COMMUNICATIONS DEPARTMEnT press BOOK

traces Du sacrÉ
7 maY - 11 aUGUST 2008

TRACES DU SACRÉ

TRACES DU SACRÉ 7 MAY-11 AUGUST 2008
GALERIE 1, LEVEL 6

Centre Pompidou Direction de la Communication 75191 Paris cedex 04 director of communications Laurent Glépin press relations manager Isabelle Danto press officer Anne-Marie Pereira telephone + 33 (0)1 44 78 40 69 fax + 33 (0)1 44 78 13 02 e-mail anne-marie.pereira@centrepompidou.fr Éditions du Centre Pompidou press officer Évelyne Poret telephone 00 33 (0)1 44 78 15 98 e-mail evelyne.poret@centrepompidou.fr

CONTENTS
1. PRESS RELEASE page 3

2. ORGANISATION OF THE EXHIBITION

page 10

3. A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCOMPANIMENT

page 18

4. PUBLICATIONS extracts from the catalogue

page 24

5. LIST OF WORKS

page 38

6. VISUALS FOR THE PRESS

page 54

TRACES DU SACRÉ
PRESS RELEASE TRACES DU SACRÉ 7 MAY - 11 AUGUST 2008
GALERIE 1, LEVEL 6
Centre Pompidou Direction de la Communication 75191 Paris cedex 04 director of communications Laurent Glépin press relations manager Isabelle Danto press officer Anne-Marie Pereira telephone + 33 (0)1 44 78 40 69 fax + 33 (0)1 44 78 13 02 e-mail anne-marie.pereira@centrepompidou.fr commissaire général Alfred Pacquement, director, Musée National d’Art Moderne curator Jean de Loisy joint curator Angela Lampe exhibition design Pascal Rodriguez Éditions du Centre Pompidou press officer Évelyne Poret telephone 00 33 (0)1 44 78 15 98 e-mail evelyne.poret@centrepompidou.fr

With “Traces du Sacré,” already promising to be one of the major artistic events of the year, the Centre Pompidou returns to the tradition of major multidisciplinary exhibitions that made its reputation, offering a visual exploration of one of the most pressing issues of our time. Following what has come to be called “the disenchantment of the world,” a significant strain of modern art has found its roots in the turmoil attendant upon the loss of conventional religious belief, a terrain that continues to nourish the development of contemporary forms. Taking in the whole history of twentieth-century art, from Caspar David Friedrich to Kandinsky, from Malevich to Picasso, and from Barnett Newman to Bill Viola, the exhibition looks at the way in which art to continues to testify, in often unexpected ways, to the existence of a universe beyond, remaining, in a thoroughly secularised world, the profane vehicle of an ineluctable need to rise above the quotidian. This broad selection of paintings, sculptures, installations and videos brings together some 350 major works – many of them never seen before in France – by almost 200 artists of international renown. The distinctively multidisciplinary character of the exhibition will be reflected in the Centre’s regular ancillary events, with a programme of film, video and live performance, a lecture series and a literary colloquium expanding on the theme. The exhibition is accompanied by a book and a catalogue, both published by Éditions du Centre Pompidou. After Paris, the exhibition will travel to the Haus der Kunst in Munich (Germany), 19 September 2008 – 11 January 2009.

THE CONTEXT OF THE EXHIBITION

A distinctive feature of the human species, art makes its appearance in prehistory in close connection with our fundamental concern with the questions of what we are, where we come from, and where we are going. This link between artistic creation and spiritual uncertainty has been manifest in all the great religions. Since the eighteenth century, however, the West has seen a profound transformation in the relationship between art and religion. The Reformation, the rise of capitalism, the ideals of the Enlightenment, the worship of Reason and the growth of the town all led to what Max Weber called “the disenchantment of the world.” At the same time, the sense of the withdrawal of the divine that found expression in the Romantics, followed later by Nietzsche’s announcement of the death of God, the advance of science, the emergence of psychoanalysis and the growing influence of Marxism, led to a reconsideration of Man’s place in creation and thus of his relationship to the religious. It was in this landscape of belief violently unsettled that Modern art came to birth. If in the course of this long process the secularisation of society delivered artists from their subordination to the Church, the crisis of religion did not at all mean the disappearance of metaphysical questioning. The argument of this exhibition is that a significant strain of modern art has its roots in such concerns. The goal of the exhibition is thus to explore the significance of the survival of such questioning throughout the twentieth century, and to show that it continues to fuel the invention of contemporary artistic forms, and as such represents an essential key to the understanding of modern art.
In collaboration with the Centre Pompidou, the Centre Culturel Suédois presents the exhibition “Hilma af Klint, une modernité révélée,” 11 April – 20 July 2008 (curators: Anna-Maria Svensson, Jean de Loisy and Angela Lampe). Works by Hilma af Klint are also included in the exhibition “Traces du sacré.” Centre Culturel Suédois, 11 rue Payenne, 75003 Paris. Hours: Tuesday to Sunday, midday to 6 pm. Admission free. Press contact: Gunilla Norén, gno@ccs.si.se, +33 (0) 1 44 78 80 15

PUBLICATIONS

CATALOGUE Éditions du Centre Pompidou Edited by Mark Alizart Format 23.5 x 30 cm, 440 pp, 326 col. ills Graphic design: Élie Kongs Price: 49.90 euros

The Traces du sacré catalogue is a scholarly work of reference, designed as an encyclopaedia of the relationship between spirituality and the arts in the twentieth century, with some hundred articles on ideas, artists, works and movements connected with the theme of the exhibition (the idea of Paradise, the role of Fr. Couturier, the work of Rothko, Zen, the Beat Generation, etc.) A discussion of the exhibition by the curators explains the relationship between works and topics. Three longer essays deal with the intellectual, historical and sociological background to the three great periods identified by the exhibition. The first considers the ideas that dominate the end of the late nineteenth century, surviving until the 1930s: Romanticism, the death of God, the Superman (Olivier Schefer). The second considers the intellectual atmosphere following the Second World War: the sense of the end of history, the decline of Europe and the endeavour to develop spiritualities without God (Yves Cusset). The third examines the contemporary world in which the exhibition intervenes: the return of religion, or rather, the decline of irreligion (Mark Alizart). The catalogue also offers an opportunity to familiarize oneself with the work of a new generation of French art historians, from whom are drawn the majority of the contributors.
VISITATIONS

Published alongside the catalogue will be a collection of essays written in response to the exhibition by intellectuals and scholars from a wide range of disciplines. A philosopher, an art historian, an anthropologist, a critic of contemporary art a psychoanalyst, an artist and two historians of religion offer their own readings of the works and the way in which they illuminate or complicate the notion of the sacred.
Texts by Esther Benbassa and Jean-Christophe Attias, Philippe Descola, Boris Groys, René Girard, Christophe Kihm, Charles Melman, Pierre Schneider. Format: 16 x 16.50 cm, approx. 140 pp Price: around 20 euros

MERCHANDISE

The Editions du Centre Pompidou will offer a range of products in connection with the exhibition, notably a T-shirt by artist John Giorno, bags, mugs and stationery. Postcards will be available of 37 works in the exhibition.

CATALOGUE CONTENTS

Foreword by Alain Seban Preface by Alfred Pacquement Jean de Loisy: “Face à ce qui se dérobe“ Angela Lampe: “Traces du sacré dans l’espace d’exposition“ Olivier Schefer: “Religion, mythe et modernité” LA TRACE DES DIEUX ENFUIS Introduction by Jean de Loisy Julie Ramos: “Caspar David Friedrich” Olivier Schefer: “Ruines” Bastien Gallet: “Musique sacrée” Clément Chéroux: “August Strindberg” Valérie Da Costa: “Lucio Fontana” Alessandra Sandrolini: “Gino De Dominicis” NOSTALGIE DE L’INFINI Introduction by Angela Lampe Alain Bonfand: “De Chirico, Il Grande Metafisico” LES GRANDS INITIÉS Introduction by Valérie Caradec Julie Ramos: “Syncrétisme” Pascal Rousseau: “Aristie” Marty Bax: “Théosophie” Laura Gutman-Hanhivaara: “Gallen-Kallela, Ad Astra” Marty Bax: “Mondrian, Evolutie” Walter Kugler: “Rudolf Steiner” Walter Kugler: “André Bély” Marco Pasi: “Aleister Crowley” Michel Giroud: “Dada et la gnose” Michel Giroud: “La ligne d’or” AU-DELÀ DU VISIBLE Introduction by Marie-Emilie Fourneaux Clément Chéroux: “Les voies de l’invisible” Pascal Rousseau: “Corps astral” Marty Bax: “Van Doesburg” Marcella Lista: “Lumière” Guitemie Maldonado: “Kupka, Le Premier Pas” Beat Stutzer: “Augusto Giacometti”

RÉVÉLATIONS COSMIQUES Introduction by Véronique Follet Angela Lampe: “Hilma af Klint” Lucienne Peiry: “Le spiritisme et l’Art brut” Christoph Wagner: “Bauhaus et ésotérisme” ÉLÉVATIONS Introduction by Angela Lampe Olivier Schefer: “Cristal” Maria Stavrinaki: “Utopies architecturales” Maria Stavrinaki: “Socialismes mystiques” Philippe-Alain Michaud: “Frozen Film Frames” L’ABSOLU Introduction by Marc Archambault André Nakov: “Absolu” Marielle Tabart: “Brancusi, L’Oiseau” Louise Wijnberg: “Matière et spiritualité” HOMO NOVUS Introduction by Alessandra Sandrolini Bastien Gallet: “Parsifal, l’homme nouveau?” Alessandra Sandrolini: “Umberto Boccioni” Alain Bonfand: “Chagall, Hommage à Apollinaire” ÉDEN Introduction by Alessandra Sandrolini Gilles A. Tiberghien: “Paradis” Pascal Rousseau: “Adamisme” Julie Ramos: “Jahrhundertaustellung” Maria Stavrinaki,: “Marc, Pferd in Landschaft” DANSES SACRÉES Introduction by Agathe Salgon Adrien Sina: “Cérémonie charnelle” Marcella Lista: “Les dessins de Nijinski” Philippe Ivernel: “Mary Wigman” Philippe Ivernel: “Monte Verità” Angela Lampe: “Nolde et la danse”

SPRITUALITÉS PAÏENNES Introduction by Claire Bernardi Alessandra Sandrolini: “Rituel du serpent” Jack Flam: “Carl Einstein et la métasculpture” Chiara Palermo: “Picasso et l’art africain” Camille Morando: “Brauner, Nombre” ÉROS ET THANATOS Introduction by Alice Marquaille Camille Morando: “Acéphale” Didier Ottinger: “Surréalisme” Marie-Laure Bernadac: “Picasso mithriarque” Guitemie Maldonado: “Picasso, Crucifixion” OFFENSES Introduction by Véronique Follet Agnès de la Beaumelle: “Ernst, La Vierge…” Alain Bonfand: “Blasphème” Charlotte Van Santen: “Iconoclasmes” APOCALYPSE Introduction by Geneviève Debien Marcella Lista: “Du spirituel dans l’art” Maria Stavrinaki: “Apocalypse expressionniste” André Nakov: “Kandinsky, Komposition VI” Angela Lampe: “Otto Dix” HOMO HOMINI LUPUS Introduction by Claire Bernardi Sarah Wilson: “L’homme douloureux” Catherine Grenier: “Figures de la chute” Dana Miller: “Robert Smithson” Peter Brook: “Grotowski” ART SACRÉ Introduction by Valérie Da Costa Fanny Drugeon: “Querelles de l’art sacré ?” Valérie Da Costa: “Père Couturier” Éric de Chassey: “Chapelle de Vence” Éric de Chassey: “Cathédrales” Friedhelm Mennekes: “Les croix de Beuys” MALGRÉ LA NUIT Introduction by Jean de Loisy Friedhelm Mennekes: “Connotations” Philippe-Alain Michaud: “Accattone” “Entretien avec Bill Viola” Itzhak Goldberg: “Au pied de la lettre”

RÉSONANCES DE L’ARCHAÏQUE Introduction by Mariacristina Ferraioli Guitemie Maldonado: “Mythmakers” Guitemie Maldonado: “Dyn, Dynaton, dynatique” Gilles A. Tiberghien: “Smithson, Spiral Jetty” Maria Stavrinaki: “Artiste-chaman” Jack Flam: “Barnett Newman” DOORS OF PERCEPTION Introduction by Alessandra Sandrolini Gérard-Georges Lemaire: “Beat Generation” Sophie Dannenmüller: “Wallace Berman” Dana Miller: “Jay DeFeo” Sophie Dannenmüller: “Cameron” Gallien Déjean: “Kenneth Anger” Franck Leibovici: “Michaux et la mescaline” Philippe-Alain Michaud: “Police Activity (Bad Lieutenant)” Christoph Grunenberg: “Aldous Huxley” Christoph Grunenberg: “Psychédélisme” Christoph Grunenberg: “Timothy Leary” SACRIFICES Introduction by Marc Archambault Olivier Schefer: “Sang” Adrien Sina: “Cérémonie sacrificielle” Sophie Delpeux: “Présence” “Entretien avec Hermann Nitsch” SAGESSES ORIENTALES Introduction by Deborah Jenner Jack Flam: “Reinhardt, Black Paintings” Judith Delfiner: “John Cage et le zen” Michel Giroud: “Robert Filliou” L’OMBRE DE DIEU Introduction by Mark Alizart Gallien Déjean: “Warhol, Shadows” Frank Madlener: “Ferneyhough/Grisey” ÉPILOGUE Mark Alizart: “Traces du sacrilège” Bibliography List of works exhibited Index of names

A NEW SYSTEM FOR VISITOR GUIDANCE AND PARTICIPATION
The exhibition’s particular take on the relationship between art and the sacred seemed to us to call for more personalised provision, allowing visitors to better grasp the argument and to respond to it, too, if they wished. This has been made possible through a multimedia guide of a new kind guide, which will soon be made available to accompany visits to the permanent collection. It is, however, being launched with the exhibition “Traces du sacré”. It offers visitors a guided tour of a number of key works, discussed by the curators, and then access to commentaries by figures from the world of culture and the arts, providing counterpoints, or further explanation, or even criticism. Finally, visitors will be able to record their own comments using the multimedia guide, in the form of written notes, the spoken word, or even drawings. These functions will also be accessible directly from mobile phones. Visitors will be able afterwards to access their comments on the internet, modifying, annotating and indexing them as they please, before publishing them, should they so wish, on the collaborative web-site that has been developed for the purpose (http//web.iri.centrepompidou.fr/traces). Discussion and debate can in this way continue during and after the exhibition. The contributions by figures from the world of culture and the arts will also be available, in their entirety, on the exhibition website and may be downloaded free of charge. And thanks to the use of the Lignes de Temps software, it will be possible to annotate, criticise and respond to these on the interactive website.

in media partnership with

The film Traces du Sacré has been produced by TAC Production and the Délégation à l’Action Culturelle Audiovisuelle of the Centre Pompidou

PRACTICAL INFORMATION
Centre Pompidou 75191 Paris cedex 04 telephone 00 33 (0)1 44 78 12 33 metro Hôtel de Ville, Rambuteau Opening Exhibition open 11 am – 9 pm every day ex. Tuesdays Admission ¤12 concessions ¤9 ticket valid one day for the Musée National d’Art Moderne and all exhibitions Free for members of the Centre Pompidou (holders of the annual pass) Information on 01 44 78 14 63 Buy your ticket on-line and print at home: www.centrepompidou.fr/ billetterie Guided tours Saturdays, 3.30 pm, french Sundays, mid-day, english ¤4.50, ¤3.50 concessions + “museum and exhibitions” ticket Tours for the deaf and hard of hearing Saturday 14 June, 11 am, lip-reading Saturday 14 June, 2.30 pm, French Sign Language ¤4.50 per person, free for companion, booking necessary, fax 01 44 78 16 73 nicole.fournier@centrepompidou.fr meet level 0

AT THE SAME TIME AT THE CENTRE
LES INQUIETS, CINQ ARTISTES SOUS LA PRESSION DE LA GUERRE 13 FEBRUARY – 19 MAY 2008 Press officer Dorothée Mireux + 33 (0) 1 44 78 46 60 L’OEIL SUR L’ÉCHELLE ÉDOUARD SAUTAI 20 FEBRUARY – 30 JUNE 2008 Press officer Quentin Farella + 33 (0) 1 44 78 49 87 POL ABRAHAM 5 MARCH – 2 JUNE 2008 Press officer Quentin Farella + 33 (0) 1 44 78 49 87 PRIX MARCEL DUCHAMP TATIANA TROUVÉ 25 JUNE – 29 SEPTEMBER 2008 Press officer Dorothée Mireux + 33 (0) 1 44 78 46 60 MIROSLAV TICHY 25 JUNE – 22 SEPTEMBER 2008 Press officer Anna-Marie Pereira + 33 (0) 1 44 78 40 69 DOMINIQUE PERRAULT ARCHITECTURE 11 JUNE – 22 SEPTEMBER 2008 Press officer Quentin Farella + 33 (0) 1 44 78 49 87 LOUISE BOURGEOIS 5 MARCH – 2 JUNE 2008 Press officer Dorothée Mireux + 33 (0) 1 44 78 46 60

MANAGEMENT
commissaire général Alfred Pacquement, director, Musée National d’Art Moderne / Centre de création industrielle curator Jean de Loisy joint curator Angela Lampe

page 10

PLAN OF THE EXHIBITION

EXIT

ENTRANCE

1. Traces of the Fugitive Gods 2. Nostalgia of the Infinite 3. The Great Initiates 4. Beyond the Visible 5. The Absolute 6. Cosmic Revelations 7. Rising to the Future 8. Homo Novus

9. Eden 10. Eschatology 11. Apocalypse I 12. Sacred Dances 13. Pagan Spiritualities 14. Eros and Thanatos 15. Offensives 16. Apocalypse II

17. Homo Homini Lupus 18. Sacred Art 19. Although it is Night 20. Resonances of the Archaic 21. The Doors of Perception 22. Sacrifice 23. Oriental Wisdoms 24. The Shadow of God

page 11

ORGANISATION OF THE EXHIBITION
In the Forum: Huang Yong Ping, Ehi, Ehi, Sina, Sina Corridor: Valère Novarina, Au dieu inconnu The exhibition is chronologically organised by thematic sections that successively examine the major aesthetic and spiritual preoccupations of the twentieth century. Each of these twenty themes is also echoed in a contemporary work, demonstrating the continuing actuality of these concerns.

Introduction
Francisco Goya, Bruce Nauman, Christian Boltanski, Mounir Fatmi

Traces of the Fugitive Gods
Though German Romantic artists might still have sought to suggest the presence of a God now fused with Nature, their sense of an ineluctable alteration in the world finds expression in the insistently returning theme of ruin, a melancholy echoed in these lines of Baudelaire’s: “But it’s in vain I chase my God receding. Night irresistible, damp, black, unheeding Establishes her empire, full of fear.” An even greater trouble of mind followed Nietzsche’s declaration that “God is Dead,” reflected in the title of Henry de Groux’s Symbolist painting Le grand chambardement (The Great Upheaval). Munch, who like Strindberg depicts the disarray provoked by this announcement, wrote: “God was dethroned with all the rest. Everyone ran about in all directions in a mad dance of life. The crucifixion had been atoned for, but I could not rid myself of the anguish of living and the obsession with eternal life.” For after “the death of God” we are left only with what Damian Hirst shows us: the perishable body delivered up to the maggots, without hope of resurrection. Caspar David Friedrich, Carl Gustav Carus, August Strindberg, Henry De Groux, Edvard Munch, Lucio Fontana, Gino De Dominicis, Damien Hirst

Nostalgia of the Infinite
“The goal that Man has set himself is to be as infinite as God” Kazimir Malevich Despite the retreat of the divine, artists still cherished the hope of entering into the immensity of the universe, the “nostalgia for the infinite” that is the subject of one of De Chirico’s earliest metaphysical paintings. Since the Romantics, artists had been driven by an upward impulse, repeatedly raising their point of view further toward the firmament in an endeavour to “paint like God.” This desire for an overarching, cosmic perspective became a reality with the ascent of the first balloons and the advent of powered flight. From the isolated figure in a mountainous landscape, the axis about which the world turns, to Man’s first steps on the Moon, where there was “nothing to see but dust,” the artists here, from Ferdinand Hodler to Pierre Huyghe, never abandon the ambition to attain to or to interrogate the infinite. Ferdinand Hodler, Odilon Redon, Giorgio De Chirico, Kasimir Malevich, Constantin Brancusi, Gina Pane, Pierre Huyghe

The Great Initiates
The nineteenth century saw some embark on a quest for the hidden doctrine common to the great religious traditions throughout the ages, a vogue for the esoteric that would also influence artists. Although this was a search for spiritual knowledge, the recent discoveries of a science that uncovered invisible aspects of the real were invoked in support of the occultists’ theories about the secret structure of the universe: according to theosophical doctrine, art, science and religion were the three branches of knowledge of the divine. Alchemy, magic, astrology and other practices were combined in a syncretistic approach to religion that was taken extremely seriously by such as Mondrian, Kandinsky, Kupka and Klimt, and with somewhat less enthusiasm, by Ball. These artists were fascinated by the poetry and teachings of such figures as Besant, Blavatsky, Peladan, Gurdjieff and Steiner. Artist were considered to be “natural” initiates, brought by their inspired activity into contact with spiritual truths that they then communicated to humanity. Akseli Gallen Kallela, Jean Delville, Charles Sellier, Paul Elie Ranson, Rudolf Steiner, Piet Mondrian, Marcel Duchamp, Hugo Ball, Aleister Crowley, Hilma af Klint, Usco, Gino De Dominicis

page 12

Beyond the Visible
At the turn of the twentieth century, inspired by contemporary scientific, spiritual and artistic explorations, there emerged a “new metaphysics” that proclaimed the existence, beyond the visible world, of a world invisible, hidden from the senses. The growth of photography and scientific advances such as the development of atomic theory and the discovery of X-rays prompted speculation among occultists, philosophers and artists. Photographers and painters, often influenced by theosophical texts, sought to represent auras and energy flows. As the mechanical materialism of classical physics gave way to new theories, so the divorce between matter and mind that it had sponsored was overcome in newly emerging spiritualities. Louis Darget, Frantisek Kupka, Marcel Duchamp, Theo Van Doesburg, Vassily Kandinsky, Alberto Giacometti, Rudolf Steiner, Paul Sérusier, Yvan Kliun, Jean Crotti, Anish Kapoor, Frank Scurti

The Absolute
The invention of an abstract art that shunned the deceptive world of appearance allowed the affirmation of the subject (of the work) as absolute. “There is creation only where a form appears in the painting that takes nothing from what has been created in nature,” wrote Malevich. When in the late 1910s Mondrian developed his “Neoplastic” principles, creating his works only on the basis of the relationships between the different elements of the composition, he inaugurated a new, messianic, ideality, claiming a new universality for art: “Logic demands that art be the plastic expression of our whole being ... the direct expression of the universal in us – which is the exact appearance of the universal outside us.” Brancusi’s work is equally concerned to express the essence of things, but staying as close as possible to the truth of nature. Piet Mondrian, Kasimir Malevitch, Niele Toroni, Constantin Brancusi

Cosmic Revelations
How can one reveal the hidden truth that seems to govern the cosmos? How can one disclose the secret of the universe? How can one render visible what escapes our vision? These were questions that preoccupied those early-twentieth-century artists who were attracted to the occult. Their answers differed, and here mystical fictions hang alongside utopias. Augustin Lessage and Hilma af Klimt are the mediums of a superior mind which dictates to them the cosmogonic programme that inspires their astonishing, ritualised compositions, with their wealth of abstract iconography, imbricated forms and signs. In the early years of the Weimar Bauhaus, Johannes Itten and his student Gyula Paps were as interested in the writings of the German mystic Jakob Boehme as in the breathing exercises prescribed by the Mazdaznan movement. The contemporary artist Matt Mullican continues this quest for cosmic revelation as he maps his own inner world in mandala-like cartographies. Hilma af Klint, Augustin Lesage, André Bély, Johannes Itten, Gulya Pap, Sigmar Polke, Matt Mullican

