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PARIS

A translation of :

R ECHERCHES

SUR LA

´ T H E ORIE

DES

Q UANTA

(Ann. de Phys., 10e s´ rie, t. III (Janvier-F evrier 1925). e ´ by: A. F. Kracklauer c AFK, 2004

Contents

List of Figures Preface to German translation Introduction Historical survey Chapter 1. The Phase Wave 1.1. The relation between quantum and relativity theories 1.2. Phase and Group Velocities 1.3. Phase waves in space-time Chapter 2. The principles of Maupertuis and Fermat 2.1. Motivation 2.2. Two principles of least action in classical dynamics 2.3. The two principles of least action for electron dynamics 2.4. Wave propagation; F ERMAT’s Principle 2.5. Extending the quantum relation 2.6. Examples and discussion Chapter 3. Quantum stability conditions for trajectories 3.1. B OHR -S OMMERFELD stability conditions 3.2. The interpretation of Einstein’s condition 3.3. Sommerfeld’s conditions on quasiperiodic motion Chapter 4. Motion quantisation with two charges 4.1. Particular difﬁculties 4.2. Nuclear motion in atomic hydrogen 4.3. The two phase waves of electron and nucleus

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iii v 1 2 7 7 10 12 15 15 16 18 21 22 23 27 27 28 29 33 33 34 36

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CONTENTS

Chapter 5. Light quanta 5.1. The atom of light 5.2. The motion of an atom of light 5.3. Some concordances between adverse theories of radiation 5.4. Photons and wave optics 5.5. Interference and coherence 5.6. B OHR’s frequency law. Conclusions Chapter 6. X and γ-ray diffusion 6.1. M. J. J. Thompson’s theory 6.2. Debye’s theory 6.3. The recent theory of MM. Debye and Compton 6.4. Scattering via moving electrons Chapter 7. Quantum Statistical Mechanics 7.1. Review of statistical thermodynamics 7.2. The new conception of gas equilibrium 7.3. The photon gas 7.4. Energy ﬂuctuations in black body radiation Appendix to Chapter 5: Light quanta Summary and conclusions Bibliography

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39 39 41 42 46 46 47 49 49 51 52 55 57 57 61 63 67 69 71 73

List of Figures 1.3.3.1 4.1 4.3.1 6.2 2.6.1 1.3.2.1 Minkowski diagram showing “lines of equal phase” Minkowski diagram: details Electron energy-transport Axis system for hydrogen atom Phase rays and particle orbits of hydrogen Compton scattering 12 13 24 34 37 52 iii .

iv LIST OF FIGURES .

In particular. Leipzig. ¨ S CHR ODINGER has shown that each version is a mathematical transcription of the other. M. one must be satisﬁed with a statistical correspondence between energy parcels and amplitude waves of the sort known in classical optics. one result is incontestable: N EWTON’s Dynamics and F RESNEL’s theory of waves have returned to combine into a grand synthesis of great intellectual beauty enabling us to fathom deeply the nature of quanta and open Physics to immense new horizons. v . even if interesting. but it was M. as is done in the theory of electrons. difﬁculties persist. namely a undulatory theory of matter within the framework of ﬁeld theory. [as translated to English below.Preface to German translation In the three years between the publication of the original French version. the electric density in M AXWELL -L ORENTZ equations may be only an ensemble average. Moreover. E. H EISENBERG has developed a more abstract theory. At the moment. making these equations non applicable to single isolated particles. To this point. the development of Physics progressed very rapidly in the way I foresaw. The two methods and their combination have enabled theoreticians to address problems heretofore unsurmountable and have reported much success. E INSTEIN from the beginning has supported ¨ my thesis. S CHR OEDINGER who developed the propagation equations of a new theory and who in searching for its solutions has established what has become known as “Wave Mechanics. (trans. The tentative. they do not explain why electricity has an atomised structure. W. 8 September 1927 1Untersuchungen zur Quantentheorie. B OHR .” Independent of my work. M.] and a German translation in 19271. W. one has not been able to achieve the ultimate goal. namely. B ECKER . in terms of a fusion of the methods of Dynamics and the theory of waves. M. it is interesting that. 1927). for which the basic principle was foreseen actually in the atomic theory and correspondence principle of M. However. “Quantum Mechanics”. ideas of M IE are thusly doomed. Nonetheless. Paris..) (Aka. Verlag.

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for which the fourth component is its frequency. Application of F ERMAT’s Principle for this wave then is identical to the principle of least action applied to a material particle. In addition. to a new theory. Finally. Based on an understanding of the relationship between frequency and energy. Rays of this wave are identical to trajectories of a particle (C HAPTER 2). reveals just how advantageous such a reformulation of electrodynamics would be (Chapter 6). study of scattering of X and γ-rays by amorphous materials. and from the P LANCK -E INSTEIN notion of proper mass. these two are less at odds with each other than heretofore thought. there is good reason to hope that this approach can lead further to a quantum and undulatory theory of Optics that can be the basis for a statistical understanding of a relationship between light-quanta waves and M AXWELL’s formulation of Electrodynamics (C HAPTER 5). we see how introduction of phase waves into Statistical Mechanics justiﬁes the concept of existence of light quanta in the theory of gases and establishes. The further application of these general ideas to E INSTEIN’s notion of light quanta leads to several very interesting conclusions. we proceed in this work from the assumption of existence of a certain periodic phenomenon of a yet to be determined character. perhaps however.Introduction History shows that there long has been dispute over two viewpoints on the nature of light: corpuscular and undulatory. to the stability conditions of a B OHR orbit being identical to the resonance condition of the associated wave (Chapter 3). In spite of remaining difﬁculties. For the purpose of generalising this result to nonuniform motion. which is a development that quantum theory is beginning to support. given the 1 . we posit a proportionality between the momentum world vector of a particle and a propagation vector of a wave. The application of these ideas to the periodic motion of an electron in a B OHR atom leads then. This can then be applied to mutually interaction electrons and protons of the hydrogen atoms (C HAPTER 4). In particular. which is to be attributed to each and every isolated energy parcel. Relativity Theory requires that uniform motion of a material particle be associated with propagation of a certain wave for which the phase velocity is greater than that of light (Chapter 1).

With somewhat more difﬁculty. how energy parcellation between atoms of a gas and light quanta follows. developed a corpuscular theory. The simplest effects (linear propagation. hydrodynamics.. which then F ERMAT succeeded in doing with the principle that carries his name. reﬂection. teach us that. Dynamics complimented with probabilistic notions yields a mechanical understanding of thermodynamics. namely conservation of energy. while N EWTON .e. shows that there is an analogy between certain quantities relevant to periodic motions and thermodynamic quantities. worked on developing fundamental laws. but has not yet revealed fundamental connections. has interested researchers. refraction. N EWTON was ﬁrst to unify Dynamics to a comprehensive theory which he applied to gravity and thereby opened up other new applications. optics and capillary effects. as a consequence of the Renaissance. which enabled him even to explain.) that are nowadays part of Geometric Optics. the science of light. the so-called “emission theory”. as well as the general statistical mechanics of G IBBS and B OLTZMANN . of which the mathematical elegance is simply imposing. and which nowadays is usually called the principle of least action. and later in another form as H AMILTON’s Principle of least action. which is currently quite topical. As is well known. etc. it appears that Mechanics reigned over all physical phenomena. albeit with contrived hypothesis. can easily be interpreted in terms of mechanics. in the 19th century the new discipline of Thermodynamics was also brought within reach of Mechanics. has no mechanical clariﬁcation. The work of C LAUSIUS and B OLTZMANN. H UYGENS propounded an undulatory theory of light. The origins of modern science are found in the end of the 16th century. made known by J OUNG’s experiments. While Astronomy rapidly developed new and precise methods. The beginning of the 19th century saw a trend towards H UYGEN’s theory. principally including D ESCARTES and H UYGENS. effects nowadays consider wave effects (i. In the 18th and 19th centuries generations of mathematicians. Many researchers. were of course ﬁrst to be understood. Following successful applications in acoustics. calling on an analogy with the theory of material point dynamics that he created.2 INTRODUCTION laws of black body radiation. This whole beautiful structure can be extracted from a single principle. that entropy either remains constant or increases. astronomers and physicists so reﬁned N EWTON’s Mechanics that it nearly lost its character as Physics. The imposing theory of gases by M AXWELL and B OLTZMANN . N EWTON ’s rings). an understanding of equilibrium and motion through dynamics and statics only slowly improved. Historical survey From the 16th to the 20th centuries. Although one of the main fundamental principles of thermodynamics. the other. Interference effects. were difﬁcult or impossible to . Since the 17th century. that of M AUPERTUIS . Optics.

The development of Quantum Mechanics is. T HOMP SON . extended M AXWELL’s theory. In the beginning of the 20th century. One resulted from the then unsolvable problems of interpreting M ICHELSON’s and M OR LEY ’s experiment. was both empirically contradicted and conceptually unreal in that it involved inﬁnite total energy. The other pertained to methods of statistical mechanics as applied to black body radiation. with witch they hoped to explain all electromagnetic effects. that when two theories. even M AXWELL himself. We note. The 20th century: Relativity and quantum theory. Herein we give little attention to ether interpretation problems as exposed by M ICHELSON and M ORLEY and studied by L ORENTZ AND F ITZ -G ERALD . For our purposes it is noteworthy. and to an even greater extent L ORENTZ . then one should ask if a difference is real or an artifact of accident or prejudice. J. although. the R AYLEIGH -J EANS Law. which while giving an exact expression for distribution of energy among frequencies. seemingly on entirely different basis. Researching the theoretical nature of black body radiation. L ORENTZ introduced discontinuous electric charges. however. and N EWTON’s ideas lost credibility irretrievably. Nevertheless. In F RESNEL’s age such a question was unfashionable and the corpuscular theory was ridiculed as naive and rejected. which were. on the other hand. etc. In this work we shall simply take these results as given and known and use them. with equal facility can clarify an experimental result. many. We need not remind ourselves of contributions by VOLTA.HISTORICAL SURVEY 3 explain in terms of corpuscles. was extraordinarily simple to explain. Then F RESNEL developed his beautiful elastic theory of light propagation. rather on quasi elastic bound electrons for which ¢ . which. A MPERE . as needed. he found that thermodynamic equilibrium depends not on the nature of emitted particles. thereby holding optics apart from mechanics. H ERTZ . Lord K ELVIN’s clouds yielded precipitation: the one led to Relativity. A great successes of F RESNEL’s theory was the clariﬁcation of the linear propagation of light. with perhaps incomparable insight. The basic notion was introduced in 1900 by M AX P LANCK. resolved by E INSTEIN —a matter covered adequately by many authors in recent years. L APLACE . as was experimentally already demonstrated by J. the other to Quantum Mechanics. that M AXWELL mathematically uniﬁed results of his predecessors and showed that all of optics can be regarded as a branch of electrodynamics. Lord K ELVIN brought attention to two dark clouds on the horizon. especially from Special Relativity. In any case. along with the Emission theory. FARADAY. of particular interest to us. In the 19th century there arose a new physics discipline of enormous technical and theoretical consequence: the study of electricity. At the end of the century many expected a quick and complete ﬁnal uniﬁcation of all Physics. the basic paradigm of that era retained F RESNEL ’s elastic conceptions. continued to attempt to formulate mechanical models for the ether. a few imperfections remained.

postulated that the phase space volume of each gas molecule has the value h3 . This effect pertains to stimulated ejection by radiation of electrons from solids. among others. Each frequency or mode corresponds in this paradigm to a kind of atom of energy. He took it. Serious objections from. D EBYE . i. i. Applying classical laws for energy balance between radiation and such a resonator yields the R AYLEIGH Law. Quanta also penetrated areas where they were unexpected: gas theory. yields the correct black body law. To avoid this problem. This law turned to be correct. in a rather paradoxical manner. with its known defect. discontinuous light. E INSTEIN rebutted by pointing to the fact that this same hypothesis.. hydrogen. The photoelectric effect provided new puzzles. most physicists reject it.e. The international Solvay conference in 1911 was devoted totally to quantum problems and resulted in a series of publications supporting ` E INSTEIN by P OINCAR E which he ﬁnished shortly before his death. as well as an explanation of why classical statistics. P LANCK. E INSTEIN explained this remarkable result by considering that radiation is comprised of parcels each containing energy equal to hν. Astoundingly. Somehow E INSTEIN instinctively understood that one must consider the corpuscular nature of light and suggested the hypothesis that radiation is parcelled into units of hν. the D ULONG -P ETIT Law. a so-called P LANCK resonator. B OHR made tow postulates: § ¦ ¥ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¤ £ .. atoms consist of positively charged nuclei surrounded by an electron cloud. as expected. N is the atomic number that also appears in M ENDELEJEFF ’ S chart. each of 4 77 10 10 esu. Empirically it was found: h 6 545 10 27 erg-sec. is subject to certain exceptions and ﬁnally why the R AYLEIGH Law is restricted to a speciﬁc range. L ORENTZ and J EANS . Quantum theory helped E INSTEIN . experiment shows that the energy of ejected electrons is proportional to the frequency of the incoming radiation. B ORN and K ARMANN to develop a comprehensive theory of the speciﬁc heat of solids. Even while deﬁciencies regarding the speciﬁc heat of gases arose. where h is a new fundamental constant. In 1913 B OHR’s theory of atom structure appeared. that is. when an electron adsorb energy hν and the ejection itself requires w then the election has hν w energy. and that its number of accompanying electrons is also N. Quantum notions quickly penetrated all areas of Physics. so that atoms are neutral. along with RUTHER FORD and VAN DER B ROEK that. This is one of the most impressive accomplishments of theoretical Physics.e. While this notion conﬂicts with wave concepts. To calculate optical frequencies for the simplest atom. namely: Energy exchange between resonator (or other material) and radiation takes place only in integer multiples of hν. B OLTZ MANN ’s methods provided no means to evaluate certain additive constants in the expression for entropy.4 INTRODUCTION frequency is independent of energy. and then in a more complete form. to the energy. P LANCK posited an entirely new hypothesis. then N ERST and L INDEMANN . and not. and that a nucleus has N positive charges. In order to enable N ERST’s methods to give numerical results and determine these additive constants.

etc.) When an electron changes from one to another stable orbit. The great success of B OHR’s theory in the last 10 years is well known.) Among all conceivable electron orbits. to attempt to unify the corpuscular and undulatory approaches in an attempt to reveal the fundamental nature of the quantum. the wave picture can also point to successes. the fundamental meaning of quanta remained unknown. A. now appears more than ever to represent real light. This attempt I undertook some time ago and the purpose to this work is to present a more complete description of the successful results as well as known deﬁciencies. £ ¨ ¨ . which revealed a weakening of scattered radiation as evidenced by a reduction of frequency. W. other spectrum details. we shall explicate this point. especially with respect to X-rays. only a small number are stable and somehow determined by the constant h. On the side of quanta. L. E PSTEIN . Nevertheless. C OMPTON has analysed scattering correctly as was veriﬁed by experiments on electrons. etc.HISTORICAL SURVEY 5 1. B RAGG . Study of the photoelectric effect for X-rays by M AURICE DE B ROGLIE . S OMMER FELD . S CHWARTZSCHILD . the study of X-rays and the M OSELEY Law. In Chapter 3. hν. In short. B OHR and others have extended and generalised the theory to explain the S TARK Effect. This theory enabled calculation of the spectrum for hydrogen and ionised helium. which relates atomic number with X-ray data. Still. the prediction of VON L AUE ’ S interference and scattering (See: D EBYE . as the earlier objections to this idea have shown.). radiation of frequency ν is absorbed or emitted. 2. the time appears to have arrived. This frequency is related to a change in the atom’s energy by δε hν. the quantum of energy. H. the Z EEMANN Effect. γ-rays by RUTHERFORD and E LLIS have further substantiated the corpuscular nature of radiation.

