CARVAKA- Materialistic Philosophy in Ancient India
Dr.V.K.Maheshwari Ph.D Former Principal DIMS,Meerut India Dr.Suraksha Bansal Ph.D Sr.Lecturer DIMS,Meerut India
Jabali, a learned Brahman and a Sophist skilled in word, Questioned Faith and Law and Duty, spake to young Ayodhya’s lord: “Wherefore, Rama, ideal maxims cloud thy heart and warp thy mind, Maxims who mislead the simple and the thoughtless human-kind... Ah, I weep for erring mortals, who, on erring duty bent, Sacrifice this dear enjoyment till their barren life is spent, Who to Gods and to the Fathers vainly still offering make. Waste of food! For neither God nor Father doth our pious homage take! And the food by one partaken, can it nourish other men? Food bestowed upon a Brahman, can it serve our Fathers then? Crafty priests have forged these maxims, and with selfish objects say, “Make thy gifts and do thy penance, leave thy worldly wealth, and pray!” There is no hereafter, Rama, vain the hope and creed of men; Seek the pleasures of the present, spurn illusions poor and vain.
It is a genral belief that the Western and Eastern minds work indifferent ways, that they see the world from different perspectives. Nevertheless, and as a generality, it can be said that Eastern philosophy,at least as it is represented by the traditions of India, is not so much amatter of abstract analysis as a way of life, a way of life which has at itsheart a deeply spiritual orientation: Hindu philosophy comprises the same areas of rational enquirythat have pre-occupied the philosophers of the West since thetime of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle – namely ontology , epistemology logic, and ethics. Various societies at different times have dazzled with their bursts of creative and intellectual energy. Historians have a penchant for dubbing them Golden Ages. Examples include the Athens of Herodotus, the Baghdad of Haroun al-Rashid, and the India of the Buddha. But though India has long been famous for its "ancient wisdom",
is one of the earliest materialistic schools of Indian philosophy. Predating even the Buddhists. Carvaka is classified as a "heterodox" (nastika) system. acquisitive and wild thought. reducing the power of uptight Brahmins It comes as a surprise to many that in ancient "spiritual" India.in parts of the Indo-Gangetic plain of north India. The 8th century philosophers Kamalasila and Haribhadra had also used the same term. It is also known as `Lokayata` because it admits the existence of this world (loka) alone. atheistic
materialism was a major force to reckon with. It is a system of Indian philosophy that adopted numerous forms of philosophical agnosticism and religious impassivity. Carvaka. In the outlines of Indian philosophy. new trades and lifestyles were emerging. because they act like ordinary people. While this branch of Indian philosophy is not considered to be part of the six orthodox schools of Hinduism. the philosopher Purandara had used the term `Charvaka` for the first time. The name `Lokayata` can be found in Kautilya`s Arthasastra" that refers to the three `anviksikis` or logical philosophies .the few historical sources refers that around 600-500 BCE. In 7th century. as is stated in the"Rig Veda" Named after its founder. people were asking some very bold and original questions: What is the nature of thought and perception? What is the source of consciousness? Are virtue and vice absolute or mere social conventions? Old traditions were under attack. Materialist philosophers who are referred to as Charvakas are also known as Lokayatas or Laukayatikas. (also known as Charu or Brhaspati) author of the Barhaspatya-sutras. it is a remarkable testimony of the materialistic movement within
. The branch is also known as Lokayata philosophy. the Charvaka Philosophy is an atheistic. Carvaka Philosophy is a fanatical effort made to rid the age of the weight of the past that was oppressing it. the same classification as is given to Buddhism and Jainism. and Lokayata. and urban life was in a churn. This very term was restricted to the school of the `Lokyatikas`. named after one Carvaka..
