Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
1



Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
2


















Name:_________________________________________

Class: _____________ Section:__________

Roll No: ________ Group:_______________________













Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
3








Certified that Miss. / Mr._______________________________


Of class ____________ has carried out the necessary practical

work as prescribed by the Board of Intermediate Education /

University of Karachi for the year _____________________







__________________________________ ______________________________
Head of the department In charge



Date:__________________ Date:______________



Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
4

S.
No

Date


P.
No

Initial

1

To determine the unknown resistance by
using a neon flash lamp and a capacitor.

01


2

To convert the given galvanometer in to an
ammeter up to the range [ 0 – 1 ] ampere.

05


3

To convert the given galvanometer in to an
voltmeter up to the range [ 0 – 1 ] volt.

10


4

To calibrate a voltmeter by using a
potentiometer.

15


5

To calibrate an ammeter by using a
potentiometer.

18


6

To calibrate an ammeter and a voltmeter by
using a potentiometer.

21


7

To determine the low resistance of the given
coil by Carey foster bridge.

25


8

To determine the value of two unknown
resistances by using a potentiometer and
verify the law of combination of resistances
in series or parallel.

31


9

To determine the work function of a metal by
using a sodium light.

36


10

To determine the ionization potential of
mercury.

40


11

To set up half and full wave rectifier and
study their waveforms on an oscilloscope.

44


12

To study the characteristics of an RLC series
acceptor circuit by plotting a response curve.

52


13

To study the characteristics of an RLC
rejecter circuit by plotting a response curve.

57



14

To plot the characteristics curve of a semi
conductor diode. Determine the forward and
reverse impedances [Resistances].

62


15

To study the static characteristics of a given
transistor in common emitter mode.

65


16

To determine the Plank’s constant by using a
spectrometer and hydrogen discharge tube.

70



Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
5


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS


PRACTICAL [ III ]

 To determine the unknown resistance by using a
neon flash lamp and a capacitor.

 To convert the given galvanometer in to an
ammeter up to the range [ 0 – 1 ] ampere.

 To convert the given galvanometer in to an
voltmeter up to the range [ 0 – 1 ] volt.

 To calibrate a voltmeter by using a
potentiometer.

 To calibrate an ammeter by using a
potentiometer.

 To calibrate an ammeter and a voltmeter by
using a potentiometer.

 To determine the low resistance of the given coil
by Carey foster bridge.

 To determine the value of two unknown
resistances by using a potentiometer and verify
the law of combination of resistances in series
or parallel.




Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
6

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

PRACTICAL [ IV ]

 To determine the work function of a metal by
using a sodium light.

 To determine the ionization potential of mercury.

 To study the characteristics of an RLC series or
acceptor circuit by plotting a response curve.
Determine the resonant frequency , band width
and Q factor of the circuit

 To study the characteristics of an RLC parallel or
rejector circuit by plotting a response curve.
Determine the resonant frequency , band width
and Q factor of the circuit

 To plot the characteristics curve of a semi
conductor diode. Determine the forward and
reverse impedances [Resistances].

 To study the static characteristics of a given
transistor in common emitter mode.

 To set up half and full wave rectifier and study
their waveforms on an oscilloscope. Also study
the effect of smoothing circuit ( filter circuit ) on
ripple voltage.

 To determine the Plank’s constant by using a
spectrometer and hydrogen discharge tube.

Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
7

EXPERIMENT NO . 1

OBJECT: To determine the unknown resistance by using a neon
flash lamp and a capacitor.

APPARATUS: Neon flash lamp , Capacitor , Unknown resistance,
D.C main supply , Stop watch.

THEORY: The capacitor C is charged through the resistance R
until the potential difference across capacitor attains the striking
voltage V
S
of the neon bulb. At this voltage the neon gas in the
bulb ionizes and begins to emit light. The capacitor then begins to
discharge through the neon bulb until it’s potential difference is
reduced to the value of V
e
known as the extinction voltage at
which the ionization and emission of light from the neon bulb is
stop. This gives rise to a flash of light. and we get flashes of light
one after other. The time between two consecutive flashes is
known as flashing time.
Let t
1
be the time for the capacitor to charge up to V
S
volt and t
2

be the time for the capacitor to charge up to V
e .
Since the relation
between the voltage V across the capacitor after t seconds and the
applied voltage V
0
is V = V
0
[ 1 – e
– 1 / CR
]
]
s
V
e
V
0
V
[ log CR
1
t
÷
= , ]
s
V
e
V
0
V
[ log CR
2
t
÷
=

]
s
V
e
V
e
V
0
V
[ log CR ]
2
t -
1
t [ T Period Flashing
÷
÷
= =















Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
8

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:



OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of stop watch = 0 . 01 sec

S.
No.
Resistance
R
Time for 10 flashes Mean
Time
Flashing
Period
T = t / 10
1 2 3
Ohms Sec Sec Sec Sec Sec
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.










Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
9


GRAPH BETWEEN
RESISTANCE & FLASHING TIME

Along X – axis
One small division = ________ Ohms

Along Y – axis
One small division = ________ min



Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
10

CALCULATIONS:
FROM GRAPH

Value of A = R
1
=____________ Ohms
Value of B = R
2
= ____________ Ohms


















RESULT:

 The value of unknown resistances from graph [ using a neon
flash lamp ] are found to be
 Value of A = R
1
=____________ Ohms
 Value of B = R
2
= ____________ Ohms
 The theoretical value of A + B = __________ Ohms
 The value of A + B from graph = __________ Ohms
 The theoretical value of
B
1

A
1
+

= ____ Ohms
 The value of A + B from graph
B
1

A
1
+

= ___ Ohms


Teacher’s signature




2
R
1

1
R
1

R
1
+ =


2
R
1
R
2
R
1
R
R
+
×
=







R
+
×
=



R = _____________ Ohms
FROM GRAPH

R =
B
1

A
1
+ = ____ Ohms



R = R
1
+ R
2

R = +

R = _____________ Ohms

FROM GRAPH

R = A + B = _____ Ohms


Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
11

PRECAUTION:
 Least count of stop watch should be noted and graduation on
stopwatch should be studied carefully before starting the
experiment.
 The applied voltage should be kept constant through out the
experiment.
 The capacitance of the capacitor should be selected so as to
get a measureable rate of flashing with the unknown
resistance.
 In order to avoid error due to photo electric effect the
experiment should be performed in a dark room or the neon
bulb may be enclosed in a box with a small sighting hole.
 The DC mains voltage should be greater than the striking
voltage for the lamp.
 Reading for time and striking voltage should be noted at at
the instant when the lamp just glows.
 The stop watch should be started at the same time when DC
mains is switched on.

SOURCES OF ERROR :
 Inaccuracy of stopwatch.
 Loose connections
 Voltage flections.
 Necked wire should not be touched when the switch is on.
 Before starting the experiment get the circuit checked by
your teacher









Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
12

EXPERIMENT NO . 2

OBJECT: To convert the given galvanometer in to an ammeter up
to the range [ 0 – 1 ] ampere.

APPARATUS: Galvanometer, Voltmeter, Ammeter, Resistance
Box , Rheostat , Screw Gauge , 0ne way Key , Connecting Wires ,
Shunt Wire and Battery.