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The principle of inertia of energy attributes to every body a proper mass (that is a mass as measured by an observer at rest with respect to it) of m0 and a proper energy of m0 c2 . The relation between quantum and relativity theories One of the most important new concepts introduced by Relativity is the inertia of energy.” In so far as there is always a ﬁxed proportionality between mass and energy.1. Since kinetic energy may be deﬁned as the increase in energy experienced by a body when brought from rest to velocity v βc. but which. for reasons delineated below. we prefer to denote the “limit speed of energy. as is well known from relativistic dynamics. a body’s mass takes on the value m0 1 β2 and therefore energy m0 c2 1 β2.2) Ekin m0 c 2 m0 c 2 m0 c 2 1 1 § £ ¥ £ (1. then for this observer. Following E INSTEIN .1. we may regard material and energy as two terms for the same physical reality. and all mass represents energy. Beginning from atomic theory.1) energy mass © c2 § £ . Mass and energy may always be related one to another by where c is a constant known as the “speed of light”.1. and this in turn. electronic theory leads us to consider matter as being essentially discontinuous.CHAPTER 1 The Phase Wave 1. If this body is in uniform motion with velocity v βc with respect to a particular observer.3) Ekin 1 m0 v 2 2 § § 1 1 § £ § £ (1. energy may be considered as being equivalent to mass. contrary to traditional ideas regarding light. leads us to consider admitting that energy is entirely concentrated in small regions of space. if not even condensed at singularities.1. one ﬁnds the following expression: β2 β2 which for small values of β reduces to the classical form: 7 ¤ £ (1.

but the fact that it is undividable. by received wisdom. perhaps incorrectly. the energy of an electron is spread over all space with a strong concentration in a very small region. let us seek now how this frequence is manifested for an observer who has posed the above question. Must we suppose that this periodic phenomenon occurs in the interior of energy packets? This is not at all necessary. and ceased to question why action plays a large role in so many issues. Moreover. of course.4) energy h frequency . that it constitutes a unit.5) hν0 m0 c 2 ¦ ¥ £ (1. That which makes an electron an atom of energy is not its small volume that it occupies in space. Nevertheless. but.1. ¤ £ (1. the results of §1. One may imagine that. The further development of the theory of quanta often occurred by reference to mechanical ‘action’. action is a very abstract notion. Planck’s constant. namely: where h is Planck’s constant.1 Having supposed existence of a frequency for a parcel of energy. what must we understand by the interior of a parcel of energy? An electron is for us the archetype of isolated parcel of energy. I repeat: it occupies all space. the relationships of a quantum ﬁnd expression in terms of action instead of energy. one may associate a periodic phenomenon of frequency ν0 . such that one ﬁnds: The frequency ν0 is to be measured. To begin. in the rest frame of the energy packet. and this can be no accident since relativity theory reveals ‘action’ to be among the “invariants” in physics theories. It seems to us that the fundamental idea pertaining to quanta is the impossibility to consider an isolated quantity of energy without associating a particular frequency to it.1. but otherwise whose properties are very poorly known. by cause of a meta law of Nature. By cause of the L ORENTZ transformation of time. h .8 1. and as a consequence of much reﬂection on light quanta and the photoelectric effect. see Chapter 4 below. a periodic phenomenon in a moving object appears to a ﬁxed obse 1Regarding difﬁculties that arise when several electric centers interact. as can be deduced from its consequences. if energy is to be continuously distributed through space. like all hypotheses. This hypothesis is the basis of our theory: it is worth as much. seemingly. This association is expressed by what I call the ‘quantum relationship’. we now seek to ﬁnd a way to introduce quanta into relativistic dynamics. ML2 T 1 . THE PHASE WAVE Having recalled the above. The notion of a quantum makes little sense. to know well.3 will show that it is spread out over an extended space. we shall see that this is not so. that is. to each portion of energy with a proper mass m0 . has the units of action. we have returned to statements on energy as fundamental. but. which we believe.

It has brought me to the following conception.e. the phase of the wave traversing the same distance is 1 β2 As stated.1. this frequency £ £ . is given by: ¤ § £ § ¦ £ (1.1. essentially in the same way. (β is always less that 1. Thus. Here we must focus on the nature of the wave we imagine to exist. Suppose that at t 0 the phenomenon and wave have phase harmony. shows that it can not represent transport of § § " § 1 β2 ¤ § ! § £ (1.6) ν1 ν0 1 β2 m0 c 2 h § £ § § £ ¦ ¦ 1 β2 1 β2.” ν h 1 m0 c 2 The proof is simple. this is the same sinusoid of t βx c 1 β2 which rep1 β2 propagating with velocity c β in the direction resents a wave of frequency ν0 of motion.1. the moving object has covered a distance equal to x βct for which the phase equals ν1t h 1 m0 c2 1 β2 x βc . except when mass is inﬁnite or imaginary).1. its proper time. At time t then. as follows.1. THE RELATION BETWEEN QUANTUM AND RELATIVITY THEORIES 9 rver to be slowed down by a factor of 1 β2.8) ν t βx c m0 c 2 h 1 x βc βx c m0 c 2 h 1 β2 x βc § £ £ ¤ § £ § £ (1. Likewise. then the L ORENTZ transformation gives: The periodic phenomenon we imagine is for this observer a sinusoidal function of v0t0 . such a frequency as measured by a ﬁxed observer would be: These two frequencies ν1 and ν are fundamentally different.7) ν 1 m0 c 2 h 1 β2 § On the other hand. i. we see here that phase harmony persists. which I denote ‘the theorem of phase harmony:’ “A periodic phenomenon is seen by a stationary observer to exhibit the frequency ν1 h 1 m0 c2 1 β2 that appears constantly in phase with a wave having frequency 1 β2 propagating in the same direction with velocity V c β. The fact that its velocity V c β is necessarily greater than the velocity of light c. this is the famous clock retardation. in that the factor 1 β2 enters into them differently.4).1. For an observer at rest. but perhaps with greater impact. This is a difﬁculty that has intrigued me for a long time. since energy of a moving object equals m0 c2 according to the quantum relation. Additionally this theorem can be proved.1. (1.9) t0 1 t βx c ¤ § £ " § ! § £ " § ! (1.. If t0 is time of an observer at rest with respect to a moving body. Eq.

that is to say. but that speaks to one’s imagination. for which. so that there is a high concentration at the centre. perhaps a bit crude. because with aid of the quantum hypothesis itself. from which identical weights are suspended on springs. in the case we envision. which is in fact a ray for the wave. £ § # . which we call a phase velocity. these waves exhibit.2. is that there is a dephasing of the motion of the weights. at a given moment in time a ﬁxed observer considers the geometric location of the centre of mass of the various weights. But the central point here (in §1. The preceeding results seem to us to be very important. Were another observer moving uniformly with velocity v βc with respect to the disk to observe it. So.3 it will be made more comprehensible). THE PHASE WAVE energy. to our phase wave.” To make the last point more precise. If waves of nearby frequencies propagate in the same direction Ox with velocity V . he gets a cylindrical surface in a horizontal direction for which vertical slices parallel to the motion of the disk are sinusoids. horizontal circular disk. The surface passing through the centre of gravity of the weights would be a plane oscillating up and down. there is a surface moving with velocity c β parallel to the disk and having a frequency of vibration on the ﬁxed abscissa equal to that of a proper oscillation 1 β2. One sees ﬁnally with this example (which is our of a spring multiplied by 1 reason to pursue it) why a phase wave transports ‘phase’. it is a “phase wave. In Chapter 2. and thereby permit envisioning the possibility of a synthesis of these antagonistic theories on the nature of radiation. This ensemble of systems is a crude analogue to a parcel of energy as we imagine it to be. in accord with our general theorem. further. and. let us set them in motion with identical amplitudes and phases. we shall generalise this coincidence.10 1. F ERMAT’s principle applied to the wave speciﬁes a ray. the disk with its distribution of weights on springs. 1. consider a mechanical comparison. This surface corresponds. whereas M AUPERTUIS’ principle applied to the material body speciﬁes a rectilinear trajectory. but not energy. no longer is isotropic about the centre by cause of L ORENTZ contraction. If.. each weight for him appears to be a clock exhibiting E INSTEIN retardation. Our theorem teaches us. their density. All the weights on springs have the same period. Phase and Group Velocities We must now explicate an important relationship existing between the velocity of a body in motion and a phase wave. i. Let the number of such systems per unit area.e. The description we have given conforms to that of an observer at rest with the disk. they establish a link between motion of a material body and propagation of a wave. we note that a rectilinear phase wave is congruent with rectilinear motion of the body. diminish rapidly as one moves out from the centre of the disk. moreover. that this wave represents a spacial distribution of phase. Consider a large.

Imagine two waves of nearby frequencies ν and ν ν δν and velocities V and V V dV dν δν.2. In effect this group velocity is determined by the above formula in which V and ν can be considered as functions of β because: c 1 m0 c 2 (1.2) ν d V 1 U dν We return to phase waves.2.5) d " ¦ m0 c 2 h 5 ! £ 1 ν V d β 1 β2 m0 c 2 h 1 4 § 3 1 3 2 © £ dν dβ m0 c 2 h £ (1. their superposition leads analytically to the following equation: νx ϕ V d ν δν νx δν (1. it only restricts the velocity to being betweenβ and β δβ.2.1) 2 sin 2π νt ψ cos 2π ψ t x V V 2 dν 2 Thus we get a sinusoid for which the amplitude is modulated at frequency δν. one ﬁnds: One may write: where so that: (1. This is a well known result.4) U ν d V dβ © dν dβ β β2 1 β2 3 2 . % £ ¤ % © § £ £ (1. a beat if the velocity V varies with the frequency ν. or group velocity. This phenomenon was studied especially be Lord R AYLEIGH for the case of dispersive media. PHASE AND GROUP VELOCITIES 11 by cause of superposition. this does not fully determine the value of β. If one attributes a velocity v βc to the body.2. corresponding frequencies then span the interval ν ν δν .3) V ν β h 1 β2 ¤ 2' $ £ (' $ % % $ 1 0 § $ ¤ 1 § 0 % ' © ) % £ % § sin 2π νt ϕ sin 2π υ t $ νx V % £ $ § 0 % ¢ £ &$ .6) ¤ £ £ U βc v 4 § 3 dβ dβ £ (1. We shall now prove a theorem that will be ultimately very useful: The group velocity of phase waves equals the velocity of its associated body.2.1. because the sign of the cosine has little effect.2. If one denotes with U the velocity of propagation of the beat.2.

velocity of energy transport equals group velocity2. we get an analogous result. despite a different point of view. Lines parallel to ox’ are “lines of equal phase. M INKOWSKi appears to have been ﬁrst to obtain a simple geometric representation of the relationships introduced by E INSTEIN between space and time consisting of a Euclidian 4-dimensional space-time. namely time multiplied by c 1 Nowadays one considers the fourth axis to be a real quantity ct.” Let us consider now space-time for a stationary observer referred to four rectangular axes. let these two time axes pass through the origin.: 1. F IGURE 1. Let x be in the direction of motion of a body on a chart together with the time axis and the above mentioned trajectory. THE PHASE WAVE The phase wave group velocity is then actually equal to the body’s velocity. the trajectory of the body will be a line inclined at an angle lesse than 45 to the time axis. This leads us to remark: in the wave theory of dispersion.3. except for absorption zones. La Th´ orie des quanta et l’atom de Bohr.3. Chapter 1. Phase waves in space-time .3. (See Fig.12 1. To do so he took a Euclidean 3-space and added a fourth orthogonal dimension. (primed axis). OD is the light cone. ´ e 7 ¤ § 5 § § § 6 1. of a pseudo Euclidean. Here. 2See. in so far as the velocity of a body is actually the velocity of energy displacement. A Minkowski diagram showing worldlines for a body moving with velocity v βc. hyperbolic space for which the the fundamental invariant is c2 dt 2 dx2 dy2 dz2 .1) Given these assumptions.1. Without loss of generality. this line is also the time axis for an observer at rest with respect to the body. for example: L E ON B RILLOUIN.

1. represented by a line parallel to ox. is displaced via uniform movement towards increasing t.2. showing the trigonot 1. The slope of ox’ is.3. Lines 1 and 2 represent two successive equal phase planes of a stationary observer. as we said. AB is.. it is therefore displaced in his space by the distance a0 a1 in the direction ox by a unit of time.3. β. a1 . T0 1 ν0 h m0 c2 . $ ¤ £ C$ £ £ A B £ ¤¤ 9@¤ © © $ @9¤ ¤¤ $ £ $ £ £ £ ¤¤ @@¤ © © $ 9@¤ ¤¤ £ 8 £ . therefore. A In effect. lies as the symmetrical reﬂection across the bisector of xot. if the line ox1 in Figure 1 repMinkowski diagram: resents the space of the observer ﬁxed at details.’ To determine the frequency. refer to Fig. for the stationary observer. which equals the proper time period. One may say therefore that its velocity is: c (1. and shows directly that the limiting velocity of energy. Lines parallel to ox are. the spacial axis of a frame at rest with respect to the body and passing through the origin.e. c. equal to c times the proper period T0 h m0 c2 . F IGURE 1. One easily sees that planes of equal phase a o a are displaced in the space of a stationary observer with a velocity c β. this is easily shown analytically using L ORENTZ transformations.1. If the comoving space of a moving body is the scene of an oscillating phenomenon. the slope of ot has the value 1 β. therefore. these two dimensional spaces in three dimensional space are planar two dimensional surfaces because all spaces under consideration here are Euclidean. is the same for all frames of reference.1) V a0 a1 aa0 coth x0x β The ensemble of equal phase planes constitutes what we have denoted a ‘phase wave. that section of spacetime which for him is space. The points a o a represent projections onto the space of an observer at rest with respect to the stationary frame at the instant 0.2. The phase that metric relationships yielding for t 0 one ﬁnds at a .3. lines of equal ‘phase’ for the observer at rest with the body. then the state of a comoving observer returns to the same place whenever time satisﬁes: oA c AB c. When time progresses for a stationary observer. The line ox . of the periodic phenomenon. i. is now found at the frequency. for him aa0 c.3. PHASE WAVES IN SPACE-TIME 13 If the velocity for a stationlary observer of the moving body is βc.

Let us calculate it. trigonometry is used on the plane xot. The triangle ABC yields: The frequency 1 T1 is that which the periodic phenomenon appears to have for a stationary observer using his eyes from his position.6) T AC 1 β2 T0 1 β2 c and the frequency ν of these wave is expressed by: 1 β2 h 1 β2 Thus we obtain again all the results obtained analytically in §1. whenever. THE PHASE WAVE AC.4) ν1 ν0 1 β2 § 1 β2 ¤ ¤ ¤ £ (1. we emphasize.3) AC © AB § AC 2 1 β 2 qed © A B § £ £ § £ AB 2 AC 2 CB 2 AC 2 1 tan CAB ©' ¤ § £ . but now we see better how it relates to general concepts of space-time and why dephasing of periodic movements takes place differently depending on the deﬁnition of simultaneity in relativity.3. but by AD c. That is: m0 c 2 1 β2 h The period of these waves at a point in space for a stationary observer is given not by AC c. is equal to: 1 (1.2) cT1 cT0 1 β2 This result is a simple application of trigonometry.3.3. The new period is therefore equal to: 1 (1. ¤ § £ § £ £ (1.3.7) ν 1 T ν0 m0 c 2 © § £ C § £ § £ § £ But AD AC DC AC 1 ¤ £ £ £ (1. it is vitally necessary to keep in mind that there is a particular anisotropism of this plane.3.14 1.5) © CB DC 1 β where DC βCB β2 AC ¤ § £ § £ (1. For the small triangle BCD. the projection of AB on the axis Ot.3. one ﬁnds that: β2 .1.

is just as unsure for nonuniform motion. for present purposes. I have conducted my researches from the start by supposing that given the total energy of a body. It seems natural. since its frequency. a sure guide for uniform motion. L AUGEVIN was able to deﬂect them easily because each involved acceleration. even not to uniform motion. Unfortunately. M. Guided by the idea of a fundamental identity of the principle of least action and F ER MAT ’s principle. to suppose that. a ﬁeld is an electromagnetic ﬁeld and our study is on its affects on motion of a charged particle. of the phase wave at each point of the ﬁeld that are rather arbitrary. and in this sense are very instructive. is determined by its total energy. Thus. In this work we shall leave all considerations on gravity aside. E INSTEIN to Paris. During ´ a recent visit of M. This has lead me to a very satisfying result which shall be delineated in Chapter 3 in light of B OHR’s interatomic stability conditions. PAINLEV E raised several interesting objections to Relativity. trajectories of one are rays of the other. and return to them elsewhere. We shall therfore make use of another method that seems to us more general and satisfactory. if it is always to comply with our notions. Such arguments by illustrious mathematicians have thereby shown again that application of E INSTEIN’s ideas is very problematical whenever there is acceleration involved. Motivation We wish to extend the results of Chapter 1 to the case in which motion is no longer rectilinear and uniform. it also must have some affect on propagation of phase waves. The General Theory of Relativity attributes gravitational force to curved space-time. The phase wave that accompanies a body. if a force ﬁeld affects particle motion. therefore. for example. As far as we know there are only two types of ﬁelds: electromagnetic and gravitational. has properties that depend on the nature of the body. M. We shall study on the one hand 15 . and therefore the frequency of its phase wave.CHAPTER 2 The principles of Maupertuis and Fermat 2.1. when L ORENTZ -E INSTEIN transformations don’t pertain. We must expect to encounter signiﬁcant difﬁculties in this chapter in so far as Relativity. it needs hypothetical inputs on the value of the propagation velocity. The methods used in Chapter 1 can not help us here. V . Variable motion presupposes a force ﬁeld acting on a body.

can be disputed.16 2. To begin. Classical dynamics calls for: ¤ £ F G (2. the principle of least action is introduced as follows: The equations of dynamics can be deduced from the fact that the integral tt12 dt. which. THE PRINCIPLES OF MAUPERTUIS AND FERMAT the relativistic version of the mechanical principle of least action in its H AMILTONian and M AUPERTUISian form.e. perhaps.2) ∂ d ∂ dt ∂qi ˙ ∂qi where there are as many equations as there are qi .4) W ∑ ∂qi qi ˙ i i i P F § " F ! I £ (2. but which has incontestable elegance.2. Let us now proceed to the principle of least action of M AUPERTUIS. or Lagrgian. In classical dynamics.2. . We shall see below that relativistic dynamics uses a different form for . which we ∂ qi ¨ ∂qi ˙ ∂ qi ¨ ∂qi ˙ ∂ ∂qi ˙ F § % F H£ § £ F (2.1) δ t2 dt 0 d dt qi ˙ F E F ¤ F F £ D 2. known as Lagrange’s function. and on the other hand from a very general point of view. the difference in kinetic and potential energy.2. By deﬁnition.3) Ekin Epot ¤ F © £ " F ! (2. Two principles of least action in classical dynamics .2.2. Moreover. we shall ﬁnd a solution to the problem we have posed. one has: t1 From this one deduces the equations of motion using the calculus of variations given by L AGRANGE: i.5) © ˙ ∑ qi d dt ∂ ∂qi ˙ ∂ ∂qi ˙ " " F ! % F % F § F § ! £ dW dt ∑ ∂ qi ˙ ∂qi F under the condition that the function shall take to be the case below. t1 and t2 and speciﬁed by parameters qi which give the state of the system. we note that L AGRANGE’s equations in the general form given above.2.. does not depend explicitely on time. depends on qi and qi dqi dt ˙ Thus. We shall then propose a synthesis of these two. the propagation of waves according to F ERMAT. between ﬁxed time limits. has a stationalry value. admit a ﬁrst integral called the “system energy” which equals: ∂ ˙ (2. It remains now only to deﬁne .