500 BC came to mean "scepticism" in general without yet being organized as a philosophical school.regard only that which is an object of perception. in fact. mentioning "the old Charvaka or materialist of the 6th century BC". while some claim earlier references to such positions. this undermines the widespread belief in the West that Indian philosophy is primarily religious and mystical. was attached to the position in order to disparage it. traces its origins to 600 BCE. Saddaniti and Buddhaghosa in the 5th century connect the "Lokayatas" with the Vitandas (sophists). always uses LokÄyata. etymological meaning of the word Charvaka is 'a person who is clever in speech and is extremely fond of wrangling W. Carvaka. The name Carvaka is first used in the 7th century by the philosopher Purandara.[ It was a hedonistic school of thought. and cast behind your back whatever is beyond the reach of your senses. in his The Ethics of India assumes that Charvaka philosophy is co-eval with Buddhism. that there is a larger volume of
. Rhys Davids assumes that lokayata in ca. Dharmakirti. not Charvaka.carvaka is a system of Indian philosophy that assumes various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious indifferencei It is characterized as a materialistic and atheistic school of thought. an atheistic school of Indian philosophy.Hinduism Carvaka. The earliest positive statement of skepticism is preserved from the epic period. like similar philosophy in that this is a rationalistic and skeptical philosophy. Charvaka. This text has not survived and. on the other hand. . and that the name of a villain of the Mahabharata. a 7th century philosopher was deeply influenced by carvaka philosophy. who refers to his fellow materialists as "the Charvaka. was set out in the Brhaspati Sutra in India probably about 600 BCE. advocating that there is no afterlife. The system of philosophy named after its founder. and it is used by the 8th century philosophers Kamalaala and Haribhadra. Shankara. Hopkins. Amartya Sen has argued.Only from about the 6th century is the term restricted to the school of the LokyÄtikas. in the Ramayana".
the Incas and Mayans and all other ancient civilizations did. a Vaishnavite (Hindhu) scholar. the Indian records have not yet come to light. and the concept of an afterlife were being increasingly questioned. liable to easy distortion. or Arabic. and a skepticism that included rejection of inferential logic. and occasional references are found in the Vedas. However.One of the best sources for Charvakas atheistic argument happens to be a book. rejection of the Vedas (nastika). Latin.. He adds that this applies also to Buddhism. Specifically. naturalism (all phenomena described in terms of the properties of the four elements). both in India and elsewhere. the Buddhistic literature. perhaps due to the predominance of oral tradition in India. More probably. the only agnostic world religion ever to emerge. Its principal works are known only from fragments cited by its materialistic. the constitution of the world.t he school of Carvaka contained within itself a materialism that ruled out the supernatural (lokayata). NO original text of the Carvaka school of philosophy has been preserved. Hebrew. termed Aanvikshiki. written in the Fourteenth Century by Madhavacarya. as per records left to posterity in the form of astrological writings (Chinese) and cave paintings (Incas and Mayans). which the Chinese. the Epics. atheistic sutras
.atheistic and agnostic writings in Pali and Sanskrit than in any other classical traditionâ€”Greek. Our knowledge of Indian materialism is chiefly based on these Available evidence suggests that Carvaka philosophy The Carvaka scholars carried on research. Charvakas philosophy developed at a time when religious dogma concerning our knowledge of reality. Though materialism in some form or other has always been present in India. or induction. as well as in the later philosophical works we do not find any systematic work on materialism. Sarvadarshansamgraha (the collection of all philosophies). nor any organised school of followers as the other hilosophical schools possess.whereevery branch of knowledge and developed it elaborately. It is possible that they also observed and kept records of the historical supernovae. any records have been destroyed by the Carvakas' opponents.
.. and freedom of thought in the highest esteembut how can we attribute to the Divine Being the giving of supreme felicity. his/her consciousness goes away and one cannot prove that it vanishes and exists somewhere else. Some Carvaka thinkers are said to have participated in this symposium Abu al-Fazl ibn Mubarak also known as Abul-Fazl.
. A symposium of philosophers of all faiths held in 1578 at Akbar's insistence. the follower of the doctrine of Brihaspati? The efforts of Charvaka are indeed hard to be eradicated. Dale Riepe says. Therefore. they turn into wine. The Carvakas state that consciousness is not due to the atman. CARVAKA METAPHYSICS Carvakas cultivated a philosophy wherein theology and what they called "speculative metaphysics . The property of being wine is a new quality which yeast and juices obtain when blended. and welfare schemes that were emphasised by the Carvaka lawmakers. One does not and cannot perceive the atman. the official history of Akbars reign. when such a notion has been utterly abolished by Charvaka. when yeast is blended with certain juices. because inference is not a valid source of knowledge. Abul Fadl and Abul-Fadl Allami: the vizier of the great Mughal emperor Akbar.According to the Carvakas. judicious administration. When a man dies. For example. consistency. and one cannot establish its existence with the help of inference.Under the heading "Nastika. Somadeva has also mentioned the Carvaka method of defeating the enemies of the nation. "It may be said from the available material that Carvakas hold truth.. there is no such thing as the atman." Abul Fazl has referred to the good work. Consciousness thus is an emergent quality of the physical parts coming together in specific proportions. It can keep back the consciousness so long as the physical parts are healthy and stay together in a certain form. the crest-gem of the atheistic school. according to Carvakas metaphysics.were the foundational text of the Carvaka school of materialist (nastika) philosophy. Being conscious is a peculiar quality of the living human body. and author of the Akbarnama. integrity. .
