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**ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
**

1

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

2

Name:_________________________________________

Class: _____________ Section:__________

Roll No: ________ Group:_______________________

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

3

Certified that Miss. / Mr._______________________________

Of class ____________ has carried out the necessary practical

work as prescribed by the Board of Intermediate Education /

University of Karachi for the year _____________________

__________________________________ ______________________________

Head of the department In charge

Date:__________________ Date:______________

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

4

S.

No

Date

P.

No

Initial

1

To determine the unknown resistance by

using a neon flash lamp and a capacitor.

01

2

To convert the given galvanometer in to an

ammeter up to the range [ 0 – 1 ] ampere.

05

3

To convert the given galvanometer in to an

voltmeter up to the range [ 0 – 1 ] volt.

10

4

To calibrate a voltmeter by using a

potentiometer.

15

5

To calibrate an ammeter by using a

potentiometer.

18

6

To calibrate an ammeter and a voltmeter by

using a potentiometer.

21

7

To determine the low resistance of the given

coil by Carey foster bridge.

25

8

To determine the value of two unknown

resistances by using a potentiometer and

verify the law of combination of resistances

in series or parallel.

31

9

To determine the work function of a metal by

using a sodium light.

36

10

To determine the ionization potential of

mercury.

40

11

To set up half and full wave rectifier and

study their waveforms on an oscilloscope.

44

12

To study the characteristics of an RLC series

acceptor circuit by plotting a response curve.

52

13

To study the characteristics of an RLC

rejecter circuit by plotting a response curve.

57

14

To plot the characteristics curve of a semi

conductor diode. Determine the forward and

reverse impedances [Resistances].

62

15

To study the static characteristics of a given

transistor in common emitter mode.

65

16

To determine the Plank’s constant by using a

spectrometer and hydrogen discharge tube.

70

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

5

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

PRACTICAL [ III ]

To determine the unknown resistance by using a

neon flash lamp and a capacitor.

To convert the given galvanometer in to an

ammeter up to the range [ 0 – 1 ] ampere.

To convert the given galvanometer in to an

voltmeter up to the range [ 0 – 1 ] volt.

To calibrate a voltmeter by using a

potentiometer.

To calibrate an ammeter by using a

potentiometer.

To calibrate an ammeter and a voltmeter by

using a potentiometer.

To determine the low resistance of the given coil

by Carey foster bridge.

To determine the value of two unknown

resistances by using a potentiometer and verify

the law of combination of resistances in series

or parallel.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

6

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

PRACTICAL [ IV ]

To determine the work function of a metal by

using a sodium light.

To determine the ionization potential of mercury.

To study the characteristics of an RLC series or

acceptor circuit by plotting a response curve.

Determine the resonant frequency , band width

and Q factor of the circuit

To study the characteristics of an RLC parallel or

rejector circuit by plotting a response curve.

Determine the resonant frequency , band width

and Q factor of the circuit

To plot the characteristics curve of a semi

conductor diode. Determine the forward and

reverse impedances [Resistances].

To study the static characteristics of a given

transistor in common emitter mode.

To set up half and full wave rectifier and study

their waveforms on an oscilloscope. Also study

the effect of smoothing circuit ( filter circuit ) on

ripple voltage.

To determine the Plank’s constant by using a

spectrometer and hydrogen discharge tube.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

7

EXPERIMENT NO . 1

OBJECT: To determine the unknown resistance by using a neon

flash lamp and a capacitor.

APPARATUS: Neon flash lamp , Capacitor , Unknown resistance,

D.C main supply , Stop watch.

THEORY: The capacitor C is charged through the resistance R

until the potential difference across capacitor attains the striking

voltage V

S

of the neon bulb. At this voltage the neon gas in the

bulb ionizes and begins to emit light. The capacitor then begins to

discharge through the neon bulb until it’s potential difference is

reduced to the value of V

e

known as the extinction voltage at

which the ionization and emission of light from the neon bulb is

stop. This gives rise to a flash of light. and we get flashes of light

one after other. The time between two consecutive flashes is

known as flashing time.

Let t

1

be the time for the capacitor to charge up to V

S

volt and t

2

be the time for the capacitor to charge up to V

e .

Since the relation

between the voltage V across the capacitor after t seconds and the

applied voltage V

0

is V = V

0

[ 1 – e

– 1 / CR

]

]

s

V

e

V

0

V

[ log CR

1

t

÷

= , ]

s

V

e

V

0

V

[ log CR

2

t

÷

=

]

s

V

e

V

e

V

0

V

[ log CR ]

2

t -

1

t [ T Period Flashing

÷

÷

= =

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

8

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of stop watch = 0 . 01 sec

S.

No.

Resistance

R

Time for 10 flashes Mean

Time

Flashing

Period

T = t / 10

1 2 3

Ohms Sec Sec Sec Sec Sec

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

9

GRAPH BETWEEN

RESISTANCE & FLASHING TIME

Along X – axis

One small division = ________ Ohms

Along Y – axis

One small division = ________ min

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

10

CALCULATIONS:

FROM GRAPH

Value of A = R

1

=____________ Ohms

Value of B = R

2

= ____________ Ohms

RESULT:

The value of unknown resistances from graph [ using a neon

flash lamp ] are found to be

Value of A = R

1

=____________ Ohms

Value of B = R

2

= ____________ Ohms

The theoretical value of A + B = __________ Ohms

The value of A + B from graph = __________ Ohms

The theoretical value of

B

1

A

1

+

= ____ Ohms

The value of A + B from graph

B

1

A

1

+

= ___ Ohms

Teacher’s signature

2

R

1

1

R

1

R

1

+ =

2

R

1

R

2

R

1

R

R

+

×

=

R

+

×

=

R = _____________ Ohms

FROM GRAPH

R =

B

1

A

1

+ = ____ Ohms

R = R

1

+ R

2

R = +

R = _____________ Ohms

FROM GRAPH

R = A + B = _____ Ohms

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

11

PRECAUTION:

Least count of stop watch should be noted and graduation on

stopwatch should be studied carefully before starting the

experiment.

The applied voltage should be kept constant through out the

experiment.

The capacitance of the capacitor should be selected so as to

get a measureable rate of flashing with the unknown

resistance.

In order to avoid error due to photo electric effect the

experiment should be performed in a dark room or the neon

bulb may be enclosed in a box with a small sighting hole.

The DC mains voltage should be greater than the striking

voltage for the lamp.

Reading for time and striking voltage should be noted at at

the instant when the lamp just glows.

The stop watch should be started at the same time when DC

mains is switched on.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

Inaccuracy of stopwatch.

Loose connections

Voltage flections.

Necked wire should not be touched when the switch is on.

Before starting the experiment get the circuit checked by

your teacher

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

12

EXPERIMENT NO . 2

OBJECT: To convert the given galvanometer in to an ammeter up

to the range [ 0 – 1 ] ampere.

APPARATUS: Galvanometer, Voltmeter, Ammeter, Resistance

Box , Rheostat , Screw Gauge , 0ne way Key , Connecting Wires ,

Shunt Wire and Battery.