THEORY: A galvanometer having a resistance R
g
gives a full
scale deflection when a current I
g
is passed through it.. It can be
converted in to an ammeter up to the range [ 0 – 1 ] ampere by
connecting a small suitable resistance R
S
in parallel to it. The value
of the shunt resistance R
S
is such that when this parallel
combination of galvanometer and shunt resistance S is connected
in series with a circuit carrying a current I , it allows a current Ig to
pass through the galvanometer and the rest of the current [ I – Ig ]
through the attached shunt resistances. The Rg ( The resistance of
galvanometer ) and Ig ( Current for full scale deflection ) can be
calculated by the following formulas.

S
R _
H
R
S
R
H
R

g
R
×
=
]
g
R R [

V

g
I
+
=


The value of the shunt resistance R
S
can be calculated by equating
the potential differences across the two branches of the circuit. Let
R
g
and R
S
be the resistances of galvanometer and shunt
resistance respectively ans let I
g
and I
S
be the current passing
through them. Then
I = I
g +
I
s
_________ [ 1 ]

I
s
= [ I – I
g
] _________ [ 2 ]


Since R
g
and R
S
are in parallel then by Ohm’s law we have


Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
13

I
s
R
S
=

I
g
R
g
_________ [ 3 ]

From Equation [ 2 ] and Equation [ 3 ] we get

R
S
[ I – I
g
] =

I
g
R
g


]
g
I I [
g
R
g
I

S
R
÷
×
=


If the shunt wire has specific resistance µ and a radius r then it’s
required length L is given by

ρ
2
r π S
L =

WORKING FORMULA:

1.
S
R _
H
R
S
R
H
R

g
R
×
= 2.
]
g
R
H
R [


V

g
I
+
=

3.
]
g
I I [
g
R
g
I

S
R
÷
×
= 3.
ρ
2
r π S
L =
Where
 R
g
is the resistance of the given galvanometer
 R
H
is the high Resistance
 R
S
is the shunt Resistance
 I
g
is the current for full scale deflection flowing through the
galvanometer
 V is the range of ammeter up to which the galvanometer is to
be converted
 R
S
is the shunt resistance connected in parallel.
 L is the length of wire having the resistance R
S
.
 t is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter
[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]
 r is the radius of the wire.
 µ is the specific resistance of the material of the wire




Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
14

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
OBSERVATIONS:

High
Resistance
R
H

Full
Deflection
Half
Deflection
Shunt
Resistance
R
S



S
R _
H
R
S
R
H
R

g
R
×
=

Ohms Divisions Divisions Ohms Ohms


1. Least count of standard ammeter = ____________ Amp

__________Divisions of galvanometer = _________ Amp
One division of galvanometer =


= ________ Amp
2. Least count of converted ammeter = ____________ Amp

VERIFICATION:

S.
No.
Standard
Ammeter
Reading

Reading of the shunted
galvanometer
Difference



Galvanometer
Divisions
Converted
Ammeter
Amperes Divisions Amperes Amperes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
15

CALCULATIONS:

S
R _
H
R
S
R
H
R

g
R
×
=


_


g
R
×
= Ohms


= =

]
g
R
H
R [


V

g
I
+
=
p Am






g
I = =
+
=

]
g
I I [
g
R
g
I

S
R
÷
×
=
Ohms





S
R = =
÷
×
=


ρ
2
r π S
L =
cm


2
] [ 142 . 3
L = =
×
=



RESULT:
 The given galvanometer has been converted in to an
ammeter up to the range [ 0 – 1 ] ampere.






Teacher’s signature




Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
16

PRECAUTION:

 All connections should be neat and tight.
 Short and thick connecting wires should be used.
 The plugs of resistance box should be tight in their gaps.
 While finding the current I
G
for full scale deflection do not
close the circuit with out introducing a high resistance by the
resistance box.
 No portion of calculated length of the wire should be under
the binding screw s of the galvanometer.
 When comparing the readings of standard ammeter and the
shunted galvanometer pass large currents to produce large
deflection, thus reducing error in reading the deflection.
 Care should be taken in handling the apparatus.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

 Loose connections
 Use of long and thin connecting wires may add more
resistance in the circuit.
 For finding full scale deflection if the circuit is closed with out
introducing a high resistance by the resistance box.
 The portion of calculated length of the wire should out of the
binding screw of the galvanometer.
 A small amount of current may cause the error in the
deflection of the galvanometer.
 Loose plugs in the resistance box.
 Fluctuation of current in the circuit.














Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
17

EXPERIMENT NO . 3

OBJECT: To convert the given galvanometer in to an voltmeter up
to the range [ 0 – 1 ] volt.

APPARATUS: Galvanometer , Voltmeter , Ammeter ,
Resistance Box , Rheostat , 0ne way Key , Connecting Wires
and a Battery.

THEORY: A galvanometer having a resistance R
g
gives a full
scale deflection when a current I
g
is passed through it.. It can be
converted in to a voltmeter up to the range [ 0 – 1 ] volt by
connecting a suitable resistance R
X
in series with it. The value of
the series resistance R
X
is such that it allows a current I
g
to pass
through the combination of galvanometer and series resistance R
X

when potential difference V is applied across it. By applying Ohm’s
law the value of R
X
is given by


]
g
R
X
R [

V

g
I
+
=


S
R _
H
R
S
R
H
R

g
R
×
=
To convert a moving coil galvanometer in to a voltmeter up to a
maximum voltage E
X
it is necessary to connect a high resistance in
series with the galvanometer coil of the resistance Rg Most of the
potential drop will then occur across the resistance R
X
The value
of the series resistance R
X
should be so adjusted that the voltage
E produces across the galvanometer coil and the series resistance
R
X
a current Ig sufficient to produce full scale deflection in the
galvanometer movement . Then by Ohm’s law
V = I
g
[

R
X
+ R
g
]

I
g
R
X
+ I
g
R
g
= V

I
g
R
X
= V – I
g
R
g


Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
18



g
I

g
R
g
I - V

X
R

=

g
I
g
R
g
I

g
I
V

X
R × =

g
R -

g
I

V

X
R

=
WORKING FORMULA:

1.
S
R _
H
R
S
R
H
R

g
R
×
= 2.
]
g
R R [


V

g
I
+
=

3.
g
R -

g
I


V

X
R =
Where
 R
g
is the resistance of the given galvanometer
 R
H
is the high Resistance
 R
S
is the shunt Resistance
 I
g
is the current for full scale deflection flowing through the
galvanometer
 V is the range of voltmeter up to which the galvanometer is
to be converted
 R
X
is the high Resistance connected in series.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

OBSERVATIONS:

Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
19


High
Resistance
R
H

Full
Deflection
Half
Deflection
Shunt
Resistance
R
S



S
R _
H
R
S
R
H
R

g
R
×
=

Ohms Divisions Divisions Ohms Ohms


1. Least count of standard voltmeter = ___________ Amp

_________Divisions of galvanometer = __________ Volts

One divisions of galvanometer =


= ________ Volts

2. Least count of converted ammeter = ____________ Volts

VERIFICATION:

S.
No.
Standard
Voltmeter
Reading
Reading of the shunted
galvanometer
Difference


Galvanometer
Divisions
Converted
Voltmeter
Volts Divisions Volts Volts
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

CALCULATIONS:

S
R _
H
R
S
R
H
R

g
R
×
=


_


g
R
×
= Ohms


= =

Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
20


]
g
R
H
R [


V

g
I
+
=
p Am






g
I = =
+
=


g
R -

g
I


V

X
R =

Ohms - -




X
R - - = = =


RESULT:

 The given galvanometer has been converted in to a
voltmeter up to the range [ 0 – 1 ] volts.







