# Seismic Design Manual

Volume I Code Application Examples

Copyright

Copyright © 1999 Structural Engineers Association of California. All rights reserved. This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the Structural Engineers Association of California.

Publishe

Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) 555 University Avenue, Suite 126 Sacramento, California 95825-6510 Telephone: (916) 427-3647; Fax: (916) 568-0677 E-mail: seaoc@aol.com; Web address: www.seaint.org The Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) is a professional association of four regional member organizations (Central California, Northern California, San Diego, and Southern California). SEAOC represents the structural engineering community in California. This document is published in keeping with SEAOC’s stated mission: “to advance the structural engineering profession; to provide the public with structures of dependable performance through the application of state-of-the-art structural engineering principles; to assist the public in obtaining professional structural engineering services; to promote natural hazard mitigation; to provide continuing education and encourage research; to provide structural engineers with the most current information and tools to improve their practice; and to maintain the honor and dignity of the profession.”

Editor

Gail Hynes Shea, Albany, California, shea@slip.net

Disclaime

Practice documents produced by the Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) and/or its member organizations are published as part of our association’s educational program. While the information presented in this document is believed to be correct, neither SEAOC nor its member organizations, committees, writers, editors, or individuals who have contributed to this publication make any warranty, expressed or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the use, application of, and/or reference to opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations included in this publication. The material presented in this publication should not be used for any specific application without competent examination and verification of its accuracy, suitability, and applicability by qualified professionals. Users of information from this publication assume all liability arising from such use.

Table of Contents

Preface .......................................................................... ................................... v Acknowledgments..................................................................... ..................................vi Introduction .......................................................................... ................................... 1 Notation .......................................................................... ................................... 3 Example 1 Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design ............................................... §1612.2...................... 7 Example 2 Combinations of Loads .................................... §1612.3.................... 12 Example 3 Seismic Zone 4 Near-Source Factor ................ §1629.4.2................. 17 Introduction to Vertical Irregularities ....................................... §1629.5.3................. 20 Example 4 Vertical Irregularity Type 1 ............................. §1629.5.3................. 21 Example 5 Vertical Irregularity Type 2 ............................. §1629.5.3................. 24 Example 6 Vertical Irregularity Type 3 ............................. §1629.5.3................. 26 Example 7 Vertical Irregularity Type 4 ............................. §1629.5.3................. 28 Example 8 Vertical Irregularity Type 5 ............................. §1629.5.3................. 30 Example 9 Vertical Irregularity Type 5 ............................. §1629.5.3................. 32 Introduction to Plan Irregularities ............................................. §1629.5.3................. 36 Example 10 Plan Irregularity Type 1 ................................... §1629.5.3................. 37 Example 11 Plan Irregularity Type 2 ................................... §1629.5.3................. 41 Example 12 Plan Irregularity Type 3 ................................... §1629.5.3................. 43 Example 13 Plan Irregularity Type 4 ................................... §1629.5.3................. 45 Example 14 Plan Irregularity Type 5 ................................... §1629.5.3................. 46 Example 15 Reliability/Redundancy Factor ρ ..................... §1630.1.1................. 47 Example 16 Reliability/Redundancy Factor Applications... §1630.1.1................. 52 Example 17 P∆ Effects......................................................... §1630.1.3................. 56 Example 18 Design Base Shear ........................................... §1630.2.1................. 59 Example 19 Structure Period Using Method A.................... §1630.2.2................. 61 Example 20 Simplified Design Base Shear.......................... §1630.2.3................. 65 Example 21 Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical... §1630.4.2................. 68 Example 22 Combination of Structural Systems: Along Different Axes....................................... §1630.4.3................. 71 Example 23 Combination of Structural Systems: Along the Same Axis ....................................... §1630.4.4................. 73 Example 24 Vertical Distribution of Force .......................... §1630.5.................... 74 Example 25 Horizontal Distribution of Shear...................... §1630.6.................... 76 Example 26 Horizontal Torsional Moments ........................ §1630.7.................... 81

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

Table of Contents

**Table of Contents (continued)
**

Example 27 Example 28 Example 29 Example 30 Example 31 Example 32 Example 33 Example 34 Example 35 Example 36 Example 37 Example 38 Example 39 Example 40 Example 41 Example 42 Example 43 Example 44 Example 45 Example 46 Example 47 Example 48 Example 49 Example 50 Example 51 Example 52 Example 53 Example 54 Example 55 Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems.. §1630.8.2.................85 Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems.. §1630.8.2.................88 At Foundation................................................... §1630.8.3.................90 Drift .................................................................. §1630.9....................96 Story Drift Limitations ..................................... §1630.10..................98 Vertical Component ......................................... §1630.11................100 Design Response Spectrum .............................. §1631.2..................101 Dual Systems.................................................... §1631.5.7...............104 Lateral Forces for One-Story Wall Panels........ §1632.2..................107 Lateral Forces for Two-Story Wall Panel ........ §1632.2..................111 Rigid Equipment............................................... §1632.2..................116 Flexible Equipment .......................................... §1632.2..................118 Relative Motion of Equipment Attachments.... §1632.4..................121 Deformation Compatibility .............................. §1633.2.4...............123 Adjoining Rigid Elements................................ §1633.2.4.1............126 Exterior Elements: Wall Panel ......................... §1633.2.4.2............128 Exterior Elements: Precast Panel...................... §1633.2.4.2............131 Beam Horizontal Tie Force .............................. §1633.2.5...............138 Collector Elements ........................................... §1633.2.6...............139 Out-of-Plane Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragm.......................................... §1633.2.8.1............142 Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms......... §1633.2.8.1............145 Determination of Diaphragm Force Fpx: Lowrise............................................................. §1633.2.9...............147 Determination of Diaphragm Force Fpx: Highrise ............................................................ §1633.2.9...............150 Building Separations ........................................ §1633.2.11.............152 Flexible Nonbuilding Structure........................ §1634.2..................154 Lateral Force on Nonbuilding Structure........... §1634.2..................157 Rigid Nonbuilding Structure ............................ §1634.3..................159 Tank With Supported Bottom .......................... §1634.4..................160 Pile Interconnections........................................ §1807.2..................161