THEORY: A galvanometer having a resistance R

g

gives a full

scale deflection when a current I

g

is passed through it.. It can be

converted in to an ammeter up to the range [ 0 – 1 ] ampere by

connecting a small suitable resistance R

S

in parallel to it. The value

of the shunt resistance R

S

is such that when this parallel

combination of galvanometer and shunt resistance S is connected

in series with a circuit carrying a current I , it allows a current Ig to

pass through the galvanometer and the rest of the current [ I – Ig ]

through the attached shunt resistances. The Rg ( The resistance of

galvanometer ) and Ig ( Current for full scale deflection ) can be

calculated by the following formulas.

S

R _

H

R

S

R

H

R

g

R

×

=

]

g

R R [

V

g

I

+

=

The value of the shunt resistance R

S

can be calculated by equating

the potential differences across the two branches of the circuit. Let

R

g

and R

S

be the resistances of galvanometer and shunt

resistance respectively ans let I

g

and I

S

be the current passing

through them. Then

I = I

g +

I

s

_________ [ 1 ]

I

s

= [ I – I

g

] _________ [ 2 ]

Since R

g

and R

S

are in parallel then by Ohm’s law we have

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

13

I

s

R

S

=

I

g

R

g

_________ [ 3 ]

From Equation [ 2 ] and Equation [ 3 ] we get

R

S

[ I – I

g

] =

I

g

R

g

]

g

I I [

g

R

g

I

S

R

÷

×

=

If the shunt wire has specific resistance µ and a radius r then it’s

required length L is given by

ρ

2

r π S

L =

WORKING FORMULA:

1.

S

R _

H

R

S

R

H

R

g

R

×

= 2.

]

g

R

H

R [

V

g

I

+

=

3.

]

g

I I [

g

R

g

I

S

R

÷

×

= 3.

ρ

2

r π S

L =

Where

R

g

is the resistance of the given galvanometer

R

H

is the high Resistance

R

S

is the shunt Resistance

I

g

is the current for full scale deflection flowing through the

galvanometer

V is the range of ammeter up to which the galvanometer is to

be converted

R

S

is the shunt resistance connected in parallel.

L is the length of wire having the resistance R

S

.

t is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter

[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]

r is the radius of the wire.

µ is the specific resistance of the material of the wire

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

14

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

High

Resistance

R

H

Full

Deflection

Half

Deflection

Shunt

Resistance

R

S

S

R _

H

R

S

R

H

R

g

R

×

=

Ohms Divisions Divisions Ohms Ohms

1. Least count of standard ammeter = ____________ Amp

__________Divisions of galvanometer = _________ Amp

One division of galvanometer =

= ________ Amp

2. Least count of converted ammeter = ____________ Amp

VERIFICATION:

S.

No.

Standard

Ammeter

Reading

Reading of the shunted

galvanometer

Difference

Galvanometer

Divisions

Converted

Ammeter

Amperes Divisions Amperes Amperes

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

15

CALCULATIONS:

S

R _

H

R

S

R

H

R

g

R

×

=

_

g

R

×

= Ohms

= =

]

g

R

H

R [

V

g

I

+

=

p Am

g

I = =

+

=

]

g

I I [

g

R

g

I

S

R

÷

×

=

Ohms

S

R = =

÷

×

=

ρ

2

r π S

L =

cm

2

] [ 142 . 3

L = =

×

=

RESULT:

The given galvanometer has been converted in to an

ammeter up to the range [ 0 – 1 ] ampere.

Teacher’s signature

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

16

PRECAUTION:

All connections should be neat and tight.

Short and thick connecting wires should be used.

The plugs of resistance box should be tight in their gaps.

While finding the current I

G

for full scale deflection do not

close the circuit with out introducing a high resistance by the

resistance box.

No portion of calculated length of the wire should be under

the binding screw s of the galvanometer.

When comparing the readings of standard ammeter and the

shunted galvanometer pass large currents to produce large

deflection, thus reducing error in reading the deflection.

Care should be taken in handling the apparatus.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

Loose connections

Use of long and thin connecting wires may add more

resistance in the circuit.

For finding full scale deflection if the circuit is closed with out

introducing a high resistance by the resistance box.

The portion of calculated length of the wire should out of the

binding screw of the galvanometer.

A small amount of current may cause the error in the

deflection of the galvanometer.

Loose plugs in the resistance box.

Fluctuation of current in the circuit.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

17

EXPERIMENT NO . 3

OBJECT: To convert the given galvanometer in to an voltmeter up

to the range [ 0 – 1 ] volt.

APPARATUS: Galvanometer , Voltmeter , Ammeter ,

Resistance Box , Rheostat , 0ne way Key , Connecting Wires

and a Battery.

THEORY: A galvanometer having a resistance R

g

gives a full

scale deflection when a current I

g

is passed through it.. It can be

converted in to a voltmeter up to the range [ 0 – 1 ] volt by

connecting a suitable resistance R

X

in series with it. The value of

the series resistance R

X

is such that it allows a current I

g

to pass

through the combination of galvanometer and series resistance R

X

when potential difference V is applied across it. By applying Ohm’s

law the value of R

X

is given by

]

g

R

X

R [

V

g

I

+

=

S

R _

H

R

S

R

H

R

g

R

×

=

To convert a moving coil galvanometer in to a voltmeter up to a

maximum voltage E

X

it is necessary to connect a high resistance in

series with the galvanometer coil of the resistance Rg Most of the

potential drop will then occur across the resistance R

X

The value

of the series resistance R

X

should be so adjusted that the voltage

E produces across the galvanometer coil and the series resistance

R

X

a current Ig sufficient to produce full scale deflection in the

galvanometer movement . Then by Ohm’s law

V = I

g

[

R

X

+ R

g

]

I

g

R

X

+ I

g

R

g

= V

I

g

R

X

= V – I

g

R

g

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

18

g

I

g

R

g

I - V

X

R

=

g

I

g

R

g

I

g

I

V

X

R × =

g

R -

g

I

V

X

R

=

WORKING FORMULA:

1.

S

R _

H

R

S

R

H

R

g

R

×

= 2.

]

g

R R [

V

g

I

+

=

3.

g

R -

g

I

V

X

R =

Where

R

g

is the resistance of the given galvanometer

R

H

is the high Resistance

R

S

is the shunt Resistance

I

g

is the current for full scale deflection flowing through the

galvanometer

V is the range of voltmeter up to which the galvanometer is

to be converted

R

X

is the high Resistance connected in series.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

OBSERVATIONS:

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

19

High

Resistance

R

H

Full

Deflection

Half

Deflection

Shunt

Resistance

R

S

S

R _

H

R

S

R

H

R

g

R

×

=

Ohms Divisions Divisions Ohms Ohms

1. Least count of standard voltmeter = ___________ Amp

_________Divisions of galvanometer = __________ Volts

One divisions of galvanometer =

= ________ Volts

2. Least count of converted ammeter = ____________ Volts

VERIFICATION:

S.

No.