Rising to the Future
“We will desire, conceive and create together the new building of the future ... raised to the sky of the future by the hands of millions of workmen – a crystalline emblem of the new and coming faith.” So wrote Walter Gropius in the Bauhaus Manifesto, an expression of the utopian aspirations nourished by architects in the years after the Great War, and more especially by a group brought together by a collective exchange of correspondence initiated by Bruno Taut in 1919 ¬– known as the Glass Chain – in which they developed a visionary collective project. In their ecstatic architectures, in which interior and exterior, geometrical and vegetal structures, crystalline forms and ascending flames fuse together in a vertical dynamic, these builders of the imagination sought to express a sense of the cosmic; influenced by the Naturphilosophie of the Romantics, their designs found inspiration in the creative powers of Nature. Utopias echoed today in Pierre Huyghe’s plans for a meditation hall in Thailand. Wenzel Hablik, Bruno Taut, Hans Scharoun, Kurt Schwitters, Constantin Brancusi, Lyonel Feininger, Robert Delaunay, Hermann Finsterlin, Wassili Luckhardt, Pablo Picasso, Pierre Huyghe, Corey McCorkle, Vyacheslav Akunov

page 13

Homo Novus
In the early twentieth century there appeared in art the symbolical figure of the New Man, whose depiction implied the investigation of the conduct, morality and social context that would allow the overcoming of the vast spiritual crisis brought about by the revolutions in science and metaphysics. The invention of the “Homo Novus” is the great project that would characterize modernity into the inter-war period, and the first half of this exhibition should be read in the light of this utopian aspiration, later to be recuperated and perverted by Fascism. For the artists, this figure was to be understood as a new Adam testifying to a renewed alliance between the spiritual and the temporal; as a superman, a Nietzschean hero capable of contriving a new ethic after the departure of the gods; as a Prometheus propelled toward the future by increasing technological mastery; or as a complete being, in harmony with the cosmos. Jean Delville, André Bély, Frantisek Kupka, Paul Klee, Marc Chagall, Umberto Boccioni, Otto Dix, Alexej von Jawlensky, Adel Abdessemed

Eden
The desire for spiritual renewal that obsesses artists in the years before the First World War also finds expression in the adoption of Nature as a utopian realm in which one might find the possibility of salvation. Baranoff-Rossiné, Arp and Klee were all interested in the phenomena of genesis and growth as symbols of the cosmic harmony of all beings: men, plants and animals. Franz Marc’s landscapes populated with animals suggest a sense of fusion with the rhythms of natural life, in a return to the ideas of German Romanticism. The painters of Die Brücke embed their nudes in a luxuriant vegetation in which, it seems, Adam and Eve regain, through the liberation of the drives, the lost Paradise of before the Fall. Nature becomes the site of reconciliation between Man and the absolute, the universal. Franz Marc, Vladimir Baranov-Rossiné, Erich Heckel, Jean Arp, Paul Klee

Eschatology
“Out of the most effective destruction sounds a living praise, like a hymn to the new creation that follows the destruction” Vassili Kandinsky To both Futurist and Expressionist artists, war was a necessary and sometimes longed for trial, a stage on the road towards a new, more spiritual society. War was “the only hygiene of the world,” said Marinetti. The Flood, a recurrent theme in Kandinsky, has in his Composition VI a clearly millenarian aspect as he affirms the possibility of resurrection, the emergence of a new world from the destruction. In his Autoportrait en Mars (Self-Portrait as Mars), Otto Dix depicts himself as an artist-god who plunges the world into a chaos of forms and colours, a furnace of murderous desires, proclaiming a new universe in his own image as Nietzschean “superman.” Vassili Kandinsky, Otto Dix

Apocalypse I
“What happiness when this appalling age is over. What will come after? A great liberation, as I believe, of the purest forces, leading to the realization of human brotherhood.” This hope of Kandinsky’s came to grief in the horror of the First World War, embodied here in Wilhelm Lehmbrück’s sculpture Le Soldat mourant (Dying Warrior), first shown in 1916. This murdered Siegfried became the universal symbol of the senselessness of war. Artist’s work was pervaded by disillusion. In Beckmann’s masterpiece, La Grenade, the grenade becomes a black sun, the soldiers crucified by its explosion. As he wrote: “My religion is defiance of God, anger at his having created us incapable of loving each other.” In his triptych La Guerre (War), Otto Dix, inspired by Grünewald, recalls the successive stages of Christ’s Passion: the Ascent of Calvary on the left, the Crucifixion in the centre, the Descent from the Cross on the right, the Entombment on the predella beneath. There is no escape from evil, no hope of redemption. The metaphysics of war was dead, for a time. Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Vassily Kandinsky, Max Beckmann, Otto Dix

page 14

Sacred Dances
“Now I am light, now I fly, now I see myself under me, now a God dances through me.” Friedrich Nietzsche In the early decades of the twentieth century it was dance, as celebrated by Nietzsche in Thus Spoke Zarathustra – as inheritance from the mysteries of a primitive Ancient Greece, Dionysiac trance of the Maenads, bringer of freedom, intoxication and fusion with the cosmic forces of Nature – that was seen as the bearer of spiritual renewal. Faced with the modern disenchantment of the world, dancers like Nijinsky, Mary Wigman and Rudolf von Laban sought to free the body’s energies so as to return to the original condition of mankind. This same desire, translated into a pictorial expressionism, animated those artists who turned for inspiration to the ancestral rites and sacred dances of “primitive” peoples; in the dances of Black Africa and the Pacific, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Emil Nolde saw an authentic union of art and life, a means of emancipation from the social constraints of European civilisation. Auguste Rodin, Antoine Bourdelle, Léon Bakst, Adolphe de Meyer, Vaslav Nijinski, André Derain, Emil Nolde, Ernst Kirchner, Mary Wigman, Rudolf von Laban

Pagan Spiritualities
Picasso, one of the leading figures of the “primitivist” tendency in art, reported after his first visit to the Musée du Trocadero that “The masks weren’t sculptures like any other. Not at all. They were magical objects.” And Hugo Ball, writing in 1916 about the masks of the Dada artist Janco explained: “What fascinated us all in these masks was that they showed not human but superhuman characters and passions. The horror of our age, the paralyzing backdrop of the war, became visible in them.” The first European ethnographic museums and the emerging science of anthropology made artists familiar with the arts of “primitive” peoples. The objects exhibited, the masks especially, exerted a powerful fascination on Cubist, Dadaist, Expressionist and Surrealist artists. Beyond the formal influences visible in the simplification of line, the violence of colour and the use of “low” materials, the avant-gardes were impressed by the magical, shamanic power of these works. Cameron Jamie’s great masks, inspired by contemporary pagan rituals, testify to the enduring nature of this fascination. Pablo Picasso, Emil Nolde, Marcel Janco, Victor Brauner, Aby Warburg and André Breton, Jan Matulka, Cameron Jamie

Eros and Thanatos
The figure of Dionysus came to loom large in the years between the wars, his appeal reinforced by the encounter with psychoanalysis and ethnography, which together offered new access to the unconscious and the irrational. Influenced by recent developments in the human sciences and persuaded of the essentially base nature of Man, artists and writers around the Surrealists came together in the attempt to develop an analysis of the world in which the drive to death and self-destruction was inherent in the libido or life instinct. In the violence and eroticism of their thinking, the journals of the period – Acéphale, Documents and Minotaure – testify to this new conception, on which is founded a “religion with no god but the ... apocalyptic sovereignty of the ecstatic.” Rehabilitating Nietzsche while committed to the struggle against Fascism, these journals, like the generation of artists associated with them, endeavoured to counter obscurantism by a radically new and iconoclastic approach. In the period between 1928 and 1937, Picasso ¬– a presence in all these literary endeavours – portrayed himself as the Minotaur, a figure half-man, half-animal, embodiment of the primitive in the human, and also enthusiastically explored the bullfight, which for him represents the overcoming of death in a ritual both erotic and aesthetic. André Masson, Pablo Picasso, Eli Lotar, Salvador Dalì, Man Ray, Pierre Molinier, Svai and Paul Stanikas

Offensives
Calling for a complete recasting of our relationship to the gods, to sex, to the body and to industrial capitalism, the work of Antonin Artaud represents an offensive demythification, a bitter draught for the healing of Western man, so as “to have done with the judgment of God.” From the anti-clerical fury of the Surrealists onward, such blasphemy aimed to reveal the trivial and unworthy at the heart of the spiritual. From Francis Picabia to Andrès Serrano, the reinsertion of the human, in all its corporeality and impurity, into the sanctified formal vocabulary of Catholic Christianity is intended to undermine hagiography and put religious belief and religious fervour into question. This sacrilege knows no limits, and, as in Man Ray’s La Prière, art comes to delight in a cruel dissection of the analogies between the religious and aesthetic attitudes. George Grosz, Max Ernst, Francis Picabia, Salvador Dalì, Man Ray, Antonin Artaud, Thierry De Cordier, Andrès Serrano, Gérard Garouste, Mounir Fatmi

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Apocalypse II
Murnau’s Faust was the last silent film the director made in Europe before his emigration to the United States. The opening of the film, presented here, sees the Horsemen of the Apocalypse ride through the sky in an image that recalls Dürer’s famous engraving. In the character of Faust, who sells his soul to the Devil, Murnau interrogates the political choice faced by Germany: “On earth as in heaven, God has accomplished miracles. But the greatest of wonders is that he has given Man the freedom to choose between good and evil.” Such a reflection on the very nature of morality, already embarked on by Nietzsche, was all the more urgent given the rise of Fascism. In a contemporary echo, the work of Maurizio Cattelan confronts us with the difficulty of distinguishing between good and evil. The figure of a young boy kneeling is a “Trojan horse,” enclosing as it does a disturbing surprise that explicitly confronts the viewer with a moral conundrum. The piece is called Him, for evil is unnameable. Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau, Maurizio Cattelan

Homo Homini Lupus
“We asked ourselves … what is the cemetery of our civilization … One day I knew that without a doubt it was Auschwitz.” Jerzy Grotowski Man is a wolf to man. The Holocaust, the Second World War, the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: these negate the grand narratives that proclaimed the birth of a New Man. Man is no longer a hero facing the future, but the embodiment of sorrow, a battered flesh and an existential anguish, groundless and decentred, as may be divined here in the works of Francis Bacon and Bruce Nauman. This suffering cannot be glorified as a voluntary sacrifice in the name of history, for it is no more than itself, without cause or justification. Robert Smithson’s The Man of Sorrow (The Forsaken) underlines the essentially human suffering of the humiliated and tormented Christ: Man forsaken by God. Georges Rouault, Christer Strömholm, Francis Bacon, Robert Smithson, Jerzy Grotowsky, Bruce Nauman, Thierry De Cordier

Sacred Art
“Even if they are not religious, I want those who will come into my chapel to feel purified and relieved of their burdens,” said Henri Matisse. The reconstruction of churches during the 1950s offered artists the opportunity to rethink religious art and to reconsider the representation of the sacred. Father Pierre Couturier, a key figure in this process of repair and renovation, was convinced that it was from “the vitality of profane art” that a new Christian art would be born. He thus commissioned work from such figures as Germaine Richier, Fernand Léger, Jean Lurçat, Le Corbusier and Henri Matisse. It is as a distinctly secular endeavour that contemporary art enters the fold of the Church, the concern now being less to represent a religious content than to share the faith more widely in the experience of transcendence. Maurice Denis, Georges Rouault, Fernand Léger, Henri Matisse, Le Corbusier, Germaine Richier, Jean Lurçat, Jacques Lipchitz, Joseph Beuys

Although it is Night
This section stands outside the chronological organisation of the exhibition, for its subject is as old as the first religious doubt and as constant as the spiritual anxiety that accompanies all mystical endeavour. Its title comes from a poem by St John of the Cross (1542-1591, monastic reformer and founder of the Order of Discalced Carmelites), for whom the night symbolized his aspiration for union with God: “For I know well the spring that flows and runs / Although it is night.” The night represents the confrontation of creaturely non-being with divine transcendence in the contemplative life. If Bill Viola evokes the torture suffered by the saint during his imprisonment, his work is above all an apologia for the sacred, which the artist sees as a structural element of human consciousness rather than as the reflection of a passing phase in human history. The works here embody the themes of doubt, the night of the soul, and spiritual fervour. Alfred Manessier, Mark Rothko, Barnett Newman, Arnulf Rainer, Bill Viola, Emmanuel Saulnier, Pierre Buraglio, Jannis Kounellis, Jean-Michel Alberola, Yazid Oulab, Kris Martin, Eli Petel

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Resonances of the Archaic
In exile in New York during the Second World War, the European Surrealists found their interest in myth echoed in American artists’ aspiration to develop an art answering to universal concerns. Believing any reference to European culture to be disqualified by the horror of the conflict, and looking in any case for an art truly American, artists like Rothko and Newman, or Mullican and Paalen, members of the Dynaton group, looked to ancestral rites drawing on the primordial energies of the earth as a source of inspiration for a new painting. Their works are impregnated by the art and spirituality of the Native Americans, and more especially influenced by the sand-painting tradition. These new compositions evoked the founding myths of these peoples, articulating in cosmic forms the moment of the world’s creation. All these artists could subscribe to Newman’s metaphorical declaration, “The first man was an artist”: for them the task was to rediscover the sincerity of the first art. Roberto Matta, André Masson, Wifredo Lam, Lee Mullican, Wolfgang Paalen, Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, Barnett Newman, Robert Smithson, Étienne-Martin, Joseph Beuys, Tobias Collier

The Doors of Perception
“If the doors of perception were cleansed every thing would appear to man as it is, infinite.” William Blake The notion that society is coercive but that the individual is good underlies the revolutionary programme of the Beats and the Hippies: “Make Love Not War.” Art was thought to be the ideal instrument for the transformation of Man, expanding the field of perception and the experience of the self. Meditation on the mystics, interpretation of sacred texts, occultism and hallucinations: artists saw every kind of experience as a means to an inner exploration that would both “feed the soul” and nourish their work. The advent of LSD led to a growing interest in psychotropic drugs, fuelling a psychedelic revolution whose impact is evident in all the arts. Drugs reopened “the doors of perception,” allowing a deeper exploration of the inner world and helping to liberate the creative powers of humanity. During the Vietnam war, these hopes would crystallise in a movement that struggled for a free, brotherly and peaceful society – the last positive utopia of the twentieth century. Henri Michaux, Allen Ginsberg, Brion Gysin, Wallace Berman, Bruce Conner, Jay DeFeo, John Giorno, William Burroughs, Jean-Jacques Lebel, Aldous Huxley, Robert Whitaker, Rick Griffin/Kenneth Anger, Cameron, Aleister Crowley, Harry Smith and Frieda Harris, Isaac Abrams, Jud Yalkut and Nam June Paik, Frederick Pardo, Peter Sedgley, Paul Thek, Patrick O’Neill, Usco, Harry Smith, Joshua White

Sacrifices
Exploring the limits of the self and hoping through art to overcome the social constraints on thought and imagination, in 1961 the Viennese Actionist Hermann Nitsch founded his “theatre of orgies and mysteries,” for which he conceived large-scale pagan rituals. Of these he said: “Hitherto repressed elements of the personality are unearthed and fully experienced. The very source of life-energy comes to be invested and permeated by consciousness.” Michel Journiac’s Messe pour un corps, in which he offered spectators communion in his own blood, is no parody. It rather makes sacrifice fiercely literal in offering up for sharing the artist’s own life, blood and solitude. Since the 1970s, Marina Abramovic, Gina Pane and Rebecca Horn have drawn connections between artistic creation and the saintliness of martyrdom in performances inspired by the notion of sacrifice and the great figures of Christian tradition. These exercises of often severe self-inflicted suffering are intended to push body and mind to their limits, while evoking the empathy of the spectators so that they too share in the experience undergone. Herman Nitsch, Marina Abramovic, Michel Journiac, Rebecca Horn, Yazid Oulab, Christoph Schlingensief

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Oriental Wisdoms
“When I discovered India, what I was saying started to change. And when I discovered China and Japan, I changed the very fact of saying anything: I said nothing anymore. Silence: since everything already communicates, why wish to communicate?” John Cage If Western art looks outward to the sky and represents the world, Eastern art turns the mind inward, opening the way to heightened perception for both artist and viewer. A number of Western painters were influenced in the 1950s by Taoism or Hinduism, by Chinese or Japanese painting, and in New York a particularly important role was played by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki’s teaching of Zen Buddhism. Ad Reinhardt’s Black Paintings are inspired by a conception of “void” and “darkness” as source and energy of plenitude. John Cage’s study of Zen led him to compose his 4’33’’, a piece on the absurdity of language that valorizes silence and “not wanting.” From this new perspective, art evokes the peace of the void that underlies the world as it imitates the phenomenal vicissitudes of “reality” – such as difference, repetition, chance and destruction. Jean Degottex, Yves Klein, Ad Reinhardt, Nam June Paik, Robert Filliou, John Cage, On Kawara, James Lee Byars, Marc Couturier, Charwei Tsai

The Shadow of God
Andy Warhol’s Shadows hint at the possibility of a presence, giving the impression that there may be another side to things, a suggestive ambiguity echoed in the great wall drawing in silverpoint by Marc Couturier. The surfaces give off an almost living light. These works evidence an interest in the sense of mystery that they engender, a mystery spontaneously associated with devotion. At a time when the religious seems on the brink of return across the world, artists such as Moshe Ninio and Paul Chan are producing meditations on the political risks associated with this return of the shadow of God. As might be suggested by the work of Jean-Michel Alberola, hope hangs by a thread. Andy Warhol, Moshe Ninio, Paul Chan

Huang Yong Ping, ehi ehi sina sina
As part of the “Traces du sacré” exhibition, the Chinese artist Huang Yong Ping presents ehi ehi sina sina. The title, drawn from the Mantra of Compassion, defies translation, summing up as it does the whole of the Buddha’s teaching. The work represents a gigantic prayer-wheel, an object of meditation which the believer causes to turn by a flick of the wrist. Inside, traditionally, is a roll of silk on which are written the words om mani padme hum. Each turn of the wheel is, for Buddhists, a prayer offered up, charged with sacred energy, which, radiating across the universe, helps dispel the in the world. Huang Yong Ping moved to France on the occasion of the exhibition “Les magiciens de la terre” at the Centre Pompidou in 1989. A leading figure in the Chinese art of the 1980s, he had found many of his works proscribed by the Chinese government. With its slogan “Zen is Dada, Dada is Zen,” the “Xiamen Dada” movement that he founded testifies to his taste for paradox and for the self-deconstructive assemblage of heterogeneous signs. In the same way, the gigantism of this representation of an essential emblem of Tibetan Buddhist spirituality reveals the dangers of the relationship between spirituality and politics. The project, conceived of seven years ago, has already been realised in different versions. The form of the prayer-wheel suggests that of an enormous club, whose rapid spinning reinforces the effect of menace, the impression of power that is given contradicting the spirit of non-violence associated with Buddhism. For the artist, religion is another politics, politics another religion. The relationship between these two aspects of social organisation seems to him to contribute to the violence of the world. While we live at a time when the advance of globalisation is driving away the gods, the artist tells us: “Each time the ineluctable process of globalisation takes a step forward, another god retires.” Yet the place of religious issues in many current conflicts gives this sculpture a role in our meditation on the relationship between violence and the sacred. This work has been installed in the Forum thanks to the generous assistance of the Barbara Gladstone Gallery - New York.

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A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACCOMPANIMENT
“Traces du sacré” is a crosscutting, multidisciplinary exhibition that brings different arts together around the same theme, mobilising every aspect of the Centre’s programme. (Some details below subject to confirmation)

MUSIC – IRCAM CONCERTS MOT(ET)S CACHÉS Works by Brian Ferneyhough and Thomas Tallis Exaudi Vocal Ensemble Digital music production by Ircam, with Thomas Goepfer 8.30 pm, 5 May, Centre Pompidou

LE SEUIL DU VERBE Works by Jonathan Harvey, Gérard Grisey and Elliott Carter Susan Narucki, soprano. Lani Poulson, mezzo-soprano. Marc Coppey, cello. Orchestre Philharmonique de Radio France, conductor Pascal Rophé, digital music production by Ircam, with Gilbert Nouno and Arshia Cont 8 pm, 5 June, Salle des Concerts, Cité de la Musique. Part of the Agora Festival 2008. FRANCHIR : GRISEY, MARESZ, ROBIN A work by Grisey, first performance of a works by Yann Robin (Cursus 2). Alain Billard, clarinet. Ensemble Intercontemporain, Barbara Hannigan, soprano, conductor Susanna Mälkki, digital music production by Ircam with Yann Robin. Cursus 2 educational materials by Robin Meier 9 pm, 7 June, Centre Pompidou. Part of the Agora Festival 2008 Ircam press representation: Opus 64 / Valérie Samuel, Arnaud Pain and Amélie de Pange 01 40 26 77 94 – a.pain@opus64.com

REVUES PARLÉES / FORUMS DE SOCIÉTÉ “Traces du sacré.” How is this notion of “traces of the sacred” to be understood? Infinitesimal quantities detectable only by analysis? The prints that detectives are so keen on? Signs of a future return, putting an end to “the disenchantment of the world,” to “this process of dissolution and reversal of the immemorial dominance of the religious”? MARCEL GAUCHET L’art, le sacré, l’inquiétude. 7 pm, Thursday 24 April, Petite salle RENÉ GIRARD Le sens de l’histoire Screening of an interview with René Girard by Benoît Chantre (Centre Pompidou production, 2008, 90 mins) 8 pm, Wednesday 7 May, Cinéma 1 JEAN-CLAUDE SCHMITT Mots et figures du sacré 7.30 pm, Thursday 15 May, Petite salle MAURICE GODELIER Est sacré, ce que l'on ne peut ni vendre ni donner 7.30 pm, Thursday 22 May, Petite salle

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MARIE-JOSÉ MONDZAIN Carnaval et blasphème 7.30, Wednesday 28 May, Petite salle FRANCK HAMMOUTÈNE Architecture et sacré 7.30 pm, Thursday 29 May, Petite salle BARBARA CASSIN Impressions païennes 7.30 pm, Thursday 5 June, Petite salle GÉRARD MORDILLAT AND JÉRÔME PRIEUR Résurrection Screening and discussion 7.30 pm, Thursday 9 June, Petite salle Screening of Résurrection, episode 9 of the documentary series Corpus Christi (12 episodes of 52 mins), conceived and directed by Gérard Mordillat and Jérôme Prieur, followed by a discussion with the filmmakers HANS-ULRICH OBRIST Carte blanche 5 pm, Saturday 5 July, Petite salle

UN DIMANCHE, UNE ŒUVRE MARK ROTHKO Untitled (Black, Red over Black on Red), 1964 With Eric de Chassey, professor of the history of contemporary art at the Université François Rabelais, Tours. 11.30 am, Sunday 18 May - Petite salle ¤4.50, concessions ¤3.50, free to members

URBAN WALKS Excursion: “Sur les traces du sacré en Rhône-Alpes” Thursday 8 and Friday 9 May (with night at the Couvent de la Tourette) registration: by e-mail, ¤9 promenadesurbaines@yahoo.fr / by mail, ¤10: Association “Les promenades urbaines,” 39 rue de Clignancourt, 75018 Paris

SPECTACLES VIVANTS D’après J.C. by choreographer HERMAN DIEPHUIS Wednesday 14, Thursday 15 and Saturday 16 May at 8.30 pm Grande Salle, Level -1 Inspired by religious paintings of the Renaissance showing the Virgin Mary and her Son, the Dutch choreographer Herman Diephuis takes a humorous and graceful look at the language of the body. “A succession of images that brings out the sensual aspect of the body in religious representations, blurring the boundary between the genders, while at the same time telling of a mother’s idestructible love for her child” - Rosita Boisseau. Press contact: Heymann, Renoult Associées / Marie Bauer 01 44 61 76 76 - m.bauer@heymann-renoult.com

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VIDÉODANSE 2008 2 – 28 April 2008, Foyer, Level -1 Free admission Vidéodanse 2008 highlights the reciprocal influence between dance and the visual arts. Alongside some 150 dance films, the programme also features artist’s videos and documentaries about artists drawn from the Centre’s own collection. To accompany the exhibition “Traces du sacré,” the series will present the work of choreographers who admiringly, critically, ironically, sometimes nostalgically, followed Vaslav Nijinsky and Mary Wigman in exploring the sacred, in their cultural or aesthetic references, in their themes and motifs, and also in their working processes, an exploration equally evident in the works of many contemporary choreographers. As if indeed dance were naturally a form concerned with questions of ritual, spirituality, ecstasy and worship.

CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE AND THE SACRED Literary Colloquium / Bibliothèque publique d’information 2.30 – 7.30 PM, 17 MAY 2008, Grande salle What is the place of metaphysical interrogation today? Is it a constitutive aspect of writing? How does it manifest itself? In what forms? And how are we today to understand the word “sacred”? With Valère Novarina, Catherine Millot, Sylvie Germain, Frédéric Boyer, Marie Darrieussecq, Yannick Haenel, Florence Delay and others.

SCIENCE AND THE SACRED Si la science m’était contée: paroles de scientifiques. Bibliothèque publique d’information 7 PM, 16 June 2008 – Petite salle Contemporary European society sees itself as largely secularised: the sacred, more particularly in its religious dimension, has little place either in culture or in political or social decision-making, where secular and often scientific criteria prevail. The emergence of science is one of the most important factors in the “disenchantment of the world,” growing scientific knowledge having robbed natural and social phenomena of their mystery while bringing Man grreaterand greater mastery of the world in which he lives. Does this mean, however, the end of all metaphysical interrogation? What are we humans? Where do we come from? Where are we going? With Dominique Memmi, director of research at the CNRS (political science), Philippe Robert-Demontrond, director of the Marketing and Management Research Unit, Université Rennes 1, and Christian Hervé, director of the Medical Ethics and Medical Law Project at the Université Paris Descartes.

