0 . . .11 • !. ".. . ... 011 119 ). as&I::. " . • oo •• n. '16.O!.11: :s:.]. >:..U' "..lA Ue 11" 11 01 . 40" 41" V./'10 'M"" 4124 M...••.. ·loIo ZI 50. . . . ..::I:a$ :...) n. . ·.. 71.W I.. 1969.. . ".S.. .. ow Ilol SbI U' 0. "). W. I I L .n .:. s. J 'I " J " ... . lOll ·lS11 1111 ·19 loO IOoll .:. n ..:.~..1t "... ~N ..oo •• V" •• "" oo. .".. l.1.... " "01 '. ''''1 " ". . . '_ll lUI .:I. ."...". ::.." . . .... .J 1"'011 l5A IIOJ 11'< .)01 JS.....H) .m "t5 11" "110 ·1'tJl 10." ...•• 46 1.'S _40 Il 4/ 'I oM • • ••••• •• !!!'!'! .:r ::l~. ." ·1111 'lOlI "Ii U 00 ·24U 11111 11 'IS ...'1"/" ".'1 .. . U." lID. .. .at . '5 ·:oo.3' ~ ..os ·ntl "95 'U] _1"1011 ·nH ·11.W ·10 . •. lJ. o. J/../ lUD ·40M "a SHII loIo. .~ •• •• 1.l.'. • .n n" . u .:..50 ~ l111 5)" ·nol II. .s1 ·J5..111 1I...}. ... . .. •• "" "" ".. ... . 09/> 40" SIn S'~ . .~ "" 15.. . . ". " I. 'HI )1.1"' lO" 19 J) iii 0....J4 "....~ .:..It I. Wll • .. .1' 'O. t. ... I I 0 0 0 .'.oo . .l1 _ . I .: . :." . "I ·'0)' .11 " ...." .._ . ... I'" I.. 503 ~T ! . ..'. _. ." _~ . " .... . . I " ~>:. _ .:.. .!:'. . •• ...'" I" .oo "" "" on ll.111 _0" ..S' 11. ·JJloIo )1.OJ . H .0 11 l. ::.OO II..:..) .. ~.' .~:.... ". .! :.. .51 ·)1" . 0 I .. . 1151 1l." .:O::: . .. ." •• . ~:r:!::!:::.. ·J1. . .~~.....010 _ .6 • .II SI.. Dol ]. ..e 5" 2" • • •• "V ... . ·1. . •• •• . "" " .. :a!iSH Sf .:.n 14'i'1 1"101$ 11..~ all _11)...ile'l ::l=I:. " .00 17. I . Wi _..II )1. :~!!: . _ . 1+' .3' "'. .01 ~ .0.. . " M..OS _ .502 Gas Production Engineering Gas Flow MeaslJ remt!1lt Table 10·11d SupercompreulblUty Temperature Adjustments. !i!OlIU:' .l5 "1111 ·1II.f:') 'Ml5 • .v ". ~ ... ••.. . 'to .:.0 os .. •• . '''.. i I I r I .3..U U 19 Ha ll. . •• •• ". I ~~::Ht . . .~1i. . •."17 7_» .. 0( ACA . .. .. .lS 19H .'1 ·n. 1.1... 11 50 . •n '" ~ un _..ll1l .. "•• .~ :. " ...017 1411 10. I ...." ~11 lOot "loIo _14.. ii_Sf.." •• oo.• 4II}oj "10 U..." 1)... "..nm ....19 .. _. . •• ". ..::.'!II' ·11S' ·11..!1I~.......11 ·'IG. . . I .... . •• •• .~ . ..n lU" 1/....11 11... . •• '0. •• ..1} .. .:. . )1U 4II... • JIo..~~..'alureal Ca •.'. .'S 11 01 11. .Il ~ ·n.. . ~ .:::. ·lJ I' ..61011 . 0 ::'''~lq'1 :!~\j8.. ''i7'' "_ ~OO.11 ·11 .." _. le.::lJ:~ . . . ..~ 000 /" 171 O..." . ." "" "n n" 1I. "J..'i7 +'I1A it .IS n'l "'" 11.• lII't U" ." ". c... _" . ."" lJ" J5'1S JlO< n O"J )J 1.1oJ .10 n_1l §S. _ .oo " 'B." .\ltrmnll oj . as I0Il.. ~"U •• ·10611 106'" III.". . 2. ." .....:r:.. . 2::0:"" . courtes).1O 'Ill 1)." '" ll' '1." '51. ." SIll .11 JIo') "62 '/19 u.1CI _ ... .t ~t''''''N ... '." .bI 100 U' _041 _ 1109 ". '1" .....V nO!.• . ••• ••• .1l ". ..lS .:. .4J'i'I "SI ·n . ". I ." J9.""" ·n. . I. 1I:'81~ ~:=::." . I.a:.1. I . . .".J • .... ... ".... ".Ul11 )\ .. '51_lIS _"oJ SIll 1511 I'''' _ ..._Il ~:::I.0"" 1J" 11010 .:(=. .. " •• •• ".V I. "......:a. t:iil:'~11 :zHi.1 IJ.:::. • H)' Hl 0 iJ • 111 ''S 1. .... .. u 41. .~.'" o.~~~ . 00 .. • I':. I • I ::!:!!!':.."'" F rom On~ .110 11 • ")00 '" u .. I I 'iI'l!:~ 1::::$tl:51... 1/.ll _.. ~. "." _JSV ~. Ja I' '.."'. ". ... ...l.. I ....ll 1141 '11/ Inl " II "..6<J '~'iII '1. 2'" ·iOJ _'1O .~~. .boo"*"""". :::Iu. 1/4\ ·"il ~ )l......" . .0< /1 " .... ·SIlt> loO H . . .~.. :. . "' •• ...37 I'M . ..".... 'J.. . 010 _.l... .. ...n _"'. ... .~ 5111"1 }oj I' .:S SI::.... . .. . ·]...1. ! . . 'J"" •. • ...\1 IUI'! J''6 :ro.'" " '" 411.c t I ..:... ..III ~W" 'S'.1O 10. '1142 _ foctDn'" _ _ " _ .10 62.1) ..J.. '1 '5...".." .0 SI. t I . "".II I]" • .101I:l 1111"1 10..!: I I .....n ]10 O. I 2 . •• •• ' n~ OM n ..II i..'1 'UD' .. . 2.. 41" '11Il .011 'l'i'l .""" Mil ". ... " ".. 11.. Ojl 1.• . }oj JS ~. . .l9 M" H'I " ·. 'nl ~..11 . .~a ii.. •• .11 "'.. !! " r a .... 2 ..S.•.'2 4l.. ! • J Sll"~il ~!a!!...':1' ~:::I!:~. ~:t. ~..US '" '" . ...." SO. ." 111..:q: N:!=. .. ·u 11 H. SI ·1. ...0 .GJ 5111 n . ":lot..51 lUI I' fl IU' I..."". . 2:!::'''~ .." 411. oo " "" . '51 .
1252 1.0128 1.lrn lISU 1..1)901 U)931 1.u \.1663 1....1. ''''''' """ loon o.0910 11004 11055 11159 11106 11002 11051 11100 1091\ 10955 11Il00 1.3053 11101 1. 1. "" " .1769 1.31'S 1]'116 132211 13264 1 3331 1 ..lIIS7 U070 1. .2152 1. . ''''' ."" >3".4162 1.Q5U 1...1562 1.1731 1.21!1Oo4 1. .0m 1.1956 12014 11677 117t!O 111111~ 1.11265 '''''' LOOM 1.0377 10129 10156 1..0190 10218 1.)115 1.1324 1.)112 ''''' ".3718 1.2206 11936 1. .". .:0 1." 1.J9(.0)7) ''''' 1..497 13289 1.'I2 U"".J071 1)1211 1)1B! 1.. l. """ ...1021 1. ".1.''''2 1...'15 1. .."'" H"" H"" '" '" '" "".1939 121134 IntiS .0507 1.00JO .1030 l..0563 1...31l0 1. ."'.."" 1.IM2 urn 1. ..0241 1.0520 1.114'J 11200 '.215<1 1... " " " .0795 1120 1. .. ..4176 1.)137 111'3 131"8 . 1.2726 1.. I...071] .D425 .0425 '..2011 l.on' 1.1647 1.nO') 1. "'" '''"' 12411 tU811 '3432 '34~3 1..15211 1.2035 ".39)11 1.."'.. "'" "" " "o. .0360 1.0210 1. "" " .2812 .2m 1.0441 1.21130 "'" .."'" ..2732 1.0..2'71 1.1962 1.41210 1.1'90 US30 1..".0228 '"' "" "" ''''' 1. ..~I70 1.11l2 1. 1.011'J 1.00)1 " '0000 1..39JO 1. .2~93 '''''' 12111 1.211111 lJ079 1.0309 1. 1.OJ ""' "'" 1. " " • '''''' """" H"" H"" ..1m I.2289 1.01111> 1.2UIl 1..29&1 1 .2018 11m ''''' 1... 1..3655 """ 1...17011 1.. 0..1&6] 11480 1...01102 '.1537 1.)390 128113 .21110 1. 1...."'" 1..10'19 ''''' """ 1.2769 1..0297 1. 1. .1&62 1.11.01$' 1.." ..0369 ''''' " .977 (table continrll'd) ...0321 ''''''' 1.2756 12922 . .00499 I.3911 I.1010 11047 .4164 I..0717 . '''''' .07')4 1.2126 • 12673 I. <0 " "".0178 Utili .1)23 1.U13 1..)n. \.2191 p.17Ufi 1.1033 . ".)121 1.... I. " ''''' U2S9 1.2S09 12591 1.. '0000 l..49 11217 11255 11293 11)12 11:)]) Fmm Ori~ Mt"Jmnll oJ NaturoJ ea •• "'" "" '''' "o.I U4l11 1.W.1568 1."" 10511 106(11 10632 . '" "" .0333 1.07S6 1....0787 1.27112 1.210') 1..1..""..0364 '.. .OJ':14 '.'"1 ''''' 1.1181 1.1291 1.2619 121>86 12153 "'50 .112 1.."" 1.4179 1.2675 1.1450 1.1242 I.ons 1.11311 1.BS.. 1. 10918 1. 0000 l002~ 10051 10074 1.1*' 1.0347 1..3113 1.)707 1.US9 1.4 1...0393 11)422 1(10451 1.2'124 1.. "" " ".2669 1.0793 L".2152 1. 1 .4151 I. 119'J1O 1...11199 1.. . nO> 121031 12642 1. <0 1.1413 l.)6n 12979 U"S .1'96 1.0334 ''''' 1_0)~ 1..om 1.2326 .1155) 10350 l.)1% 1.VOl ...2]'19 1244& 1.3716 1.. .. ''''"' .1491 1." .2159 l.0706 10746 1. 1417'1 1...]412 13559 1)6211 1. "."1' 1.19OJ 1.0m """ ''''' 1.1786 1.1607 1. ''''' ....1978 1 .2351 1.7 1.2103 12173 1.0&42 1.. "'" ...4137 '.32]11 1. ..01&11 1..0nl 10816 . ".14.0140 1..1443 1.'_ 1.141) 1.(1963 "" no 11<t9'J .02SS 1.y of AGA.1551 1.".0510 .1913 1..no "" "o.1)4)9 10469 '.1199 U2~S 1.3932 1..202J .3701 usn 13511 . '" 1.. .. ''''''' .01911 1..1534 1. H"" .25508 12214 1..3337 . 1."" "'" .2'111 12411S 12552 1." .. . 1.. lonl ..3939 1.2<.504 Cas Production !ngineering Table 1011e· Go.3708 1.1577 1.0274 1.)621 1])57 11JII.t.2041 1. 1... eo> '<0 1. .(1151 1.~1 '..160 U661 1. "n . '" .2197 1... "" .1399 1. T~mpe'~lur~...01.033S 1..4 . . '2432 12466 I 24911 1.12M 1.0494 1..3936 1. 1114) 1.23111 12091 1.)910 1.05/19 UHS9 1.."" l...0529 '.0365 1...1692 '" "" ..2258 1. '0000 10027 1.OS75 1. 1 )476 . 0000 UXIS'J " .. ..2]52 1.1)177 1021ll 1.)9 1.lIn 1.2t1904 .0551 j .1156 1.OS)1 1.or.0228 101)04 1.3919 1.1650 1..0237 '.1.n}. l. 11410 \.O."" 1.om 10»1 '.I71l 1...o.0139 1.'" '" .'177 um .0055 10053 1 010~ Ht111 ......0576 1.1626 1..015001 1. Olse UI'I92 10221 ...228J 1.3119 1..41n 1.... "f " '1579 1.1180 1.1159 11t1904 1..1202 1.la)3 US71 ..0183 1. ''''' 1..1610 1.0n] 1.2]15 12370 12'25 """ 1..on' '... .06'B ''''"' l.1M74 1.6 Specific Grnity Hydroc.1622 11676 '."'.27'1l 1.OJ .2.2t.185.. ...0175 U"".1283 1.1S2 1.OU1 1..12 1.. ..21>1>1 .32211 U241 1)263 1.1)79 1..)04] 1..10112 '''''' ''''' ''''' 1.)597 1.68 111t1S 11~ 1..2537 12611 121>115 .1530 . . '''''' .1127 l..(/461 1.1'J6S I ... '''' "" '''' "'" ."" .3105 1.1641 1..19(..11116 1.2116 11m 117C 11&0 1 ..1261 1.121l1 1.17'9& 1. w .011S 1.2491 1.UV "" '" ".. .0401 I. '''''' .. 0000 1.0307 1....0971 1. 121120 12)11) 12431 12492 12552 12612 .25JO 1.228& 1.0317 1.. "'" ...3700 1."" 1..10n 1.....~ Flow Meosurem/!1lt 505 F"" Supercompresslbillty Factors (811" O..3926 '..18% 1. . Supefcompfessiblllty Factors (811...2720 1.2917 13505 13561 1)2010 13291 1)J.lfbon Gu) Table 1()." .)2<>4 1.n14 1.l1 '.0456 L ..."" . '" ''''' "'" ..21~.121>7 1. " .1&21 1.Qo4..2529 ..1901 11968 1.)321 13321 \.1II1II> .1lJ6 I.....1069 tHO(.12310 1 21)1 12190 .. 1..0246 1.0262 1.0145 1.109'1 1.215S 1.2bl1 1.15211 1.3897 1))11 1989: murt..2759 12464 1..19Jl 1..1~32 1. .1045 1.3091 .."" 10522 ..0103 .ta 1.2'1211 1..1){U 11083 '. " .21113 121139 1.0337 1.2245 1.o...roB 1. ..1105 1... ..0282 1...2763 1.0319 1..31710 1.065."" ..ll&! 11265 11138 1.1365 1.0&75 1 .ll11 '.1577 11620 \.)936 1.. "" '''' .0218 1.6 Specific Gravity Hydrocarbon Gas) '" .'123 11162 """ U01) 1.0192 1.2<.)909 1.21010 ''''' . '''''' ...1407 1. urn "' . '.24S1 1. '" ...03&e 1.1690 1....)510 U511 l... 1.. 1.2221 1..].&S '....1"l1li 115)) 1.41l9 1.]300 1))09 131011 1..0761 1. "'" '" 1.'''8 1.)161 Ill116 ..1835 1.un .. ". '. "'" "'" "'" "'" ".. 1. ''"'' H"" ''''' 1. ..1625 11107' .. ..11 1.05)1 ''''' '.)329 1..0614 "" '" ".1.. . 3611 1..UlO] 1..2702 1..0291 11)l2S 1.1 1<1002 .n "'" .0151 llP." 1.1...12)(.11e Continued F. .21160 ''''' >3.'.1155 1..27112 12&:12 1 21178 . 1 079) '''''' " "" "'" .0910 10952 "0" .1516 1.)692 1315>4 131112 Il1167 1.004711 1.G42~ 1. .." 1.OJ .175' 1.
2476 '''''' U3?4 1..~1.)128 .....2741 12717 1.1970 1.022) \.0116 so " 1.26112 1.0})'1 I." 1... 10"10'1 10"105 I.2~13 1.2943 1 .)191 U159 1.l1 1.2114 U100 U216 1..()o1V 1. .0S8S 1.01&2 I.0141 1.2421 12454 1 242' 1.2702 1.2693 I. "'" ''''' " J.01111 1..241' 1.2505 124.0000 I 0000 10000 10000 10000 10000 I 0000 10000 10000 1.2246 12224 1.2227 "'" .2663 1..0"148 \.)S«> '._ ..25&7 1.2/1on .3476 I." "'" ''''' ''''' ".0352 1.2526 124'11 1. 1...OJI' IJlJQS )..n 1.2157 1.02" lIiO 1.0lIIS 1. ._..2Ul 13691 "'" "'" ..2271 ''''' 1219$ l.33&1 1. ..01f>.O!I'I 280 1.)0'11 1.0)4.()4nl~I~I~I~l~l~ ~1~1~11~1~1~1~I()o1~I~I~II~I~l~ .010) 1.7 1.2820 12804 1.24)J 1.)228 1.459 '_]..2401 12400 "'" "'" I.lSSS 1.1915 1.21\._'_~.2612 JI) >S IS 1.3566 ".!N'iIII I.01~l 1...2659 U641 1.l 1.2t.m< 1.2202 1.2".)611 1)601 11584 1. 1..2553 1.01n 102f>1 1..0ZJlo l.0))9 1.3119 1. ''''' 12991 12'lM voo mo " 1..~ '...0)SI \.211!1O 121S8 12135 UBI 1.0_ I..'" n8n .._ .0124 1.2611 12524 1.(1'121 1. "" "" 1..a 1.2823 12811 .0142 I on4 1.271!O 12&78 12847 1 2816 1.28]5 12766 "'" "" ''''' 1.JJaO 1.1 1...19n 1..190] .1188 1.OJ14 1. "" "" ".IIl'" 1.2221 12195 l.)162 119711 1. "'''' "'" "'" U37] 1..0116 10Ill l.2175 12356 (table continued) .~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~11~ • 12105 1. " n Tflnpe'JIUre.2838 l}4SJ 137S11 13737 11714 UH2 UI36 1 ..]151 1. .._..4Q '._.3412 l..27601 .~1~191~81..]36& 1m! US'.2WJ 1.2441 1...12M 1)254 ..2Il...0"121 120 un..= 1.. .....>0 420 I.0JIl 1..2153 12112 12091 12069 .ru11 101~ 1. l.2n4 '_].1&4$ 12817 12792 1.OnO _'_'_.2469 \2441 1.. 1.n 1.0.OJIS 1.2255 112J.'" " 10 1]151 1.2110 1.)170 1.4% '.3151 1.3071 1.O!nt 1001II> 1..1184 1."'" ''''' '..1937 1...21150 1.0201 lmol 160 I. "...~I~I.275) 1.21136 13861 '.3116 U2S7 '''''' ...0J22 400 I.2693 126f>J I. I.31&4 1.38111 13647 1.lllS USJe 1.. . ""'" """ """ ..()o110 10m 1000l 10JMi I..)112 1.3295 1.1292 \.\MoW 1.)sn 1. 1.)199 1. .:'9 U448 124H 12633 I...1627 urn .2470 12451 lOO I.0162 loaJ ~1~1~1~1~1.~ 1~ 1.02'J\ 1.. l. 1.0122 1.0114 1. "" 12027 '''''' ".272'1 12ns 127115 1.~1~1~1~1~1~) " IS " " JI) " " " 100'11 1.2181 1.3690 1.0128 10147 1.0252. .1196 l .2W4 1."" .3011 1.4 .)940 13914 "" .0l11 1..I~I~I~I.2507 1.2251 1.OlI)I.17'93 1.]Z911 1."'" .. 1.2505 1." I~ 1. 1.2484 1.2754 " 1. "'" Ul!J1 1.D29I 1.506 GO$ Production E'lg/neering Gas FlolC Mt'asurcmetlt 507 Table 10·11 e Continued F"" Supercompresslbility Factors (Sue Oat.2740 .2'JIII1 ...1411 1.040l 1..009II \.315] 1.I.2sn 12596 12~7 1.32&8 '_1201> 1..~I~I~I.0. .lO19 I "'" .. "'" o .0"117 1.2&46 "'" '''''' '_21117 1.0147 1.3.1917 1.2661 1.001(l0I 1.1IZS1 1.2535 lID 1..2&t<1 1. '''''' ''''' ''''' " . p<os Tempe'~!llre.. 1.0XIl I eml 1.2828 1.. "'" "'"' "'" "00 "" uooo 1... ''''' 1.2674 1.3<19 1. ".2}?S 1.012(1 1. Of JI> " 1...2n6 ~1~1~1~I~l~ldll~l~l~l~I~I~ '.00le 1. "" "'" "."" ..17&4 1..o1 I 1 2lN 12149 1.2199 12m 1.2356 12328 1..)4'& 1.27S11 1. ..0101> 1.00J'll I m60 I 02S0 I .]4711 1 .278<1 "'" "'" .O"IOl 101JI 1..2521 1.0"161 101..0160 1..2)}6 1.mm.1IJII8 1.()4M 1.271'1 lOll 1.._.0ll0 1.)0]1 1.l507 1.m7 1.0110 160 1. ''''' " " " "'" "'" "" ".. 1.2484 1..0102 I O2'JI I Ol8Cl I .2807 . .0"111 l008B 1.3119 1..3m .0l15 1.2575 1...0191 I ('I" 1.3052 1.3010 1.\11 1 2~1_ 1.ms ".01SJ 100.2IISI 1.2~54 12584 l.1971 .~ 1.)271 1.1915 1..]110 1.2101 1.3051 1.018& Hl:!l} 10"11) 1..0101 1.()45J 1.2111 1.2755 1. "" "" "'" 1.2i'S1 1..)tIro ''''' lJ6'Jl 1.4 IOll2 10llO 10JOe IOHII 1.19f>1 un9 1. . ''''' " .41 1."" "'" . "'" "'" 1." ..2322 1 2214 1.0211 U1271 1....)SJ'J 1.3052 ".2178 1.m? I.' .()471 1..6 Specific Gravity Hydrocarbon Gas) ". " . "'" " ."" un8 "" '''''' "" uno ''''' "'" .\11 1.2Jn \ 2155 123)4 11]11 12290 1 221:>& \.."" 12644 12624 '''''' 1..2n. I~ 10!I09 1.. 1.2557 12531 .2670 1...006l 1.0142 \.)002 129]S '''''' 1.2"44 1..28.2149 1.an 1.~1~1~1~21~1~1~1~ 1()4)4 1()417 10401 10lIIb l.. ..2sn :MIl 1.m? 12261 122....I"1lO 1..()4JE.2.211~ .1955 1 .27(1 MI.1M44 HNV I ()411 10195 1.017to 1111" 1.0llo1 1.~I~I~IOllOI.02'" 1.2202 12315 Il:!"l~ 12175 1. "'" "" .0114 1. "f .0015 1.~1~1.lJll 1.0)86 IJl}lI I. "" ".il 1]332 1..28711 1.Un l.2ao'J 1.)565 1.. '.J223 1.2921 '''''' "'" llOll "'" ... ".3110 1. U424 1....(126. ~ T~mJH' .()o1" I _ I 1.2787 1 ...3641 13617 1_3'>47 13S27 1.3118 1. Of 13m 1.3317 1.27].2893 119J.05" 1.42 1.2).0019 10l.21101 1.21)4 1.0J000 10J2I I.1241 U228 13112 1..OS" 1.. ..Ul5 1....0158 1.3217 1.1150 1.0000 1 ~1~1~1.12748 ..Jl&4 U137 Ull0 '..3146 1... "'" "" ''''' ...0)5) 1..~ 1 ()4SO 1 ()01)) 1b11~ 1..UO} 12S7} 1254) 125B 12463 1.0ll' I..)312 1.)416 1..lli41 1. .ll 1. 1.6 Specific Gravity Hydrocarbon Gas) Table 1011 e Continued F"" Supercompressibilily Factors (Base oata.".CM9l 1.3324 1.0"141 1.on.3<1 I..0"110 1.01S11 101711 1.2Lll'1 1.2811 ".(1461 11M44 l()o1l' 1. .19)9 .3120 1.000n I DOlI) '0100 1...JI p.2Llll 1.2'119 12&94 lm7 1..om I..OJI4 1.l749 13667 1.2661 12635 12609 """ '25'" I.1 1 .2_ 1.ture.04'iIII 1.25·11 1.)4)9 1.2788 urn 1.()o179 1.110111 ..3267 .mm.0195 I~ 1. ..0111 100U 1.n46 1..JO)'1 1.01)4 1.431 1.2)09 1 ..255'1 "'.0:!26 I."" 125'J7 1.O"I~I01nl~ '""00 1.00181~71~61~6 ~1~1~1~1. ...2907 1.~1.13228 1.lUIO 1.2'126 1. "" .)3.)6]2 1.2493 1 24~) 124M 114.261) 12614 1..)100 11078 1.2&26 1. 1.2124 nil 1..0Shl los..2891 1.2228 11191 121n 12152 1." 1. 10000 10000 1.3147 1..1917 1.241>2 1.)312 1.lim .011' Hnle 1..Clln 1.2252 1.33<13 "" 13.. .3289 1.28JS 1. .". ~1~1~I~I~II~I .26')7 12670 11687 1.))67 10.)141 1..(1211 1.2420 .oJ" 1.. '" .3lOS 1.3507 ''''' '''''' ''''' "'''' ".).