Standard

Voltmeter

Reading

Reading of the shunted

galvanometer

Difference

Galvanometer

Divisions

Converted

Voltmeter

Volts Divisions Volts Volts

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

CALCULATIONS:

S

R _

H

R

S

R

H

R

g

R

×

=

_

g

R

×

= Ohms

= =

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

20

]

g

R

H

R [

V

g

I

+

=

p Am

g

I = =

+

=

g

R -

g

I

V

X

R =

Ohms - -

X

R - - = = =

RESULT:

The given galvanometer has been converted in to a

voltmeter up to the range [ 0 – 1 ] volts.

Teacher’s signature

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

21

PRECAUTION:

All connections should be neat and tight.

Short and thick connecting wires should be used.

The plugs of resistance box should be tight in their gaps.

While finding the current I

G

for full scale deflection do not

close the circuit with out introducing a high resistance by the

resistance box.

No portion of calculated length of the wire should be under

the binding screw s of the galvanometer.

When comparing the readings of standard ammeter and the

shunted galvanometer pass large currents to produce large

deflection, thus reducing error in reading the deflection.

The rheostat used as potential divider should not be of low

resistance.

Care should be taken in handling the apparatus.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

Loose connections

Use of long and thin connecting wires may add more

resistance in the circuit.

For finding full scale deflection if the circuit is closed with out

introducing a high resistance by the resistance box.

The portion of calculated length of the wire should out of the

binding screw of the galvanometer.

A small amount of current may cause the error in the

deflection of the galvanometer.

A low resistance rheostat as potential divider may be used.

Loose plugs in the resistance box.

Fluctuation of current in the circuit.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

22

EXPERIMENT NO . 4

OBJECT: To calibrate a voltmeter by using a potentiometer.

APPARATUS: Potentiometer , Jockey , Two Rheostat , Two

Battery ,Two 0ne way Key , Galvanometer , Two way key ,

Voltmeter , Standard cell and Connecting Wires.

THEORY: A potential drop is established across a potentiometer

by connecting a battery across it. The potential drop per unit length

of its wire is measured in terms of EMF of a standard cell. A

rheostat is set up as a potential divider. The potential difference for

its different setting is measured by a voltmeter and by the

potentiometer using the value of potential drop per unit length of

the potentiometer wire as already found because of the standard

cell and the inherent accuracy of potentiometric voltage

measurement , the potential read by potentiometer is the true

reading of the potential . This is compared with the reading of the

voltmeter and in this way the calibration of voltmeter is checked .

WORKING FORMULA: ]

1

L

2

L

[

S

E

S

V × =

Where

V

S

is the calculated voltage

E

S

is the E.M.F of standard cell

L

1

is the balancing length for Standard cell is in circuit

L

2

is the balancing length for R

2

is in circuit

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

23

OBSERVATIONS:

3. Least count of standard voltmeter = _____________ Volts

4. E .M . F of standard cell = E

S

= _______________ Volts

5. Balancing length when Standard cell is in circuit L

1

= __ cm.

S.

No

Balancing

length when

R

2

is in

circuit

L

2

Calculated Voltage

]

1

L

2

L

[

S

E

S

V × =

Voltmeter

Reading

V

Difference

[ V

S

– V ]

cm volts volts volts

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

CALCULATIONS: ]

1

L

2

L

[

S

E

S

V × =

]

1

L

2

L

[

S

E

S

V × =

× =

V

S

= _________ Volts

]

1

L

2

L

[

S

E

S

V × =

× =

V

S

= _________ Volts

]

1

L

2

L

[

S

E

S

V × =

× =

V

S

= _________ Volts

]

1

L

2

L

[

S

E

S

V × =

× =

V

S

= _________ Volts

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

24

RESULT:

The given voltmeter has been calibrated a by using a

potentiometer

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

All connections should be neat and tight.

Short and thick connecting wires should be used.

The jockey must have sharp edge.

Avoid the sliding of jockey on the wire rather it should be

gently tapped over it.

The current through the potentiometer should be passed

while taking readings..

The plugs of resistance box should be tight in their gaps.

Positive terminal of the batteries B

1

& B

2

and standard E

S

cell

should be connected to the same end of the potentiometer

wire.

Emf of the battery B

1

should be greater than emf of the

battery B

2

or the standard cell.

The rheostat R

1

once set should not be changed through out

the experiment.

Care should be taken in handling the apparatus.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

Loose connections

Error due to the sliding of jockey on the wire.

Use of long and thin connecting wires may add more

resistance in the circuit.

Loose plugs in the resistance box.

Jockey may not be of sharp edge.

Fluctuation of current in the circuit.

]

1

L

2

L

[

S

E

S

V × =

× =

V

S

= _________ Volts

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

25

EXPERIMENT NO . 5

OBJECT: To calibrate an ammeter by using a potentiometer.

APPARATUS: Potentiometer , Jockey , Two Rheostat , Two

Battery ,Two 0ne way Key , Galvanometer , Two way key ,

Ammeter , Standard cell , Resistance box and Connecting Wires.

THEORY: A potential drop is established across a potentiometer

by connecting a battery across it. The potential drop per unit length

of its wire is measured in terms of EMF of a standard cell. A

resistance R

S

an ammeter and A and a rheostat R

2

are connected

in series with a battery B

2

(

as in figure ). Let the current flowing

through the circuit as read by the ammeter be I . This current set

up a potential drops V

S

across the standard resistance R

S

This

value of V

S

is measured by the potentiometer using the value of

potential drop per unit length of potentiometer wire. Because of the

standard cell and the inherent accuracy of potentiometric voltage

measurement, the value of V

S

is very accurate. The current

flowing through the standard resistance R

S

is thus IS = VS X RS .

This is the true value of current flowing through the circuit. It is

compared with the reading of the ammeter A and in this way the

calibration of ammeter is checked .

WORKING FORMULA: ]

1

L

2

L

S

R

S

E

[

S

I × =

Where

V

S

is the calculated voltage

E

S

is the E.M.F of standard cell

R

S

is the standard resistance.

V

S

is the calculated current

L

1

is the balancing length for Standard cell is in circuit

L

2

is the balancing length for R

2

is in circuit

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

26

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

6. Least count of standard ammeter = ___________ Amp

7. E .M . F of standard cell = E

S

= ______________ Volts

8. Value of standard resistance = R

S

= ____________ Ohms

9. Balancing length when Standard cell is in circuit L

1

___ cm

S.

No

Balancing

length when

R

S

is in circuit

L

2

Calculated Current

]

1

L

2

L

S

R

S

E

[

S

I × =

Ammeter

Reading

I

Difference

[ I

S

– I ]

cms amp amp amp

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

27

CALCULATIONS:

RESULT:

The given ammeter has been calibrated a by using a

potentiometer

Teacher’s signature

]

1

L

2

L

S

R

S

E

[

S

I × =

× =

I

S

= ×

I

S

= _________ amp

]

1

L

2

L

S

R

S

E

[

S

I × =

× =

I

S

= ×

I

S

= _________ amp

]

1

L

2

L

S

R

S

E

[

S

I × =

× =

I

S

= ×

I

S

= _________ amp

]

1

L

2

L

S

R

S

E

[

S

I × =

× =

I

S

= ×

I

S

= _________ amp

]

1

L

2

L

S

R

S

E

[

S

I × =

× =

I

S

= ×

I

S

= _________ amp

]

1

L

2

L

S

R

S

E

[

S

I × =

× =

I

S

= ×

I

S

= _________ amp

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

28

PRECAUTION:

All connections should be neat and tight.