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CINEMA To bring new life to the eye: this is the aim of the Centre Pompidou’s cinema season devoted to the theme of the sacred. Here then are screenings that offer unlikely juxtapositions, making unexpected connections between experimental, comedy, documentary and fiction films. So, for instance, Stalin’s funeral crosses paths with the altogether more modest last journey of a frog, while Alfred Hitchcock’s famous meal eaten off the top of an occupied coffin in Rope has an hors d’oeuvre in a short in which two little girls eat a man turned into gingerbread... 28 MAY - 30 JUNE 2008 - CINEMAS 1 & 2

PROGRAMME – TRACES DU SACRÉ WEDNESDAY 28 MAY / 8 PM / CINÉMA 2 / Opening Night ¤6 / members and concesions ¤4 Forest of Bliss Robert Gardner 1986 / 90’ / 35mm / col. / sound THURSDAY 29 MAY / 8 PM / CINÉMA 2 SACRILEGE Un miracle Robert Breer and Pontus Hulten 1954 / 1’ / 16mm / col. / sil. Les mouches Anonymous 1913 / 9’ / 35mm / col. / sil. L’Âge d’or Luis Buñuel 1930 / 63’ / 35’ / b. & w. / sound with Gaston Modot / Lya Lys / Caridad de Laberdesque / Max Ernst FRIDAY 30 MAY / 8 PM / CINÉMA 1 SUNDAY 8 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 1 SANCTITY Like a Virgin Mary Lambert 1984 / 4’ / beta sp / col. / sound with Madonna Santa Brigida Roberto Rossellini 1951 / 10’ / 35mm / b. & w. / sil. Europe 51 (Europa 51) Roberto Rossellini 1952 / 113’ / 35mm / b. & w. / sound with Ingrid Bergman / Alexander Knox / Ettore Giannini / Giulietta Masina

SATURDAY 31 MAY / 8 PM / CINÉMA 1 THURSDAY 19 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 1 EVIL AND SELF-DESTRUCTION 24 images de la vie à la mort Dieter Appelt 1981 / 5’ / 16mm / b. & w. / sound Bad Lieutenant Abel Ferrara 1993 / 96’ / 35mm / col. / sound / FR subtitles with Harvey Keitel / Victor Argo / Paul Calderon SUNDAY 1 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 1 FRIDAY 20 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 1 SACRIFICE Paintaction Hermann Nitsch 1962 / 15’ / beta sp pal / b. & w. / sound Untitled, November, 1972 (Chicken Piece Shot # 2) Ana Mendieta (extract from Ana Mendieta, Selected Works) 1972 / 2’55 / beta sp pal / col. / sil. Le Sang des bêtes Georges Franju commentary by Jean Painlevé 1949 / 20’ / 35mm / b. & w. / sound Les Saisons Artavazd Péléchian 1975 / 29’ / 35mm / b. & w. / sound MONDAY 2 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 1 SATURDAY 21 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 1 TRANSFIGURATION Pie in the Sky Ralph Steiner 1935 / 22’ / 16mm / b. & w. / sil. with Elia Kazan / Ralph Steiner / Molly Day Thatcher Accattone Pier Paolo Pasolini 1961 / 120’ / 35mm / b. & w. / sound / FR subtitles with Franco Citti / Franca Pasut / Silvana Corsini

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WEDNESDAY 4 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 1 SUNDAY 22 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 1 COMMEMORATION, THE LAST SUPPER Boireau bonhomme de pain d’épices André Deed 1913 / 7’ / 35mm / b. & w. / sil. Candle Ixchell, Black Ixchell Series, March, 1977 (black ixchell, candle ixchell) Ana Mendieta (extract from Ana Mendieta, Selected Works) 1977 / 3’ / beta sp pal / col. / sil. La Corde (Rope) Alfred Hitchcock 1948 / 80’ / 35mm / col. / sound / FR subtitles with James Stewart / John Dall / Farley Granger THURSDAY 5 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 1 MONDAY 23 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 1 MYSTICAL EXPERIENCE Body Tracks, March, 1974, (Blood Sign # 2) Ana Mendieta (extract from Ana Mendieta, Selected Works) 1974 / 1’ / beta sp pal / col. / sil. Crossroads Bruce Conner 1976 / 36’ / 35mm / b. & w. / sound Epic of Everest J. B. L. Noel 1924 / 90’ / 35mm / b. & w. / sil. / intertitres anglais FRIDAY 6 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 1 FRIDAY 27 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 2 THE ANGELIC Feet of Mud Harry Edwards 1923 / 18’ / Betanum / b. & w. / sil. with Harry Langdon / Natalie Kingston / Yorke Sherwood Taxi Driver Martin Scorsese 1976 / 113’ / 35mm / col. / sound with Robert de Niro / Cybill Shepherd / Peter Boyle / Jodie Foster / Harvey Keitel SATURDAY 7 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 1 SATURDAY 28 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 2 INCARNATION King of the Jews Jay Rosenblatt 2000 / 18’ / 16mm / b. & w. / sound

La Chose venue d’un autre monde (The Thing From Another World) Christian Nyby (Howard Hawks, uncredited) 1951 / 87’ / 35mm / b. & w. / sound / FR subtitles with Margaret Sheridan / Kenneth Tobey / Robert Cornthwaite / Douglas Spencer MONDAY 9 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 1 MONDAY 30 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 2 FUNERALS Frosch Roman Signer 2001 / 2’10 / vidéo / col. / sound Le Grand adieu Mikhail Romm (uncredited) 1953 / 75’ / 35mm / b. & w. and col. / sound THURSDAY 12 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 1 / members and concessions ¤4 INVOCATION OF MY DEMON SISTER Talk by Jean-Claude Lebensztejn followed by screening of: Invocation of my Demon Brother Kenneth Anger 1969 / 11’ / 16mm / col. / sound with Speed Hacker / Lenore Kandel / William Beutel / Van Leuven / Harvey Bialy / Timotha / Anton Szandor Lavey / Bobby Beausoleil Les Amours d’Hercule (Gli amori di Ercole) Carlo Ludovico Bragaglia 1960 / 100’ / 35mm, cinémascope / col. / sound / FR subtitles with Mickey Hargitay (Hercules) / Jayne Mansfield (Deianeira, with back wig; Hippolyta, with red wig) / Massimo Serato (Lycos) WEDNESDAY 18 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 1 SUNDAY 29 JUNE / 8 PM / CINÉMA 2 RELICS Cretinetti Troppo Bello André Deed 1909 / 6’ / 35mm / b. & w. / sil. Bring me the Head of Alfredo Garcia Sam Peckinpah 1974 / 112’ / 35mm / col. / sound / FR subtitles with Warren Oates / Isela Vega / Robert Webber / Kris Kristofferson

Press Relations: la grande ourse communication / manon ouellette 01 40 47 99 89 – manon@ouellette.com

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ASSOCIATED EVENTS
EXHIBITION: “HILMA AF KLINT, UNE MODERNITÉ RÉVÉLÉE” 11 APRIL - 20 JULY 2008 at the Centre Culturel Suédois, in collaboration with the Centre Pompidou Curators: Anna-Maria Svensson, Jean de Loisy and Angela Lampe. Centre Culturel Suédois, 11 rue Payenne, 75003 Paris

JACQUES LIZÈNE EVENT AT THE CENTRE WALLONIE-BRUXELLES (PARIS) 7.30 PM, 27 MAY With plentiful images to hand, Arnaud Labelle-Rojoux, Jean-Yves Jouannais, Denis Gielen and Cécilia Bezzan offer a look at the work of Jacques Lizène, “minor Liègois master of the late 20th century” and “artist of mediocrity,” who will respond in performances of his own. Organised by Cécilia Bezzan, with the support of the Centre Wallonie-Bruxelles and the CGRI – Commissariat aux Relations Internationales de la Communauté française de Belgique. Centre Wallonie-Bruxelles (Paris) 46 rue de Quincampoix, 75004 Paris Admision free Information: 01 53 01 96 96 ou info@cwb.fr

EXHIBITION: “LA CHAMBRE DES CAUCHEMARS: PEINTURES INCONNUES D’ALEISTER CROWLEY” 5 JUNE – 5 JULY 2008 Palais de Tokyo The unknown paintings of Aleister Crowley: a project by Giuseppe Di Liberti and Marco Pasi, in collaboration with Alessandra Sandrolini.

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PUBLICATION

IN THE FACE OF WHAT SLIPS AWAY Jean de Loisy The prevailing interpretation of the history of twentieth-century art developed under the auspices of the secular cult of the sun that was Impressionism. From Édouard Manet’s supposed abandonment of the subject to Claude Monet’s invention of all-over painting, what was identified in these pioneers was rather an advance in optics than any spiritual odyssey. And it is in accordance with this analysis that the successive developments in art have been interpreted in terms of a logic that leads from the waterlilies to the monochrome. This genealogy has been constructed on the basis of a formal, even formalist, rationalisation of the works themselves, although the great ruptures in the adventure of Modern Art were in fact less the result of reflection on form than of meditation on the world. Yet like a family secret hidden behind a more presentable cover-story, the sacred, or rather what was left of it after the rise and decline of the monotheistic religions that gave structure to our society, the traces of the sacred then, have been a crucial inspiration to many artists. This other history is not the only one possible, but it is of such a wealth as to forbid any attempt at the exhaustive. One has to proceed, then, by only highlighting particular topics, while leaving unexamined many episodes and artists equally important. There are, however, a number of essential features to the phenomenon the exhibition is concerned to bring to light: the crucial role in the constitution of the forms of Modern Art of the spiritual crises of the West. We are familiar with the idea of the “disenchantment of the world” (Gauchet, 1985). Whether it is attributed to the rise of reason, to Protestantism, to the bourgeois revolution or to the advance of science, it did in any event contribute to the emergence of the first agnostic society in human history. And when eternity departs a community, when humans lose their fundamental sense of connection to the gods, the social and political consequences are considerable. Discussing the eighteenth century, André Malraux defined the transformation in these terms: “What is lost from Christian civilisation is not just its values, it is more than belief: it is Man’s orientation to Being, replaced by an orientation to ideas, to action: ordering Value breaks up into values. What vanishes from the Western world is the absolute” (André Malraux, Les Voix du silence, in Malraux, 1989-2004, t. IV, p. 722). He goes on: “As every metamorphosis of forms is tied to the artist’s profoundest feelings, art could not be untouched by the disappearance of the absolute. What is surprising is not that it should have been affected, but that it wasn’t affected more” (ibid., p. 723). In fact – and this is one of the hypotheses of the exhibition – the process of secularisation does indeed entail a change in the world, a change evidenced here, but, astonishingly, from Caspar David Friedrich to Wassily Kandinsky, from Kasimir Malevich to Barnett Newman, from Christian Boltanski to Damien Hirst, art continues to be what it always was: an expression of man’s hopes and fears. It would thus appear that the end of art that Hegel foresaw as the result of the loss of its link to the transcendent has in fact led to no more than a displacement from the religious to the secular sphere. And this rupture, though accompanied by no change in metaphysical function of art, at the same time changes everything: its form, its mode of appearance, the way it is conceived of, the status of its creator. For the first time, the artist is free of the obligation to communicate dogma, free then to express his own doubts and interrogations in scenes of profane life. And if there often slips into these, as if from a subjacent realm of the sacred, a spiritual significance in which the divine survives as a vanishing point, the spiritual in the work no longer derives from the subject represented but from the inner life of its maker, an inflection foreshadowed in the Calvinist idea (Besançon, 1994, p. 353) that in every artist is a spark of the divine, possessed by him not as a Christian but as a creator. This conception of art would bring about a lasting change in the way the artist was seen, opening the way to the Romantic conception of the genius, the inspired, prophetic seer, and for the Symbolists, even priest. Severed from a sacred that in the West now glows only in icons, expelled from the religious sphere in which the

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artist was the servant of the Church, art in a secular world remains haunted by its original vocation: “to dig into metaphysical secrets” (Barnett Newman, “The Plasmic Image,” cited in Bonn, 2005, p. 78). It is in this that Modern Art still bears within itself the traces of an innate sacred, one that in this most recent manifestation is called spirituality, and which even today makes every great work a reflective and meditative sign. Modern Art gradually established itself on the ground of this immense transformation. The artist is hence forward subject to the tyrannical imperium of his inner vision, that is to say to the necessity of exploring the possibility of new signs, forms, meaning and effects. And so, rather than being an end, this substantial rupture in the history of civilisation, and hence in the history of art, was a beginning. This indispensable key to an understanding of what today continues to be, even if sometimes unknown to artists themselves, the ground of Modern Art, is not the only one possible. Other constellations also presided over its birth. But this seems to be of sufficiently far-reaching importance to justify the attention given it here. It needed a revolt for art to associate itself with this great transformation, and the artist who sensed it and whose work, still haloed in Rembrandt’s supernatural shadows, returns them to a night without transcendence, is Goya, who in an irony of history, sold his prints from a spirits shop in the Calle de Desengaño – Disenchantment Street – in Madrid. His work is a sermon against the absurdity of tyranny, imposture and suffering. In rebellion against God, on account of evil, and against Napoleon, who was to have brought to Spain the enlightenment of the French Revolution but brought only horror, he opposes to the clarity of the Neoclassical the darkness of the Disasters of War. In the etching Nada. Ello dirá (Nothing. We Shall See), placed at the beginning of the exhibition, the artist affirms the absence of any transcendence. A dead body, which although drawing on Rembrandt’s example can no longer be that of Lazarus, holds in its fleshless hand the message it addresses to us from the world beyond: “Nada,” there is nothing. It was this same “Nada” that in an earlier Spain had darkened the nights of St John of the Cross. Behind this messenger of death are grimacing grotesques, figures that will be found a hundred years later in James Ensor. In front of them, emerging from the darkness, a teetering balance that can no longer be that of St Michael but which still weighs good and evil, the ultimate question faced by a world deprived of divine law. These are the consequences glimpsed by Dostoyevsky in 1880, when he has Dimitri Karamasov exclaim: “Without God and the future life? How will man be after that? It means everything is permitted now” (Dostoyevsky, 2002, t. II, p. 464). What is enunciated in this horrific etching, as by Dostoyevsky later, is that the essential question of the sacred is not so much that of eternal life as that of evil. Artists’ faith in art’s capacity to help put the world right, their utopian commitment to the creation of a New Man, the eschatological hope entertained by some of doing away with a civilization they believed corrupt, all these themes passionately defended by many of the greatest artists before the Second World War would come to ruin on the presence of absolute Evil at the heart of the twentieth century. This is why, thus announced at the entrance, its terrible aura pervades the whole exhibition. Enormous in its human costs, enormous too in its impact on the art of the second half of the century, from Francis Bacon to Jerzy Grotowski and Bruce Nauman. Its paroxysmal triumph in the Holocaust produces, in fact, a significant inflection in the understanding of art’s mission, no longer only a theological investigation concerned with such questions as “What is the divine?”, “What is non-being?” – but an anthropological interrogation: what is man, what is the real nature of man, capable of both being victim and executioner? Romanticism Perhaps, from this terrible perspective, we are better placed to imagine the burden that weighed on the first Romantics, troubled by an as yet undecisive anxiety, by an obscure presentiment, “sick,” as Goethe put it, with the sense of God’s having withdrawn infinitely far from an abandoned creation. The endeavour of Caspar David Friedrich, archetypical instance of the artist as mystic, was in fact to transmute this secularisation of the world into a new form of Christian art, without the support of the Biblical imagery that had nourished art since the Middle Ages. He does this allegorically, by “suggesting a nature saturated by presence, penetrated by a primitive cosmic force” (Clay 1980, p. 142). His ruined churches are often wrongly considered to be an image of the collapse of religion. On the contrary, a consideration of the elements of a work such as Ruinen in der Abenddämmerung

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(Kirchenruine im Wald) [Ruins at Dusk (Church Ruins in the Woods)] (ca. 1831) shows that this is explicitly a spiritual manifesto. The partly ruined building is supported by a wooden structure in the form of an awning, a cross, an axis mundi that prevents the collapse of the church, that is, of society. At the base of the building a fire glows in the half-light, watched over by two figures, as if what were being tended here is a cultic flame that still burns for the divine in the heart of man. Romanticism is a vision of the world that left its mark on other realms, notably on metaphysics, science and politics. Its ambition may be summed up in a very Hegelian formula: to realise the spiritual content of Christianity and to make it consubstantial with existing reality (Marc de Launay, “Sécularisation,” in Cassin, 2004, p. 1120). Considered in this way, Romanticism is not so much a style as a utopia, not so much an aesthetic idea as social project, a notion of art in which it is a vehicle for the spiritual transformation of the world. It is thus connected with another fundamental aspect of the age, and so of this exhibition, which is the idea of the creation of a new society, and for the sake of this, of a New Man, capable, through the radical revision of individual values, of resolving the crisis of European man brought to a climax in Friedrich Nietzsche’s attack on the old morality. This idea of a “New Man,” as political as it was spiritual in its utopianism, is crucial to an understanding of the transformation at issue in the birth of Modern Art. “The twentieth century thus began... with man as a programme, rather than as a given (Badiou, 2005, p. 238). Its consequences are considerable, not only for the invention of new artistic forms, but, more seriously, for its role it also plays in the great catastrophes that would follow. From Ferdinand Hodler to Malevich, from Filippo Marinetti to Piet Mondrian or Walter Gropius, many creative figures of the early twentieth century, seized by this spiritual idea, related in complex fashion to the cult of will associated with Nietzsche’s superman, were moved by the desire to contribute to a radical reform of life and, essentially, to substitute for the vanished reference points of religion and morality a “beyond-morality” inspired and guaranteed by art and by a new spirituality. This idea of an aesthetic refashioning of man, of, in Mondrian’s words, a “reconquest, in the new man, of paradise on earth” (Michaud, E. 1997a, p.85) is the programme that from Romanticism to the early Thirties would in one way or another characterize all the avant-garde movements, with the exception perhaps of Cubism. The successive traumas of the political, industrial and scientific revolutions are the mutations that drive the history. Directional, messianic, it can be seen as an advance to happiness. Understood in this way, politics is sacralised, accorded a new function, that of leading to a promised land. Hence the strength of Marxism and Nazism – secular religions promising the creation of a New Man. For many artists, the hoped-for kingdom could only be spiritual. For them, as for the others, this required the destruction of the old man. New relationships to science – whether rigorous or “illuminated” – to nature, to religious or neo-religious teachings, to the machine, to architecture, to violence, to the erotic: all these are obsessions that nourish the work of the artists of the time and are themes taken up by the exhibition, reflections of what for us is the central ambition of the first avant-garde: to explore the spiritual preconditions of the appearance of the New Man. Much of the art of the early twentieth century can be understood in terms of this project, and much of the art of the second as the consequence of its failure. Messianism The idea of holy war, of supreme commitment, with all its blinding exaltation, pervades the thinking of a number of artists, among them Otto Dix, and, in more mystically inflected manner, Franz Marc, whose own fate is a sacrifice in the purest Romantic tradition: the sacrifice of biological life in the name of the spiritual. Between 1909 and 1918, for Futurists and Expressionists, for French and Russians, war, “the only hygiene of the world” as Marinetti called it, would be felt as a necessary and sometimes longed-for trial, a stage on the road towards this new, more spiritual society. “War? Well, yes: it is our only hope, our reason for living, our only desire” (Marinetti, “Kill the Moonlight!” reprinted in Calvesi, 1976, p. 15 ). For Kandinsky, for whom the peril was imminent, the recurrent theme of the Flood has in his Composition VI (Sintflut) [Composition VI (The Deluge)] a clearly millenarian aspect, being seen as an opportunity for resurrection rather than as a catastrophe. “Out of the most effective destruction sounds a living praise, like a hymn to the new creation that follows the destruction”

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(Kandinsky, 1994, p. 138). And this illusion survived even into the War, as he then writes to Paul Klee: “What happiness when this appalling age is over. What will come after? A great liberation, as I believe, of the purest forces, leading to the realization of human brotherhood” (cited in Nigro Covre, 2002, p. 280). Such sentiments are echoed in the words of Franz Marc, writing to Kandinsky in October 1914 “The spirit of Europe is more important to me that Germanness ... As for me, I live in this war; I see in it the healing, if also gruesome, path to our goals. It will not be regressive for man, instead it will purify Europe, make it ready” (Letter to Wassily Kandinsky, 24 October 1914, in Marc, 2006, p. 405). At the same time, and in the same millenarian spirit, Natalia Goncharova in Russia produced an album of 17 prints, entitled Voïna [War] ou Mystical Images of War. If, in their desire to see them, Guillaume Apollinaire, Fernand Léger, Max Beckmann and Dix insisted on finding beauties in this catastrophe, the encounter with the metallic horrors of the trenches would lead to a first breach in the myth of the New Man, evidenced in a work by Wilhelm Lehmbruck, originally a murdered Siegfried and then in 1915 a “Stricken Man” before being exhibited in 1916, in the midst of war, as Der sterbende Soldat [The Dying Warrior]. This legendary work became the universal symbol of the senselessness of war. This is no longer the Wagnerian hero, the invincible conqueror of Evil killed by treachery, but the negation of the mystique of sacrifice, a representation of the banality of death in combat, underlined by the sculpture’s lack of pathos. The metaphysics of war was dead, for a time. Lehmbruck would commit suicide in 1919. Inhabited by these same spectres of violence, Vaslav Nijinsky would dance in the January of that year his Marriage With God. With a cross of velvet on the floor, arms outspread, a living cross himself, he announced that he would dance them the war: “ ... we saw him, you might say, hover over the dead bodies. The audience remained seated, their breath taken away, horrified, struck by a strange fascination” (Nijinsky, R., 1934, p. 416). A dance of life against death, a battle lost, the great artist’s last, terrifying, appearance on stage. His wife concludes her description thus: “A last shudder wracked a body that seemed to be cut to pieces by machine-gun fire, and the Great War claimed one more life” (Romola Nijinsky, cited in Reiss, 1957, t. I, p. 143). The ideal of the New Man thus finally lost all hold shortly after the end of the war, but the connected and more disturbing idea of a new society took on flesh. “The ideal of the Bauhaus,” wrote Walter Gropius, “was to educate the individual in the interest of the whole community” (cited in Michaud, É., 1997a, p. 42). In this utopian vision intended to bring about a harmonious reconciliation between the age, the city and mankind, inspired essentially by the hope of governing modern society by an aesthetic law, the Bauhaus, as Michaud says “concluded a pact with the devil in order to lay the foundations for a new order, both visual and moral” (ibid. p. 35). This endeavour found parallels in the less well-intentioned ideologies of regimes that perverted an ideal originally spiritual which in their hands became totalitarian: State Communism, Fascism and Nazism invaded Europe, only a hundred years after Friedrich’s death, in a horrifying triumph for the prophecies of Goya and Dostoyevsky. In this blasted landscape only Dada, disgusted by any order, ancient or modern, and impervious to the absurd appeal of war, the self-proclaimed “fools of God” (Huelsenbeck, 1980, p. 170), would succeed in 1916 in entirely remaking art and poetry. Other endeavours in this age of distress, guided too by overtly mystical ambitions, would result in the simultaneous emergence of a number of artistic revolutions, the work of artists of the stature of Frantisek Kupka, Malevich, Mondrian and Brancusi. If some shared in this way the dream of laying the foundations, through art, of a more spiritual world, exalted by the fertility of the new territories they were exploring and the revolutionary climate in which they bathed, their works, powerfully inward, untouched by any desire for power, unswervingly oriented to the absolute, are in themselves this new realm. Malevich in 1916 and Mondrian in 1920 both celebrated its discovery in the same terms, the first lyrically – “... a surface lives, it has been born ... The square is a living, royal infant... Each form is free and individual. Each form is a world” (cited in Nakov, 2007, Vol. II, p. 49) – the second more laconically: “The new art has been born” (Piet Mondrian, “Neoplasticism,” in Holtzman, James, 1986, p. 147). Though without any factual link between them, at the summit of their art all three shared the same ideal of attaining to a dematerialised absolute. No longer colour, but light; almost no longer form, but energy. In these worlds