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

Preface

This document is the initial volume in the three-volume SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. It has been developed by the Structural Engineers Association of Californi (SEAOC) with funding provided by SEAOC. Its purpose is to provide guidance on the interpretation and use of the seismic requirements in the 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC), published by the International Conference of Building Official (ICBO), and SEAOC’s 1999 Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary (also called the Blue Book). The Seismic Design Manual was developed to fill a void that exists between the Commentary of the Blue Book, which explains the basis for the UBC seismic provisions, and everyday structural engineering design practice. The Seismic Design Manual illustrates how the provisions of the code are used. Volume I: Code Application Examples, provides step-by-step examples of how to use individual code provisions, such as how to compute base shear or building period. Volumes II and III: Building Design Examples, furnish examples of the seismic design of common types of buildings. In Volumes II and III, important aspects of whole buildings are designed to show, calculation-by-calculation, how the various seismic requirements of the code are implemented in a realistic design. SEAOC intends to update the Seismic Design Manual with each edition of the building code used in California.

Ronald P. Gallagher Project Manager

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

Acknowledgements

Authors

The Seismic Design Manual was written by a group of highly qualified structural engineers. These individuals are both California registered structural engineers and SEAOC members. They were selected by a Steering Committee set up by the SEAOC Board of Directors and were chosen for their knowledge and experience with structural engineering practice and seismic design. The Consultants for Volumes I, II and III are Ronald P. Gallagher, Project Manager David A. Hutchinson Jon P. Kiland John W. Lawson Joseph R. Maffei Douglas S. Thompson Theodore C. Zsutty Volume I was written principally by Theodore C. Zsutty and Ronald P. Gallagher. Many useful ideas and helpful suggestions were offered by the other Consultants. Consultant work on Volumes II and III is currently underway.

Steering Committee

Overseeing the development of the Seismic Design Manual and the work of the Consultants was the Project Steering Committee. The Steering Committee was made up of senior members of SEAOC who are both practicing structural engineers and have been active in Association leadership. Members of the Steering Committee attended meetings and took an active role in shaping and reviewing the document. The Steering Committee consisted of John G. Shipp, Chair Robert N. Chittenden Stephen K. Harris Maryann T. Phipps Scott A. Stedman

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

Acknowledgments

Reviewers

A number of SEAOC members and other structural engineers helped check the examples in this volume. During its development, drafts of the examples were sent to these individuals. Their help was sought in both review of code interpretations as well as detailed checking of the numerical computations. The assistance of the following individuals is gratefully acknowledged Saeed R. Amirazizi Jefferson W. Asher Brent Berensen Donald A. Cushing Vincent DeVita Richard M. Drake Todd W. Erickson Daniel Fisher Kenneth Gebhar Edward R. Haninger Thomas Hunt Mark S. Jokerst Isao M. Kawasaki John W. Lawson Ronald Lugue Robert Lyons Peter Maranian Brian McDonal Rory M. McGruer Brian Montes Manuel Morden Farzad Naeim David A. Napoleon Josh Plummer Mehran Pourzanjani Ian Robertson John G. Shipp Donald R. Strand

Seismology Committee

Close collaboration with the SEAOC Seismology Committee was maintained during the development of the document. The 1997-1998 and 1998-1999 Committees reviewed the document and provided many helpful comments and suggestions. Their assistance is gratefully acknowledged.

1998-1999 1997-1998

Saif M. Hussain, Chair Tom H. Hale, Past Chair Robert N. Chittenden Stephen K. Harris Douglas Hohbach Y. Henry Huang Saiful Islam Martin W. Johnson Jaiteerth B. Kinha Eric T. Lehmkuhl Simin Naaseh Hassan Sassi, Assistant to the Chair

Tom H. Hale, Chair Ali M. Sadre, Past Chair Robert N. Chittenden Stephen K. Harris Saif M. Hussain Saiful Islam Martin W. Johnson Eric T. Lehmkuhl Roumen V. Mladjov Simin Naaseh Carl B. Schulze Chris V. Tokas Joyce Copelan, Assistant to the Chair

**Production and Art
**

Special thanks are due Lenore Henry of R.P. Gallagher Associates, Inc. who input the entire text from handwritten copy, did all the subsequent word processing, drew al the figures, and formatted the entire document. Without her expertise, this project would never have come to fruition.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