W .2. By virtue of E ULER’s Theorem. M AUPERTUIS’ ˙ principle may be now be written: A i in classical dynamics where Ekin Epot is independent of qi and Ekin is a homoge˙ neous quadratic function.8) 0 © δ t2 ˙ ∑ ∂qi qi dt ˙ ∂ δ B ∑ ∂qi dqi ˙ ∂ £ % F G £ F G (2. our argument is not false. it is necessary.2.2. is null. the following holds: i i A where dl is a differential element of a trajectory.2.2.2. ¤ £ G (2. therefore.10) ˙ ∑ pi dqi ∑ pi qidt 2Ekin £ § G (2. as W . no further place here in this new form to impose any time constraints.6) © D W const . because of the time independance of the result. as it well known. to also vary t1 and t2 .2. On the contrary. 1Footnote added to German tranlation: To make this proof rigorous. Therefore: We now apply H AMILTON’s principle to all “variable” trajectories constrained to initial position a and ﬁnal position b for which energy is a constant. TWO PRINCIPLES OF LEAST ACTION IN CLASSICAL DYNAMICS 17 which according to L AGRANGE.9) 0 © δ B ∑ pi dqi F £ £ F G £ F £ F G (2.11) δ £ For a material point body. One may write.7) dt W dt 0 © δ t2 δ t2 ¤ £ (2. all varied trajectories correspond to the same value of energy. Ekin known form: mv2 2 and the principle of least action takes its oldest B mvdl 0 ¤ £ £ (2. there is. but. t1 and t2 are all constant: t1 t1 or else: t1 i A i the last integral is intended for evaluation over all values of qi deﬁnitely contained between states A and B of the sort for which time does not enter.1 In the following we use classical canonical equations: pi ∂ ∂qi .2.

naturally the function to be integrated must be invariant. it has a velocity v βc with components vx vy vz .3. where space coordinates are labelled x1 x2 and x3 . the coordinate ct is denoted by x4 .3.3. We now return to space-time.1) ds dx4 2 dx1 2 dx2 2 dx3 2 © § R£ § H£ £ . when it passes a particular point. § § G T£ § § G (2. We take it that an electron outside any ﬁeld posses a proper mass me . Here by electron we mean simply a massive particle with charge. we introduce another world-vector whose components express the vector potential a and scalar potential Ψ by the relations: 1 Ψ c We consider now two points P and Q in space-time corresponding to two given values of the coordinates of space-time.3. The two principles of least action for electron dynamics We turn now to the matter of relativistic dynamics for an electron.18 2. THE PRINCIPLES OF MAUPERTUIS AND FERMAT 2.4) ϕ3 ϕ3 az . Let: P P be this integral. and carries charge e.2) i 1 2 3 4 ¤ Q © © © £ © ui dxi ds ¤ § § § £ £ (2. We imagine an integral taken along a curvilinear world line from P to Q. A world line has at each point a tangent deﬁned by a vector. ϕ2 ϕ2 ay .3. The invariant fundamental differential of length is deﬁned by: In this section and in the following we shall employ certain tensor expressions. it has a form which give this integral a stationary value. ϕ4 ϕ4 § R£ § R£ § R£ § H£ ϕ1 ϕ1 ax .3. § § c 1 c 1 ¤ § H£ £ § R£ S § H£ (2. The components of its world-velocity are: vy vx u1 u2 u2 u1 2 c 1 β c 1 β2 β2 β2 To deﬁne an electromagnetic ﬁeld. H AMILTON’s Principle afﬁrms that if a world-line goes from P to Q.5) m0 c m0 cui © Q eϕi ui ds Q eϕi ui ds ¤ £ £ § H£ § H£ (2.3) u3 © u3 vz u4 u4 1 § § H£ § H£ © © § © ¤ £ (2. “world-velocity” of unit length whose contravariant components are given by: One sees immediately that ui ui 1 Let a moving body describe a world line.

conservation of energy obtains: ∂ (2.3.3.3. one also can obtain M AUPERTUIS’ Principle: A where A and B are the two points in space corresponding to said points P and Q in spacetime. then ϕ is zero and the Lagrangian takes on the simple form: In each case for which potentials do not depend on time.3.13) 1 β2 F ¤ £ S § £ S G (2. THE TWO PRINCIPLES OF LEAST ACTION FOR ELECTRON DYNAMICS 19 the statement of least action then gives: (2.3.6) Ji m0 cui eϕi i 1 2 3 4 Ji dxi 0 e ϕ v dt © dt 0. it always © © © £ © S ¡ Let us deﬁne a third world-vector by the relations: .3.3. Thus.7) δ Q P Below we shall give a physical interpretation to the world vector J. If there is a purely electrostatic ﬁeld. we obtain: where t1 and t2 correspond to points P and Q in space-time.2. ds by cdt 1 β2.3. Now let us return to the usual form of dynamics equations in that we replace in the ﬁrst equation for the action. If there is no magnetic ﬁeld (irrespective of whether there is an electric ﬁeld) . H AMILTON’s Principle always has the form δ leads to L AGRANGE’s equations: ¤ § § § H£ F (2. p equals: m0 v p (2.10) i 1 2 3 ¤ Q © © £ © F d dt ∂ ∂qi ˙ ∂ ∂qi £ F E In any case.11) W ∑ pi dqi const pi ∂qi i 1 2 3 ˙ i Following exactly the same argument as above.12) 0 © δ B ∑ pi dqi ¤ Q © © £ F £ ©¤ £ £ " F ! (2.3.9) m0 c 2 1 β2 eΨ 3 S % F H£ § U t1 £ V WS S § § § § S G (2.8) 1 ecϕ4 0 t2 t1 © δ t2 m0 c 2 β2 ¤ £ § % G £ (2. The quantities pi equal to partial derivatives of with respect to velocities qi deﬁne ˙ the “momentum” vector: p.

16) J p J4 ¤ S % S S § © XH£ S £ S (2. at every point of the given ﬁeld which a body can sample. THE PRINCIPLES OF MAUPERTUIS AND FERMAT It is therefore identical to momentum and MAUPERTUIS’ integral of action takes just the simple form proposed by M AUPERTUIS himself with the difference that mass is now variable according to L ORENTZ transformations. This is the least involved manner to go from one version of least action to the other.20 2. From: P one can simplify a bit to: A if J4 is constant. The form of the expression of p in an electrostatic ﬁeld reveals that vector momentum has the same magnitude regardless of its direction. If there is also a magnetic ﬁeld. We have deﬁned it as: Expanding u and ϕ . one ﬁnds that the components of momentum take the form: 1 β2 In this case there no longer is an identity between p and momentum. Consider a moving body in a ﬁeld for which total energy is given.3. its velocity is speciﬁed by conservation of energy. We shall make us of this fact below. therefore an expression of the integral of motion is more complicated.18) 0 i 1 2 3 © © © £ © δ B Ji dxi £ G (2. Finally.14) p S S S m0 v ea S 3 S .3.3. This is not the case if there is a magnetic ﬁeld. one ﬁnds: We have constructed the renowned “world momentum” which uniﬁes energy and momentum.15) J m0 c u eϕ W c S S S ¤ S S % § £ S (2.3. let us return to the issue of the physical interpretation of a world-vector J from which a Hamiltonian depends. £ G (2.3. the magnitude of p depends on the angle between the chosen direction and the vector potential as can be seen in its effect on p p.17) 0 i 1 2 3 4 © © © © £ © δ Q Ji dxi ¤ £ (2. whilst a priori its direction may vary.

otherwise. thereby: The world wave vector can be decomposed therefore into a component proportional to frequency and a space vector n aimed in the direction of propagation and having a magnitude ν V .4. If a world ray passes through these two points.1) S E δ Q dϕ 0 .4. in fact. which are there “rays” in the optical sense. stationary. Consider the function sin ϕ in which a differential of ϕ is taken to depend on spacetime coordinates xi .4. We shall call this vector “wave number” as it is proportional to the inverse of wave length. There are an inﬁnity of lines in space-time along which a function of ϕ is constant.5) 0 © δ Q Oi dxi ¤ £ § H£ (2. the world wave. perturbations breaking phase concordance after a given crossing point. we are lead to the Hamiltonian: P £ G (2. usually functions of xi . what law determines its form? Q Consider the line integral P dϕ. WAVE PROPAGATION.4.2.3) dϕ O4 © 2π νdt £ (2. On may write.4. leads us to distinguish among them certain of these lines that are projections onto the space of an observer. If l is the direction of a ray in the usual sense. FERMAT’S PRINCIPLE 21 2. F ERMAT’s Principle We shall study now phase wave propagation using a method parallel to that of the last two sections. The phase ϕ is an invariant.4. P and Q. we take a very general and broad viewpoint on space-time.2) dϕ i ν dl V © 2π ∑ Oi xi ¤ ν V £ G (2. constitute a world vector. would propagate forward to make the phase then be discordant at a second crossing. To do so.4. The theory of undulations. Let two points such as those above. If the frequency ν is constant. Wave propagation. so we may posit: where Oi .4) Oi © ν cos xi t V § © £ (2. be two points in space-time. it is the custom to envision for dϕ the form: where ν is the frequency and V is the velocity of propagation. let us suppose that a law equivalent to H AMILTON’s but now for world rays takes the form: P This integral should be. especially as promulgated by H UYGENS and F RESNEL .

3. We are constantly drawn to writing hν w where w is the total energy of the body and ν is the frequency of its phase wave. it sufﬁces to know the distribution of the vector ﬁeld p . a bit hypothetically perhaps.5. 2.6) 0 © £ £ S Y δ B ∑ Oi dxi .Just as in §2. the same is true to ﬁnd the ray passing through two points. one gets: A This statement of M AUPERTUIS’ Principle constitutes F ERMAT’s Principle also.4.22 2.5.7) δ B νdl V £ 0 G (2. the velocity of propagation.5. we pose that: 1 Ji 1 2 3 4 (2. In light of these vectors.3) dϕ 2πOi dxi Ji dxi h (2. in the preceeding sections we deﬁned two world vectors J and O which play symmetric roles in the study of motion of bodies and waves.1) O4 ¤ ¤ Q © © © © ¤ ¤ © £ £ S £ £ £ G (2.2) Oi h The variation dϕ relative to an inﬁnitesimally small portion of the phase wave has the value: 2π (2. THE PRINCIPLES OF MAUPERTUIS AND FERMAT in the M AUPE RTUISien form: A i where A and B are points in space corresponding to P and Q .5. we have reached the ﬁnal stage of this chapter. does not prove that the other components are equal.4. but in full accord with the spirit of Relativity. Nevertheless. as I did in the beginning. it sufﬁces to know the wave vector ﬁeld which determines at each point and for each direction. by virtue of an obvious generalisation. to determine the velocity of propagation at each point for each direction. At the start we posed the question: when a body moves in a force ﬁeld. On the other hand. By substituting for O its values. how does its phase wave propagate? Instead of searching by trial and error. I shall extend the quantum relation. Extending the quantum relation Thus. in order to ﬁnd the trajectory of a moving body of given total energy. the relation hν w can be written: 1 J4 h The fact that two vectors have one equal component.

5. The hypotheses from Chapter 1 with the help of Special Relativity allow us to handle this case. we have given it an interpretation from a spacetime perspective.6.4) δ B 3 ∑ Ji dxi δ B 3 ∑ pidxi 0 £ .2. 2. Here we must take: W m0 c 2 (2.6. the possible trajectories of the particle are identical to the rays of the phase wave.1) V β comes back out of the formalism. a) Let us consider ﬁrst linear motion of a free particle. Examples and discussion The general notions in the last section need to be applied to particular cases for the purpose of explicating their exact meaning.3) © 1 3 pi dqi h∑ 1 1 m0 β 2 c 2 dt h 1 β2 1 m0 βc dl h 1 β2 ¤ νdl V £ © § © G £ £ £ £ G (2. This new statement is much more satisfying since it is expressed as the equality of two world vectors. We believe that the idea of an equivalence between the two great principles of Geometric Optics and Dynamics might be a precise guide for effecting the synthesis of waves and quanta.6. EXAMPLES AND DISCUSSION 23 F ERMAT ’s Principle becomes then: A i A i Thus. The frequency of the phase wave can be taken to be energy divided by h.6. Moreover. We wish to check if the predicted propagation velocity for phase waves: c (2.6. b) Consider an electron in an electric ﬁeld (Bohr atom).6. which in its original form is manifestly insufﬁcient because it involves energy but not its inseparable partner: momentum.4) W m0 c 2 eψ hν £ § £ § £ (2.2) ν h h 1 β2 from which we get: V c β. where energy is given by: 1 β2 ¤ £ % § £ (2. The hypothetical proportionality of J and O is a sort of extention of the quantum relation. we get the following statement: Fermat’s Principle applied to a phase wave is equivalent to Maupertuis’ Principle applied to a particle in motion.

6. From a physical point of view. this shows that. which at each point is to be calculated from W and ψ. which according to classical notions is located at point P. The transfer of this energy through region R. In connection with a phase $ § $ " § W ¤ £ % £ ! £ (2.6. it is to be noticed that V is a function of the mass and charge of the moving particle. Consider an electron whose centre moves with velocity v.6. with its more or less complicated electromagnetic ﬁeld.6.7) c 1 β eψ eψ c W β W eψ % 1 § c β eψ £ § £ £ (2.6. Electron we are accustomed to thinking that charge energy-transport through a and mass (as well as momentum and enregion with ﬁelds. The velocity V depends on ψ directly as given by eψ W eψ (a quantity generally small with respect to 1) and indirectly on β. expressed in a coordinate system ﬁxed to the particle. the particle has the same speed but new direction. only can be speciﬁed in terms of a charge and mass.1). and one can say that the starting energy at P was transported to point P .1. one has simply: m0 v x (2. even knowing the ﬁelds therein in detail. This may seem bizarre in that F IGURE 2. however. a phase wave with frequency ν W h propagates at each point with a different velocity depending on potential energy.6) 1 β2 m0 c 2 © 1 3 pi dqi h∑ 1 1 m0 βc dl h 1 β2 ©¤ ν dl V When there is no magnetic ﬁeld. We assume that after traversing the region R in Fig. Further. and to which there is associated electromagnetic energy.24 2. it is less unreal that it appears.5) px etc 1 β2 © § % £ ¦ ¦ 5 5 £ § . This may seem strange. ergy) are properties vested in the centre of an electron. (2. THE PRINCIPLES OF MAUPERTUIS AND FERMAT from which we get: V m0 c2 eψ 1 β2 m0 βc 1 β2 This result requires some comment. The point P is then transfered to point P .

then the same velocity will always pertain and therefore the methods in Chapter 1 are applicable. however. and accept results obtained in this chapter by different methods in an attempt to ﬁnd how to formulate relativistically the issue of variable motion. We might be tempted here again to recover the value of V given above. there does not appear to be good reason to assume that this separation is just the same as for uniform motion. present and future spaces of a comoving observer.6. c. where: (2. (2. one encounters here three large difﬁculties. We can not deal with this difﬁcult problem. in this case: β2 where ax ay az are components of the potential vector. and we just don’t know how associated periodic phenomenon would be described or whether to each point in space there corresponds the same phase. if a uniformly moving particle with comoving observer is associated with a periodic phenomenon always having the same phase.10) 1 3 pi dqi h∑ 1 1 m0 βc h 1 β2 e al dl h νdl V ¤ £ % § § 1 % £ £ (2. Unfortunately.8) As we have shown above. Maybe. But even were this difﬁculty overcome.6. Contemporary Relativity does not instruct us how a non uniformly moving observer is at each moment to isolate his pure space from space-time. in order to achieve the same conclusions.6. Thus. Thus.9) px eax etc ©¤ © m0 v x § 1 β2 ¤ % £ £ © © hν W m0 c 2 eψ . A uniformly moving particle would be described by a comoving observer always in the same way. one might reverse this problem.2. by considering successive “phases” of the particle in motion and to determine displacement relative to a stationary observer by means of sections of his space as states of equal phase. a description by a comoving observer can no longer be the same. its propagation also must be given in terms of mass and charge Let us return now to the results from Chapter 1 in the case of uniform motion. We have been drawn into considering a phase wave as due to the intersection of the space of the ﬁxed observer with the past. a conclusion that follows for uniform motion from equivalence of Galilean systems. If motion is not uniform. EXAMPLES AND DISCUSSION 25 wave. there are still obstacles. which in our conceptions is a substantial part of the electron.6.) Consider the general case of a charge in an electromagnetic ﬁeld.