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of the spirit, the work emerges almost in the absence of matter, a veritable parousia of a new art. Forms are reduced to their essence; or rather, they are no longer any more than the residual signs of essentiality, opening onto a rarefied world whose sign is the disappearance of the superfluous, the investment of the minimal. That in these three cases the art is the highest expression of its creators’ spiritual aspirations and their sense of the cosmogonic is evident, as is clear in Malevich’s declaration: “The white square carries a white world (the world’s structure)” (cited in Nakov, 2007, Vol. II, p. 335). Similarly Mondrian: “Art although an end in itself, is, like religion, the means by which the universal comes to be known, that is to say, can be contemplated in tangible form” (cited in Michaud, É., 1997a, p. 85). And Brancusi, referring to the bird ready to embark on its voyage to the infinite: “Through this form, I could change the cosmos, make it move differently, and I could also intervene directly in the workings of the universe” (cited in Schneider, 2007, p. 41). Dionysus The exhibition, and the need for (over)-generalisation that this kind of exercise imposes, conjures up at the same time another theme, embodied in Dionysus, a crucial figure for European culture, to whom Nietzsche claimed to be the last to have made an offering, declaring himself to be the god’s “last initiate” (Marc Delaunay, in Alizart, 2008b). Dionysus in his many aspects haunts modern art from Hölderlin to Cameron Jamie: he is Dionysus the Oceanian whom the artists of Die Brücke would seek, following the footsteps of Gauguin in the Palao Islands; he is the Nordic that Stravinsky celebrates in the Rite of Spring. It is for him, the Italian, that Mary Wigman dances at Monte Verità; it him, the African, that Pablo Picasso discovers at the Musée de l’Homme; and him again, the Greek, whom Nijinsky dances in L’Après-midi d’un faune, and once again, he is the Hopi, celebrated by Aby Warburg and then by Max Ernst and André Breton, witnessing the Snake Ritual in the United States. And it is to him, finally, that the review Acéphale is dedicated by Georges Bataille in 1936. The Dionysiac is an ever-present possibility for any search for the spiritual after the death of the Judeo-Christian God. He stands for the untimely archaic, for laughter, terror and sacrifice, in the face of the Passion, for the privileging of the Greeks over Christ. The Dionysiac is also a response the artwork’s loss of aura, offering the possibility of restoring to it a power stripped away by its desacralisation, the pagan possibility of convoking the sacred directly, without mediation. This is why Picasso speaks not of the style of African art but of its power: “I understood why I was a painter. All alone in that awful museum with masks, redskin dolls, dusty manikins. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon must have come to me that very day, but not at all because of the forms; but because it was my first exorcism painting – yes absolutely! That’s what separated me from Braque. He loved the Negro pieces, but, as I said, because they were good sculptures. He was never afraid of them. He never needed an exorcism. Because he never felt what I called the Whole, or life, I don’t know, the Earth? (ibid., p. 19). It is this search for the tremendum* that Bataille brought to its highest pitch in seeking to found a religion around the journal Acéphale and the Collège de Sociologie, a “sacred conspiracy” brought to an end by the advent of war in 1939: “a religion with no other god but the ... apocalyptic sovereignty of ecstasy” (Michel Camus, “L’acéphalité ou la religion de la mort,” in Acéphale, 1995, p. ii). It was under the guidance of Nietzsche, the subject of a forceful rehabilitation in the first article of the first number, that Acéphale embarked on this atheistical investigation of sacred enthusiasm. It is in its desperate mystique of sacrifice that Bataille’s approach is “fiercely religious” (Bataille, 1936). If it is inspired by the anthropological discoveries that he found so fascinating, by his “somewhat over-excitable reading of the history of religion” (M. Camus, “L’acéphalité ou la religion de la mort,” art. cit, p. III), it is nonetheless true that he carried with him in his fascinating excess the likes of André Masson, Picasso, Éli Lothar, Pierre Klossowski, Roger Caillois and Michel Leiris, all attracted by the goal of rediscovering through art the intensity of the sacred. This perilous endeavour, this intrepid quest, was made possible by the sacrifice of all the gods, depicted by Masson in a series of prints (Sacrifices, 1936). Following Nietzsche to the letter, the question for this small band was to go beyond deicide by means of the transgression that opened the way, beyond good and evil, to a superhuman life invested by Eros and death. This would see the emergence of a free man, emancipated

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from the God of whom the head was the image, freed from original sin. “He found beyond him not God, who is the prohibition of crime, but a being who doesn’t know prohibition. Beyond what I am, I meet a being who makes me laugh, who fills me with anguish because he is made of innocence and crime” (Bataille, 1936). Intoxicated perhaps by his Dionysiac sincerity, Bataille nonetheless opened a path to the absolute for art. He was furthermore intransigently lucid in the face of the deathly chill of a Fascism that was gradually extending its sway over Europe. In 1939 there appeared the last number of the journal, marking the centenary of Nietzsche’s madness, and within it a mystical call to arms against Nazism that begins: “I am joy in the face of death.” War “The gates of hell were opened and the Earth fell prey to every kind of misfortune.” Man had failed to profit from the greatest of God’s miracles, as described in the opening intertitles of Murnau’s Faust, that he had given Man the freedom to choose between good and evil. Goya’s premonition had once again proven itself exact. Western civilisation, so refined, had been no bulwark against barbarism. Its humanism had been no defence against political savagery. Man after the death of God, whom man was to invent, had failed to appear, and it was thus in “the void of vanished man” (Michel Foucault, cited in Badiou, 2005, p. 241) that art, like philosophy had to be thought after the supreme inhumanity. The task faced by artists was simple: to attempt the refoundation of Western culture. The great artists of the new period were faced with the necessity of inventing their works without recourse to now disqualified traditions and without reliance on the political watchwords that had characterised modernity. An endeavour that could not be undertaken except by reaching the very foundations of being, to be encountered as directly as possible, wiping the slate clean of the past and searching for resources uncompromised by the recent horrors. Those who had worked on the representation of Greek myths, such as Mark Rothko for example, would become resolutely abstract, in search of a form of expression more universal, more inward and more absolute. It was necessary in fact to replace utopia by atopia, that is, to embark on a meditation on the reality of the real rather than to attempt to transform it. This endeavour can be summed up in Jean-Michel Alberola’s illuminated phrase La sortie est à l’intérieur (The Exit is Within). Even if in the United States Abstraction became a hegemonic presence, in Europe abstractionists like Alfred Manessier and figurative artists like Alberto Giacometti produced their work side by side. In this great effort of reconstruction that was the birth of contemporary art, every mode of expression had its place, and if this marks the beginning of period of what Arthur Danto called “the unlimited synchronic diversity of art” (Danto, 2003, p. 575) it is evidently because, while the world and culture lay in ruins, the issue was not the invention new forms, but rather the transformative analysis of being, by every means: an ascesis, a spiritual exercise. While Barnett Newman declared that he had to “begin from scratch” (Newman, 1990, p. 287), Bacon, in what perhaps amounts to the same thing, wanted, in the words of Michel Leiris, to get “close to the bone” of man, doing this with no religiosity, no halo, no psychology, no artifice: just flesh that cries out in the silence of the painting. To have been, like Bacon, thirty in 1939, is to have disaster preside over ones coming to maturity. The cruelty that he depicts, however, is not particular. It is ageless, motivated not by any special interest in horror but rather by the need to pose the problem of the human in its entirety. This too is the ambition of Antonin Artaud, in the Portraits he showed at the Pierre Loeb gallery in June 1947 – “an empty force, a field of death” (Antonin Artaud, “Portraits et dessins,” reprinted in Hulten, 1981, p. 157) – in which he seeks to descry a face mid-way through a century that had annihilated the figure of Man. The issue is not to make artworks, but to find out how to restore the human. A face that will have nothing to do with that of the God in whose image we are created but will be rather the expression of being “as it is in itself.” The drawings are outside art. As he warns us in his preface, “There will be hell to pay for anyone who thinks of these as art” (ibid.). They are indeed anterior to any formalisation or any aesthetic reflection: they are metaphysical acts, blows to sound the depths of our humanity, true exorcisms. They testify to Artaud’s self-destructive labour on himself in the effort to extract from his pain the possibility of a new covenant between man and the world; for him the urgent necessity is, after the war, to lift the spell from

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a mankind bewitched by its beliefs and appetites. It to this complete recasting of man’s relationship to the gods, to sex, to the body and to industrial capitalism that he addresses himself in 1948 in his script for the broadcast “Pour en finir avec le jugement de dieu” (To Have Done with the Judgment of God), a small-scale model of the Theatre of Cruelty. A demythification, an orality in extremis, a bitter draught for the healing of Western man, this radio-poem was banned by France Culture, to be broadcast only in 1973. It was however discovered by artists in 1958, thanks to Allen Ginsberg, whom Jean-Jacques Lebel fortunately supplied with unauthorised copies of the recording, an ashen voice which when heard in the United States would add its poisonous vigour to the rebellion sparked off by the poets. Shamanism This stance might seem very far removed from that of the American abstract painters, yet Newman and his friends were equally sensible to the moral crisis of a world destroyed: “We began, so to speak, from scratch, as if painting were not only dead but had never existed” (Barnett Newman, “Response to the Reverend Thomas F. Matthews,” cited in Bonn, 2005, p. 56). For them, as for Artaud, “the defence of human dignity is the ultimate subject matter of art. And it is only in its defence that any of us will ever find strength” (Barnett Newman “Teresa Zarnower,” in Newman, 1990, p. 103). One cannot but be impressed by the methodical effort – expressed in research, publications, and exhibitions – put in by such as Newman, Adolph Gottlieb, Wolfgang Paalen, Newman and Lee Mullican in their fundamental reconsideration of the history of Western and non-Western art, from prehistory to the contemporary Eskimos, from the Egyptians to the Navajo, from South-East Asia to Pre-Columbian America, undertaken so as to make it possible, after the collapse of the modern, to lay the foundations for a new art that would be universal in responding to the tragic condition of Man. If the German Expressionists and the Fauves and later the Cubists had been passionately interested in “Primitive Art,” it was not so much to provide their work with new forms but to supply it with the charge of the irrational that it required. What the Americans were looking for was neither the forms – on which they drew very little – nor power or greater subjectivity of expression, nor a new grammar, but an attitude, the possibility of art having a function for man and for the world. As Gottlieb put it in 1943: “If Modern Art found its first impulse in the encounter with the forms of Primitive Art, it seems to me that its real significance lies not just in the play of forms but in the sense of the spiritual that underlies all primitive work” (cited in Kirk Varnedoe, “L’expressionnisme abstrait,” in Rubin, 1991, t. II, p. 615). They would adopt the most simple, most timeless and most elevated point of view, a stance like that of the very earliest artists, for “the first man was an artist” and “The purpose of man’s first speech was an address to the unknowable” (Newman, 1979, p. 121). This search for origins, for “the hidden meaning of life,” would lead to a philosophical art that found expression in an abstract form that was a heroic meditation on the tragedy of life. Man is confronted by the sublime, which is not represented but conjured by the painting, which becomes the site, the temple of this experience. Art’s function is then not to provide an object of meditation but to organise an experience that the viewer must undergo, must live through the work, an experience of transformation: “Instead of making cathedrals out of Christ, man or ‘life,’ we are making it out of ourselves, out of our own feelings” (Newman, 1990, p. 173). The work becomes a sanctuary, and one can understand how the experiences of such as Rothko and Newman could have found embodiment in a chapel for the first and a synagogue for the second, but for them, as for Matisse at Vence, art, even in an ecclesiastical context, is not subordinated to religion, the work of art having an intrinsic spiritual function that exceeds the dogmatic purposes it may be made to subserve. Like Artaud, who prefigures it in his scorching theatrical work, or Newman, who – after having changed, with his friends, the reference points of the creative process after Hiroshima – succeeds in realizing it within the space of the painting, contemporary art – from the spiritual point of view with which we are here concerned – will be concerned with the experience and exploration of the self, the experience of the work, the transformation of its creator and sometimes of its viewer, with what Jerzy Grotowski calls “art as vehicle”, meaning by this that its goal is less the invention of style than the invention of the self. Like Newman, Grotowski – travelling in China, Benin,

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India and Central America – took stock of the traditional theatrical forms that he encountered there, seeking to identify those practices that might be of universal significance, responding to our most fundamental concerns. Like Tatsumi Hijikata’s, his work pursues the all-conquering catharsis that Artaud had sought in his radical challenge to a literary and psychologistic theatre, finding the sacred in the possibility of a sacrificial theatrical experience, which, at the price of a rigorously demanding ascesis on the part of the actor, brings him to a condition of absolute psychic nakedness. Art is here, like religious self-abandonment, a means to a real and not merely symbolic transformation of being. The artist is no longer just a performer or interpreter, but the very medium that must undergo a spiritual and bodily metamorphosis if he is to succeed in offering the public, in sacrifice, an intense, shared, mystical experience. Here again, while Grotowski’s Theatre Laboratory was based in Wroclaw, only kilometres from the old concentration camp, it was in Auschwitz that the director chose to set his production of Stanislaw Wyspianski’s play Akropolis, seeing it as the cathedral of the twentieth century, because there, in its inmates, was made manifest the sublimity of man in his utmost destitution. In this terrible judgment, he rejoins the Hölderlin who claimed “... where danger is / Grows too the saving power” (Friedrich Hölderlin, “Patmos,” in Hölderlin, 1967, p. 867). His project is almost shamanic, in any event therapeutic, and in this comparable to that of Joseph Beuys, who also sought to discover in the ancient rites of many civilisations, from the Siberians to the Celts, and indeed in Christianity itself, a knowledge that through art might heal society of its pathologies and restore to the individual all his creative potential, a precondition for the reconciliation of man with his natural environment. Orients But another stance was available, less burdened, more cheerful, more optimistic, more sensual, that called for the employment of different means, of all means possible, indeed, to expand perception and thus promote a higher consciousness. This endeavour, equally aimed at the transformation of the self, is based on a happier conception of humankind. As Bruce Conner put it: “I think that one of the themes of [my] work is the affirmation of man’s goodness” (Phillips, 1995, p. 84). The notion that society is coercive but that the individual is good serves as the programme of the Beat and then the Hippy revolution of “Make Love Not War.” It is this conception of man that Ginsberg sings in his performance of his long poem Howl in 1955, which snakes out into its time like a jazz solo, and whose “footnote” declares, in an intoxicating mantra: “The tongue and cock and hand and asshole holy! / Everything is holy! everybody's holy! everywhere is holy! ... / The bum's as holy as the seraphim! the madman is holy as you my soul are holy!” (Ginsberg, 1977, p. 31). Transgression of every kind was on the agenda for artists, as illustrated by the fascination with visionary nonconformists such as Vincent Van Gogh and Arthur Rimbaud, who serve as models for living, as exemplars of artistic probity, the engagement with ecstatic practices of Tantric or shamanic inspiration, the exploration of the effects of psychotropic drugs, the interest in Eastern mystics, the emphasis on sex, the sustained attention to Gnosticism, Kabbala, black magic, to the poetry of the mystics, all bathed in rock and jazz. This state of mind, whose vitality nourishes John Cage and Robert Filliou, Ginsberg and Jay DeFeo, has its vocabulary in energy and pleasure, finding expression in a spontaneous creativity, in a rebellious intoxication of the senses that makes the poet a seer and a buccaneer, hostile to all convention and concerned only with soul: “The soul of the individual is in danger ... By soul I don’t just mean clarity of mind but the sense of being aware of ones whole body. While this body, tender and full of feeling, is in danger, we have to try and express its scream, its tears and prayers through art” (Allen Ginsberg, “T. S. Eliot Entered My Dreams," City Lights Journal, No. 4, 1978, pp. 61-65. Citation not verified - Trans.). This attention to personal spiritual development was essential to these artists, all of whom engaged in religious study or practice. They were “sky-eaters,” as John Giorno puts it: Gysin was a Sufi, Filliou ended his life in an ashram, Ginsberg met the Dalai Lama, and Kerouac wrote a life of the Buddha, to mention only a few of many examples. But if this was a focal concern, it found its expression for the most part in art. When, for example, in 1948, Ginsberg had a vision that would have a profound effect on his work, it wasn’t the Virgin Mary or the Buddha that he saw, but William Blake, which shows very clearly that the divine that was

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sought – the sacred whose traces we are following – was embodied in the poets. What followed from this was the ambition to open “the doors of perception” – a phrase that deliberately evokes the book of this title published by Aldous Huxley in 1954 (Huxley, 1954), and which finally derives from Blake, whose lines offer a precise description of the programme adopted by artists of the period, from the Beat poets to the rock musicians of The Doors, and whose influence is equally strongly present in the psychedelic “revolution”: “If the doors of perception were cleansed every thing would appear to man as it is, infinite. / For man has closed himself up, till he sees all things thro' narrow chinks of his cavern.” (William Blake, The Marriage of Heaven and Hell). And this today is still the project of an artist who explicitly acknowledges the influence of this generation, Bill Viola, who can declare: “There really is another dimension, which can be a real source of knowledge. It is so as to find it and make contact with it that I cultivate these experiences and that I do what I do” (Interview with Bill Viola, infra, p. xxx. Citation not verified). The inaugural manifesto of this expansion of the artistic universe was John’s Cage’s 4’33’’ : for Any Instrument or Combination of Instruments. Having attended Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki’s lectures on Zen at Columbia University from 1945 to 1947, and having used chance, more especially the I Ching, to free sound from its traditional musical straightjacket, Cage had David Tudor perform 4’33’’ Woodstock in 1952. In three movements, marked only by the lowering and raising of the lid of the piano’s keyboard, its only material consisting then of the sounds made by the world about, Cage “makes us aware of the miracle of existence as a whole, and this is how this silent piece, entirely open to the sounds of the environment, must be understood” (Daniel Caux, “En résonance avec les arts visuels. Musiques hors limites,” in Loisy, 1994, p. 324). This work, inspired by Zen and by Rauschenberg’s White Paintings , stands for the possibility of a reconciliation between Man and the universe, and its spiritual impact would be decisive. The years between the late Forties and the Seventies thus saw the emergence of a new vision of Man and a new vision of art. From Henri Michaux’s Dessins mescaliniens to the hallucinogenic lighting effects of the Dream Machine and the poisonous flowers of LSD, from DeFeo’s mystic rose to Giorno’s spiral poems and Roberts Smithson’s Spiral Jetty, driven by their spiritual concerns these psychonauts explored a part of the world hitherto undiscovered by the traditional arts or positive science. During this intoxicating period, art was indeed a means to the perfection of the self, but a means so powerful that artists could hope that it would also transform society. This was Filliou’s project, for example, in his Le Territoire de la République Géniale, combining oriental wisdom with utopian socialism and positing an ideal not only of individual liberation but of a true democracy of permanent creativity: genius rather than talent, perpetual movement, the abolition of power, with the destructuring of the self and the world leading to harmony. Filliou’s Un, eins, one (1984), a great mandala made up of thousands of cubes bearing a single dot on each face, is the spiritual cathedral of the exhibition. In it, the great game without winners, the repeated invocation of the unique, the diverse and the fragile, the unity of the whole and of each of its parts, Chagall’s cosmic circle and Smithson’s territory, the concentration of Malevich and the laughter of De Dominicis all come together to celebrate the spiritual marriage of art and life. The Shadow of God In today’s postindustrial world the idea of the transformation of self or society through art has lost its power. But in parallel with the changes in the world, since Pop Art artists have manifested, in the face of our supermaterialism, a need to explore the mystery of things, the obscure presence of the “numinous,” to use the term coined by Rudolf Otto in 1929. This is what Andy Warhol does – a pioneer in this as in so much else – in his Shadows, in which one rediscovers the blinding illumination of earlier Annunciations. Produced just before a series on a religious theme, The Last Supper, it is impossible to see them, however sceptical one might be, without being impressed by the suggestion of a light from behind, an energy hidden by the panels that seem to block our access to it. Warhol seems to be seeking here the effect of veiling that Rothko sought in his Houston chapel, inspired by the biblical description of the construction of the tabernacle, a misty obscurity intended to protect the witness to the blinding light of God’s self-manifestation (Clair, 1997, p. 92).

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The growing globalisation of the last thirty years has brought to the desacralised West an awareness of artists from societies that have retained a strong cultural link to the religious, who through their employment of a westernised language enter into dialogue with our secular art. In their works, now incorporated into “our” art-world, they again pose the question of sensation, for a long time ignored. What Rudolph Otto called the mysterium tremendum, bringing with it the trembling of one’s whole being in the face of “presence,” has been explored by artists, either to investigate the phenomenological qualities necessary to produce the effect, as in the case of James Turrell or Anish Kapoor, for example, or to provoke a meditative attitude close to piety, as do artists such as Bill Viola and Yazi Oulab. Rather than see in this a return to the devotional in art, at a time when the question of a possible desecularisation has assumed a global importance, one might better consider it as demonstrating an interest in the effectivity of the medium of religious expression in the organisation of the sensible. The vocabulary that it provides, deployed acerbically by such artists as Wim Delvoye and Mounir Fatmi, or in more conciliatory fashion by such as Marc Couturier, often unites the public in an ambiguous consensus, and perhaps in this way, given a brief introspection, even more effectively opens our eyes to the cunning springs of our fascination for the genius of liturgy. And perhaps then to overcome our attraction to these ancient narratives, allowing us, should we wish, to raise to the dignity of the spiritual our own demand for demythification, as does Abel Abdessemed in his Also sprach Allah (2007), abandoning himself, in accordance with the injunction of Nietzsche’s Zarathustra, to the impulse to self-overcoming. In his Musée imaginaire Malraux underlined the novelty of the situation: photography had made the art of every age easily available, and for the first time in history artists bore the weight of a vast inheritance against which they had to measure themselves. This idea today is of even more general relevance. All the world’s music and all its masterpieces are accessible by a simple mouse-click. In this hyper-information society every artist is aware, almost in real time, of what all the others are doing. But what is it that we know when we can know everything about a reality that comes to us in MP3 format? Digitalized, pared down and compressed, the acoustic or visual message is simplified to an extreme. The effect of reality is banished, though one may not always be aware that all one is looking at is a logo. Art and things have lost their substance. Like the music in our iPods, the world is compacted, abridged, and life becomes a blur. So like empty bodies wandering an unknown planet, we think to ourselves perhaps, in the melancholy words of AnnLee in Pierre Huyghe’s video One Million Kingdoms, “It’s a lie, there’s nothing, just dust.” The ecstasy of the commodity is only there to protect us from the fundamental truths, the same as they ever were. As Damien Hirst says, “I think contemporary art is a myth. It’s like a fashion, there’s only ever been one idea in art, all the arts deal with it, and you have to look beyond fashion to see it... – The question of life and death? – Exactly, Gauguin’s old question” (“Damien Hirst in Conversation With Hilario Galguera,” in Hirst and Galguera, 2006, p. 11, citation unverified). The difficulty that artists face, however, is the blindness and deafness resulting from that mass of information crowding in on each one of us and the confusion between art and entertainment that is deliberately fostered by the culture industry. For some artists, then, Hirst certainly, and Maurizio Cattelan too, in another way, the urgent need is to provoke, through violence, or irony, or horror, a crisis that will allow us to feel, to understand, to rage, in other words, to become alive once again, and to dispel the fog that has arisen between us and the world. It is no longer a matter, as it was in Klee’s time, of bringing about a better world, nor even of disclosing metaphysical truths, as Nauman somewhat ironically proposes to do in the work that lights up the entrance to the exhibition like an advertisement for beer. Today, almost forty years later, words have been dissolved by Jonathan Monk’s lucid observation in Sentence Removed (Emphasis Remains). No, it is simply a matter of managing to speak the world and ourselves when reality is hidden, infinitely pixellated, invisible in the dazzle, vanished in a fatal overexposure. Like St John at the foot of the cross in Grünewald’s Isenheim Altarpiece (1512-1515), the artist testifies to the real at the heart of the void, just as it was necessary to testify to man in the void of his vanishing in 1945. So it is that Paul Chan’s First Light, which stands in the present exhibition as a summary of our present condition, suggests the darkness that pervades us despite the glaring brightness of our cities. Evoking a world on the verge of disintegration, he celebrates the light that emerges in the excess of light. The struggle here is not

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that between day and night in Murnau’s Faust, but that between the light of the mind and the gleam of things. In this shadow-play, presided over by a telegraph pole that suggests the Cross of Calvary, we witness the ascension of the products of our consumer society. Telephones, iPods, scooters and whole trains rise to heaven, while the shades of men hurtle down into the abyss, like the suicidal, murdered bodies of the victims of the Twin Towers, falling flaming to their deaths. The image, gradually changing with the changing light of day, evokes the apocalyptic prophecies of the Christian fundamentalists so influential in United States and the obvious disgrace of a society that has lost its way, in thrall to the cult of materialism, insulated from and indifferent to the distress of the world. At the intersection of the spiritual and political, of the religious and the philosophical, Chan shows where we are today, at a point where the poet, the artist may yet still save us, being one of the “sentries on the endless road of “Who goes there?’” (Breton, 1965, p. 13). And so the extraordinary adventure of art, animated by a fire whose fuel has changed but whose ardour has not cooled with time, still fulfils its role, no longer speaking of the gods, but bringing to a world shaken to its foundations the last trace of the sacred remaining on the earth, the precarious grace of the real, the fragile grace of man. Jean de Loisy

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TRACES OF THE SACRED IN THE EXHIBITION SPACE
Angela Lampe

