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Introduction to Music Theory Shenandoah Conservatory, Fall 2012

Name:_____________________ Homework #1: Intervals

Begin by reading Benjamin, Horvit, and Nelson, pp. 3–12. PART A. GENERIC AND SPECIFIC INTERVALS • • • Generic intervals are intervals within the diatonic group of seven letters. For generic intervals, accidentals do not matter. Specific intervals are intervals within the chromatic group of twelve pitch classes. For specific intervals, accidentals matter. Intervals larger than an octave are termed “compound,” but we usual call them by their “simple” equivalent. Tenths and thirds are equivalent in this way.

1. Produce the generic intervals indicated. Then determine the specific interval you’ve produce. The first is done for you.

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This is too many to memorize for immediate recall. • p. The first is done for you. An analogy for decomposition familiar from mental math might be calculating 37+65 as 37+60+5 = 97+5 = 102. !" !# $% &" $% !# &# $% $% !" &# $% %& #$ !" !$ !" %& %& #$ !" %& %& !$ #& %& #$ !" %$ %$ !" #$ %$ !" !" #$ . and perfect fifths (P5). whereby you break an interval into two parts (one of which you’ve memorized) and add them successively. MEMORIZING PERFECT FIFTHS. In order to quickly produce large intervals through decomposition. 2 of 6 • • There are roughly 200 intervals that you’re likely to encounter in music. MAJOR THIRDS. major thirds (M3). you’ll first work towards memorizing about a quarter of the intervals: minor seconds (m2).Name: ________________________ PART B. minor thirds (m3). One method of producing intervals quickly is decomposition. Produce the given intervals. 2. AND MAJOR SECONDS FOR IMMEDIATE RECALL. major seconds (M2).

Use closed note heads for the perfect fifths and open notes for the target notes... *+ $%&'. !+ $%&'.. *+ $%&'.. !+ $%&'. !" $%&'.. *+ $%&'...... Complete the following expressions: P4 = P5 – M2___ m7 = P5 + _____ m6 = P5 + _____ M7 = P5 + _____ M6 = P5 + _____ A4/d5 ≈ P5 – _____ 4. M2. !" $%&'. !+ $%&'.... M3... *" $%&'. !" $%&'.Name: ________________________ PART C.... • p. *" $%&'....... !+$%&'. *"$%&'..... *+ $%&'..... !"#$%&'!( !+$%&'..... *+ $%&'. !+ $%&'. stating the smaller interval needed to complete the larger interval. you can produce all the other intervals more quickly... 3 of 6 With m2..... 3. !" $%&'.. .. *+ $%&'.... !" $%&'.. !" $%&'..... ) & $%&'.. *" $%&'..... and producing this smaller interval... !+ $%&'.... *+ $%&'..... !" $%&'........ First you need to clarify how intervals are decomposed.. and P5 available for immediate recall.. !+$%&'.... !+ $%&'.. Produce the following large intervals through decomposition by first producing a perfect fifth...... ) & $%&'. PRODUCING OTHER INTERVALS THROUGH DECOMPOSITION....

A6 ≈ ______ 2.” For example. !' !% !( #" #& #& !' !% !' #& #$ !% !( #& !% #$ !" !" Note: a major second is “expanded” to an augmented second. NON-DIATONIC INTERVALS • For each generic interval (except the unison) there are exactly two specific intervals that occur in the diatonic collection (“a major scale”): M2/m2. The first is done for you.1 • The other method is to find the diatonic cousin and respell the note.” • Common non-diatonic intervals include A2. • Non-diatonic intervals have diatonic cousins that are “enharmonically equivalent. For example. A5 ≈ ______ 6. 4 of 6 PART D. M3/m3. A2 ≈ ______ 4. A6 and d7. Whether this expansion means you move a pitch up or down depends on whether you’re producing an interval above or below a given note. One is alter their diatonic cousins by. an A3 and a P4 are enharmonically equivalent. 1 . All other intervals are “non-diatonic. for example finding a M2 and expanding the interval by a half step to get an A2. d3. and M7/m7. A4/P4. but they are different generic intervals. P5/d5. M6/m6.Name: ________________________ p. A8 ≈ m2 5. Produce the following non-diatonic intervals. To use this method. an A2 on the keyboard looks exactly like a m3. • There are two methods of producing these intervals. What is the diatonic cousin of the following non-diatonic intervals? 1. d3 ≈ ______ 6. 5. the respelling of Eb as a kind of D. so an A3 above Bb is D#. you must memorize these enharmonic equivalences. d7 ≈ ______ 3.

PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 8. Produce the following large intervals using inversion. 7ths invert to 2nds).g. 3rds invert to 6ths. 5 of 6 • • Intervals related by inversion combine to form an octave.Name: ________________________ PART E. Indicate the interval of inversion. as shown in the example. m6 is the inversion of M3. ↑m7 = ↓M2 + P8. It may be faster to produce large intervals using inversion. o Replace the specific component (the quality) by swapping major for minor and augmented for diminished. . The mental math corollary would be finding 87+96 as 87+100–4=183. Perfect intervals are still perfect under inversion. To invert an interval: o Replace the generic component with the number that when added equals 9 (e. Measure the following intervals.. For example. PRODUCING INTERVALS THROUGH INVERSION • • p. For example. 7. !"#$# %&'# () !* $ +++' ()# %" $ +++' ()# !" $ +++' ()# %* $ +++' ()# !* $ +++' ()# %" $ +++' ()# !" $ +++' ()# !* $ +++' ()# %" $ +++' ()# PART F.

Produce the following intervals below the given pitch. & bw M2 nw #w M3 #w nw P5 bw P4 bw nw m6 d5 bw M6 #w A4 ? nw m2 #w m2 bw M6 bw d4 A5 m3 .Name: ________________________ 9. Produce the following intervals above the given pitch. 6 of 6 & ? nw m3 nw P4 nw M7 #w m6 nw M3 nw nw d5 m6 bw M6 bw #w M2 m7 nw bw A4 A6 bw bw A2 P5 10. p.

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