If the `I` is not different from the body. `I have a handsome body. they could not accept the reality of anything that could not be perceived with the senses. We cannot. Nothing but matter is real. The body together with its consciousness is the atman and consciousness in its experiencing function is the mind. as the Mimamsa believes. created by the false impression that the `I` is different from the body. It is due to the movement of air not of ether. nose. touch. colour. The world is the material world only. the invisible atoms of the Naiyayikas. But we cannot generalize on this process and establish a law that. It is their nature to come together and to have those qualities. life and consciousness will emerge. According to the Carvakas. The Carvakas metaphysics speak of the mind (manas). a tall body` and so on. and sound. and also corresponding to the five sense organs. Therefore the atman or self-awareness is only the physical body with a new emerging quality. air. fire. which is different from the atman. which are not. eye. which of course is not separate from the body. and ether are the usual five elements corresponding to the qualities smell. Earth. It was thought that the cause of sound in the ear was the all-pervading ether. But the Carvakas appear to think of mind as the consciousness in its knowing function. The first four elements are perceivable. taste.life also is only a new configuration of matter. But one always says that. therefore say that
. They consist of tiny particles.
There is no external cause for the four elements coming together and obtaining the qualities of life and consciousness. and ear. So the Carvakas deny the reality of ether. whenever these four elements come together in certain ratio. But the Carvakas say that sound is caused by air touching the ear. however. touch. Mind knows the external world through the senses. The particles accepted by the Carvakas are visible particles. The elements may change their nature any time. how can it say: `I have such and such a body`? To this the Carvakas answer by saying that the use of `have` in these expressions is only conventional. it does not consist of five elements. tongue. The other four elements constitute the world. water. but not ether.
Nothing but matter is real. It has no existence apart from the body. then it develops according to its own particular nature. they turn into wine. Consciousness thus is an emergent quality of the physical parts coming together in specific proportions. according to the Carvakas. fire.Nature contains some eternal laws. For example. dust to dust: According to the Carvakas. his/her consciousness goes away and one cannot prove that it vanishes and exists somewhere else. water. One may conclude that. life also is only a new configuration of matter.
. the soul is only the body qualified by intelligence. how can it say: `I have such and such a body`? To this the Carvakas answer by saying that the use of `have` in these expressions is only conventional. Being conscious is a peculiar quality of the living human body. a tall body` and so on. The property of being wine is a new quality which yeast and juices obtain when blended. `I have a handsome body. and air are the only original components of being.Ajita Keshakambalin. ashes to ashes. Every event is a chance. When a man dies. created by the false impression that the `I` is different from the body. when yeast is blended with certain juices. Therefore the atman or selfawareness is only the physical body with a new emerging quality. a prominent Carvakas and contemporary of the Buddha. proclaimed that humans literally go from earth to earth. all other forms are products of their composition. But one always says that. the existence of everything is a chance. It can keep back the onsciousness so long as the physical parts are healthy and stay together in a certain form. and that there are no laws of nature. and if it develops into something. Carvakas defended a complete reductive materialism according to which the four elements of earth. Consciousness arises from the material structure of the body and characterizes the body itself—rather than a soul—and perishes with the body. according to Carvaka metaphysics. but every object has its own nature. Therefore. If the `I` is not different from the body. only this world exists Carvaka metaphysics states that nothing that is not perceived with the senses or consciousness is real and existing". The Carvakas state that consciousness is not due to the atman.