In the mid-1960s a number of art historians in Northern Europe and the United States began to argue against an exclusively formalist and positivist reading of the modern avant-garde. They were more interested in the spiritual and mystical aspect of the art, a content which as a result of its hijacking by Fascist ideology had earlier been considered questionable. In Germany, Otto Stelzer unearthed the Romantic and Symbolist origins of Abstract Art (Stelzer, 1964), while the Finnish write Sixten Ringbom showed how occultist ideas had inspired the pioneers of Abstraction, especially Vassily Kandinsky (Ringbom, 1966 and Ringbom, 1970). On the other side of the Atlantic, the modernist doxa defended since the 1930s by Alfred Barr and Clement Greenberg was put into question by Robert P. Welsh’s work on the theosophical concerns of Piet Mondrian (Welsh, 1966 and Welsh 1971) and by Rose-Carol Washton Long’s doctoral thesis on the hidden images in Kandinsky (Washton Long, 1972 ). In 1975, Robert Rosenblum drew his own conclusions from these new discoveries in proposing a Northern Romantic tradition leading directly from Caspar David Friedrich to Mark Rothko, taking in on the way the cosmogonies of William Blake and Philipp Otto Runge, Vincent Van Gogh’s quest for religious truth and Mondrian’s transcendental abstraction (Rosenblum, 1996). And it seems too that the first major exhibitions to be devoted to the spirituality of the artistic avant-garde were organised in Germany, the Netherlands and the United States, all countries with a strong Protestant tradition. We may start with the best-known and most important of these, directly inspired by these new art-historical researches, the exhibition “The Spiritual in Art: Abstract Painting, 1890-1985,” which in November 1986 inaugurated the new wing at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, afterwards travelling to the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago and the Gemeentemuseum, The Hague. According to its curator Maurice Tuchman, the idea for a project on art and mysticism came from his reading of Ringbom in the mid-Seventies, the latter, together with Welsh and Washton Long appearing among the contributors to the exhibition catalogue (Tuchman, 1986 and Jencks, 1987). Through 257 works by 95 artists, “The Spiritual in Art” – its title taken from that of a famous essay by Kandinsky – proposed a rereading of Abstract Art through Symbolism, occultism, mystical thought, theosophy and anthroposophy. The exhibition opened with a substantial selection of Symbolist works, by Gauguin, Redon, Ranson, Denis, Munch and Hodler amongst others. A circular space with a display of occult and mystical books from the 17th to the 20th century – from Jacob Boehme and Robert Fludd to Charles Leadbeater and Annie Besant – then led on to the principal rooms, devoted to five pioneers of abstraction: Kandinsky, Kupka, Malevich, Mondrian and, to general surprise, the Swedish artist Hilma af Klint, until then completely unknown. The exhibition continued with thematic sections mixing periods and styles, American and foreign artists, illustrating the ideas of “Cosmic Imagery,” “Duality,” “Vibration,” “Synesthesia” and “Sacred Geometry.” If this second part was criticized by some as arbitrary, disparate and overloaded (Kramer, 1987), the project as a whole was unanimously praised for its audacity and erudition, notably evident in the catalogue, which with its excellent essays and glossary rapidly became a key work of reference. In this respect the Los Angeles exhibition outshone other, smaller-scale American endeavours in the same field, among them “Sacred Spaces” in Syracuse, “Images of the Unknown” at P.S. 1 in New York, and “Sacred Spiritual” at the San Francisco Art Institute, all projects in the same year of 1986 that reflected the new, postmodern interest in a theme long ignored by official history of art (Selz, 1987). The reappearance of “The Spiritual in Art” at the Gemeentemuseum in The Hague in the autumn of 1987 shifted the debate in Europe towards a modernity inflected by the irrational. The year before, Arturo Schwartz had curated a section of the Venice Biennale – dedicated in 1986 to the dialogue of art and science – entitled “Arte ed alchimia” (Art and Alchemy), a theme which had inspired his own research on Marcel Duchamp since the great retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art in 1973, and which four years later Jean Clair took up in his exhibition on Duchamp at the Centre Pompidou. One should also note the growing interest in the occult manifested at that time by contemporary artists such as Anselm Kiefer and Sigmar Polke. The American exhibition thus arrived at a propitious moment and attracted the attention of the critics, more especially in Germany, where long essays were devoted to it in art journals and magazines, and where the catalogue itself would be published a few years later in German translation. While it was generally well received, the second part was again found unconvincing. As if in response to such criticism, the next major attempt to tackle the question of the spiritual, eight years later, deliberately limited itself to the historical. The exhibition “Okkultismus und Avantgarde. Von Munch bis Mondrian, 1900-1915” – Occultism and Avant-Garde. From Munch to Mondrian, 1900-1915 – (Loers, 1995) at the Schirn Kunsthalle in Frankfurt in 1995 showed some 800 works in a gigantic patchwork that revealed how not only the visual arts but architecture, dance, photography and cinema had found inspiration in esoteric and occult sources. It was accompanied by an enormous 800-page catalogue with some 30 essays, a reflection of the heteroclite nature of the project, which would be attacked by German critics. One of them, Petra Kiphoff, called her article on it “Wundertüte, Mogelpackung” – Surprise Package, Misleading Packaging – (Kipphoff, 1995). If these two exhibitions, because of their scale, are the best known, one should not forget a number of thematic exhibitions which although more distinctly religious in context often to a great extent covered the same themes. Indeed, “The Spiritual in Art” was not the first to attempt to identify the hidden motives, religious beliefs and mystical inspirations of avant-garde artists. Already in 1980, the German art historian Wieland Schmied had presented in Berlin a show of 225 works dating from

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1890 to 1980, examining religious tendencies in twentieth-century art (Schmied, 1980). Prominent among these were works by Malevich, Kandinsky, Mondrian, Newman (whose Stations of the Cross series was shown for the first time outside the US), Rothko, Tobey and Fontana (Fino di Dio), and Crucifixions by Bacon, Corinth, Sutherland and Siqueiros. The catalogue considered Modern Art’s mysticism, transcendence and quest for the absolute, Brancusi’s temple, Thek’s installations and the Dada manufacture of nothing, as well as analyzing the Christian iconography and religious aspects of pittura metafisica. Ten years later, in 1990, the same curator organized another exhibition on the theme of the spiritual, this time devoted to contemporary art, entitled “Gegenwart-Ewigkeit. Spuren des Transzendenten in der Kunst unserer Zeit” [Present-Eternity: Traces of the Transcendental in the Art of Our Time] (Schmidt, Schilling, 1990). More recently, in 2003, again in Berlin, Matthias Flügge and Friedrich Meschede posed the question of “What is Man,” highlighting the increased incidence of Christian iconography in contemporary art and seeking the secular in the religious and vice versa (Flügge, Meschede, 2003). Each of these three exhibitions marked the occasion of the German Katholikentag (Catholic Assembly), a bi-annual gathering and cultural festival of the Catholic laity held over a number of days in a different German city each time. It is may be this connection to the Catholic Church, bringing with it the limitation to Christianity and the amalgamation of the sacred in art with sacred art, that explains why these ambitious exhibitions have not had as great an impact, internationally at least, as the more secular events. In France, most of these exhibitions have been ignored, the only one to have attracted some interest being the Californian “The Spiritual in Art,” which received a more guarded welcome than it did elsewhere. The few articles that appeared when it opened in Los Angeles were more interested in the architecture of the new extension or in the city’s art scene than in the exhibition itself (Bordeaux, 1987). Le Monde chose a mocking title, “L’abstraction sera spirituelle ou ne sera pas” (Abstraction will be spiritual or it will not be), a play on André Malraux’s prophetic reference to the twenty-first century (Breerette, 1986). Flanked on one side by a disc from Duchamp’s Anemic Cinema and on the other by a Suprematist cross by Malevich, this brief critical comment, the only one in an article as short as it was neutral, seems to ironize a univocal and reductive reading of the history of art. A year later, the monthly Art Press for its part took a much more frankly critical stance attacking the exhibition now mounted at The Hague head on. For the reviewer, it was “a vast mystification” which “covers art ... with the veil of the supernatural ... in such a way that the artist becomes diabolical” (Jourdan, 1987). The curator was said to have assimilated everything to “a utopian and simplistic theory,” ignoring the specificity of the artist and confusing spirituality with spiritualism (ibid.). It is perhaps astonishing that the fruit of many years of serious and verifiable research that had added to our knowledge of the different sources of the avant-garde should have been accused of obscurantism. Together with the American and German critics, one could well take a contrary position in claiming that the exhibition had the merit of discrediting the formalist myth according to which the history of art since Cézanne had advanced only through endogenous interrogations related to the specificity of the medium. What is more, it recognised in the artist the freedom at any particular point to show an interest in mystical treatises or irrational theories that might sometimes enter into contradiction with his later approach. Why should such an interest in spiritual matters not be accepted as an influence on artistic development? Without going any further into the implicit dogmatism of this review, published in an influential French art magazine, one cannot help but note that in France, faced with a conception of art imbued both by a positivist formalism, from Hippolyte Taine to Henri Focillon, and the sociological approach dear to Pierre Francastel and the structuralism that emerged in the 1960s, the evocation of a profane sacred that draws on irrational sources seems to pose a problem. In this country, which more than a hundred years ago legislated the separation of Church and State, the sacred is confined to the religious sphere. Since the establishment of the Ateliers de l’Art Sacré by Maurice Denis and Georges Desvallières in 1919, an artistic concern with transcendence that is not in the service of religion has seemed inconceivable. When in 1993 the town of Boulogne-Billancourt staged an exhibition on the importance of sacred art in France (Foucart, Bony, Bréon, Dagen, 1993), the organisers might well have entitled the contemporary section “Le désir de spiritualité dans l’art contemporain” (The Desire for Spirituality in Contemporary Art), but the selection, despite this claim to generality, remained limited to liturgical themes and Christian subjects. It included Crucifixions by Louis Cane and Alain Kirili, Jean-Michel Alberola’s Gospel Book, a St Francis of Assisi by Vincent Corpet and many designs for stained glass. In the same way, the proceedings of a colloquium organised in 2003 by the association Spiritualité et Art, entitled Du spirituel dans l’art contemporain? (The Spiritual – A Presence in Modern Art?) reveals how much in France this question is always a matter of religion, in this case the theme of the Incarnation (Leroy, Langrenée, Cerino, Giorda, 2003). Today, of course, half a century after the notorious dispute over sacred art, no-one would deny a legitimate place to profane modern art within the space of the church. Likewise, no-one opposed Jean Cassou when in 1950 he organised at the Musée National d’Art Moderne a consideration of theme of the sacred, in defence of the aesthetic choices of Frs Couturier and Régamey, who had commissioned the best contemporary artists – without regard to their faith – to decorate the churches of Assy and Vence (Cassou, 1950). When the spiritual finds expression within a confessional context, it is accepted; it is only when the distinction between sacred and profane is not so clearly maintained that questions are posed. In other words, if, in France, the Church has eventually come to embrace profane art, the secular art world, and the lay institutions more particularly, seem to distrust a spiritual approach not religious in its inspiration. No exhibition comparable to those held in Germany and the

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United States has until now been staged in France. It is here that the exhibition “Traces du sacré” has its starting point, in the ideas that have emerged in the northern, Protestant cultural sphere, and in the French reluctance to consider them. We may recall that for Baudelaire modern art, “in other words: intimacy, spirituality, colour, yearning for the infinite, expressed by all the means the arts possess” is identical to the Romanticism that for him is “the child of the North” (“Qu’est-ce que le romantisme?”, in Baudelaire, 1986, p. 106). Even if the French author, in penning these lines, had in mind the coloristic imagination of the Northern painters, the association of Romanticism with the North leads us to consider the impact of the Lutheran Reformation on nineteenth-century thought. From Friedrich Hölderlin to Jean Paul, from Kant and Hegel to Nietzsche, belief in the existence of God weakens through the century. The churches of Friedrich and Carus fall into ruin, Munch’s cross remains empty, the divine has withdrawn. Religious spirituality and its dogmatic representation give way to an inner metaphysical quest that looks sometimes to occult and mystical sources, sometimes to philosophical or literary texts; sometimes to other cultures and their rites, sometimes to sacred texts; sometimes to new perceptual experience; sometimes to the possibilities of profanation. With the advance of history, the quest for the sacred takes on different forms which still today, as in the past, inspire artistic creation and prompt the development of new artistic forms. This secular odyssey is the subject of our exhibition. In this respect then, it goes beyond earlier endeavours, which limited themselves to one medium (Abstract painting), or one source of inspiration (the occult) or a one context (the Church and religion). In a way, it invites us to follow the traces left by artists of their perpetual interrogation of the possibility of the sacred. A sacred that stands outside religion, a sacred within each one of us, a sacred whose “exit is within.”

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LIST OF WORKS EXHIBITED

Adel Abdessemed Also sprach Allah, 2007 Video, colour, sound, 2’20’’ Collection of the artist Adel Abdessemed God Is Design, 2005 Animated film, video, b. & w., sound, 4’09’’ Collection of the artist Marina Abramovic Thomas’ Lips, 1975-2005 Video installation, 120’ Galerie serge le borgne, Paris Isaac Abrams All Things Are One Thing, 1967 Oil on canvas 121.9 x 121.9 cm Monica Erickson Collection, Los Angeles Isaac Abrams Flying Leap, 1967 Oil on canvas 127 x 127 cm Mr and Mrs Stanley K. Sheinbaum Collection, Los Angeles Vyacheslav Akhunov Askent [Ascent], 2004 DV video, colour, sound, 14’48’’ From an original idea by Vyacheslav Akhunov and Sergey Tichina Jean-Michel Alberola L’espérance a un fil, l’espérance à un fil [Hope has a Thread, Hope has a Thread], 2006-2007 Blue neon and string Variable dimensions Private collection, Paris Jean-Michel Alberola La sortie est à l’intérieur [The Exit is Within], 2008 Wall painting Variable dimensions Collection of the artist, Paris Kenneth Anger Lucifer Rising, 1973 16 mm film, colour, sound, 25’ Distributed by Canyon Cinema Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris

Anonymous Hopi Headdress for the Butterfly Dance, First half 20th c. Painted wood 38.6 x 32.4 x 1.5 cm Musée du Quai Branly, Paris Anonymous Fang mask (Gabon), n.d. Painted wood 42 x 28.5 x 14.7 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Alice Derain Bequest, 1982 Anonymous Dancing Maenads, 1st c. AD, Roman copy of Hellenistic original inspired by a classical model of 5th c. BC Marble 42.5 x 56 x 16 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris, Département des antiquités grecques, étrusques and romaines Anonymous Hopi Kachina Doll, Saviki: Kachina with Snake, ca. 1920 Wood, black, ochre, green, red and white polychrome, feather H. 32 cm Collection Laurence Parisot Jean Arp Der Hirsch [Deer], 1914 Painted wood relief, oil 111.5 x 78 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Ruth Tillard-Arp Bequest, 2007 Antonin Artaud La Maladresse sexuelle de dieu [The Sexual Awkwardness of God], Feb. 1946 Pencil, colour crayon and chalk on paper 63 x 49 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1997 Antonin Artaud Pour en finir avec le jugement de dieu, [To be done with the judgment of God], 1947 Radio broadcast for RTF, 41’25’’ Banned in 1947, broadcast 1973 Institut national de l’audiovisuel, Paris

Francis Bacon Head I, 1948 b. & w. photograph with paint 20.4 x 15.2 cm Courtesy Faggionato Fine Arts, London and Tony Shafrazi Gallery, New York Francis Bacon Untitled (Crouching Nude), ca. 1950 Oil on canvas 196.2 x 135.2 cm Courtesy of Faggionato Fine Arts, London and Tony Shafrazi Gallery, New York Léon Bakst Bacchante, before 1911 Pencil, charcoal and gouache on paper 67.5 x 48 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Gift of M. and Mme Léon Baratz, in memory of M. and Mme A. Dobry, 1966 Léon Bakst Costume design for Vaslav Nijinsky in L’Après-midi d’un faune, ca. 1912 Lithograph with stencilled colours heightened in gold 60 x 45.5 cm Stiftung John Neumeier, Dance Collection, Hamburg Vladimir Baranoff-Rossiné Adam et Ève à la fleur, 1910 Oil on canvas 50 x 75 cm Art Collection Hannover, Hannover Max Beckmann Die Granate, 1° Zustand [The Grenade,1st state], 1915 Drypoint 43.6 x 28.9 cm The British Museum, London Max Beckmann Die Granate, 2° Zustand [The Grenade, 2nd state], 1916 Drypoint 43.6 x 28.9 cm The British Museum, London Max Beckmann Die Granate, 3° Zustand [The Grenade, 3rd state], 1915 Drypoint 39.1 x 28.9 cm Sprengel Museum Hannover, Hanovre

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André Bély Meditationszeichnung, Arlesheim aus dem Konvolut “Angeloi” (Geister der Form) [Meditation Drawing, from the “Angeloi” album (Spirits of Form)], 1913 Gouache and metallic paint on paper 36 x 44 cm Rudolf Steiner Archiv, Dornach André Bély Meditationszeichnung aus dem Konvolut «Archai» (Geister des Willens) [Meditation Drawing, from the “Archai” album (Spirits of the Will)], ca. 1913 Watercolour 47 x 62.5 cm Rudolf Steiner Archiv, Dornach André Bély Meditationszeichnung (Wirbel), aus dem Konvolut «Angeloi» (Geister der Bewegung) [Meditation Drawing (Whirlpool), from the “Angeloi” album (Spirits of Movement)], 1913 Gouache and bronze on paper 36 x 44 cm Rudolf Steiner Archiv, Dornach Wallace Berman Untitled, 1956-1957 Ink on fragments of parchment pasted on canvas 49.9 x 49.5 cm Hal and Mary Ann Glicksman Collection, Ymeray Wallace Berman Untitled, 1959 Gelatine-silver print 12.7 x 12.4 cm Whitney Museum of American Art, New York Gift of the Lannan Foundation Wallace Berman Untitled, 1967 Verifax collage, negative of 1964 122 x 116.6 cm Tosh Berman Collection, Los Angeles Wallace Berman Untitled (Large Rock 90.1.5), 1973 Rock, chain and copper plate on walnut base 55.9 x 45.7 x 38.1 cm The Cartin Collection, Hartford (Connecticut) Wallace Berman and Jay DeFeo Untitled, 1959 Gelatine-silver print 17.9 x 14.9 cm Whitney Museum of American Art, New York Gift of the Lannan Foundation

Auguste Bert Prélude à L’Après-midi d’un faune, 1912 Gelatine-silver print 13.5 x 8 cm Bibliothèque-Musée de l’Opéra national de Paris, Paris Fonds Albert Kochno Joseph Beuys I Like America and America Likes Me, 1974 U-matic video, b. & w., sound, 35’ Performance at the René Block Gallery, New York Director: Helmut Wietz Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1994 Joseph Beuys Sonnenkreuz [Sun Cross], 1947-1948 Bronze with matt brownish-black patination and cast-iron joints 36.5 x 20 x 2.5 cm Museum Schloss Moyland Foundation, Van der Grinten Collection, Bedburg-Hau Joseph Beuys Symbol der Erlösung II. Symbol der Auferstehung [Symbol of Redemption II. Symbole of Resurrection], ca. 1948-1949 Oak Box: 111 x 141 x 16 cm Cross: 97 x 68.5 x 8 cm Museum Schloss Moyland Foundation, Van der Grinten Collection, Bedburg-Hau Joseph Beuys Symbol des Opfers [Symbol of Sacrifice], ca. 1948-1949 Chêne Box: 111 x 141 x 16 cm Cross: 95 x 56 x 12 cm Museum Schloss Moyland Foundation, Van der Grinten Collection, Bedburg-Hau Umberto Boccioni Forme uniche nella continuità dello spazio [Unique Forms of Continuity in Space], 1913/1972 Bronze, cast 1972 120 x 88 x 31 cm Private collection Courtesy Thomas Ammann Fine Art, Zurich Dominikus Böhm Wettbewerb Frauenfriedenskirche. Projekt für Auferstehung, 1. Preis, nicht ausgeführt [Frauenfriedenskirche competition: Plan for “The Resurrection,” first prize, unbuilt], 3 March 1927 Pencil on tracing paper, carbon 29.8 x 36.8 cm Historisches Archiv, Cologne

Christian Boltanski Horloge parlante, 2003 Sound installation, PC, loudspeakers Courtesy of the artist and Marian Goodman Gallery, Paris and New York Antoine Bourdelle Le Carnaval, n.d. Study for Vaslav Nijinsky in the rôle of Arlequin in Carnaval Pen and ink on paper 25 x 16.3 cm Musée Bourdelle, Paris Antoine Bourdelle Nijinsky, n.d. Study for Vaslav Nijinsky in the Rôle of Arlequin in Carnaval Pen and ink on paper 25 x 16.8 cm Musée Bourdelle, Paris Constantin Brancusi The Endless Column at Voulangis, 1938 Overprinted silver-gelatine print 55 x 60 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Constantin Brancusi Bequest, 1957 Constantin Brancusi L’Oiseau dans l’espace [Bird in Space] 1936 Plaster 183.5 x 14 x 15.5 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Constantin Brancusi Bequest, 1957 Constantin Brancusi Bird in Space, black marble (1931-1936), ca. 1936 Silver-gelatine print 23.5 x 17.1 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Constantin Brancusi Bequest, 1957 Constantin Brancusi La Pyramide fatale et croix [Fatal Pyramid and Cross], ca. 1926-1936 Coloured pencil on torn paper 34.5 x 24.5 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Donation in lieu of tax, 2001

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Constantin Brancusi Vue d’atelier. Le Nouveau-Né II [Studio photo: The New-Born II (before 1923)], ca. 1929 Photograph taken at the artist’s studio (11 impasse Ronsin, 75015 Paris) Silver-gelatine print 23.9 x 17.8 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Victor Brauner Nombre, 1943 Plaster, lead, porcelain 164 x 64 x 64 cm Musée Cantini, Marseille Bequest of Jacqueline Victor-Brauner to the Réunion des musées nationaux (1986) allocated to the Musée Cantini (1988) Pierre Buraglio En quête, 2008 Sgraffito on whitewash In situ installation (variable dimensions) Collection of the artist William S. Burroughs The Devil That Walks at Noon, 1989 Acrylic on paper 58.5 x 43.5 cm Collection John Giorno, New York James Lee Byars Untitled, 1960 Ink on Japanese paper 279.4 x 114.3 cm Mr and Mrs Goldman, London John Cage Where R = Ryoanji R/7, 1988 Crayon on hand-made paper 25.7 x 48.5 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 2004 John Cage Where R = Ryoanji R/15, 1990 Crayon on hand-made paper 26 x 48.5 cm Fonds national d’art contemporain, Puteaux Purchased 1994 Marjorie Cameron Dark Angel, ca. 1955 Crayon, ink and paint on paper 88.3 x 60.3 cm Courtesy Nicole Klagsbrun Gallery, New York

Carl Gustav Carus Ruine im Mondschein (Klosterruine Altzella) [Ruins by Moonlight (Ruins of the Altzella Monastery)], 1820 Oil on wood 41 x 30.5 cm Kunstsammlungen, Chemnitz Maurizio Cattelan Him, 2001 Wax, hair, fabric and polyester resin 101 x 41 x 53 cm Collection François Pinault Marc Chagall Hommage à Apollinaire, 1911-1912 Oil on canvas 203.5 x 192 cm Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven Paul Chan 1st Light, 2005 Installation with digital video projection, 14’ Variable dimensions Courtesy Paul Chan and Greene Naftali Gallery, New York Astrup Fearnley Collection, Oslo Tobias Collier Mandala, 2005-2008 Aluminium foil, varnish, glue Variable dimensions Pianissimo Gallery, Milan Bruce Conner Partition, 1961-1963 Three-panel screen, nylon stockings, passementerie, pearls, artificial flowers, fabric, paint, metal, fragment of straw hat, mirrors, paper, feathers, wax, found objects Overall: 182 x 222 cm Panels: 182 x 74 cm (each) Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1981 Bruce Conner Untitled, 22 February 1968 Indian ink on paper 57 x 42 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 2003 Marc Couturier Numen (HCC), 2008 In situ wall drawing Silverpoint, stucco 400 x 700 cm With the kind support of Côté Peint – peinture et décor, Amiens, and the collaboration of FRAC Picardie Collection of the artist