Teacher’s signature
















Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
21

PRECAUTION:

 All connections should be neat and tight.
 Short and thick connecting wires should be used.
 The plugs of resistance box should be tight in their gaps.
 While finding the current I
G
for full scale deflection do not
close the circuit with out introducing a high resistance by the
resistance box.
 No portion of calculated length of the wire should be under
the binding screw s of the galvanometer.
 When comparing the readings of standard ammeter and the
shunted galvanometer pass large currents to produce large
deflection, thus reducing error in reading the deflection.
 The rheostat used as potential divider should not be of low
resistance.
 Care should be taken in handling the apparatus.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

 Loose connections
 Use of long and thin connecting wires may add more
resistance in the circuit.
 For finding full scale deflection if the circuit is closed with out
introducing a high resistance by the resistance box.
 The portion of calculated length of the wire should out of the
binding screw of the galvanometer.
 A small amount of current may cause the error in the
deflection of the galvanometer.
 A low resistance rheostat as potential divider may be used.
 Loose plugs in the resistance box.
 Fluctuation of current in the circuit.










Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
22

EXPERIMENT NO . 4

OBJECT: To calibrate a voltmeter by using a potentiometer.

APPARATUS: Potentiometer , Jockey , Two Rheostat , Two
Battery ,Two 0ne way Key , Galvanometer , Two way key ,
Voltmeter , Standard cell and Connecting Wires.

THEORY: A potential drop is established across a potentiometer
by connecting a battery across it. The potential drop per unit length
of its wire is measured in terms of EMF of a standard cell. A
rheostat is set up as a potential divider. The potential difference for
its different setting is measured by a voltmeter and by the
potentiometer using the value of potential drop per unit length of
the potentiometer wire as already found because of the standard
cell and the inherent accuracy of potentiometric voltage
measurement , the potential read by potentiometer is the true
reading of the potential . This is compared with the reading of the
voltmeter and in this way the calibration of voltmeter is checked .
WORKING FORMULA: ]

1
L


2
L
[
S
E
S
V × =
Where
 V
S
is the calculated voltage
 E
S
is the E.M.F of standard cell
 L
1
is the balancing length for Standard cell is in circuit
 L
2
is the balancing length for R
2
is in circuit
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:



Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
23

OBSERVATIONS:

3. Least count of standard voltmeter = _____________ Volts

4. E .M . F of standard cell = E
S
= _______________ Volts

5. Balancing length when Standard cell is in circuit L
1
= __ cm.


S.
No
Balancing
length when
R
2
is in
circuit
L
2

Calculated Voltage
]

1
L


2
L
[
S
E
S
V × =

Voltmeter
Reading

V

Difference
[ V
S
– V ]

cm volts volts volts
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
CALCULATIONS: ]

1
L


2
L
[
S
E
S
V × =




















]

1
L


2
L
[
S
E
S
V × =





× =


V
S
= _________ Volts


]

1
L


2
L
[
S
E
S
V × =





× =


V
S
= _________ Volts
]

1
L


2
L
[
S
E
S
V × =





× =


V
S
= _________ Volts


]

1
L


2
L
[
S
E
S
V × =





× =


V
S
= _________ Volts


Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
24










RESULT:

 The given voltmeter has been calibrated a by using a
potentiometer

Teacher’s signature
PRECAUTION:
 All connections should be neat and tight.
 Short and thick connecting wires should be used.
 The jockey must have sharp edge.
 Avoid the sliding of jockey on the wire rather it should be
gently tapped over it.
 The current through the potentiometer should be passed
while taking readings..
 The plugs of resistance box should be tight in their gaps.
 Positive terminal of the batteries B
1
& B
2
and standard E
S
cell
should be connected to the same end of the potentiometer
wire.
 Emf of the battery B
1
should be greater than emf of the
battery B
2
or the standard cell.
 The rheostat R
1
once set should not be changed through out
the experiment.
 Care should be taken in handling the apparatus.

SOURCES OF ERROR :
 Loose connections
 Error due to the sliding of jockey on the wire.
 Use of long and thin connecting wires may add more
resistance in the circuit.
 Loose plugs in the resistance box.
 Jockey may not be of sharp edge.
 Fluctuation of current in the circuit.


]

1
L


2
L
[
S
E
S
V × =





× =


V
S
= _________ Volts


Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
25

EXPERIMENT NO . 5

OBJECT: To calibrate an ammeter by using a potentiometer.

APPARATUS: Potentiometer , Jockey , Two Rheostat , Two
Battery ,Two 0ne way Key , Galvanometer , Two way key ,
Ammeter , Standard cell , Resistance box and Connecting Wires.

THEORY: A potential drop is established across a potentiometer
by connecting a battery across it. The potential drop per unit length
of its wire is measured in terms of EMF of a standard cell. A
resistance R
S
an ammeter and A and a rheostat R
2
are connected
in series with a battery B
2
(

as in figure ). Let the current flowing
through the circuit as read by the ammeter be I . This current set
up a potential drops V
S
across the standard resistance R
S
This
value of V
S
is measured by the potentiometer using the value of
potential drop per unit length of potentiometer wire. Because of the
standard cell and the inherent accuracy of potentiometric voltage
measurement, the value of V
S
is very accurate. The current
flowing through the standard resistance R
S
is thus IS = VS X RS .
This is the true value of current flowing through the circuit. It is
compared with the reading of the ammeter A and in this way the
calibration of ammeter is checked .

WORKING FORMULA: ]

1
L


2
L

S
R
S
E
[
S
I × =
Where
 V
S
is the calculated voltage
 E
S
is the E.M.F of standard cell
 R
S
is the standard resistance.
 V
S
is the calculated current
 L
1
is the balancing length for Standard cell is in circuit
 L
2
is the balancing length for R
2
is in circuit








Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
26

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:




OBSERVATIONS:

6. Least count of standard ammeter = ___________ Amp

7. E .M . F of standard cell = E
S
= ______________ Volts

8. Value of standard resistance = R
S
= ____________ Ohms

9. Balancing length when Standard cell is in circuit L
1
___ cm

S.
No
Balancing
length when
R
S
is in circuit
L
2
Calculated Current
]

1
L


2
L

S
R
S
E
[
S
I × =

Ammeter
Reading
I
Difference
[ I
S
– I ]

cms amp amp amp
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.



Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
27

CALCULATIONS:

































RESULT:
 The given ammeter has been calibrated a by using a
potentiometer



Teacher’s signature

]

1
L


2
L

S
R
S
E
[
S
I × =







× =

I
S
= ×
I
S
= _________ amp

]

1
L


2
L

S
R
S
E
[
S
I × =







× =

I
S
= ×
I
S
= _________ amp


]

1
L


2
L

S
R
S
E
[
S
I × =







× =

I
S
= ×
I
S
= _________ amp

]

1
L


2
L

S
R
S
E
[
S
I × =







× =

I
S
= ×
I
S
= _________ amp


]

1
L


2
L

S
R
S
E
[
S
I × =







× =

I
S
= ×
I
S
= _________ amp

]

1
L


2
L

S
R
S
E
[
S
I × =







× =

I
S
= ×
I
S
= _________ amp



Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
28

PRECAUTION:
 All connections should be neat and tight.
 Short and thick connecting wires should be used.
 The jockey must have sharp edge.
 Avoid the sliding of jockey on the wire rather it should be
gently tapped over it.
 The current through the potentiometer should be passed
while taking readings..
 The plugs of resistance box should be tight in their gaps.
 Positive terminal of the batteries B
1
& B
2
and standard E
S
cell
should be connected to the same end of the potentiometer
wire.
 Emf of the battery B
1
should be greater than emf of the
battery B
2
or the standard cell.
 The rheostat R
1
once set should not be changed through out
the experiment.
 Care should be taken in handling the apparatus.

SOURCES OF ERROR :
 Loose connections
 Error due to the sliding of jockey on the wire.
 Use of long and thin connecting wires may add more
resistance in the circuit.
 Loose plugs in the resistance box.
 Jockey may not be of sharp edge.
 Fluctuation of current in the circuit.









Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
29

EXPERIMENT NO . 6

OBJECT: To calibrate an ammeter and a voltmeter by using a
potentiometer.

APPARATUS: Potentiometer , Jockey , Two Rheostat , Two
Battery ,Two 0ne way Key , Galvanometer , Two way key ,
Ammeter , Voltmeter , Standard cell , Resistance box and
Connecting Wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

]

1
L


2
L
[
S
E
S
V × = , ]

1
L


2
L

S
R
S
E
[
S
I × =

Where
 V
S
is the calculated voltage
 E
S
is the E.M.F of standard cell
 R
S
is the standard resistance.
 L
1
is the balancing length for Standard cell is in circuit
 L
2
is the balancing length for R
2
is in circuit

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:






Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
30

OBSERVATIONS:

1. Least count of standard ammeter = ______ Amp

2. Least count of standard voltmeter =_________ Volts

3. E .M . F of standard cell = E
S
= __________ Volts

4. Value of standard resistance = R
S
= _______ Ohms.

5. Balancing length when Standard cell is in circuit L
1
= ___ cm

CALCULATIONS:
















S.
No
Balancing
Length
when
R
S
is in
circuit
L
2
Voltage
V
S

Voltmeter
Reading
V
Current
I
S

Ammeter
Reading
I

Difference

[ V
S
– V ]


Difference

[ I
S
– I ]


cm volts volts amps amps volts amps
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
]

1
L


2
L
[
S
E
S
V × =





× =
V
S
= ×
V
S
= _________ volts

]

1
L


2
L

S
R
S
E
[
S
I × =







× =

I
S
= ×
I
S
= _________ amp



Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
31





















RESULT:

 The given ammeter and voltmeter have been calibrated
a by using a potentiometer











Teacher’s signature






]

1
L


2
L
[
S
E
S
V × =





× =
V
S
= ×
V
S
= _________ volts

]

1
L


2
L

S
R
S
E
[
S
I × =







× =

I
S
= ×
I
S
= _________ amp


]

1
L


2
L
[
S
E
S
V × =





× =
V
S
= ×
V
S
= _________ volts




Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
32

PRECAUTION:
 All connections should be neat and tight.
 Short and thick connecting wires should be used.
 The jockey must have sharp edge.
 Avoid the sliding of jockey on the wire rather it should be
gently tapped over it.
 The current through the potentiometer should be passed
while taking readings..
 The plugs of resistance box should be tight in their gaps.
 Positive terminal of the batteries B
1
& B
2
and standard E
S
cell
should be connected to the same end of the potentiometer
wire.
 Emf of the battery B
1
should be greater than emf of the
battery B
2
or the standard cell.
 The rheostat R
1
once set should not be changed through out
the experiment.
 Care should be taken in handling the apparatus.

SOURCES OF ERROR :
 Loose connections
 Error due to the sliding of jockey on the wire.
 Use of long and thin connecting wires may add more
resistance in the circuit.
 Loose plugs in the resistance box .
 Jockey may not be of sharp edge .
 Fluctuation of current in the circuit.














Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
33

EXPERIMENT NO . 7

OBJECT: To determine the low resistance of the given coil by
Carey foster bridge.

APPARATUS: Meter bridge, Galvanometer, Two resistance
boxes, Given coil , Fractional resistance box , Cell, One way key
and Connecting wires.

THEORY: Carey foster bridge is a modified form of meter bridge
having four gaps across which resistances X , P , Q , and Y are
connected. P and Q are two equal resistances X is the unknown
low resistance and Y is the known resistance.
If the balance point C is obtained at a point L
1
cm from the end A ,
then
] i -[ - - - - - - - - - - -
β ρ ]
1
L 100 [ Y
α ρ
1
L X

Q
P
+ ÷ +
+ +
=
Where µ is the resistance per cm length of the wire and o and |
are the end resistance at A and B respectively.
If X and Y are interchanged and the balance point is obtained at
point L
2
from the end A then
] ii -[ - - - - - - - - - - -
β ρ ]
2
L 100 [ X
α ρ
2
L Y

Q
P
+ ÷ +
+ +
=
From equation [ I ] and equation [ ii ]

β α ρ 100 Y X
α ρ
2
L Y

β ρ 100 Y X
α ρ
1
L X

Q P
P
+ + + +
+ +
=
+ + + +
+ +
=
+ o
As the denominator s are equal therefore

X + L
1
µ + o = Y + L
2
µ + o

X – Y = L
1
µ + o – [ L
2
µ + o ]

X – Y = L
1
µ + o – L
2
µ – o

X – Y = [ L
1
– L
2
] µ

X = Y + [ L
1
– L
2
] µ -------------------- [ iii ]


Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
34

Thus X can be determined if L
1
, L
2
and µ are known
For finding µ the resistance per cm of the wire , make X = 0 by
closing gap NO 1 by a copper shorting strip and balance point is
obtained at L
1
. Now copper strip X and Y are interchanged and
the balance point is obtained at L
2
then equation [ iii ] can be
written as

0 = Y + [ L
1
– L
2
] µ

µ [ L
1
– L
2
] = Y
]
2
L
1
L [
Y
ρ
÷
=
WORKING FORMULA:


]
2
L
1
L [
Y
ρ
÷
= , X = Y + [ L
2
– L
1
] µ
Where
 µ is the resistance per cm length of the given wire
 X

is the unknown low resistance.
 Y is the known resistance.
 L
1
is the

balance point from end A
 L
2
is the balance point from end A when X and Y are
interchanged

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:







Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
35

OBSERVATIONS: FOR DETERMINATION OF µ
[ The resistance per cm of the wire ]
Resistance P = _____ Ohms , Resistance P = ______ Ohms

S.
NO

Y
Distance of balancing point
from A with shorting strip in

]
2
L
1
L [
Y
ρ
÷
=

Mean
µ

L
1
L
2

Ohm cm cm Ohm / cm Ohm /cm
1.

2.

3.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

FOR DETERMINATION OF UNKNOWN LOW RESISTANCE

Resistance P = _____ Ohms , Resistance P = _____ Ohms

S.
NO

Y


Distance of balancing point
from end A
X = Y + [ L
2
– L
1
] µ
L
1
L
2

Ohm cm cm Ohm
1.

2.

3.




Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
36

CALCULATIONS:










































]
2
L
1
L [
Y
ρ
÷
=




ρ
÷
=




=

µ = ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ Ohms / cm


]
2
L
1
L [
Y
ρ
÷
=




ρ
÷
=




=

µ = ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ Ohms / cm




]
2
L
1
L [
Y
ρ
÷
=




ρ
÷
=




=

µ = ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ Ohms / cm

MEAN µ


3
+ +
=


= ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ Ohms / cm
X = Y + [ L
2
– L
1
] µ

= + [ – ]

= + ×

= +
= ____________ Ohms

X = Y + [ L
2
– L
1
] µ

= + [ – ]

= + ×

= +
= ____________ Ohms

Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
37















Actual Value = 0 . 3 Ohms


100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
3 . 0
3 . 0
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

 The unknown low resistance of the given coil by Carey
foster bridge is calculated to be ____________ Ohms.

 Percentage of error = ________________ %








Teacher’s signature



X = Y + [ L
2
– L
1
] µ

= + [ – ]

= + ×

= +
= ____________ Ohms

MEAN
X


3
+ +
=

= ____________ Ohms

Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
38

PRECAUTION:

 All connections should be neat and tight.
 Short and thick connecting wires should be used.
 The jockey must have sharp edge.
 Avoid the sliding of jockey on the wire rather it should be
gently tapped over it.
 The current through the bridge should be disconnected while
reversing the key.
 The current through the potentiometer should be passed
while taking readings..
 The plugs of resistance box should be tight in their gaps.
 Care should be taken in handling the apparatus.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

 Loose connections
 Error due to the sliding of jockey on the wire.
 Use of long and thin connecting wires may add more
resistance in the circuit.
 Loose plugs in the resistance box .
 Jockey may not be of sharp edge .
 Fluctuation of current in the circuit.















Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
39

EXPERIMENT NO . 8

OBJECT: To determine the value of two unknown resistances by
using a potentiometer and verify the law of combination of
resistances in series or parallel.

APPARATUS: Potentiometer , Jockey , Two Rheostat , Battery
,Two 0ne way Keys , Galvanometer , Two way key , Resistance
box , Two unknown resistances , Two cells and Connecting Wires.

WORKING FORMULA:


1
L


]
1
L
2
L [
R r
÷
× =
Where
 r is the unknown resistance.
 R is the known resistance.
 L
1
is the balancing length for R.
 L
2
is the balancing length for ( R + r ).



CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:








Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
40

OBSERVATIONS:

Known
Resistance
R
Un known
Resistance
r
Balancing
length for
R
L
1

balancing
length for
( R + r )
L
2

Un known
Resistance
r

1
L


]
1
L
2
L [ R

÷

Mean
Un known
Resistance
r

Ohms Ohms Cm Cm Ohms Ohms

r
1






r
2






r
1
+ r
2






2
r
1
1
r
1
+




CALCULATIONS:





















FOR [ r
1
]



1
L


]
1
L
2
L [
R r
÷
× =






÷
× =









× =

× =

r = ____________ Ohms
FOR [ r
1
]



1
L


]
1
L
2
L [
R r
÷
× =






÷
× =









× =

× =

r = ____________ Ohms


2
r r
r Mean
+
=


2

r Mean
+
=

Mean r = ____________ Ohms



Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
41








































FOR [ r
2
]



1
L


]
1
L
2
L [
R r
÷
× =






÷
× =









× =

× =

r = ____________ Ohms

FOR [ r
2
]



1
L


]
1
L
2
L [
R r
÷
× =






÷
× =









× =

× =

r = ____________ Ohms


2
r r
r Mean
+
=


2

r Mean
+
=

Mean r = ____________ Ohms

FOR [ r
1
+ r
2
]



1
L


]
1
L
2
L [
R r
÷
× =






÷
× =









× =

× =

r = ____________ Ohms


FOR [ r
1
+ r
2
]



1
L


]
1
L
2
L [
R r
÷
× =






÷
× =









× =

× =

r = ____________ Ohms


2
r r
r Mean
+
=


2

r Mean
+
=

Mean r = ____________ Ohms




Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
42










































FOR [
2
r
1
1
r
1
+

]



1
L


]
1
L
2
L [
R r
÷
× =






÷
× =









× =

× =

r = ____________ Ohms



FOR [
2
r
1
1
r
1
+

]



1
L


]
1
L
2
L [
R r
÷
× =






÷
× =









× =

× =

r = ____________ Ohms


2
r r
r Mean
+
=


2

r Mean
+
=

Mean r = ____________ Ohms

Verification of series
combination Put [ r
1
& r
2
]
from known resistance

[ r
1
+ r
2
]



e
r + =


r
e
= ___________ Ohms


Verification of parallel
combination Put [ r
1
& r
2
]
from known resistance


2
r
1
r
2
r
1
r

e
r
+
×
=





e
r
+
×
=





e
r =

r
e
= ___________
Ohms


Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
43

RESULT:
 Un known resistance r
1
= ____________ Ohms
 Un known resistance r
2
= ____________ Ohms
For series combination
 Observed value [ r
1
+ r
2
] = ____________ Ohms
 Calculated value [ r
1
+ r
2
] = ____________ Ohms
For parallel combination
 Observed value [
2
r
1
1
r
1
+ ] = ____________ Ohms
 Calculated value [
2
r
1
1
r
1
+ ] = ____________ Ohms
Teacher’s signature
PRECAUTION:
 All connections should be neat and tight.
 Short and thick connecting wires should be used.
 The positive terminal of the battery and that of cell must be
connected to the terminal on zero side of the potentiometer.
 The emf of the main battery E
1
should be greater than E
2

used.
 Never insert K
1
& K
2
simultaneously.
 The current should remain constant for each set of
observation.
 The current should be passed only for the duration it is
necessary otherwise the balance point will keep on
changing.
 The jockey must have sharp edge.
 Avoid the sliding of jockey on the wire rather it should be
gently tapped over it.
 Care should be taken in handling the apparatus.
 The plugs of resistance box should be tight in their gaps.

SOURCES OF ERROR :
 Loose connections.
 Error due to the sliding of jockey on the wire.
 Use of long and thin connecting wires may add more
resistance in the circuit.
 Loose plugs in the resistance box .
 Jockey may not be of sharp edge .
 Fluctuation of current in the circuit.

Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
44

EXPERIMENT NO . 9

OBJECT: To determine the work function of a metal by using a
sodium light.

APPARATUS: Photo electric cell , Sodium light , Battery ,
Rheostat , One Way key , Four way key or Reversing key , Micro
ammeter , Voltmeter and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

e
0
V -
λ
c
h Φ Function Work = = ,

Where
 | is the function of the given metal.
 h

is the Plank’s Constant
 c is the velocity of light
 ì is the wavelength of sodium light
 V
0
is the stopping potential
 e is the charge on an electron.


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:












Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
45

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of voltmeter = ________________________ volts.

Least count of micro ammeter = ____________________ µ amp.

Plank’s Constant = h = 6.625 × 10
– 34
joules – sec

Velocity of light = c = 3 × 10
8
m / sec. or 3 × 10
10
cm / sec.

Wavelength of sodium light = ì= 5893 Å = 5893 × 10
– 10
m

Charge on an electron = e = 1.6 × 10
– 19
Coulomb.