Short and thick connecting wires should be used.

The jockey must have sharp edge.

Avoid the sliding of jockey on the wire rather it should be

gently tapped over it.

The current through the potentiometer should be passed

while taking readings..

The plugs of resistance box should be tight in their gaps.

Positive terminal of the batteries B

1

& B

2

and standard E

S

cell

should be connected to the same end of the potentiometer

wire.

Emf of the battery B

1

should be greater than emf of the

battery B

2

or the standard cell.

The rheostat R

1

once set should not be changed through out

the experiment.

Care should be taken in handling the apparatus.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

Loose connections

Error due to the sliding of jockey on the wire.

Use of long and thin connecting wires may add more

resistance in the circuit.

Loose plugs in the resistance box.

Jockey may not be of sharp edge.

Fluctuation of current in the circuit.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

29

EXPERIMENT NO . 6

OBJECT: To calibrate an ammeter and a voltmeter by using a

potentiometer.

APPARATUS: Potentiometer , Jockey , Two Rheostat , Two

Battery ,Two 0ne way Key , Galvanometer , Two way key ,

Ammeter , Voltmeter , Standard cell , Resistance box and

Connecting Wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

]

1

L

2

L

[

S

E

S

V × = , ]

1

L

2

L

S

R

S

E

[

S

I × =

Where

V

S

is the calculated voltage

E

S

is the E.M.F of standard cell

R

S

is the standard resistance.

L

1

is the balancing length for Standard cell is in circuit

L

2

is the balancing length for R

2

is in circuit

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

30

OBSERVATIONS:

1. Least count of standard ammeter = ______ Amp

2. Least count of standard voltmeter =_________ Volts

3. E .M . F of standard cell = E

S

= __________ Volts

4. Value of standard resistance = R

S

= _______ Ohms.

5. Balancing length when Standard cell is in circuit L

1

= ___ cm

CALCULATIONS:

S.

No

Balancing

Length

when

R

S

is in

circuit

L

2

Voltage

V

S

Voltmeter

Reading

V

Current

I

S

Ammeter

Reading

I

Difference

[ V

S

– V ]

Difference

[ I

S

– I ]

cm volts volts amps amps volts amps

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

]

1

L

2

L

[

S

E

S

V × =

× =

V

S

= ×

V

S

= _________ volts

]

1

L

2

L

S

R

S

E

[

S

I × =

× =

I

S

= ×

I

S

= _________ amp

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

31

RESULT:

The given ammeter and voltmeter have been calibrated

a by using a potentiometer

Teacher’s signature

]

1

L

2

L

[

S

E

S

V × =

× =

V

S

= ×

V

S

= _________ volts

]

1

L

2

L

S

R

S

E

[

S

I × =

× =

I

S

= ×

I

S

= _________ amp

]

1

L

2

L

[

S

E

S

V × =

× =

V

S

= ×

V

S

= _________ volts

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

32

PRECAUTION:

All connections should be neat and tight.

Short and thick connecting wires should be used.

The jockey must have sharp edge.

Avoid the sliding of jockey on the wire rather it should be

gently tapped over it.

The current through the potentiometer should be passed

while taking readings..

The plugs of resistance box should be tight in their gaps.

Positive terminal of the batteries B

1

& B

2

and standard E

S

cell

should be connected to the same end of the potentiometer

wire.

Emf of the battery B

1

should be greater than emf of the

battery B

2

or the standard cell.

The rheostat R

1

once set should not be changed through out

the experiment.

Care should be taken in handling the apparatus.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

Loose connections

Error due to the sliding of jockey on the wire.

Use of long and thin connecting wires may add more

resistance in the circuit.

Loose plugs in the resistance box .

Jockey may not be of sharp edge .

Fluctuation of current in the circuit.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

33

EXPERIMENT NO . 7

OBJECT: To determine the low resistance of the given coil by

Carey foster bridge.

APPARATUS: Meter bridge, Galvanometer, Two resistance

boxes, Given coil , Fractional resistance box , Cell, One way key

and Connecting wires.

THEORY: Carey foster bridge is a modified form of meter bridge

having four gaps across which resistances X , P , Q , and Y are

connected. P and Q are two equal resistances X is the unknown

low resistance and Y is the known resistance.

If the balance point C is obtained at a point L

1

cm from the end A ,

then

] i -[ - - - - - - - - - - -

β ρ ]

1

L 100 [ Y

α ρ

1

L X

Q

P

+ ÷ +

+ +

=

Where µ is the resistance per cm length of the wire and o and |

are the end resistance at A and B respectively.

If X and Y are interchanged and the balance point is obtained at

point L

2

from the end A then

] ii -[ - - - - - - - - - - -

β ρ ]

2

L 100 [ X

α ρ

2

L Y

Q

P

+ ÷ +

+ +

=

From equation [ I ] and equation [ ii ]

β α ρ 100 Y X

α ρ

2

L Y

β ρ 100 Y X

α ρ

1

L X

Q P

P

+ + + +

+ +

=

+ + + +

+ +

=

+ o

As the denominator s are equal therefore

X + L

1

µ + o = Y + L

2

µ + o

X – Y = L

1

µ + o – [ L

2

µ + o ]

X – Y = L

1

µ + o – L

2

µ – o

X – Y = [ L

1

– L

2

] µ

X = Y + [ L

1

– L

2

] µ -------------------- [ iii ]

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

34

Thus X can be determined if L

1

, L

2

and µ are known

For finding µ the resistance per cm of the wire , make X = 0 by

closing gap NO 1 by a copper shorting strip and balance point is

obtained at L

1

. Now copper strip X and Y are interchanged and

the balance point is obtained at L

2

then equation [ iii ] can be

written as

0 = Y + [ L

1

– L

2

] µ

µ [ L

1

– L

2

] = Y

]

2

L

1

L [

Y

ρ

÷

=

WORKING FORMULA:

]

2

L

1

L [

Y

ρ

÷

= , X = Y + [ L

2

– L

1

] µ

Where

µ is the resistance per cm length of the given wire

X

is the unknown low resistance.

Y is the known resistance.

L

1

is the

balance point from end A

L

2

is the balance point from end A when X and Y are

interchanged

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

35

OBSERVATIONS: FOR DETERMINATION OF µ

[ The resistance per cm of the wire ]

Resistance P = _____ Ohms , Resistance P = ______ Ohms

S.

NO

Y

Distance of balancing point

from A with shorting strip in

]

2

L

1

L [

Y

ρ

÷

=

Mean

µ

L

1

L

2

Ohm cm cm Ohm / cm Ohm /cm

1.

2.

3.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

FOR DETERMINATION OF UNKNOWN LOW RESISTANCE

Resistance P = _____ Ohms , Resistance P = _____ Ohms

S.