Aleister Crowley Atu XX, Atu II – The Priestess, Final Version ca. 1941 Executed by Frieda Harris Watercolour on paper 61 x 45 cm Warburg Institute, London Aleister Crowley Atu XX, Atu IX – The Hermit, Final Version ca. 1941 Executed by Frieda Harris Gouache on paper 61 x 45 cm Warburg Institute, London Aleister Crowley Atu XX, Atu XVIII – The Moon, Final Version ca. 1941 Executed by Frieda Harris Watercolour on paper 61 x 45 cm Warburg Institute, London Aleister Crowley Atu XX, Atu XX – The Aeon, Final Version ca. 1941 Executed by Frieda Harris Gouache on paper 61 x 45 cm Warburg Institute, London Aleister Crowley Self-Portrait, ca. 1920 Oil on wood 19 x 24.2 cm Private collection Salvador Dalí Parfois je crache par plaisir sur le portrait de ma mère [Sometimes I Spit with Pleasure on the Portrait of my Mother], 1929 Indian ink on fine grey linen canvas pasted on board 68.3 x 50.1 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1989 Salvador Dalí Le Phénomène de l’extase, [The Phenomenon of Ecstasy], 1933 Photomontage 27 x 18.5 cm Private collection Louis Darget Photographie de la pensée. Planète et satellite [Thought Photograph: Planet and Satellite], 1897 Silver-gelatine print Overall: 9 x 14 cm Collection Bernard Garrett, Paris

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Louis Darget Photographie de la pensée. Tête de chien, [Thought Photograph: Dog’s Head], 1896 Silver-gelatine print Overall: 9 x 14 cm Collection Bernard Garrett, Paris Louis Darget Photographie fluidique de la pensée. Portrait de Beethoven [Fluid Thought Photograph: Portrait of Beethoven], 1896 Silver-gelatine print Overall: 9 x 14 cm Collection Bernard Garrett, Paris Giorgio De Chirico La Nostalgia dell’infinito [Nostalgia of the Infinite], 1912-1913 Oil on canvas 135.2 x 64.8 cm The Museum of Modern Art, New York Purchased 1936 Thierry De Cordier Portrait-vulve de ma mère [Vulva-Portrait of my Mother], 1988-1998 Ink, charcoal, gouache, correction fluid, chalk and ballpoint pen on paper 26 x 17 cm Private collection Courtesy Marian Goodman Gallery, New York, Paris Gino De Dominicis Asta d’oro, equilibrio 1 (Asta in Bilico) [Gold Bar, Equilibrium 1 (Bar in equilibrium)], 1968/1969-1990 Brass bar covered in gold leaf, wood H. 385 cm; dia. 4 cm Italo Tomassoni Collection, Foligno Gino De Dominicis D’io, 1971 Sound installation, 3’ Collection Fabio Sargentini, Rome With thanks to the Associazione Gino De Dominicis, Foligno and to Fabio Sargentini, Rome, L’Attico gallery, Rome and Pio Monti, Rome Jay DeFeo Blossom, 1958 Photographic collage 109.5 x 86 cm The Museum of Modern Art, New York The Fellows of Photography Fund and the Family of Man Fund, 1994 Jay DeFeo The Eyes, 1958 Graphite on paper 106.7 x 215.3 cm Whitney Museum of American Art, New York Gift of the Lannan Foundation

Jay DeFeo Song of Innocence, 1957 Oil on canvas 101.6 x 101.6 cm The Estate of Jay DeFeo, Berkeley Jean Degottex Aware II, 28.3.1961, 1961 Oil on canvas 202 x 350 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1972 Robert Delaunay Saint-Séverin, 1909-1910 Ink on paper pasted on paper 21 x 18 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Sonia and Charles Delaunay Donation, 1964 Jean Delville Esquisse pour Prométhée [Sketch for Prometheus], 1904 Oil on canvas 91.5 x 61 cm Private collection Jean Delville Portrait du grand maître de la Rose†Croix en habit de choeur, Joséphin Péladan [Portrait of Joséphin Péladan, Grand Master of the Order of the Rose and the Cross, in Choir Robes], 1895 Oil on canvas 205 x 113.5 cm Musée des beaux-arts, Nîmes Maurice Denis Christ vert [Green Christ], 1890 Oil on board 21 x 15 cm Private collection André Derain Figures dans un paysage [Figures in a Landscape], ca. 1906 Watercolour and pencil 27.5 x 38 cm Private collection Otto Dix Der Krieg [War], 1929-1930 Preparatory sketches Pencil, charcoal and pastel on paper, opaque white and pencil on grey board, pasted on canvas and mounted on a stretcher Overall: 600 x 162 cm Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hambourg

Otto Dix Schwangeres Weib [Pregnant Woman], 1919 Oil on canvas 135 x 73 cm Kunstmuseum, Stuttgart Permanent loan by Dr. Freerk Valentien Otto Dix Selbstbildnis als Mars [Self-portrait as Mars], 1915 Oil on canvas 81 x 66 cm Städtische Sammlungen, Freital Marcel Duchamp Le Buisson [The Bush], 1910-1911 Oil on canvas 127.5 x 92 cm Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia The Louise and Walter Arensberg Collection Marcel Duchamp Courant d’air sur le pommier du Japon [Draft on the Japanese Apple Tree], 1911 Oil on canvas 61 x 50 cm Collection Dina Vierny, Paris Max Ernst The Virgin Spanking the Christ Child before Three Witnesses: André Breton, Paul Eluard and the Painter, 1926 Oil on canvas 196 x 130 cm Museum Ludwig, Cologne Étienne-Martin Le Manteau (Demeure 5) [The Cloak (Dwelling I)], 1962 Fabric, trimmings, rope, leather, metal, cover of tarpaulin and leather 250 x 230 x 75 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1973 Mounir Fatmi Casse-tête pour musulman modéré, [Brainteaser for a Moderate Muslim], 2004 Acrylic on five altered Rubik cubes Cubes: 54 x 11.5 x 13.5 cm (each) Courtesy of B.A.N.K, Paris Mounir Fatmi Tête dure [Hard Head], 2005 Acrylic paint on wall Variable dimensions Robert Filliou Eins, Un, One..., 1984 Wooden cubes, paint (variable dimensions) Diameter: 900 cm Collection Mamco, Geneva

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Hermann Finsterlin Haus der Andacht. Museum [House of Meditation. Museum], 1919 Watercolour and pencil on paper pasted on canvas 37.8 x 28.2 cm Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, Graphische Sammlung, Stuttgart Hermann Finsterlin Kathedrale auf dem VIII. Hügel Roms [Cathedral on the 7th Hill of Rome], 1970 Painted plaster 36 x 34 x 23 cm Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, Graphische Sammlung, Stuttgart Hermann Finsterlin Kathedrale des Lichts, Serie IV, Blatt 4 [Cathedral of Light, Series IV, Sheet 4], 1920-1924 Watercolour and pencil on paper 34.2 x 18.2 cm Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, Graphische Sammlung, Stuttgart Hermann Finsterlin Knochenmodell [Model in Bone], 1920-1924 Paint on bone 9.5 x 11.5 cm Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, Graphische Sammlung, Stuttgart Lucio Fontana Concetto spaziale. La fine di Dio [Spatial Concept: The End of God], 1963 Oil on canvas 178 x 118 cm Private collection Caspar David Friedrich Ruinen in der Abenddämmerung (Kirchenruine im Wald) [Ruins at Dusk (Church Ruins in the Woods)], ca. 1831 Oil on canvas 70.5 x 49.7 cm Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Neue Pinakothek, Munich Akseli Gallen-Kallela Ad Astra, 1894 Oil on canvas, wood Painting: 76 x 85 cm Overall: 130 x 116.5 cm Private collection Gérard Garouste Passage (Autoportrait) , 2005 Oil on canvas 260 x 205 cm Private collection

Gerwulf Performance of Hugo Ball’s “Karawane” (1916), 7 February 2008 Video, colour, sound, 3’ Director: Christian Bahier Sound: Nicolas Joly Produced by the Audiovisual Department of the Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Courtesy Hugo Ball Nachlass / Robert-Walser-Archiv, Zürich Augusto Giacometti Werden [Becoming], 1919 Oil on canvas 105 x 105 cm Kunsthaus, Zurich Vereinigung Zürcher Kunstfreunde Allen Ginsberg Footnote to Howl, 1956 Sound recording made at the home of Lawrence Lipton, Los Angeles, 3’31’’ Allen Ginsberg Nude portrait of Ginsberg in front of the Sea of Japan, 1963 Digital display print Courtesy Greenberg Howard Gallery and Allen Ginsberg Estate, New York Allen Ginsberg Portrait of Burroughs with Sphinx at Museum, 1953 Digital display print Courtesy Allen Ginsberg Estate, New York Allen Ginsberg Portrait of Kerouac Holding a Cat, 1957 Digital display print Courtesy Allen Ginsberg Estate, New York Allen Ginsberg William S. Burroughs Meditating at Home, September-November 1953 Digital display print Courtesy Allen Ginsberg Estate, New York John Giorno The Death of William Burroughs, 2006 extract from Nine Poems in Basilicata DVCam video, b. & w., sound, 2’54’’ Director: Antonello Faretta John Giorno Eating the Sky, ca. 1989 Acrylic on canvas 51 x 51 cm Collection of the artist

John Giorno We Gave a Party for the Gods and the Gods All Came, 1990 Screen-printed enamel paint, acrylic on linen canvas 36.5 x 36.5 cm Courtesy Durham Press, Durham Francisco de Goya Nada. Ello dirà [Nothing. We Shall See], ca. 1810-1823 Etching, Plate 69 of Desastros de la guerra [Disasters of War] 41.5 x 54 cm Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris Henry de Groux Le Grand Chambardement (Cataclysme) [The Great Upheaval (Cataclysm)], 1893 Oil on canvas 76 x 98 cm Collection Mme Alexandra Charbonnier George Grosz Christus mit der Gasmaske. Maul halten und weiter dienen [Christ with Gas Mask: Shut up and do your duty], 1927 Pastel on paper 44 x 55 cm Akademie der Künste, Berlin George Grosz Mappe “Hintergrund,” Blatt 10. Maul halten und weiter dienen [“Backdrop” album, Plate 10: Shut Up and Do Your Duty], 1927 Etching 15.2 x 18.1 cm Akademie der Künste, Berlin Jerzy Grotowski Akropolis, 1971 Video, b. & w., sound, 55’ With Ryszard Cieslak as Esau/Hector, Rena Mirecka as Rebecca/Cassandra, Zigmud Molik as Jacob. From a play by S. Wyspianski Director: Krzysztof Gruber Scenery and costumes: Josef Szajna Scenery: Jerzy Gurawski Video director: James MacTaggart Video producer: Lewis Friedman Production by Jerzy Grotowski for the Polish Laboratory Theatre Distribution: Cantor Matapan Films Thanks to the Jerzy Grotowski Estate – Thomas Richards and Mario Biagini

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Jerzy Grotowski The Constant Prince, 1967-1977 Video, b. & w., sound, 48’ With Ryszard Cieslak as Don Fernando, the Constant Prince, Rena Mirecka as Fenice, Antoni Jaholkowski as the King, Mieczyslaw Janowski as Muley / Don Alfonso, Maja Komorowska as Tarudante, Stanislaw Scierski as Don Enrico, Adapted by Juliusz Slowacki from a play by Pedro Calderón de la Barca Costumes: Waldemar Krygier Scenery: Jerzy Gurawski Restored version by Centro Teatro Ateneo, Universitá di Roma La Sapienza Thanks to the Jerzy Grotowski Estate – Thomas Richards and Mario Biagini Brion Gysin Dreamachine, 1960-1976 Installation Paper, paint, Altuglas, electric lightbulb, motor H. 120.5 cm; dia. 29.5 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1978 Brion Gysin I Am That I Am, 1961 Sound recording, 3’03’’ Brion Gysin Estate Brion Gysin Am I That I Am? ca. 1961 Scratched transparency 3.5 x 2.3 cm Musée d’art moderne de la Ville de Paris, Bequest of the artist, 1988 Brion Gysin Untitled, 1960 Indian ink on grey-washed paper 55 x 43.5 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1975 Brion Gysin Untitled, 1960 Watercolour and Indian ink on paper 34 x 26 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1975 Wenzel Hablik Freitragende Kuppel mit fünf Bergspitzen als Basis [Cantilever Cupola with Five Hilltops as Basis], 1924 Oil on canvas 166 x 191 cm Wenzel-Hablik-Foundation, Itzehoe

Wenzel Hablik Kristallschlösschen [Small Crystal Castle], n.d. Crystal 26.5 x 13.5 x 7.5 cm Wenzel-Hablik-Foundation, Itzehoe Wenzel Hablik Kristallschlösschen [Small Crystal Castle], n.d. Crystal 6 x 7.5 x 6.5 cm Wenzel-Hablik-Foundation, Itzehoe Wenzel Hablik Kristallschlösschen [Small Crystal Castle], n.d. Crystal 8 x 6.5 x 5 cm Wenzel-Hablik-Foundation, Itzehoe Wenzel Hablik Kristallschlösschen [Small Crystal Castle], n.d. Crystal 17.5 x 7.5 x 8 cm Wenzel-Hablik-Foundation, Itzehoe Wenzel Hablik Ohne Titel (Kristallschloss) [Untitled (Crystal Castle)], 1903 Watercolour on paper, graphite 20.1 x 15.1 cm Wenzel-Hablik-Foundation, Itzehoe Wenzel Hablik Über den Sternen such Vergessen. Die Sehnsucht zeiget dir den Weg [Seek forgetting above the clouds. Homesickness will show the way], 1903 Watercolour on paper, graphite 14.6 x 11.4 cm Wenzel-Hablik-Foundation, Itzehoe Erich Heckel Szene im Wald [Woodland Scene], 1913 Oil on canvas 70 x 80.8 cm Museum Ludwig, Cologne Damien Hirst Forgive me Father for I Have Sinned, 2006 Flies and resin on canvas 137.2 x 101.6 x 10.2 cm Private collection Ferdinand Hodler Blick ins Unendliche [Gaze into Infinity], 1905 Oil on canvas 105 x 80 cm Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg Permanent loan from private collection

Rebecca Horn Haus der Schmerzen [House of Pain], 2005 Pencil, felt-tip pen, acrylic and Carmignano wine on paper 182 x 150 cm Private collection Rebecca Horn Waiting for Absence, 2005 Pencil, felt-tip pen, acrylic and Carmignano wine on paper 182 x 150 cm Private collection Victor Hugo Le Phare des Casquets [The Casquets Lighthouse], 1866 Pen, brush and feather and brown ink, Indian ink and black pigment powder with highlights in white gouache on vellum paper 89.8 x 48 cm Maison de Victor Hugo, Paris Pierre Huyghe Meditation Hall The Land, Model, 2003-2008 Computer-generated image Marian Goodman Gallery, Paris, New York Pierre Huyghe One Million Kingdoms, 2001 Vistavision transferred to Beta digital, colour, sound, 6’ Marian Goodman Gallery, Paris, New York Johannes Itten Einatmen, Ausatmen [Breathe In, Breath Out], 1922 Pencil and watercolour on paper 30 x 30 cm Private collection Cameron Jamie Gazes Into Heaven, 2007 Indian ink on Arches paper on American walnut panel mounted on plywood 121 x 80.5 cm Collection Daskal, Belgium Courtesy Galerie Nathalie Obadia, Paris Cameron Jamie Hallucination of a Headhunter, 2007 121 x 80.5 cm Indian ink on Arches paper on American walnut panel mounted on plywood Collection Claude Berri, Paris Courtesy Galerie Nathalie Obadia, Paris Cameron Jamie The Juggler’s Delirium, 2007 Indian ink on Arches paper on American walnut panel mounted on plywood 121 x 80.5 cm Courtesy Galerie Nathalie Obadia, Paris

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Cameron Jamie Kranky Masks, 2004 Wood, goat’s horns, animal fur Overall: 210 x 75 x 50 cm Base: 35 x 47 cm Collection of the artist Marcel Janco Masque, 1919 Assemblage, pasted paper, wood fibre, pastel and gouache 35 x 27 x 5 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Gift of the artist, 1967 Marcel Janco Masque, 1919 Assemblage, pasted paper, cardboard, string, pastel and gouache 45 x 22 x 5 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Gift of the artist, 1967 Alexej von Jawlensky Abstrakter Kopf. Morgengrauen [Abstract Head: Dawn], 1928 Oil on board 42.6 x 31.9 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Nina Kandinsky Bequest, 1981 Michel Journiac Messe pour un corps, 1975 Video, b. & w., sound, 21’ Performance at the Stadler gallery, Paris Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 2007 Michel Journiac Messe pour un corps, 1969 - 1994 Installation consisting of: – Film, Messe pour un corps, 1975, Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris –Three plaques (blood, Plexiglas), 1994, 50 x 50 x 3 cm, private collection, Paris – Recipe for black pudding of human blood, 1969-1994, gelatine-silver print, 80 x 50 cm, private collection, Paris Vassily Kandinsky Dame in Moskau [Woman in Moscow], 1912 Oil on canvas 108.8 x 108.8 cm Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich

Vassily Kandinsky Komposition VI [Composition VI], 1913 Oil on canvas 194 x 294 cm Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg Anish Kapoor Proposal for a New Model of the Universe, 2006 Acrylic plastic, 101.6 x 101.6 x 99.1 cm Courtesy Lisson Gallery, London On Kawara “Today” Series, 1966 Liquitex on canvas; cardboard and newspaper The painting is stored in a cardboard box whose bottom is lined with a clipping from the New York Times dated 14 August 1975 25.8 x 33.3 x 4.3 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1977 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Die Negertänzerin [Negro Dancer], 1909 Oil on canvas 81 x 95.5 cm Collection E.W.K., Berne/Davos Paul Klee Der Hirsch [Deer], 1919 Watercolour and gouache on canvas pasted on cardboard 32 x 24.3 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Donation in lieu of tax, 1992 Paul Klee Homo novus, 1913 Ink on paper 20 x 17 cm Private collection, Germany Yves Klein M 69, Monochrome blanc [M69, White Monochrome], 1958 Pure pigment, synthetic resin and plaster on canvas pasted and nailed on plywood 100 x 50 x 2 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1985 Hilma af Klint Budhas Ståndpunkt I Jordelifvet [Buddha’s Standpoint on Earthly Life], 1920 Oil on canvas 36 x 27 cm The Hilma af Klint Foundation, Stockholm

Hilma af Klint De tio största, n° 2 Barnaaldern [The Ten Greatest, No. 2 Childhood], 1907 Tempera on paper pasted on canvas 328 x 240 cm The Hilma af Klint Foundation, Stockholm Hilma af Klint De tio största, n° 7 Mannaaldern [The Ten Greatest, No. 7 Adulthood]], 1907 Tempera on paper pasted on canvas 328 x 240 cm The Hilma af Klint Foundation, Stockholm Hilma af Klint De tio största, n° 10 Alderdomen [The Ten Greatest, No. 10 Old Age], 1907 Tempera on paper pasted on canvas 328 x 240 cm The Hilma af Klint Foundation, Stockholm Hilma af Klint Judarnas Ståndpunkt vid Jesu Födelse [The Jews’ Standpoint on the Birth of Jesus], 1920 Oil on canvas 36 x 27 cm The Hilma af Klint Foundation, Stockholm Hilma af Klint Mahatmernas Nuvarande Ståndpunkt [The Mahatmas’Present Standpoint], 1920 Oil on canvas 36 x 27 cm The Hilma af Klint Foundation, Stockholm Hilma af Klint Muhamedanska Ståndpunkten [Mohammedan Standpoints], 1920 Oil on canvas 36 x 27 cm The Hilma af Klint Foundation, Stockholm Ivan Klioune Sphärische Komposition [Spherical Composition], 1923 Oil on canvas 64.5 x 64.5 cm Museum Ludwig, Cologne Jannis Kounellis Untitled, 2007 Wood, jute sacks, coffee, rice, lentils, peas, and various materials. H. 350 cm (approx); dia. 100 cm Galerie Lelong, Paris, New York, Zurich

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Frantisek Kupka Les Nénuphars [Waterlilies], 1900-1902 Aquatint on paper 34.5 x 34.7 cm Overall: 53.5 x 40.5 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Gift of Eugénie Kupka, 1963 Frantisek Kupka Le Premier Pas [The First Step], ca. 19101913 Oil on canvas 83.2 x 129.6 cm The Museum of Modern Art, New York Hillman Periodicals Fund, 1956 Frantisek Kupka Le Rêve [The Dream], ca. 1906-1909 Oil on board 31.3 x 32 cm Museum Bochum, Bochum Rudolf von Laban Raum und Regel [Space and Law], ca. 1915 Chalk on black paper, mounted on board 24.6 x 17.8 cm Kunsthaus Zurich, Graphische Sammlung, Zurich Rudolf von Laban Raum und Regel [Space and Law], ca. 1915 Chalk on black paper, mounted on board 24.6 x 18.6 cm Kunsthaus Zurich, Graphische Sammlung, Zurich Wifredo Lam Lumière de la forêt (La Grande Jungle) [Forest Light (The Deep Jungle)], 1942 Gouache on paper pasted on canvas 192 x 123.5 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1974 Jean-Jacques Lebel Radio Momo (Hommage à Antonin Artaud), 1962 Wood, metal, human skull, plastic, electricity 290 x 150 x 30 cm Private collection Le Corbusier Chapelle Notre-Dame-du-Haut, Ronchamp, 1950-1955 Plaster 36 x 61 x 56 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Gift of the artist and of the Syndicat d’initiative de Lyon, 1956

Fernand Léger Maquette for the mosaics of the church of Notre-Dame-de-Toute-Grâce (Plateau d’Assy, Haute-Savoie), 1947 Gouache and ink on paper 82.9 x 181.2 cm Musée national Fernand Léger, Biot Donated by Nadia Léger and Georges Bauquier Wilhelm Lehmbruck Der Gestürzte [The Fallen], 1915-1916 Bronze 80.5 x 240 x 83.5 cm Wilhelm Lehmbruck Museum, Zentrum Internationaler Skulptur, Duisburg Lehmbruck Nachlass Stiftung Walter Lehrman Allen Ginsberg reading “Howl” at the Poetry Center, San Francisco State University, 20 November 1955 b. & w. photograph Walter Lehrman Collection Augustin Lesage Composition symbolique sur le monde spirituel [Symbolic Composition on the Spiritual World], 1923-1925 Oil on canvas 205.5 x 145.8 cm Collection de l’Art Brut, Lausanne Jacques Lipchitz Entre ciel and terre [Between Heaven and Earth], 1958 Patinated plaster 122 x 41 x 32 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Donated by the Jacques and Yulla Lipchitz Foundation (New York, United States), 1976 Jacques Lizène Sacré profane en morcellement de cimaises 1970 en remakes, 2007-2008 Installation, various materials and monitors 360 x 450 x 30 cm 251 - Nord-Liège and Galerie Nadjavilenne Éli Lotar Aux abattoirs de la Villette [At the Abattoir of La Villette], 1929 Gelatine silver bromide negative on glass 28 x 36.5 cm (print of 2008) Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Gift of Anne-Marie and Jean-Pierre Marchand, 1995

Éli Lotar Aux abattoirs de la Villette [At the Abattoir of La Villette], 1929 Gelatine silver bromide negative on glass 28 x 36.5 cm (print of 2008) Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Gift of Anne-Marie and Jean-Pierre Marchand, 1995 Éli Lotar Aux abattoirs de la Villette [At the Abattoir of La Villette], 1929 Gelatine silver bromide negative on glass 28 x 36.5 cm (print of 2008) Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Gift of Anne-Marie and Jean-Pierre Marchand, 1995 Éli Lotar Aux abattoirs de la Villette [At the Abattoir of La Villette], 1929 Gelatine silver bromide negative on glass 38 x 25 cm (print of 2008) Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Gift of Anne-Marie and Jean-Pierre Marchand, 1995 Wassili Luckhardt Denkmal der Arbeit (“An die Freude”). Schaubild [Monument to Labour “To Joy”: Visualisation], April 1920 Gouache, pencil 74 x 129.4 cm Akademie der Kunst Archiv, Berlin Baukunst Archiv Wassili Luckhardt Festhalle (Ansicht), Kultbau (Festhalle aus Glas) [Festival Hall (front view), Place of Worship (Festival Hall in Glass)], 1919 Pencil, colour crayon, pastel, watercolour 67.5 x 93.6 cm Akademie der Kunst Archiv, Berlin Baukunst Archiv Jean Lurçat Pax (Le Ciel, la Terre, La Paix), 1953 Tapestry by Manufacture Tabard, Aubusson 450 x 280 cm Private collection

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Corey McCorkle Scale Model of Three-Part Blind Passage, Showing the Intertwining, Spiral Staircases in the Tallest Minaret in the World, Selimiye, Turkey, 2006 H.182 cm; dia. 7.6 cm Heat-moulded acrylic Courtesy of the artist and Maccarone Gallery, New York Kazimir Malevich Black Square, ca. 1930 Oil on canvas 53.5 x 53.5 cm Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg Kazimir Malevich Suprematist Drawing, ca. 1915 Pencil on lined paper 16.5 x 10.8 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1986 Kazimir Malevich Spherical Evolution of a Plane, Winter 19171918 Oil on canvas 96.5 x 74.5 cm Private collection Man Ray The Minotaur, 1933 Silver print, ca. 1935 15 x 25.17 cm Private collection Man Ray La Prière [The Prayer], 1930 Photograph on canvas 32 x 23 cm Galerie À l’Enseigne des Oudin, Paris Alfred Manessier La Couronne d’épines, [The Crown of Thorns], 1950 Oil on canvas 163 x 98 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Government purchase, allocated 1951 Franz Marc Pferd in Landschaft [Horse in a Landscape], 1910 Oil on canvas 85 x 112 cm Museum Folkwang, Essen