Therefore the soul is only the body distinguished by the attribute of intelligence. since there is no evidence for any self distinct from the body. water and air are the original principles. They
. It has no existence apart from the body.All anti-Vedic schools and even some Vedic schools such as Samkhya and Mimamsa. the soul is only the body qualified by intelligence. sometimes destroys. However one cannot generalise on this process and establish a law that. fire. has elaborated on the theory of materialist philosophers who believed only in the present existing world.According to the Carvakas. Therefore the existence of such a separate self cannot be proved." "Madhavacharya. when transformed into the body. The atheists put forward excellent rejoinders. intelligence at once perishes also. But the Carvakas appear to think of mind as the consciousness in its knowing function. which of course is not separate from the body. earth. In this school the four elements. which is different from the atman. One cannot. . therefore say that Nature comprises some eternal laws. The existence of god was a standard topic for rational debate. intelligence is produced”just as the intoxicating power of some herbs is developed from the mixing of certain ingredients. whenever these four elements come together in certain ratio. life and consciousness will emerge.The Carvaka metaphysics speak of the mind (manas). When the body is destroyed. The elements may alter their nature any time. The world is the material world only. It is their inherent quality to come together and to have those qualities. set forth five ways of proving the existence of god. From these alone. Mind knows the external world through the senses. were atheistic. The body together with its consciousness is the atman and consciousness in its experiencing function is the mind. in his works. Carvaka metaphysics are of the faith that there is no external cause for the four elements coming together and obtaining the qualities of life and consciousness. In the 11th century Udayana. only this world exists . even God needs a maker because he sometimes creates. like the following: "If the universe requires a maker because it undergoes change.
no hell. According to them. even the minor gods also do not exist. No one has ever seen God and no one can see him in future. has elaborated on the theory of materialist philosophers who believed only in the present existing world. and to awe people into submission by saying that God would punish them if they did not abide by the Vedas. And hell is the pain one experiences in this world itself "Madhavacharya. the Carvakas accepted
. against the poor and deprived sections of society?" Accepting only perception as the valid source of knowledge. And the science (shastra) of the laws of state is the only science worth studying. in the Carvaka way of life. There is no heaven. What is meant by heaven is the pleasure one has in eating. According to them. making merry and singing. in his works. no God. then why is there so much injustice on the earth. drinking. who invented them to make a living out of them by refereeing at sacrifices. against the poor and deprived sections of society? CARVAKA EPISTOMOLOGY Of the three important sources of knowledge accepted in common by all the orthodox schools (perception. In fact. the Carvakas disapproved the reality of God. They did not believe in the theory of divine creation of the universe by a supernatural power. then why is it that a majority of the human population is in the throes of misery and suffering? If there is a just God above us. then why is it that a majority of the human population is in the throes of misery and suffering? If there is a just God above us. if there is a benevolent God supervising humanity. if there is a benevolent God supervising humanity. They and the Vedas belong to the imagination of guileful priests. inference. The only laws binding men are the laws of the state. and there are no objective ethical laws. then why is there so much injustice on the earth. obedience to which brings rewards and disobedience of which fetches punishment.did not believe in the theory of divine creation of the universe by a supernatural power. and verbal testimony).
viz. because they used the very laws
. For example: Wherever there is smoke. but they did not discuss the implications of this question and maintained on the whole a realistic position. This is the classical example of inference in Indian epistemology. The Carvakas at first seem not to have been aware of the difficulties in accepting perception as a valid source of knowledge. But are not causal statements like 'Fire causes the bodies to expand' true? And they are universal propositions like the major premise.only perception as the valid source of knowledge and rejected both inference and verbal testimony. the mountain also.There is fire in the mountain (Conclusion}. Whatever we know through perception is true and real. there are no causal laws. because the major premise of an inference cannot be proved. there is fire (Major premise). the Carvakas anticipated the European skeptics. (2) Then what is the use of making an inference when we have already perceived that there is fire in the mountains? So the Carvakas say that inference is either impossible or unnecessary. we must have seen the present case. Even this nature is not a universal law. However. They said that inference was not a valid source of knowledge. it too may change. Every event is a chance everything comes into existence and passes out of it according to its own nature. in their examination of inference. how can we logically be justified in using the word 'wherever'? If we have seen all the instances. It is interesting to note that. In fact. Inference cannot yield truth. it is only an accident. If we are able to apply causal laws and find them to be true. which were pointed out later by the Buddhist and Vedanta dialecticians. This mountain has smoke (Minor premise) . The Carvakas say that these causal laws also cannot be true. The Carvakas ask: (i) How can we formulate the major premise unless we have seen all the instances of smoke? If we have not seen all the instances. i t should also be noted that they did not deny the formal validity of inference. The later Carvakas showed that they knew of the difficulties.