NO

Y

Distance of balancing point

from end A

X = Y + [ L

2

– L

1

] µ

L

1

L

2

Ohm cm cm Ohm

1.

2.

3.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

36

CALCULATIONS:

]

2

L

1

L [

Y

ρ

÷

=

ρ

÷

=

=

µ = ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ Ohms / cm

]

2

L

1

L [

Y

ρ

÷

=

ρ

÷

=

=

µ = ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ Ohms / cm

]

2

L

1

L [

Y

ρ

÷

=

ρ

÷

=

=

µ = ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ Ohms / cm

MEAN µ

3

+ +

=

= ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ Ohms / cm

X = Y + [ L

2

– L

1

] µ

= + [ – ]

= + ×

= +

= ____________ Ohms

X = Y + [ L

2

– L

1

] µ

= + [ – ]

= + ×

= +

= ____________ Ohms

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

37

Actual Value = 0 . 3 Ohms

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

3 . 0

3 . 0

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

The unknown low resistance of the given coil by Carey

foster bridge is calculated to be ____________ Ohms.

Percentage of error = ________________ %

Teacher’s signature

X = Y + [ L

2

– L

1

] µ

= + [ – ]

= + ×

= +

= ____________ Ohms

MEAN

X

3

+ +

=

= ____________ Ohms

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

38

PRECAUTION:

All connections should be neat and tight.

Short and thick connecting wires should be used.

The jockey must have sharp edge.

Avoid the sliding of jockey on the wire rather it should be

gently tapped over it.

The current through the bridge should be disconnected while

reversing the key.

The current through the potentiometer should be passed

while taking readings..

The plugs of resistance box should be tight in their gaps.

Care should be taken in handling the apparatus.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

Loose connections

Error due to the sliding of jockey on the wire.

Use of long and thin connecting wires may add more

resistance in the circuit.

Loose plugs in the resistance box .

Jockey may not be of sharp edge .

Fluctuation of current in the circuit.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

39

EXPERIMENT NO . 8

OBJECT: To determine the value of two unknown resistances by

using a potentiometer and verify the law of combination of

resistances in series or parallel.

APPARATUS: Potentiometer , Jockey , Two Rheostat , Battery

,Two 0ne way Keys , Galvanometer , Two way key , Resistance

box , Two unknown resistances , Two cells and Connecting Wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

1

L

]

1

L

2

L [

R r

÷

× =

Where

r is the unknown resistance.

R is the known resistance.

L

1

is the balancing length for R.

L

2

is the balancing length for ( R + r ).

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

40

OBSERVATIONS:

Known

Resistance

R

Un known

Resistance

r

Balancing

length for

R

L

1

balancing

length for

( R + r )

L

2

Un known

Resistance

r

1

L

]

1

L

2

L [ R

÷

Mean

Un known

Resistance

r

Ohms Ohms Cm Cm Ohms Ohms

r

1

r

2

r

1

+ r

2

2

r

1

1

r

1

+

CALCULATIONS:

FOR [ r

1

]

1

L

]

1

L

2

L [

R r

÷

× =

÷

× =

× =

× =

r = ____________ Ohms

FOR [ r

1

]

1

L

]

1

L

2

L [

R r

÷

× =

÷

× =

× =

× =

r = ____________ Ohms

2

r r

r Mean

+

=

2

r Mean

+

=

Mean r = ____________ Ohms

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

41

FOR [ r

2

]

1

L

]

1

L

2

L [

R r

÷

× =

÷

× =

× =

× =

r = ____________ Ohms

FOR [ r

2

]

1

L

]

1

L

2

L [

R r

÷

× =

÷

× =

× =

× =

r = ____________ Ohms

2

r r

r Mean

+

=

2

r Mean

+

=

Mean r = ____________ Ohms

FOR [ r

1

+ r

2

]

1

L

]

1

L

2

L [

R r

÷

× =

÷

× =

× =

× =

r = ____________ Ohms

FOR [ r

1

+ r

2

]

1

L

]

1

L

2

L [

R r

÷

× =

÷

× =

× =

× =

r = ____________ Ohms

2

r r

r Mean

+

=

2

r Mean

+

=

Mean r = ____________ Ohms

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

42

FOR [

2

r

1

1

r

1

+

]

1

L

]

1

L

2

L [

R r

÷

× =

÷

× =

× =

× =

r = ____________ Ohms

FOR [

2

r

1

1

r

1

+

]

1

L

]

1

L

2

L [

R r

÷

× =

÷

× =

× =

× =

r = ____________ Ohms

2

r r

r Mean

+

=

2

r Mean

+

=

Mean r = ____________ Ohms

Verification of series

combination Put [ r

1

& r

2

]

from known resistance

[ r

1

+ r

2

]

e

r + =

r

e

= ___________ Ohms

Verification of parallel

combination Put [ r

1

& r

2

]

from known resistance

2

r

1

r

2

r

1

r

e

r

+

×

=

e

r

+

×

=

e

r =

r

e

= ___________

Ohms

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

43

RESULT:

Un known resistance r

1

= ____________ Ohms

Un known resistance r

2

= ____________ Ohms

For series combination

Observed value [ r

1

+ r

2

] = ____________ Ohms

Calculated value [ r

1

+ r

2

] = ____________ Ohms

For parallel combination

Observed value [

2

r

1

1

r

1

+ ] = ____________ Ohms

Calculated value [

2

r

1

1

r

1

+ ] = ____________ Ohms

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

All connections should be neat and tight.

Short and thick connecting wires should be used.

The positive terminal of the battery and that of cell must be

connected to the terminal on zero side of the potentiometer.

The emf of the main battery E

1

should be greater than E

2

used.

Never insert K

1

& K

2

simultaneously.

The current should remain constant for each set of

observation.

The current should be passed only for the duration it is

necessary otherwise the balance point will keep on

changing.

The jockey must have sharp edge.

Avoid the sliding of jockey on the wire rather it should be

gently tapped over it.

Care should be taken in handling the apparatus.

The plugs of resistance box should be tight in their gaps.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

Loose connections.

Error due to the sliding of jockey on the wire.

Use of long and thin connecting wires may add more

resistance in the circuit.

Loose plugs in the resistance box .

Jockey may not be of sharp edge .

Fluctuation of current in the circuit.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

44

EXPERIMENT NO . 9

OBJECT: To determine the work function of a metal by using a

sodium light.

APPARATUS: Photo electric cell , Sodium light , Battery ,

Rheostat , One Way key , Four way key or Reversing key , Micro

ammeter , Voltmeter and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

e

0

V -

λ

c

h Φ Function Work = = ,

Where

| is the function of the given metal.

h

is the Plank’s Constant

c is the velocity of light

ì is the wavelength of sodium light

V

0

is the stopping potential

e is the charge on an electron.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

45

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of voltmeter = ________________________ volts.

Least count of micro ammeter = ____________________ µ amp.

Plank’s Constant = h = 6.625 × 10

– 34

joules – sec

Velocity of light = c = 3 × 10

8

m / sec. or 3 × 10

10

cm / sec.

Wavelength of sodium light = ì= 5893 Å = 5893 × 10

– 10

m

Charge on an electron = e = 1.6 × 10

– 19

Coulomb.