Kris Martin Idiot IV, 2007 Green patinated wrought bronze 18.4 x 12.5 cm Courtesy Sies + Höke Gallery, Düsseldorf André Masson Acéphale, 1936 Ink on paper 40.5 x 31.7 cm Private collection, Paris André Masson Dessin métaphysique [Metaphysical Drawing], 1940 Ink on paper 48 x 62 cm Private collection, Paris André Masson Dionysos, 1936 Indian ink on paper 48 x 35.5 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1982 André Masson Extase [Ecstasy], 1938/1987 Bronze, cast of 1987 94.5 x 61.4 x 34.8 cm Private collection, Paris André Masson Femme et taureau [Woman and Bull], 1942 Ink and wash on paper 38 x 56 cm Private collection, Paris André Masson Pasiphaë, 1932 Pastel 47 x 59.5 cm Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris André Masson La Terre, [The Earth] 1939 Sand and oil on plywood 43 x 53 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Gift of Mme Rose Masson (Paris), 1966 André Masson Terre érotique [Erotic Earth], 20 December 1937 Ink and watercolour on paper 50.5 x 65.5 cm Private collection, Paris

André Masson L’Unica. dionysiaque, 1937 Ink on paper 49.5 x 64 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Donation of Louise and Michel Leiris, 1984 Roberto Matta Théorie de l’arbre [Tree Theory], 1941 Painted in Taxco, Mexico Oil on canvas 74.6 x 94.9 cm Private collection Henri Matisse Saint Dominique (Projet pour la chapelle de Vence, Nice), 1949 Indian ink, white gouache, pasted paper on vellum paper pasted on canvas 310 x 137.5 cm Musée Matisse, Nice Jan Matulka Hopi Snake Dance N° 1, 1917-1918 Pencil, watercolour and graphite on paper 38.1 x 30.5 cm Whitney Museum of American Art, New York Gift of Gertrude W. Dennis Adolphe de Meyer Nijinski dans L’Après-midi d’un faune [Nijinsky in “L’Après-midi d’un faune”], 1914 Collotype, plate from album “L’Après-midi d’un faune” 16 x 22.7 cm Musée d’Orsay, Paris Gift of M. Michel de Bry, 1988 Adolphe de Meyer Nijinski dans L’Après-midi d’un faune [Nijinsky in “L’Après-midi d’un faune”], 1914 Collotype, plate from album “Sur le prélude de L’Après-midi d’un faune” 20.9 x 15.8 cm Musée d’Orsay, Paris Gift of M. Michel de Bry, 1988 Henri Michaux Arborescences intérieures, ca. 1962-1964 Indian ink on paper 50 x 30 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1965 Henri Michaux Dessin mescalinien [Mescaline Drawing], 1956 Pencil on paper 26.5 x 20.5 cm Private collection

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Henri Michaux Dessin mescalinien [Mescaline Drawing], 1956 Pencil on paper 26.5 x 20.5 cm Private collection Henri Michaux Dessin mescalinien [Mescaline Drawing], 1956 Pencil on paper 26.5 x 20.5 cm Private collection Henri Michaux Dessin mescalinien [Mescaline Drawing], 1956 Pencil on paper 27 x 21 cm Private collection Henri Michaux Dessin mescalinien [Mescaline Drawing], 1956 Pencil on paper 26.5 x 20.5 cm Private collection Henri Michaux Dessin mescalinien [Mescaline Drawing], 1958 Indian ink on paper 31.4 x 24.1 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Donation of M. Daniel Cordier (Juan-les-Pins), 1976 Henri Michaux Dessin mescalinien [Mescaline Drawing], 1958 Coloured pencil on paper 40.3 x 30 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Donation of M. Daniel Cordier (Juan-les-Pins), 1976 Henri Michaux Dessin mescalinien [Mescaline Drawing], 1956-1962 Ink on paper 39.8 x 26.2 cm Private collection Pierre Molinier Sacrilège, 1962 Oil and glaze on canvas 55 x 46 cm Private collection

Piet Mondrian Composition with Two Lines, 1931 Oil on canvas 112 x 80 cm Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam Purchased with the generous support of the Prins Berhard Fonds, the Algemene Loterij Nederland and the Vereniging Rembrandt, 1988 Piet Mondrian Evolutie [Evolution], ca. 1911 Oil on canvas 183 x 257.5 cm Gemeentemuseum den Haag, The Hague Jonathan Monk Sentence Removed (Emphasis Remains), 2000 Red neon on Plexiglas 160 x 160 cm Private collection Galerie Yvon Lambert, Paris, New York Lee Mullican Peyote Candle.1951 Oil on canvas 127 x 88.9 cm Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Collection of Luchita Mullican Courtesy of Marc Selwyn Fine Art, Los Angeles Matt Mullican Untitled (Big Chart).1984 Oil on canvas Panels: 274.3 x 122 cm (each) Overall: 274.3 x 487.7 cm Frederick R. Weisman Foundation, Los Angeles Edvard Munch Det tomme kors [The Empty Cross] 1899-1901 Watercolour and ink on paper 43.1 x 62.7 cm Munch Museum, Oslo Edvard Munch Friedrich Nietzsche, 1906 Charcoal, pastel and tempera on paper 196 x 128 cm Munch Museum, Oslo Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau Faust. Eine Deutsche Volkssage [Faust: A German Folk Legend], 1926 35 mm film, b. & w., silent, 115’ Extract: 2’16’’ Friedrich-Wilhelm Murnau Stiftung / Distributor: Transit Film GmbH

Hans Namuth and Paul Falkenberg Jackson Pollock, 1950 16mm film, b. & w., sound, 10’ Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Bibliothèque Kandinsky Jakob von Narkiewicz-Jodko Effluves d’une main électrifiée posée sur la plaque photographique [Effluvia From an Electrified Hand Resting on a Photographic Plate], March 1896 Silver-gelatine print 18.1 x 12.9 cm Fonds Camille Flammarion, Société astronomique de France Bruce Nauman Dog Biting Its Ass / Dog Biting Itself, 1989 Aluminium, steel wire 87.5 x 75 x 85 cm Private collection Bruce Nauman The True Artist Helps the World by Revealing Mystic Truths (Window or Wall Sign), 1967 Glass, neon tube, transformers 150 x 140 x 5 cm Kunstmuseum, Basel Barnett Newman The Gate, 1954 Oil on canvas 192 x 236 cm Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam Barnett Newman Pagan Void, 1946 Oil on canvas 83.8 x 96.5 cm National Gallery of Art, Washington Gift of Annalee Newman, in Honor of the 50th Anniversary of the National Gallery of Art Vaslav Nijinsky Danseuse (ou le Dieu de la danse), [Dancer (or The God of the Dance)], ca. 1919 Pencil and coloured chalk on paper 34.3 x 24.5 cm Stiftung John Neumeier, Dance Collection, Hamburg Vaslav Nijinsky Figures géométriques, [Geometrical figures], n.d. Coloured crayon on paper 27 x 37 cm Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris Bibliothèque-Musée de l’Opéra, Paris Gift of Romola Nijinsky, 1975

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Vaslav Nijinsky Figures géométriques, [Geometrical figures], n.d. Coloured crayon on paper 37 x 27 cm Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris Bibliothèque-Musée de l’Opéra, Paris Gift of Romola Nijinsky, 1975 Vaslav Nijinsky Figures géométriques, [Geometrical figures], n.d. 28 x 37 cm Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris Bibliothèque-Musée de l’Opéra, Paris Gift of Romola Nijinsky, 1975 Vaslav Nijinsky Masque [Mask], n.d. Coloured crayon on paper 37 x 29.3 cm Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris Bibliothèque-Musée de l’Opéra, Paris Gift of Romola Nijinsky, 1975 Moshe Ninio Avodath Ach, 1977-1987 Wooden structure, photographs printed on metal plates 109 x 169 x 83.5 cm Courtesy Chantal Crousel gallery, Paris Hermann Nitsch Passionsfries [Way of the Cross], 1962 Whiting on jute canvas, bovine blood and pigment Overall: 189 x 901.5 cm Panels: 189 x 300 cm (each) Kunstsammlung Nordrhein Westfalen, Düsseldorf Emil Nolde Kachina-Figur [Kachina Figure], 1911-1912 Pencil and coloured chalk 30 x 18.5 cm Nolde Stiftung Seebüll, Neukirchen Emil Nolde Kachina-Figur (Nuvak-Chin Mana) [Kachina Figure (Nuvak-Chin Mana)], 1911-1912 Pencil and coloured chalk 30 x 18.5 cm Nolde Stiftung Seebüll, Neukirchen Emil Nolde Kerzentänzerinnen [Candle Dancers], Oil on canvas 100.5 x 86.5 cm Nolde Stiftung Seebüll, Neukirchen

Emil Nolde Masken III [Masks III], 1920 Oil on canvas 87.5 x 73.5 cm Nolde Stiftung Seebüll, Neukirchen Emil Nolde Tänzerin (Mary Wigman) [Dancer (Mary Wigman)], n.d. Watercolour 35.1 x 44.7 cm Nolde Stiftung Seebüll, Neukirchen Valère Novarina “Au dieu inconnu” [To the Unknown God] from La Chair de l’homme, 2000 Sound recording, 59’20’’ Text read by Laurence Mayor Production: P.O.L Éditeur and Dernière Bande Patrick O’Neill 7362, 1967 16 mm film, colour, sound, 9’17’’ Patrick O’Neill Collection / Lookout Mountain Films Yazid Oulab Untitled, 2006 Sheepskin 2 x 45 x 145 cm Private collection Yazid Oulab Le Souffle du récitant comme signe, 2003 Betacam digital video, colour, sound, 5’ Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 2005 Wolfgang Paalen The Cosmogenes, 1944 Oil on canvas 244 x 244 cm Collection of M. and Mme Robert Anthoine Nam June Paik Buddha’s Catacomb, 1983 TV, video, camera, bronze and earth Variable dimensions Musée de l’Abbaye Sainte-Croix, Les Sables-d’Olonne Nam June Paik and Yalkut Jud Video Film Concert 1966/1975 and 1992, 1966-1992 Compilation of 6 video studies, b. & w. and colour, sound, 34’50’’ Video Study No. 2: Beatles Electroniques 1966/1969, 3’ Sound: Ken Werner Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1996

Gina Pane Situation idéale. Terre-Artiste-Ciel, Écos (Eure) [Ideal Situation: Earth-Artist-Sky, Écos (Eure)], 1969 Colour photograph pasted on painted wood 51.8 x 68 x 1.8 cm Collection Frac des Pays de la Loire, Carquefou Gyula Pap Licht-Liebe-Leben [Light-Love-Life], 1922 Watercolour and tempera with pencil on paper 21.8 x 19.5 cm Association Bauhaus, Dessau Gyula Pap Das Wort Gottes [The Word of God], 1923 Watercolour on paper 25.8 x 20 cm Klassik Stiftung, Weimar Frédéric Pardo Bouddha invisible [Invisible Buddha], 19681969 Oil and gold leaf on wood panel 90.5 x 50 cm Collection Thérèse Pardo Frédéric Pardo L’Explosion [Explosion], 1968-1969 Oil and gold leaf on wood panel 90.5 x 50 cm Collection Thérèse Pardo Roland Penrose Lee Miller and Max Ernst in Sedona, 1946 Digital display print Collection of the Roland Penrose Estate, East Sussex Bruno Perramant Trois chevaux, Apocalypse noire n° 2 (les dieux obscurs) [Three Horses: Black Apocalypse No. 2 (The Dark Gods)], 2006 Oil on canvas Overall: 130 x 370 cm Right panel: 120 x 120 cm Middle panel: 130 x 130 cm left panel: 120 x 120 cm Courtesy Galerie In SITU Fabienne Leclerc, Paris Eli Petel Might This Thing Be, 2007 Pearls, thread Variable dimensions Dvir Gallery, Tel Aviv

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Francis Picabia La Sainte Vierge II [The Holy Virgin II], 1920 Ink on paper 32 x 23 cm Chancellerie des Universités de Paris – Bibliothèque littéraire Jacques Doucet, Paris Pablo Picasso Buste de femme [Bust of a Woman], 1907 Oil on canvas 66 x 59 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1965 Pablo Picasso La Crucifixion, 21 August 1938 Indian ink on paper 44.5 x 67 cm Musée Picasso, Paris Pablo Picasso La Crucifixion, Boisgeloup, 17 Sept. 1932 Indian ink and rubbing on paper 34 x 51 cm Musée Picasso, Paris Pablo Picasso Study for Ovid’s Metamorphoses Book IX: The Death of Orpheus, 12 Sept. 1930 Ink on blue paper 27 x 21 cm Musée Picasso, Paris Pablo Picasso Figure, 1928 Wire and sheet metal Overall: 37.5 x 10 x 19.6 cm Base: 100 x 40 x 40 cm Basin: h. 50 cm Musée Picasso, Paris Pablo Picasso Marie-Thérèse en femme torero [Marie-Thérèse as Woman Torero], 20 June 1934 Etching on Arches laid paper 29.7 x 23.7 cm Musée Picasso, Paris Pablo Picasso Minotaure assis au poignard [Seated Minotaur with Dagger], 1933 Copperplate etching, trial proof on heavyweight vellum paper 26.9 x 19.4 cm Musée Picasso, Paris

Pablo Picasso La Minotauromachie [Minotauromachy], 1935 Etching and scraper on paper 49.8 x 69.3 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Donated by Louise and Michel Leiris, 1984 Sigmar Polke Höhere Wesen befahlen : rechte obere Ecke schwarz malen! [Superior Beings Ordered: Paint the Top Right Hand Corner Black!], 1969 Lacquer on canvas 149 x 124 cm Froehlich Collection, Stuttgart Jackson Pollock The Moon-Woman Cuts the Circle.1943 Oil on canvas 109.5 x 104 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Gift of Frank K. Lloyd (Paris), 1980 Arnulf Rainer Kreuz [Cross], 1959 Oil on particleboard 168.5 x 126.4 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1983 Paul Ranson Christ and Buddha, ca. 1880 Oil on canvas 66.7 x 51.4 cm Triton Foundation, Netherlands Odilon Redon L’œil, comme un ballon bizarre, se dirige vers l’infini {The Eye, Like a Strange Balloon, Mounts Towards Infinity], 1882 Plate I from the album “À Edgar Poe” Lithograph 26.2 x 19.6 cm Bibliothèque de l’Institut national d’histoire de l’art, Paris Collections Jacques Doucet Ad Reinhardt Ultimate Painting N° 6, 1960 Oil on canvas 153 x 153 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1974 Germaine Richier Le Christ d’Assy [The Assy Christ], 1950 Bronze 45 x 32.5 x 8 cm Richier Family

Auguste Rodin Le Danseur (dit Nijinski) [The Dancer (“Nijinsky”)], 1912 Plaster 17.5 x 9.9 x 6.5 cm Musée Rodin, Paris Donation Auguste Rodin, 1916 Mark Rothko Agitation of the Archaic, 1944 Oil on canvas 89.85 x 137.8 cm Whitney Museum of American Art, New York Gift of the Mark Rothko Foundation, Inc. Mark Rothko Untitled (Black, Red over Black on Red), 1964 Oil on canvas 205 x 193 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Donation in lieu of tax, 2007. From the collection of M. and Mme Jean-Pierre Moueix Georges Rouault Homo homini lupus, 1944-1948 Oil on paper pasted on canvas 64.7 x 46 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Donation of the artist, 1949 Georges Rouault Passion (Ecce homo), ca. 1946-1949 Oil on canvas pasted on panel 83.8 x 56.5 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Acquired 1954 (former collection of Baron Fukushima, transferred in 1954 to the Musée national d’art moderne under the terms of the 1952 Peace Treaty with Japan) Charlotte Rudolph Hexentanz II (Mary Wigman) [Witch Dance II (Mary Wigman)], 1926 b. & w. photograph 22.5 x 27.1 cm Akademie der Kunst Archiv, Berlin Mary-Wigman-Archiv Charlotte Rudolph Kopfbild “Hexentanz” [Portrait: “Witch Dance”].1926 Photogravure 16.6 x 21.9 cm Dresden, Adrien Sina Collection

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Charlotte Rudolph Mary Wigman. Hexentanz I [Mary Wigman: Witch Dance I], 1914 b. & w. photograph 8.2 x 11.3 cm Akademie der Kunst Archiv, Berlin Mary-Wigman-Archiv Charlotte Rudolph Mary Wigman. Maske, “Zeremonielle Gestalt” [Mary Wigman: Mask, Ceremonial Figure], 1925 Photogravure 14.1 x 21.8 cm Dresden, Adrien Sina Collection Charlotte Rudolph Mary Wigman. Schicksalslied [Mary Wigman. Song of Destiny], 1935 Gelatine-silver print 14 x 9 cm Adrien Sina Collection Charlotte Rudolph Mary Wigman. Schicksalslied [Mary Wigman. Song of Destiny], 1935 Gelatine-silver print 14 x 9 cm Adrien Sina Collection Charlotte Rudolph Mary Wigman. Schicksalslied [Mary Wigman. Song of Destiny], 1935 Gelatine-silver print 14 x 9 cm Adrien Sina Collection Charlotte Rudolph Traumgestalt [Dream Figure], 1927 Photogravure 11.4 x 15.4 cm Adrien Sina Collection Charlotte Rudolph Traumgestalt [Dream Figure], 1927 Photogravure 11.4 x 15.4 cm Collection Adrien Sina Emmanuel Saulnier Tête [Head], 1992 Glass and ink Overall: 100 x 50 x 30 cm Horizontal element: 50 x 30 x 20 cm Vertical element: 100 x 30 x 20 cm Private collection Hans Scharoun Geburt der Architecktur [The Birth of Architecture], 1919-1921 Pencil, watercolour and gouache 47.8 x 36.6 cm Akademie der Kunst Archiv, Berlin Baukunst Archiv

Hans Scharoun Ohne Titel (“Kultbau”) [Untitled (“Place of Worship”)], 1919-1921 Watercolour 47.9 x 36 cm Hans Scharoun by VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn Akademie der Kunst Archiv, Berlin Baukunst Archiv Hans Scharoun Ohne Titel (“Kultbau”) [Untitled (“Place of Worship”)], 1919-1921 Pencil, watercolour and gouache 47.7 x 36 cm Akademie der Kunst Archiv, Berlin Baukunst Archiv Hans Scharoun Untitled, 1919-1921 Pencil, watercolour and gouache 47.5 x 36 cm Akademie der Kunst Archiv, Berlin Baukunst Archiv Christoph Schlingensief Abendmahl [The Last Supper], 2007 5th version Tin, built-in screen, video 13 x 32 x 28 cm Sammlung Sebastian C. Strenger, Berlin Courtesy Hauser and Wirth, Zurich, London Louise Schwabe Götzendienst (“Ekstatische Tänze“), Mappe 264 [Idolatry (“Ecstatic Dances”), Plate 264], 1917 b. & w. photograph pasted on board 11.5 x 15.3 cm Akademie der Kunst Archiv, Berlin Mary-Wigman-Archiv Kurt Schwitters Ohne Titel (Katedrale) [Untitled (Cathedral)], 1941-1942 Oil on wood 40 x 19.2 x 19.2 cm Sprengel Museum, Hanover Sammlung NORD/LB in der Niedersächsischen Sparkassenstiftung Franck Scurti De l’origine du monde jusqu’à nos jours, [From the Beginning of the World to Our Own Day], 2005-2007 24 drawings Mixed media 47 x 36 cm (each) Courtesy Franck Scurti and Galerie Anne de Villepoix, Paris

Peter Sedgley Four discs from the Video disques series, 1968 Aluminium discs, fluorescent screen-printing, electric motor, UV light source Dia. 78 cm (each) Collection of the artist Charles Sellier L’Initiation, ca. 1880 Oil on canvas 160 x 92 cm Private collection Andres Serrano Piss Christ (Immersions), 1987 Cibachrome display print (printed 2007) 152.4 x 101.6 cm Courtesy Andres Serrano, Paula Cooper Gallery, New York and Galerie Yvon Lambert, Paris, New York Paul Sérusier Le Cylindre d’or [Gold Cylinder], ca. 1910 Oil on cotton fabric 38.2 x 27.7 cm Musée des beaux-arts, Rennes Harry Smith Early Abstractions, 1939-1956 16 mm film transferred to Beta, colour, sound, 23’ Extract: 5’25’’ Music at the Peyote Meeting of the Kiowa Indians, recorded by Harry Smith, ca. 1964 The film and accompanying sound recording were two distinct projects by Harry Smith Courtesy of Anthology Film Archives and the Harry Smith Archives Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1975 Harry Smith Tree of Life in the Four Words, 1954 Four-colour screen-print on paper 71.1 x 17.8 cm Intermedia Foundation, Cresskill Robert Smithson Green Chimera With Stigmata, 1961 Oil on canvas 120 x 144 cm Estate of George B. Lester, Woodbridge Robert Smithson Jesus Mocked, 1961 Oil on canvas 96 x 89 cm Estate of George B. Lester, Woodbridge

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Robert Smithson Spiral Jetty, 1970 16 mm film, colour, sound, 32’ Electronic Arts Intermix, New York Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1975 James Thrall Soby Max Ernst With His Collection of Hopi Kachina Dolls, Spring 1942 Digital display print Private collection Svajone and Paulius Stanikas The Fall, 2008 Graphite on paper Overall: 300 x 380 cm Drawings: 300 x 190 cm (each) Collection of the artist Rudolf Steiner Am Anfang war die Wärme [In the Beginning Was the Heat], June 1924 Chalk on paper 92 x 145 cm Rudolf Steiner Archiv, Dornach Rudolf Steiner Der Menschheitsrepräsentant [The Representative of Humanity], 1915 Plaster Overall: 200 x 103 x 90 cm Armature: 79 x 100 x 99 cm Rudolf Steiner Archiv, Dornach Rudolf Steiner Modell 2. Goetheanum [Model of 2nd Goetheanum], 1924 Plaster 33 x 71 x 82 cm Rudolf Steiner Archiv, Dornach August Strindberg Golgotha, 1894 Oil on canvas 91 x 65 cm Private collection Christer Strömholm Blind Girl, Hiroshima, 1 May 1964 58.5 x 48.5 cm Original b. & w. silver print mounted on Isorel; single print made by Christer Landegren under the direction of the photographer in 1964 Collection Jean-Michel Attal, Paris

Bruno Taut Der Domstern (Blatt 26) [Star in the Vault of the Heavens (Sheet 26)], 1918 Watercolour and graphite on paper 39.4 x 33.7 cm Akademie der Kunst Archiv, Berlin Baukunst Archiv Bruno Taut Firnen im Eis und Schnee (Blatt 13) [Firns in Ice and Snow (Sheet 13)], 1918 Watercolour and graphite on paper 39.4 x 33.7 cm Akademie der Kunst Archiv, Berlin Baukunst Archiv Bruno Taut Sternsystem (Blatt 28) [Star System (Sheet 28)], 1918 Watercolour, silver, gold and graphite on paper 39.4 x 33.7 cm Akademie der Kunst Archiv, Berlin Baukunst Archiv Paul Thek Sea With Mushrooms, 1969 Chalk, watercolour and fixative on board Open: 100 x 365 cm Closed: 100 x 200 cm Daniel W. Dietrich II Collection Niel Toroni Empreintes de pinceau n° 50 [Brush Marks No. 50], 2007 Brush marks on wall at 30 cm intervals, executed in situ Charwei Tsai Mushroom Mantra, 2008 Installation Mushrooms Approx 6 x 3 cm each Collection of the artist USCO Contact Is The Only Love, 1962-2002 Electrical circuit, halogen lamps, speakers, motor 81.28 x 53.34 x 27.94 cm Intermedia Foundation, Cresskill USCO Shiva, 1966 Part of “The Tabernacle” environment Paint, bulbs, electronic pulsator, various materials. 274 x 274 cm Intermedia Foundation, Cresskill