Suggestions for Improvement

**Suggestions for Improvement
**

In keeping with two of its Mission Statements: (1) “to advance the structura engineering profession” and (2) “to provide structural engineers with the most current information and tools to improve their practice”, SEAOC plans to update this document as seismic requirements change and new research and better understanding of building performance in earthquakes becomes available. Comments and suggestions for improvements are welcome and should be sent to the following: Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) Attention: Executive Director 555 University Avenue, Suite 126 Sacramento, California 95825-6510 Telephone: (916) 427-3647; Fax: (916) 568-0677 E-mail: seaoc@aol.com; Web address: www.seaint.org

Errata Notification

SEAOC has made a substantial effort to ensure that the information in this document is accurate. In the event that corrections or clarifications are needed, these will be posted on the SEAOC web site at http://www.seaint.org or on the ICBO website at http://ww.icbo.org. SEAOC, at its sole discretion, may or may not issue written errata.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

**Seismic Design Manual
**

Volume I Code Application Examples

Introduction

Volume I of the SEAOC Seismic Design Manual: Code Application Examples deals with interpretation and use of the seismic provisions of the 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC). The Seismic Design Manual is intended to help the reader understand and correctly use the UBC seismic provisions and to provide clear, concise, and graphic guidance on the application of specific provisions of the code. It primaril addresses the major seismic provisions of Chapter 16 of the UBC, with interpretation of specific provisions and examples highlighting their proper application. Volume I presents 55 examples that illustrate the application of specific seismic provisions of the UBC. Each example is a separate problem, or group of problems, and deals primarily with a single code provision. Each example begins with a description of the problem to be solved and a statement of given information. The problem is solved through the normal sequence of steps, each of which are illustrated in full. Appropriate code references for each step are identified in the right-hand margin of the page. The complete Seismic Design Manual will have three volumes. Volumes II and III will provide a series of seismic design examples for buildings illustrating the seismic design of key parts of common building types such as a large three-story wood frame building, a tilt-up warehouse, a braced steel frame building, and a concrete shear wal building. While the Seismic Design Manual is based on the 1997 UBC, there are some provision of SEAOC’s 1999 Recommended Lateral Force Provisions and Commentary (Blue Book) that are applicable. When differences between the UBC and Blue Book are significant, these are brought to the attention of the reader. The Seismic Design Manual is applicable in regions of moderate and high seismicity (e.g., Zones 3 and 4), including California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. It is intended for use by practicing structural engineers and structural designers, building departments, other plan review agencies, and structural engineering students.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

How to Use This Document

The various code application examples of Volume I are organized in numerical order by 1997 UBC section number. To find an example for a particular provision of the code, look at the upper, outer corner of each page, or in the table of contents. Generally, the UBC notation is used throughout. Some other notation is also defined in the following pages, or in the examples. Reference to UBC sections and formulas is abbreviated. For example, “1997 UBC Section 1630.2.2” is given as §1630.2.2 with 1997 UBC being understood. “Formula (32-2)” is designated Equation (32-2) or just (32-2) in the right-hand margins. Throughout the document, reference to specific code provisions and equations (the UBC calls the latter formulas) is given in the right-hand margin under the category Code Reference. Similarly, the phrase “Table 16-O” is understood to be 1997 UBC Table 16-O. Generally, the examples are presented in the following format. First, there is a statement of the example to be solved, including given information, diagrams, and sketches. This is followed by the “Calculations and Discussion” section, which provides the solution to the example and appropriate discussion to assist the reader. Finally, many of the examples have a third section designated “Commentary.” In this latter section, comments and discussion on the example and related material are made. Commentary is intended to provide a better understanding of the example and/or to offer guidance to the reader on use of the information generated in the example. In general, the Volume I examples focus entirely on use of specific provisions of the code. No design is illustrated. Design examples are given in Volumes II and III. The Seismic Design Manual is based on the 1997 UBC, unless otherwise indicated. Occasionally, reference is made to other codes and standards (e.g., ACI 318-95 or 1997 NDS). When this is done, these documents are clearly identified.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

Notation

The following notations are used in this document. These are generally consistent with that used in the UBC. However, some additional notations have also been added. AB = ground floor area of structure in square feet to include area covered by all overhangs and projections. the combined effective area, in square feet, of the shear walls in the first story of the structure. the minimum cross-sectional area in any horizontal plane in the first story, in square feet of a shear wall. the torsional amplification factor at Leve x. numerical coefficient specified in §1632 and set forth in Table 16-O of UBC. seismic coefficient, as set forth in Table 16-Q of UBC. numerical coefficient given in §1630.2.2 of U BC. seismic coefficient, as set forth in Table 16-R of UBC. dead load on a structural element. the length, in feet, of a shear wall in the first story in the direction parallel to the applied forces. = earthquake loads set forth in §1630.1 of UBC.

Ac

=

Ae

=

Ax ap

= =

Ca Ct Cv D De

= = = = =

E, Eh, Em, Ev, Fi, Fn Fx Fp Fpx Ft = = = =

design seismic force applied to Leve i, n or x, respectively. design seismic force on a part of the structure. design seismic force on a diaphragm. that portion of the base shear, V, considered concentrated at the top of the structure in addition to Fn. axial stress.