S.

NO

Distance of sodium lamp from

Photo cell _____________cm

Voltmeter

reading

Volts

Micro ammeter

reading

Divisions

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

CALCULATIONS:

Stopping Potential from graph V

0

= ___________ Volts

e

0

V -

λ

c

h Φ Function Work = =

19 -

10 6 . 1 -

10

10 5893

8

10 3

34 -

10 6.625 × ×

×

×

× × =

Work Function = ___________________

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

46

GRAPH BETWEEN

PHOTO CURRENT & APPLIED

VOLTAGE

Along X – axis

One small division = ________ Volts

Along Y – axis

One small division = ________ Amp

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

47

RESULT:

The work function of a metal by using a sodium light is

calculated to be _______________________ Electron volts.

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

All the connections should be tight and clean.

Distance between the source and the photo-cell should be

kept unchanged for one set of observations.

The applied voltage should be changed in small and regular

steps.

A V.T.V.M. if available, should be used in place of voltmeter.

To increase the life of the photo-cell, its window should be

closed, when it is not in use.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

Loose connections

Change of distance between the source and the photocell

during the experiment.

Voltage flections

Use of a simple voltmeter.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

48

EXPERIMENT NO . 10

OBJECT: To determine the ionization potential of mercury.

APPARATUS: A mercury diode with base, Voltmeter, Micro

ammeter, Rheostat , One Way key , Power supply and Connecting

wires.

THEORY: The breaking of an atom in an electron and positively

charged ions is called ionization. Ionization can be brought about

by bombarding an atom by fast moving particles such as electrons.

The electron must be accelerated to certain definite energy for

given type of atoms. It will be seen that electron having sufficiently

energy can break off the loosely leave outermost electrons of the

target atom. This will correspond to a sudden increase in plate

current. The ionization potential is therefore defined as the

maximum accelerating potential which is required to accelerate the

electrons so that they can ionize the target.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of voltmeter = ________________________ volts.

Least count of micro ammeter = ____________________ µ amp.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

49

S.

NO

Anode Voltage

[ Plate Voltage ]

Volts

Anode Current

[ Plate Current ]

µ Amp

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

CALCULATIONS:

Actual Value = 13 Volts

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

13

13

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

The ionization potential of mercury is calculated to be

_______________________ Volts.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

50

GRAPH BETWEEN

APPLIED VOLTAGE & CURRENT

Along X – axis

One small division = _______ Volts

Along Y – axis

One small division = _______ Amps

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

51

PRECAUTION:

The connections should be tight and clean.

The current passed through the filament should not be more

than its related value.

A high resistance voltmeter should be preferred.

If the anode current is larger, use a milli ameter in place of

micro ammeter.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

Loose connections

Use of low resistance voltmeter.

Voltage flections

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

52

EXPERIMENT NO . 11

OBJECT: To set up half and full wave rectifier and study their

waveforms on an oscilloscope. Also study the effect of smoothing

circuit ( filter circuit ) on ripple voltage.

APPARATUS: Four point contact diodes , 6V step down

transformer , A high resistance of 10 Kilo Ohms , Capacitor ,

Inductors, Cathode Ray Oscilloscope.

THEORY : The conversion of an alternating current in to direct

current is called rectification. This is very conveniently achieved by

diodes. A circuit which is used for rectification is called a rectifier.

To make the out put waveform from a study voltage we use a

suitable combination of capacitor and inductor in the circuit which

are known as filters. The equation for ripple factor is given

R C

r

f 3 4

1

F . R Factoe Ripple = = ---------------------- [ 1 ]

300

6 -

10 1000 120 3 4

1

F . R Factoe Ripple

× × × ×

= =

3 12 3 4

1

F . R Factoe Ripple

× ×

= =

004 . 0 F . R Factoe Ripple = =

1

2

)

c . d I

rms

I

( F . R Factoe Ripple ÷ = = -------------------- [ 2 ]

Where I

r m s

= Root mean square value of A.C current

I d.c = Value of D.C current

For full wave rectification Integrating equation [ 2 ] we get

}

= =

T

0

2

0

I

dt

2

i

rms

I and

}

= =

T

0

π

0

I 2

dt i

d.c

I

For half wave rectification the values of I

r m s

and I d .c are given

as under

2

0

I

rms

I = and

π

0

I

d.c

I =

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

53

FOR HALF WAVE RECTIFICATION

Now putting the values of I

r m s

and I d .c in equation [ 2 ] we

get

1

2

)

π

0

I

0

I

( F . R Factoe Ripple

2

÷ = =

1

2

)

2

( F . R Factoe Ripple ÷ = =

t

4680 . 1 F . R Factoe Ripple = =

R . F = 1 . 211

FOR HALF WAVE RECTIFICATION

Now putting the values of I

r m s

and I d .c in equation [ 2 ] we

get

1

2

)

π

0

I 2

2

0

I

( F . R Factoe Ripple ÷ = =

1

2

)

2 2

( F . R Factoe Ripple ÷ = =

t

2340 . 0 F . R Factoe Ripple = =

R . F = 0 . 483

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

54

OBSERVATIONS:

FOR HALF WAVE RECTIFIER

SHAPE OF WAVE FORM

In Put Waveform Out Put Waveform Un filtered

Peak value = E

0

= _____ Volts Peak value = E

0

= _____ Volts

SHAPE OF WAVE FORM WHEN DIODE IS INVERTED

In Put Waveform Out Put Waveform Un filtered

Peak value = E

0

= _____ Volts Peak value = E

0

= _____ Volts

SHAPE OF WAVE FORM WHEN DIODE IS INVERTED

In Put Waveform Out Put Waveform Filtered

Peak value = F

0

= _____ Volts Peak value = F

0

= _____ Volts

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

55

d.c out put = F

0

= _____ Volts d.c out put = F

0

= _____ Volts

FOR FULL WAVE RECTIFIER

SHAPE OF WAVE FORM

In Put Waveform Out Put Waveform Un filtered

Peak value = E

0

= _____ Volts Peak value = E

0

= _____ Volts

SHAPE OF WAVE FORM WHEN DIODE IS INVERTED

In Put Waveform Out Put Waveform Un filtered

Peak value = E

0

= _____ Volts Peak value = E

0

= _____ Volts

SHAPE OF WAVE FORM WHEN DIODE IS INVERTED

In Put Waveform Out Put Waveform Filtered

Peak value = F

0

= _____ Volts Peak value = F

0

= _____ Volts

d.c out put = F

0

= _____ Volts d.c out put = F

0

= _____ Volts

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

56

GRAPH BETWEEN

VOLTAGE & CURRENT

Along X – axis

One small division = _______ Volts

Along Y – axis

One small division = _______ Amps

FOR HALF WAVE RECTIFIER

After changing the polarity

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

57

GRAPH BETWEEN

VOLTAGE & CURRENT

Along X – axis

One small division = _______ Volts

Along Y – axis

One small division = _______ Amps

FOR FULL WAVE RECTIFIER

After changing the polarity

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

58

RESULT :

The waveforms of half and full wave rectifier on an

oscilloscope have been studied.