" .124S I " .1.1:>117 117"'4 1.1#>1 11491 1.llO1 1 U3o' 1.1l1' 1.24S7 1..6 Specific Gravity Hydroe.1418 I.1517 1.1166 I..IID 111M 1.1451 1.151." 11402 1.>0 11"1 11f19S 11810 un7 1.1926 ""4 1.19\1) 1.1170 1.~ .'0'" ...17311 1.2327 1.~ \12<') 111114 11651 IlsS9 1.01111 10m 11*01 UIII)o 1.11)8 11649 11&19 11747 1.In.1621 1.1m eoo 1.1073 1. ".2620 1.0464 1.1517 1.0951 1 Irn)oI 1 0I01S 1 HlilII 1117'1] ant 106'It .!6 1..1701 \.1163 I ' ' ' .2104 1.20S4 1.1249 11m 1..l9OJ 1.ll1J I.I7ft 1.l 1... llBI 1.11>]1 1.1591 1.1C121 I..7 12421 .~ 1.2181 1.11\10 1.=..1S011 11415 1.17'15 1.15SO 1..lWO 1.1864 1...1340 I.0'J(.17]2 1.2197 12100 .l2'iI'J I.= 1..~ 1.2m 1.. 10 1.. so.2141 1.:.2122 1.IMJ 16110 1.1714 11954 1. . _ .11" UIQ 1.1764 1 1m 1..l7 1..1752 11660 1.UIl 1. "" "'" .1509 11541 I1S7I 11612 ""'7 11I0Il1 Iln61...15)6 1.. .1645 1.1sn 1.lOIS 11'71 1.08J5 700 1t.21"'4 ll1711 L1210 11~1 11'J1ll 1...17)(1 1.on.1)66 1.1~ .17511 \.17)(1 111>]7 11...11.." .no1 U1114 1.1177 1.256112429 I.~. 10120 106t1 .0511 1. LIl1\lO "'1]\.0976 UJ9IJ3 1 1011 1.26115 1.lm " i l l 11175 1.05\" 105)3 lOIIOl 1.~.". (W. 11111 I 1m 111101 1.1921 1.178f> ..2Ul 1.n:ll 1. _ 1011Jl NO U"" 610 1.lSlI 124%8 Ill19 I.107 112" '''114 .2S4S 1201 1.0928 1.ml 12H1 1.11ll 111..0$(1 1. 1.If1U 1. I.'wl.1020 110)$ 11109 11121 111411 .'5 111)01 1..0578 lOSs.0921 10'150 1097' 1 0992 . IllS 1.. Of I..105 1.li!J1.1"6 unl 1.1111 I.152'1 1.1011 1 HIlS 1.4" .1571 1.17111 1.0667 lOi'JJ' 10127 1.0II1~ .l!694 I..10f.1654 11517 1 19" I. 1 OV) 1. ".14U 1"".1655 1. "" "'" 1."" 1.1455 1.1..~I.. 1...I(oJ'l 1.IUl 11)95 11411 l...0l"95 101111 1.2115 I.2)015 I llS7 l..lS74 1400 1. 1.119'5 1.22'" 1.1M&! 1010)9 1 (61) !usee 10565 l0S4J '~n 10501 10661 10!.07&' no 1.un . ''''' ..O 1.lIn 1.16011 1 1526 11504) 1.1057 1.16 '''5 "'" 1100 1J20 lJo1O IlIoO Ileo 1lD1S 1.l6l1 l.U.1C1'l1 1111.llll 1..2606 1.18U 1..1211 110102 1..14111.) 111197 1. 21011 1.l46S 1.~.~ .1'167 12Oi.1!tO . .21'" 1.0129 1_04&C 1.1..1407 1.IS'iI'J lllr.22CIl '2092 l.~ 11450 1.ons ..1643 1.201l 1.104& 11071 .1020 1 or3 1 0'n8 ...." 1.2D!i 1.1175 11205 1.2576 1."" 10906 1. IUi61 1.~.~"'.llOl 1.t 1071)01 lObI'S 1O(.1514 I.2 1071l I. 1..1411 1.ca.(1112 1.1"2 I.1099 1.2lIIl l..11~ 11000 109S4 I.247S 1llt1 1.1125 1.1'*1 1..1Q5.11iII'J 1.2112 I lOll l .01....1900 I 2160 1.207'1 1.26OD 1.) Inn IllS] 1.1175 1..1M) lIS.lG16 1.ll 100.1SOI 1.1_ IW) US11 1M3 ll1M1 1.07S6 1 111771 1 0745 1.0'i00 '0IIb0 1.1S" I.. ""'" 1.1"9 '17)4 1.210& I Jl03 1.111.IM2 U»I 1_ I.1.2(I.17Il6 1. " " 2S JO .l1 115SO 1.llIIIi 11400 1101>3 1.S/t I (It.1566 1.~lln21.1S14 12)65 lUO 1.~ • lO'II 1. 11591 11510 11697 1.0150 1.]. . "" nne 1100 1 .1475 1...l'3) 1..25JI I~I l.10$( 11107 1..~ .1~ 1157"J 1 1191J 1.I:IM 110010 11~ 1.154~ 1.1427 I U'!04 11...lO1 112)6 11175 1.0171 1.199$ 1.1"' 1.a 1 (IrioO 1 00>.103/1 10Wl 1.'" ..0991 1."B6'I 12446 1.l6lIO 1..CI'l11 .0:710 1 1lIIIO 1 06.1473 1..I. 11159 120 11ln 1.05f6 l0S4J 1.1~ .~ 1.0740 .l00s 1 09S& 1.1402 1 D94 I 211S 12112 1.1 1~ I.I(oJ'l 1. .211' 1.&4 I ot.(I'jo45 10'l04 1.Wfo 1.01187 1 OMI 1 0906 1.2<'~ DIIO 1.I17l 1 .0922 1~ 1.2227 l.'" "m . ~1~1~1.11.JOIa 11m 1.1'117 1.1'" 1..2475 2J4O 1 2S6l 1.."0 U)S2 1.144/1 1. ". .lS21 ..091.\1'>l1 1 g.~I~l=I~I.O 1.U" l..os.1651 1." IISU 1.0766 107j.ll11 1..lffil. 1.HIl 1.~I.1170 1I!IIl u s . 1O!.2160 l2Of1 I...14% 11414 111>74 1.1X16 I I I " lun 1 IllS 11167 l..7 1.1)1(6 1()l.n04 1.1N 11~ !OO I.0521 1.1SOf> ''1&70 1000l 107911 10765 1."076 1.~ 1..1421 I.1861 1..1:!OJ 1.~.21511 120.I 11956 1.1st1 1.2411S 1.2114 UI97 l.2519 1.1856 11M 1.2117 1.2iIIO 12S61 ".15'J5 1.2460 1. 780 1.0811 1 _ 1090II1.2410 IllM 1. 1.l~lll111il.ow.!8 11921 1..S 11\1161.1112 1 IOS7 I. 'M '" "' o 1. 11909 1.010 I. _ 11114 11611 1. 1. 1 01198 lOIS] 1 (11(1'..5e 1.1:>117 .7 1. 1.2700 1..I.00WIi 1.1206 11217 1.ta0.lml.0711 1.1r..164/1 usn (table continued) .191' l.1S]} 1.~ l.~I.2410 1.1..lOla II~JD 1.J 1.2411 1.11110 ".U . lot.1)66 11171 l.0752 1..1505 1.5 .2690 1. .1502 11m .a I~ 1. 11 1.15S4 II.25W> 1l'lI 1.14.. llell 11117 1.40 1149'5 1.IJoIO 1..1111 l.1655 11m 1 1..1417 1.".1105 11524 1'''''' .1617 1.M7 1..1111 11265 1.lSS6 U'24 1...0SIII lOSM LOSt) l05ll .17]1 1..< 1._ 1...1465 2160 1.111OS 1.1461 11411 l1eas 1.lOU 1.2111 l11ll 1.1711 II.1SfJ6 1.2111 1.1211 l.18411 11755 1...2325 1. 1...1701 1.~ 11647 1..14S 1 1407 1000 11120 10010 lor.1"'4S 1.15&) I.2401 12410 12417 .IVU :ueo Illllli Inll'! 11191 1.lS68 1..508 GOJ Production Engineering Table 1011e Continued FJI'I' Supercompresslbility Factors (B....1s. .2535 12441 1.lb7.j() 17t!O 1780 18iXJ lllO 18«1 1160 I.1117 I.2S19 1.lVU ~1~1~1~11~1~1..1121 IlnS 1.1S2f> 1.2l6O 12267 1.151' 1.116') 1.1120 1.16')6 1.~ 1.1SJ9 U ..171l6 I1W1'l 1...1146 1.~.2497 12509 1.1""1 1]tIl 1720 11.l97 11421 1.0~.12M 1.o.1650 usn 1. 1..16f>7 1.14" 11202 1...07S~ 10&" 1.0788 1.11U I nOlI 1.1490 1.C19M 1..1_ II42l llill 1.2017 11~10 1221>2 1...06)9 1061.1 luJ24 u".=.1St1 1.IJ.1m 1.100II \1028 \.~ .UI7 '!O I.llJoI 1 1265 Ill'Jo4 1. lS 40 4S SO SS 1.11191 1.~ll~II~I...1714 1.1092 11041 1.2117 1.1120 1 1141 11567 1..239:1 1... 0.Ihi 1. 1271 1 2"'47 122'l18 12)10 11492 12112 1 211t 1.25&11 12eas 2120 1.1598 11516 11"'41 IIJM 1. .1686 1 1600 1.1110 12111 ..:/217 \.167} 1.1m 1 1141 1 10117 1 10)7 MO 1.~"'.2ODS 111199 1.OSlJ 1.I\II~ L~7 10'17V 1.OSC' . 1..llM 16«1 1.:zon 11964 1.1751 11)65 1.8J 1.1555 1 1471 11M llUS 1.l:\26 I..14<r..15]} "m wo 1..1181 .D'&j 1 ().11l1li 1.2212 1.1117 .~ 111011 I ZlO7 123l1o 1.1U5 1.11l~ 1.:lSS1 "'" 1. 10>e." 1...' ~1~1~~I..=.1217 1..092:5 Ul8IJS 1...1'J040 l.1114 un.ll74 1.1)61) I..." 1. 1.l417 1. 11751 1.21~8 1.= .111>] 1.~ I 1114 linD 1. 0104' 1.1'il'J1 l..2"'41 1.2116 1.11% LIID 1. 1.1111 1.11'" IlOO't l1'AS 11.151' .1642 IIS5~ 1.1451 I un .1640 ''alii 1.lSl4 11610 I 250S 1.11147 1.v 1 .2111 1.lsse ''411:1 1.0714 1 Ob3~ ...1651 1.1145 1 11190 1 10)9 1.lrbon Gas) Cus Flow Measuremelll Table 1011e Continued Fp" Supercompresslbillty Factors (Ban Oete0.. 1.2411 1. "" .ons u"no 1.1)017 1.19ft 1..o 1011l 11011 "M 1140 "."ll 1.19')1 12371 1:z:!82 1..1043 1.0!M0 I.22 I'''':.1948 11510 1._ 1.1~) ..17)1.1718 1..12Sl 1..1r.2010 \.~ . 12191 l.f 10100'J .0&95 l0E066 1. 1.1716 1..210& 1.2(0S6 I.2217 1..! 1. o .1151 1.1'Il10 1187.1646 1.l.I~ 2400 1.1&117 1.15'!04 .1~11~llml..111' 1.l.1]71 l.1575 U49I 1.11199 1.11154 1.1109 1.11170 11019 1O'J71 1 0917 1." 1 2"") .lllJ 1.. 0501 1. "" 1.6 Specific Grnlty Hydr~rbon Gal) 509 WI) 60tI 101W 10:'17 Lanl 111721 1 CBS) 1~ .l'l11S IleIIo1 1.156'1 1.2251 llIJD 1.ll1O 1. ' 11512 I ." 1.1ssa 1.1610 1.1119 1.1U(o 14211 I.1)...0611 I.Ojj 1 ..1251 11285 I.. 1.nU 1 '''''' I Il'l] 11327 114110 1.l3Dl Ill% 1.4 l.191' 1 HIlS \.1514 1'J20 1.ill9 1.121'0 11)1» MIl I1UO Illll 'li'O 1.0721 1.. 11105 IIJ'QJ II.U11 1.~II~ 1460 1.1'l1h1) 1.2186 1.~.01IIII5 1110) 111)5 ".11261 IIlSI l .1116 1..1171 .lml..0704 .HIOI UI~7 1.~ " .12JO 1.. 11#>9 1.1640 1. 11111 1.145.lll4 117)(.: 1 056J 1 CJSoIO lOS" 1 0SIl \..1S7"I l.1145 11551 1.14C!Z 1.11159 .2151 l."'OS 1. 1692 I 152' 1.06U 1.2244 '1101 1. 11520 1.1))1.I~I."il4'I 124'!04 1..1. OMS 10847 10810 740 1.~ .1111 1.IS7'I 1. OIo6J 1 0Ii)6 1 01>11 1.1574 l. 1.1911 1.22119 Ul'" I 2OS6 1.1632 1..~ 1.0bJ'/ 10611 10S87 10!j.1011'l1 1. I Illi I Illi 11266 1... "'" 1.2150 1 moll I 21i!J1.nl~ 1.lne 1..25)11 1:!SoI5 1.VOO 1.204~ 11590 11510 1116'1 1.2091 1.0S0l I.1521 .lO'II \ Itl.. ".2)69 l:U15 1.~llm " " JO 1..lll4 109Y 1091le 1.un 1..2674 1.1"6 11724 1.21'Ja U2U 1.2110 1.nlJ 1.1787 11799 so 114M ..ItM6 11069 1. TemperlOlure.11l1 1.16f>7 1.:!(I6.2695 1.19)1 11m .1114 11)51 l."lO11 1.
... lJaon.0..0000159 (Tf .. ...9886......0002 1..... and the gas gravity is 0...\at".:... . _".)" .. . F.6in.[(60)(90)r' . F" = 1 + 0 .. 0_9983 099$5 0. (10·25) + [0. '~ __ .0... Flf .~ "«""'" "" ...1.. "'" 1...~ '" 1..~ ...000' (EquoolOrl SO 55 OJ 6S " " " " 90 (Pole)  " n " OS 10010 10011 1.0003 ..'"_ of AC.9'JIII7 6...oem ./XXll . (5201510)°5 .. ."" ..9914 . '''''' . O.0012 1...jk. From Equation 1020.3298 .pe taps using upstream static p ressure connections in a..... .. . ror 1'._'... Fb . 1.00037. Using a base p ressure of 14. ' ...0000185 (T f  528)] for stainless steel From Equation 1018.''''' .6667 .000' '''''' .0012 1. Fpb . Th ere fo re. .... .()O11 10012 \...."" .. " _ ... 999J 0. of the orifice affects the range of flow rates that can be measured. . . _Ii .9 .9967 0.10<1 . . An orifice meter with a 2in .. fo r 1'K .... ..tion and Latitude. calculate the gas flow rate indicated by the meter.000' 0..9808.".99117 0... '''''' .0007 '''''' '''''' '''''' ..9991 0.....1. 6Om . "1 . • foe . tor Manometer Factor Adjustment) (hied on Elev..0.65)o. bo. maximum and minimum flow rates expectoo . From Table 109. .. Fro m Table 108 .. Emmpfe 101 ..0002 1...o<' '''~ ..0..of _ 10010 U lOID .. ~ater and an average upstream static pressure ... . ternal diameter) pipeline.. ' '''' ..".. 1969: courtft) " b e < _ . 0 .t>..9983 'Stem can only be achieved if all these factors are carefully c:ons1der.. t.14 .... where T.. n?mmal (6.l! ....0.11007 1. .r. 0."'" .hoosing the size and type of orifice. _ ..0007 1.9 psia. '''''' ' ''''' ' '''''' '''''' ".....000' 8.. ''''' . The flowing temperature is 50°F. _ d . for Tb .."" ..... lei .. From Figure 31 . shows an average differential head . .. p... and their range.1XXl' • .65... ." " ".. ..5Oo r~ FIb .nnon Factor. .. and Tp<"'" 375°R.065.' ' _ _ .. an~ :::pressure differential that will be obtained .2403.. UIOOJ I."" ..oo In ....".. YI  "''0 " ."'" ''''' .065 ._ . ... calculated as follows: 0 .. for T/ _ 50°F. OriflC~ Thtrmal Ef/".. " R Orifice Meter Selection Several factors need to be considered in chOOSing an orifice metering system: From Equation 1021 .528)] for monel From Equation 1019. ..I /(O.670 psia..... F... From Table 107.9991 0.. gas flowing temperature at the orifice.. by suitable inter polation. 0.iull" ~! 'on ~ ~~ I~dfl!'et Th 10... O. ....• ..1 Qu. Ave<age (h.. ''''' ''''' ''''' .. 2. .0011 from Or.<\..65...9993 .0098."" . 60/90 ..0011 1. 0..73/14.Ip. pressure: expected static and differential pressures.(11)10 ..65. 1..0273 '73 . .21 6.. ...0007 10010 1.9997 .. ...0.. A well designed ~eteri~g ......''''' '''''' .'IiiI7 .9983 0. .. 0000 ... . Mtlmn. ..00l) HIO!) \\. equip~ with pi. . orifice..9991 ''''' 09995 1....'" .. . ''''' . ror Ph" 14.. Average h.. I + [0 ..93.. and the pressure measunng devlces.518 Gas Production ElIglneering Ga a Flow MeaaureT/lclit 519 Table 1013 F1Gauge location Factors (Gravitation Correction Factor..{460 + 50) /520 "" 0.9 psia and base temperature of sooF.9997 1.870.485 This factor accounts for the expansion or contraction of the orifice hole with fl OWing tem perature. .73._ _ . permissible pressure variations.. . Proc . .. _...100..."" . konlt.. Appl ~ ble Unadjusted Factors in Prec::edlnSl Ta ble) L fl OW rate: flow rate uniformity... . 90 psia..2. ......... b _ 0 .."..9987 .0001 . 50..... " " " ~ ""o "!Jtudf G. .___ .. . 1 F... .....~ .9995 09993 '''''' ' '''' 0.485....02 i3. _ .~n .(XXll Solution ~ H 1OOi' T. I. F~ .. ''''' .. UWS '''''' '''''' '''''' ..
I roM 1.22SJ '.0114 1.~ 10m 1. 1.1742 1.IWI.1120 1..08)1 l\*ll I..oe1} lOIIl9 1.OIn 1111'" 10160 111150' 1..07(.1176 1.~I~~I~I~I~II~l'~II~lll~llrnl.01'!l4 10761 1.~I~I~I~JI~l~I~I~l~I~I~·I~I.0lI04 10:71 107111 10ft1) I~ I.05M I (151' 1. 1.01~1 1111'10 101lll llI1n 1._.01» 1000 1(JlI) II)j(\ 1060 I'*' 10!U7 1.lI1n 1.0121> 1.!IIIIll 1.0no 10m 1.07» 107'1 I (174& 1.0717 1(1687 10660 1.._. I..."40 IOn19 10bII1 lOI>S4 I.. 100' (table continued) .!0S2 '1m !.1811 1..~1 1...t.0651 H2O 11110 1105' l1(1ll 10961 10'125 101l8I0 10149 10112 I.'M 1.lI60 1.ll40 Ilno 12100 1.(1671 1.0lII!'I 1011S1 10000S 10942 1.05l9 1.~I~I~ ~1.110&2 1.~I~ " PI'I • 'HO l.1711._.o1 U(\()I 1..21010 120lS 11'1+1 12016 119)6 .(11)61 1._.0951 1.I I"''' l.on.1Ib61 10b7tl lObIO 1.onll 1(\)40 10UO lOll. 211l 12040 1.0549 1.1'1W.01165 101182 10900 1"".oell] 1.1527 Z660 1..1 l1ro] 1.{)I71 1.l6 1(6)5 1~) 1100 10911 IUO 109SO ID!IOII 11~ 109i4 1....~1~110ml~I~I~I~I~ :vm .001) I..0051 IIJ(I09 I ~7 10lM6 1.I'JOT !.0571 I(\S~ 1 (1612 1.~9S 1.G1'H HI20...07)1 1(1)W IIIb7'J lOVO lOilJ..ml~llrnl..(1617 HI5<J2 1.11131 1111~ 10112 1.(5)11 IIrl7 101>97 1(1670 1.060II lOS&!.00S00 1.0158 10lSJ 1..S8 1001 1.OS6'J 1.G 10465 I GU8 I ~12 I ~16 lOOOD 10J8S 10J?"2 1(1159 10).~ '00 1028S 1027S 10~S no m 11161 1.1708 1.2lo'~ 114'1 .~I~I~I~I~l~l~ ~1.._."'"~'~.0111 111121 llI1n Hnl.. 08180.0107 UnO) 1.07111 100..111112 1.0S8I 10566 I.". 12Ol':! 12001 I...._ ''.01176 lIon 10971 1.1l&fD 1.1668 TWA 1.1SSII 1.0105 ll1nn 1.. 0._.1S'30 urn ''.~I~I~I~I~II~IOI~I04~I~I~I_I~I.~./f. (811.001) I. 10000S II17'lO lO:sa 101J9 1.00004 I.~ ~1~1.0010 ~I~I~II~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~ 601~1~1~1~)1~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~1._.tI(Q) I tI(Q) 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 1000 1000 1.1111' 1 (lUll 1..~1~IOl"lrull~l~l~I~I~I~I~I~102~I~ ~1._.07.07St 1.111lS 1. 10014 1.0 1.0'102 llJ!1!.~I~I~I~l~I~I~I~ll)Illl~~I~l~l~ ml~I~I~I~I~171~1~1~1~1~1_121~1.IJ711 1.2199 121113 12'76 111M UUl 1.11118 1.0ft4] I.4 10Il00 1.01>1 ~1~1~1~71~1~1~1~1~ll)Irol~I.com 10071 I.2269 1 US6 11242 1 ma 1.6 10J"l..(I64} ll1bSl 1.0582 1.008'11.1'1n 1.~I07I&I.~I~I~I~101~'~1Q5.49 loeas 1.0171 1....~I~ 1.~.0Ia1 1.G101 1..1&1' 11642 117$11.()6._..6 Specific Gravity HydrOCllrbon Gas) p. 511 Table 10·11e Continued Fpv Supercompressibility Facior.~ ..0lI04 10m 1.1~1 1.2~27 1.1617 1 Ifill 1.(K15 lOSS) 1.0215 1._ 2M) ~.ID71 I..9 1 1~ 1.0ftll 1.0716 1. 101111 1..".CI681 1._.lm .01+4 1.._.ObS2 1._u_.0&41 1.1A2 111ft 11117 11646 IlSn 1.($ so 1..1611 116Ui !1WI 1.01') 1fIIl 1.0&28 1.II1Ul~III1MI~I01nl(l~I~II11HI015O I (lIn 10115 1.0ftS9 lOI!I99 10M._.. 10b6S I (l6S1!1 HII>JI 1.~I~I~I~I~I~IOSI91~1~1~1~1~3010414 DI~I~I~I~I~I~I05lll~)I~l~I~I~I~ ~1.0b1' 1.I 10111' I.5 1.2411 1. ~1~1)1~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~ ~1~~I~UI~I~I~I~I~IOlUlmll~I~I~I~ S40 IOW7 I~)I III$IS 10400 lOla!..1551 l1So16 1 ''''~ .2115 1201] 1. 1001.0211 I 0104 1..(11)19 1. llfoJl 1.ons I DII97 lOb70 Ulb4J 1..1.01n 1.G1n 111125 10121 10111 1011l 1. 1._u~.(\.llISl 1.01~ J.\I!i6:l 1.0191 1._.~II~ll~11~llm ''.6 Specillc Gravity Hydrocarbon Gas) p.OI'S 101010 IOU' 111131 1.1IbJA 1.0511 1./I60I0 1.0IIl"S 1.19)7 1187& 1._.411~1..~ '..t..2 1(1116) 1.07'Il'J 1..(lYIl 1.11115 111111 101011 120 l._.Q5.09:1._.1&l:! 1.(11)17 1.0fUI 1~ 1.~l~W ~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~IOOMI~I~I~I~I~ 1201~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~ 1«1 um 10109 10105 10102 IOJ9!I 10095 lOO'l2 10081 looes 1.0S1I4 I.1S6111~ 1.~I~I.2115 12m 12120 ~ 123711 12104 12282 1.l 1.OOII~I~I~I.~.O'''' 1111«1 1.. "192 11e1' 1.0)41 &60 I(15S2 IOSlO 1(1511 I ~92 10474 10456 10439 I ~21 1.0929 1011e'l UOlQ 1(I9M 10942 1.00Sl 1.021' 1111" 1(1171 1. 10:"7') I074t1 107" I.~ lOOt>'1 100147 I 0U! 10015 10199 10l8S I (l3n I Irn8 I (\)40 100ll lonl 10010 ~1~1~II~I~I~I~141~1~1~11rn81.074t1 1.510 Gas ProductioTl En1>(lnccrjll~ Gas Flou' Mcasurl'mCllt Table 1011e Continued Fp¥ Supercompresslbllity Factors (Bu..OS4O 1.014' 10145 111140 lOU6 1.0541 1.0165 10160 10155 ~1'~I~I~11I~I.0690 1.0730 10lI09 10775 lW.2\166 12(110 • 1951 118'11 1._.~I~I_I.1X1'II 10095 lOO'l2 1.0ft11 1.~I~IObIOl.oon 1(1(/1.~} II ItI(Q) l.~~:o.1SM ll50l ~1.0000 1000 M 1.0107 1. " 0 5 TO IS 20 Z5 JO lS 'Il .29 10500 I (14M 1.~I.~<J2 _1~1~1~1071~1~1.1'JSl 1.1021 11".1555 40D 1032.02~ ~1~1~ll0~1~1~1~10l181~1~1~1~1~1~ ~1~1~1~"1_'~51~11ml1~11rn'~ll~11ru 1 no 1 un 1 22«1 1 211" 1._ 12206 121).0'lIl1 1"'19 1\110 11000 I09SS 1200 1120 1240 Il60 1..QS9S 1.~ ~1.0b9II 1100 11094 11(1+1 I (l99'!I I09SS I.0011 1.1770 111'01 116012 115" 1.1"'" 1.4~ 10'.I~6 10460 10442 10216 1...." IOIJS._.OI>ZI 1.~10l111~1~1~lmnl~I~1~1.am 5I. 1"'10 1"'201 1.0000 1._.0nl 1.!6 107'11 10J"Sa 10m IIMI II\W. 1160 1.0113 1..0!0a1 1.05Jl 1.Onl 107'" 1.0592 10000S 10601 1..1~ 117O'l 11r._.lmllm ~1.~llm ".000J I OWl 1..0681.0728 1.5 ~1~I~OI~I~I~I_I~I.08>.040I!I I 0191 1._.~I.0453 I~ • ~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~1~IOI.'~I.05IJ 1.0017 110 I.m1 107&) 1.1I1S6 10151 t.0901 101116 1._.01121 10&'1 10lI60 IQI7} 10m 1.0574 1.078<1 101'!l4 LOIIOS 1081b I 0&27 I·OlSO 1071' 1._.1sn 1.~I~llmll~IIQI~ 60 160 I.1'1'17 1..= '.05" _ 1.0519 lOSOO 1..19111 1...l 1.180lIl 117J.1698 11170 116'1) 1171•• 11667 1.0148 1. 160 l."n 1.145] 131/1(1 I~ 1..{)IIO 10J'lOL 101111 1.4 10000J l~ 1.(J.(/ltJ6 1.0)1(1 IOJOD I.46 100M 10Jl2 10Jl1 10lOD 5110 1.0b16 1.O.0012 1.~11~11~1.0162 I.I1lSS 1.0230 102B 1.0061 l00sa l00S6 1.1mll~I.1601 UUl 21040 1l12S lln6 1211'S .~I~I.oo.CMII 1.11171I.OO~I..Q5.!1D'J$ 200 1.0ftll 1._.01» 1.0100 l.0111 1. _ 12001 11928 11075 1.001& I.10ft4 lzaJ 1107'1 1. 1.Cco._.0012 10012 1.013) 10129 111150 1.018'1 10200 UIlI1 1. 10)17 1(1)05 10lS6 I(I.c'·~m~~'.5 UIl14 106810 10!.~IIWll~I~II~I.(1634 1.0196 10lIV 1._ 1710 1. ~ln~1~MI~t~llml~II_I.0~1 1.055' 1.75 1.071S UI75] 1072l 101192 10M6 1.1 ~.0&C3 10111.!IoI'J9 1.218'1 12124 l20Sa II~ 1.0607 1.1:._u.01._u~.1510 1.4II~II~ '00 1..11169 1186) 11456 1.01)) ml~I.0Jl>l! 1.17V 11f>9{.II1M 10181 UIll'S 10168 Hl1fo.__c___________ .(\51' 1.~I~10l~1.(11'&1 I (ln9 1.~I~lml ~1~171~1~~I~I~I.101' I lOll 1.l 108..J11 1.om.~ ~1~11~ll~I~I~I~I~I~I05111~1~1~1~ ~1~1~1~1~1~1~llnlll~II~I~I.I)'JU 1.0011 '" _1.4 1._..0529 I.0916 1..1919 1._._u_..05n 1.1043 1._. PS'I 2SOO 2520 ~ 2'iW ~C~~'..2lOI l. 1.11b89 1.