© £ 1 £ 0 ¤ £ £ £ £ (2. take it that the x axis is parallel to the motion at the point where px is the projection of p onto this direction. We may.12) © 1 3 pi dqi h∑ 1 1 3 dqi pi dl h ∑ dl 1 ν dl V £ % § eal ¤ £ S % £ S ¦ ¦ £ 5 £ S £ (2.11) V % 5 ` m0 c2 1 β2 m0 βc 1 β2 eψ 1 c W β W eψ 1 e al G .14) v βc U dt ∂px ∂ hν V where U is the group velocity following the ray. One can question here the theorem on the equality of a particle’s velocity v βc with the group velocity of its phase wave. One then has the deﬁnition: ν px (2.6.2 is therefore fully general and the ﬁrst group of H AMILTON’s equations follows directly. The environment at each point is no longer isotropic. At the start. and the particle’s velocity v no longer has the same direction as the normal to the phase wave deﬁned by p hn.6.13) V h The ﬁrst canonical equation then provides the relation: dqx ∂W ∂ hν (2. we note that the velocity of a phase wave is deﬁned by: where ν V does not equal p h because dl and p don’t have the same direction.6. THE PRINCIPLES OF MAUPERTUIS AND FERMAT So that one ﬁnds: where G is the momentum and al is the projection of the vector potential onto the direction l.6. The velocity V varies with the direction. The result from §1.26 2. That the ray doesn’t coincide with the wave normal is virtually the classical deﬁnition of anisotropic media. without loss of generality.

Ber. In 1917. Ges. for which the quantisation condition is: where integration is over the whole domain of the coordinate.1) m0 c 2 R 2 n n integer 2π or. 82. For the case of closed orbits.3) pi dqi ni h ni integer © © £ G (3. then there is only one degree of freedom.2) pθ dθ nh © © £ .1. Zum quantensatz von S OMMERFELD und E PSTEIN. (1917) p. B OHR -S OMMERFELD stability conditions In atomic theory. have shown that it is generally possible to chose coordinates.e.1.4) nh n integer © © ∑ pi dqi 3 £ a (3. If we focus on circular motion. MM. alternately: 2π 0 where θ is a Lagrangian coordinate (i.1. E INSTEIN gave this condition for quantisation an invariant form with respect to changes in coordinates1. One recognises M AUPERTUIS’ integral of action to be as important for quantum theory. M.CHAPTER 3 Quantum stability conditions for trajectories 3.1. A. the remaining are by nature transitory and may be ignored. where h is P LANCK’s constant.. That is: h (3. der deutschen Phys. it is as follows: 1 where it is to be valid along the total orbit. 27 £ a (3. This integral does not depend at all on a 1 E INSTEIN . M.1. to extend this principle to the case of more degrees of freedom. and B OHR ’s Principle is given as follows: Only those circular orbits are stable for which the action is a multiple of h 2π.. qi . S OMMERFELD and W ILSON. q) and pθ its canonical momentum. only certain ones are stable. B OHR was ﬁrst to enunciate the idea that among the closed trajectories that an electron may assume about a positive centre.

QUANTUM STABILITY CONDITIONS FOR TRAJECTORIES choice of space coordinates according to a property that expresses the covariant character of the vector components pi of momentum. then with the same stroke one clariﬁes the question of stable trajectories. The resonance condition is l nλ if the wave length is constant. if there are more than one (in the most important case. must be in phase. W . E INSTEIN ’s relation ﬁxes the value of energy. the points of a wave located at whole multiples of the wave length l. 1923). that to have a stable regime. but limit ourselves to remarking that the quantisation problem resides entirely on E INSTEIN ’s condition for closed orbits. and ν V dl n integer in the general case. If there is only one degree of freedom. At the end of each pseudoperiod. E INSTEIN ’s equation applied to each of these pseudo-periods leads to an inﬁnity of conditions which are compatible only if the many conditions of S OMMERFELD are met.2. 3. therefore. that of motion of an electron in an interatomic ﬁeld. Propagation is. moreover. We e ´ shall not pursue that here. £ £ £ " ! (3. there are a priori three). It is physically obvious. in other words. However. W . One result from Chapter 2 is that a trajectory of a moving particle is identical to a ray of a phase wave. there is no longer indeterminism. This matter has been the subject of numerous books in recent years and is summarised in S OMMERFELD’s beautiful book: Atombau und Spectrallinien (´ dition fran caise. which. traduction B ELLENOT. in which case all constants are determined.1. If one succeeds in interpreting this condition. always is the case for the above variation. along which frequency is constant (because total energy is constant) and with variable velocity. the particle returns to a state very near its initial state. whose value we shall not attempt to calculate. the length of the channel must be resonant with the wave. JACOBI’s equation. i 1 2 ¤¤ © © 9@¤ © © © £ b D ∂s qi ∂qi f § . if motion is quasi-periodic. which would be the case for K EPLERian ellipses were it not for relativistic variation of mass with velocity.5) H W. The interpretation of Einstein’s condition The phase wave concept permits explanation of E INSTEIN ’s condition. B LANCHARD editeur. It is deﬁned by the classical technique of JACOBI as a total integral of the particular differential equation: where the total integral contains f arbitrary constants of integration of which one is energy. analogue to a liquid wave in a channel closed on itself but of variable depth. it is possible to ﬁnd coordinates that oscillate between its limit values (librations).28 3. one imposes a condition among W and the n 1 others. and there is an inﬁnity of pseudo-periods approximately equal to whole multiples of libration periods. angular variables and the residue theorem serve well to determine S OMMERFELD’s integrals.

or. there must be coherence with phase waves passing by at small distaces.). In the particular case of closed circular B OHR orbits in an atom. as we saw above. From this we see why certain orbits are stable. At the start we should note that an electron has ﬁnite dimensions. the body has returned to a point in a sphere of radius R. one gets: m0 νdl 2πRm0v nh where v Rω when ω is angular velocity. M AUPERTUIS’ integral of action divided by h. Thus. 3. The quantities εi can always be rendered smaller than a ﬁxed. Now. If we don’t admit this. which so far we do not have.1) m0 ωR2 n h 2π £ b £ ¦ £ © © c £ . A theory for such a transition can’t be studied without a modiﬁed version of electrodynamics. for which the demonstration is immediate if one admits the notions from the previous chapter.3. each of these time intervals or “near periods” τ must satisfy: where Ti are the variable periods (librations) of the coordinates qi . and if one considers a sphere of small but ﬁnite arbitrary radius R centred on M. stability conditions depend on the interaction with its proper phase wave. Let us recall now a property of quasi-periodic trajectories. Suppose that the radius R is chosen to be equal the maximum distance of action of the electron’s phase wave. constitutes the best justiﬁcation that we can give for our attack on the problem of interpreting quanta. If M is the centre of a moving body at an instant along its trajectory. say on the order of its radius (10 13 cm. SOMMERFELD’S CONDITIONS ON QUASIPERIODIC MOTION 29 The integral involved here is that from F ERMAT’s Principle.3. as we have shown. we have ignored passage from one to another stable orbit. This beautiful result. the longer the shortest of the τ will be.3. a distance deﬁned above. small but ﬁnite interval: η. it is possible to ﬁnd an inﬁnity of time intervals such that at the end of each. then if. but. the resonance condition can be identiﬁed with the stability condition from quantum theory. S OMMERFELD’s multiple conditions bring us back again to phase wave resonance. Moreover. and this is not physically plausible. Sommerfeld’s conditions on quasiperiodic motion I aim to show that if the stability condition for a closed orbit is ∑3 pi dqi nh then 1 the stability condition for quasi-periodic motion is necessarily: pi dqi ni h ni integer i 1 2 3 . The shorter η is chosen to be. then we must consider the electron as a pure point particle with a radius of zero.3.1) n1 T1 n2 T2 n3 T3 © τ ε1 ε2 ε3 © £ £ b b ¤ £ (3.2. one may apply to each period % £ % £ % £ (3. This is exactly B OHR’s fundamental formula.

but may be very small with respect to our scale of time measurements.3. qi Qi i 1 2 3 f ¥ ¤ ¤ Q © © £ e £ © ¥ % G (3. However. one could say they never play a role. QUANTUM STABILITY CONDITIONS FOR TRAJECTORIES approaching τ. if waits of millions of years are involved. The quantities pi and qi remain ﬁnite in the course of their evolution so that one may ﬁnd six other quantities Pi and Qi for which it is alway true that: εh 2π.3.30 3. it seems that stability conditions come into play in time intervals inaccessible to our experience ¦ ¦ ¦ a £ ¦ G (3. however.5) ∑ ni h 3 Ti pi qi ˙ nh g Choosing now the limit η such that η ∑3 Pi Qi 1 g ¦ g (3. a physicist accepts n 2π α. These are actually S OMMERFELD’s conditions.3. The preceeding demonstration appears to be rigorous.3) ∑ ni Ti pi qi dt εi pi qi ˙ £ G ¥ (3.6) pi qi dt pi dqi © Ti ¤ £ G (3. while on the right n is an arbitrary whole number. We have thus an inﬁnity of similar equations with different values of ni . One can estimate the limit of the periods in the case of the L2 trajectory for hydrogen from S OMMERFELD. there is an objection that should be rebutted. Thus. the concordance condition for phase waves in the form: 0 1 where we may also write: 0 i But a resonance condition is never rigorously satisﬁed. because the periods τ are very large with respect to the librations Ti . Rotation of the perihelion during one libration period of a radius vector is on the order of 2π 10 5. If a mathematician demands that for a resonance the difference be exactly n 2π . which permits neglecting the terms εi to write: 0 i 1 On the left side. on the order of 10 15 to 10 20 seconds. This objection is not well founded.3.4) pi Pi . Stability conditions don’t play a role for times shorter than τ. The shortest periods then are about 105 times the period of the radial vector (10 15 seconds). we see that. ni are known whole numbers. where α is less than a small but ﬁnite quantity ε which may be considered the smallest physically sensible possibility. it does not matter what the quasi period is.3. or about 10 10 seconds.2) nh © τ d τ 3 ∑ pi dqi nh . To satisfy them it is necessary and sufﬁcient that each of the integrals: 0 equals an integer number times h. the periods Ti are in effect. in an atom.

therefore. 351): “The reason that M AUPERTUIS’ integral equals an integer time h. and. The principles delineated above were borrowed from M. over a period.3. SOMMERFELD’S CONDITIONS ON QUASIPERIODIC MOTION 31 of time. that trajectories “without resonances” can easily be taken not to exist on a practical scale. takes a whole number of quanta. This is the reason S OMMERFELD posited his quantum conditions. B RILLOUIN who wrote in his thesis (p.3. is that each integral is relative to each variable and.” i .

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one takes it that an electron always has proper mass m0 at its position in the electrostatic ﬁeld of a proton. and one can apply easily the principle of inertia of energy: a proton has internal energy M0 c2 . Particular difﬁculties In the preceeding chapters we repeatedly envisioned an “isolated parcel” of energy. what is the value of αand does it depend on M0 or m0 ? In B OHR’s and S OMMERFELD’s atomic theories. say) removed from a charged body. But if the two are close to each other. given the extreme precision of spectrographic measurements. consider a proton (hydrogen ion) of proper mass M0 and an electron of proper mass m0 . with mutual potential energy P 0 how must it be taken into account? Evidently it would be: M0 m0 c2 P. Total internal energy is therefore: M0 m0 c2 . One ﬁnds: δR R 10 5. One can easily calculate the order of magnitude of the largest correction (corresponding to α 1) . 33 § £ § £ © % g § § % § ¦ . To better understand this difﬁculty. so should we consider that a proton always has mass M0 and an electron m0 ? Should not potential energy be parcelled between these two components of this system by attributing to an electron a proper mass m0 αP c2 . This notion is clear when it pertains to a charged particle (proton or electron. If these two are far removed one from another. But if the charge centres interact. This correction would be smaller than the difference between RYDBERG constants for hydrogen and helium (1 2000). and to a proton: M0 1 α P c2? In which case.1. then their interaction is negligible. Potential energy is always much less than internal energy m0 c2 . one might expect that a perturbation of electron mass due to alterations in potential energy are observable. There is here a difﬁculty that is not really a part of the subject of this work and is not elucidated by current relativistic dynamics. but nothing says that it is fully rigorous.CHAPTER 4 Motion quantisation with two charges 4. Nevertheless. that should be apportioned to the RYDBERG constant in the BALMER series if the opposite hypothesis is taken. B OHR remarkably managed to estimate on the basis of nuclear capture. a difference which M. a hypothesis that is not inexact. whilst an electron has m0 c2 . this notion is not so clear. if they exist.

The plane of these orbits shall be taken as the plane of the same two coordinates in both systems.1.2. In Chapter 2 we established a general parallelism between fundamental quantities of dynamics and wave optics. We shall now focus on the case in which an electron and nucleus execute circular motion about their centre of gravity. Axis the theorem mentioned above determines. which is not Galilean. so that x4 y4 ct Let ω be the angular frequency of the line of separation of nucleus and electron about the centre of gravity G . is that concerning the method of application of the quantum conditions to a system of charged particles in relative motion. y therefore. F IGURE 4.2) © y2 x2 R sin ωt y4 x4 © £ © % £ y1 x1 R cos ωt y3 x3 ¤ Q % £ ¤ % £ ¤ £ £ . B OHR managed to treat this problem with support of the following theorem from rational mechanics: If one relates electron movement to axes ﬁxed in direction at the centre of the nucleus. Nuclear motion in atomic hydrogen A question removed from the preceeding considerations. the frequency and velocity of the electronic x-system ﬁxed to center of phase wave in a system ﬁxed to the nucleus gravity. quantisation conditions of stability can be considered also in this case as phase wave resonance conditions. the electrostatic ﬁeld acting on an electron can be considered as constant at all points of space.2. system for hydrogen.2. MOTION QUANTISATION WITH TWO CHARGES 4. Let space coordinates in a Galilean system attached to the centre of gravity be xi and those attached to the nucleus be yi .2.1) η M0 M0 m0 The transformation formulas between these two systems are then: £ % £ (4. Thanks to this artiﬁce. its motion is the same as for Galilean axis and as if the electron’s mass equaled: µ0 m0 M0 m0 M0 In a system of axis ﬁxed in a nucleus. let: (4. and reduced to the problem without motion of the nucleus by virtue of the substitution of the ﬁctive mass µ0 for the real mass m0 . M.34 4. The simplest case is that of an electron in atomic hydrogen when one takes into account simultaneous displacement of the nucleus. Further. those values to be attributed to -system ﬁxed to nucleus.

2.2.8) vdl © 1 h p1 dy1 P2 dy2 1 h m0 % % £ (4. Since one has: © ¨ ¤ £ (4.2. NUCLEAR MOTION IN ATOMIC HYDROGEN 35 From these equations one deduces: ω2 R 2 dy4 2 dy1 2 dy2 2 dx3 c2 ωR ωR (4.4) © ui dyi ds pi m0 cui eϕi m0 cgi j ui eϕi ¤ § § § % " § 1 § § § ! § £ £ i ds 2 dx4 2 dx1 2 dx2 2 dx3 2 2 % .2.9) v ωR r § 1 η2β2 dl dt § a £ C % a (4.5) p3 0 ωRvdt P § 1 § I £ p2 © m0 dy2 dt ωR cos ωt P % I § £ p1 © m0 dy1 dt ωR sin ωt ¤ % £ % £ ¨ £ (4.2.2.2.4.2.7) © ωR r cos ωt © % § £ dy1 dt dy2 dt ωR r sin ωt £ % a (4.3) 2 sin ωt dy1 dy4 2 cos ωt dy2 dy4 c c Components of a world momentum vector are deﬁned by: One easily ﬁnds: 1 η2β2 η2β2 Resonance of a phase wave. following ideas from Chapter 2.6) 1 p1 dy1 p2 dy2 n n integer h where this integral is to be evaluated over the circular trajectory of the vector separation R r of the electron from the nucleus. by the condition: if follows: where v is the velocity of the electron with respect to the y axes and dl is the tangential inﬁnitesimal element along the trajectory given by: ¤ £ p % £ (4.