S.
NO
Distance of sodium lamp from
Photo cell _____________cm
Voltmeter
reading

Volts
Micro ammeter
reading
Divisions
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.


CALCULATIONS:

Stopping Potential from graph V
0
= ___________ Volts
e
0
V -
λ
c
h Φ Function Work = =

19 -
10 6 . 1 -
10
10 5893
8
10 3

34 -
10 6.625 × ×
×
×
× × =

Work Function = ___________________

Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
46


GRAPH BETWEEN
PHOTO CURRENT & APPLIED
VOLTAGE

Along X – axis
One small division = ________ Volts

Along Y – axis
One small division = ________ Amp



Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
47

RESULT:

 The work function of a metal by using a sodium light is
calculated to be _______________________ Electron volts.




Teacher’s signature



PRECAUTION:

 All the connections should be tight and clean.
 Distance between the source and the photo-cell should be
kept unchanged for one set of observations.
 The applied voltage should be changed in small and regular
steps.
 A V.T.V.M. if available, should be used in place of voltmeter.
 To increase the life of the photo-cell, its window should be
closed, when it is not in use.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

 Loose connections
 Change of distance between the source and the photocell
during the experiment.
 Voltage flections
 Use of a simple voltmeter.







Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
48

EXPERIMENT NO . 10

OBJECT: To determine the ionization potential of mercury.

APPARATUS: A mercury diode with base, Voltmeter, Micro
ammeter, Rheostat , One Way key , Power supply and Connecting
wires.

THEORY: The breaking of an atom in an electron and positively
charged ions is called ionization. Ionization can be brought about
by bombarding an atom by fast moving particles such as electrons.
The electron must be accelerated to certain definite energy for
given type of atoms. It will be seen that electron having sufficiently
energy can break off the loosely leave outermost electrons of the
target atom. This will correspond to a sudden increase in plate
current. The ionization potential is therefore defined as the
maximum accelerating potential which is required to accelerate the
electrons so that they can ionize the target.


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:





OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of voltmeter = ________________________ volts.

Least count of micro ammeter = ____________________ µ amp.


Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
49

S.
NO
Anode Voltage
[ Plate Voltage ]
Volts
Anode Current
[ Plate Current ]
µ Amp
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.



CALCULATIONS:

Actual Value = 13 Volts


100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
13
13
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

Percentage of error = ________________ %


RESULT:

 The ionization potential of mercury is calculated to be
_______________________ Volts.












Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
50


GRAPH BETWEEN
APPLIED VOLTAGE & CURRENT

Along X – axis
One small division = _______ Volts

Along Y – axis
One small division = _______ Amps




Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
51



PRECAUTION:

 The connections should be tight and clean.
 The current passed through the filament should not be more
than its related value.
 A high resistance voltmeter should be preferred.
 If the anode current is larger, use a milli ameter in place of
micro ammeter.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

 Loose connections
 Use of low resistance voltmeter.
 Voltage flections



























Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
52

EXPERIMENT NO . 11

OBJECT: To set up half and full wave rectifier and study their
waveforms on an oscilloscope. Also study the effect of smoothing
circuit ( filter circuit ) on ripple voltage.

APPARATUS: Four point contact diodes , 6V step down
transformer , A high resistance of 10 Kilo Ohms , Capacitor ,
Inductors, Cathode Ray Oscilloscope.

THEORY : The conversion of an alternating current in to direct
current is called rectification. This is very conveniently achieved by
diodes. A circuit which is used for rectification is called a rectifier.
To make the out put waveform from a study voltage we use a
suitable combination of capacitor and inductor in the circuit which
are known as filters. The equation for ripple factor is given
R C
r
f 3 4
1
F . R Factoe Ripple = = ---------------------- [ 1 ]
300
6 -
10 1000 120 3 4
1
F . R Factoe Ripple
× × × ×
= =


3 12 3 4
1
F . R Factoe Ripple
× ×
= =

004 . 0 F . R Factoe Ripple = =
1
2
)
c . d I
rms
I
( F . R Factoe Ripple ÷ = = -------------------- [ 2 ]

Where I
r m s
= Root mean square value of A.C current
I d.c = Value of D.C current

For full wave rectification Integrating equation [ 2 ] we get
}
= =
T
0
2
0
I
dt
2
i
rms
I and
}
= =
T
0
π
0
I 2
dt i
d.c
I

For half wave rectification the values of I
r m s
and I d .c are given
as under
2
0
I
rms
I = and
π
0
I

d.c
I =


Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
53

FOR HALF WAVE RECTIFICATION

Now putting the values of I
r m s
and I d .c in equation [ 2 ] we
get
1
2
)
π
0
I
0
I
( F . R Factoe Ripple
2
÷ = =
1
2
)
2
( F . R Factoe Ripple ÷ = =
t

4680 . 1 F . R Factoe Ripple = =
R . F = 1 . 211
FOR HALF WAVE RECTIFICATION

Now putting the values of I
r m s
and I d .c in equation [ 2 ] we
get
1
2
)
π
0
I 2
2
0
I
( F . R Factoe Ripple ÷ = =
1
2
)
2 2
( F . R Factoe Ripple ÷ = =
t

2340 . 0 F . R Factoe Ripple = =
R . F = 0 . 483

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:







Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
54

OBSERVATIONS:
FOR HALF WAVE RECTIFIER

SHAPE OF WAVE FORM

In Put Waveform Out Put Waveform Un filtered



Peak value = E
0
= _____ Volts Peak value = E
0
= _____ Volts

SHAPE OF WAVE FORM WHEN DIODE IS INVERTED

In Put Waveform Out Put Waveform Un filtered



Peak value = E
0
= _____ Volts Peak value = E
0
= _____ Volts

SHAPE OF WAVE FORM WHEN DIODE IS INVERTED

In Put Waveform Out Put Waveform Filtered




Peak value = F
0
= _____ Volts Peak value = F
0
= _____ Volts

Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
55


d.c out put = F
0
= _____ Volts d.c out put = F
0
= _____ Volts

FOR FULL WAVE RECTIFIER

SHAPE OF WAVE FORM

In Put Waveform Out Put Waveform Un filtered



Peak value = E
0
= _____ Volts Peak value = E
0
= _____ Volts

SHAPE OF WAVE FORM WHEN DIODE IS INVERTED

In Put Waveform Out Put Waveform Un filtered



Peak value = E
0
= _____ Volts Peak value = E
0
= _____ Volts

SHAPE OF WAVE FORM WHEN DIODE IS INVERTED

In Put Waveform Out Put Waveform Filtered



Peak value = F
0
= _____ Volts Peak value = F
0
= _____ Volts
d.c out put = F
0
= _____ Volts d.c out put = F
0
= _____ Volts

Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
56


GRAPH BETWEEN
VOLTAGE & CURRENT


Along X – axis
One small division = _______ Volts

Along Y – axis
One small division = _______ Amps

FOR HALF WAVE RECTIFIER
After changing the polarity




Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
57


GRAPH BETWEEN
VOLTAGE & CURRENT


Along X – axis
One small division = _______ Volts

Along Y – axis
One small division = _______ Amps

FOR FULL WAVE RECTIFIER



After changing the polarity




Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
58

RESULT :

 The waveforms of half and full wave rectifier on an
oscilloscope have been studied.

 Also studied the effect of smoothing circuit ( filter circuit ) on
ripple voltage.