Fa

=

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

Notation

Fy fc’ fi fm’ fp fy g

= = = = = = =

specified yield strength of structural steel. specified compressive strength of concrete. lateral force at Level i for use in Formula (30-10) of UBC. specified compressive strength of masonry. equivalent uniform load. specified yield strength of reinforcing steel acceleration due to gravity. height in feet above the base to Leve i, n or x, respectively. importance factor given in Table 16-K of UBC. importance factor specified in Table 16-K of UBC. live load on a structural element. level of the structure referred to by the subscript i. “i = 1” designates the first level above the base. that level that is uppermost in the main portion of the structure. that level that is under design consideration. “x = 1” designates the first level above the base. near-source factor used in the determination of Ca in Seismic Zone 4 related to both the proximity of the building or structure to known faults with magnitudes and slip rates as set forth in Tables 16-S and 16-U of UBC. near-source factor used in the determination of Cv in Seismic Zone 4 related to both the proximity of the building or structure to known faults with magnitudes and slip rates as set forth in Tables 16-T and 16-U of UBC. numerical coefficient representative of the inherent overstrength and global ductility capacity of lateral-forceresisting systems, as set forth in Table 16-N or 16-P of UBC.

hi, hn,hx = I Ip L = = =

Level i =

Level n =

Level x =

Na

=

Nv

=

R

=

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

Notation

r

=

a ratio used in determining ρ. See §1630.1 of UBC. = soil profile types as set forth in Table 16-J of UBC.

SA, SB, SC, SD, SE, SF T =

elastic fundamental period of vibration, in seconds, of the structure in the direction under consideration. the total design lateral force or shear at the base given by Formula (30-5), (30-6), (30-7) or (30-11) of UBC. the design story shear in Story x. the total seismic dead load defined in §1620.1.1 of UBC. that portion of W located at or assigned to Level i or x, respectively. the weight of an element of component. the weight of the diaphragm and the element tributary thereto at Level x, including applicable portions of other loads defined in §1630.1.1 of UBC. seismic zone factor as given in Table 16-I of UBC. Maximum inelastic response displacement, which is the tota drift or total story drift that occurs when the structure is subjected to the Design Basis Ground Motion, including estimated elastic and inelastic contributions to the total deformation defined in §1630.9 of UBC. Design level response displacement, which is the total drift or total story drift that occurs when the structure is subjected to the design seismic forces. horizontal displacement at Level i relative to the base due to applied lateral forces, f, for use in Formula (30-10) of UBC. capacity-reduction or strength-reduction factor. Redundancy/reliability factor given by Formula (30-3) of UBC. Seismic force amplification factor, which is required to account for structural overstrength and set forth in Table 16-N of UBC.

V Vx W

= = =

wi, wx =

Wp wpx

= =

Z ∆M

= =

∆S

=

δi φ ρ Ωo

=

= = =

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

5 Snow load S = 0 A B C D Beam A-B and Column C-D are elements of the special moment-resisting frame.1.0 ρ = 1.2 ! "# # $%&'& This example demonstrates the application of the strength design load combinations that involve the seismic load E given in §1630. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .1. This will be done for the momentresisting frame structure shown below: Zone 4 C a = 0. and lateral seismic forces.44 I = 1.1 f 1 = 0. Structural analysis has provided the following individual beam moments at A. office building live load. Strength design axial load and moment at column top C. and the column axial loads and moments at C due to dead load.Example 1 Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design §1612. Dead Load D Beam Moment at A Column C-D Axial Load Column Moment at C 100 kip-ft 90 kips 40 kip-ft Live Load L 50 kip-ft 40 kips 20 kip-ft Lateral Seismic Load Eh 120 kip-ft 110 kips 160 kip-ft Find the following: Strength design moment at beam end A.

ft §1630.5C a ID = 0. E = ρE h + E v §1630.0 (154 ) + 0.ft M A = 0.5 (0.0 E §1612. and seismic forces are determined.9 M D ± 1. the strength design moment at A for combined dead.0 M E + f 1 M L = 1.9 (100) ± 1.ft The moment due to horizontal earthquake forces is given as E h = 120 k .1.1 Apply earthquake load combinations: The basic load combinations for strength design (or LRFD) are given in §1612. the earthquake component E must be combined with the dead and live load components D and L .ft ∴ M A = 299 k .ft .44 )(1. and E v is due to vertical forces.0 (154 ) = 244 k .1. To determine strength design moments for design.0)(100 ) = 22 k .9 D ± 1.ft or − 64 k .2 Example 1 Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Strength design moment at beam end A.§1612.2.ft Therefore E = ρE h + E v = 1. For this example.1. E h is due to horizontal forces. live.2 (100) + 1.1 (12-5) (12-6) Using Equation (12-5) and Equation (12-6).5 (50) = 299 k .2. the applicable equations are: 1.2 M D + 1. Determine earthquake load E: The earthquake load E consists of two components as shown below in Equation (30-1). This process is illustrated below.0 E + f 1 L 0. M A = 1.1(120) + 22 = 154 k .ft or − 64 k .2 D + 1.1 (30-1) The moment due to vertical earthquake forces is calculated as E v = 0.0M E = 0.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