10) r 1 2π R r nh © a # m0 ωR ωR v % . In a system ﬁxed on the nucleus. which is the trajectory of the relative motion and the ray of its phase wave. The resonance condition of the electron’s phase wave at any given instant is not modiﬁed.2. it is always: m0 M0 (4. the ray of the phase wave that passing through E is at each instant a circle centred at N and of length R r. reducing the problem to an electron in an electrostatic ﬁeld thereby bringing us to the problem as treated in Chapter 2.11) 2πm0 ω R r 2 nh m0 M0 This is exactly B OHR’s formula that he deduced from the theorem mentioned above and which again can be regarded as a phase wave resonance condition for an electron in orbit about a proton. to obtain the same formulas.3. The two phase waves of electron and nucleus In the preceeding.36 4. consider the phase wave of an atomic electron.1) m0 M0 where the integral is to be evaluated at a constant time along the circle centred at N with radius R r. one for each. when β2 deviates but little from 1 one gets: M0 (4. the resonance condition gives: where. If now we consider the axis ﬁxed to the centre of gravity G. the resonance condition is: m0 M0 p1 dy1 p2dy2 2π ω R r 2 nh (4. the relative trajectory makes a circle centred on G of radius r. and we must examine the consistency of the resulting resonance conditions.2) 2π ω R r 2 nh m0 M0 Consider now a phase wave of the nucleus. MOTION QUANTISATION WITH TWO CHARGES Finally.2. if we consider axes ﬁxed with respect to the centre of gravity. but this circle is moving because its centre is rotating about the centre of the coordinates.3. introduction of axes ﬁxed on a nucleus permitted elimination of its motion. and therefore we must consider two phase waves. © £ ¤ ¤ % £ £ 3 r" % % % % © £ % % % § 1 η2β2 £ s % § ! q % (4. nucleus and electron play a symmetric role so that one can obtain the resonance condition by exchanging M0 for m0 . Stability conditions for nuclear and electron motion considered separately are compatible because they are identical. 4. For a start. and R for r. In sum one sees that B OHR’s conditions may be interpreted as resonance expressions for the relevant phase waves. both the electron and nucleus are seen to execute circular trajectories. But.3. In all the preceeding.

It appears in fact as if each moving object describes its trajectory with a velocity which at each instant is tangent to the ray of its phase wave.3. which are rather their tangents at each point. nucleus and electron orbits of hydrogen. To emphasise one last point: the rays of the wave at the instant t are the envelopes of the velocity of propagation. . in other words. 8 F IGURE 4. envelops of velocity.3.1. This fact reminds us of certain conclusions from hydrodynamics where ﬂow lines. and of the trajectories as developed in the course of time (point like features).4. Phase rays. THE TWO PHASE WAVES OF ELECTRON AND NUCLEUS 37 It is instructive to trace in an axes-system ﬁxed to the centre of gravity instantaneous positions of the two phase waves (plane features). if movement is constant. but these rays are not the trajectories of energy. are not particle trajectories if their form is invariant.

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1. therefore. 132 (1906). We shall. There is. Phys. as published in: “Quanta and Black Body radiation”. The concepts delineated in Chapter 1. Without obscuring the above mentioned difﬁculties.CHAPTER 5 Light quanta 5. a task we shall not attempt here.’ A hypothetical input enabling us to develop a theory of black body radiation. Phys. has been conﬁrmed by the idea of real existence of “atoms of light”. 1922. however. an essential difference between it and an electron. we shall try to specify more exactly just how one is to imagine an “atom of light”. 185 (1909).1. 39 ¤ £ (5. 1See: E INSTEIN A. by the principle of inertia of energy. Nov. We conceive of it in the following manner: for an observer who is ﬁxed. represent a quantum of light as having the same symmetry as an electrodynamic doublet. This agglomeration of energy has a total value ε0 (measured by a ﬁxed observer). make precise the constitution of the unit of light after serious modiﬁcations to electrodynamics.. and therefore the deductions made in Chapter 3 regarding the stability of B OHR’s atom appear to be interesting conﬁrmation of those facts leading us to form a synthesis of N EWTON’s and F RESNEL’s conceptions. d. from which. This paradigm is provisional.1) m0 ε0 c2 . if it is accepted. one may only. we may attribute to it a proper mass: This deﬁnition is entirely analogue to that used for electrons. 10. Zeitsch. an atom of light posses additional symmetry corresponding to its polarisation. Ann. Journal de Physique. it appears as a little region of space within which energy is highly concentrated and forms an undividable unit. 17. the principle results of which will be covered in Chapter 7. While an electron must be considered as a fully spherically symmetric object. the theory of radiation in recent times has returned to the notion of ‘light particles.. The atom of light1 As we saw in the introduction.

LIGHT QUANTA In accord with our general notions. the 1 β2. the frequency ν of radiation is deﬁned by: β2 We note.2) %© t ν0 1 m0 c 2 h .5) ν 1 h m0 c 2 © § § 1 ¤ § £ (5. The velocity c represents a velocity that energy never obtains by reason of variation of mass with velocity. is to transport a signiﬁcant amount of energy.1. in a very small velocity interval c ε c .6) m0 c 2 § § 1 ¤ £ (5. so we may assume that light atoms also move with a velocity very close to but still slightly less than c. that the classical wave is a sort of a time average of a real distribution of phase waves accompanying the light atom.1.40 5. kinetic energy can be expressed extreme smallness of m0 c2 becomes m0 c2 simply as: β2 § 1 ¤ (5. in spite of the virtual identity of velocities.1. We suppose that even with extremely small m0 (this shall be elaborated below) light atoms still have appreciable energy and velocity very close to c. that we must remind ourselves that atoms of light are under consideration.3) 1 β2 © ν 1 h m0 c 2 ¤ 1 £ (5. It is an experimental fact that light energy moves with a velocity indistinguishable from that of the limit c. have great variability of energy. it must have a velocity very close to c. there corresponds energies having values 0 ∞ .4) E m0 c 2 1 § £ (5.1. more exactly put. Since we are trying to establish a correspondence between phase waves and light waves. and. we suppose that there exists in the constitution of a light quantum a periodic phenomenon for which ν0 is given by: The phase wave corresponds to the motion of this quantum with the velocity βc and with frequency: and it is appropriate to suppose that this wave is identical to that wave of the theory of undulation or. which results in the following expression for kinetic energy: β2 Moreover. If a particle with an extraordinarily small proper mass.1.

Let us take it that waves for which 1 ν 10 1 seconds have a velocity differing from c by less than 1%.F. which we shall see below.5. a wave passing an edge of a screen will diffract and penetrate the shadow region. This implies that the upper limit of m0 is: 2 hν (5. page 69.3 5. Association of F ERMAT’s Principle together with mechanical “least action” explains why propagation of light is compatible with these two points of view.1. 3Regarding objections to these notions.1. to motion of an atom of light with velocity: v βc related to ν by: Except for extremely slow oscillations. Effectively. in the German edition..8) v c 1 ¤ § v £ £ (5. this coincidence between light wave and phase wave is what evokes the double aspect of particle and wave. yet one might hope that some day experiments on very long wave length light will reveal evidence of a velocity discernibly below c . Nevertheless. rays that pass an edge close with respect to the wave length deviate so as not to satisfy F ERMAT’s Principle.7) w£ ¦ £ u v βc c 1 m2 c 4 0 h2 ν2 . which is always above c .. are very small and one may pose: m2 c 4 0 2h2 ν2 Let us try to determine the upper limit of m0 for light. -A. One should not overlook that it is not a question regarding velocity of a phase wave. There are reasons to believe. rectilinear propagation is not a universal fact. S. see the appendix to Chapter 5. and a fortiori its square. The old idea that a ray is the trajectory of energy is well conﬁrmed. w£ ¦ £ ¤ © " 5 £ § ! £ (5. The motion of an atom of light Atoms of light for which β 1 are accompanied by phase waves for which c β c. but of energy transport detectable experimentally.2 have shown that even light waves with wave length of several kilometres have a velocity essentially equal to c.9) m0 max 10 c2 which is approximately 10 24 grams.2. so that their trajectories would be various rays of the same phase wave. THE MOTION OF AN ATOM OF LIGHT 41 A light wave of frequency ν corresponds. therefore. that is.2. It is possible that m0 is still smaller.. m0 c2 hν .1. F. From a wave 2Changed to: ‘experiments on H ERTZian waves’. that many light corpuscles can have the same phase wave. we think. Light atom trajectories are rays of their phase wave.K. the experiments of T.

it is a form of Geometric Optics. LIGHT QUANTA point of view. these quantities have magnitudes 0 ν and c 1 ε . Some concordances between adverse theories of radiation Here we wish to show with some examples how the corpuscular theory of light can be reconciled with certain wave phenomena. a.3. dynamics of point materiel particles doubtlessly hide wave propagation in the real sense that the principle of least action is expressible in terms of phase coherence.3. It seems that we have arrived at a synthesised viewpoint: wave rays curve as forseen by wave theory. maybe we can say that screens exercises force on them to the extent that a curve is evidence of existence of such a force. that all waves transmit energy. If it seems to us nowadays probable. In the preceeding we were guided by the idea. N EWTON considered that a screen itself exercised force on light corpuscles.. but here we would encounter the problems brought up in Chapter 2 regarding variable motion and we do not yet have a satisfactory resolution. neglecting εε : § v £ § £ £ (5.3.3) © % $ © % $ ε ε ν2 ν2 £ $ § (5. this seems to lead to the following conclusion: Our dynamics (in its E INSTEIN format) is based on Optics. i. but as light atoms move because the principle of inertia of light is no longer valid.) Dopper Effect due to moving source: Consider a source of light moving with velocity v βc in the direction of an observer considered to be at rest. this deviation results from disequilibrium introduced by a screen on various near zones of a wave.3. It would be very interesting to study the interpretation of diffraction in space-time.e. This source emits atoms of light with frequency ν and velocity c 1 ε where ε m2 c4 2h2 ν2 .1) c1 1 c1 εv c2 1 ε β 1 εβ 1 1 © ε ¦ y % % § c1 ε £ $ $ £ x$ § © § $ v β β . Upon reﬂection. 5.42 5. so on the other hand. For a ﬁxed observer.2) 1 1 1 1 β β ν ν © ε % § % § £ e$ § (5. In contrast. The theorem of addition of velocities gives: or where. that a corpuscle and its phase wave are not separate physical realities. they are subject to the same motion as the phase ray to which they are uniﬁed.

SOME CONCORDANCES BETWEEN ADVERSE THEORIES OF RADIATION 43 if β is small. a moving observer sees that the source emitted n photons4 per unit of surface.K. N. not “photon”. nhν and the intensity is I nhν. one gets the usual optics formulas: ν T v 1 β 1 β 1 ν T c It is just as easy to get the relationship between intensities measured by two observers.3. n photons are emitted in a a time 1 1 β2 and ﬁll a volume c 1 β 1 β2 c 1 β 1 β . For the sake of contemporary readability.3. For an observer at rest. c 1 ε2 . M.6) I nhν nhν $ % 1 1 β β § v (5. Lewis ﬁrst a year later in 1926.3.4) $ © £ ¤ Q$ § $ § § § $ . therfore. For a ﬁxed observer .) Reﬂection from a moving mirror. a £ e § c1 © ε1 $ § % % $ § c 1 ε1 1 β1 βc ε1 § ¤ " ! £ (5.7) $ I I ν ν 2 ¤ $ £ § v$ $ £ $ (5. hereafter in this translation the latter term is used. If we now consider reﬂected photons.3.5. the energy density of a bundle appears to be: and the intensity: From which we get: All these formulas from a wave point of view can be found in5. During a unit of time. b. Consider reﬂection of a photon impinging perpendicularly on a mirror moving with velocity βc in a direction perpendicular to its surface. Thus.F. ν is the frequency of phase waves accompanying photons with velocity c 1 ε1 For a stationary observer. 5von Laue. ν2 and c 1 ε2 . The addition law for velocities gives: 4 Note that DE B ROGLIE’s term was “light atom” or “quantum”. this frequency and velocity are: ν1 and c 1 ε1 . Die Relativit¨ tstheorie.5) © % nhν c 1 1 β β ν ν % ¤ § § £ £ § £ § % § $ £ (5. I. 3 ed.3. however. 119. their corresponding values are: ν2 . -A.. The energy density of a bundle evaluated by this observer is. a term coined by G. Vol. p.

) Black body radiation pressure: Consider a cavity ﬁlled with black body radiation at temperature T . LIGHT QUANTA For a stationary observer. gives: If β is small.3. and θ the angle to the normal of the wall. What is the pressure on the cavity walls? In our view. r its distance from the coordinate origin. we presume. a volume element. on recovers the classical formula: T2 v (5.3. c.3.8) c1 ε2 $ § § § $ § c 1 ε2 1 β1 βc ε2 $ $ % § $ . M.11) 1 2 T1 c Oblique reﬂection is easily included.44 5. Let ds be an inﬁnitesimal wall element. dv . an isotropic distribution of velocities. Let n be the number of photons reﬂected during a given time interval. The solid angle under which the element ds is seen from the centre O of dv is: 6 VON L AUE.3. reﬂection occurs without change of frequency because of conservation of energy. E2 is in proportion to their energy before reﬂexion. That is: Neglecting ε1 ε2 .9) © © ν1 ν2 ε1 ε2 § § § $ § § % % $ § 1 ε1 β1 β ε1 1 ¤ ε2 β1 β ε2 £ C § (5. which elementary geometric reasoning shows easily. The ratio of intensities before and after reﬂexion are given by: All these results are also given in6. total kinetic energy) of the photons in a unit volume. what is here the same. E1 .10) % $ ε1 ε2 ν2 ν1 2 1 1 β β 2 $ $ 1 1 ¤ £ $ $ £ $ $ £ (5. p. Let u be the total energy (or. Total energy of these n photons after reﬂection.3. Electrodynamik. given by: Although Electrodynamics also yields this relation. here it is absolutely obvious. ¤ " $ ! £ " § ! $ £ (5.3.12) $ nhν2 nhν1 ν2 ν1 ¤ " § ¤ ! § £ $ $ £ " $ $ ! £ (5.124.13) $ % $ I2 I1 nhν2 nhν1 1 1 β β ν2 ν1 2 £ ¤ $ £ (5. black body radiation is a photon gas with. If n photons occupy a volume V1 before reﬂexion. the volume after equals: V2 V1 1 β 1 β .

by dividing by ds radiation pressure π 2 0 Radiation pressure equals one third of the energy contained in a unit volume. The ease with which we recovered certain results known from wave theory reveals the existence between two apparently opposite points of view of a concealed harmony that nature presents via phase waves. one ﬁnds: Thus.3.17) 4 § © £ G W c G § Moreover. by reﬂection at angle θ of a photon of energy w. SOME CONCORDANCES BETWEEN ADVERSE THEORIES OF RADIATION 45 Consider now only those photons in a volume dv whose energy is between w and w dw. an impulse 2G 2W cos θ c is imparted to ds.e. and ﬁnally r from 0 to c. kinetic energy of a photon would be m0 c2 m0 v 1 β2.3.18) 2 £ ¤ £ (5.3. which is the same as the result from classical theory. the number among them which are directed toward ds is. by virtue of isotope. i. then with respect to ψ and θ from 0 to 2πand 0 to π 2 respectively.19) p u cos2 θ sin θdθ u 3 £ E ¤ (5.3.3.3.3. so that when v c one gets: ¤ £ (5. photons in dv impart an impulse to ds through reﬂection of : W ds cos θ cos θ nw dwr2 sin θ dψdr c 4πr2 Integrating now ﬁrst with respect to w from 0 to ∞ and noting that 0∞ wnw dw u.5.14) dΩ ds cos θ r2 % . we obtain the total momentum deposited in one second on ds and. ¤ £ G £ (5. equal to: Changing to polar coordinates with the normal to ds as polar axis.15) dΩ 4π nwdwdv nw dw ds cos θ dv 4πr2 ¤ £ (5.16) dv r2 sin θ dθdψdr 1 β2 and its momentum ¤ £ ¥ (5. in quantity: nw dwdv..

gives a rather inexact explication of these processes. One places a material object with which light reacts either chemically. in all candour.. We shall develop in the next section our ideas on interference. To proceed at this task. However. B OHR. has shown us that if one attributes the assumptions of this theory to an ensemble of electrons. in effect. Photons and wave optics7 The keystone of the theory of photons is in its explanation of wave optics. which should lead inexorably to attribute an electromagnetic character to phase waves so as to account for periodic phenomena. Interference and coherence8 To start. LIGHT QUANTA 5. The essential point is that this explanation necessitates introduction of a phase wave for periodic phenomena. This correspondence being sufﬁciently imprecise and elastic. M AXWELL’s equations then are a continuous approximation of discreet processes. Thus. Electromagnetism. we consider how to establish the presence of light at a point in space. they should be taken as speculations more than explanations. between classical waves and the superposition of phase waves. can serve as guidance for intrepid researchers who wish to ﬁnd a theory of electromagnetism in better accord with the concept of photons. as we said.4. that emission and adsorbtion of radiation occurs in a discontinuous fashion. H. one 7See: BATEMAN . 46 (1923). or more precisely the theory of electrons. On can consider it proven with near certitude. just as the laws of hydrodynamics are a continuous approximation to the complex detailed motion of molecules of a ﬂuid.) . 447 (1926). One can also consider the diffusion of waves at this point in space.” Phil. no doubt of a statistical character. as delineated in Chapter 1.46 5. M. to establish a certain natural liason. 977 for histoirical background and bibliography. it is possible that in the last analysis all of these effects are just the photoelectric effect. It is very likely. “On the theory of light Quanta. 183. it will be most likely with notions of this type that it will be done. thermally. then it has a certain global exactitude.. the author porposed a different theory of interfearance. Perhaps all of electrodynamics has only a statistical validity.5. 5. 8Footnote in the German translation: In more recent work. Let us turn now to this difﬁcult problem on the ﬂanks. (See: Comptes Rendus. at this point. it seems we have managed to establish a close association between the motion of photons and wave propagation of a particular mode. with his correspondence principle.. it is still not possible to claim satisfactory results for this task. it is necessary. the most we can say is that E INSTEIN’s audacious conception was judiciously adapted along with a number of phenomena which in the XIX century so accurately veriﬁed the wave theory. etc. Unfortunately. Mag. that if the theory of photons shall explain optical wave phenomena.