Teacher’s signature


PRECAUTION:

 Care should be taken in connecting the diodes whose N-type
ends is marked with red spot or arrow.
 V.T.V.M. and C.R.O. must be earthed properly.
 While observing input waveform crystal diodes must be
disconnected.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

 Loose connections
 The N – type ends of diodes are not marked properly
 Voltage flections












Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
59

EXPERIMENT NO . 12
OBJECT: To study the characteristics of an RLC series or
acceptor circuit by plotting a response curve. Determine the
resonant frequency , band width and Q factor of the circuit

APPARATUS: Voltmeter, Micro ammeter, Rheostat , One Way
key , Power supply and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

C L π 2
1

r
f Frequency Resonant = =

1
f
2
f f Δ Width Band ÷ = =

f
r
f

Width Band
Frequency Resonant
factor Q Factor Quality
A
= = =

Where
 f
r
is the resonant frequency.
 L

is the inductance.
 C is the capacitance.
 A f is the band width.
 f
1
& f
2
are the frequencies where the response falls to
0.707 of it’s maximum value.


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:





Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
60

OBSERVATIONS:

Resistance R = _______ Ohms.

Inductance L =________ m Henry =________ Henry

Capacitance C = ______ µ f. = ___________ Farad.

S.
NO
Frequency ( f )

Current in the circuit

Log
f
CPS or HZ µ Amp
01.

02.

03.

04.

05.

06.

07.

08.

09.

10.


CALCULATIONS:


















Actual Value =

C L π 2
1

r
f =


142 . 3 2
1

r
f
× ×
=


142 . 3 2
1

r
f
× ×
=



1

r
f =

Hertz
r
f =

1
f
2
f f Δ ÷ =


f Δ ÷ =

f Δ Hertz =
f Δ
r
f
factor Q =



factor Q =
factor Q =



Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
61


100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100

Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=
Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

 The characteristics of an acceptor circuit have been studied.
 It is seen that we get maximum output when the resonant
frequency is applied across the series combination of L , C
and R.
 The resonant frequency f
r
is calculated to be _______ hertz.
 The calculated value of resonant frequency is near about the
observed value.
 The value of inductance L in the circuit is calculated to be
__________Henry.
 Band width A f = ____ hertz and Q – factor = _________








Teacher’s signature













Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
62


GRAPH BETWEEN
LOG f & CURRENT I

Along X – axis
One small division = _______ Hertz

Along Y – axis
One small division = ________ Amp








Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
63

PRECAUTION:

 Suitable set of inductance (L) and capacitance (C) should be
selected and their values should be known.
 The connection should be tight and clean.
 The AVO meter should be adjusted for suitable range before
switching on the circuit.
 The selected range of the AVO meter should not be changed
for the whole set of observations.
 Frequency from the oscillator should be changed in regular
small steps.
 The naked wires should not be touched, when the circuit is
on.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

 Loose connections
 Voltage flections.
 Necked wire should not be touched when the switch is on.
 Before starting the experiment get the circuit checked by
your teacher



















Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
64

EXPERIMENT NO . 13

OBJECT: To study the characteristics of an RLC parallel or
rejector circuit by plotting a response curve. Determine the
resonant frequency , band width and Q factor of the circuit

APPARATUS: Voltmeter, Micro ammeter, Rheostat , One Way
key , Power supply and Connecting wires.


WORKING FORMULA:

C L π 2
1

r
f Frequency Resonant = =

1
f
2
f f Δ Width Band ÷ = =

f
r
f

Width Band
Frequency Resonant
factor Q Factor Quality
A
= = =

Where
 f
r
is the resonant frequency.
 L

is the inductance.
 C is the capacitance.
 A f is the band width.
 f
1
& f
2
are the frequencies where the current rises to 1.414
times of the minimum current

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:





Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
65

OBSERVATIONS:
Resistance R = _______ Ohms.

Inductance L =________ m Henry =________ Henry

Capacitance C = ______ µ f. = ___________ Farad.

S.
NO
Frequency ( f )

Current in the circuit

Log
f
CPS or HZ µ Amp
01.

02.

03.

04.

05.

06.

07.

08.

09.

10.


CALCULATIONS:

















Actual Value =

C L π 2
1

r
f =


142 . 3 2
1

r
f
× ×
=


142 . 3 2
1

r
f
× ×
=



1

r
f =

Hertz
r
f =

1
f
2
f f Δ ÷ =


f Δ ÷ =

f Δ Hertz =
f Δ
r
f
factor Q =



factor Q =
factor Q =



Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
66


100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100

Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=
Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

 The characteristics of an rejecter circuit have been studied.
 It is seen that we get minimum output when the resonant
frequency is applied across the parallel combination of L , C
and R.
 The resonant frequency f
r
is calculated to be _______ hertz.
 The calculated value of resonant frequency is near about the
observed value.
 The value of inductance L in the circuit is calculated to be
__________Henry.


Band width A f = ____ hertz and Q – factor = _________








Teacher’s signature











Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
67


GRAPH BETWEEN
LOG f & CURRENT I

Along X – axis
One small division = _______ Hertz

Along Y – axis
One small division = ________ Amp








Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
68

PRECAUTION:

 Suitable set of inductance (L) and capacitance (C) should be
selected and their values should be known.
 The connection should be tight and clean.
 The AVO meter should be adjusted for suitable range before
switching on the circuit.
 The selected range of the AVO meter should not be changed
for the whole set of observations.
 Frequency from the oscillator should be changed in regular
small steps.
 The naked wires should not be touched, when the circuit is
on.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

 Loose connections
 Voltage flections.
 Necked wire should not be touched when the switch is on.
 Before starting the experiment get the circuit checked by
your teacher

























Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
69


EXPERIMENT NO . 14

OBJECT: To plot the characteristics curve of a semi conductor
diode. Determine the forward and reverse impedances
[Resistances].

APPARATUS: Voltmeter, Micro ammeter, Rheostat , One Way
key , Power supply and Connecting wires.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:
Least count of voltmeter = ______________________ volts.

Least count of micro ammeter = __________________ µ amp.

Least count of milli ammeter = ___________________ m amp.

S.
NO
Forward Bias Reverse Bias
Voltage Current Voltage Voltage
Volt Milli ampere Volt Microampere
01.

02.

03.

04.

05.

06.

07.

08.


Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
70


GRAPH BETWEEN
VOLTAGE V & CURRENT I

Along X – axis
One small division = _______ Volts

Along Y – axis
One small division = ________ Amp







0






Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
71

RESULT:

 The characteristic curves for a ( p – n ) junction ( both for
forward bias and reverse bias ) have been drawn.
 It is seen that when the junction is forward biased with a
small potential difference it allows large current (in milli
amperes ) but when it is reverse biased with a large potential
difference small current ( in micro amperes ) passed through
it

Teacher’s signature



PRECAUTION:

 The connections should be neat clean and tight.
 The AVO meter should be adjusted for suitable range before
switching on the circuit.
 The applied voltage never exceed the rated value of the semi
conductor diode.
 Care should be taken in connecting the diode whose N –
type end is marked with red spot or arrow.
 Voltage should be changed in small and regular steps.
 The naked wires should not be touched, when the circuit is
on.
SOURCES OF ERROR :

 Loose connections
 Voltage flections.
 The applied voltage exceed the rated value of the semi
conductor diode.
 Necked wire should not be touched when the switch is on.
 Before starting the experiment get the circuit checked by
your teacher








Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
72

EXPERIMENT NO . 15

OBJECT: To study the static characteristics of a given transistor in
common emitter mode.