Theo Van Doesburg Compositie [Composition], 1915 Pastel on black paper 32 x 24 cm Centraal Museum, Utrecht On loan from The Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage Van Moorsel Bequest Theo Van Doesburg Meisje met ranonkels [Young Girl with Ranunculuses], ca. 1915 Oil on canvas 80 x 80 cm Centraal Museum, Utrecht Carl Van Vechten Portrait of Brion Gysin, 1957 Digital display print Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division Carl Van Vechten Collection Bill Viola Room for St. John of the Cross, 1983 Video installation, colour, sound 426.7 x 731.5 x 914.4 cm The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles Aby Warburg Hemis Kachina Stopping in Front of the Pine Shrine at the Dance at Oraibi, Arizona May 1896 Digital display print Courtesy of the Warburg Institute, London Aby Warburg The Snake Dance at Walpi, 1896 21.6 x 16.5 cm Digital display print Courtesy of the Warburg Institute, London Andy Warhol Diamond Dust Shadow, 1979 Synthetic polymer paint, silkscreen ink and diamond dust on canvas 193 x 127.6 cm The Merla Art Foundation The Dresing Collection, London Robert Whitaker Allen Ginsberg in Hyde Park, London, 1967 Digital display print Robert Whitaker Archives Joshua White Joshua Light Show. Liquid Loops, 1969 35 mm film, colour, silent, 7’ repeated 9 times Lights by Cecily Hoyt Collection of the artist

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Mary Wigman Hexentanz [Witch Dance], 1929 35 mm film, b. & w., sound, 2’ Extract from Mary Wigman tanzt. Four solos by Mary Wigman Music by Hanns Hasting and Meta Mentz La Cinémathèque de la Danse, Paris Bundesfilmarchiv/Transit Film GmbH Huang Yong Ping Ehi Ehi Sina Sina, 2006 Produced by the Centre International d’Art et du Paysage, Île de Vassivière Wood, copper and electric motor H. 1190 cm; dia. 216 cm Collection of the artist

Anonymous Timothy Leary Stands Before the Marquee of the Village Theatre Announcing his Lecture on “The Reincarnation of Jesus Christ,” New York, 19 October 1966 Digital display print Wallace Berman Semina Nos. 1-9, Los Angeles, 1957-1964 Facsimile edition of 320 under the direction of George Herms published by LA Louver Gallery, 1992 Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Bibliothèque Kandinsky Annie Besant and Charles W. Leadbeater Les Formes-Pensées [Thought Forms], 1905 Paris, Éditions Adyar 17 x 25.5 cm Société Théosophique de France Annie Besant and Charles W. Leadbeater Gedankenformen [Thought Forms], 1908 Leipzig, Theosophisches Verlagshaus 23.5 x 16.5 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Bibliothèque Kandinsky Annie Besant and Charles W. Leadbeater Les Formes-Pensées [Thought Forms], 1925 Paris, Éditions Adyar 21.6 x 14.5 x 2 cm Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris André Breton Assemblage of photographs of André Breton in a Zuni reserve and drawings by Hopi Indians, 1945 Three photographs and two graphite drawings pasted on board 53.8 x 35.5 cm Chancellerie des Universités de Paris – Bibliothèque littéraire Jacques Doucet, Paris André Breton Notebook, Visit to the Hopi Indians, 7-27 August 1945 Pencil on squared paper 12.5 x 7.5 cm Chancellerie des Universités de Paris – Bibliothèque littéraire Jacques Doucet, Paris William S. Burroughs Junky, 1977 London, Penguin Books 18 x 11 x 1 cm Introduction by Allen Ginsberg First unabridged edition of the work earlier published as Junkie under the pseudonym William Lee, by Ace Books, New York, in 1953 Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris

John Cage 4’33’’, 1952 EP 6777 Edition Peters, 1960 Médiathèque de l’IRCAM, Paris Lyonel Feininger Kathedrale [Cathedral], cover for the Bauhaus Manifesto and Programme, April 1919 Drypoint. Full-scale reproduction of the original woodcut 31.9 x 39.2 cm Bauhaus-Archiv, Berlin Allen Ginsberg Kaddish, and Other Poems, 1973 Millwood, New York 1st edition: San Francisco, City Lights Books, 1961 16 x 12 cm American Library, Paris Rick Griffin Neon Rose Lucifer Rising / Oracle Overprint, 1967 Poster for Kenneth Anger’s Lucifer Rising Offset 51 x 71 cm Cameron Jamie Collection Aldous Huxley The Doors of Perception, 1954 London, Chatto and Windus 19 x 13 cm American Library, Paris Jack Kerouac The Dharma Bums, 1958 New York, Viking Press 21 x 13 cm Shakespeare and Company, Paris Charles W. Leadbeater L’Homme visible and invisible [Man Visible and Invisible], 1903 Paris, Éditions Adyar 22 x 14.5 x 2.5 cm Charles W. Leadbeater L’Homme visible and invisible [Man Visible and Invisible], 1929 Paris, Éditions Adyar 22 x 14.5 x 2.5 cm Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris Charles W. Leadbeater Der sichtbare und der unsichtbare Mensch [Man Visible and Invisible], 1903 Theosophisches Verlagshaus, Leipzig 15 x 22.7 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Bibliothèque Kandinsky

DOCUMENTATION Anonymous Aby Warburg Wearing a Hemis Kachina mask, Oraibi, Arizona, May 1896 Digital display print Warburg Institute, London Anonymous Erika Schlegel and Sophie Taeuber-Arp in Hopi-Inspired Costumes by Sophie Taeuber-Arp, 1921-1922 b. & w. photographic print 17.7 x 11.7 cm Fondation Arp, Clamart Anonymous Hugo Ball reciting “Karawane” at Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich, 1916 Hugo Ball in a costume by Marcel Janco during “Poems Without Words” Original b. & w. photographic print 13.9 x 8.5 cm Estate of Hugo Ball and Emmy Hennings / Robert Walser Archiv, Zurich Anonymous “L’après-midi d’un faune,” Comoedia Illustré N° 18, 15 June 1912 31.2 x 24.2 cm Adrien Sina Collection Anonymous “Programme officiel des Ballets Russes au Théâtre du Châtelet,” Comoedia Illustré, June 1911 Sixth season organised by Serge Diaghilev Watercolours by Léon Bakst: Vaslav Nijinsky in “La Péri” (cover) and in the costume of “Narcisse” (inside) 32 x 25 cm. 62 pages Adrien Sina Collection

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André Masson Le Crucifié dans Sacrifices, [The Crucified, from Sacrifices], 1936 Paris, Éditions G.L.M. Etching Portfolio: 47 x 35 x 0.5 cm Private collection, Paris André Masson Le Minotaure dans Sacrifices [The Minotaur, from Sacrifices], 1936 Paris, Éditions G.L.M. Etching Portfolio: 47 x 35 x 0.5 cm Private collection, Paris André Masson Mythra dans Sacrifices [Mithras, from Sacrifices], 1936 Paris, Éditions G.L.M. Etching Portfolio: 47 x 35 x 0.5 cm Private collection, Paris André Masson Orphée dans Sacrifices [Orpheus, from Sacrifices], 1936 Paris, Éditions G.L.M. Etching Portfolio: 47 x 35 x 0.5 cm Private collection, Paris André Masson Osiris dans Sacrifices [Osiris, from Sacrifices], 1936 Paris, Éditions G.L.M. Etching Portfolio: 47 x 35 x 0.5 cm Private collection, Paris Henri Michaux Misérable miracle [Miserable Miracle], 1956 Monaco, Éditions du Rocher 25 x 19.3 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Bibliothèque Kandinsky Henri Michaux Misérable miracle [Miserable Miracle], 1956 Monaco, Éditions du Rocher 25 x 19.3 cm Collection J. Caritey Lee Miller Max Ernst building his house at Sedona, wearing a kachina mask, 1946 Digital display print Lee Miller Archive, United Kingdom

Valère Novarina Au dieu inconnu [To the Unknown God], 2000 A sequence from La Chair de l’homme, Screenprint.107 x 76 cm Éditions Héros-Limite Atelier de sérigraphie Nadia Raviscioni, Artamis, Geneva. Valentine de Saint-Point “Nijinski,” Comoedia, 30 December 1911 Poem illustrated by Léon Bakst, M. Nijinsky 31 x 22 cm Adrien Sina Collection Germaine de Staël De l’Allemagne [Germany], 1814 Amsterdam, G. Dufour, vol. II 18 x 12.3 x 3.5 cm Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris Herbert Tichner Völkerkundliche Filmdokumente aus der Südsee aus den Jahren 1908-1910 [Ethnographic Documentaries from the South Seas, 1908-1910] Hamburg, Hamburgische SüdseeExpedition 16 mm film, b. & w., silent, 12’ Extracts: -Maskentanz auf den Mortlock-Inseln, Zentral-Karolinen [Masked Dance, Mortlock Islands (Caroline Islands)], 33’’ -Tanze auf Truk [Dances on Truk]: * Sitz und Bauchtanz [Seated and Belly Dances], 42’’ * Sitztanz [Seated Dance], 18’’ * Stehtanz [Standing Dance], 1’19’’ -Trommeltanz von Möve Hafen, Neupommern, Bismarck Archipel [Drum Dance from Möve Hafen, New Pomerania, Bismarck Archipelago], 49’’ Museum für Völkerkunder, Hamburg Aby Warburg Drawing of a Hemis Kachina Mask (notebook), 1886 Ink on paper Closed: 14.5 x 9 cm . Open: 29.5 x 9 cm Courtesy of the Warburg Institute, London James H. White, Frederick W. Bleckyrden Carrying Out the Snakes, 1901 Ethnographic Documentary on Hopi Indians, Arizona 16 mm film, b. & w., silent, 52’’ Producer: Thomas A. Edison Archival film and video materials from the collections, Library of Congress, Washington

James H. White, Frederick W. Bleckyrden Line-Up and Teasing the Snakes, 1901 Ethnographic Documentary on Hopi Indians, Arizona 16 mm film, b. & w., silent, 1’02’’ Producer: Thomas A. Edison Archival film and video materials from the collections, Library of Congress, Washington James H. White, Frederick W. Bleckyrden The March of Prayer and Entrance of the Dancers, 1901 Ethnographic Documentary on Hopi Indians, Arizona 16 mm film, b. & w., silent, 1’20’’ Producer: Thomas A. Edison Archival film and video materials from the collections, Library of Congress, Washington James H. White, Frederick W. Bleckyrden Parade of the Snake Dancers Before the Dance, 1901 Ethnographic Documentary on Hopi Indians, Arizona 16 mm film, b. & w., silent, 35’ Producer: Thomas A. Edison Archival film and video materials from the collections, Library of Congress, Washington

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PRESS PICTURES
MARKED © ADAGP, PARIS 2008

www.centrepompidou.fr/presse/dossiers/visuelstelechargeables.zip

• Two images may be reproduced free of charge, no larger than one quarter page each, but only in connection with the promotion of the exhibition; • For a greater number of images or reproduction in a larger format, permission must be obtained from the Press Department of the ADAGP, for which a fee will be charged; • Reproduction on the cover or front page requires permission; • Whatever the origin of the image or the location of the work represented, the copyright notice that must accompany any reproduction (or in the art press, appear in the photo credits) will take the form: © Adagp, Paris 2007. ADAGP - 11, rue Berryer - 75008 PARIS, tel: 01 43 59 09 79 - fax: 01 45 63 44 89. Information: http://www.adagp.fr MARKED © SUCCESSION PICASSO, 2008 The reproductions of works by Pablo Picassoare not free of copyright. However, images may be reproduced free of charge provided that they are no larger than one quarter page and accompany articles reporting on the exhibition. PICASSO ADMINISTRATION- 8 rue Volney - 75002 Paris. Tel : 01 47 03 69 70 - Fax : 01 47 03 69 60. Contact: Christine Pinault / cpinault@picasso.fr

André Bély Meditationszeichnung (Wirbel), aus dem Konvolut “Angeloi” (Geister der Bewegung) [Meditation Drawing (Whirlpool), from the “Angeloi” portfolio (Spirits of Movement)], 1913 Gouache and bronze on paper 36 x 44 cm Rudolf Steiner Archiv, Dornach

Marjorie Cameron Dark Angel, ca. 1955 Crayon, ink and paint on paper 88.3 x 60.3 cm Courtesy Nicole Klagsbrun Gallery, New York

Joseph Beuys Sonnenkreuz [Sun Cross], 1947-1948 Bronze with matt brownish black patination and cast-iron joints 36.5 x 20 x 2.5 cm Museum Schloss Moyland, Sammlung Van der Grinten Collection Photo: Nol Roozeboom, Nijmegen (Netherlands) © Adagp, Paris 2008 Carl Gustav Carus Ruine im Mondschein (Klosterruine Altzella) [Ruins by Moonlight (Ruins of the Altzella Monastery)], 1820 Oil on wood 41 x 30.5 cm Victor Brauner Nombre, 1943 Plaster, lead, porcelain 164 x 64 x 64 cm Musée Cantini, Marseille Bequest of Jacqueline Victor-Brauner to the Réunion des musées nationaux (1986) allocated to the Musée Cantini (1988) Photo: Jean Bernard © Adagp, Paris 2008 Kunstsammlungen, Chemnitz Photo PUNCTUM/Bertram Kober

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Maurizio Cattelan Him, 2001 Wax, hair, fabric and polyester resin 101 x 41 x 53 cm Collection François Pinault Photo: Attilio Maranzano

Tobias Collier Mandala, 2005-2008 Aluminium foil, varnish, glue Variable dimensions Pianissimo Gallery, Milan © Tobias Collier

Aleister Crowley Self-Portrait, ca. 1920 Oil on wood Marc Chagall Hommage à Apollinaire, 1911-1912 Oil on canvas 203.5 x 192 cm Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven photo Peter Cox, Eindhoven, Netherlands © Adagp, Paris 2008 19 x 24.2 cm Private collection © Ordo Templis Orientis Ltd

Paul Chan 1st Light, 2005 Installation with digital video projection, 14’ Variable dimensions Courtesy Paul Chan and Greene Naftali Gallery, New York Astrup Fearnley Collection, Oslo Photo: Martin Runeborg

Salvador Dalí Parfois je crache par plaisir sur le portrait de ma mère [Sometimes I Spit with Pleasure on the Portrait of my Mother], 1929 Indian ink on fine grey linen canvas pasted on board 68.3 x 50.1 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Purchased 1989 © Salvador Dalí, Gala-Salvador Dalí

Giorgio De Chirico La Nostalgia dell’infinito [Nostalgia of the Infinite], 1912-1913 Oil on canvas 135.2 x 64.8 cm The Museum of Modern Art, New York Photo: Scala, Florence 2008 © Adagp, Paris 2008

Fondation / Adagp, Paris 2008

Gino De Dominicis Asta d’oro, equilibrio 1 (Asta in Bilico) [Gold Bar, Equilibrium 1 (Bar in equilibrium)], 1968/1969-1990 Brass bar covered in gold leaf, wood H. 385 cm; dia. 4 cm Collection Italo Tomassoni, Foligno © Gino De Dominicis

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Jay DeFeo The Eyes [Les Yeux], 1958 Graphite on paper 106.7 x 215.3 cm Whitney Museum of American Art, New York Gift of the Lannan Foundation Photo: Geoffrey Clements © Adagp, Paris 2008

Max Ernst The Virgin Spanking the Christ Child before Three Witnesses: André Breton, Paul Eluard and the Painter, 1926 Oil on canvas 196 x 130 cm Museum Ludwig, Cologne Photo: Stadt Köln Rheinisches Bildarchiv © Adagp, Paris 2008

Otto Dix Schwangeres Weib [Pregnant Woman], 1919 Oil on canvas 135 x 73 cm Kunstmuseum, Stuttgart Permanent loan by Dr. Freerk Valentien © Adagp, Paris 2008 mounir fatmi Casse-tête pour musulman modéré, [Brainteaser for a Moderate Muslim], 2004 Acrylic on five altered Rubik cubes Cubes: 54 x 11.5 x 13.5 cm (each) Courtesy of B.A.N.K, Paris

Hermann Finsterlin Otto Dix Selbstbildnis als Mars [Self-portrait as Mars], 1915 Oil on canvas 81 x 66 cm Städtische Sammlungen, Freital © Adagp, Paris 2008 Kathedrale des Lichts, Serie IV, Blatt 4 [Cathedral of Light, Series IV, Sheet 4], 1920-1924 Watercolour and pencil on paper 34.2 x 18.2 cm Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, Graphische Sammlung, Stuttgart © Adagp, Paris 2008

Marcel Duchamp Le Buisson, [The Bush], 1910-1911 Oil on canvas 127.5 x 92 cm Philadelphia Museum of Art, The Louise and Walter Arensberg Collection © Succession Marcel Duchamp / Adagp, Paris 2008

Caspar David Friedrich Ruinen in der Abenddämmerung (Kirchenruine im Wald) [Ruins at Dusk (Church Ruins in the Woods)], ca. 1831 Oil on canvas 70.5 x 49.7 cm Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Neue Pinakothek, Munich Photo: Blauel/Gnamm-ARTOTHEK Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Neue Pinakothek, Munich

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Akseli Gallen-Kallela Ad Astra, 1894 Oil on canvas, wood Painting: 76 x 85 cm Overall: 130 x 116.5 cm Private collection

Johannes Itten Einatmen, ausatmen [Breathe In, Breath Out], 1922 Pencil and watercolour on paper 30 x 30 cm Private collection © Adagp, Paris 2008

John Giorno Eating the Sky [Manger le ciel], vers 1989 Acrylic on canvas 51 x 51 cm Collection of the artist © John Giorno Cameron Jamie Kranky Masks, 2004 Wood, goat’s horns, animal fur Overall: 210 x 75 x 50 cm Base: 35 x 47 cm Collection of the artist © Cameron Jamie

Wenzel Hablik Freitragende Kuppel mit fünf Bergspitzen als Basis [Cantilever Cupola with Five Hilltops as Basis], 1924 Oil on canvas 166 x 191 cm Wenzel-Hablik-Foundation, Itzehoe

Vassily Kandinsky Pierre Huyghe One Million Kingdoms, 2001 Vistavision transferred to Beta digital, colour, sound, 6’ Courtesy Pierre Huyghe and Galerie Marian Goodman, Paris, New York © Adagp, Paris 2008 Dame in Moskau [Woman in Moscow], 1912 Oil on canvas 108.8 x 108.8 cm Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich © Adagp, Paris 2008

Vassily Kandinsky Komposition VI [Composition VI], 1913 Oil on canvas 194 x 294 cm Hermitage Museum, Saint-Petersburg © Hermitage State Museum, 2008 © Adagp, Paris 2008

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Hilma af Klint De tio största, n° 2 Barnaaldern [The Ten Greatest, No. 2 Childhood], 1907 Tempera on paper pasted on canvas 328 x 240 cm The Hilma af Klint Foundation, Stockholm © The Hilma af Klint Foundation

Man Ray La Prière, [The Prayer], 1930 Photograph on canvas 32 x 23 cm Galerie À l’Enseigne des Oudin, Paris © MAN RAY TRUST / Adagp, Paris 2008

Franti⌃ek Kupka Waterlilies, 1900-1902 Aquatint on paper 34.5 x 34.7 cm Overall: 53.5 x 40.5 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Gift of Eugénie Kupka, 1963 dist RMN, photo Philippe Migeat © Adagp, Paris 2008 Franz Marc Pferd in Landschaft [Horse in a Landscape], 1910 Oil on canvas 85 x 112 cm Museum Folkwang, Essen

Franti⌃ek Kupka Le Rêve, [The Dream], ca. 1906-1909 Oil on board 31.3 x 32 cm Museum Bochum, Bochum © Adagp, Paris 2008 Piet Mondrian Composition with Two Lines, 1931 Oil on canvas 112 x 80 cm Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam © 2008 Mondrian / Holtzman Trust c/o HCR International

Piet Mondrian Evolutie [Evolution], ca. 1911 Oil on canvas 183 x 257.5 cm Wilhelm Lehmbruck Der Gestürzte [The Fallen], 1915-1916 Bronze 80.5 x 240 x 83.5 cm Wilhelm Lehmbruck Museum, Zentrum Internationaler Skulptur, Duisburg Lehmbruck Nachlass Stiftung Gemeentemuseum den Haag, The Hague © 2008 Mondrian / Holtzman Trust c/o HCR International

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Lee Mullican Peyote Candle,1951 Oil on canvas 127 x 88.9 cm Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Collection of Luchita Mullican Courtesy of Marc Selwyn Fine Art, Los Angeles Photo: © Museum Associates/ LACMA

Bruce Nauman Dog Biting Its Ass/Dog Biting Itself [Chien mordant son c… / Chien se mordant], 1989 Aluminium, steel wire 87.5 x 75 x 85 cm Private collection courtesy Gallerie Konrad Fischer © Adagp, Paris 2008

Bruce Nauman The True Artist Helps the World by Edvard Munch Friedrich Nietzsche, 1906 Charcoal, pastel and tempera on paper 196 x 128 cm Munch Museum, Oslo Photo : Richard Jeffries © The Munch Museum / The Munch Ellingsen Group / Adagp, Paris 2008 Revealing Mystic Truths (Window or Wall Sign) Glass, neon tube, transformers 150 x 140 x 5 cm Kunstmuseum, Basel Photo : Martin Bühler © Adagp, Paris 2008

Barnett Newman Jakob von Narkiewicz-Jodko Effluves d'une main électrifiée posée sur la plaque photographique, [Effluvia From an Electrified Hand Resting on a Photographic Plate], March 1896 Silver-gelatine print 18.1 x 12.9 cm Fonds Camille Flammarion, Société astronomique de France Pagan Void [Vide païen], 1946 Oil on canvas 83.8 x 96.5 cm National Gallery of Art, Washington Gift of Annalee Newman, in Honor of the 50th Anniversary of the National Gallery of Art © 2007 Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington © The Barnett Newman Foundation / ARS, New York / Adagp, Paris 2008

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Emil Nolde Kerzentänzerinnen [Candle Dancers], Oil on canvas 100.5 x 86.5 cm Nolde Stiftung Seebüll, Neukirchen

Eli Petel Might This Thing Be, 2007 Pearls, thread Variable dimensions Dvir Gallery, Tel Aviv

Gina Pane Ideal Situation: Earth-Artist-Sky, Écos (Eure), 1969 Colour photograph pasted on painted wood 51.8 x 68 x 1.8 cm Collection Frac des Pays de la Loire, Carquefou photo Stéphane Bellanger, Nantes © Adagp, Paris 2008 Pablo Picasso La Crucifixion, Boisgeloup, 17 September 1932 Indian ink and rubbing on paper 34 x 51 cm Musée Picasso, Paris Photo: RMN/Béatrice Hatala © Succession Picasso, 2008

Frédéric Pardo Bouddha invisible, [Invisible Buddha], 1968-1969 Oil and gold leaf on wood panel 90.5 x 50 cm Collection Thérèse Pardo © Frédéric Pardo Huang Yong Ping Ehi Ehi Sina Sina, 2006 Produced by the Centre International d’Art et du Paysage, Île de Vassivière Wood, copper and electric motor H. 1190 cm; dia. 216 cm Collection of the artist © Adagp, Paris 2008 Photo : Georges Meguerditchian, Centre Pompidou

Bruno Perramant Three Horses: Black Apocalypse No. 2 (The Dark Gods), 2006 Oil on canvas Overall: 130 x 370 cm Right panel: 120 x 120 cm Middle panel: 130 x 130 cm left panel: 120 x 120 cm Courtesy Galerie In SITU Fabienne Leclerc, Paris Photo: Marc Domage

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Paul Ranson Christ and Buddha, ca 1880 Oil on canvas 66.7 x 51.4 cm Triton Foundation, Netherlands

Paul Sérusier Le Cylindre d’or, [Gold Cylinder], ca. 1910 Oil on cotton fabric 38.2 x 27.7 cm Musée des beaux-arts, Rennes © Rennes, dist. RMN © Adélaïde Beaudoin

Mark Rothko Untitled (Black, Red Over Black on Red) Oil on canvas 205 x 193 cm Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris Donation in lieu of tax, 2007. From the collection of M. and Mme Jean-Pierre Moueix Photo: diffusion RMN/ photo Jacques Faujour © 1998, Kate Rothko Prizel & Christopher Rothko / Adagp, Paris 2008 Rudolf Steiner Der Menschheitsrepräsentant [The Representative of Humanity], 1915 Plaster Overall: 200 x 103 x 90 cm Armature: 79 x 100 x 99 cm Rudolf Steiner Archiv, Dornach

Franck Scurti From the Beginning of the World to Our Own Day, 2005-2007 24 drawings Mixed media 47 x 36 cm (each) Courtesy Franck Scurti and Galerie Anne de Villepoix, Paris © Franck Scurti 2006 © Adagp, Paris 2008 Usco Shiva, 1965 Part of “The Tabernacle” environment Paint, bulbs, mécanisme pulsant, various materials. 274 x 274 cm Intermedia Foundation, Cresskill

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Theo Van Doesburg Meisje met ranonkels [Young Girl with Ranunculuses], ca. 1915 Oil on canvas 80 x 80 cm Centraal Museum, Utrecht Photo: Centraal Museum, Utrecht/Ernst Moritz

Andy Warhol Diamond Dust Shadow, 1979 Synthetic polyment paint, silkscreen ink and diamond dust on canvas 193 x 127.6 cm The Merla Art Foundation The Dresing Collection, London © 2006 Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts / Adagp, Paris 2008

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