Conclusions . light would be undetectable experimentally. N ORMAN C AMPBELL in his book “Modern Electrical Theory” (1913) appears to have envisioned a solution of the same gender when he wrote: “Only the corpuscular theory of light can explain how energy is transfered at a spot. even if there is magnetic energy. there is no detection—there is negative interference. and where this is null. So that interference can produce regularities. while only the wave theory can explain why the transfer along a trajectory depends on location.6. This notion together with that of the correspondence leads us to consider that the probability of an interaction between material particles and photons at each point in space depends on the intensity (more accurately on its average) of a vector characteristic of the phase wave. this wave very closely resembles the classical conception of a wave. One imagines. CONCLUSIONS 47 can say that where there is no such reaction by material. M. they can be absorbed in some places and in others not. It seems that energy itself is transported by particles while its absorption is determined by special waves”. it seems necessary to coordinate various atoms within a source. therefore. BOHR’S FREQUENCY LAW. Electromagnetic theory holds that photographic effects (W IENER’s experiments). to salvage the conservation of energy principle. We admit always the granular hypothesis: we do not know in the least if a photon adsorbed by an atom is stored within it or if the two meld into a uniﬁed entity. while taking the discontinuous feature of light energy into account. at least regarding phase wave distribution in space. questions regarding intensities must be set aside. details of the internal transformations that a material atom undergoes by emission and absorbtions can not be imagined at all. for which the total energy equals h times the frequency of the photon’s accompanying phase wave. wherever the electric ﬁeld intensity is null. occur in proportion to the electric ﬁeld intensity. When the number of photons is very large. Whatever point of view one adapts. likewise we do not know if emission is ejection of a preexisting photon or the creation of one from internal energy.5. This is in principle a very qualitative explanation of interference. B OHR’s frequency law.6. that where photons traverse an interference region. We propose to express this coordination by the following principle: A phase wave passing through material bodies induces them to emit additional photons whose phase wave is identical to that of the stimulus. it is certain that emission never results in less than a single quantum. and diffusion. these effects are indiscernible. The ideas developed herein lead to associating phase waves with electromagnetic waves. Whatever the case. it must be taken that emission results in the diminution of the source atom’s internal energy in 5. A wave therefore can consist of many photons that retain the same phase.

6. although those phenomena such as dispersion appear incompatible with the notion of photons. L. Journ. LIGHT QUANTA accord with B OHR’s Law of frequencies: One sees that our conceptions. Zeitschr. 142 (1921). 18. How might we conclude this chapter? Surely. 2. it is. if we impose the condition that an emission always comprises just one photon. e ¤ § £ (5.9 which showed the necessity to introduce into the analysis of the interaction of black body radiation and a free body the idea that emission is strictly directed. it appears that now they are less inexplicable given ideas regarding phase waves.. C OMPTON. The recent theory of X-ray and γ-ray diffusion by M. E INSTEIN and L EON B RILLOUIN .. A. which we shall consider below. leads also to the Law of Frequencies. s´ rie VI.. supports with serious empirical evidence the existence of photons in a domain in which the wave notion reigned supreme. Phys. Phys.1) hν W1 W2 . it seems to us. premature to judge its ﬁnal fate. 9 E INSTEIN A. at least in its simple form.-H.. and that serious difﬁculties remain. d. 121 (1917). after having leads us to a simple explanation of stability conditions.48 5. We note that the image of emission from the quantum theory seems to be conﬁrmed by the conclusions of MM. It is nonetheless incontestable that concepts of parcelled light energy do not provide any resolution in the context of wave optics. B RILLOIN .

J. 1912) p. can be attributed to the electronic vibration. Let us begin by deﬁning the phenomenon of diffusion. e e` 2Lord R AYLEIGH deduced his theory on the basis of the elastic theory of light. according to which one envisions a bundle of rays. so that passage of an electromagnetic wave affects the amplitude of the oscillation of the electrons depending on the frequencies of both electrons and wave. M. but independent of its frequency. motion of the vibrating electrons must be determined. (Gauthier-Villars.1. In conformity with the theory of wave acceleration.. The ﬁnal result is that there is a scattering of a fraction of the incident waves into all directions of space. so that waves are diffused more strongly as their frequency increases. 49 . J. This is the theory with which Lord R AYLEIGH explained the blue colour of the sky. Thompson’s theory1 In this chapter we shall study X and γ-ray diffusion and show by suggestive examples the respective views given by electromagnetic and photon theory. but this explantion accords well with electromagnetic theory also. In order to calculate the extent of diffusion. Passage de l’´ lectricit´ a travers les gaz.CHAPTER 6 X and γ-ray diffusion 6. Electron theory explains this quite simply. motion of electrons is ceaselessly diminished by emission of a cylindrical wave. To do so one may express equilibrium between the resulting inertial force and the quasi-elastic force for one part and the electric force from the impinging radiation for the other part. some of which are scattered in various directions. Paris. J. 321. numerical results show that the inertial term can be neglected in the quasi-elastic term so an amplitude proportional to that of the stimulus wave. This eventually establishes equilibrium between the incident radiation and redirected radiation. On says that there is diffusion if the bundle is weakened by redirecting some rays while traversing material.2 1T HOMPSON . It supposes (in direct opposition to B OHR’s atomic model) that electrons in atoms are subject to quasi-elastic forces and have determined frequencies. In the visible range. The theory of dipole radiation shows that the intensity of secondary radiation falls off as the fourth power of wave length. J.

which accords well with our notion of the ratio of the number of electrons to atomic weight. This is the fact leading J.3) © σ s AmH ρ ¦ £ (6. Thus.50 6.1. it is.5) ¤ ¦ ¥ ¤ A p 0 54 10 24 0 2 1 46 10 ¤ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¤ £ (6. (6. is the bulk diffusion constant.4) σ 0 54 10 24 But. M. T HOMPSON’s theory leads to interesting ¤ ¤ £ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ £ (6. An atom certainly contains more that one electron. therefore. nowadays there is good reason to suppose that the number of electrons of an element equals its atomic number. so that one has: 24 This quantity is nearly 2. experience shows that s ρ is very nearly 0 2.1. According to empirical evidence. but also now to wave length squared. M. Substituting the numerical factor from Eq. then in terms of bulk diffusion constant it would be: where A is the atomic number of the scatter and mH is the mass of hydrogen. These two principles can be stated as follows: 1 If one designates by θ the diffusion angle relative to the incidence direction. All transpires as if electrons were free and vibrational motion simply proportional not only to the incident amplitude. one gets: (6. J. If one denotes the ‘atomic’ diffusion constant σ as that relative to a single atom.1. 2 The ratio of diffused to incident energy per second is given by: where e and m0 pertain to the electron and c is the speed of light.1. energy as a function of θ is given then by 1 cosθ 2.2) Ix I0 e © £ (6.1. the quasi-elastic term in comparison to the inertial term that is negligible.1) sx © Iα I 8π e4 3 m2 c 4 0 p % £ u 7 7 0 54 0 29 . T HOMPSON to formulate the ﬁrst theory of the diffusion of X-rays.1. contrarywise. s ρ.1). diffusion suffers a gradual diminution given by an exponential law: where s is the decay or ‘diffusion’ constant. normalised by material density. T HOMPSON supposed incoherent emission from the p electrons of an atom and. X AND γ-RAY DIFFUSION In the high frequency X and γ-ray region. considered that the diffused energy should be p times that of a single electron. This constant.

H. For short wave lengths. D AUVILLIER. 1921) p. energy in the direction from which it came is less than in the opposite direction.1) ¦ D 6. Ann. B RAGG has found a stronger diffusion than calculated above for which he concludes that the dispersed energy is proportional not to the number of scattering centres. 137. which have been largely veriﬁed already long ago3 There remains difﬁculties.2. M..2. D EBYE was ﬁrst to observe a curious phenomenon. they are in phase so that amplitudes add and diffusion within the cone is much stronger than elsewhere. If the wave length is long with respect to the average distance between electrons.. 809 (1915). it is identical to M. 4 Debye. The diffused energy then is proportional to p2 . so that σ becomes: So. M. intensity is not regular but. this phenomenon can be simpliﬁed. Phys. L EDOUX -L EBARD and A. The strong diffusion cone recedes progressively. F RIEDRICH. the distribution reverts to being symmetric and begins to satisfy T HOMPSON’s formulas because the waves from various electrons are no longer in phase. Paris. in a sharp cone in the direction of propagation. for the sake of calculations he supposes they are distributed on a circle.. it seems that so far there is no explanation. T HOMPSON’s result. M. ¤ £ (6. Debye’s theory4 σ 8π e4 2 p 3 m2 c 4 0 . shows certain periodical variations. R. M. for the whole wave the amplitudes of each ray add.2. so it becomes energies that add.6. Even though M. The reason for this is: one may no longer regard the vibrations of the various electrons as being in phase when the wave length is comparable to interatomic distances. D EBYE believes he has seen this phenomenon in certain experiments done by M. the spacial distribution is asymmetric. BARKLA’s. However. and not p . 46. not amplitudes. P. on a screen placed perpendicular to the propagation direction one sees concentric bright rings cantered on the axis. 3Historical works on X-ray diffusion can be found in the book by MM. La physique des rayons X (Gauthier-Villars. with respect to spacial distribution. notably M. For waves with progressively shorter wave lengths. the motion of the electrons will be essentially in phase and. d. when diffused energy is charted along the axis of the cone deﬁned above. D EBYE has proposed a theory completely compatible with both MM. D EBYE considers that the atomic electrons are distributed regularly in a volume with dimensions of the order of 10 8 cm. but to its square. The amplitudes of rays in various directions do not add because they are out of phase and therefore diffused energy is reduced. B RAGG and BARKLA . DEBYE’S THEORY5 51 coincidences with various experiments. W. in particular.

One is that it appears that diffusion in the direction of the stimulus radiation is accompanied by a reduction of frequency and the other is ejection of the scattering electron.1). Frequencies before and after interaction are ν0 and νθ and proper mass of an electron is m0 . However. Compton pose that a scattered photon goes in a discattering rection at angle θ to incoming radiation. D EBYE’s theory is that it explained the strong diffusion of soft X-rays and showed how it happens that when frequency is increased the theory goes over to T HOMPSON’s. the more symmetric diffused radiation. so that one has: 1 β2 Eq. A. on the other hand. the more pronounced the dissymmetry of diffused radiation. it can be taken that they interact. " " § 1 β2 ¤ § ! % ! £ (6. the higher the frequency. Their idea is: if a photon passes close enough to an electron. such that conservation of momentum governs the outcome. (6. SupF IGURE 6.2) m0 βc 2 hν0 c 2 hνθ c 2 2 § § § £ (6. Practically simultaneously both MM.1. The recent theory of MM.3. it applies actually less and less. H. P. we shall see in the following section.3. 6. X AND γ-RAY DIFFUSION The great advantage of M.1) hνθ hν0 1 hν0 hνθ cos θ c c © m0 c 2 1 ¤ ¤ ¤ . including that by M. the less the total diffused energy. Before completion of an interaction an electron absorbs a certain amount of energy from a photon so that after interaction the frequency of a photon is reduced. so that the value 0 2 of the coefﬁcient s ρ can be obtained. the more the value of the coefﬁcient s ρ decreases rapidly until the wave length goes under ˚ 0 3 or 0 2A and becomes very weak for γ-rays. But it is essential to note that following D EBYE’s ideas. C OMPTON each in his own way has found an explanation for these phenomena based on classical physics principles and the existence of photons. D EBYE and A. C OMPTON.3.3. H. (6. the higher the frequency.3.52 6. To begin.3.2) was derived with aid of Fig. Debye and Compton Experimentation with X and γ-rays reveals facts quite distinct from those predicted by the above theory. there where T HOMPSON’s theory should apply more and more. Two additional light phenomena have been discover recently by clever experimentation. So. that this is not at all the case.

ROSS on scattering of MoKα and green light in parafﬁn conﬁrms this point of view. DEBYE AND COMPTON 53 The velocity v βc is the velocity an electron acquires during the interaction. M.3. For low frequencies the ﬁrst appears to predominate to the extent that.3) νθ 1 2α sin2 θ 2 or With aid of these formulas one can study speed and direction of photon scatter as well as electron ‘kick back’ or recoil. It must be taken that in this case scattering occurs without photon degradation. D EBYE applied the correspondence principle somewhat differently but obtained an equivalent interpretation of the same phenomenon. the lines of scattered radiation from the crystals usually used as reﬂectors. THE RECENT THEORY OF MM. Let α be the ratio hν0 m0 c2 . In an article in The Physical Review (May. the variation of wave length has been quantitatively veriﬁed. M. A. which is equal to the quotient of ν0 and an electron’s proper frequency. on the other hand. Kα lines exhibit a strong line of scattered radiation following C OMPTON’s Law and a weak line of unaltered frequency. Experiments by M. ¤ 1 % 0 £ (6. 1923). One ﬁnds that photon scattering direction varies from 0 to π and that electron recoil from π 2 to 0.4) λθ λ0 1 2α sin2 θ 2 © % £ £ c . so that it follows: ν0 (6. that is all there is. C OMPTON had difﬁculties accepting this explanation. For solid bodies and soft radiation.3. The existence of a non displaced line appears to explain why scattering in a crystal (VON L AUE effect) is not accompanied by a variation of wave length.3. in effect. occurs when incident photons acquire little change in wave length because the scattering centre can not respond and compensate by virtue of its high inertia. in particular for hard rays in soft materials. 1923) and in another more recent article in the Philosophical Magazine (Nov. JAUNCEY and W OLFERS have shown recently that.6. while its velocity will be between 0 and a certain maximum. M. which appears to be true only for green light. seems to have calculated scattered energy and thereby explained the rapid diminution of the coefﬁcient s ρ. it seems that there coexists a diffused line with no change of frequency and another diffused line which follows the C OMPTON -D EBYE law. C OMPTON appealing to hypothesis inspired by the correspondence principle. MM. the other case. C OMPTON shows how these ideas enable computation of many experimental facts. lets try to explain these two types of scattering in the following manner: the C OMPTON effect occurs whenever an electron is relatively weakly bound in a scattering material. would exhibit to an appreciable extent to the ¨ C OMPTON -D EBYE effect. To begin. measurements of the wave length of R ONTGEN waves have shown this effect. in fact. M. H.

The new scattering theory appears to be able to explain these anomalies quite well. thereby making evident the sum of masses of all scattering centres. Up to the matter of hard X-rays and light materials. for example CH3 I. in effect. that is what happens. One knows that there is a greater diminution by scattering suffered by a sheaf of X-rays traversing material than by absorption. it is subject to the difﬁculties considered above. and. DAUVILLIER has observed this phenomenon in X-rays for which an explanation is for me an old intriguing question. moreover. the coefﬁcient of atomic absorption varies as the fourth power of the atomic number. B RAGG and P IERCE shows that this absorption varies as the cube of the wave length and undergoes crass discontinuities for each characteristic frequency of the interatomic levels of the considered substance. It is possible in this way even to compute D . When. following the conceptions from the C OMPTON -D EBYE theory. ¨ This law is well veriﬁed in the middle range of R ONTGEN frequencies and it seems highly probable that it will apply as well to hard X-rays. one must admit that hard photons and heavy scatters behave differently that soft photons and light scatters. and therefore ionisation in the two gases. there is not only scattering of radiation but also “absorption by scattering”. for the same wave length and diverse elements.54 6. M. a phenomenon that is accompanied by emission of photoelectrons. as they are in practice for radiotherapy. these phenomena must be completely modiﬁed by C OMPTON’s effect. We shall now give an example. Even if various ancillary corrections are taken into account. For a light gas (air). one with a heavy gas. In so far as. An empirical law by MM. X AND γ-RAY DIFFUSION preferring to consider that multiple scatterings of the outgoing photon were involved. The B RAGG -P IERCE Law then permits calculating the ionisation produced by the same hard radiation in two separate ampoules. not at all further resolved from the point of view of wave optics than we indicated in the preceeding section. As means to render compatible the conception of scattering as being the deviation of a photon with conservation of phase—as found necessary to explain VON L AUE ’ S interference patterns. In a heavy gas (CH3 I). and the other with a light gas such as air. Ionisation in the gas is due to both electrons being stripped from atoms as well as by recoil of electrons. scattering is exclusively wave scattering. should therefore be much smaller than anticipated. B RAGG absorption in comparison to C OMPTON absorption is strong. this result is seen experimentally to be much smaller than calculations predict. only the absorbed energy following the B RAGG Law can produce ionisation of the gas by virtue of high velocity photoelectrons shocking atoms. and it appears that. Whichever way it is. it is not the same. Total adsorbtion. the ﬁrst cause of this due to variation by N 4 is very weak and the second dependant on N should be the more important one. at least in the case of hard radiation. a portion of the energy is transfered to scattered electrons.