1 f 1 L 1.32 D + 1.99 D ± 1. (12-5) (12-6) Strength design axial load and moment at column top C.Example 1 Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design §1612.1E + 1.ft ) = 184.4 k .8 k .) Therefore.2 Specific material requirements: There are different requirements for concrete (and masonry) frames than for steel as follows.4 k .1 for concrete and masonry elements.1 as given above without modification.0E ) = 0.1 (160k .8 kips For moment E = E h + E v = 1.ft or − 70.1 (0.1E M A = 1.ft ) = 328. Structural Steel: Section 2210 specifies use of the load combinations of §1612.ft or − 64 k .ft SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .2.2. April 1999.22 D §1630. ( Note: At the time of publication. Determine earthquake load E: E = ρE h + E v §1630.0.22 (90 kips ) = 140.2.ft or − 70. the 1.1.1.1 factor is under consideration for change to 1.0 E + f 1 L ) = 1.9 k .ft M A = 1.3 specifies use of the load combinations of §1612.1 (1.9 k .22 (40k . Reinforced Concrete: Section 1909. for a reinforced concrete frame.ft ) + 0.1 (244 k .9 D ± 1.1 (30-1) where E v = 0.2 D + 1.ft ∴ M A = 328.5C a ID = 0.ft for a concrete frame.1 For axial load E = E h + E v = 1.1 (110 kips ) + 0. where Exception 2 requires the factor load combinations of Equation (12-5) and Equation (12-6) to be multiplied by 1. the combinations are: 1.4 k .1 (299 k .ft ) = 268.1.

When allowable stress design is used.8 and − 59.1 Commentary Use of strength design requires consideration of vertical seismic load E v .8 kips tension Design moment M C at point C is calculated as §1630.8 k-ft (for dead.1.8) = 221.ft or − 148.9 D ± 1.8 k-ft Note that the column section capacity must be designed for the interaction of PC = 268.8 kips PC = 0.1 per §1612.0 E + f1L = 1.ft ∴ M C = 242.2 Example 1 Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design Apply earthquake load combinations: 1.5 (20 k . Reinforced Concrete: The axial force PC and the moment M C must be multiplied by 1.1.2 D + 1.2 (40 k .9 D ± 1.0 E + f 1 L 0.8 k-ft (for dead and earthquake).0 E = 0.9 D ± 1.2 D + 1.2.8 k-ft or –148.2 (90) + 1.1.8 kips compression and M C = 242.ft ) = 242.1.ft ) + 0.§1612.ft ) + 1.1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .8) + 0.1 as given above without modification.1 (12-5) (12-6) M C = 1.0 (140.8 k . live and earthquake).0(184. or 59. the vertical seismic load E v is not required under §1630.0 (184.ft ) ± 1. Specific material requirements Structural Steel: Section 2210 specifies the use of the load combinations of §1612.8 k .ft M C = 0.8 kips ∴ PC = 268.8 kips tension and M C = −148.2.9 (90 ) ± 1. §1630.0 E = 0.0 (140.0 E + f 1 L = 1. and the interaction of PC = 59.8 k .8 k .9 (40 k .8 kips compression.8 k .ft ) = 220.5 (40) = 268.2 D + 1.0 E Design axial force PC at point C is calculated as PC = 1.

2.2 D + 1.8. For example. The alternate basic load combinations of §1612. When these combinations are converted to an equivalent strength design basis. E v may be taken as zero. For example.1.2.42 For the allowable stress design load combinations of §1612.28 factor on D.22 = 1.3.3.0ρ E h + ( f 1 L + in the numerical example 0.22 f2S) Thus. the resulting factor on dead load D is comparable to (1.5C a I ) in §1612.2 + 0.5C a I = 0.0 E + ( f 1 L + f 2 S ) where E = ρE h + E v and E v = 0.5C a ID + ρ E h ) + ( f 1 L + f 2 S ) (12-5) (1.70 = 1. consider the following: The basic load combinations of §1612. the total factor on D is 1.3. consider the load combination of Equation (12-5) 1. increase in allowable stress has a 1. have a 1. without increase in allowable stresses.Example 1 Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design §1612.2 + 0.2 + 0.33 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .2 D + 1.2 The incorporation of E v in the load combinations for strength design has the effect of increasing the load factor on the dead load action D.1 for conversion to design strength).5C a ID this becomes 1.70 factor on D (using the procedure permitted in §1630.2 with a permitted one-third 1.0 (0.5C a I ) D + 1.

Alternate allowable stress design. These are: 1.2) Gravity loads: Dead w D = 0.3. including weight of wall) Live w L = 0 (roof load supported by other elements) VE Plywood shear wall h = 9' Hold-down Nailing q Pt.1 2.3 permits two different combinations of load methods. Alternate allowable stress design of §1612. Allowable stress design (ASD) of §1612.2 This example illustrates the application of each of these methods.0 Ca = 0.3 Example 2 Combinations of Loads & $%&'( The code requires the use of allowable stress design for the design of wood members and their fastenings (see §2301 and §2305). SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .7" L = 10' Determine the required design loads for shear capacity q and hold-down capacity T for the following load combinations: Basic allowable stress design. Section 1612. This is done for the plywood shear wall shown below. The following information is given: Gravity loads Zone 4 I = 1.§1612.3. The wall is a bearing wall in a light wood framed building. O 9' .0 kips (seismic force determined from §1630.0 ρ = 1.40 V E = 4.3 klf (tributary dead load.