but they did not say that.On verbal testimony the Carvakas make a strong attack. but only wanted to show that it was utterly useless for obtaining any new truth about the world. But are not the Vedas reliable? .of inference to show that one cannot obtain material truths about the world through inference. 'At one place they enjoin on us not to commit any injury. inference was wrong. The Vedas are not reliable at all. They did not criticise the structure of the syllogism. through the established meanings of the four words. But they never stated that. verbal testimony is not a reliable source of knowledge. I infer that the object before the mind of my friend is an orange and that it is red. they used the law of contradiction in disproving the doctrines of their rivals. And how can I be sure of the reliability of my friend? For either reason. but at another place they ask us to sacrifice animals to gods. They accept the reality of whatever we can perceive with our senses and deny the reality of whatever we cannot so perceive. even if one had the major premise. But it has already been pointed out that inference is a risky source of knowledge. because they used the very laws of inference to show that we could not obtain material truths about the world through inference. because they are self-contradictory. inference was wrong. The validity of inferential knowledge was challenged on the ground that all inference requires a universal major premise ("All that possesses smoke possesses
. In fact. even if we had the major premise. They questioned only how we could obtain the major premise. but a fairly thoroughgoing positivism. Verbal knowledge is only knowledge of words and their meanings based upon inference. They did not criticize the structure of the syllogism.' Now. In fact. the Carvakas make their strongest attack on them. My friend says: 'The orange is red. They questioned only on the premises regarding how one can obtain the major premise. They did not deny the formal validity of inference. they used the law of contradiction in refuting the doctrines of their rivals.' How can one believe that the killing of animals in sacrifices brings one merit? Carvakas theory of knowledge is not exactly skepticism or agnosticism. but only wanted to prove that it was absolutely useless for obtaining any new truth about the world.
Verbal knowledge is only knowledge of words and their meanings are based upon inference. it too is subject to change." do not exist. The Carvaka theory of knowledge is not exactly scepticism or agnosticism." "soul. If it is said that its timelessness can be proved by inference. But it has already been pointed out that inference is a dicey source of knowledge. everything comes into existence and passes out of it according to its own nature." and there is no means of knowing that such a vitiating factor does not exist. They accept the reality of whatever one can perceive with one`s senses and refute the reality of whatever one cannot perceive.Since inference is not a means of valid knowledge. The Carvakas sought to establish their materialism on an epistemological basis and their thought resembles that of British empiricist and skeptic David Hume. No amount of finite observations could possibly yield the required universal premise. But how can we believe that the word-sounds are eternal? There is no sound. because they are self-contradictory. verbal testimony is not a reliable source of knowledge. observer is an orange and that it is red. The sound is eternal. it has already been established that inference is not reliable. . The Carvakas believed sense perception alone as a means of valid knowledge. but a fairly thoroughgoing positivism. The Vedas are not reliable at all. To say that such entities exist is
. . For either reason. And perception does not show that the word-sound can be eternal. that is. Even this nature is not a universal law. all supersensible things like "destiny. And perception does not show that the word-sound can be eternal. The Carvakas make a strong attack on verbal testimony. when no one utters it.fire") whereas there is no means of arriving at a certainty about such a proposition. the words of the Vedas and their meanings eternally exist. The Carvakas perhaps make their strongest attack on the authenticity of the Vedas. Carvaka theory of knowledge speak that there is no existence of causal laws. And it stays only when produced by the vocal organs... The supposed "invariable connection" may be vitiated by some unknown "condition. as well as of logical positivists." or "afterlife. Every event is a chance.
air and fire. indivisible units which were conceived as immutable. A person lives. They saw the scriptures as characterized by three faults: falsity. From these alone. this combination disintegrated into elements that then combined with corresponding types of atoms in inanimate nature. fire. Likewise. water and air are the original principles. In this school the four elements. vaayu (wind or movement). Of the five fundamental elements. self-contradiction. The properties of any given object were determined by the atoms that comprised it. the same person dies: that is a perceived. consciousness and the senses were the result of a particular combination of atoms and the proportions in which they were combined.regarded as absurd. and aakaasha (aether or emptiness). indestructible and having existed for all time. earth.