APPARATUS: Given transistor ( provided with base resistance ,
also called biasing resistance ), Micro ammeter, Milli ammeter , A
small Power supply, Two Way key and Voltmeter

THEORY: A transistor consists of germanium or silicon crystal in
which a layer of N – type germanium is sand witched between two
layers of P – type germanium. This is forming as P – N – P
transistor. Similarly a transistor in which a layer of P – type
germanium is sad witched between the two layers of N – type
germanium is called N – P – N transistor. A transistor consists of
three parts which are emitter , base and collector. The transistor
can be connected in the circuits normally in three ways.

 Common – Emitter configuration
 Common – Base configuration
 Common – Collector configuration

First one is forward biased junction. The second is reverse bias
junction. A junction is said to be forward biased if the positive
terminal of the battery is connected to the P – type region and the
negative terminal is connected to the N – type region of transistor.
Similarly if the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the
N – type region and the negative terminal is connected to the
P – type region of transistor is called reverse biased junction.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:



Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
73

OBSERVATIONS:


[ FOR INPUT CHARACTERISTICS ]

KEEPING COLLECTOR TO AMMETER VOLTAGE V
CE
IS
CONCTANT
S.
NO
V
CE
= 0 Volt V
CE
= 4 Volt V
CE
= 8 Volt
V
BE


I
B


V
BE


I
B


V
BE


I
B


Volt µ Amp Volt µ Amp Volt µ Amp
01.

02.

03.

04.

05.


[ FOR OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS ]


[ KEEPING BASE CURRENT I
B
IS CONCTANT ]
S.
NO
I
B
= 0 µ A I
B
= 20 µ A I
B
= 40 µA I
B
= 60 µ
A
V
CE


I
C


V
CE


I
C


V
CE


I
C


V
CE


I
C


Volt m A Volt m A Volt m A Volt mA
01.
02.
03.
04.
05.










Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
74


GRAPH BETWEEN
Collector To Emitter Voltage V
CE

&
Collector Current I
C

Along X – axis
One small division = _______ Volts

Along Y – axis
One small division = ________ Amp








Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
75


GRAPH BETWEEN
Base Current I
B
&
Collector To Emitter Voltage V
CE

Along X – axis
One small division = _______ Volts

Along Y – axis
One small division = ________ Amp








Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
76

RESULT:

 The input characteristic curves ( between V
BE
and I
B
keeping
V
CE
is constant ) and output characteristic curves ( between
V
CE
and I
C
keeping I
B
is constant ) have been drawn.

 It is seen from these curves that a small change in base
current produces a large change in collector current I
C
.




Teacher’s signature


PRECAUTION:

 Do not apply base more than 3 volts and collector voltage
more than 12 volts.
 Carefully observed the polarities of the power supplies and
terminals of the transistor.
 Avoid rough handling the transistor otherwise it may be
damaged.
 While making or breaking any connections both the power
supplies should be disconnected.
 Before connecting a transistor in to a circuit one should
carefully identify the base ,emitter and collector terminals.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

 Loose connections.
 Voltage fluctuation.
 Un correct connection of a transistor in the circuit.
 Base voltage may be more than 3 volts.
 Collector voltage may be bore than 12 volts.
 Necked wire should not be touched when the switch is on.
 Before starting the experiment get the circuit checked by
your teacher




Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
77

EXPERIMENT NO . 16

OBJECT: To determine the Plank’s constant by using a
spectrometer and hydrogen discharge tube.

APPARATUS: Spectrometer ,Diffraction grating , Hydrogen
discharge tube and Sprit level.

WORKING FORMULA: Plank’s constant can be calculated
as
3
1
] )
2
n
1
2
2
1
(
C
λ
2
k
4
e m
2
π 2
[ h Constant s Plank' ÷ = =

N
θ Sin d
λ =
Where
 h is the Plank’s constant
 m is the mass of the electron
 e is the charge of the electron
 k is the Coulomb’s constant for electrostatic force
 ì is the wave length of light
 n is the color of the spectral line
 d

is the grating element
 u is the angle of diffraction
 N is the order of image

OBSERVATIONS:
1. Least count of stop watch = 1 minute.

2. Number of lines ruled on the grating = ________lines / inch.

3. Grating element =
] [
cm 2.54

lines of no
inch 1
d = = = ______cm
4. Mass of an electron = m = 9.1072 × 10
– 31
Kg.

5. Charge on an electron = e = 1.6 × 10
– 19
coul.

6. Coulomb’s constant for electrostatic force =k = 9 × 10
9

N – m
2
/coul
2

7. Speed of light = c = 3 × 10
8
m / sec. or 3 × 10
10


Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
78

cm / sec.
FOR RED SPECTRAL LINE

S
NO

Order
Of
Image
Lines
Diffraction
reading on
Difference
Of
Readings
2u = A – B

Angle of
diffraction
u
Wave
length
ì

Right
side
[ A ]
Left
side
[ B ]
deg deg deg deg cm

1.

I

D
1



2.

I I

D
2



FOR BLUE SPECTRAL LINE
S
NO

Order
Of
Image
Lines
Diffraction
reading on
Difference
Of
Readings
2u = A – B

Angle of
diffraction
u
Wave
length
ì

Right
side
[ A ]
Left
side
[ B ]
deg deg deg deg cm

1.

I

D
1



2.

I I

D
2



FOR VIOLET SPECTRAL LINE

S
NO

Order
Of
Image
Lines
Diffraction
reading on
Difference
Of
Readings
2u = A – B

Angle of
diffraction
u
Wave
length
ì

Right
side
[ A ]
Left
side
[ B ]
deg deg deg deg cm

1.

I

D
1



2.

I I

D
2





Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
79

CALCULATIONS:

Plank’s constant for red spectral line [ n = 3 ]
3
1
] )
2
3
1
2
2
1
(
C
r
λ
2
k
4
e m
2
π 2
[ h Constant s Plank' ÷ = =
Plank’s constant for red spectral line [ n = 4 ]
3
1
] )
2
4
1
2
2
1
(
C
b
λ
2
k
4
e m
2
π 2
[ h Constant s Plank' ÷ = =
Plank’s constant for red spectral line [ n = 5 ]

3
1
] )
2
5
1
2
2
1
(
C
v
λ
2
k
4
e m
2
π 2
[ h Constant s Plank' ÷ = =

Actual Value = h = 6.625 × 10
– 34
J – s.

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=
RESULT:
 The Plank’s constant by using a spectrometer and hydrogen
discharge tube is calculated to be ____________ J – s.

Teacher’s signature
PRECAUTION:

 All adjustment of the spectrometer must be correctly made.
 The grating should be adjusted in the vertical plane and the
rulings on it should also be made vertical.
 In measuring the angle, the left of the image should coincide
with the vertical cross-wire for positions of telescope on
either side of the central image.
 The light should be incident on that side of the grating on
which there is no rulings. This is done to obtain no refraction
after deflection has taken place.








Dated : _______________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
80

SOURCES OF ERROR :

 Slit may mot sharp.
 Spectrometer may not be properly adjusted.
 Turn table may not be properly adjusted.