and both the governing Equations (12-10) and (12-11) reduce to 1.9 D ± (12-10) D + 0. For checking tension (hold-down capacity).0) Eh + O = Eh Note that under the provisions of §1630.Example 2 Combinations of Loads §1612.3. For wood design.75L + 0. Footnote 1 of that Table states that the allowable shear values are for short-time loads due to wind or earthquake.4 1. Thus E V E 4.4 E 1. Dead and live load are not involved when checking shear.3 Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1612.4 (12-9) 0.857 = = 286 plf L 10 ′ This unit shear is used to determine the plywood thickness and nailing requirements from Table 23-ΙΙ-I-1.2 for soil pressure.4 The unit shear is q= V ASD 2.0 E .1. Equation (12-10) governs. E v is taken as zero for ASD. D+ E 1. (12-10) and (12-11). SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . then Equations (12-9) and (12-11) must be checked. These are used without the usua one-third stress increase except as permitted by 1809. The governing load combinations for basic allowable stress design are Equations (129).4 1.2 are on a strength design basis.4 as indicated above in Equations (12-9). these must be divided by 1. Base shear and the resulting element seismic forces determined under §1630.857 lbs 1. E reduces to E h .1.1 Basic allowable stress design.4 1. For allowable stress design. Required unit shear capacity q. however. In this example.75 where (12-11) (30-1) E = ρ Eh + Ev = (1. Whenever compression is checked. (12-10) and (12-11).000 = h = e = V ASD = = 2. the allowable stresses for short-time loads due to wind or earthquake may be used.4 E 1.

5 kips 2 2 E = 0.58 9.3. the customary one-third increase in allowable stresses is allowed.58T E = 9V E TE = 9V 9 ′ × 2. However.3 Example 2 Combinations of Loads Required hold-down capacity T.4 (12-13) 0. Alternate allowable stress design.2 states that the one-third increase shall not be used concurrently with the load duration factor C D . In this example D= 1 (w D )(10 ′) = 1 (0.3. The governing load combinations.33 × allowable” capacity values may be used to select the appropriate hold-down element. are the following: D+L+ E 1. Manufacturer’s catalogs commonly list hold-down sizes with their “ 1.9 (1.875 lbs .4 T = 0. This is not considered a stress increase (although it has the same effect).9 D ± E 1.2 of §2316. Therefore. Here the 1.9 D − TE = 0.4 (12-16-1) (30-1) where E = ρ E h + E v = (1.9 D − (12-10) This value is used for the selection of the premanufactured hold-down elements. C D .0) E h + O = E h Note: Equation (12-16-1) is a May 1998 errata for the first printing of the code.58′ Using Equation (12-10) the effect of dead load and seismic forces are combined to determine the required ASD hold-down capacity.2 Under this method of load combination. §1612.857 = 2. in the absence of snow load. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .68 = − 1.33 × allowable” capacity values. Item 5 of §2316.68 kips = 9. Taking moments about point O at the right edge of wall and using V E = 2.33 kips tension 1.§1612.3)(10 ) = 1. the value of the hold-down force TE due to horizontal seismic forces is computed 9.5) − 2.33 value represents the allowed Load Duration factor.2 for resisting seismic loads. the “ 1. given in Table 2.

3 Note that E v is taken as zero for ASD per §1630. This method recognizes that Table 23-ΙΙ-I1 already includes a 1.857 kips ) = 2.9 (1.3)(10 ) = 1. E V E 4.33 allowable stress increase for seismic loading.4 (12-10) This value may be used directly. Note that the “ 1.Example 2 Combinations of Loads §1612. to select the “ 1. and the one-third increase cannot be used again with the tabulated values.5) − 2.4 1. Taking moments about point O at the right edge of wall for only seismic forces 9.1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .33 .68 = − 1. Required hold-down capacity T. Required unit shear capacity q.1.33 kips tension 1.856 = = 286 plf L 10 This value may be used directly to select the plywood thickness and nailing requirements from Table 23-ΙΙ-I-1.33 × allowable” value can be considered either as the one-third increase permitted by §1612. or the use of a load-duration factor of C D = 1.68 kips 9. without modification.4 1. Thus. D= 1 (w D )(10 ′) = 1 (0.9 D − TE = 0.857 lbs 1.58 The dead load effect on the hold-down is one-half the dead load.1.4 q= V ASD 2.4 1.000 = h = e = V ASD = = 2.33 × allowable” capacity of the hold-down elements.9 D − E = 0.5 kips 2 2 The governing tension is determined from Equation (12-16-1) T = 0.3.58T E = 9V E TE = 9 (2.

both §1622. 23-II-I-1. It is important to note that. for other than the wind or earthquake load combinations.§1612. prohibit the concurrent use of a onethird increase in the normal loading allowable stress with the load duration factor C D . the use of the load duration factor C D is not considered as an increase in allowable stress.3 Example 2 Combinations of Loads Commentary For wood design. In this case. However.1 and §1612.1.3. the minimum required allowable stress design capacity requirements are best given by the alternate basic load combinations in §1612. and 23-II-1-2 are based on this use of this load duration factor.2 does not apply mainly because of the prohibited use of a stress increase in §1612. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . Therefore. it is the means of representing the extra strength of wood when subject to short duration loads and provides the allowable stress for wind or earthquake load conditions.3.3.1 and §2316. Item 5.3. Together with the other factors employed in establishing the allowable resistance of wood elements.2. the use of the C D factor or the aforementioned table values is permitted for the wind and earthquake load combinations of §1612. The allowable shear values given in the Chapter 23 Tables 23-II-H. the equivalency of the capacity requirements for §1612. and for other materials such as masonry where there is no load duration factor.3.2.3.