moreover. it follows that: When the initial velocity is null or negligible. a scattered photon propagates with frequency ν2 and with direction cosines p q r making an angle ϕ with the initial electron velocity (cos ϕ a1 p b1 q c1 r) and the angle θ with the x axis (p cos θ). Scattering via moving electrons . the D OPPLER Effect also arises. of the electron before impact of the photon is deﬁned by the direction cosines a1 b1 c1 . a1 cos θ1 .4. the C OMPTON effect.4. then. represented by the term with α.. the y and z axes may be arbitrarily chosen to be orthogonal and in a plane containing the scattering centre.4. Let us take the x axis to be the direction of incoming photons whose frequency is ν1 . and we let θ1 be the angle with the x axis. i.e.4) m0 β 1 c c1 hν2 r c m0 β 2 c § § 1 β2 1 % £ (6.6) ν2 ν1 1 2α sin2 θ 2 In the general case.5) ν2 ν1 § 1 β1 cos θ1 § £ % % § 1 β2 1 1 β2 2 ¤ % £ (6. is present but diminished.3) b1 1 β2 2 b2 c2 © m0 β 1 c hν2 q c m0 β 2 c § § 1 β2 1 % £ % (6. after the impact.4. from the resulting equations and 2 2 2 those expressing the conservation of energy. eliminate β2 .4.2) a1 1 β2 2 a2 © hν1 c m0 β 1 c hν2 p c m0 β 2 c § § 1 % £ % (6. Let the electron’s have ﬁnal velocity β2 c whose direction cosines are a2 b2 c2 . One sees with this example the large practical consequence of the ideas of MM. Conservation of energy and momentum during the impact imply: β2 1 Eliminate a2 b2 c2 using a2 b2 c2 1. The direction of the velocity. If the C OMPTON Effect is ¤ § % % £ § 1 β1 cos ϕ 2α 1 β2 sin2 θ 2 1 ¤ £ (6.4. C OMPTON AND D EBYE. One can generalise the Compton-Debye theory by considering scattering of photons off moving electrons. Now.4. Recoil of the scattered electrons provides the key idea to understanding many other phenomena.6.4. we get C OMPTON’s formula: 1 (6.1) hν1 hν2 1 β2 2 © m0 c 2 m0 c 2 £ © © © © © © % £ % £ © © £ 6. βc. with C OMPTON’s relationship: α hν1 m0 c2 . SCATTERING VIA MOVING ELECTRONS 55 the ionisation.

one ﬁnds: 1 β1 cos θ1 1 β1 cos ϕ As. in this case. Let us calculate now the frequency of the scattered radiation (including relativistic effects).56 6. attributes the frequency: from which one easily gets: 1 β1 cos θ1 1 β1 cos ϕ T HE C OMPTON Effect remains in general quite weak.9) ν2 ν1 § § $ £ (6. photon scattering does not disturb electron motion. it will start to vibrate at frequency ν .7) ν2 ν1 § £ $ $ .4.4.8) 1 β1 cos ϕ © ν2 ν § 1 β2 1 ¤ ¤ § § § £ (6. Here we have to do with a strengthening of the photon because the scattering electron is itself moving with high velocity and gives some of its energy to the radiation. ¤ § £ (6. an observer who receives radiation scattered in the direction making an angle ϕ with respect to β1 c of the source. while the D OPPLER Effect attendant to a fall of several hundred kilovolts can reach high values (an increase of a third for 200 kilovolts). one might expect to get a result identical to that from electrodynamics. X AND γ-RAY DIFFUSION negligible. The impinging radiation with respect to the electron has the frequency: 1 β1 cos θ1 ν ν1 1 β2 1 If the electron maintains its translation velocity β1 c.4. It is not impossible that some of the above conclusions could be veriﬁed experimentally. This is effectively what happens. The conditions for S TOKE’s Law are not met. at least those concerning X-rays.

from the works of MM. he arrived at this notion for the ﬁrst time from analysis of the random collisions of the gas molecules. rather the “thermodynamic probability” equal simply to the numerator of this ratio. we intend here ﬁrst to recall certain fundamentals in their currently common form.CHAPTER 7 Quantum Statistical Mechanics 7. to begin. This choice of deﬁnition for P allows for the determination (somewhat arbitrary) of the constant of entropy. P LANCK and E INSTEIN one prefers the relationship S k log P as the deﬁnition of the system’s entropy S. but it is not without its difﬁculties and objections. A certain conﬁguration is realized when there n1 objects in cell 1.1. up to an arbitrary additive constant. P is not the mathematical probability equal to the number of micro-conﬁgurations giving the same macroscopic conﬁguration over the total number of possible conﬁgurations. Review of statistical thermodynamics The interpretation of the laws of thermodynamics using statistical considerations is one of the most beautiful achievements of scientiﬁc thought. B OLTZMANN has shown. Nowadays. the product of the logarithm of the probability of the state times “B OLTZMANN’s constant” k. and then examen how they affect our new ideas for the theory of gases and black body radiation. n2 in cell 2.1) £ p ℵ! n1 !n2 ! nn ! . The thermodynamic probability then would be: 57 ¤ ¤¤ 9@¤ £ (7. Consider ℵ objects which may distributed among m “states” or “cells” considered a priori to be equally probable.1. etc. These postulates recall a well known demonstration of a certain analytic derivation of thermodynamic quantitates that has the advantage of being applicable to case of continuously variable states as well as discontinuously variable ones. In is not intended in the context of this work to analyse critically these methods. which depends on the temperature scale. that the entropy of a gas in a particular state is. In this deﬁnition.

1. is: This is the so-called “canonical” distribution.8) 1 T dS dE ∂S ∂β ∂β ∂E ∂S ∂E dβ dE dβ dE ¤ % ¦ % £ (7. one concludes that the most probable distribution.1.6) S kℵ log ℵ ∑ m kαe βεi log α ¤ Q ¦ £ ¦ £ (7. is given by: 1 To determine β we use the thermodynamic relations: ∑m e βεi 1 % % § £ (7.7) S kℵ log ℵ α kβ log ∑ e £ £ however. Eq. the following equation must be satisﬁed: where η and β are constants.1. Maximum entropy is determined by 1 1 the condition: δS 0. Entropy will now vary as: 1 1 with the conditions: ∑m δni 0 and ∑m εi δni 0.1.5) ni © U 1 αe βεi α e η £ V % % (7. QUANTUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS When ℵ and all the ni are large numbers. and so are the δni .6) is alternately: m βεi kβE W § ¦ § £ (7. to satisfy the minimum condition.3) kδ 1 βεi © δS ∑ ni log ni m k ∑ δni m k ∑ log ni δni m ¤ § £ £ (7.1. (7. Now we consider the resorting of objects among cells such that the total energy is left unaltered.58 7. The thermodynamic entropy of the system corresponding to this most probable distribution.1. we may use S TIRLING’s formula to obtain the system entropy: 1 Suppose that for each cell there corresponds a value of a function which we shall call the “energy of an object in that cell”.1. the only one realized for all practical purposes. The method of indeterminate coefﬁcients requires that. while ∑m ni 1 ℵ and ∑m εi ni 1 E 1 total energy .9) kℵ kE kβ © ¦ ∑m εi e 1 βεi % 3 £ £ (7.1. Given the above.1.2) £ ¢ S k log P kℵ log ℵ k ∑ ni log ni m .4) 0 © ∑ log ni m η βiεi δni § £ § R£ £ § R£ (7.

but a gas comprised of N identical molecules of mass m0 such that the state is deﬁned by 6N parameters. From L IOUVILLE’s Theorem (equally valid in relativistic dynamics) we learn that the inﬁnitesimal element of phase space for a molecule.1. From this one is lead to the idea that the number of equally probable states is also proportional to this quantity.14) dn Ce dxdydzd pdqdr 4πG2 dG © w kT © © ¤ ¦ § H£ (7.11) F E Ts E kℵT log ∑e m βεi βkT E ¤ £ £ £ £ (7.1. In turn. To do so we take as the object of the general theory.1. is an invariant of the equations of motion and therefore its value is independent of the choice of coordinates.1. REVIEW OF STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS 59 and because ∑m e βεi 1 The free energy can be calculated from: 1 1 The mean value of the free energy for one of the objects is therefore: 1 Let us apply these considerations to a gas comprised of identical molecules of mass mo . Free energy of this ¤ ¦ £ (7. then we have: where G m0 v 2m0 w is the momentum. dxdydzd pdqdr (where x y z are coordinates of position and p q r are the components of momentum).15) w d pdqdr © © 1 m0 v 2 2 ¦ £ (7.1.1.7. whose energy is between w and w dw is given by the classical formula: It remains now only to calculate the free energy and entropy. not an isolated molecule. the number of atoms contained in this volume element.1.10) E kβ © © ℵ ¦ 5 £ £ ∑m εi e 1 βεi ¯ ℵε 1 T β 1 kT . Suppose that the velocities are sufﬁciently weak to justify using nonrelativistic dynamics.13) ¯ F kT log ∑e m βεi ¤ ¦ £ (7. Finally.16) dn Ce w kT 4πm0 3 2 2wdwdxdydz % £ 5 4 £ (7.12) kℵT log ∑e m βεi § ¦ § £ © © § £ (7.1. one is then led to M AXWELL’s Equal Partition Law giving the number of atoms falling in the element dxdydzd pdqdr: where w is the kinetic energy of the atoms.

60 7. as the average volume of the N atom gas. so that it follows that: and 3 kNT 2 At the end of his book “Warmestrahlung”.1.1.17) kT log © § ¯ F ∑e m βεi β 1 kT N . (7. P LANCK has shown how this sum is to be evaluated: it is to be expressed as an integral over the the phase space of 6N dimensions.1.1.1.1. Free energy can be calculated in a similar fashion.16). it would be: 1 M.20) F kNT log © 4 Nm0 c2 eV 2πm0 kT Nh3 3 2 P " ∞ ¤ ¦ ¦ G G G G G eRRHRG ! I § £ (7. P LANCK’s hypothesis leads to writing free energy as: S ¤ £ ¦ © § R£ (7. which is equivalent to the product of N integrals over the phase space of a single molecule. that in each cell there is a single point whose probability is not null. or that all points of the same cell correspond to states impossible to distinguish physically from each other. Measurements have veriﬁed P LANCK’s method. but divided by N! to take account of indistinguishability of molecules. it is necessary to determine the constant C in Eq. P LANCK showed how one can deduce the “chemical constant” involved in equilibrium of a gas with its condensed (liquid) phase.22) E Nm0 c2 £ (7. One can say. This factor has dimensions of inverse cube of action.19) NkT log e N ∞ 1 e h3 ε kT dxdydzd pdqdr h3 " ∞ ¦ ¦ G G G G G dRHRRG ! § £ F kT log e © 1 N! ∞ ε kT dxdydzd pdqdr h3 ¤ % £ § R£ (7. P LANCK has determined it with the following disconcerting hypothesis: “Phase space for a molecule is divided into cells of volume h3 ”. ¤ % £ (7.21) S kN log © 4 e5 2V 2πm0 kT Nh3 3 2 P I 4 § £ (7. M.18) ∂F E F TS ∂T In order to do these calculations. from this one gets the entropy and energy from the usual thermodynamic relationships: Upon evaluating the integral one ﬁnds: where V is the total volume of the gas.1. QUANTUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS gas in the thermodynamical sense is deﬁned following G IBBS. therefore.

The probability that a molecule is found in an element dx of AB is therefore dx l. the container must then contain a pattern of standing waves./sec.. the wave length of a wave moving with an atom whose velocity is v.2. and the mean free travel 10 5 cm. the number of atoms deﬂected from their initial motion during a time interval dt by cause of collisions is exactly compensated by the number redirected into this very same direction. the mean velocity of an atom is 10 cm. therefore. would be: (7.. that are reﬂected at A and B. One can question how there can exist a stable wave formation in view of the fact that atoms of a gas are in chaotic motion due to constant collisions with each other. J EANS. If moving atoms of a gas are accompanied by waves. one can take the probability that the velocity is between v and v dv as being proportional to dv. when the stability conditions discussed above are taken into consideration.1) © £ λ c β m0 c 2 h h m0 v ¦ ¥ ¦ % ¥ £ f 7. The new conception of gas equilibrium . therefore. According to classical notions. if one considers phase space spanned by x and v. for example. can be incorporated into the study of thermodynamic equilibrium.2. or 9 kilometres. The situation is very different. one can respond that thanks to the uncoordinated character of atomic motion. We shall now examine how these two aspects are to be introduced into the above formulas. all elements dxdv are equally probable. even of large dimensions. This is somehow an analogue to a B OHR atom. THE NEW CONCEPTION OF GAS EQUILIBRIUM 61 So far we have made use of neither Relativity nor our ideas relating dynamics with waves. and during the time interval 10 10 sec. It seems possible. To begin. the mean velocity of the phase wave would be c2 v 9 1015 cm. all transpires as if the original atoms traversed a container without any deﬂections at all.. during free travel. let us consider at the start the simple case of molecules that move along the line AB of length l. this atom traverses 9 105cm. We are naturally drawn to consider how within the notions of black body radiation developed by M. to imagine stationary phase waves in a gas of massive atoms at equilibrium. If the velocities are low enough to justify ignoring relativistic terms. for which stable trajectories are deﬁned by stability conditions such that unstable waves would be regarded as unphysical. if.2./sec. a phase wave can travel many time the length of a container. To better understand the nature of the modiﬁcations we shall try to impose on statistical mechanics.7. The initial distribution of of velocities is to be random. with respect to a container) as the only stable situation. however. these phase waves forming a standing pattern (that is. necessary on average for collision free travel. Moreover.

there corresponds m0 δxδv h possible states.62 7.2. with the group velocity U βc and frequency ν 1 h m0 c 2 1 β2.2) l nλ n © ¢ h m0 v n integer £ £ . Eq.6) hν w © m0 c 2 m0 c 2 m0 c 2 1 α α w m0 c 2 £ § © ¤ ¤ % £ (7. in principle. then: v nv0 ¤ Q £ £ (7. One may. The variation δn of the whole number n corresponding to a variation δv of the velocity gives the number of states compatible with existence of stationary phase waves. From this one sees: m0 l (7. (7.2. just as M. one ﬁnds according to the relativistic formulas: 1 β2 ¤ Q £ % £ % £ § £ (7. QUANTUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS and the resonance condition is: The velocity therfore is restricted to multiples of v0 . which is the classical expression divided by h.2. the distribution of representative points is the same as that imagined in statistical mechanics. the motion of atoms for which there is no stable wave conﬁguration are automatically excluded. On can take it that in general the quantity m0 δxδv h can be handled as an inﬁnitesimal.2. it is taken to be discontinuous. in each element of phase space δxδv. Let us now consider a gas in three dimensions.2.2. there corresponds a large interval δn. not all values of v are present in every situation. If w designates the kinetic energy. as in general in every small interval there is an enormous number of admissible values of v. An atom of velocity v βc. But.2. nevertheless it is possible for the purposes of calculation to regard it as a differential. distinguishing between group velocity U and phase velocity V . and by a mechanism which is yet to be fully determined. Here the occasion has arrived to use the theorem demonstrated in §1. calculate the number of stationary waves for which the frequency is between ν and ν δν. One ﬁnds in this case.4) δn δv h All transpires as if. The distribution of phase waves in a container is fully analogous to that used in the usual analysis of black body radiation.5) must not be misinterpreted.5) nν δν γ ν δν UV 2 where γ equal 1 for longitudinal waves and 2 for transverse waves.3) £ £ £ £ Let h m0 l v0 . corresponds to a wave having phase velocity V c β. the following expression: 4π 2 (7. Numerical evaluation shows that even for extremely small values of δv on the scale of experiments. thus every small rectangle in phase space represents an enormous number of possible values of v. J EANS did in this case.

both α 1 and α 2 may be replaced with α. Stern. 79 (1921). this method shows that the number of possible molecular states in phase space is not the inﬁnitesimal element itself but this element divided by h3 . We have already shown in Chapter 3 that this idea leads to an exact expression for radiation pressure. Phys. 14.9) C ¤ ¦ % % % (7. Zeitschr.. Here γ 2 by reason of symmetry of units as emphasised in §5.3. H. Ann.. In so far as α is large with respect to 1. We note that the values of the velocities that lead to this result are those from J EAN’s formula. W.. 14. Zeitschr. 36..3.1) C 8πh 3 ν e c3 hν kT dν © 8π 2 hν ν e kT dνdxdydz c3 for energy density corresponding to these frequencies: ¤ % G ¦ £ % £ ¦ (7.2.1 7. O.8) Cγ ¤ % % % £ 5 £ (7. This veriﬁes P LANCK’s hypothesis and thereby results obtained above.7) £ % i nω dω γ . their proper or rest energy m0 c2 is substantially greater than their kinetic energy. Phys..2.2. (except for a number of atoms negligible at usual temperatures) . (7. Thus. one gets for the number of photons per unit volume with energy between hν and h ν dν : 1On this matter see: Sackur. Phys. H. d. 212 (1913). black body radiation can be considered as a gas in equilibrium with matter similar to a saturated vapour in equilibrium with its condensed phase. Moreover. Phys. 434 (1912). THE PHOTON GAS 63 From which it follows: 4π 2 4π ν dν γ 3 m0 c2 1 α α α 2 dω 2 UV h Calling on the canonical distribution mentioned above.. Let us apply Eq.3.1. ¤ ¦ £ (7. The photon gas If light is regarded as comprising photons.3. Phys. Phys. we may take 1 α to be very close to 1 and therefore: ω dω dxdydzd pdqdr ω ω 4π 3 2 m0 2ωe kT dωdxdydz Ce kT h3 h3 ω Obviously.. Ann. Zeitschr. f. gives the number of atoms in the volume element dxdydz with kinetic energy between ω and ω dω: ω 4π m0 c2 1 α α α 2 e kT dωdxdydz h3 For atoms. d.. so we take γ 1. Thus. phase waves by reason of symmetry are analogous to longitudinal waves. 629 (1913). Tetrode. 16. and 40.2... 15.8) to this gas. 695 (1914).2) uν dν C ¦ (7. E. Brody.7. 38. Zeitschr. 67 (1913). Keesom. 958 (1911). for these atoms (except for a small number that can be neglected at normal temperatures). O.