(J060 l.1006 1.0900 1.00I!J 1.! 1.~ 1.0IIlS 10:>91 1.1176 1.512 Gas ProdurtiQII EngiflCenllg Gas Flow Measurement Table 1011e Continued Fpv Supercompressibility Factors (Base OataO.1.0017 1.1400 1.1()'l'J 1.1100 1.(1077 2)00 1.0934 ZSlO 1.1)02 1.1287 l1la3 1.l1M 1.1416 1.0040 I.0978 1.011:21 1.1145 1.12l'J 1..1J71 l.0II1l 1.11011 I.1213 1.0791 14010 1.1l36 1.1l94 1.0S52 '01116 1<.wn 1.1145 1.1)02 1.08(.0':157 1.(1847 1.1474 1.0074 1.l'J 1.1422 '1425 1.0014 1.''''''' """ .1361 1.1156 1.0057 1.1J7~ 1.! 1.:' 1.0925 1.0'178 1.1426 1 1424 1.1)71 I·UO 1. 11n4 1.01131 .11l3 1.1361 1. l.00II1 HO~1 1.1or.1432 1.1151 1. 1.1)'l}.0'i0l • 1.101& 1.0'J0.0'130 l$4O 1.\24(1 1.1215 111M 1.111 6 LIon 1.0661 lll.1027 1.103J 1..0916 1.0115 1.~.00)') 1.0067 1.1010 1. 1 0914 101194 .0IIII3 1.1491 1 142'1 I.1](101 1.1450 1.1027 1.10.0927 1.1]18 1.4 1.1G411 I1G47 1.1 1.1)'l3} 1./ 1.1l12 1.124] 1.(1836 1.01197 1.1065 1.0'Jn 1.0568 1.0063 1.01III'.1149 1.091& 1.1266 1.1149 1.092> 1.1045 1.1l111 1.01150 U1815 1.1OSJ 1..1lI!94 1.1ISO .1186 1.10r01 1.1156 1.0'168 L0'J0I3 .11n 1.1~ 1.12bl 1.0101 1.1162 1.1020 1.1478 1.1069 1.107ti 1.1001 1.1104 1.1GO 1.106l 11019 U)9]t.1291 1.IllS6 1.0IJ6J 1.1205 1.1l1l 1.1)<)1 1.1lI!92 1.1257 1.1465 1.1494 2140 1.0917 1.096S 1.1227 1. _ 1.01197 2400 14!O 1440 2460 2480 1SI)J " '00 "" m 1 1499 1.12'l'1 1.0i!97 1.108l 1..'"" .14&1 1.14n I.()'l'J] 1.1027 1.11011 1.lill 1.1 1.0107 1.11'129 1.1114 1.1225 1.1100 1.1'\45 11440 1.1181 uno 1..1104 11109 1..1194 1.1l1l 1..10S8 1.0068 1.0I1'J0 101151 1.1020 1.1]31 l.~ I I1ll l11n 11410 1.1119 1.1027 1.1414 1.1140 1.11901 1.IJlfi 1.1253 1.11610 1.'" .0970 1.1055 1.= .= .0116'1 2700 1720 2740 27100 1710 1.0024 1.01!5] 101116 .07l1li .1110 .1030 1.1466 1.09J3 1.1152 1.10f.o 1114() 1 10117 1 Ion 1 09113 1...10h] \.1256 1.0974 l.DOlI 'ClOlO 1.1501 1.1126 1.10Sl 1.14'3 1..119J 111.U7l 1.(11140 Z1IOO 1.11010 1.11703 1.0911] 1.1263 1.O'JoII 1.lll0 1.III'i6 1.0921 1.0IIII5 1.00)<) 1.1294 1.1 1.~ 1.(J 1.11 23 1.1141 1.1410 1.0932 1.1020 11019 1.()II70 I.0'1r.1241 1.1266 1.14l4 1.t017 Ll012 1.1110 1..1l63 I.1414 1.1189 1.01193 10911 1 .11~ 1.Ull 1.1'1 1.1221 1..0919 1.HUT \.1)925 1.12Jl 1.~ 1.1024 1.1209 1.07110 11227 1.10'J01 1.0'lI!3 1.14 1.1217 11115 1.14l4 :!l80 11505 1.104a 1.1105 1.1097 1.0070 220 1.(1104 1.s '1)61 1.UlT 1..lIII90 1.1456 11]91 2680 1.0775 10781 .101' (ta ble continued) .11l'lO 1.14$01 11:1114 Ulll 1.1258 .000II 10019 1.00II4 1.0931 HilI'll 1.143J 1260 1.1l1li3 1.0734 1.1157 1.00II1 1.1l11 1..1102 1.. .D5lO 1.IOOl 1.11\.0000 1.1l858 1.!.01I.1:/011 1.10119 1.111lJ 1.1440 I.1369 1.11.llfoa 1.1028 I 09&1 L0'J0I1 1.III 1~ llUS 1.0743 1.1l47 1.1158 1.01154 .1163 11415 I.1136 1.1111 1.1119 1.00000S 1.1077 1.1251 1..1079 1.11'.1l55 1.1025 1.0018 1.1358 1.6 Specific Gravity Hydrocarbon Gas) .11\.0111 1.1497 21100 1.(10116 1..1147 1. 11212 '"]t.10IIII 1.0lI70 I.09SS 1.0'}<9 1.00l10 1.0'J044 1.128& 1.0047 1.oosa 1.1254 1.]5 1l8J 1.12M 1.0911 lC11!61 1.~ 1.ISOl 1.1176 1.00n 1.1l'16 1.(1029 .1016 1.l 1.OVI 1.C1(6) 1.1))"19 " 1.\lIl67 1.OT.11" 1.11.~ '1149 11049 1.1177 1.CKJ07 10007 10016 1.0078 I.0977 1.OM! 1.OVl 1.'"' 1.10(0) 110hl 1.lo1!111 1.12)(1 1.1142 1..1(117 1.DOSS 1.1105 1.1141 1.01179 1.0%4 1.1071 1.1497 1.1lI!76 1.0775 1.111111 1.!7 lOllS 10705 I 074Z '0712 1.1460 1.1JU 1.1495 1.071J 1.00s0 1.1470 1.1199 1.0117& 1.1051 10923 1.1108 1. 01191 1.0942 1 090:! 1 lOll 109118 10'i106 .1(lo19 1.= l200 1.(18]1 1.1Ill 11127 11131 11114 1.11'l'J2 1.oon .11'l59 1.(1066 1.1261 11204 1.11'JOoI 1. .J1) 10985 10941 1.1117 1.= 100. 1)06 I.1068 1.124'1 1..(18117 '.100b 1.14)1 2220 1.1219 1.0000 \ .1470 1.1l16 11)601 1..OM7 l.14" 1.0921 I.1428 1.0'l36 I.101) MOO 1.0'l6.1]70 1. 1.0759 1.1057 1.IJ.15 1 11)<) 1 10S11 11041 1 099S 1.1DOl 1.11'll1 1.OIIJJ 10m 1.1154 1...1221 1..l1M 1.0045 1.1315 1.1US 1.1204 10972 1.1360 1 1)25 1.1(l1.lS01 1.01..1181 1.12M l'l\I 1.1401 1.09"2'/ 1.1254 11161 11306 1.1141 1.1III9S 1.1207 1.1.!2S0 1.0936 1.1.11&1 'l1l8 11073 1.0010 1.l1n \.11SS 11101J 1.0741 1.1057 \.0056 1001'>9 1.1.129'1 1.0II7~ o .0917 1.11110 1.1l7"'l 1.1050 1.1l'I89 1.a 1.1l'IJ71011911011S~ 10lUll. ~.I 1. 1.0&J6 lJfoII 1.1l94 I.1llS6 1.1151 1.1G45 1.1l4~ 1.~ 1.1100 I.l1li37 .1073 1 IOn 1.1S04 1.~ 40 1.000n 1.1Z<l1 1.1110 1. I50J 1.0738 10755 l\ll'lS 1.14Ol 1.!J044 1.1461 1.09O:! 1.1505 1.11'1' 1.1156 1.1(114 1.1127 LI08l 1. "" '" .!l'l71 1.1141 lU17 Ll331 1. """ .0S'l7 2l1JO l.lO'! 1125S l.117"'1 1.1156 1.1(119 1.1401 2620 1.1)55 1.11:rl 1.1)0'17 1...~ .0016 1.0918 1.12')0 11300 l13O'J 1.0071 1.0B'lI1 1.1193 1.14&1 1. '""" '"'" .1143 1."'" .0061 1.01197 1.1011 1.10&8 1.11114 2100 1.0049 I.110/1 1..~ 1900 1.10111 1..1f.120 1.0755 ll40 1..0911 1.OVl 1.1181" 1.1173 1.(0.14OIJ 1.101\8 1.12'17 1.1118 1.1]11 1..!l'll] 1.1l49 1. lOIS 1.1105 1.1113 1.1183 1.1204 1.(I05l 1.1lOS 1.~ .10II'J 1.13117 I.01170 1.00"23 1.1121 \.l 1111195 .1291 1.0I 1 0567 1.1»4 1.1213 1.1205 1.1016 1.0961 1 091~ 1.1)1.DOS1 1.1004 1.0000 ~ 1.0000 1.115S 1.0023 UIOZZ 1.CJ1I4.09J'8 1.1063 1.1156 1.11M 1.11S) 1.1 1.0!1110 101182 1.1256 1.1:/00 1.00'lIIJ 1.Q I.1.099S I.00l8 1.0977 1.11n 1.DOS1 1.001S 1..0'17S 1.008'/ 1. 1.092J \.07SO 1..0000l 1.l11 1.1201 U20l 1.1258 1.11OJ 1.1153 1.10711 1.1074 1.0919 10Ma 1.1176 1.10115 1.1)12 I.1194 1.!)'Vl .08'l6 1.1152 11151 111S4 1.1()42 1.00 UlJa 1 1251 1.ln.0104 10101 1.ass .!J044 U JOSI U058 I .le 1.0767 1.I1'.1:04 1.1304 I.1031 1.12sa 1.12. l].1()'l'J 1.11'121 1.1491 ~120 1.011:>9 I.109'J 1.1009 .0IIII1 111'>3 1.09l11 1..11~ 1.lO'! 1m 1.10000 1.01173 1.0061 1.00000I 1.0016 10015 1.i.0IJ6S 1. T~mpe'OIU'~"f .11" 1.00lS 1.1OJ7 I09S1 1.(1078 1.09ll 1.0000 1.11'lSS 111'l51 1..091} 1.1(111 1.1145 1.1505 1.1256 11.07'SII '.1281 11223 1.092] 1. 1600 llXl! 11112 1.0'171 1.1036 'il'l'Il 10'110 ullin 1. oov 1.4 1111l1! 1.1196 1.1053 \.106] 110(0) 1.1l6'1 1.00u 1.1170 1.0911 lS80 1.01157 1.0IJ61 1.1]71 1.1llT 1 .84] 10773 1.0'lIIJJ 1.) 1.0978 1.1053 l.1ll4 '1l41 1.0911 1..1011 '.11'lS7 1..11:1'.1D6 11232 1.DOIle UK148 1.1051 1.om .l66 1.01182 1.113'.1)'.1422 I.0042 1.1205 1.13M 1.0'l37 10937 10936 10935 .000II 1.0978 1.09T.1104 1..1502 1.18) 1.11lS 11114 1..1219 1.1105 1.0047 I. "'" 1.1105 1.1158 1.1l71 1.1155 1.0000 1.1130 1. .1197 l n4 1 1.Usa 1.1)915 .30 eo 1.1IIJ91 1.10'J01 1.11.0912 I.10lll 10912 11<Ml I.1012 1.10S'..0 1710 1.1073 11025 1.~ 1.1IM 'lIll 1.14l4 1.l~ 1.0042 1.1156 1.01174 1.1H7 l1Z49 1.0037 1.11" 1.141' 1.0766 .0000IJ 1.0000 '" .07113 .0'17& 10915 '0II'J6 '0II5II 1.1167 l111S 110M 1.14')9 1180 1.0000 1.114' 1.11941 I.1281 1.1016 1.0'.1.1191 1.0972 1.11110 1..106l 1.0051 1.00l9 100 120 140 1100 180 I.1020 1.1l49 1.14118 1.1201 I.0V7 I.1001 U)'l18 1.~ 1.1110 l1lOS 1.10'J01 1.0914 10911 1.1163 1.1177 11114 1..) 1..0'J0I7 1.1)02 1.(190] 1.0'!09 1."" 1.1144 1.0054 !.D9'.1OSl 1.10'J01 1.oon 1.101>1 1.~ 1.ClOlil .01135 . m 1.01161 1.1216 1.0!J(.1 377 1.~ 141:(1 11210 1.1120 1.1117 1.1112 1.11'lO7 1.0I!80 I.011&1 1. 1~ 1.s 200 1.1ID 1.1418 11426 1..0049 1 DOS~ 1.1l49 1.om '.oor.1107 1.1'1 1.1421 1.1110 1.10&1 1.1233 1.1241 1.07b] 10763 1.0032 10030 100..1~ 11017 I.H)~ 1.1XlI6 1.14l4 1.11160 1."" .0022 100 1.0'lIIJ6 1.104l1 .11116 1 1181 1.1018 2320 1.0937 1.505 1.1.1lOO 1.1002 1.1(111 .0951 1 0912 1 tel] 1.1022 1.1010 1.1()'l'J 1.1014 1..01115 .11]t.0!I6l 1.4O I IllS 1.0075 I.0094 1.(11123 1.1053 1.1"'0 1.()II65 '08l8 1.1142 111.1047 2'JOO 1.0070 1. 11100 1.1:1'lO 1.1258 1. .0!I74 1.1J3l 1.4 1. 1.1]70 I.00n 1.14]1 1..1101 1.144' 1.10727 1.<O .~ 1.I111l4 .1104 1.0000 1.11)<) 1.U30 1.0979 1.1 ll1 1.1251 1.1JO'J 1.111'l11 1.l0I1 1.~ ."" .1012 I.1014 2560 1.0&'1 1.0741 1..111'l1 \.0695 1. '11n 1.11'lO'J 1.1JO:. I.0'!II4 1..1004 '0910 1.1020 1.1036 1.106] 1.0973 1.6 Specific Gravity Hydrocarbon Gas) 513 Table to1le Continued Fpy Supercompresslbillty Factors (Base 08t80.07'.1156 1.1)56 1.1175 1..1l44 1.14:r1 1. 1149 1.~ 1...10r0) 1. LIlI!SI 1.0IIII7 11006 1.109J' 1 .0911 1.12SO 1.10$& 11012 1.101J6 1.1OS9 1 1012 '11'127 1.0970 1.12O'! 11271 1.0 11100 11052 l1tm 1(1920 H)Ml 1.I 1.1017 1.1091 1.1124 1.1214 1.12al 1.1261 1.1161 1.1194 1.1)66 1.1)71 1.(9)0 1.0927 1.097J 1.001(.1074 1.""'" 1.006 1.001& 10018 1." .10115 1.1345 1700 1720 1740 17(.0etJ6 .10'i0 1.10012 1...4 1.1l71 1.0935 1.1251 1...0111 1C632 1~ 111~ .1110 1..1l49 1.00:11 I.01116 .100II 1.0II1l 1.llfoa 1.1160 1.1111 1.()II9S 1.0048 1.(1074 1.1219 1.lltO 1.1058 1.1l45 1.0'JII0 1..1201 1.1107 \.14]] 1.01135 1.0040 1.1294 1.1l'~ 1 119] 11260 1 1101 1.1147 1.llS2 1.D'lM 1.U).100II 1.1l57 .~l '0lI07 I.1144 112114 1.15(101 1 14)1 2240 1.1l5J 1.~ 1.000Il 1.1069 1.1106 1.I'I 1.107"'1 1.1ll7 1..l66 1..0'J0I9 1..1059 1.1141 1.101& 1.0078 1.0045 1.00IIl HOllO 1.00f0S 1.1247 1.011'lS l.0'l1l .118'1 1.lll1 1.1166 1.11~ 11103 '.01152 1.11'l8O 1.0917 101178 I.0064 1.1420 1.11.1]18 " 1J26 1.1485 1.1020 1.1387 "'" 10931 1. 1.Ix.1020 1.1l43 1.1128 110115 11042 1.~ 1.0010 UXll0 .117ft 1.000J 1.07"'lJ 1.1170 1.1408 1.1247 1.1)011 1.1434 1.~ 1.1110 1.11l.1411 l.00IIII 1.1017 1.0094 1.10117 1.t.1)'lU 1.006II '" ..00IIl 1.1)'. ..1039 1.1235 1.1427 1..128& 1.(11)) 1 07M 1.12>7 1.DOIIS 1...1004 1.0S'l3 1.110'1 11M3 \.
0Sf'J I.0711 1.11'91 21100 1.0121 1.cn14 1.16 10m 10110 1.on~ !.OSI9 I_QoI<N 1200 10585 IOSW 1.0l1l 1.II'S7 111'39 1..11'56 I fI6l1 106<1 10620 1..~1~1~I~ll~I~I~I~I~I~IM1J 1~1~1~1~1~\~I~I.0I{01 1.7 1000l lOS" 'OSS') 105M 1_ • 100 S20 1000 860 _ la.0l14 10)14 10)<)1 I D'02 lQoIU 111'21 100)(1 10)l} I om 10)61 IOJ71 10lllO 10J8I 10"" 1.201 4:10 1.1I'1l 1.0512 1. 10»4 10m 10)1l 1.ClUJ) 101i601 1001 10610 IOSIo! 10561 100Ja I_OSI6 111'94 111'7) 1.0101 lCU'i1O 10V'1 10'l6.00&1 M .""'1 1..0111 10)65 10lSO 10116 101H 1060 IOSl7 10S06 I .(1'1' Ja) 10191 1019' 0100 1.0r.(149] 2110 1.0st...os54 HJSll I_OSll 10091 1007) UMSS lOO}l 111'20 lOOOJ IOJB(.0711 l(lt.11'79 I. lbllity Factors (BaH Oals0.05<17 1.w.0212 10205 1.0121100>90 10IiS0 1065) 10656 I 0659 1....0J0I0 10127 10l" 1 OXIS 11l2'1S lD:!l1S 1. I en.) 105111 1_05501 105)2 IOS11 111'92 lll'n 1 IM5) 100S 111'16 1.0190 1.11'11 111')7 1..0227 I. 10B8 lC1tl'l 410 \.005(1 I. 10142 Ullll 1.1IH1 I.OSU lOSlI lOSl) ..1)175 I.1lf>l5 UI51S I.0567 1.c ~1~1~1~1~1_'~102101ml11~Im'1710~101~I01n ISOII 1.048S 2020 1.3 I.0S95 10511 1.0014 1.0SS2 10541 1. 101V 1.OS18 UlSOS I..0111 107116 I (J675 1.QoIOl 11I'1~ 1(M!16 10018 1..1'7)2 1.QoII1 I QoI6i 10052 'QoIfi 1.0S6S 10542 10Sl0 111'9") 111'18 1.0s.01>25 1 DO) 1.0Il0 I m ) 111760 10121 I l169li I0Iit>7 I 06lo11 10Ii0'J 105&1 10S56 'OS12 10S0'i 1 0431 204D 101SJ) 1079{.11'18 1.1M86 1..lI50II I_OS11 IOSU IOS)l t OSI~ 1.11'21 l)o1Q 1 .0066 1.06611.0489 2OaO 1.1. .640'1 1.0)1"5 'lID 1. Supercompresslbility Factors Ca.0511l 1.07'J0 l1m7 lon4 I (69) 10Ii60I lOIoJS 10601 I.0701 lOIi71 l0Ii42 '_061l 1.D1lO 1_07)1.0711 10716 lOr.01\1 1.0497 1_ 1. " 115 .0112 10118 Ions 1.11'99 1.0749 IOIlO 1.11'16 I_II'S~ 111'42 1..fIl&1 l.OS11 I_OS14 1.02. m lOCI 10125 IOIlI 10111 . 11150l IOSIO IOSl1 I.CMIM 105111 1OS4J 10S111.0156 1_0)1) 10110 lOllS 1.. 10111 1..00105 1..~ 1.oo~ UJ681 106Y 1 ~~ IOS'JII IOS74 1.021"5 1.00ll '0127 1.IlfolI 1060..fIl81 1(n'lf> 1..0257 10:243 10:219 10210 10212 10214 IJ60 1.fUl4 1..01911 1.6 Specific Gl1Ivlty Hydrocarbon Gas) '00 14S .0s.*.!O 10249 10255 10260 1026& 1_0]$' 1_01f0S I.(lt.0490 1000 IOSII 1_00'111 1.07&1 ID7Sl 1'lIIO I.0D IOS14 10S4I 10Ii0l 1057(.0:241 lOU2 102l} lOllS 10201 .QoIll 15811 I .1M32 1.46D .1Mf>ol 1.056'1 IOS+I lOS'lll I.11'10 111'15 1_0421 1.04&1 1 I)4a8 10491 1.01'1"1 1_0100 10219 10218 101M 10142 I.0S8S 1. (B.fIl'" 1.11118 1.0].0111 10)40 1.0494 104n 1.05IS 111'17 10481 1.IMOS 1.1t111l 1.2 1.0125 101'16 1.0204 1.0171 1.!I171 1.76 .CM6.11''111 10S01 1.0117 10:14S 1940 1.osn 11154 10521 10S06 100II1 111'6] 1.0280 ' .1)697 1.0560 IOS16 IOS21 10521 IOS)2 1.0197 1.0151 10157 1016) 12.11751 I.(11I1l I.0125 10lll U'1'I 1.4 IOSII'J lOS91 IOS'17 1.11602 1.OS54 IOS}ol IOS11 1.lI'n 10S01 111'1"9 1..0lI04 10170 107)1.0'l2I 1.2100 HilMI 1.0Ii11 1.IIWJ 1Il1041 1.0182 1.01147 10111 1. 1..11'6. 1.II'S7 100)9 1.0578 I.(1426 . 9 1_011) 10m 10140 10712 1060C1 IOMI ll16Z2 I.QoI11 10001 10m 'OJ17 10363 10150 11Il)6 10124 I_om 10281 ml~I..132011 1.04'10 10492 1.0248 IOU') 1111'" 10141 '0116 10m 1 DI(oS 1.1)1)4 1.0S7e 1.0'109 1.01'1 101SO 1.48(J I.0480 100101 '0444 1.0391 1. 10}ol6 10Jll 1100 1120 1140 1160 1110 I.01)) 1_0702 1..0411 50() '0259 10249 I02H 102)1 1.48 1.0212 1.Q5}o1 IOS11 1.6 UIJOS 1_1!l')oI 102&1 IW) 1. 10705 101074 1.~ 111'10 1_11'12 1.0141 11:n~ 101)1 '.0)'10 .02S0 1.0251 10242 I02JJ UIl25 10211 10'20II 1020"1 IolO 10)19 101011 10l'M 100M 1021$ 10l6'J 1025' 1."''' 1.ons 11lii10i U)66) 'OIilS 1060II lle1 1.O)1l 1.0560 1.01045 1.Mb& I.0IICI1 1.01'iO 1018) 1017& 10170 1021'9 1026a 10260 10252 10243 1..6 10f.0]55 I..HS 10216 1.0ll] 1.0)')01 10199 I QoIOoI 10]61 10)'1 I Ol~ 101111 10l6J 10l1Z 10)61 IOlII 1.2 10441 1042> 1S40 1.92 111'11 1.I!1 1~ 10691 106911UI.I 1.OSI8 1. .0443 I .Ol.0:104 10191 101'iO 1.JM«I I.0551 lOS54 lOS54 I OSlO 10Sl4 I.) 1.0111 101179 1.*" 1_017) 10741 1921) 1_011) 1.2 I ~ 10656 106211 106(l2 I.0P' 10195 1.OS4Q 10519 lOO'J'J 111'7'1 10461 10443 111'16 111'10 lim) 10171 1..00'ilO 10470 1.0177 10.0129 1. _ 1.0156 1(16) 1.<M6D 1.OSl'J lOSI...OS11 IOS17 10S&l 105)1 10000l 1_0S43 lOS.009!i 10JII0I lllO'1O 1.015S 1..0241 U1251 1 (125' I(I2M 10271 10211 l0lill 10211 102')4 1."... .0615 IOSSII 1.OS§l I.l6 10227 10219 10211 10l(U 1.~ lOMe 10147 106J9 101i12 1_ 1'*X1 I .OSIO IOS54 I_OSJO 10501 1.0107 1.0l0'J 101" 1 fUl4 1.U'1>9 lOllS 1.017'1 1.1J65.0654 1.117116 1.0211 lono I(..0151 I.10 UJ6O\ losn 1.0Ii75 10641 10620 lOS94 lOS70 10541 I.0))6 l.00154 111'78 1..11'70 1_1I'1~ 1.111110 '.CM6..0181 %0 10289 10.ose.0711 1.0S6I 11lS46 '0Sl4 1050f 1 QoI8S 1.OSl4 1_0S26 1.1 1.fIll1 10111'J l.0244 10.fIl1"5 l.01911 101" 500 10m 10288 1. 0112 lOT:M 1.0ll0 lOll.) 1.0'152 1 !Ill' 1011l 10109 10105 10U4 UII1' 1011.0090 1.ono 1.0117 1..06a11.0'lII7 I.. 1.I!I> 10466 10«6 1...06J.0267 1.117'16 1 0161 I.OOSO 1.0s0s lOSO'i lOS12 111'17 10481 1.11'49 1.8 10631 I OliOS lOS1'9 IOSS6 I.11'91 1.6 Specific Gravity HydrOCllrbon Gas) 5 15 • ..044J 1.fI1lSS l_fIlU 10202 1.OSM 1.0053 10611 10643 1000lS 10S91 10S67 1000l lOS" 111''17 1_11'16 1.0I]'J 1.0094 1.11'15 111'20 1.1)104 11)102 lD0911 l009S 111091 .0220 WO 10lSO 10111 1_0125 10114 10»1 102'J} 1.01~ 1.0'111 1.0E.11')1 1.00119 I~ 1.Do46Q I.D511 IOSJS 1.s 1.os".OUl 10228 1.0i'09 106111 l071l 106&l 10116 llI6ti 10"9 106M 1.0054 1.wo 1..J9 1.~ 10641 10614 IOSSII 1.0&06 10566 10570 IOS74 1.05.0210 .021) 11n22 102J2 unll9 1. 1.".S I. 1 a.11'25 1.0'" 1.003 lMn 1.0020 I.02001 1.OP4 10loll2 10J91 10199 1.0S0Ii I.11'17 I.1M'Y.514 Gas Production Engilleering Table 1011e Continued F.0445 1 (M67 1.~llI'nl~~I~I~I~I~I~I~Imll~l~ ~1~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~ ~1~1~1~1~II1'I~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~51~ ''*' .111'" 1_0l07 1.OS91 105911 I OWl 10609 1..0111 1.01OJ 1. 1011& 1..0111 '01S6 10}oll 10118 lceo IOS)5 I..0464 '001 111"11 1.0)'l1li 1400 IHD 1440 J.701 10701 1.012l 10119 1.0Sf04 I.OS17 I.021& 1..06'10 I.0442 1.0S2a 1.0512 I..0741 10670 1 (J675 1.016."''' IQoIOoI 1.0)n 10)11 10)13 10).0526 1.0716 lOIi4Z 10641 1...~ .OSll 1.0211 1 cr.0Ii18 UIS92 1.OS'l 1.0251 UJ263 10269 UIlI1 I_D2II1 10'lII7 102')4 10lOCl I_on 10Jll 1.om.f 10m 10250 10241 102:11 10""' 740 10J" 1tIO 1.0428 156(1 107111..11'39 1.11'54 1. lOSU I. 1.~I~I~I.02'JI 1. 1.011$ 1f1l'ilO 1(18) 1.11'12 10J94 lJliO 1.I.QS62 I .11'26 10Ul III''' 10199 I_(NII' 1.1111 10269 10:161 10252 10245 1.I8l 1.04fi 1.0011 1.075A 600 10)09 lime 10288 10219 UIl70 10"ltI1 1.11 1..115410 10S66 1.OS25 1. OataO.fIl'17 1.OS)9 L0516 1.0Ii1O 1.~ IOSU 10Sl1 105M 1.01110 HnSol 1.0506 1 .I1l82 nnn UllIU 10151 10244 10lll 10226 1.0101 1.0l8I0 \.'111 1110 10)'l1li no I OlS5 I 0)65 1.0s0s l.a 1160 1.D17O 1_071611&". I05W 10S6S 10S0I2 IOS21 HrsOl 104a2 1 QoI62 10444 1.11'51 1.0121 111119 un11 1..0152 10351 .0122 1011$ 1.01S<! 1.6 'OS:U I05()D 1.0447 1.0010 10411 111'14 1. 101)') 10111 10)07 102911 1(Jl81 loon 1.0l9S 1.GIoW H1610 I.0)1"9 ~I~'~I~'~1~)(II~IO'~1~1~)IOOHlooI7'01991~ '" lJl1l I_OIill I_OIi01 1051J IOSS9 IOS)6 lOSIS 100911 1. lOl6J 10)48 101)1 10)21 IOlOll 105'J5 1.0543 I.0742 1.0218102101.OSl' 1.na 1 en66 1.000l 10519 10511 111"11 III''' HM61 1044) 1001:5 HM07 1..D2M 1.0219 10170 10"lt11 10253 1.0&56 1.050) I.0225 IOU7 101016 1.lI'n 1(M07 10J91 1_0J1t.00n 1.0'117 1.0S06 IOS10 1.0Ii47 \ 0618 1_ I.0447 10070 111'50 1'00 10159 1_0301(.0&8....1IW1 1 0105 1. all! .0161 lDO IllS'll 105M 1_05<11 1.II'IS 10l'JI 10111 10)65 (table continued) .0IiS0 lOUl IOS92 1.0571 HIUl I OSlO IOSle 10501(.osl2 '~ I~ 1.0611 I.II'&S 111'67 100I'1.0l20 10lOll 10l'97 10lIl6 10117 lOllS 10l0) 10192 1_0))1 10m 10110 10m 10M2 lOll'! 10]11 1 '106 110.OS91 1.0156 I OIU 1016.0586 1.0169 lana 10144 1.Q7M 1.01+1 1.OIl] 1.11'53 10015 16011 1620 1640 1660 11080 17'1lD lno 1740 11¥oil 1110 I .0nt0 10142 1.1"'47 l_OIilI 1.0)5) IID40 UIl60 10)17 10)61 1.1t1l' 1.0719 1.0671 u)(oo 10615 1lIII0 U*.~ ~1~I~II.OSI4 111'95 1. Flow Measurement Table 10·11e Continued Fpv Supercompre..0l62 10)14 10]10 ulln 10211 'OW 1100 1. 1.1lf>21 1.0056 II1'M 1.074a 1.01601 1.11'19 10421 1S20 10704 1.0109 I mos 1.07]7 1.0393 1.07l07 101)4 1070) lOIi1) 10Ii44 1.0116 10)14 1. 10550 10605 1. 1115M I.0110 1.SOJ I Q.07.OSQS l1M32 1.1!l 101i5J 1111>26 10600 IOS1S IOSS2 lOSlO 10507 1 JM.0102 1009II 100 I01S1 10152 no 1011>1 10161 )00 I DIn 10111 .OSI5 1.OlloS l_fIl71 l.osn 10s.000U l0Ii51 10142 10615 10620 1.OS25 I.1)4a8 10lIO 10116 1. 101U 10729 lOMe 1 OWl 10640 10611 105l0I I.1 lOIilI 101>25 'DUa I OIi)(l lOIi)2 IOS56 IOS)1 10481 1.01S1 unS9 1.0170 1260 1.0752 10120 100>90 I CIfM I ClUI III60S 1820 '0791 1.02SS 1_02* I.0501 1.QS61 1.01f0S \.09 10354 10)66 I.0U' 1.16 1.f3&) lOW 1.~I~I~I~~ 2000 10!21i 1.ot 1110118 IQoIV 10011 l00W6 1.11655 1.046'J 1_11'71 1_11'71 111'75 900 IQoISS 100)<) I.016& UTl77 l.020210195 s. l. ' 1.11'54 1..OSla I. loe41 106J9 1.osn 10s0) I.0717 1075A 1.00ll 1..0449 IlI'll I.0126 107ll 1. 1."']5 I.02(.