Also studied the effect of smoothing circuit ( filter circuit ) on

ripple voltage.

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

Care should be taken in connecting the diodes whose N-type

ends is marked with red spot or arrow.

V.T.V.M. and C.R.O. must be earthed properly.

While observing input waveform crystal diodes must be

disconnected.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

Loose connections

The N – type ends of diodes are not marked properly

Voltage flections

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

59

EXPERIMENT NO . 12

OBJECT: To study the characteristics of an RLC series or

acceptor circuit by plotting a response curve. Determine the

resonant frequency , band width and Q factor of the circuit

APPARATUS: Voltmeter, Micro ammeter, Rheostat , One Way

key , Power supply and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

C L π 2

1

r

f Frequency Resonant = =

1

f

2

f f Δ Width Band ÷ = =

f

r

f

Width Band

Frequency Resonant

factor Q Factor Quality

A

= = =

Where

f

r

is the resonant frequency.

L

is the inductance.

C is the capacitance.

A f is the band width.

f

1

& f

2

are the frequencies where the response falls to

0.707 of it’s maximum value.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

60

OBSERVATIONS:

Resistance R = _______ Ohms.

Inductance L =________ m Henry =________ Henry

Capacitance C = ______ µ f. = ___________ Farad.

S.

NO

Frequency ( f )

Current in the circuit

Log

f

CPS or HZ µ Amp

01.

02.

03.

04.

05.

06.

07.

08.

09.

10.

CALCULATIONS:

Actual Value =

C L π 2

1

r

f =

142 . 3 2

1

r

f

× ×

=

142 . 3 2

1

r

f

× ×

=

1

r

f =

Hertz

r

f =

1

f

2

f f Δ ÷ =

f Δ ÷ =

f Δ Hertz =

f Δ

r

f

factor Q =

factor Q =

factor Q =

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

61

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

The characteristics of an acceptor circuit have been studied.

It is seen that we get maximum output when the resonant

frequency is applied across the series combination of L , C

and R.

The resonant frequency f

r

is calculated to be _______ hertz.

The calculated value of resonant frequency is near about the

observed value.

The value of inductance L in the circuit is calculated to be

__________Henry.

Band width A f = ____ hertz and Q – factor = _________

Teacher’s signature

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

62

GRAPH BETWEEN

LOG f & CURRENT I

Along X – axis

One small division = _______ Hertz

Along Y – axis

One small division = ________ Amp

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

63

PRECAUTION:

Suitable set of inductance (L) and capacitance (C) should be

selected and their values should be known.

The connection should be tight and clean.

The AVO meter should be adjusted for suitable range before

switching on the circuit.

The selected range of the AVO meter should not be changed

for the whole set of observations.

Frequency from the oscillator should be changed in regular

small steps.

The naked wires should not be touched, when the circuit is

on.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

Loose connections

Voltage flections.

Necked wire should not be touched when the switch is on.

Before starting the experiment get the circuit checked by

your teacher

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

64

EXPERIMENT NO . 13

OBJECT: To study the characteristics of an RLC parallel or

rejector circuit by plotting a response curve. Determine the

resonant frequency , band width and Q factor of the circuit

APPARATUS: Voltmeter, Micro ammeter, Rheostat , One Way

key , Power supply and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

C L π 2

1

r

f Frequency Resonant = =

1

f

2

f f Δ Width Band ÷ = =

f

r

f

Width Band

Frequency Resonant

factor Q Factor Quality

A

= = =

Where

f

r

is the resonant frequency.

L

is the inductance.

C is the capacitance.

A f is the band width.

f

1

& f

2

are the frequencies where the current rises to 1.414

times of the minimum current

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

65

OBSERVATIONS:

Resistance R = _______ Ohms.

Inductance L =________ m Henry =________ Henry

Capacitance C = ______ µ f. = ___________ Farad.

S.

NO

Frequency ( f )

Current in the circuit

Log

f

CPS or HZ µ Amp

01.

02.

03.

04.

05.

06.

07.

08.

09.

10.

CALCULATIONS:

Actual Value =

C L π 2

1

r

f =

142 . 3 2

1

r

f

× ×

=

142 . 3 2

1

r

f

× ×

=

1

r

f =

Hertz

r

f =

1

f

2

f f Δ ÷ =

f Δ ÷ =

f Δ Hertz =

f Δ

r

f

factor Q =

factor Q =

factor Q =

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

66

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

The characteristics of an rejecter circuit have been studied.

It is seen that we get minimum output when the resonant

frequency is applied across the parallel combination of L , C

and R.

The resonant frequency f

r

is calculated to be _______ hertz.

The calculated value of resonant frequency is near about the

observed value.

The value of inductance L in the circuit is calculated to be

__________Henry.

Band width A f = ____ hertz and Q – factor = _________

Teacher’s signature

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

67

GRAPH BETWEEN

LOG f & CURRENT I

Along X – axis

One small division = _______ Hertz

Along Y – axis

One small division = ________ Amp

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

68

PRECAUTION:

Suitable set of inductance (L) and capacitance (C) should be

selected and their values should be known.

The connection should be tight and clean.

The AVO meter should be adjusted for suitable range before

switching on the circuit.

The selected range of the AVO meter should not be changed

for the whole set of observations.

Frequency from the oscillator should be changed in regular

small steps.

The naked wires should not be touched, when the circuit is

on.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

Loose connections

Voltage flections.

Necked wire should not be touched when the switch is on.

Before starting the experiment get the circuit checked by

your teacher

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

69

EXPERIMENT NO . 14

OBJECT: To plot the characteristics curve of a semi conductor

diode. Determine the forward and reverse impedances

[Resistances].

APPARATUS: Voltmeter, Micro ammeter, Rheostat , One Way

key , Power supply and Connecting wires.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of voltmeter = ______________________ volts.

Least count of micro ammeter = __________________ µ amp.

Least count of milli ammeter = ___________________ m amp.

S.

NO

Forward Bias Reverse Bias

Voltage Current Voltage Voltage

Volt Milli ampere Volt Microampere

01.

02.

03.

04.

05.

06.

07.

08.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

70

GRAPH BETWEEN

VOLTAGE V & CURRENT I

Along X – axis

One small division = _______ Volts

Along Y – axis

One small division = ________ Amp

0

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

71

RESULT:

The characteristic curves for a ( p – n ) junction ( both for

forward bias and reverse bias ) have been drawn.

It is seen that when the junction is forward biased with a

small potential difference it allows large current (in milli

amperes ) but when it is reverse biased with a large potential

difference small current ( in micro amperes ) passed through

it

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

The connections should be neat clean and tight.

The AVO meter should be adjusted for suitable range before

switching on the circuit.

The applied voltage never exceed the rated value of the semi

conductor diode.

Care should be taken in connecting the diode whose N –

type end is marked with red spot or arrow.

Voltage should be changed in small and regular steps.

The naked wires should not be touched, when the circuit is

on.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

Loose connections

Voltage flections.

The applied voltage exceed the rated value of the semi

conductor diode.