. considers the composers of the Vedic texts a group of confidence-tricksters. the disciple of Brihaspati. On the basis of such a theory of knowledge. The Carvakas defended a complete reductive materialism according to which the four elements of earth. Agni (fire or fieriness or brightness). knowledge based on verbal testimony is inferential and so vitiated by all the defects of inference. for no unverifiable assertion of existence is meaningfull"The Carvakas did not deny the difference between the dead and the living and recognized both as realities. when transformed into the body. jal (water or liquidity). fire. intelligence is produced—just as the intoxicating power of some herbs is developed from the mixing of certain ingredients. the Panchamahaabhutas. and tautology. First. water. the Carvakas recognized the validity of only the first four and thought that a combination of these four elements produced a certain vitality called life. in turn. were said to be composed of atoms. fact. After the death of an organism. water. Prithvi (earth or solidity). and hence the only provable. and air are the only original components of being. These elements. The Carvaka denied the authority of all scripture s Dhishan. all other forms are products of their composition The Lokayata doctrine conceived of the universe as being formed of the four elements: earth. the Carvakas found themselves at odds with all the other religions of the time. In this regard. In some texts. When the body is destroyed. a fifth element (the ether) is added.
where his bones turn
. Consciousness is a product of the material structure of the body and characterizes the body itself”rather than a soul”and perishes with the body. This early Indian materialism.This shows the . because this school holds that perception is the only source of knowledge and does not allow inference as an alternative source. Like is known to like. The sense-organs can only apprehend objects because they themselves are composed of the same elements. with the earth as the primordial source of all development. Some of the texts describe how certain elements originate from others. distinct from the body.intelligence at once perishes also. Of the recognised means of knowledge (pramana). in some ways it anticipated the modern theory of evolution. and air to air. "man is formed of the four elements." Brihaspati is supposed to have said. "Seeing is the source of all evidence. fire to fire. while his senses vanish into space. In the field of epistemology (the theory of knowledge) the doctrine of Lokayata is sensory. contains the germs of a profound idea and represents a brilliant anticipation of modern atomic science in the same way as the philosophy of Democritus. When he dies. Therefore it denied the possibility of any indirect knowledge. that is to say. Inference and conclusion were regarded as false instruments of cognition. Leukippus and Epicurus in ancient Greece. They quote the Vedic text for this: Springing forth from these elements itself solid knowledge is destroyed when they are destroyed— after death no intelligence remains. Moreover. it states that all human knowledge is derived from the senses (sense-perception). Four men with the bier take up the corpse: they gossip as far as the burning-ground. water to water. Therefore the soul is only the body distinguished by the attribute of intelligence. the Carvaka recognised only direct perception (anubhava). since there is no evidence for any self. earth returns to the aggregate of earth. for its incompleteness and native elements. Therefore the existence of such a separate self cannot be proved.
and welfare schemes that were emphasized by the Carvaka lawmakers. Refrancees and Bibliography Aaine-Akbari. Rejection of the soul as separate from the body led the Carvakas to confine their thinking to this world only. "Contents". They are fools who preach almsgiving." Abul Fazl has referred to the good work.
. and those who maintain the existence [of immaterial categories] speak vain and lying nonsense. the name literally means "speaking nicely". Abul Fadl and Abul-Fadl Allami: the vizier of the great Mughal emperor Akbar. Flood. mentions a symposium of philosophers of all faiths held in 1578 at Akbar's insistence.plava-simha "The Lion that Devours All Categories"/"The Upsetting of All Principles"). .p. Sanghavi and Parikh). written by Abul Fazl. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.the color of a dove's wing and his sacrifices end in ashes. restricted it to this life and this world and admitted exceptions to that rule. The manuscript of this work was discovered in 1926 and published in 1940 (eds. and author of the Akbarnama. Madhavacharya. Under the heading "Nastika. 770-830 by Franco 1994). Moore. When the body dies both fool and wise alike are cut off and perish. An Introduction to Hinduism. 224. They accepted the "like causes like result" (Karmavipaaka) rule. They do not survive after death. A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. the official history of Akbars reigns. author of the Tattvopaplavasimha (tattva-upa. This does not mean that they denied the cause-effect relationship. the 14th-century Vedantic philosopher from South India starts his famous work The Sarva-darsana-sangraha with a chapter on the Carvaka system with the intention of refutation Monier-Williams (1899). Gavin (1996). . Abu al-Fazl ibn Mubarak also known as Abul-Fazl. the famous historian of Akbar's court. judicious administration. Jayarāśi Bhaṭṭa was an 8th or 9th century Indian philosopher (dated to ca. Some Carvaka thinkers are said to have participated in this symposium. Somadeva has also mentioned the Carvaka method of defeating the enemies of the nation. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. from cāru "agreeable" and vāk "speech" Radhakrishnan and Moore.
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