" . The n:al g." ....99}7 0. 1969.s4 10f>S.0654 1065) 106J11 I I.O 10111 lD712 1.OSM 10S41 10542 10S41 1. T his is also a very small ~rrection .Iues of p"""". """" •• _ _ " ' _.I!.054' lOSZ2 111491 1360 101S1 1 Dill 1 (1781.llo 1M PI specific gr"it).1)0166 111461 10461 1.." 1. is used where orifice meters are installed at locations other than sealevel elevation and 45° latitude.0S'iIII 1059] IOS'll6 1059S .0505 T.05911 I(IS95 losn 1..9915 09951 0.0SIJ 10$IIi 1._) 1.0178 2640 1 ..06JI 1."'" "" .01>45 10616 1.1 CIlI. 1.9'172 0..e..99)2 2J.11597 1.0719 IOIJV UI(..25 1(1624 1.CI!oSO Ulloll UIS'] 1.997'9 O.11750 10711 lOMS UN U18Sl .OSI6 1051l 10511 10509 10506 1(1504 10501 .990} 0."" ."'" . 09971 09967 0.9976 09952 09941 09917 ''''' ...01>41 101>41 106)9 1.0569 U1510 1.._ ualI 10!S6 101119 10714 1.." ."'" .07SJ 10119 10l>Il7 107~1 10718 10I..056] 1..1lS62 I.1 I..0197 _ 10746 10743 1.015'9 107S1 1...0653 10650 1..DB5& 1.SS1 lOll! 1071S '.0551 Ulnl 10S49 I.0617 1.07<16 1.9971 "" ''''' .II1JO lU827 1.11S6S 1/lJ42 10710 1.()oIS& 1.0591 1.ro '" .11571 10S0W U15"" lQ5015 1 OSH '0S46 UI5Z1l UI52<.G71l lono 107f01 107f04 1.."" 0997.11180 1..oser..11171 1.0717 urnl5 LCIIIOJ 101M 1.1)141 '" 1.! Flow Measurement Table 1012 F".117'>2 l.0750 lana 1.QS64 1..· · · .01'91 107lIl 10186 ID78l 10180 1.. UIbII5 106&1 10l>Il] 10bS1 U15911 1."" "'" .. . The gauge location factor.06i1 10660$ 1.CI!ol2 I."" .26 10t.9955 0.()<I" 10''1 1.r...9942 09933 09912 0."'" ."" .05O. 099117 fIow. with merc:ul) minometer type teOOrding .9'181 0.078J 10782 UJ781 1.01116 lor.0S«! 1.0600 1."" ''''' 0.060II Ulfo46 1.1 1..0597 1.05l4 10511 105J"J 1._).I1:5S9 l...9918 .osn ll2C 10ftS7 1.oIIJ 1.997U "" "" . .061\6 1.11599 105'J'1 105'1'1 105\111 105\111 l.0824 10f1U 1.0527 1.9955 099017 09937 "" .06OIi 1.9961 0. Ipprmimlllel> equ..05)9 l05l7 10741 10:'09 1 tI!o1f 101>41 U16l1 lO5'JD 1.MotIi 1..07lI lor."'" "'" .OS)6 101l'J 101V7 1...vity.ututt. and 'p<'f.99n 0. 1..06Sl 1 0Ml IQr. F._ 1. 10611 1..01>41 10640 1. .9915 •.. 2500 UIIS1 HII21 2520 10156 1 ClI20 zs."" 09907 0.117.002 1."'" .0626 1.y SU"""Ie. Mercury Manometer Factors SpecifIC Gr.99')1 0.11116 !IIIU I. the ".." .0515 1..997.enu. 10m '. lemperltu".1 1.01S2 lon' 1.061.9913 0.0685 10655 101>26 1. 01'6 1 0711 1._ 1."'" 0.()oISI .0571 10511 IOS1l IOS7'O 1056'J HIS61 1~ 1 0S<I6 10S41\ 10545 1 ClS45 1 ClS45 I.0621 HI5!18 losn 1.e.ro .. 10t9S 1.060f 10602 1..9914 0.0bS6 1.9979 O. 1 MI5 10770 1.ug<!' Illal hi.DlS1 1011.0.9976 .05" 1.0745 1071) 1.ti. Ihm for.OMS '" 1062J 1.l lOIrS9 !.052l HM91 2'" 2100 1.11119 !On4 106" \..«ill 10521 10521 10521 IOS20 10510 II.9975 Trml"""~l u~ .1!.()<I'lO 1. · .00..9'181 0.'1' 2"10 II1M9 HID 108>8 1."" 0.11772 Z700 1.1 PI m."" "" 0. .0Il0 107M 10751 10n9 1..0838 2700 1005 1710 1.OS58 1.0489 1048& 104a1 1048S 1...05el 105ID 1.062'l 1.ro '" ..0551 1055f> 1.0. 1.0527 1.ss .9959 • 12O"f 0.OS1l 1. ~I' From Orifice Mnmng oj .."'" 09987 .OSlO IOSU 1.06l'0 106/)1 Gauge Location Factor..9935 0." .OS)2 I."'" "" . . ''''' .9955 0.6 Specific Gravity Hydrocarbon ~. ilh the lnanI.os..11511 1()196 1." .."'" .99013 .0751 lone HIbII7 U1750 11174' 10748 U"47 10746 10711 t 0716 I. rou.07'99 101M 1.()oI9] 1()oI'rI 1.01119 107&' 1.0617 1.OS~ I.\'atu"...00196 10'% 10'9S 10'95 I~ 104'93 UI4'Jl 1(loI')2 10'91 1."'" . "'" llOO 10!S6 1.ng P.0&:1) 1*10 2l2O 2140 2860 28110 1.tO UII5S UII19 lWI 10&1 101111 Z50IIG 101151 1.9941 0...(111~ Uillel 12«1 1CJ1S.16 1.0t9S 100'15 11)1'M1 1 Df9lo 517 JKl8 " lrmp. 0'>21 '" " .) Go.(16..z".9967 ."" 0.06IlI 10615 106'4 10611 10610 10601 l.06l~ '" .05&' 1. _ 111111 ID77f> 2660 IIl146 1.0501 10ffl 1 CM91 1. If)715 1..07BS 10..0Sll 10521 IOSI' I .M.05n Hl5110 10SSl 1.05]) I.1617 10611 10b21 10b21 101.0'10 1046& 1..99)1 Ambiml ".0655 101>26 1.05Z1 100196 .9941 0.l1lI2 2720 1Il140 1740 1. "f IZ'i m l200 I.0716 10685 (text con tinued from page 50n 290D 192D lt4D 2960 1.11144 IIl101 1.997'9 0."" 0.I..9992 .56 1005 1.1)5016 1. dnuit} iI equal to II ."'" I 071S 10714 1."'" . .05'J8 111572 ."'Ol~' F'ac:tors for intermediate ~....n 1."" ''''' .01ie0 I.ln' 101\17 lonl 10719 10l>Il7 I.0518 1. 1.11510 1.S7 1.078) 1 CP# 1071& 1.0511 1.''''il}' ohould ~ Interpola .0SS9 2~lD 108."'" .M 10"8 lOP' 1..0140 1.0S66 1.0l>Il1 UIIo51 I.9912 09923 0.oe:J') 1 fJJ74 26ID 1.99n 0. . I~ 1 ()<I8l lo.:1\ lor. 1051>9 1.0522 1001" 2110 1 011I0Il 1 OIl! 1 07810 I 0112 I 071' 10681 1 06S6 '0bV '."'" ..0l0I3 Z260 10155 1011.1ll'O4 ICI7\l1 1. This tllble Is for . 0.56 10621 105'111 l. ~ .9917 0. F" gi\'en in Table 1013. gu in rontad .' 1.0501 1.9933 0."'" .()01)6 I()o1SoO 1..0S94 UIS9S 1.('6.(11114 10m _ 1. .991& 0.06'JI 1061l 10&1'9 1..0111l 1.'" . ..0517 11.06&7 1010S10 1..0Il2 lOUl 101m 10822 101m 10717 1(1787 10787 10786 10736 1.9926 099043 0. • 1..99013 0..0IJ6 1.CIS41 10S44 10S42 1.0&1'9 10&48 1061' 1.1I practical purpore!..04'.0514 IOSll IOS12 \."'" .osn 10541 1.07fIJ \.15 1..0571 1.tl'$)' of ACA 1071' 106811 1/lJ49 1..." 0..0121 106'l0 ted... PS'S "."" .0525 1.06l) IGUO 1."" .«>'iIf> 1 ~ 1. 0.w 1.osn l05n l05n 10571 1."" •. "" "../lJ44 10712 1..0597 l.01J1 1"'J4 tonI 1. _bolo~ .06)1 1.z." .05l1 1. 2600 1.ro .ltive demit) .0515 1051] I."'" .0534 10556 IQS12 1.on. ''''' "'" •.04l0I 1()0131 I.osn 1.()oI7') 1()o176 1 Of"'" 1.0150l 10m l.'&1 1.516 Gas Production £nlo:inl'ering Table 10·11e Conti nued F"" Supe rcompreS5lblllty Factors (Bue OataO.0711 11.i T."" 0.'if~ ... 1.06025 tosw."" .I6l8 I ~8 11.DU5 106)J 1." •.CI7Ql' 1..· "" 0."" "" ''''' "'" ''''' "'.0644 1.. I."'1) HITIO I.~ .0IIS(I 1.989} 0.05IlI 10560 IOS)4 1.111011 I 0&57 10&51 10&57 HI651 1 001 10.07)4 !Ol'O) 10000l 1076& HV)J 10701 1.056'J 105116 1.".*" IIl105 ~ Ullin lOOO 1."'" .11521 10S11 .1JI.0561 1.07l0 lC1699 111196 \.067'5 1067) 10611 I OWl 1.."'" .
13.9886)(0.77. Other methodselimination of pipe leaks. or contaminated mercury.0. Such an instance should be recorded on the meter charts.510/375 . or excessive friction beru:een pen and chart . F10w disturbances. Fm . Chart malfunctionsincorrect range. Cas dehydration . 10.00037)(0. whenever the gas temperature falls below the hydrateforming temperature for the gas.93)( 1. Installation of heaters along the line or near the meter. Incorrect pen ~ovement on chart .lsating Flow Pulsating flow is flow comprising sudden changes in pressure and f10\\ rate of the flowing flUid .98. slugging.ectiOlZ FI and F. Therefore.65. For 1'. 3.98)°·. Formation of hvdrates in meter pipinJ{ or body. Excessive recess between the end of pipe and the face of the oriritt plate. 1972).0. etc. 6. 14. or in the meter piping or internals. Incorrect estimate of pipe diameter. Eccentricity of orifi ce with ~ to the pipe.23 Using Equation 916. Common Measurement Problems q .(870.14.134. 15.059.> and using Equation 917. Pf . Hydrate formation can be prevented using any of the following (see Chapter 5): • The Petroleum Extension Service (1972) also lists the following as tht most common sources of variable errors: 1. 6. and replacing needle valves with plug or gate valves (Petroleum Extension Service. Tpt" . Thick or dull orifice edge. or by irregularities in the pipe. 12. F". 4.7 from Table 1012. . and the estimated static and differential pressure lines should be drawn in.1. Use of hydrate inhibitors.a. 2.90 . Hydmre Formation Hydrates may be formed at the orifice.010) (0.9914)(0. the following are the sources of constant errors (errors that are constant over time for an installed meter): 1. 8. 9.485) . or in pipe sags. enlarging meter piping and valves. Nonuniform caHbration characteristic of the meter. Pulsating flow.36. Overdampening of the meter response.90/670 . 4.059. welding. such as incorrect arc for the pens. 2. 1. 1972): . 5. Pu. = 75.23)(73. BUildup of solids or sediment on the upstream face of the orifice plate. 7 Excessive pipe roughness. pulsating flow. 3.1.2 is equal to 0. Liquid accumulation in the bottom of a hOrizontal pipe run .2403)(1. and sour gas. incorrect rotation time. Factors Affecting Orifice Meter Accuracy According to the Petroleum Extension Service (1972). 2.0098)(1.837 ft'/h. Imprecise location of the pressure taps. Some of the common measurement problems encountered in gas metering are (Petroleum Extension Service. 7. or in meter body. .520 Cal Production Engineering Ga! Flow Measurement 521 Thus.9808)(1. Incorrect estimate of orifice size.(1. 4. 3. caused by insufficient provisions for flow stabili· zation. Incorrect zero adjustment of the meter. Emulsification of liquids with mercury. and Tf SO" 50°F. 5.3 psig. and Z from Figure 3. 11.5 '"" LaID. 1972): hydrate formation (freezin g). Common sources of such flow in gas measurement are (Petroleum Extension Service. K .999F! NeW.1/(0.9998) . Differences or changes in prevailing operating conditions from those used for calculation purposes. Convex or concave contouring of the orifice plate. Leakage around the orifice plate. Corrosion or delXlSits in the meter internals. i>pr .
by using a smaller diameter orifice. . or engines. or worn valves and reguJators. The impeller imparts angular momentum to the fluid. transversemomentum mass flowmeter. The signal from the head meter. 4.522 Gas Production Engineering Gas Flow Measllremeni 523 1. 2. Reciprocating systemscompressors. The same can also be achieved by using smaller sized tubes. The mass flow rate of the fluid through the meter is obtained by measuring this torque which is proportional to the impeller's rotational speed and the mass flow rate. Slugging 3. is used along with a densitometer. Thermal mass flowmetercommonly uses vibrating tubes and heat transfer. fluids are being handled near their critical region. or by allowing flow only through a limited number of tubes in a multiple tube installation. Improperly sized. which in turn supplies a torque to the turbine. it is the hydrogen sulfide in the surrounding atmosphere that affects the measurement equipment (Petroleum Extension Service. There are essentially two types of mass flowmeters: tnle mass jlowmeters that respond directly to mass flow rate. 3. is multiplied with the density p given by the densitometer. Also known as an angularmomentum mass flowmeter. Reduce the amplitude of the pulsations by placing a volume capacity. 1972). Intermitters on wells and automatic drips. Sour gas in a closed line causes little or no corrosion. it uses axial flow through an impeller and a turbine in series. The Petroleum Extension Service (1972) outlines the following methods to reduce pulsating flow and/or diminish its effect on orifice flow measurement: 1. flow restriction. Inferen tial Masa Flowmeten Sour em As discussed in Chapters 5 and 6. In lowpressure lines. and sealing the meters against the atmosphere. Slugging refers to the accumulation of liquids in the gas flowline. Magnuseffect mass flowmeter. a head meter.. 1\vophase flow conditions. 4. Axialflow. sour gas is detrimental to all flow equipment for two reasons: corrosion and accelerated hydrate formation. There is no known method to correct for such a flow. several instruments and techniques have been developed to measure mass flow rate. 5. transversemomentum mass flowmeter. 1984): 1. 3. The square root of the product thus obtained is proportional to the mass flow rate. Operate at pressure differentials as high as possible. • Of these. the liquid accumulates at low spots in the line. In recent years. A common method of preventing slugging flow is the installation of liquid accumulators in the flowline. True MOM Flowmeien Several types of true mass flowmeters have been developed. Common preventive measures to ensure proper gas metering include using hydrogen sulfide resistant components in the meters. Headtype meters with density compensation. such as an orifice or venturi. The several types of inferential mass flowmeters can be classified into three major categories (Chemical Engineers' Handbook. 1984): 1. keeping the same orifice size and maintaining as high a pressure differential as possible. Locate the meter along the flowline in a position where pulsations arE' minimized. Radialflow. loose. restricting gas flow until enough pressure is built up for the gas to blow through the liquid In highpressure lines. In this type of mass flow measurement. 2. Gyroscopic transversemomentum mass flowmeter. 2. and injerential mass jlowmeters that infer the mass flow rate from separate volumetric flow rate and density measurements. or specially designed filter between the pulsation source and the meter. the axialflow transversemomentum mass flowmeter is the most commonly used. Other Types of Measurements Mass Flow Rate Measurement L . including the following (Chemical Engineers' Handbook. proportional to pv 2 . Pulsating flow can be a source of considerable metering errors. where the fl uid density changes very rapidly with small changes in the flowing conditions. liquid is swept through to the orifice and beyond Both these situations result in flow disturbances that cause erratic and inaccurate measurements. Consequently.
'" liquid flow rate.. orifice meters are used quite often. the American Meter Company (1973) provides the following equation: (1027) F10wmeter accuracy is generally quite poor for measuring twophase f1owstreams. F].orifice thermal expansion factor d = orifice diameter. in .. For volumetric flow rate measurement in gallons per hour. and Fa are the orifice factors as described earlier. Ibm/day differential pressure across the orifice. PI. This type of mass measurement Use!i a head meter and a velocity meter (pitot tube. and piezoelectric crystals that respond to pressure. No good method is currently known~most techniques give only an approximate value. the following equation by the Foxboro Company (1961 ) may be used: (1028) flow rate. gal/hr differential pressure across the orifice.liquid weight fraction in the flowstream and subscript 1 represents the value at the orifice inlet.. Fa " orifice thermal expansion factor ( = 1. hw liquid flow rate. Ibf/ftl . Fro Y. are available for determining the density of a flowing gas stream. For the popular orificemeter/densitometer combination for mass flow rate measurement .effective differential head for the twophase flow. = specific gravity of the flowing liquid stream = = Equation 1028 is often used in the following simplified form: (1026) where m '"' mass flow rate of the gas.. Fb = Fill FII = F. in. orifice flow coefficienl~ for gas and liquid.. of water X . KI. in. in. based upon different principles.) 1\voPhasc Systems (1029) F b . in. equal to (gas density) X (gIg. Murdock (1962) gives the following equation for twophase flow through orifice meters: (1030) • where where q h". = gas and liquid densities.. Ibm/hr h" = differential pressure across the orifice. is multiplied by the signal from a densitometer to generate a signal proportional to the mass flow rate. or a turbine meter) . of water Wg "" gas specific weight. Volume or velocitytype meters with density compensation. Natural Gas Liquids Measurement Using Orifice Meters Natural gas liquids are generally measured under static conditions using conventional tankgauging methods. mass flow rate of twophase flow. respectively. 1969) gives the following equation: where ml. For flowing liquid streams. In this method. such as buoyant force on a fluidsupported float . Headtype meters with velocity compensation. of water S = a constant determined by the orifice and pipe diameters d = inside diameter of the meter tube. Various types of densitometer.. respectively Yg _ expansion factor for the orifice F.. radiation attenuation . of water basic orifice factor specific gravity factor (for temperature correction) factor for seals (if required) Reynolds number factor mTP . AGA (AGA . Fm. . Ibml hour Kg. Ibml ftl (hw)TP .0 for temperatures between 23 and gg0F) F m '" manometer factor Fe = viscosity factor.524 Gas Productioll Engineering Gos Flow Measuremellt 525 2. 3. generally assumed to be unity Fp = correction factor for liquid compressibility ')'1. . The signal from the head meter is divided by the velocity signal from a velocity meter to obtain a signal proportional to the mass For mass flow rate measurement in pounds per day. in.. Pg. the signal from a velocity meter (such as turbine meter or sonic velocity meter) or a volume (displacement) meter (such as rotary meter or reciprocating piston meter). .
A test with a mass flow meter indicate. water Pipe taps downstream " . Why is gas measured in terms of volume? Compare the requirements for volumetric versus mass flow rate measurement.5 taken at downstream flangetype tap. 60°F). Hcfercnces American Meter Company. Compare the orifice t}l>es.73 psia and OO°F. 82(14. H. Engineeritlg Data Book." Hydr. McCrawHili Book Co. 110 psia Differential pressure reading = 175. Eng .5 in. 1971.85' F Static pressure reading. Aug. flowmg temperature . Green (eds. the Petroleum Extension Service (1972) recommends the following precautions: 1 Keep pressure and temperature as high as possible at the meter..1.. M.. 7576.}uly 7). \V. and (b) LIO squareroot chart . 61(8. Aug. DeVries. 4. Determine a meter factor to correct the metering results. Given static and differential pressure recordings on an orifice meter chart.. Cas Measurement Committee Report No. 1975..0 in. 5. It is suspected that the chart recording device is malfunctioning in a field orifice measurement system. CPSA.. giving reasons. }. "Thrbine Meters Cain in Gas Measurement.S . 6.~. Norman." Cilem. 0.. Foxboro Company. Gas Conditioning and Processing. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. . American Cas Association. cases. New York. New York. Evans. 1982.. N2 . 1'_ '" 0. Perry and D. Neglect F"" Flo and Fl' Assume base conditions of 14.73 psia. 20). Massachussets. I. Report of AS~·1E Research Committee on Fluid Meters.. and Honeywell." Oil & Gas J. H . and H... Tulsa.0. OriJice Metering oj Natural Cas. 3.000 Ibm ·hr. revised. Foxboro Company. static .·olume relationship in some.. 10. S..5 in. 3 in . find its dollar value. 1973. I. Calculate the gas production from a well with the following orificemeter information: Readings from a squareroot chart with a chart range of 50 in. 6769.63 F10wing temperature . Oklahoma. CliemiClJI Engineers' Handbook.. 1961. Foxboro. "Practical Methods for Measuring F1ows. 1. 1984. J. a gas rate of 18. Fluid Meters. "Facts and Fallacies of Vortex F1owmeters. Orifice Meter Constants: Handbook E2...). given that gas sells for $1. Address the issue of flashing of liquids into vapor (a common occurrence for undersaturated steam and all except dead oils). 1973. Oklahoma..0 per Mscf (measured at 14. Discuss.. 0. Proc. (5th revision).3 (Revised). using test data from (periodic) separator tests. Corcoran . E. What would be the features of an "ideal" gas measurement device? 2..·e the differential pressure and flo" . Connect manifold lead lines to bottom of bellowstype meter With sell drainin~ pots installed above orifice fitting. A.. Gas Processors Suppliers Association. ASME .2. 8692. Principles amI Practices oj Flowmeter Engineering.3. and that the gas has (in mole%): CO 2 . and what strategies can be adopted in such a situation. 3. Campbell Petroleum Serie.96. • . 4 Is a linear meter necessarily better? 5. AGA. New 'ark.58. 7. List the advantages and applicability of the various flow measurement devices. 9. if not all. 326pp.. . 6th edition. For the £oHowing conditions. Questions and Problems If there is an error. determine if the orifice meter chart is in error: Pipe diameter . Use a vertical meter run that may impro. 2_ Use a freewater knockout upstream of the meter. the important factors that affect orifice meter accuracy. Discuss the problems in twophase measurement. 0. ID) Orifice diameter . R. 8th edition. x 100 psi: differential . 1981. ). Campbell. W. show the calculations that are required for computing flow volumes for the case of: (a) a linear orificemeter chart. including their effect on gas £low measurement. 9th ed. 71(34.Their Tlleory and Application.8. What operating conditions need be assured to enable accurate orifice metering of natural gas? 8.. 1984. Vol.526 Gus ProductiOIl Ellgineerillg Cas How Measuremellt 527 For metering twophase flow.0il in. 7. 1'. 8in_ nominal (8. 1969. 95°F.72. Pipe diameter . }. orifice diameter . 6th ed.