Necked wire should not be touched when the switch is on.

Before starting the experiment get the circuit checked by

your teacher

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

72

EXPERIMENT NO . 15

OBJECT: To study the static characteristics of a given transistor in

common emitter mode.

APPARATUS: Given transistor ( provided with base resistance ,

also called biasing resistance ), Micro ammeter, Milli ammeter , A

small Power supply, Two Way key and Voltmeter

THEORY: A transistor consists of germanium or silicon crystal in

which a layer of N – type germanium is sand witched between two

layers of P – type germanium. This is forming as P – N – P

transistor. Similarly a transistor in which a layer of P – type

germanium is sad witched between the two layers of N – type

germanium is called N – P – N transistor. A transistor consists of

three parts which are emitter , base and collector. The transistor

can be connected in the circuits normally in three ways.

Common – Emitter configuration

Common – Base configuration

Common – Collector configuration

First one is forward biased junction. The second is reverse bias

junction. A junction is said to be forward biased if the positive

terminal of the battery is connected to the P – type region and the

negative terminal is connected to the N – type region of transistor.

Similarly if the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the

N – type region and the negative terminal is connected to the

P – type region of transistor is called reverse biased junction.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

73

OBSERVATIONS:

[ FOR INPUT CHARACTERISTICS ]

KEEPING COLLECTOR TO AMMETER VOLTAGE V

CE

IS

CONCTANT

S.

NO

V

CE

= 0 Volt V

CE

= 4 Volt V

CE

= 8 Volt

V

BE

I

B

V

BE

I

B

V

BE

I

B

Volt µ Amp Volt µ Amp Volt µ Amp

01.

02.

03.

04.

05.

[ FOR OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS ]

[ KEEPING BASE CURRENT I

B

IS CONCTANT ]

S.

NO

I

B

= 0 µ A I

B

= 20 µ A I

B

= 40 µA I

B

= 60 µ

A

V

CE

I

C

V

CE

I

C

V

CE

I

C

V

CE

I

C

Volt m A Volt m A Volt m A Volt mA

01.

02.

03.

04.

05.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

74

GRAPH BETWEEN

Collector To Emitter Voltage V

CE

&

Collector Current I

C

Along X – axis

One small division = _______ Volts

Along Y – axis

One small division = ________ Amp

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

75

GRAPH BETWEEN

Base Current I

B

&

Collector To Emitter Voltage V

CE

Along X – axis

One small division = _______ Volts

Along Y – axis

One small division = ________ Amp

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

76

RESULT:

The input characteristic curves ( between V

BE

and I

B

keeping

V

CE

is constant ) and output characteristic curves ( between

V

CE

and I

C

keeping I

B

is constant ) have been drawn.

It is seen from these curves that a small change in base

current produces a large change in collector current I

C

.

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

Do not apply base more than 3 volts and collector voltage

more than 12 volts.

Carefully observed the polarities of the power supplies and

terminals of the transistor.

Avoid rough handling the transistor otherwise it may be

damaged.

While making or breaking any connections both the power

supplies should be disconnected.

Before connecting a transistor in to a circuit one should

carefully identify the base ,emitter and collector terminals.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

Loose connections.

Voltage fluctuation.

Un correct connection of a transistor in the circuit.

Base voltage may be more than 3 volts.

Collector voltage may be bore than 12 volts.

Necked wire should not be touched when the switch is on.

Before starting the experiment get the circuit checked by

your teacher

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

77

EXPERIMENT NO . 16

OBJECT: To determine the Plank’s constant by using a

spectrometer and hydrogen discharge tube.

APPARATUS: Spectrometer ,Diffraction grating , Hydrogen

discharge tube and Sprit level.

WORKING FORMULA: Plank’s constant can be calculated

as

3

1

] )

2

n

1

2

2

1

(

C

λ

2

k

4

e m

2

π 2

[ h Constant s Plank' ÷ = =

N

θ Sin d

λ =

Where

h is the Plank’s constant

m is the mass of the electron

e is the charge of the electron

k is the Coulomb’s constant for electrostatic force

ì is the wave length of light

n is the color of the spectral line

d

is the grating element

u is the angle of diffraction

N is the order of image

OBSERVATIONS:

1. Least count of stop watch = 1 minute.

2. Number of lines ruled on the grating = ________lines / inch.

3. Grating element =

] [

cm 2.54

lines of no

inch 1

d = = = ______cm

4. Mass of an electron = m = 9.1072 × 10

– 31

Kg.

5. Charge on an electron = e = 1.6 × 10

– 19

coul.

6. Coulomb’s constant for electrostatic force =k = 9 × 10

9

N – m

2

/coul

2

7. Speed of light = c = 3 × 10

8

m / sec. or 3 × 10

10

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

78

cm / sec.

FOR RED SPECTRAL LINE

S

NO

Order

Of

Image

Lines

Diffraction

reading on

Difference

Of

Readings

2u = A – B

Angle of

diffraction

u

Wave

length

ì

Right

side

[ A ]

Left

side

[ B ]

deg deg deg deg cm

1.

I

D

1

2.

I I

D

2

FOR BLUE SPECTRAL LINE

S

NO

Order

Of

Image

Lines

Diffraction

reading on

Difference

Of

Readings

2u = A – B

Angle of

diffraction

u

Wave

length

ì

Right

side

[ A ]

Left

side

[ B ]

deg deg deg deg cm

1.

I

D

1

2.

I I

D

2

FOR VIOLET SPECTRAL LINE

S

NO

Order

Of

Image

Lines

Diffraction

reading on

Difference

Of

Readings

2u = A – B

Angle of

diffraction

u

Wave

length

ì

Right

side

[ A ]

Left

side

[ B ]

deg deg deg deg cm

1.

I

D

1

2.

I I

D

2

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

79

CALCULATIONS:

Plank’s constant for red spectral line [ n = 3 ]

3

1

] )

2

3

1

2

2

1

(

C

r

λ

2

k

4

e m

2

π 2

[ h Constant s Plank' ÷ = =

Plank’s constant for red spectral line [ n = 4 ]

3

1

] )

2

4

1

2

2

1

(

C

b

λ

2

k

4

e m

2

π 2

[ h Constant s Plank' ÷ = =

Plank’s constant for red spectral line [ n = 5 ]

3

1

] )

2

5

1

2

2

1

(

C

v

λ

2

k

4

e m

2

π 2

[ h Constant s Plank' ÷ = =

Actual Value = h = 6.625 × 10

– 34

J – s.

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

The Plank’s constant by using a spectrometer and hydrogen

discharge tube is calculated to be ____________ J – s.

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

All adjustment of the spectrometer must be correctly made.

The grating should be adjusted in the vertical plane and the

rulings on it should also be made vertical.

In measuring the angle, the left of the image should coincide

with the vertical cross-wire for positions of telescope on

either side of the central image.

The light should be incident on that side of the grating on

which there is no rulings. This is done to obtain no refraction

after deflection has taken place.

Dated : _______________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

80

SOURCES OF ERROR :

Slit may mot sharp.

Spectrometer may not be properly adjusted.

Turn table may not be properly adjusted.

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