64

7. QUANTUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS

The constant can be seen to have the value 1 by arguments presented in my article entitled “Quanta de lumi` re et rayonnement noir” in Journal de Physique, 1922. e Unfortunately the law obtained in this way is W IEN’s Law, i.e., only the ﬁrst term in a series of the exact law found by M. P LANCK. This should not surprise us, for by supposing that moving photons are completely independent of each other, we necessarily come to a result for which the exponent is that found in M AXWELL’s distribution. We know incidentally that a continuous distribution of radiant energy in space leads to the R AYLEIGH Law as J EANS has shown. But, P LANCK’s Law goes to the expressions proposed by MM. W IEN and R AYLEIGH as limits whenever hν kT is very large or small respectively. To get P LANCK’s Law a new hypothesis is needed, which without abandoning the notion of the existence of photons, that will permit us to explain why the classical formulas are valid in certain domains. This hypothesis can formulated thusly: If two or more photons have phase waves that exactly coincide, then since they are carried by the same wave their motion can not be considered independent and these photons must be treated as identical when calculating probabilities. Motion of these photons “as a wave” exhibits a sort of coherence of inexplicable origin, but which probably is such that out-of-phase motion is rendered unstable. This coherence hypothesis allows to reproduce in its entirety a demonstration of M AXWELL’s Law. In so far as we can no longer take each photon as an independent “object” of the theory, it is the elementary stationary phase waves that play this role. What shall we call such an elementary stationary wave? A stationary wave may be regarded as a superposition of two waves of the form:

where ϕ0 can take on any valuer between 0 and 1. By specifying a value for ν and ϕ0 , a particular elementary standing wave is deﬁned. Consider now for a particular value of ϕ0 all the permissable values of ν in a small interval dν. Each elementary wave can transport 0 1 2 photons and, because the canonical distribution law may be applied to these waves, one gets for the number of corresponding photons:

If ϕ0 takes on other values, one gets other stable states and by superposing several of these stable states, that correspond to one and the same elementary wave, one gets yet a further stable state. Therefrom we see that the number of photons for which the energy

¦

∑∞ e 0

hν p kT

¤

£

(7.3.4)

Nν dν

nν

¦

∑∞ pe 1

%

h

g

(7.3.3)

hν p kT

i ©

sin 2π νt cos

x λ

ϕ0

¤¤ @9¤ © ©

7.3. THE PHOTON GAS

65

1

per unit volume. A can be a function of temperature. For a gas, in the usual sense of the word, m0 is so large that one may neglect all terms but the ﬁrst in the series. For this case, on recovers Eq. (7.2.8). For a photon gas, however, one ﬁnds:

**and, therefrom, the energy density: 8πh 3 ∞ ν ∑e c3 1
**

hν p kT

This is actually P LANCK’s formula. But, it must be noted that in this case A 1. First of all, it is certainly true here that A is not a function of temperature. In fact, total radiation energy per unit volume is:

∞ 0

and total entropy is given by:

where V is total volume, and because u f T and P u dS 3 this expression is an exact differential where the integrability condition can be written:

£

(7.3.11)

S

A

©

64π 4 2 ∞ 1 k T V∑ 4 c3 h 3 1 p

£

This is the classical Stefan Law, which leads to setting A above gives us the values of the entropy:

C. The reasoning used

¤

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£

§

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(7.3.10)

or 4

©

©

1 du T DT

4 1 du 3 T dT

4 u 3 T2

u T

du dT

u

αT 4

¤

§ £

%

£

(7.3.9)

% %

£ lV

£

%

U

£

dS

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V

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1 d uV T

dV du u P T T V du 4 dV dT u T dT 3 T

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!

£

dG £

(7.3.8)

u

uν dν

A

1

©

48πh c3

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∑ p4

1

£

¤

¦

£

(7.3.7)

uν dν

A

¦

£

(7.3.6)

Nν dν

A

dν

dν

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8π 2 ∞ ν e c3 ∑ 1

hν p kT

k

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%

%

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4π m0 c 2 1 h3

α

αα

2 dω ∑ e

j

%

is between ν and ν

dν is:

∞

m c2 ω p 0 kT

66

7. QUANTUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS

and free energy:

It remains only to determine the value of A. If it turns out that it can be shown to be equal to 1, we shall get P LANCK’s formulas. As remarked above, if one neglects terms where p 1, the matter is such that, the distribution of photons obeys the simple canonical law: 8π 2 hν ν e kT dν c3 and one can calculate the free energy using P LANCK’s method for an ordinary gas, so that identifying the result with expression above, one sees that: A 1. In the general case, one must use a less direct method. Consider the p-th term in P LANCK’s series: hν 8π (7.3.14) nνp dν A 3 hν3 e p kT dν c One may this as:

which admits the claim: Black body radiation can be considered to be a mixture of inﬁnitely many gases each characterised by one whole number p and possessing the property that, the number of states of a gaseous totality located in the volume dxdydz and having energy between phν and ph ν dν equals 8π c3 p ν2 dνdxdydz. From this, one can calculate free energy using the method in §7.1. One gets:

1

1

where:

∞ 0

So, ﬁnally:

i

g

§ H£

(7.3.18)

F

A

1

©

16π 4 4 e k T log c3 h 3 A

∑ p4 V

1

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G

£

(7.3.17)

np

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hν p kT

dν

A

16π k3 T 3 1 V c3 h 3 p 4

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0

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G

I

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dν

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kT ∑ log

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I

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8π 2 ν e c3 p

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8π 2 ν e c3 p

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hν p kT

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¤

¦

¦

(7.3.13)

A

¤

np

m

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§

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(7.3.12)

u

F

U

TS

A

16π 4 4 ∞ 1 k T V∑ 4 c3 h 3 1 p

%

7.4. ENERGY FLUCTUATIONS IN BLACK BODY RADIATION3

67

and, by identiﬁcation with the expression above, it follows: e (7.3.19) log 1 A 1 A which is what we want to show. The coherence hypothesis adopted above has lead us to good results and we still avoided founding by returning to the laws of either R AYLEIGH or W IEN. The study of it ﬂuctuations has provided us a new proof of the importance of black body radiation. 7.4. Energy ﬂuctuations in black body radiation2 If energy parcels of value q are distributed in very large quantitates in a given space and if their positions vary ceaselessly and randomly, a volume element normally contain¯ ¯ ing n parcels, has energy E nq. But, the actual value of n varies considerably from ¯ n, which, from a theorem of probability theory satisﬁes n n 2 n, so that the mean ¯ ¯ ¯ square ﬂuctuation of energy would be:

On the other hand, one knows that energy ﬂuctuations of black body radiation in a volume V are given by a law of statistical thermodynamics, namely:

8πk 2 c3 Vuν dν 2 ν T ε2 3 2 dν c 8πν V and this result, as might be expected, corresponds to that obtained considering interference in electrodynamics. If, on the other hand, one takes W IEN’s Law, which corresponds to the hypothesis that radiation is comprised of independent photons, one gets:

¯ which again leads directly to ε2 Ehν. Finally, for the truly realistic case, i.e., using P LANCK’s Law, one ﬁnds:

2 E INSTEIN A., Die Theorie der Schwartzen Strahlung und die Quanten, Proceedings Solvay Conferrence,

p, 419; L ORENTZ , H.-A., Les Th´ ories statistiques en theromdynamique, Reunion Conf/’erences de M. H.-A. e L ORENTZ au Coll` ge de France, (Teuner, Leipzig, 1916) pp. 70 and 114. e

3

%

£

(7.4.5)

uνV dν hν

©

ε2

c3 8πν2 dν

£

"

¦

!

£

£

(7.4.4)

dν

uνV dν hν

Vuν dν V

2

©

ε2

kT 2V

d dT

8πh 3 ν e c3

hν kT

3

£

£

(7.4.3)

uν

©

©

%

for the interval ν to ν

£

(7.4.2)

d uν dν dT dν. Now, using R AYLEIGH’s Law, one gets:

©

ε2

kT 2V

¤

£

£

§ £

(7.4.1)

ε2

n

n 2 q2 ¯

nq2 ¯

¯ Eq

£

§

©

£

©

£ i

g

£

But. the notion that collections of photons into “waves” leads us to write Planck’s Law: ∞ ∞ hν 8πh (7. hν. as a collection of photons. On the other hand. and a term for which it should be purely undulatory. It thus appears virtually certain that every effort to reconcile discontinuity of radiant energy and interference will involve the hypothesis of coherence mentioned above. only its written form is different.6) uν dν ∑ 3 ν3 e p kT dν ∑ n p ν phνdν 1 c 1 1 Naturally. has a coherent phase wave. this expression is at root identical to E INSTEIN’s. ¤ k £ (7. one gets: ¯ ε2 ∑ n p νdν ∞ phν 2 © k £ ¦ £ n .7) £ and. by applying the formula ε2 nq2 to each type of grouping.68 7. QUANTUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS ε2 therefore appears to be the sum of a term for which radiations would be independent parcels.4. it is interesting that it brings us to say:One can correctly account for ﬂuctuations in black body radiation without reference to interference phenomena by taking it that this radiation.4.

as is well known. in such a way that there is among these variables the relationship: from which one deduces: This point of view led us to remarkable compatibilities between the D OPPLER Effect and radiation pressure. that the remaining material in this appendix was omitted in the German translation. such that when hν m0 c2 it vanishes or becomes imaginary (?). while undulatory ideas lead to R AYLEIGH’s Law. 69 £ ¤ " ! o§ v £ (7.K. The passage from one to the other of these laws. by means of an example with the hope of providing a resolution of this difﬁculty. that in the low frequency domain one should. also assign the velocity c to radiant energy.4 I shall. -A. This is more difﬁcult to accept than. 4It may be of historical interest. it is also subject to a perplexing difﬁculty: for decreasing frequencies ν. We have shown in Chapter 7 that corpuscular notions lead to W IEN’s Law. This objection is very interesting because it brings attention to the issue of passage from the purely high frequency corpuscular regime to the purely low frequency undulatory regime. Unfortunately.4. it seems to me.F. develop a notion suggested by the above considerations. in accord with the old theories.4.9) β 1 m0 c 2 hν § £ (7.Appendix to Chapter 5: Light quanta We proposed considering photons of frequency ν as small parcels of energy characterised by a very small proper mass m0 and always in motion at a velocity very nearly identical to the speed of light c. the velocity βc of energy transport also gets lower. must be closely related to the above objection.8) hν 1 β2 © 2 m0 c 2 .

black body radiation follows R AYLEIGH’s Law. photons are found always in numerous ensembles allied with the same phase wave. p would always equal 1 giving for isolated photons 1 m0c2 hν 2 for the W IEN’s Law for black body radiation and the formula: β energy transport velocity. p is always very large. and the transport velocity goes to c as ν 0. the true structure of radiant energy remains very mysterious. The frequency of a phase wave containing multiple photons is given by: 1 β2 where µ0 is the proper mass of each photon. But we may.11) µ0 f p with f 1 § © £ (7. One might take it that photon mass is a function of the number of photons.4.70 APPENDIX TO CHAPTER 5: LIGHT QUANTA In Chapter 7 I have shown how passage from W IEN’s to R AYLEIGH’s Law is explicable in terms of a coherent phase wave for an ensemble of photons. but this simply can not be maintained and still reconcile electrodynamics with discontinuous photoelectric phenomena. Thus.10) hν © µ 0 c2 m 2 . I have emphasised the similarity between such a Phase wave with a large number of photons and a classical wave.4. this similarity is sullied by the fact that each photon represents a ﬁnite mass m0 although the classical theory of electromagnetism attributes no mass at all to light. allied with a phase wave: The necessity to return to classical formulas for low frequencies leads to suppose that f p tends to 0 as p ∞.4. perhaps. reconciles photon population idiosyncrasies with classical wave notions. it seems to me. This hypothesis undermines the simplicity of the concept of “photon”. In any case. the ensemble velocity would be given by: For very high frequencies.12) βc c 1 f p c2 hν £ C £ (7. § £ ¤ " ! § v £ (7. suppose that the mass of photons allied with the same phase wave differs from the mass of an isolated photon. For low frequencies. which seems necessary so as to be able to compute absorption and emission of energy with ﬁnite quantities hν. Introducing f p . p. However.

but if it should be formulated satisfactorily. The most important consequences are presented in Chapter 3. Having recalled the laws governing stability of trajectories as quantiﬁed by numerous recent works. we have shown how they may be interpreted as expressions of phase wave resonance along closed or semi-closed trajectories. We believe that this is the ﬁrst physical explanation of the B OHR -S OMMERFELD orbital stability conditions. needs to be studied and extended. as we have shown. In Chapter 1. anticipates the problem of understanding quanta as a sort of parallel manifestation of corpuscles and waves. Returning. then. we introduced as a fundamental postulate the existence of a periodic phenomena allied with each parcel of energy with a proper mass given by the PlanckE INSTEIN relationship. in particlar the development of Dynamics and Optics. we recalled how the notion of the existence of quanta invades on a daily basis the attention of researchers in the XXth century. the idea that motion of a material point always hides propagation of a wave. we examined the possibility of representing a concentration of energy about certain singularities and we showed what profound harmony appears to exist between the opposing viewpoints of N EWTON and F RESNEL which are revealed by the identity of various forecasts.Summary and conclusions The rapid development of Physics since the XVIIth century. Difﬁculties arising from simultaneous motion of interacting charges were studied in Chapter 4. Indeed. it represents a truly beautiful and rational synthesis. following our ideas. in Chapter 2. Electrodynamics can not be 71 . we showed that. to this same question in the general case of a charged particle in variable motion under the inﬂuence of an electromagnetic ﬁeld. guided by preceeding results. Relativity theory revealed the need to associate uniform motion with propagation of a certain “phase wave” which we placed in a Minkowski space setting. which led us to propose that an extention of the quantum relation to the velocity of a phase wave in an electromagnetic ﬁeld. in particlar for the case of circular orbital motion of an electron and proton in an hydrogen atom. M AUPERTUIS ’ principle of least action and the principle of concordance of phase due to F ERMAT can be two aspects of the same law. In Chapter 5.

. I have forecast that the principles of the dynamics of material points. to be considered rather tentative as Physics and not an established doctrine. I have developed new ideas able perhaps to hasten the synthesis necessary to unify. but reformulation will be a very difﬁcult task for which we suggested a qualitative theory of interferences. therefore. and which accommodates discontinuous radiant energy and phase waves leaving the M AXWELL -L ORENTZ formulation as a statistical approximation well able to account accurately for a large number of phenomena. when one recognises the correct analysis. given a certain coherence of their motion. the two opposing. Finally. In Chapter 6 we reviewed various theories of scattering of X and γ-rays by a amorphous materials with emphasis on the theory of MM. as well as the notion of a photon. existence of photons as a tangible fact.72 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS maintained in its present form. a coherence also of utility in the study of energy ﬂuctuations. are doubtlessly expressible as phase concordance and I did my best to ﬁnd resolution of several mysteries in the theory of the quanta. First. as well as the black body law. physical domains of radiation. C OMPTON. must be found. Brieﬂy. which render. P. deliberately vague. In the course of this work I came upon several interesting conclusions giving hope that these ideas might in further development give conclusive results. M AXWELL’s Law for a photon gas. D EBYE and A. in Chapter 7 we introduced phase waves into Statistical Mechanics and in so doing recovered both the size of the elemental extention of phase space. based on two opposing conceptions: corpuscles and waves. a reformulation of electrodynamics. which is in accord with relativity of course. as determined by P LANCK .-H. The present theory is. it seems. from the start. I have left the deﬁnitions of phase waves and the periodic phenomena for which such waves are a realization. however.

Proceedings 1st Solvey Conference. Dresden. Atombau und Spectrallinien. (J. Flammarion. La Th´ orie des quanta de l’atome et les raies spectrals. Leipzig. Theorie der W¨ rmestrahlung. Steinkopff. ´ [2] P OINCAR E . Barth. “Atome und Electronen”. “La th/’eorie du rayonement et les quanta”. (Springer. Paris. Braunschweig. 1921-4th. Untersuchungen sur Strahlungstheorie. (Gauthier-Villars. E. Proceedings 3rd Solvay Conference... L.. a [5] B RILLOUIN . (Alcan. Berlin. city. ´ [8] L AND E . 1911 (submitted by P. 1924-4 ed.. e [3] BAUER . 1921.). DE B ROGLIE). 1921). e [6] R EICHE .).. 1923).Bibliography [1] P ERRIN .. Les Atoms. 1922). 1913). J. F. 1912. M. ed.-A. Derni` res pens/’ees. Proceedings. city. A. [7] S OMMERFELD . H. [4] P LANCK . 1913). Conf. Dissertation. A. (Vieweg & Sohn. 73 . (F. Die Quantentheorie. Fortschritte der Quantentheorie. L ONGEVIN and M.

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