6). 143pp Powe~.. 1972. November." Trans .. Processed or partially processed gas is then sent to the trunk lines that transport the gas to consumers.. • Gathering Systems The surface flow gathering system consist. Flowlines are Usually terminated at a header. "Ultrasonic Flowmeter Offers New Approach to LargeVolume Gas Measurement. Field Handling oj Natural Gas. "How to Use HighCapacity AxialFlow Turbine \feters for Gas ~teasurement. Sept. Cas is often distributed via pipeline grids that introduce a lot of complexity into the flow computations . 84(4... and axial. Austin. 111117... J. 1975." Oil & Gas J.80(36. dial system (Figure I1Ia). Petroleum Extension Service. Dec. 11 Gas Gathering and uansport Introduction Natural gas produced from several wells in a given area is collected and brought to field separation and processing facilities \1a a system of pipes known as a gathering system. The two basic types of gathering systems are radial. 1962. M. facilities to each of the wells. Because these single well systems are seldom economical.. "Vortex Shedding Provides Accurate Flow. 3rd edition. H . and possibly treatment. 6977. D . Basic Eng. flowlines emanating from several different wellheads converge to a central point where facilities are located . Production systems with extremely high capacity wells may provide individual separation.. w. This chapter briefly describes gathering systems and the transport of gas through pipeline neh\·orks. Aug. it is quite common to design gathering and separation facilities that enable combined handling of several wel1streams.• 1982. Murdock. Apr. 3). building upon the concepts for steady state flow through a single pipe described in Chapter 7." Oil & Gas J. Texas. the oilwatergas separators). 4). of the section of pipe and fittings that serve to transmit the produced fluid from the wellhead to the field treatment facilities (generally.)." Oil & GQJ /. encountered quite often in pipeline practice. are also introduced. "TwoPhase Flow Measurement With Orifices.528 GO$ Production Eflgifleerifl~ Munk. In the ra. A5ME: /. 70(14. which is essentially a pipe large enough to 529 . 73(31. Some basic elements of unsteady state gas flow. 1972. University of Texas Press. W. 8488. L. metering. 419433.
. The production characteristics of the field are also important to con. Generally. The cost of the several smail sections of pipe used in the wellcenter system is compared to the cost of a single large pipe for the trunkline system.~(AO[~ 1l0..K. [d'/fLl'. . . of all the flowlines. An axial gathering system. system. The three possible ways of handling these requirements are to replace a portion of the pipeline with a larger one (pipelines in series). . The choice between the gathering systems is usually economic. The gathering system may have to be buried a few feet beneath the surface..:.vldual wells. (111) • Figure "2a. given by .' e ""'' Cas Go/hi'ring Gild Trallsport 531 . andf tOl~a.. a test header is used to route fluids from a single well through the metering system.a.. The trunkline gathering system is more applicable It is obvious that \'ery complex metering facilities are required to measure the production of individual wells Simultaneously.. ( 19ure 112b). In the axial gathering system. Where KI is a constant. relationships will be derived here. place one or more pipelines in parallel along the complete length of the existing line (pipelines in parallel). these two basic systems are modified a little. Trunktine gathering system.'lgille'ering ff :a~~e todhe flo. A radial gatherrng !~ ~:I~~v:~~ lf~~f~rpJ~. The We)'mouth equation (Equation 729) can be written as: q . based upon the basic equation by Weymouth (Equation 729) for steadystate flow of gas through pipes .ne.~ for the groups of wells that. in turn. Figure 111a. For each of th~ systems. and the possibility of the development of underground storage operations. that reduce the set of pipelines to a single pipeline that is equivalent to the set in terms of the pressure drop and flow capacity.l'~[ Figure l'1b.'ie\'eral pr uce mto a common flowline (Figure 11lb)....mg aClltJes at a central point. use a radial gathering sc e. The one feature for simplicity is that gas flows in at one end.~ider. The latter may be required when the pipeline has "aged" or corroded. Weltcenter gathering system. no flow occurs at any other point in the piping system.530 Gas PrOllut'tiOrt F. These include current and estimated fu· ture production distribution over the wells in the field. SteadyState Flow in Simple Pipeline Systems The term "simple" is used here to indicate the gas pipeline systems that can be handled with minor modifications to the flow relationships presented in Chapter 7..~[e\'el for IOdl. Technical feasibility may be another criterion.. Such a scheme is orten used for increasing the throughput of a pipeline while maintaining the same pressure and pressure drop (such as when new gas wells have been developed that must use the existing pipeline) or for operating a pipeline at a lower pressure (pressurederation) while maintaining the same throughput. and flows out at the other end.gathering s?'St~~ (Figure 112a) uses a radial gathering philoso h at ~~:I:~.. favoring one system o\'er another in terms of cost and ease of maintenance.. future development of the field. wellhead flowing presmres. For larger ~eases.. or place one or more pipelines in parallel only partially along the length of the existing line (seriesparallel or looped lines)... Figure 112b.~ well as at the global level for grO~:S of . The wellcenter .ses where it is undesirable or impractical r. h e commonIme or trunkhne gathering system uses an axial gatherIO~ sc e. This well test header also pro\'ides the means to control the production from inru"idual wells and to conduct well tests on individual wells.
.".c.iTZ )" (1l2) where the subscript t indicates the total for the system. For example. The pressure drops through the pipe leg. L. equivalent to the line B of length LB.<}.).532 GOt Pmduct/O'l Eng/Fleering Cas Gathering and Transport 533 K. the three lines A. = equivalent lengths of segments Band C.6.. as shown in Figure 11·1. . Equations 11·1 and 11·2).1 can be written as: L .635382 (T. the length 48. and dB. B (length La and diameter dB).. \\e can e(luate these two lines A and B using Equation 11. The inlet and outlet pressures for the system are PI <!new _ <loid 11(L.r. and C (length Lc and diameter de). respectively. respectheJy.3. all other fac· tors being the same. _ 5.. we know that the pres· sure drop..~  ClB ...Kd I(£q') (1l3) (118) Consider two pipelines A and B.. B (length LB. . that will have the same pressure drop as line B of length Ls and diameter dB (i.ql (1l6) .equivalent length of the total system LA "" length of segment A 48A.) [vl. . (1l7) and Note that q denotes ~ throughout this chapter for simplicity. B.e . and friction factor (8' T herefore. . diameter d . For this system. is gi\'en by: .dp in a pipe section is proportional to the length L.. diameter dB).~ + L8 + 4:)O'~ L" (IlIO) The fractional increase in flo\\ capacity.... and C in series are equivalent to a single line of diameter d A and length 4 given by Equation 11·9. The total pressure drop is equal to the sum of the pressure drops in each of the pipe I~.)o. be the new flow rate obtained by altering the sections B and C of the pipeline to two pipe sections of length LB and diameter dB and length Lc and diameter de. and diameters d . c • A Figure 113.\ of a line of diameter d . and friction factor f. Substituting in Equation 11·8. and diameter d .). the equivalent diameter d"BA of line B may be used: (1l5) where c4BA is the diameter of a pipe of length L. diameter ~.. connected in series as shown in Figure 11·3. and <lne. diameter dB. (IIIl) Parallel Pipelines Consider pipelines A (length L. of lengths L" and LB. the equivalent length of line B in terms of the diameter of line A) is given by From Equation 7·29 (or.Pij' p.q(. we get Le .) in parallel. Equation 11. Thus. and 1>2. are not equal. the flow rates through each of the pipe legs are equal: Q. . Pipelines in series. (1l9) where Altr>rnativeiy.~ l/(LA + L8 + Lc)O 5 _ (L.. however. Using the fact that q is proportional to (1IL)0. respectively • Series Pipelines Consider three pipelines A (length L . Let <WeI be the old flow rate for the pipeline of length LA + LB + Lc and diameter d A ..5. and C (length Le.
The resultant equivalent pipe for the parallel segments A and B is then combined in series with the segment C. ( 11. substituting for q in Equation 1114 from Equation 111: (11·15) q_. as the case may be. Substituting for L" from Equa· tion 11·17 into Equation 11. .)" + (dtIJdl1cLc)" Choosing d. For the two lines A and B in parallel.L. A looped system may be considered to be a combination of series and parallel sections.<loki lI(L A)O. and C in parallel be L. q". and d.18 for such a system: Let the length and diameter of the pipeline equivalent to the three lines A. the pre. 1116..L. Equation 1115. Equation 11·16 reduces to: (11·17) c The inlet and outlet pressures for this system are PI and 1>2. by q.12) (11·13) The ratio of the new flow rate for lines in parallel to the old flow rate for the single line A is given.:l. sure drop through each of them is the same.. respectively.5 1/(4)o. respectively.. but the flow rates are not. any value may be assumed for two of the three unknowns.L.534 Gus Prodllction Engineering Gas Gatllering alld Transport 535 Assuming LA .)" + (d!lJd\I.. Thus. The total flow rate.q. as before for the .. Jeserves mention.>d line shown in Figure ll·S.)" + (dIf.:ommon inlet ami outld. The fractional increase in flow capacity.)" + (d!IJdll. [(IJI. ft.. however.)" L~' + (dil~ dll.L.. . or 11·17 can be used.series pipeline. also called a fully· looped line. La Figure 11·4. The original pipeline is looped to some distance with another line to increase the flow capacity. . is the sum of the flow rates through each of the pipe legs. are in parallel ~ ith a . with both lines of equal length.. d.14) A special case of two lines in parallel. Parallel pipelines Le.ld!lcLc)" 1 ] ' (11· 16) A looped pipeline is one in which only a part of the line has a parallel segment. can then be calculated using the following relationship used earlier for series pipelines: and (11.)' 'I • • (~" + (~:. the original line having two segments A and C of the same diameter is looped with a segment B. Equation 1115 can also be expressed as:  [(~" + (~fl(~)" ( 11·19) Looped Pipelines ~5 1 • (d!IJdll. In the loop!.~ (L')" 4 (11·18) where 4 is obtained using Equation 11·16 or 1l·17. Then.d A • we obtain: L.. and 4. . and the third calculated. Because the pipeline:. B..~" In Equation 11 15.. L~'I [ (IJI.
I . Table 11 1 Coefficients for Serlea. [::]." becomes: Note that A indicates the original line./d." Lc + L".2. looped Une Equations Equation Weymouth PanhaodleA PanhandieB • 1613 .Idll')"l'] where I. (1121) l. Lc)" + The expressions for series. For this case. . the ratio of the flow rates is q. and B indicates the added line.I ..'" LcI(L. t>. and PanhandleB equations.21 is the equivalent length of line 2 in terms of the diameter of line Let xf be the fractional length of a line that must be looped in order to achieve a desired flow rate... the equivalent length for the parallel section AB.536 CO" Production Engineering Cas Gathering alld Transport 531 and Equation 11 20 becomes: ~ ..0 . L.l..If. • [::]' .)" + 0' (~iI. .007 2.) +" [[(1'.. and looped lines.Lc + [(1.5394 0. Figure 115. 854 4. assume a friction factor correlation that simplifies the flow calculations (see Chapter 7).(d. b. the equivalent length for the total system. Equation 11 4 for the equi\alent length of a line becomes: .e . can be determined using Equation 11·17: Solving for Xr: . The values of the exponents a. _ q. + Lc) . I.1.11[(1.)" + (~iI. 5. 0' (L' L..510 .11. such as the Weymouth.." . c.)" + (d..530 d 2. PanhandleA.)" LI' ]' Le..Jd\f. (4)AB. Then.Lc + (4)"8 Extensions to Commonly Used Pipeline Equations .Jdll. The resulting expressions are given below for these equations for series.fost noniterative equations for gas flow.0 0.)" + (d!I.)' (1122) k. parallel. (11·20) L. 8.961 • .618 2. Looped pipelines . and looped pipelines described contain the friction factors for the individual legs. parallel.(I ....L.: Lc . and d are given in Table 111.LA':.'3 . Parallel .333 •.11.': Lc ][[(1. From The old length (without the looppipe B) of the system was LA + Equation 11·18.ld\fu)"1' Then.)U'I'] Relatively simplified expressions are often found in the literature for the case when the loopline B has the same length as A.
the looping requirements..~.a.t dip = diameter of the original single line diameter of the pipe installed in parallel with this line For looped lines.28..(30)']. (qold/q.'3 "" 120. Ppt . diameter line or length: ]. the equivalent length is the sum of the indhjdual equi\alent lengths of all the pipe sections (Equation 119). we can consider sections BC and BD to be in parallel..4.)d IIl1+ 1]' q.373' R.)d 1.6 .280)(540)(0.(30)'](8)'" (0.. 1 .5.. 3mile pipeJine connects B to D. PI"" " 0. Gas of specific gravity 0.2762 ::. A &'in. Po) .9525 If all sections in the parallel lines afe of equal length. and use the Weymouth equation. lines in parallel an' thus equiva· lent to a single 8in. .2i62)U ~ • d. 3 (8/4)16..28.2 d ~ 31.[ ..30 psia.44. runs from station A to a pipeline junction at B.670 psia. 1984). Z. the complete system is cqui\·alent to a single 8·in.65)(8. line in terms of an 8in... while a 4in . the 4·in.5027 IU3 [(400)' ... Using Equation 732. +d~ ] "b Because Pc "'" Po...0.. and Tpr .689 miles 4 {11l20...65. Using the Weymouth Equation (Equation 734).65 is being transported from station A to stations C and D. and 8in.9525)O~ + (1 9. p .9. diameter line of length .2 (4/3)163 . length 3 miles.4 ".85 Mscfd . Equation 11 27 to: So.mile pipeline connects junction B to station C. 400 psia.t Gathering and TranS7'"rt 539 Equation 115 for the equivalent diameter of a line becomes: (1123) where ~I is the equivaler!t diameter of line 2 in terms of the length of line 1 For lines in scries. determined using Equation 11·22.689 x 5.rrg Ga. diameter line is (1125) l.. Given that the pressure at station A (PA) . L. are (Campbell.. the equi .. and add the equivalent length thus determined to the length of the section AB which is in series. plifies to (compare with Equation 1117): Example 11·1. Using Equation 1122.268 ps. 520 [ x _ 1'I 1 (qoldlq. For lines in parallel.8.. and therefore. the equivalent length can be calcwated as follows (compare with Equation 11 16) (11241 where 411 is the equivalent length of pipe leg i. Equation 11·24 sim.538 Gas ProduNion Engineeri.21.. analogous to Equation 1l.1 +[~ where (1126) Using Equation 1124. If all the parallel pipe legs are of equal length. and that stations C and 0 are at the same pressure (Pc. 2.689 miles For "1'1" 0.[(400)' ..689 . _ d'L [ I di+dS+dS+ .955) J f' (l12Il) . Assume that the flowing temperature is BOoF. diameter line. alent length of the 4in.. and Tp<' . the ratio of the new to the old flow rate is (compare with Equation 1119): Similarly.957..3 + 5.a (400)' (30)' " _~impli(jes If the diameter of original and parallel lines is the same. Thus. One caJculation strategy is to reduce the parallel lines BC and BD to a single 8 in.1.. determine the capacity of the system.955.96 MMscfd . A single pipeline of diameter 8 in. Solution L.
3512. 364.12 MMscfd .. Due to new well completions.. to line 9.51.83 miles The more accurate method involves using the basic relationships as fol · lows. The basic model considers the transmission system to be a pipeline network with two basic elements: nodes and node connecting elements (NeE's).)(9..067)" 3 .280)(0.i~Lj pp. x.73 (0. . compressor stations.084 Xf  151..1 1 (111. ID pipe. and TpI .73 psia). 3.6 MMscfd of gas of average specific gravity equal to 0. the equivalent length of the looped section is: 1 Lt ...9451 On solving this. P. and T p. 9. or where there is an injection or offtake (deliver~) of gas.73)'j_ 377.48. Most design and operation control problems.4 x 5.4074 2' 9 120 . can be solved reasonably well assuming flow to be steadystate . valves. . and underground gas storages.34 ". Equation B On solving Equations A and B simultaneously.l .. and therefore.i3)3 .(3 14 .940.09 .gathering system consists of a 6..2)2 _ 0.5027 ~ [[(389.. the length of the loop required "" (0.945. = 0.57 psia.73 psia: Z factor will not change substantially for such a pressure difference.(3 14.847. So. and the average delivery p~ure is 300 psig.. Ppr .73)' . What length is required? On solving this. we get: {P3)2 r' • Thus.(384..4 mile. Using the approximate relationship of Equation 1128.(6.1. . and T. ..64.)'J(6.2.4) .408. 381. Using the Weymouth Equation (Equation 734). The average temperature is 73°F..0. .0671'" .(0. Therefore. flow through which is almost always transient (unsteady).6) = 9.48.804.4074)(9.067in. and P.866.73 (0._ [(389. .64)(533)( 1 .73)' . it is desired to increase the capacity of this line by 20% by looping with additional 6..35 12)(9.0. Soilltion Note: Weymouth equation paramete~ are used throughout fo r the calculations..067.768.408 Xf ft + 71 . A portion of a large gas.540 COJ Production Engineering Gas Catheri'lg and Tra'isport 541 Example 11·2. _ 360 0 R For the looped section: From Equation 1125. or where two or more NeE's join. 12.2)(7. and using Equation 732.) [ (6. The NeE's include pipe legs. P. j' " P3 is quite close to the assumed value of 364..73)'  (p. 671 psia.350 XI miles .73)'J(6.64)(533)(12..06 Xf " 170...3.9.731' 1" (314.in.73)' P SteadyState Flow in Pipeline Networks Gas transmission systems often form a connected net. however.1.57.64. 067)~ 3 + (6.. (389. Using the Weymouth Equation (Equation 734).0.3 1. we get: Ul:I)! + 17. 340.0. 14. pres!Oure and flow regulators.(1. Za. 15 . _ 0.. the values obtained for the two unknowns are: Xr .)(0. 120 Mscfd For 'Y. Desired flow rate q.5027 520 [ [(PJI' . Nodes are defined as the points where a pipe leg ends. p. Equation A For the unlooped section: From Equation 732..30 miles Assuming the pressure P3 at the point 9.31 ia (384. 14.4x. and therefore.120 _ 31. long.(384. the length of looping pipe required . =.067)163(9. handling 7.. Z..4) . A second trial is not necessary. The pressure at the upstream end of this section is 375 psig.94) J .4 x/ miles from the inlet (where the loop ends) to be equal to 350 psig ( .73)' .067)"'». _ [{3/H.
(p1 ... These are usually provided by the manufacturer. the flow relationship given by Equation 789 is applicable: (1138) (1139) (11~311 5. number of NeE's meeting at the node q .1)]:15 0' (11~30) For critical (sonic) flow.. Pressure regulators. [Ilh(T1)fS[J(I(1r .·1 'r~ (1136) (1137) Highpressure pipe leg.sure pipe leg. ~. if n is the number of NeE's in the loop. (pi .. where P is the compression power and k... . and q ~ k.(P2'PI). Underground gas reservojr~' and storages. and Troruport 543 Before constructing a model of the pipe1ine network. negative for flow of gas out from the node By Kirchhoff's second law. Thus.:!.. These models are essentially pressure \.I where k2 _ 0.61 C dPId. Compressor characteristics vary depending upon the type and the manufacturer. the algebraic sum of the pressure drops (taken with consistent signs) around the loop is zero.. For a low pre. according to Equation i29. is as follows: (11~291 where 14. 2. Pressure regulators are similar to chokes. then for a highpressure pipeline: 1:1. Equation 787 rna}' be used: q" kr.015744 Qj" 0 (1141) PiCj"~!~.plI" (1140) Thus. The characteristic equation for a high pressure pipe. 974.:1.. the algebraic sum of gas flows entering and leaVing any node is zero: • 0' (1133) !:F.fL (1134) • 3.pO. positive for flow into the node. and can be approximated as follows: (1135) where m . and may be described by the flow relationships (or chokes. Lowpressllre pipe leg. 4. and ks are compreswr constants (see Chapter 9). as described be· low. . Compressors.PI [(P2 I PI)l.0 (1142) .ersus rate (throughput) relationships. with pressure close to atmospheric.. According to Kirchhoff's first law. = I. the flow relationship simplifies to (11~32) where PI .average reservoir pressure P2 '"' wellhead pressure ks = productivity index of the reservoir \Vith these relationships for the components of a gas transmission system.542 Gas Prodlldi(m Engineering Ga~ Gathenlli/. Z. it is necessary to describe the mathematical models for the individual NeE's. a model can be constructed for the system using the analogy of Kirchhoff's laws for the flow of electricity in electrical networks to gas flow in pipeline networks. For subcritical flo"..
.. Calculate the throughputs for individual pipe legs. which was later extended to highpressure systems (Hain. psia.. P. The superscript (1) indicates that this is a first approximation. is ghen and the other is to be calculated for a given set of pipe leg parameters and the flow rates into or out of the nodes. where j . or contain one or man: loops. (1l45. If the outlet pressure.~ Product/oil Ellgilleering Gas Gathering and Transport 545 and for a lowpressure pipe system: (1143.. I . respectively. n. then correct the throughputs for the individual pipe legs determined in Step 2 using: A loopless pipe S)'5tem. .()Opl~ Sy~tems The problem requires a trial and error type of solution if the maximum throughput through the line at the oudet (node n + 1) is desired for a given set of terminal pressures and flow rates into or out of the intermediate nodes. is known.i) Figure 116.. ].. for j .. '" where ~q" (p"+1 I"~ . 2. for each of these system types. Guesstimate the maximum throughput of pipe leg 1. ( pn . Equation 1145 can be used: where (P1)c. P". q~ll. """ PR[ssufIE: ~ " . 4. .o NJM8ER '" . .544 Ca.. Aq(11 441 [(P~'~')'pl . the correction A. [f (p~l~ 1)2 differs from the given outlet pressure p~ . 1968). .P~+1 + E k. . the pressure at an~ node j can be computed using Equation 1129 (for highpressure pipe legs) summed over the applicable pipe legs in the system: reached . Using Equation 1144.qr 1: k. " 2 E (1147) k. (1146) ~"'V"'I . " n + 1 '" CVIU_.2." .2 [(pl)< . " "'~. . A pipeline distribution system may either be loopless. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 until convergence within a specified tolerance is I£ one of the terminal pressures..q. defined as onc where the NeE's joined by nodts form no closed loops.q becomes more complex for flow systems with a greater variety of NCE·s. " . calculate the outlet pressure for the system. 1) . Pn+ I. Hain (1968) describes an efficient procedure for solving this problem: 1. If the inlet pressure. Cross (1936) gave the first solution for lowP~ure looped systems. 3. and multipleloop (Figure 11 7b). ! ... then the calculation procedure L\ quite straightforward. Looped Systems Pf . where j .. is shown in Figure llB. n + 1 Similarly. .qr 'I . Hain (1968) gives the following correction for a line containing a compressor station: • p/pj E . PI.q. 1 5... ! .2. and n + 1 nodes. 3. n1. CP2}c . jl !. 1 There are two types of looped pipe systems: singleloop (Figure 117a). The application of the relationships developed so far is described bt10". 1 Pii 'h. Cas enters through node I and leaves through nodes j.. There are n pipe legs. Loopless pipeline system... P. 3.compressor intake and discharge pressures. . In Step 4. inlet pressure or outlet pressure.2.n.. is known..(pf)<]/q< + (1148) k. q.11 using Equation 1141. 1 by a value greater than the prescribed tolerance. .I t ..
the flow rate is effectively corrected twice at every iteration for any line common to two loops. n. 1:I k. 1936)... the direction e1ement for flow is important: We have taken clockwise flow to be positive. n. (Equation 1146): (1150) The gas throughputs for the next iteration. qlll. Use the sum of the Aq 's for the two loops to which the pipe leg is com· man as the effective flow correction for the pipe leg. In a typical problem. a. . CY3 'h  '" I 'l.. for pipe legs arc calculated using Equation 1131 for highpressure lines. A pipe leg which is COmmon to two loops can be handled in two ways: 1. . Thus. _. This procedure is repeated until for an iteration k. 3. . Note that the flow rate through this common line will be equal in both the loops.44) for a highpressure network: pf. then by the node law of Equation 1142 or 1143 for steadystate flow (Szilas.q is computed for each loop. 3. k . 1975): PJ" P. we get: 'jL72_'~«. This has been . for pipe legs are calculated using Equation 11·34. are computed as before . The arrows on Figure 117a indicate the flow directions. (b) multiple loop. n + For a mUltipleloop system... and assuming that I1q < < ql.  E ~I ct: . and the flow corrections are done for the pipe legs loop by loop. For a looped system. . The problem requires a trial and error solution scheme. differs from the actual throughput by . Looped systems: (a) single loop. {L '. k.(q)" + 6q) I 'll" + 6q I  0 (11491 where n .q.q is less than or equal to a specified tolerance. \ . After this (successful) k·th iteration. the node pressures can be calculated using the relationship (Equation 11.6. " A • B Figure 11·7. an individua16. n +1 where k. reet it again using the correction for the second loop (Cross. An initial \alut' for the flow rate in pipe leg 1 is assumed. and the node pressures are computed using Equation 1152: Consider first the singleloop system shown in Figure 117a. number of pipe legs in the singleloop system. j. 2.I k ' Iql'" (II52) for j . 1 j . and it is required to find the flow rates and pressures at all the other nodes. . 2.. """" .546 Gas Production EIlginet"ring Gas Gathering and Transport 547 Solving Equation 11+49 for aq. and counterclockwise £low to be negative in OUf analysis here.. then cor. For a lowpressure network. .Pi ~ for j E krl qi . Correct the flow rate using the correction for the first loop. If this assumed value. I q:kl (1151) = 2. the flow rate ql and pressure PI for nooe I are known.