Example 3 Seismic Zone 4 Near-Source Facto §1629. Another 2 km must be added to reach the source (discussed on page vii of the UBC Maps of Known Active Faults). 10. California. interpolation must be done. From this N a = 1. For other distances. Thus.36 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . Values of N a and N v are given in Tables 16-S and 16-T for distances of 2.1 to calculate design base shear. Therefore Seismic source type: A The distance from the site to the beginning of the fault zone is 6 km. For this site.2 " ) * +" . These are used to determine the seismic coefficients C a and C v used in §1630. and 15 km.08 N v = 1. $%&-'*'& The 1997 UBC introduced the concept of near-source factors. the distance from the site to the source is 6 km + 2 km = 8 km. 5. This example illustrates the determination of the near-source factors N a and N v . This is published by the International Conference of Building Officials and is intended to be used with the 1997 Uniform Building Code. Distance from site to source: 8 km.4.2. Locate the site on this map (see figure). Determine the near-source factors Na and N v for a site near Lancaster. N a and N v have been plotted below. N a and N v can be determined by entering the figures at a distance 8 km. Structures built in close proximity to an active fault are to be designed for an increased base shear over similar structures located at greater distances. and then determine the following: The shaded area on map M-30 indicates the source is a type A fault. and using the source type A curves. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference First locate the City of Lancaster in the book Maps of Known Active Fault NearSource Zones in California and Adjacent Portions of Nevada. Lancaster is shown on map M-30.

0 Na 1.0 Nv 1. Ref. provided that all of the conditions listed in §1629. Table 16-S 2. Table 16-T 2. it would have been possible to use a value of 1.4.§1629.4.2 Example 3 Seismic Zone 4 Near-Source Factor Commentary The values of N a and N v given above are for the site irrespective of the type of structure to be built on the site.0 Source Type A Source Type B 0.0 0 5 10 Distance to Source (km) 15 .1.0 Source Type A Source Type B 0. Had N a exceeded 1.0 0 5 10 Distance to Source (km) 15 Ref.1 when determining C a .2 were met.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

2 Site SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .Example 3 Seismic Zone 4 Near-Source Facto §1629.4.

Weight (mass) irregularity 3. Discontinuity in capacity-weak story The first category. 2. and these are Types 4 and 5. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .e. In this case. The designer may opt to go directly to the dynamic analysis procedure and thereby bypass the checks for vertical irregularity Types 1. 2. and 3. requires that the distribution of lateral forces be determined by combined dynamic modes of vibration. the pattern can be significantly different and must be determined by the combined mode shapes from the dynamic analysis procedure of §1631. The second category is irregularities in load path or force transfer.5. Stiffness irregularity-soft story 2.. When vertical irregularity Types 4 and 5 exist. dynamic force distribution irregularities.§1629. For regular structures without abrupt changes in stiffness or mass (i. These are irregularity Types 1.# $%&-'0'( Vertical irregularities are identified in Table 16-L.3 Introduction to Vertical Irregularities . Regular structures are assumed to have a reasonably uniform distribution of inelastic behavior in elements throughout the lateral force resisting system. this shape can be assumed to be linearlyvarying or a triangular shape as represented by the code force distribution pattern. In-plane discontinuity in vertical lateral-force resisting element 5. the code prescribes additional strengthening to correct the deficiencies. The first are dynamic force distribution irregularities. However. These can be divided into two categories. Vertical geometric irregularity 4. structures without “vertical structural irregularities”). The five vertical irregularities are as follows: 1. / . there is the possibility of having localized concentrations of excessive inelastic deformations due to the irregular load path or weak story. for irregular structures. and 3.

the structure is considered to have a soft story. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference To determine if this is a Type 1 vertical irregularity—stiffness irregularity-soft story—here are two tests: 1. The definition of soft story in the code compares values of the lateral stiffness of individual stories. Ft + F5 10' ∆S5 = 2.75" Triangular shape F4 10' F3 10' ∆S3 = 1.Example 4 Vertical Irregularity Type 1 §1629. There are many structural configurations where the evaluation of story stiffness is complex and is often not an available output from SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . The story stiffness is less than 80 percent of the average stiffness of the three stories above. If the stiffness of the story meets at least one of the above two criteria.4 Item 2.3 Item 3).5.45" ∆S2 = 1. and a dynamic analysis is generally required under §1629. The story stiffness is less than 70 percent of that of the story above.#1 1 $%&-'0'( A five-story concrete special moment-resisting frame is shown below.3 * / . it is not practical to use stiffness properties unless these can be easily determined. Generally.02" ∆S4 = 1.08" F2 10' F1 ∆S1 = 0.8.8.71" 12' Determine if a Type 1 vertical irregularity—stiffness irregularity-soft story— exists in the first story. The specified lateral forces F x from Equations (30-14) and (30-15) have been applied and the corresponding floor level displacements ∆ x at the floor center of mass have been found and are shown below. 2. unless the irregular structure is not more than five stories or 65-feet in height (see §1629.