The solution to the system of equations is complex. flows out of the node are negative. The values of the unknowns are computed repeatedly. defining the flow resistance through it. The values of any unknown at the (k + l)th iteration is computed as follow~: . F10ws into the nocle are consid· ered posith'e. imbalance at the node and will be equal to zero when the system is in balance.2) and pipe leg (10. (1154) With the substitution of the appropriate NCE equations (from Equations 1129 through 1140). 1972) has presented an effective method for handling looped networks with all kinds of NeE's. For example. These values are then used for updating the pipe leg throughputs. . There are a total of (2n + m) variables: for each nocle. consider nocle 2 that receives gas from underground storage (1.j = sign (PI . 8. • I 23 ~/ s. ing of n equations in (2n + m) variables to sol\'e ror any n variables. can be expressed as follows: (1157) For any node j. and for each NCE there is a constant k.. Consider a system of n nodes and m NeE's. F j thus represents the flo\\ This nonlinear system of equations can be solved using various iterative t~hniques on a computer. is approximate and applicable only to relatively noncomplex networks for which it may be fairly accurate. 1975). until the values rrom any two successive step5 converge (i. developed to overcome these problems. Stoner (1969. The /1q values are computed by solving the n linear equations in the n throughputcorrection unknowns (~CL for i = 1.2). It thus overcomes the limitation of the Cross method that can only be used to generate throughput or pressure solutions.j is the sign term that accounts for the flow direction: . we can use this mocleJ consist. Thus. Steadystate flow through this system of n nodes is mathematically represented by a system of n nonlinear equations.. I . n) obtained using Equation 1146 for each of the n pipe legs in the network. . The procedure is repeated until convergence. is the flow from node i to nocle j. but converges rather slowly to the final solution and is generally uneconomic for large systems (Szilas. and consumer supply attached directly to node 2. . Equation 1154 becomes: Stoner (1969... 1972) used the most popular solution method: NewtonRaphson iteration.2). (1156) • . given the value of the remaining (n + m) variables.. ~ • Figure 11·8.5. (1155) where SI. \'1ethod 2. and delivers gas to compressor intake (3. '''. differ by a value less than or equal to a specified tolerance). 1975).I .. Each of the node continuity equations. Illustration lor Sioner's method .. . In this method. but the method offers the ability to compute any set of unknowns. Equation II53 for node 2 can now be written as: Method 1 by Cross (1936) is simple..PJ) +lforpl~pj lforpl<p. .' Gas Production Engineering GO! Gathering and Transport 549 suggested by Renouard and Pemelle (see Szilas. the continuity equation (Equation 1141) expresses the fact that the sum of the inflows and outflows at the node is zero: (1153) where fL. Similar equations are written for all the other nodes in the system. there is one pressure and one node flow rate variable. See Figure 11·8. such as Equation 1155.e. the equation of continuity is used to express the flow at each node in the system.
systemdependent values. '"' 0. _ xlkl . equation of continuity. This is known as sensitivity analysis. applicable to his or her own system. The assumption of steadystate flow for such a system. the value of Il'j is determined as below for every other step: for the steps in bern·een. S . a function of time. In subsecluent steps.1 < A.SIA. and that the expansion of pipe walls due to pressure changes is negligible. and determine an optimum design and operating condition that maximizes thc pipeline utility at the lowest cost and satisfies all the requirements. as given in Chapter 3. in addition to flow resistance and the pf"(S'. Equation 1162 can now be simplified to (Streeter and Wylie. The method requires an initial estimate for each of the un· knowns. For gas. 1f the fluid flowing in the line were incomp~ible (most liquids are almost incompressible).550 ~k. < O. the flow would have the same magnitude at any pipeline section.1. xf. ZRT M (1162) where the gas compressibility factor Z. Stoner (1969) proposed the following scheme for obtaining ell: Let AI . Generally. n (II59) where the derivatives aFjiaxj are obtained by differentiating the node continuity equations. F10w through gas transmission systems is usually transient (unsteadystate). can be expressed in a variety of ways (see Chapter 3). For the first two iterations. entailing very high computational and associated expenses. such as pipeline diameters. cr. . including the head and tail end. an a\·erage (COnstant) value of Z is used. Ct'lt in the correction equation (Equation 1158). FWldamental Relationships Unsteadystate flow of gas can be described using four fundamental equations: the equation of state. Il'j = ~ Il'. it takes some length of time for the pressure change at the outlet end to transmit through the line and make itself felt at the head end of the pipeline.. Naturally. reducing the number of equations to three. ForO<A. the slope for a pipe section is uniform.51 A. .1. . (II58) UnsteadyState Flow in Pipelines F10w is said to be unsteadystate if it is.ure drop. an 0'. these are empirical. for j "'" 1. is valid only for infinitesimally small pipe sections in the flowline. then any imposed change in throughput would be transmitted instantaneously throughout the pipeline. and so on. I LO + 2. howC\'er.. for the current and previous steps. + ax("k+11 .0..ll/ax:kl. 2: 1. good initial guesses are required to achieve satisfac tory convergence. Readers interested in this topic are referred to the work by Stoner (1972) who has presented a further development of his steadystate model to enable sensitivity analysis of production and transmission systems. O.f Gathering and Transport 551 . this necessary relationship simplifies to: (1163) Several relationships are available for representing this functional dependence of Z on pressure.. In practice. For A. a measure of the deviation of the gas from ideality and a function of pressure. Sensitivity analysis requires generating a large number of solutions using the computer mode1 for all the possible system configurations.01A j l • Il'j "" 3 (1161) Stoner obtained these specifications for aj by experimenting with the mathematical model on a computer. Il'. therefore. and the user may have to do some experimentation to obtain similar or better schemes for the acceleration factor a. For . The simplest equation of state is commonly used (see Chapter 3): p p ~ where t I_I ~ llXj  ax. it may be useful to ascertain the effect of varying the several different parameters that influence the system.1i Gaa Production Engineering Ga. A standard mathematical technique for improving and accelerating convergence is to introduce an acceleration factor. and gas composition. where divergence is most likely to occur. as done by Stoner (1969): (1160) where QJ is computed using the llx. . Unsteadystate flow occurs whenever the rate of withdrawal of gas from a line differs from the rate of supply to it at the inflow end. Assuming isothermal flow and a constant composition. and a re1ationship accounting for the deviation of the gas from idealgas behalior. a highly compressible fluid. primarily because of variations in demand. steadystate friction is valid. it is generally assumed (Streeter and Wylie. For flow through long pipelines.Fl .llX~k. and consequently.<l. temperature.I LO .5 is be5t to use in order to ensure convergence.2..0 is used: For A. In designing and operating transmission systems. 1970) that the flow is substantially isothermal. operating p~ures. equation of motion. 1970): .
Ap'g.) + a(mB'IAPg. am _ ~ a p ] ax Aplg" ax p at p2 at • am + a (ApgJB' ) _ 0 ax at 0' 0<. v I v I is used in order to include the direction of flow in the friction term . [v av + a v] + pg SinO' + fv lvlp _ 0 ax ik ax at g. [mB' a(mB'IApg.5:>2 Cas Production Engineering Gas Gathering and Transport 553 pip . (11661 . Ag. pg... the equation of motion (Equation 1167) becomes: where In" x . The equation of motion can be expressed as: ap +!!. 2dg..0 2dA2~p where p" pressure. at +pg..... fm l m l B! 82 sma + 2dA2 w 0 (11691 ... ft gas density. a. Ap'g. A . ap + 1: Substituting for p from Equation 1164. ~ [m82 am _ m2B2 ap +.angle of pipe inclination from the horizontal f .. isothermic speed of sound !k . p . we get [ 1_ A'p'~ m~B2] ap + 2mB! am + _ 1 am _ a. B' f m l m l B2 0 2dg.. pipe friction factor (Moody) \.. fm I m I 82 . A'p~ a. Ag..+ a.)] ax 8 2 Apg" ax at + pg sinO' + _ 1_ m l ml8~ Pik = 0 B' 2dg. ft /sec d '" internal diameter of the pipe. lbf/ft 2 .. a. P' at Ag. 17 lbmft'lbf sec') The equation of continuity can be wTitten as: (1165) Substituting for p from Equation 1164 and rearranging.!. gas flow velocity.. [f A is the pipe crosssectional area .. Ibmlsec distance along the flow path. ft Substituting for ap/at from the continuity equation (Equation 1166) and rearranging.. 32. Ibmlftl crosssectional area of flow..B'Ig. t  mass flow rate of the gas.... Ap 2g.. we get v mB' Apg..gravitational acceleration.17 ftlsec2 a . (1166) Substituting Equations 1164 and 11 68. A'pg. conversion constant of 144 required in EqUlltion 1167 if psia is used g . conversion factor relating mass and weight (32.ZRTIM . +~sma+ pg . Ag. (Apg. p . then the flow velocity v is related to the mass flow rate m as follows: v = m /Ap where 8 .)' B' 0'...·82 (1164) Note that each of the terms in Equation 1163 has the units of Ibflftl... Also note that instead of v2. sec ap + E. ft 2 time. P at pg... (11 67 ap p m~B2 ap p m ap p mB2 am + +~SlOa+ 2 8 P 1 am Ag. the equation of continuity (Equation 11 65) can now be written as: ax 8 2 Ag. 0'.
The more common approach. Thus. the anal}'tic solutions thus generated reduce computational expense. the second term in the coefficient of oplox. but are applicable only to the analysis of a subproblem. Use the steadystate £low relationships to calculate the initial pressure distribution (rate is a com1ant for steadystate flow) in the pipeline. and output flow rate (or . (c) method of characteristics. The method is faster because it requires lesser computation than the implicit scheme. and other properties as a function of position (x) along the pipeline. flow rate) being soh·ed for at time t + at depend only upon their \falu~ at the Preceding time step (at time t). Both timevariable boundary conditions are specified at the same end of the pipe. density. the pressures and flow rates at \'arious points of the pipeline at time t + . describing the transient flow of gas in a pipeline. 2.O. or a simplified problem. velocity. i. resu1ting in an inconsistent specification of the initial state. the equations can be solved indi· vidually. At least two timevariable boundary conditions must be specified to obtain a unique solution. the pressure and flowrate pro£iles obtained may not be at the same instant in time at all points along the pipeline. All of these methods proceed in steps. Assume £low to be steadystate at the beginning of the unsteadystate flow analysis.69.e. In this case. constitute a system of two nonlinear partial differential equations (NLPDEs). calculating the pressures and flow rates at various points of the pipeline at time t . flow rate) at various points along the pipeline at the instant t + . Numerical Solutions The system of NLPOE's (Equations 1166 and 1170) previousJy given for transient flow in a gas pipeline cannot be solved analytically. at B~ 2dA2~ (11·71) Initial and Boundary Conditions Initial conditions as well as boundary conditions for the system must be specified in order to obtain the applicable solution to the differential equations just given. the om/ax term is negligible as compared to the other terms. Thus. Therefore. 1. We must work backward in time. at time t . . ax Ag. Initial conditions can be specified in two ways: 1. where one time\'ariable boundary condition is specified at each end of the pipe. Precise measurement at several points is difficu1t and usually impossible in an installed pipe in the field.554 Gas Production Engineering Ga$ Gatllerillg and Tran$port 555 In Equation 11.:1t are calculated on the basis of their known distribution at time t. Boundary conditions must be specified to obtain a unique solution. the numerical solution is obtained backwards in time and away from the known boundary. The two endpoint boundary conditions are used to determine the values of pressure and flow rate (or flow velocity) along the length of the pipe. Even if this could be done.. but is subject to instability and a restricted time step • The first method is difficult to use. Depending upon the choice exercised for specifying the boundary conditions. The initial state of the system will be given by the pressure and flow rate distribution obtained in this manner. compressibility. Explicit Finite Difference Method The NLPOE's are transformed into algebraiC equations using finite difference methods such that the values of the unknown parameters (pressure.70) velocity). chosen from among the four variables: input presSllre. With these simplifications. Four types of numerical methods for solving the system of NLPOE's for transient gas flow have been reported in the literature: (a) explicit finite difference method. or assume some specific set of initial and boundary conditions. either input or output. two cases are possible: Equations 11·66 and 1170. (b) implicit finite difference method..:1t on the basis of their known distribution at time t. Thus. In this case. Note that it is not possible to compute the flow parameters at the unknown end of the pipe from their gi\'en values at the other end at the same instant in time. Any anal}1ic solution must incorporate some simplification. Equation 1170 is often used in the following form that results on muJtiplying it throughout by p: 2 1 opl _ _ +_sma+ fm i m B~ '" 0 _ + p am pZg. the steadystate initial condition is almost always used. is negligible compared to unity. and (d) variational methods. Also. output pressure. The initial conditions of the system are required for resohing initial pressure. the numerical computations are not made backwards in time. Determine the pressure and flow rates by actual measurement at \'arious points along the pipeline. the equations for transient flow must be solved numerical I)'. input flow rate (or velocity). 2. the equation of motion for transient gas flow reduces to: (11.:1t on the basis of the known distribution of these parameters along the pipeline at time t. Generally. computing the required parameter values (pressure.
Then.1 2 (11.. _ 0 . The pressure p and mass now rate m are discretized as follows: All< pr+prd fB2~t 1(~ti. the explicit scheme is rarely used..mr .. at at • am _ mp+l_ mr at ax . 1)2 + mr.x and . pro I can be directly Dbtaine<i.6.t indicate the grid.l at the new time n + I. pr is the pressure at section i at time step n. respectively. and forward difference scheme (see Figure 11·9).) mr + mr. The equation of continuity.ll (1175) Additional details may be obtained from the published work of Thppeck and Kirsche (1962) and Distefano (1970) who have described and used the exPlicit method .~I Figure 11·9. pr~ I is the pressure at grid point i + 1 at time step n. pr· I is the pressure at grid point i at time step n + 1 (at which solution is sought). we get (11. d I (pl')2]  2(P~~t )B2 sino +P.6. usin~ p..556 Gas Production Engineering Gas Gatheri"g and Transport 557 size. ~t p~..x be the length of each pipe segment: solutions are computed successively at values of time increasing (or decreasing) in time steps of size at.. I: (1174) the explicit forward finite difference method.1x) [(pr.+0 t t P. Let o.1x Solving for . except in conjunction with the method of characteristics.x mr· 1 .6. . The partial differential equations can be discretized along the space (x) and time (t) axes in three ways: backward difference scheme.:'~":.72) ~_ mr~l . block and timestep size. and superscript n indicates the parameter value at the previous time step.d_ p ' I .6. ••• ~n'l H m'l I + p. central difference scheme. pP+PP. Thus.[ where the subscript i indicates the grid along the x direction. and so on ..3) 2 The transient £10\\ equations can now be linearized using the relationships of Equations 1172 and 11 73.. Equation 1166.I I . For these reasons. becomes: _ ' [mHI B " Ag. P. and also because of the inaccuracies in computations that generally result from the use of this method. .' . as below. Nomenclature lor finite difference methods.t mr Solving for the unknown mp. The equation of motion can also be transformed in a similar manner using Equations 1172 and 1173. the partial differentials in Equations 11·66 and 1171 can be expanded for any grid point i at time n + 1 as follows: ~_pr+lp~ Since the values of all the parameters on the right side of Equation 1174 are known from the solution for the previous time step. (mr 4ciAll<M + pr.
1 n n Ut (P~:11)2 + {pr. and Streeter and Wylie (1970) have proposed and used the method of characteristics to solve the transient gas flow problem for pipelines.·l n..II +P. and rearranged as follows: . at ti~e t + ~t d~ pend upon their values at the current time t + ~t at n~lghbonng POints In the pipeline.. the total number of unknO\.9 Gathering alld Transport 559 Implicit Fjrlit~ DiJf~~ Method In the implicit method. The aJlowable time step size.. but provides stability.e_. j .llO (1178) ap at ~ pr *1 +PI.*1 mjn~l +m. Thus.a+ I mrl mi. including the two unknowns at the boundary_ The total number of equations is also 2m + 2. t) plane. x and t. Streeter and Wylie (l9iO). The method is slower because it requires more computation at each time step. paths (called characteristic lines) are defined in the (x. perhaps the most commonly used method.n +m. These ODE's can then be solved numerically.mr .. For the complete pipeline divided into m grid blocks.+1 +m+lm ax. and two dependent variables.mr.l n+1 n)( n*I_"_ m. (1971). including the two known boundary conditions.. . In this method.l Ut m. pr:/. Streeter and Wylie (1970) have used NewtonRaphson iteration (described in the section on steadystate flow through looped systems).(n.' +m.I)2 _ {pp+l)2 _ (pf')2 ap' ax am at Ux mr+ l + m~:/ . the equations must be solved. n)1 n_l +m jn.\ r r" mj .1) II +Pi m. and Wylie et al. Implicit difference procedures have been formulated by Guy (1967). we obtain: B' " . restri~t~ only by the accuracy desired..'olve iteration (trial and error). the NLPDE's are transformed into algebraic equations using finite difference methods such that the values of the unknown parameters (pressure.558 Cas Production Engineering Ga. and mj'!/. + P'+lt'lP.+I.77) and Thylor (1962). . 2.0 At (l1. all of which in.~mj BdAg.l +m.lt Ill' ( l I * l +. Additional details for solving such equations can be round in any text on numerical analysis or reservoir simulation. describIng the transient flow of gas in a pipeline. Coacher (1969). flow rate) being solved for.n*l +m.l Pi P.lx Equations 1177 and 11i8 must be sohed ~imultaneously. Equations 1166 (designated by F. is always greater than that for the explicit scheme. Streeter and Wylie (1970) used the central difference scheme for the Implicit expansion of the differentials as follows: 1 (n*1 +PI+I +p. There are four unknowns in the two equations for each grid ceIl i: pr+ 1. 4 (1176) Substituting the expressions of Equation 1176 into the equation of continuity (Equation 1166) and the equation of motion (Equation 1171). we ha\e a system of 2m + 2 nonlinear algebraic equations to be solved_ These equations can be solved in many different ways.+. mpol. The parameter values at timestep n (i. .n + ' m. These two equations are combined USing an unknown multiplier >.lm. at time t) are known from the initial conditions or from the previous solution step. using either the eKplicit or the implicit finite difference method of solution_ The procedure used by Streeter and Wylie (1970) is described in the rollowing section. Thus. along which the system of NLPDE's is transrormed into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE's).Hethod of Chamcteristies • m m~ _I +m n+1 +m. p and m.) and 11·70 (designated by F2)."" am . have two independent variablcs. such as Aziz and Settari (l9i9) . slmultaneo~sly..l m..1 A~x 1 ( n·1 '"'" II I +p..>'OS is 2m + 2.. 2A!(c. .*1 +m r *1 +mr.
2dA'g1(p.) . (mp .. For the explicit method..p.mR) + (pp . In this way. at all locations in the pipe.. dx dt I )..x _. Similarly... on using an explicit expansion scheme. Since both Equations 11S1 and 11·S2 are valid at P. dt (II S2) (mrlmpl+mRlmHI)+ (e'l)=O s PP+PR e'I Pi> (ll83) On the xt plot shown in Figure 1110.. The C characteristic line corresponding to ).. ). By constructing the C+ characteristic line dxldt . consider JX>ints Rand S at which m and p are known. . the C..am + am] + ). . ..1) = 0 s pP+Ps (1lS4) .!. ....characteristic line dx/dt ..= I +Bo r B (IISO) By putting any of these two values of A. fmlmlB2 0 . they may be solved simultaneously to yield the new values of m and p at this later time. + Ps) ..mK) + (Pr .. " Equation 11·79 can be transformed into two ODE's using a).. (mr .++sma+ Ap< dt B dt 82 2dA 2W (IISI) B [pg 82 + {mlm B Bdt sino: 2] 2dA~~ [pgSino: 82 = 0 Since dx/dt .mR) + (pp .... )'F1 + F2 _ I [)'B.X . or midt . the solution can be obtained at a later time. Streeter and \VyJie (1970) have shown solutions using both these schemes. The controlling equations for use However. gh'en by. (m.Sl).B.) ap + ap] Ag. from known values at the previous time step. given by 1 dOl I dp pg.(1 B).B~ I OI$TANCE.ms) + (p. the quantities in the brackets in Equation 1179 become total differentials..x Ag. . given by _1_ dm Discretization along space (x) yields (see Streeter and Wylie. becomes: Ag" (mr .B through S.560 Gaa Produclforl ElIgi'leerlng p G(U Gatheriug and Transport 561 F . the C~ characteristic line (Equation II. B..characteristic line (Equation 11S2) becomes: B fB2 6..I p! (mplmrl + mslm~l) . [(II).... + (lIB).PRJ + 2dA~~(pp + PR) 8 roll 6.(e' . dp + pg sint:r + fmlmlB2 . or m/dt . The C + characteristic line corresponding to ). 1970): Ag. . we can replace B dt by dx to obtain: Ag. 0 B dt B' 2dA'gip Ag. B through R and the C.PRJ + • = 0 B fmlmIB!] + 2dA2gip dx 2. t I¥'+'~~_l Characteristic hnes R S on an xI diagram.B..PRJ + in the method of characteristics now become: 1. Either the explicit or the implicit scheme may be used for this.. an inter· section P is found at a later time and an intermediate value of x. the ordinary differential Equations IISl and IlS2 themselves must be solved using some finite difference procedure. implying that ). ax at ax at fmimtB2 pg +sina+ =0 1 8 2dA2~ t+4t~~~~+1 1 11179) ~ ~ Figure 1110.. on multiplying throughout by B dt.
t ~ . For an implicit finite difference scheme. ftl d . ft t .. This is a special form of unsteadystate flow where the pressure must be held COnstant for a sufficient time.1. as for the subcritical flow equation (Equation 1185): V .. Campbell (1984) has given the following relationship for estimating the minimum vaJue of this testing time. pose a problem of some concern. pressure surges damage pressuremeasuring equipment only. The kinetic energy of the flowing fluid is abruptly converted to internal energy.0 for horizontal flow. respectively. In most cases. gas constant. and the fluid outflow is stopped. d in inches and t in minutes.)]. Streeter and Wylie (1970) have noted thato. gas volume. Formulated as a Galerkin method..xfB for stability.17 Ibmftlflbf.sec2 Z. the greater is the attentuation (or absorption) of the disturbance.til')~ where. internal pipe diameter. gas lines do not pose a problem.Z"RT(1 . necessary: (llS7) .·olume. T *' temperature ("R) (1186) Some Approximate Solutions for Transient FJow There are many situations in pipeline engineering where the flow is unsteady.56 ftIbf/lbmoR T . . 32. gas .. perhaps. Substituting for Rand &" and changing to customary units of V in Mscf.562 Cos Production EnginCt'rlng Gas Gatherl11J{ alld Trallsport SG3 In Equations 1183 and 1184. and decreases gradually towards the upstream end of the pipe where the disturbance is attenuated." V . OR Pu.internal pipe diameter..4524 d2p... but sometimes they may be powerful enough to even rupture the pipe. Consequently. Readers are referred to the original paper for a detailed treatment of this special method which is.average pressure. ''ariation(J/\/ f'llwru Rachford and Dupont (1974) have presented a variational method that provides a fast and accurate means of simulating transient flow in gas pipelines and networks. For subcritical flow (Pu!Pd < 2).. temperature. Stewart (1971) describes this problem and provides a method for computing pressure surges for Iiqu. seconds &... (It)'dln.. and a surge or wave travels back. For this explicit scheme. this approach offers significant ad. lzawa (1966) has presented the following relationship: v '"' 0.. and sometimes highpressure gas lines.upstream and downstream pressures. psig t '"' time. and s . s is the same as in Chapter 7 for steadystate flow (Equation 7~47). whereas liquid lines. 85. this relationship becomes: (1185) For the case of critical flow (p" Pd > 2).antages in terms of computational cost and storage over other methods. Mscf d . min. lzawa (1966) provides some usefu1 solutions for this special case of unsteadystate flow..average gas compressibility factor R .id lines.Pdl". p. psig Pressure testing of a pipeline is commonly done for the detection of leaks. beyond the scope of our present discussion. . countercurrent to the direction of flow of the fluid.. Approximate relationships have therefore been developed to enable easy estimations for some special cases where it may not be necessary to generate very precise solutions to the unsteadystate flow relationships described earlier Some such cases are described in the following sections. ... time. Pd ... The pressure rise accompanying this flow stoppage is highest at the valve. in. The greater the compressibility of the flUid. Blowdown and Purge There are instances when it is necessary to blow down and purge a gas line. Pressure Testing • vwhere (r!4)d't [2g. lzawa (1966) derived the following relationship: Pressure Surges on Closing a Valve A pressure surge OC(:urs when a \"alve on a flowline is closed. the equivalent forms for Equa~ tions 1183 and 1184 can be derived similarly..constant relating mass and weight.
miles P. and variable injection rates (and pressures).[PI+3 PI + pz Pi] • . for reducing the outlet pressure."k R~ (1194) A plot of 3p. P l iP2 in Equation 11·90. hr d . we can obtain an expression for P2 in terms of Rp: p.p.~ . we get q ~ . we get: (1191) Similarly. The pressure at the delivery end of the pipeline varies from (Pl)m(n for the highest delivery rate to CPz)mu for the lowe<>t delivery rate. L .initial test pressure.Sure) into the pipeline. in. psig A flo\\ line that has been shutin for at least (~)mln hours is considered to hale no leaks night"' line) if the pressure loss is less than the (aplmu psi gilen belo\\ (Campbell 19M): (1188) Solving Equation 11·89 for PI: p.S versus RI" as given by Equation 1179.". instead of pressure reducers such as throttles. ~ [Pi q~~·r + q " 'z [P!T (1190) introducing Rp . to ensure a constant pressure al the delivery (outlet) end of the pipeline. The pipeline functions as a buffer storage facility.D during most of the day.. 3 [R~ + Rp + I] 2"P."". accommodating the difference between the constant input and the fluctuating output. . where t . . Potential energy (pressure energy) losses may occur at the delivery end where the pressure will usuaJly exceed U>2)mi..~ [PI + p.minimum required shutin time for the line. Szilas (1975) presents the following procedure for designing a constant injection rate system for variable consumer demand. pj Pi]'·' Z" (1189) + Rp + 1 2q~.shutin time.564 Goa Production £'Igineering Gas Gathering and Transport 565 where (~)min . The advantage of constant injection rate of gas into a pipeline is the ease of control. hr Handling Variable Consumer DemandCase of Constant Injection Rate The two ways of handling daily fluctuations in consumer demand are constant injection rate (but not necessarily pre<. a modification of similar developments by Smirnov and Shirkovsky in the USSR. These losses can be minimized by using a turbine driving a power generator. is shown in Figure 1111.internaJ pipe diameter.P2 Rp+l Substituting for P2 from Equation 11·93 and rearranging.(Rp + 1)(R~ . Equation 11..length of the pipe section that is being tested for leaks.kJ2qZ~.30 is written as follows: 0' r' (1192) The mean pressure in a gas line is given by (see Equation 732): 2 p..1)()S 3p. + P!] 3 PI+P2 0'.
Thus.. The dotted line parallel to the abscissa indicates the average consumption Q.. Note that at point A. Ph i~ gi\'en by: • p. we can determine the area embraced by the cun'eADB and line AB by planimetering.. in the pipeline will also be maximum at B.. and convert it to gas volume" This gas volume is the volume of gas stored in the pipeline during the slackdemand pe_ riod." T." and gas accumulates in the pipeline. . is given by: Figure 11·11. IIOUR! _ P.. ~)mtn.. .) A .) • . . The calculation procedure can now be described from these relationship"~" First.v' In segment AB. __ ___________ c where 1 .): (1195) • Agure 11·12. T. This stored volume will be maximum at the time corresponding to point B in Figure 1112. the head and tail end pressures.).. the percentage hourly consumption referred to daily consumption..p".. Szilas's method for determining the buffer action of a pipeline. V.566 eo" Prodl4ctiQn Engineering Go" Gathering arid Transport 567 the pipeline at the time corresponding to A must be equal to the minimum output pressure. consumption is less than q. p! and P2.. • "'________. a plot is made of the fluctuation in demand versus time. the pressure at the head end of the pipeline.Z. can be determined as follows: v~ p"T.AL A AR 1 (1196) where VA is the volume of gas stored in the pipeline at point A. .length of the pipeline • Figure 1112 shows the daily fluctuation of Rq. Using Equation 1195. consumption is greater than q. and gas reserves are zero. From Equation 1190. ~ [(P.". as shown in . the gas flow (supply or input) into the pipeline is exactly e<Jual to the demand. a\erage gas compressibility factor (at PM" T. P•• . 1975. the pressure at output (tail) end of From Figure 1112.. T ... respecth'ely Z~.. " " " " Solving for (Pa"/Z.. o TIN(. (After Szilas.. The volume of gas stored in the pipeline.pipeline crosssectional area L ... (After Szilas.T" IV + V Z. Therefore. s< specified standard conditions of pressure and temperature. T. a\"erage pressure and temperature in the pipeline. respecti vel) p"..!" for determining the buffer actioo of a pipeline. q:H' + and the mean pressure in the pipeline. In segment SC. VAB. and the gas accumulated in the pipeline at the earlier time is used to cater to this increased demand. P. Szilas's method .AL P".. 1975_) .
k/2qv.vlZ. sine wave amplitude at the input of the pipeline section 1"~ .ehver y pressure P2· Bateyet al. £(t) in Figure 1113.. qtfqJ. I ~ . '\12 m 0 0 0 0 0 INPUT FLOW... Let (PI)".. They represented gasconsumption variations in time by a Fourier function (Figure 1113). diameter.. Rpp~).and Z . The pipeline can then prOVIded optlmum control to meet the demand variation at a constant d. . 1961. <l2 "" £(t).• the demand of gas.t f l:t. 1:>.period of the timevariable output flow Further. • .) .u~tions. steady or a\'erage part of the flow .. and TI are required. Any nu merical technique may be used for solving the system of equ. ~. n where q .. can be obtained by trial and error. Then. (1961) studied the effect of the three types of pipeline section parameters that affect flow: 1.. Figure 1111 can then be used to read off the corresponding value of Rp. then the quantity of gas V"8 stored in the pipeline during the slackdemand period will be sufficient to handle the excess demand in the highdemand period Be.. the value of the expression 3p. proceeding step by step for various pipe sections backward along the line from the tail to the head end.. delay time for the yth harmonic Amplitude <h of the roth harmonic is generally less than 1% of the amplitude ql. Then.flow out of the pipeline section q. (1961) conducted a parametric anal~"S1S that enables one to o'd the expensive numeric computations involved in solving the system of :.. be the maximum ftl<l!>ible pressure at the head end of the pipeline.. represented as ql '" £I(t) and PI _ £2(t). . Handling Variable Consumer DemandCase of Variable Injection Rate Bateyet al.. Simplified representation of the variable relationships for a line section.ations £~r obtaining the £1 and P functions. Figure 1113.. Batey et al.f Gathering and Transport 569 Figure 1112. the pipeline must be redesigned. the volume of gas stored in the pipeline during the pcricx:l. . the input flow q.S is calculated. and then the required upstream pressure p! can be obtained (PI .. if PI :S (P')mu..'alue of RI" P2 can be calculated using Equation 1193. Otherwise. (1961) described a method for obtaining solutions to the case of varia. Le . (After Batey et al .. . of low demand is determined by measuring the appropriate area enclosed by the curve. II OJTPUT FLOW. values of the amplitude ratio. Such functions. and relative roughness (tid).z::... qt _ amplitude of the timevariable part of the flow out of the pipeline section t _ time I:t. Parameters that depend upon line section geometry. Thus Equation 1198 can be simplified to: (1199) • o 3 !.yth harmonic .568 Cos Production Engineering Ga.. required for the given output boundary conditions can be expressed as (Batey et aI. time required for the sine wave to propagate from input to output y . To permit Fourier series exp~nsion. 1961): ~ _ q. the load. Then.. . .ring the . such as length. the gas flow rate and pressure versus time functions can be calculated. . " to 912151121243&912 T 1101 I!: . are sho"'Il along with the supply function <il .)(t + 1"1) (1198) • I INPUT PAI!:5SUFl[.HOURS To specify how the sine wave propagates in the pipeline system..) (1197) where Qo . From this supply function and the constant supply pressure Pz. Equation 1196 is used to calculate (p. is expressed in the following functIOnal from: be: Clo .:. + Qt sin (2.ble injection into the pipeline and conducted a sensitivity analysis of the vanous factors that affect pipeJine performance. Now. Knov..) from which p. q.. + ql sin (hlt.amplitude of the flow corresponding to the yth harmOniC T. (h .
. lower is the time delay or phase shift of the demand wave (i. The amplituJ. • ["" ~ ~01 • "" " " • • " ~. and the slope of compressibility versus reduced pressure for the gas. (After Batey et aI. 1'(1'1100. pseudocriticaJ pressure.. Also. Time delay 01 upset propagation from one end to the other end 01 a line section versus period... ~ . and increasing pipe diameter (Figurc lJ·19)...  ~ ! .~~ '" • Figure 111 4.' "."" . phase shift decreases with increasi ng output pressure (Figure 1115).. quencies. damping increases as the output pressure decreases.570 Cas Production Eligineerin. indicating that attenuation (damping) increases with frequenc~. as a function of the output pressure.) • " 0 . ~ h' .. HOURS Illl '" rR[O UENC T . impJ}ing that the signal amplitude at the input is greater than the output amplitude. f• " . ~ . 1961 . decreasing friction factor (Figure II 17). attenuation in~ creases) along the pipeline length . 3. In Figure 1114. I.... Parameters that depend upon the characteristics of the flowing gas. Figure 1120 shows that the amplitude ratio decreases (or.. and avera~e gas temperature. because damping results from energy loss.) The corresponding time deJa}'s for these variables are shown in Figures 1115.. Damping also increases with increasing friction factor (Figure 11 16). Gathering and Transport 571 2. "hlt '" I I . Amplitude ratio of input upset to output upset versus period of upset. " al.) Figure 1116.. amplitude ratio decreases for high fr(>.. which is proportional to the square of the velocity (and hence. • i " 1" " ..!iC Go. These are average line pressure. (After Batey et roo ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ f' o ..+~4_+~'» " .::::. P[ "100. with d(. show that higher the frequency (Io\\er the period on the abscissa). inversely related to output pressure).. ... These include molecular weight. Parameters that depend upon the average operating conditions of the pipeline..e. 1961 .. Figures 11·14 through 1l~21 show the results of this parametric analysh by Batey et aL (1961).. the amplitude ratio is shown as a function of the period of the time yariable output pressure.. the phase velocity is higher). 1961 . . These figures can he . Figure 1121 shows that the phase ~hift increases with increasing length along the pipeline. Amplitude ratio versus period as a function of the friction lactor (After Batey et aI.. and 1119. 11·17. ~ . For a given frequency.: ~ . '.~ '" HOURS . average flow. These figure.. . For a given frequency.'Creasing pipe diameter (Figure 1118)... .'" OO~ "". Figure 1115. "(1'1 100 :. HOURS  "" .. • . as a function of the output pressure.. . ratio is less than 1. I ..
(After Batey et al" 1961. HDUIIS '01:1:. .."'. 12 it! f • " 0011 0007 " • 0 ~ '0 • j:I • • 20.. t" 40 "" " • • . Amplitude ratio versus pipeline length. this simple procedure mu~t be modified for application to complex transmission systems where there IS injection and o££take of gas at intermediate points along the line.) used to determine the operating conditions necessary for meeting consumer demand at a constant.... The main advantage of satisfying consumer demand in this way is that no pressure energy needs to be dissipated by throttling at the output end._ 'o>______~L~~~~ • " 1 PERIOD. and the compressor requirements are therefore minimized.. 1961 . • 7 . Time delay versus period as a function of friction lactor.. • ~ 0 • ..HOURS ...o . UnsteadyState Flow in Pipeline Systems We have so far described transient flow in a single pipeline.MIL£S .) Figure 1118.~ )'Z. As discussed earlier for steadystate flow in pipeline networks. a sufficiently accurate foreknowledge of the demand wave is required.. '0 d. Time delay versus period as a function of pipeline diameter.) 0' ~ "'. 1'0.0 ° '0 '0 _ __ _ __ L£NGTH.=~l 12 6 J I!\ Figure 1119..) Figure 1117. '<>. . • ~ c. .... ~ t d.. 1961 . ~ • ~uuoo . 0' r • .. (Afler Batey et at ..: ... '" Figure 1120.' ~ .572 Gas Production Enginemng Ga~ Gathering and Trollsport 573 I "" .. 07 ~ "'. " _ ___ "'''' '" ~O'" ..~ " • ~ 06 f'a.. Amplitude ratio versus period as a function of pipeline diameter (After Batey el at . '0 """" i"o. ~ ° ° M . (After Batey et aI. or where . specified contract (output) pressure.~~ " • • · " • • o ... 1961. ~.HOUJIS _ _ _ __ .'"" ." "" •• _ _ _ _ _ PEIIIOO. However.
..  rn.: 1 1 .dx dP! = B2 dt '0 t I m I • .m. ...K. • 0 " "'" .. This makes the description and calculation for a transmission system of even a moderate size very complex It is essential to incorporate some simplifications into the transient fl ow equations.J o .! = flow out of node j The values of mi..1 " . .1 mi.j (11104) where L. Let V J be the \'olurne obtained on summing up the \olumes of each of the pipe legs that connect to node j..) .g1 11'1 . the second term.) V:' dp. 1961..PI' 1' 0. (11105) ap _ at (11 101 ) '... mass flow into or out of the node m.5. Thus. and S'. I. is in most cases smaller than the friction term in Equation 11 71 by an order of magnitude and can also be dropped . (After Batey et aI.. j.. I can be calculated from Equation ll 102 as follows: m _ 1. > • Ga s Gathering and Transport 575 .574 . and multiplying by B2/Vig.... B2 L . The first simplification is to neglect elevation changes that are generally insignificant for gas lines. . Equ ation 11 101 can then be written for node j as follows: > o n .._ _ __ " " '00 0'. Guy (1967) has discussed some of these simplifications that ca n be usually done without a significant loss in accuracy of the results. ~ t ..Pflt' 5 f.. .. N ILES .0 w here mi...dt .... ) from Equation 11104 into Equation 11103. vv ax ap2 fm l m lB2 dA ~g! (11102) " '7 V " ~  Every node is assigned half the length of eac h pipe leg associated with that node. • .' B..I!< g. The system of equations describing transient flow (Equations 11 66 and 11 71 ) now sim · plify to: [d.. (11103) the flows comerge to.. or di\" erge from. The node Jaw (Equation 11 41 ) must apply to each of these nodes: mn + Ern. Time delay versus pipeline length .. the third term in Equation 1171 can be omitted..... E dp n i _I [J.) (am/at ). BK . nodes..if .L ENGTH..Vs' m. describing the change in mass £10\\ rate per unit time. (11 100) • whe re m n . . Figure 11·21.i represents the lengths of the indh'idual pipe legs. = mass flow rate in pipe leg i meeting at the node for each of the n pipe l~ meeting at the node The m l values are computed from the nonlinear algebraic equations describing transient flow in a single pipe leg./ Ag.A1.i is given by Substituting for m •.(I p1 Pl i)"'5q!  = m... Further. fl ow into node j from pipe leg i mo. (piAg..
whereas the operational costs decrease due to smaHer pressure losses. 32..flow velOCity. Ibf/lbm f . Thus.CJ(t + 6. C j is evaluated at time t tion 11108 is expressed as: Pi{t + at) .t . expressed as equivalent fractional loss in a straight pipe g.. _ fl. such as chokes and compressors. .mechanical work added to the system by the compressor. the capital costs increase. then one is chosen based on the economics. . P.dimensionless Moody friction factor L . .I . ft v .'Af.• ) + p. and the available pipe sizes. here K and B \' Pipeline Economics Pipeline sizes are generally dictated by the available pressure drop. For the explicit method.576 Cal" Production Engineering Gas Gathering and Transport 577 .• ) 1111091 Similar equations can be written for all the ot~er nod~ in the s:rste. Thus. Equation 11 105 becomes PI(t + ut) "" . . reo quired flow rate.C 1 + Pi(t) • (it .ll ) IItI07) Equation 11·107 for node j can be expressed as: Comprmon COS" PI(t + .1{l6) Applyinfot finite difference techniques. The concepts developed are subse. If two or more pipe sizes satisfy all the requirements and constraints.p) + B 2g..{t) dt dt Using this and rearranging.a constant accounting for all other energy losses in the flowing system . .  ~IK. we will have a system of nonlinear algebraic equations . ft.d where 111110) + 61) . quently extended to the far more complex problem of the economics of gas transmission systems.conversion constant relating mass and weight (.].17 Ibmftllbf""') d '" inside pipe diameter. d2.ll) + at .• ]. I ( 1t .)m". It.tK. An economic pipe diameter minimizes the (discounted or amortized) capital costs and operational (compression) costs. A Simplified Analysis for Optimum Pipe Diameter J'.tt + .1t) .pr l)"S.. . amortization (or depreciation) allowan~ within the corporate tax framework . A simplified analysis by Peters and Timmerhaus (1980) is presented here for determining the optimum ec0nomic pipe diameter for a single pipeline."'ll + L.(Bg. ft B .. there exists an optimum d such that the sum of the amortized and operational costs is a minimum.IOS is expressed as: PilI w.lOS) The mechanical energy balance for a flowing system can be reduced to the following form (see Equation 711): "here C.length of the pipe. 0.• 1!pi' . Equat ll. f. .(B'I!J m". It. ftlsee Lrp .CIII) + p. and Equa \1 whereas in the implicit method. It is obvious that for such an economic analysis.(lpr . and operating costs vary widely. can also be incorporated in the previous equations as done for steady·state networks. With increasing pipe diameter d.:prescntmli!: transient flow in the pipeline network.l.1.1'1 1)' '5.frictional loss due to pipe fittin~ and bends.t) + Pi(t) Other elements in the system.11) + P. O.. w. no general correlation or equation can be easily determined for all possible cases because pipeline costs..m . dl... This syste~ ?f equaltons can i~ solved using finite difference techniques.
for the commonly used greater than Iin. pipe diameter. diameter pipes. C p . Ip d4s..SlJl. Rp .. in terms of the Reynolds number.35.pe _ purchase cost of new pipe of diameter d inches per foot of pipe length. including maintenance..45/ft for Iin. .p)H~ll r~ M· n. Equation IIIIi can be simplified by assuming typical numeric values for the terms involved. diameter pipe.pl in inches.ratio of total costs for fittings and installation to the purchase cost for new pipe C!'"p . diameter pipe.$0.055/kWh. in. d".50.$ 'ft C p _ a constant equal to the purchase price per foot for a Iin.I .0. C Fp . n(1 + Rp)CpEC Fp (11116) The value of n for steel pipes is about 1..! year. the following equation can be obtained for the annual compression costs: (11112) The total annual COSt CT for the compressor and pipin~ system can be obtained by adding Equations 11112 and 11114: <)i3 Gr.annual fixed charges. expressed as a fraction of the initial cost for a completeJy installed pipe Pi~ Optimum Economic Diameter Combining Equations IIIll and 11110.0039q0~5pO.760 hr. and about 1. E _ compressor efficiency.. An interesting fact to notice about Equation lllli is that the optimum pipe diameter is relatively insensitive to most of the parameters involved.5 for d ~ 1 in.· rate.tE II II ° Fp (11115) where C romp _ romp!eSion cost in dollars/vear per foot of pipe length • q _ gas £10'.104. and applying the necessary conversion factors. fraction B' _ a constant independent of pipe diameter d Differentiating C T expressed by Equation IIliS with respect to diameter d. _ [1. setting the resultant expression to zero.88Ce(l + L.0 for d < 1 in . the purchase cost per foot of pipe is related to the pipe diameter as follows: (11113) where Cp.&1IJ0 I~C r (I + L)H )+Bo+(I+R)CdnC.p)HJIIS8 (1 + Rp)CpECpp J (11117) For most t)1>eS of pipe. so hours of operation per year d .q2M P0.0leC~(1 + L. as follows: d".31 (IIliB) where m . fP/sec p _ the gas density.£Iuid density. .32q2 ~po.0. Ibm/h r p .p . f. and neglecting the viscosity term which is close to unity for most cases for the small exponent involved..20. 1980): ( 11 114) .1J __ 0. gas viscosity. several relationships can be described for the friction factor. L.. Equation 111l6 becomes (Peters and Timmerhaus. Using C e = $O. Ibmfft'l /. lbm/ftl This equation is quite good for short pipelengths and where the pressure drop in the pipelength is not large. Peters and Timmerhaus (1980) present the following equation for optimum pipe diameter: d _ 0. in. !". and solving for d gives the optimum pipe diameter.OO22mo45lpo.Jlko Peters and Timmerhaus (1980) use the following equation for turbulent flow: (11111) where Rp . The annual cost for an installed piping system can be expressed as (Peters and Timmerhaus. $ kWh H. 1980): • f'ixed emu Jor Piping System ~ _ qOH8p O1321J0025 [O. H) _ 8. $Ift d . and TranS1)Qrt 579 As discussed in Chapter 7 (see Equations 714 through 721).mass now rate. Thus.578 Gas Production Engineering Gas GalherifJl!. cp Ct = cost of electrical energy.. E = 0.pipe diameter.
economics introduces even more complexity. m .fraction of initial cost of installed piping system for annual maintenance imc .) M . as described earlier. fraction ioc . and field development plans. Including these factors and using a more accurate expression for the friction loss due to pipe fittings and bends. fraction t. some commonsense analysis may often prove more reliable.Ga! Production Engineering Gas Gathering and Transport 581 Analysis Including Cost of Capital and Corporate Taxes In the previous analysis. we can compute the optimum pipeline diameter using the relationships given here.. fraction i. Availability of capital is usually not a serious constraint. All other terms have similar meaning as before.mass flow rate. taxation rate.. frictional lass due to fittin~ and bends expressed as equivalent pipe length in pipe diameters per unit length of pipe (L" .O~.046 x 1OIOH)C.lp . This is an interesting point to note about pipelines: a pipe1ine's optimum throughput is not the same as the throughput for which it has the most economic diameter. Designing such a transmission system to match the requirements is difficult enough..)[l + (ioc + imc)MJ] n(1 + Rp)Cp[i· + (1 .+. energy consumption patterns (share of gas as an energy source).p))Ep2 (11119) where ~t .. m or q. growth rate in supply due to field development activities and/or new discoveries.. It deals with global (or local. The quantitative analysti described in the previous section assumes that the gas throughput. Technical problems may be too overwhelming in some cases. and the cost of capital (or return on investment)... Peters and Timmerhaus (1980) present the following equation: Gas Transmission Economics It is relatively easier to estimate the economically optimal dimensions and operating conditions for a Single pipeline. . expected energy consumption. it may be able to handle a different throughput more economically).""94"L.ratio of total compressor installation cost to yearly cost of compression power required i· . besides the ones discussed earlier. Ibm' hr Lf<j . includes several producing wells.. Technical problems or feasibility of transmission line construction.. storage wells. It is thus clear that supply and demand predictions are rarely accurate..)(io p + i". 2. such as the time value of money. gas density.m2M. The supply model involves reservoir modelling for production rrom known reserves. is known...t. and a vast network of pipelines of different dimensions and requirements.."d. Available supply of gas: the amount (reserves). but may preclude overambitious. In dealing with natural resources such as gas.. n + (l . geologic information for predicting the growth of these reserves. fraction imp . But the pipeline chosen may ha\'e optimum behavior at some other throughput (that is.. A complete transmission system or grid. Ibm/fil 1. 4. that playa role in determining the design capacity and size of a gas transmission system are: '1. for a given throughput. The demand model is even more complex. 3. as the case may be) economic growth. The economics of the variation in pipeline capacity factors· has to be evaluated. etc. rate of return (or cost of capital before taxes) on incremental investment. • Supply and demand projections are made using complex computer mod els that aerount for the vast number of factors that influence such predictions.. It is easy to imagine how several other factors may also become important in a given situation. corporate taxes.016[~W d~pt' . in. resulting in alternative feasible designs that may not be optimum. such as difficulties in increasing line capacity by installing a second pipeline. price of gas and its effect on gas production and use. depreciation rate for the installed piping system.. fraction of initial cost of compression installation for annual maintenance p . costs of compressors. Availability of capital.. Rate or growth in gas demand. current production rate. one soon realizes that throughput is not easy to specify. depreciation rate for the compression equipment.. Thus. . Some important factors.L. a number of important factors were neglected.. ultralarge projects.Jd.t..optimum economic inside pipe diameter.. . • Capacity factor l~ the ratio of the actual a"eragl:! discharge to the design capacity.1.
118123. "Steady and Transient Analysis of Cas Flows in Networks. 18).. 4+in. defined as the fraction of the total time that an uninterrupted supply is achieved. rale of flo. Derive the coefficients indicated in Table 111. The load factor can be increased by using underground gas storage. A Digital Computer Program for the Simulation of Cas Pipeline Network Dynamics. 2. pipeline buffer capacity. 286... gathering station at C. ID pipeline leads into the regional trunk line at D. England.0. "Dynamic Approach to CasPipeline Analysis. Plant Design and Economics JOT Chemical Ellgineers.. 1967. McCrawHili Book Co. The flowing temperature is 95°F. To what pressure should the gas be compressed at (a) lease A. Oklahoma. K. ID pipeline transports a 0. 3. "How to Calculate Cas Volume in Blowdown and Purg109. while lease B produces 7 MMscfd of 0. S.OOOft we11 is equipped with a 3in. a single 11. where the gas must be delivered at 520 psig. 973pp . The first 10 miles of the pipelinp is looped with a 4in. K. "P1PETRAN.". 398pp. Questions and Problems References 1. April 14. it branches out into another 4mile. Y . Campbell. oj Illinois. and Hannah.008. 8in. Solve this expression for the case where: gas gravity .8 miles long). 1970. or other standby sup+ ply systems. H. London. gas inlet pressure in the sytem . Can this surface flo\\.68 gravity gas.6578. An uninterrupted gas supply to meet varj. Use this program to solve for steadystate flow for a simple pipeline system. C. and reserve factor. line. H. Derive a relationship to express the flow rate in the 4+in. 10 pipeline is at an average inclination of 30 from the horizontal. A 7in.n~ demand is ensured by considering two factors: availability. ID. Elsevier Ap. and a perfectly horizontal flow system. What minimum size of surface flowline would be required to enable gas production at a rate of 1 MMscfd. Peters. line in terms of the £10\\ rate in the 8in. with uphill flow. line diameter be considered economic? 6." Pipe Line News.. Calculate the gas flow rate using at least two £low relationships.68 gravity gas from a distance of 22 miles to a liquefaction plant in Saudi Arabia.81. D.. and assured. Write a computer program to solve Equation 11+48 for loopless pipeline systems. Distefano. respective1y. H. bottomhole pressure . to enable delivery of gas to the trunk line? Assume f . input gas flow rate = 4 MMscfd. ambient and flowing temperature of 85°F." Oil l." paper presented at the Inst. A 5mUe long. Vol. H. lD. Nottingham. H. or . P. 1984..' Cat.. or by using the pipeline as a buffer stora~e facility. Norman. M. At a distance of 2 miles from the inlet. From C. 2.()(X) psia. 3. w. A.0. terminate at tht. and (b) lease B. the next 5 miles is looped with a 3in.'orks..2. with a guaranteed pressure of at least 100 psia at the separator? Use the following data: 1'11: .. 1979. Higher the availability. lz~wa:. J. bottomhole temperature = 250°F. . March. K... e •• Load factor is the ratio of the 8"erage rate 10 Ihe muimum houri). A high capacity factor will be obtained if the demand (and supply) is close to design capacit}'." Bulletin oj the Univ. A. uninterrupted gas supply throughout the range of the demand cycle. E. and Settari. . R. 1980. J. Engrs.65 gravity gas. respectively. No. "Computation of Unsteady Cas Flow in Pipe Net\I. Version IV. ID line. Lease A produces 5 MMscfd of 0. and Timmerhaus.. P.0.Gas 1.. lower is the reserve factor required. Petroleum Reservoir Simulation.. S. surface temperature .. underground storage. 1969.. plied Science Publishers Ltd.582 Cas Production Engineering Gas Gathering and Transport 583 The two major features of a transmission system that is operating in an optimum manner are high load and capacity factors··. 1961. 4.64(19. New York. M.. L20000.. Courts.82°F.6. S. 3rd ed. Ariz." paper CC157 presented at the Research Meet. 476pp. of lost . 1968. by using some type of gas reserve such as highpressure gas storage to ensure an excess supply during peak demand. emanating from leases A and B. line.5 miles long) and BC (5in.950 psig. Campbell Petroleum Series. " How to Determine the Maximum Capability of a Complex Pipeline System. Dec. Cas Conditionillg and Processing. of Chern. 4. The inlet and outlet pressures for the system are 530 psia and 130 psia.5mile. and the last 7 miles is a single unlooped line. Hain. May 9). line. "Analysis of Flow in !\'etworks of Conduits or Conductors. Coacher. Midlands Branch ConL. Oil & Cas 1. Two lines AC (5in. Batey. which accounts for gas reserves provided in the form of additional parallel lines.59(51. 1966. J. Cuy. 1936. U.. of Cas Engrs. 8in. An 8. Cross. and flowing temperature _ 78°F. tubing. N. 5. 9.
. A. E.. Sept.. H. . 1.organge in Ferngasleitungen. 103(21. V." Soc.85 . H. J. Elsevier Scientific Pub!..806 65 "R C F mole (atm Iiter)/(gmmole K) (kg/cmlliter)/(gmmole K) (gm cal)l(gmmole K) Joulesi(gmmole OR) Btu'(lbmole OR) (ft Ibf)/(Ibmole OR) (psi ft"')/(Ibmole 'R) (aim ftl)/(lbmole R) gm/cml Ibm/hl gmlcml Ibm'ft' cm'sec • ft'5('C "'.0' . 1962.. Pet. 630pp. Pet. E. A.." paper SPE 2554 presented at the SPE 44th Ann.. M.136 1. Szilas.584 GaJ Production Engineering Rachford. and Streeter. 297302.987 8.141 593 2. J't 10(4. Avogadro's number Gas constant (R) Dec.001 293 0. Production and Transport oj Oil and Gas. Jr. 14(2.0' . "Sensitivity Analysis Applied to a SteadyState Model of Natural Cas Transportation Systems..3145 1. Stoner. Tuppeck.15' 0. and Kirsche.. Fall Meet . Nov 22). APPENDIX A General Data and Unit Conversion Factors Appendix A·1 Some Useful Physical Constants Quantity Absolute zero temperature Magnitude In uni ts ot 115125.089 9. "Ein Numerisches Verfahren zur Berechnung Instationarei Stromungs\. 1970.730 24 0. 1975." Soc..) m"'" ft . 1972.082057477 0. f.Si· 6. L. Density of dry air (at 60°F. 280ct... J. I alm) Acceleration due 10 gravity (g) 0. April)." Dos Cas Und WasserJach. Stoner. 11(4.084 784 1. Developments in Petroleum Science. Stoner. Denver.' Oil & Gas J. 197 1...). Wylie.665 Dimensional constant (g.. M. 1971. Dec. Eng. "SteadyState Analysis of Cas Production. Streeter. I atm) Velocity of sound In dry air (at O°C..356362.). June}. L. F.459. N. Transmission and Distribution Systems. A. P. 165178. 357364. Amsterdaal. Eng. "A Computer Simulation of Cas Flow in Long Pipelines. Eng. J. Co. E. "A Fast.17405 22"1' 3. L.• 2(4.. "Natural Cas Pipeline Transients.732 0. 5560." Soc. 523528. Pel. T. 12(2.). M. Dec. Colorado.273. Highly Accurate Means of Modeling Transient Flow in Gas Pipeline Systems by Variational MethoW. D. Taylor. 1974. A. "Computer Speeds Surge Calculations.022 169 E + 23 0. Pet. 1962. April). and Wylie.001 223 2 0. ~ cm"~ (kgm)I(N~ • • • Indicates that tM num~ 3217405 1. Eng.. B. E.. T. H." Soc. 69(47. and Dupont.076362 0..3 10. T. J. Wood.0' 10' 32. "'Network System Transient Calculations by Implicit Methods. B.. Stewart.080 719 33.9859 1545.718282 (gm cm)l(drne ~ (Ibm ft)I(lbf sec') dimeruionless dimensionless dimemionle5lii . and Powers. Pet. Eng. 1969. V.' Soc.""act . 3. I atmj Density of dry air (at O°C.
205 }.H.... ~'iO ..opentl"" 1.0081 00611 0 0ti61 0 0bM 5.IoM"ne Mt~ .~r .' J<I.. SpecifIC H 6'JIb PSll ""'.n o.. )9 4 9125 ."V'hllpen'. 17H 11lO 104 0 0 CUI O." a~ 2975] 2975J 2975) 06664 5.".~ (table contilluetl) .1 .~ SlO" 519006 6106& 1611 461S 499 n 5167 .h\'lbu II"" .)()48 0 2M(! 57112 11 J(J C.25 mn 11)1..1S1 M. 15.205 J... 7II..11y Appendix A Appendix A·2 Continued General Data for Natural Gas Constituents of Ioquod< f:lf'f... 03171) 0)621 OS114 0 45'J1 a SUB 0520$ 04216 0 «07 (4)21 04391 a_ us) 49 018 671>4 1925 lHl 0. 1("0 n1 21705 '" 297 "" 25519 201 ~1 ....6962 on17 0.~ 72..n.7)42 5804 '017 6111 62S6 US) 6511 6 (5) 0.H.H . 2 2US ..178 86.171 111 52 1)6.m " un " 4. (1. 100 205 176a'l 1116. }'()'.. 6167 ill 8) 217 1J'JS8 2«&J 1477:2 19938 4 4(.. SUO S910 50)5 5JO.. .9657 {I 1106 011ll 0.7) 0. ..06M 0..tS4I 1:!0.~ 27Ue laS 7 J6910 "''' "'M "... 14 JII 0 l864 2~ IS 0...U46 0. <..9.tl" 100 205 209.. 6522 1119 6 _ lUI 000061 0"'1' 60006S Q.• 7 J.~ ~ c. )·Melh~·lhe'.""J S 819 uw a 00065 oooon 34S'16 )4596 ) 4S'ItI J4S96 O.n) "..~\f'hyTpent.91 P7.1 ' .n 17.HXlOne ...6'J79 !II' 5.Of. Cl'clopenl.19 210. .H" IIl0.no 4.~. )1&7 S.H .. :!!: l606 WII..UhVTpenl.102lI OWll2 5718 " " 111)0069 0)198 5&35 "60 00006II 011J6 5757 17J11 OIlOCl6'i 63257 5 eso 171a a OOOJO a.n..01 0 J210 4SP 4JUl 006" 00674 0."t' Mi!.'" "" 50) 18 4193 51l..~ N~ .<18 1Il001 .40.....H" 12 151 lHlO .12116 "'n 21B. " h~. cou<te<' (>f CI'S.q! n91 2... •• .. m.0'9 1.2S611 O"~ly' tsooe'.V 0...2111 496S 145(1000104 61'IM 5...lOune\hrlp<!nl~t C.. ".~ 5260 4 404 4~ 40104 44(}1 ~ 4(}1 2611 10_. ~ 4'1 .. 12 lSI 86 111 86.526 us.~ .H . ..]6 2..Bn 1261 HOB 491S 5 S)6 H35 un HS) 15 1 t6l 4m 4165 UMi 64 10 11 1042 000151 119) 000117 12)8 00011' o lO10 o 1&0lil 09l1li1 (55)9 0991610l&l O'Jll2O 15m 09667 2 00b& 0 'l69(.. C. 'lOS7 1 'lOS1 09911 1 4519 0_ 01955 a.se 2 OIl 1 .. Compound .7)8 S 6'}4 a 17B OJa15 101'iOl (0 J'iOI 10J'i01 10.. . ~ P'OfW'~ ......70611 O. C.0007$ 02495 0954924'111 0... .950<4 24911 0951024'111 2975) 2915J 5260 5 260 17.". 14 696 ps •• 14 &'l6 ld~~lln p".791 5.ti .. ••• .6640 01611 0. 2m... nt C.. CoIl" "S19 116.......2S1 1l.~e (. 100 205 2.."" 05&)6 . " .lS1 o 60U Sal) .1·00_.lU 1900 )1.H" c. 00..586 Gas Production Engineering Appendix A2' General Data for Natural Gas Constituents ~n. &01 16:1 161. . 60"1'...041 Xl0711 "'097 }S8119 (SOXII 127. .114 0511 1.V 0010'" 006&1 0 a.95 1..H ..7111 V87 )781 )... VB' ) 717 J."" .259 CooHu 1...H. ....OMI 00'" (10737 00102 Oon4 O~ .n. 0 01i07 0_ 00lm a. 5199 1l BS 000)90 0.1XIOIl' OlS."t C..~ "u B 606 6519 6 529 '" . . . (15)6 07114 411S8 0 Ill)] ''''' 29S6 0_ O.."" 195 &7 42 OSI 5410S '"U ·n'iO MO m45 )01 45 )1)163 ." ".2567 . '. ~'an~ t>Ob<. 7018 Ill 07 16121 ~28 .. " .71 0.... .' ~.sa n. 100 20S 19712 . 0<.. «a I 420 Il «029 5128 181411 1'10.."" ...lO'X US96 )4S96 H"...H..l9S1 a)906 (0)951 OJa12 0 Sl12 05264 a 5(17 05165 0 S121 051B) 05U) 0511 05145 05171 05241 0 SOl 6499. 'Y.. . 587 Gu d~n . C.rJ)1 19J7:2 0)541 0)546 • lkpnntfti b.19 0 OS..57 21 a.0018') 01<105 .l809 OSMl OS15J aS54 US4 " n"'ep .o 1219 2141 llJ'J n.laJ2 1454 0 )815 2401 2447 O..6J )0147 J...." ro" 6163 S}Q1 529. 1. C...717 V8l un 111] 21. ."e CoH" l1'2Jl Col'" 114 111 CoH" 114211 128..'" C. r!onlnt c.H ..1lCIOt.~ ..556 5.44~5 ocoon 0000'i~ OOOOJO a 00011 0.6S .......llS o OS" 9..\011 10 Ja7fo1 19)) 10 )1)1 19 18 0)7\011 " ao 0 J&4O lUJ 0 J8JS JUS 01711 28 n 0 lO10 1945 0 l'9OO 14 . 5 au 19 H 5Bl0 196) 5795 19611 'ooa 21 U 6112 2124 6147 1111 6174 11.'ltI Q ) 0006S CJ()o11 a.. "" C..H .'14 00) 0179 21 J6 CoH" CoH" &4'bl C".e =~~: 4)n 12601 . mel h~ 'po! nl.0.). < " (lill0 (16247 (15967 DIu lb"f l1UJ . 006& )6 4l 0 JaIIl ]181 01&61 lO 65 a lin OWl OWl t~{. H69 4166 4\1 1 <W68 4SH ~.19 .o .101 III 4212 HI4 ••• 5t>4 21 "'ti . C.67 27..271 CH" 100.:7 S BS'J U54 S~7 56015 17.411 ~" J'J6 9 4nn 41'5.17 1901 .. 052J'J o 6IIIIl o 6IIlD a6'" 0.1S04 O...00015 03007 5415 lS71 ooom 021125 5541 1545 00001S 02'41 5") 1581 n00078 OH69 S~ 1551 a.H" 100 lOS 2. • . .H.II 000(6) ...1lOCI6'i 0..1~ .. C..'pon.. Ie:! 6) 21001 ~12 .ne C..• c.. • I a.10 SI • ~~ 58 12.....O) 2191 • UU9 U22 1122 1 95' 21061 5411 4 50'! 450'! la6S 1. ~ lMeIIlyIM .H.~..... 100205 C.. 000 1119000116 01906 .."...175 116178 Issn 14(1 .ooon 62998 "lJ 14S96 a6n1 S ~J7 17'lS 06976 0. C . ~ ..hylqclopen •• ..
..l>IIIil 5 Z2II S'*' S.6.. e.4711 '86 5220 10)4 11 91 sm 0 00098 000107 00011O 0000f'} 000098 00011l OOlXl&6 0 1951 0'1661 19)n 0121O O~ 19ln 01951 0'l6l9 Inn 0l9l5 o 9SSO 14115 024115 (09691 18676 01955 (0 9651 1 8616 0 un (096l1 21519 6'''' 6.1il 21.74 114 .seea nUl 0 9996 1 DIXIO 1)10 1.. ~...1!15 2. .)91 ••• n" .114 1664 0000S4 '_'i116 " '" .97 o OSJl . 'l.''''. "'.9b p".~ ..000S4 OJ13& 1171 OOOOSI 7.H.55 B959 41498 0_242'l 02598 02795 0 l"J14 0..0 nos 49JO ti24 111& 4 291 '''' 1".!<Il ~ 0126 1130 54 11 SS86 2J 10 14082 1082 111..11>8 1(\01 152 l..54 O. 0.)11. <. r.v"Ien _m l.])2]..OS 291.~ .... .Iod<l r.0.~ 0..~ '. D.&111 0."" om "'00 """ ". .~ 0180J 1..1·.OM] . .1XI& S.l<I 1431 (1. VOl 221 1 )99& a..59 "~ 11106 IS1 'J6 220..ko/lol CI<bon """"'.80 71' ~_5 021"69 0...~ Colbon dlo..1111 0.' IOU UU ttrd'Ol"" chlonde 16..~."'" V.Sty""" IKIP'opyl~'t"" e. <.()) tUn 15!4 .114 • " 0.115 "" ...~ 111 1019 1~"."on 12...os .29 lOII.. . W .11 1)1 4 . HoO H.. . .~ ~ 1..&118 ..."' . m 17]' .0 . .!l6Tl U» 144111 5 JS2 '11 06220 2106 11S6 1\" ".......i272 O .><oo CoH. .13 91 (1)511 (I.M ..6 "'. 51).. SpKilic hul 14 !._ ""')'lent 8ennne To/vent T'._ '.1l1li Mtrlt(! .' lsa 14' I D. •• ""..lcol>ol .1 " 10li. N... "'. 5959 U15 .H.177 1.5192 0.. 11U 0.. . OOWI GOS17 05167 O_OS" ..263 1263 1.n.OW .27&2 040911 04011 0 4114 0 4418 0 ~I 1644 ] U7 lUO V.'n "'" "" 1J195 """ 0"" 2....H..~ 'D ..t Production Engineering Appendix A·2 Continued General Data for Natural Gas Constituents Den~n'l Appendix A Appendix A·2 Continued General Data for Natural Gas Constituents of "quid.~ 281 )17.6451 0."n "" . 0_07 1.1111 11&4 lJ~ ..1 17)4 915) 1071 ....~ . 0.574 J 574 H7~ 0)966 nal 2'1'J4 lJ111 H19 0 OCIOSI 0.~ OSJl 120..~ ... )61' 547 . sn.. 1516 0 126'l M 010 291l JII.. :56101 ~.. ... ("11 710 • !thyl~n:t"" o)(yl. " " "". ".000 9511 '49))1 674 6.0 51.. Dnn o SJSl 05196 .'''''' Ollll ....61 ~~ '9." .H.·l"'~ .>de Hrd'".M .JIIJ5 0 M'i08 0. "'" '"" O.hyI.".0l42 117 1 10J9 Jill 114S.. C.Il 11.9925 011990 ~ 090) .11'1 101.011 18...JII) 5_4!fi 5_m 5. .><..9991 0..tI"f.2604 . lIi fI'l 31 IV 0.. .'..i c.8617 0.H. 281. 041)8) 04122 104141 05'M •.1I' "~ "" 11)1' 11\04.1 11041 1186 0.17) 0.".1484 )9..~.l911 0.168 106..0f>') 23010 00 In.9110 0166) 117) 1.119 (table continued) \ .om " .14 514 1..0J06 .~n H~SS lUI" 41sa 4119 1574 J.no S 119 107) sOi'tl 11..Xylene ~.112. .... Ift...1..~ 0.2SS o lO2l 15'111 ltd7 25. .lJ7 1155 8 f>.' 44010 )40.H.156 SIS 1.'011_ 'tOJI" ..&')6 lde.. "''' o '" "'.'J2 111~ .588 Ca.996 1111 5174 11 OJ 5. ..4 0.~ '".tI"f.1)4 1466 O!lOO5ol 01271 7209 lUI 0.16 l"J1.. r.]'M 10S'I 000066 62115 11&0 1263 000060 02596 725' 1461 0 000S4 o JIb') . 95)1 552 n IiOSSS 65124 6156 mil 227..1l11 0..~ n~ 511 .1IOG4 0. "" "'. 1."'" .9b p".02 230."'" .1" 92. 00. C.11&12 ) 6655 u.. ~~ 10115 ~~ ~~ es. NO N.. ..H .(1'2 DOSI ~ .221 .1394 1. 590. C.hf!.OS' ' .l51 6764 5411 7016 10" 5571 lUll O_lnll 0. .0J 4.Wl nBS )"9) (1ft) D.. _ 1 414 1.6'5 0_6100 0.}M4 0.~ ..H... 11. "" '.71 4 16 11_" 1111 '_01 IlJl 1. . .~ ."0 46.1&8 106. C.l21 1" 0000 OOlB 0040 "'" 034& O. Ifill 1(1(. 589 YS denSIty.0006 0 069Ii .1 4 5924 0.0145 0. 0 .l8utod..195 1.."" o OSS7 00567 O. w••  101' 42) 0 11999 197.. e...H.5] UJO 119 176. . .H .241 7218 1.) '9. cIoouck CH.101 .". "' '" .. 260Ja 71.~ 14. »~ .461 111.. N..><" ""C. 2301) llO4 7O'J06 11015 '00 29 J lTlO loWi.m 1.... I O. ".m.% 1.0» 0)11 0.111111 0. 651. 64_OS9 IOU "6 14. 14!.O 1204l '.M12 0...Jv'ene 1.14 0. . .1241 0.5 1)) ''0 or. <. pOI.\7 NI.
nl 47] 14..u ". M ..~Uone 2 ....9 100 .7) 1!O.... 1&lOS llflft ""'''''IO"e 21....IJ 47n 1161 116) m 11 (111 '00 lUI 77_' 00' 00' 00' 00' 00 10' 10.. 7 16 10 12 1n 6..J112. .] 18....l41 5100 2 SW9 20.600)01.501 l. l..53 11m 15159 US7.. ...1 4S JA 45."" l.04] ]410_' :MIll 1 "..09 1}16.627 119_192 121.64 l_J'J)J'J 4S. 0 49S1) Sl100 11"'506. /'I.0 73.' 10.la.10 0195 H2II. Ill. P peta tera gigs T G 0_2 80.I_1 10.. ~.1 10.9 7.4{. 9O'!Il lOOP ..1St 17191 1046'1(1 174)OJ 102.S lU ·0..$&4 2160 4 lO61.. T"pl . 74.610 15446 11l.11 15.710 111.&49 129.39 .3 115.1>56 U4 &4 497'00 rul 7 11...35 7_1 n.:'80 64...lfu.&) 1510 1363 1411.1 1.AJde 12.JO.S0 l..0) (7_01 S.. 1.2 11". . . 15120176)72018& "9$4 050(1.• H.23 0~9S 1421.022 )7'0' 5 OOO'l.2 10.~ \15 810 ~ ~..165 1)1.CIl1 119.1 xw..117 1)4...3e41i5 I.' _0_1 55...57 21al..bos<=" O"'lsen 04 1919 US lS._ C....tto • (table cQntinucd) ..'hyIIKJ .757 llH52 4)'111~ 47510 20.Dcune Om..2 B +1... Kyle .7301 115.. ne (19S 8 4748 1 20.741 lU.10 70 (701 (70) "'''''w. " p ••• .V " " " " " •• 7.4 45_].. '00.'" 3341 l1iJ 1501.....' la5S II 0) [1_0) "' ~...0 9_1 1'S6 14.ne 2"Ietho... .2 .. .611 lII66. <f97.obutyl 5796 7 !>lOU 10..... 110.611 101." no '" .." """'" .97 1401145]579 1.604 121419 5181) 6UO 10~ llU62 ".s&5 116. ....._lhyI~u.1 26.Z2 50 11 1 ~..! 157..S+! 123.9 2. .1)0 41181 4410.. " m milli ''''I. n.nl • .11&] 1&9. ..1S mega k.4 20.02 1>681 11.M."""'" f lhyl ~ohoI .00.5 74) 914 .52 1)1. ill 10 '8 10 10 15 12 . Hyd~ lulf>de s. Svmbol ... Sl_SO 129SJ 1. knune 10/"""" fU. 0 20. C""loh.001 11'.4 1. c..no pica micro . 1O.I:! 50 11 1..7b 136.'17' lil.jllg Appeudix A Appendi x A·2 Continued General Data for Natural Gas Constituents 591 Appendix A2 Continued General Data for Natural Gas Constituents CilO"hc: . (101 (701 (701 (701 (7. 52 421_1 SOlClO 1"50 1J7. 1 )1)104 1~1111 8 2Un 91.627 143!/5 1.l D.. I 6_7 _}8 '0 • 4 66 '. 14n I U')D] )]01 7 17.08 )1118 147.. 1<01).sJl 120.ilo heCla deka deci centi ....00 21_00 74.n 318 1250 16_50 18_95 ]420 '" 3S9_ "" 1&61 (7_n (7.l·Butod_ IIoOp'_ IOT. d".. " " " " "0' {l0! " " " 8_1 18_11 19' 916 626 !IIl_l ·1.4\14 125.J8II..JA 4S J.94 231C lO73...40'1.l17. ene .e ...2·"tod.1 US .] .611 5Im1 !04948 2O. lh~.. Methykytl~nto".)'J2.71 1)9145 S911S 123_l'to 1 <4(15.4n llO. d .n SlSO 114.296 126..!) 135.455011 .....u .661 117.34 S150 ..158 l1'.:m.12 1 0.64 1..(~.S4a lSl'Sl ~.0 • as V_I • I~n!>~ N~'.3a') .2·B...U $... . SlOeS .) "."" 125..649 I1SI. SlOlS 11..}M 64913 1J/966 20.ne :Mo98 1 .. ~" Hy.._ 14') <1956._61 16]_]4 147.1 *1 ." femta 10.1) 1.~ ~~ ..  1422.l _ ... Appendix A·3 An Overview of the SI System of Units 5 1 Pre f ixes • 10981 081 0_78 11 4) sm.:'61) lall 7... alue.. n.~ 11'J12 2'10..1I 13!O.400meth\ iJ)eft1.] •• n..1n <181....) 0 11.JoIl )81& " '" " " 95 " U 84 U (111 1)..o.' ]4 0 10.MS 16')31 421)) ."90 J68:! b )9601 b 20.21 1..1. IlllO 2.59 1)111 In_Ll 1.102 J0011 115V 21.7 47S/.7 27)00 28&1_0 10.._ '....14 1..611 nlu r4n 10.136 1..7f.' ·1. l'~ pl""''''' S!".10M'! 108. h M M .1»1 1&565 Lll26 31o. " N. 1 10.0 n. .. S 1)1.wo)...!tSII S0951 SoI'7a 20661 SO'M_l 5'ioOO' 2O_W" 5(1]90 1421 SQIIoI} 5410 S08l0 S4aH 50110 S4aJ 6 1O.M "..4S 17.824 101.116 l.25 114.1"" 11531 1411..]61I. 51110.s4oI 271902')40020.' III 116.119 73..7 (7. 14"0 15'P lO1. u.. '00 C\<topo.)74..0000 1 .. 4 .uos<=n 87a 12U 97'0.J.4I U1'9 " " " " " 8...0» 4IItJ I SlIS 1 10." "'lI>. 6O"f AST\\ OC1~ne Number Compound ~ : Compound ~' ~~ I>I"Uon.....826 (114) 26.] 13137 18& la 217'14 lOII07 20.590 Coos Production En~in(...·ok d.l. ..066 1121 " Factor 80.M9 lfi7..50 ......1 ""' " " " (1..0..9} 4295 14'15.olM')'hh~'  lUI 118.. 1O..0 . nyl~n"ne Nf'Oh ...7) (7J) 90 0_0 .UO 10.570 n9.599 .41 9$01 1670 2S1~....l·But..8 1 0· t 10. 5..3 10. Mel~ .636 10_631 10.1 2625 104... .252 112.561 J47......eno! loobu'_ l.'It.11 .l'...0'" lM'.gs 136_01 1ll.5) ..J 95.1 '17 . . ..1 U 01 97.. 1l2M 13610 'V m..1)9 l(1Vi'" '19."2 1]2. +1 .S :'0921 110. H~.4S 140.'ll 4391] 47.mo.060 lII18 "·H.964 1141 l8 63 l8U 18U 28 U un.' 974 Tran ..50 126511 131"105 SHO 127. 0.2 >+1.451 SBO SHO 5l.1I2J 4Ja::l b 47lS 0 20.08 U]4."""'"""'I""o.11 1505.13 LID. 74.u..• 50.6.....5Ot.12 50 11 1411 " .. N"el~l~n!lne ]..4} S9M lZl.1 UU 1 10..~ U7I. ne  12fi.
713 34 £05 "l/s bbl/d (bpd) 6498 36 £05 fillS (table continued I .) quart(U.f oot Time second minute hour . K h yd m' '" 12 In second kelvin '" 5280 It h' yd' Icre mi 2 lemperature emount of substance mole mol 144 1n 2 9 h' 43560 . joule joule per kelVin "' d Y' '0. h' bbl acre ft 2" 4 q' 01336806 ttl 1728 in l 7. Commo n 51 Derived Uni t s Use d In G..878.cre sq mile Symbol ~ivalent to au. s. Velocity feet par second feel per mln\. kinamatlc volume 11.t entropy d..S.ue millS per hour hI. meter kilogram m kg .re (sq) fOOt sq yard .. dynamic IIlsCOsit y..495 bpd gal/hr (gph) 3. ft/mln mph p.nlitv of h. Quan t It i es " nd Uni t s Unit Inch f OOt yard mile squ.2 4840 Vel 2 640 acres 27. ancl candela Volum e lor luminous Intensity plnl(U 5. ring u barrel(U 5) ICceleration "1.400 . m 2/s Flow rau (IIOIUme tr iC) cu faet pe f sacond fillS p" gallons pef hour b.480 520 gal 5614584 ttl 4 2 g al 43560 ftl Sam.400 s 36525 d (1150 takan as 365 d) 60 fUmin 06818182 mph 60 ft/s 1466 667 hIs 88 hlmln • J Nm J/K ye.f force newton N H." energy. N/m2 J/(tg K) W/!m K) ml. m.rrels per day m' 3600 fl 3/hr 26929872 gph 15388. joule per ki l ogram kelvin Witt per me Ier kelvin meltr per second pucal second square meIer per second Cubic meter JI. s 3600 24 hr 1440 min Of 86. W kg rnls 2 Irequlncy power pressure specIfic heat thetmel conductivity velOCity viSCOSity. En gine.) 9allon(U 51 cubiC Icu ) foot " " ". qu. work.2 The two other bUill SI un'l$ are ampere for electric current.nu~ SI unll length lenglh mISs tim..1 density meter pe r second squired squire meIer kilogram per cubic meter acre.592 Gas Production Engineering Appendix A Appendix A·3 Continued An Overview 01 the SI System of Units Appendix A·4 An Overview of the Commonly Used OIl·Fleld Units QUlntity ~bol 593 51 a.
6' rnegaJoules IS kilometers grams 28 cubic C1tnlJmelers 30 newtons kliopascals 7 05 kilogram kilograms per cubic meIer hectares 260 26 million square melers 26 square kllomelefS kilograms '000 kilograms '000' kIlograms 900 • .16 ctJblc meIer 04 lou!es joules per kilogram klloJoules per kilogram pounds per tu Inch pounds per tu foot pounds per gallon API gravity o 133 660 6 Ibm/g.. long (2240 poundsmass) Ion. kilowatt) 750 10 kilowatts 25 centImeters 3..000 ftIbl/mill 42 407 Btu/mIn 778..m 0' 0' Ibm Customary Unit 4375 g"ms 480 gtains 16 oz (11111') 2000 Ibm 2240 Ibm . . (Do Not Use As COflverSlOfl Factors) MISI gr.r.m of l'"lu t)nd SPI. work hphr therm quad hp "" 7781692 ftIbl 1 98 E ·06 ftJbf '.o therm " { " Power 550 ItIbl/s ]3.59.4 in 2/S) 6944444 E03 in 1/s) OF..v) ounce (Irov) pounds (mus) gl...169 2 ftlb1lmln mrilipascalsecond square millimeter per sacond square mlCromeler kelvin mlliinewton per meIer cenllmelers 30 03 meIer 0. AJlIJrndix A 595 Appendix A4 Continued An Overview of the Commonly Used OIl·Field Units Appendix A·S " Memory Jogger" for Metric Units 'BaIlParlt" Metric Values. ..006 944 Ibfllnz 46330632 Ibm/lfts) 32174 05 Ibm/{Msl 2."..q inch pllr second absolute.0 e..:.q 1001 per second .. de9rees Rankine degrees FahrenheIt footpound (Iorca) Blltlsh thermal unIt horsepowerhour therm quad horsepower ftI/s In 2 /s "'" ".'" Eng..03 cubiC meter 006 cubic meIer per kilogram 0' square meIer 03 meier per minute millimelers per second 5 )Oules 0.1 Bntish thermal uM per pound·mass calorie centipoise centlstokes darey degree Fahrenheil (Iemperalure difference) dyne per cenllmeler { '000 '000 { 2300 ton f"hnr'fl ton (long) Density liquids '0" 'M Ibm/in l Ibmtrt J Ibm/gal °API square meters hectare 0. 1~n~. poundal pound lorca pOunds per sq Inch pounds per sq loot pdl Ibl 0031 081 Ibl 3217405 pdls 144 Iblilt 2 '001 cubic 1001 (cu tt) cubic 1001 per poundmass 1t1"lbm) square 1001 (sq tt) loot per minule lootpoundIorce loolpoundIorce pel mlnule loolpound'Ofce per second holsepowef horsepower. ." barrel Bulish IherlT'al uo. GO\ ProJrlcticm Ellgillt'erilli!. boiler IuIowatthour mile ounce (avolldupols) ounce (fluid) poundforce POUndforce per squale Inch tPfessure... 1984.15839 £04 Ibm/(fts) ..... Richardoon.0 e.a lqUnoal_ { { Pressure Iblfin z Ibflft z 0068 045 7 IUm 0. short 'U. ..... I . Metric Sltmdord./.05 Btu 1.. 23 JOules . psi) poundmass poundmass per cubIC 100\ section ton.02 wan waUs wans (~.In ounce (. CQlJrtesy of Sod!>ty of P. 45967 °R45967 poundssecond per sq inch IblsJin2 poundssecond per sq loot Ibfslft 1 pounds (mass) per fts Ibm/fts Viseosity (dynamic) Viscosity (kinematic) Temperature . "R ftIbl Ener"". 05 ..c 9ravltv) .1315 Fore.1 ] 480 520 Ibm/It] 141 S/(specll. melllC (Ionne) Ion. " • Btu par minute Btu/min • (From Tluo 51 Metric Sy.
"..5 E. _____ _.. _.') CIII (. _ _ .7$2 250 EO' 1. lO'e b:lt .." (kg) 41M' •.. 1.. _ _ ..~ . .. '. H...r .. ~ city city _ _ aI mtteUIY IO'CI ... (W (m«)) ...III per........ (m'I<I) ..........~ (~~".. mtI~1 INtmtI~) )O'JIt (.'I<g1 " ~~'F) pM 1* '*9.8 1.. "..........1 84' ......... .~ ...1" 4111002 4.nlWl ... _ ...." 232.. 1·. _ _ .. (JIm') JOUIt 1* .......s) 2.... k' rw 1 1<)) ..........~ .. _ .0iU""1I' "'1_1'111'''''1 81u 1 "OiU>WroU!VllI'".. ""'" III) 2991V '9111155<1 E.< .... . E ...I) ..." ktlwl (W . ........911115501 e ~ 11 .... •• W ""ICI \ar.... .... _. ....~ E·~ ..SoI' .. per _ k.....n per mel . _ .. _ ..