71 − 0) = 0. (Note: story displacements can be used if the story heights are nearly equal.5.00308 = 120 h2 ∆ S3 − ∆ S2 h3 = (1 . The following example shows this equivalent use of the displacement properties. or reverse their applicability to the story or stories above. 08 ) = 0 . Floor level displacements and corresponding story drift ratios are directly available from computer programs. From the given displacements. 45 − 1 .71 ) = 0 . These will be used for the required comparisons. since these better represent the changes in the slope of the mode shape when there are significant differences in interstory heights. story drifts and the story drift ratio values are determined. To compare displacements rather than stiffness. When 70 percent of or 2. the soft story occurs when one of the following conditions exists: ∆ S1 h1 ∆ S1 h1 ∆ S 2 − ∆ S1 h2 1.3 Example 4 Vertical Irregularity Type 1 computer programs. 00308 120 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . it is necessary to use the reciprocal of the limiting percentage ratios of 70 and 80 percent as they apply to story stiffness.) In terms of the calculated story drift ratios. which assumes a triangular shape for the first dynamic mode of response.§1629. This deformation comparison may even be more effective than the stiffness comparison because the shape of the first mode shape is often closely approximated by the structure displacements due to the specified triangular load pattern. When 80 percent of exceeds exceeds 1 ( ∆ S 2 − ∆ S1 ) ( ∆ S 3 − ∆ S 2 ) ( ∆ S 4 − ∆ S 3 ) + + 3 h2 h3 h4 The story drift ratios are determined as follows: ∆ S1 h1 = (0. The story drift ratio is the story drift divided by the story height.00493 144 ∆ S 2 − ∆ S1 (1 . Recognizing that the basic intent of this irregularity check is to determine if the lateral force distribution will differ significantly from the linear pattern prescribed by Equation (30-15).08 − 0 . this type of irregularity can also be determined by comparing values of lateral story displacements or drift ratios due to the prescribed lateral forces.

80 S 1 h 1 = 0 .00345 .70 (0.00250 0.00250 120 1 (0.00308 0.7x (Story Drift Ratio) 0.00289 3 Checking the 70 percent requirement: ∆ 0 . the displacement ∆ S due to the design seismic forces can be used as done in this example.00308 ∴Soft story exists Checking the 80 percent requirement: ∆ 0 .71 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .00289 Soft Story Status No No No No Yes Level 5 4 3 2 1 Story Drift 0.1 requires that story drifts be computed using the maximum inelastic response displacements ∆ M .75 − 1 .00493 ) = 0 . only the first story was checked for possible soft story vertical irregularity.00246 0.45 ) = 0 . of Story Drift Ratio of Next 3 Stories — — — 0. It is often convenient to create a table as shown below to facilitate this exercise.00180 0.00261 0.71 Story Drift Ratio 0.10. In practice. unless a dynamic analysis is performed.00158 0.37 0.00493 .75 1.30 0. Story Displacement 2.00308 + 0.00308 + 0. However.80 (0 .00394 > 0 .00250 ) = 0. 1.00225 0.00345 > 0 .Example 4 Vertical Irregularity Type 1 §1629.00175 0.00394 Avg.00289 ∴Soft story exists Commentary Section 1630. 0. In the example above. for the purpose of the story drift.45 1.70 S 1 h 1 = 0 .00493 ) = 0 . all stories must be checked.00200 0.3 ∆ S4 − ∆ S3 h4 = (1 .08 0. or story drift ratio.5.00308 0.8x (Story Drift Ratio) 0.02 in.00246 0.27 in. comparisons needed for soft story determination.00216 0.00216 0.37 0.

3 Example 5 Vertical Irregularity Type 2 0 / . vertical irregularity is considered to exist when the effective mass of any story is more than 150 percent of the effective mass of an adjacent story. Checking the effective mass of Level 2 against the effective mass of Levels 1 and 3 At Level 1 1. However.5 (100 k ) = 150 k At Level 3 1.#1 1 & $%&-'0'( The five-story special moment frame office building has a heavy utility equipment installation at Level 2. this requirement does not apply to the roof if the roof is lighter than the floor below.§1629.5 × W3 = 1. This results in the floor weight distribution shown below: Level 5 W5 = 90 k 4 W4 = 110 k 3 W3 = 110 k 2 W2 = 170 k 1 W1 = 100 k Determine if there is a Type 2 vertical weight (mass) irregularity.5 (110 k ) = 165 k W2 = 170 k > 150 k ∴ Weight irregulari ty exists SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .5.5 ×W1 = 1. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A weight. or mass.

3 Item 3).5.Example 5 ertical Irregularity Type 2 §1629. the appropriate load distribution must be determined by the dynamic analysis procedure of §1631.3 Commentary As in the case of vertical irregularity Type 1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . this type of irregularity also results in a primary mode shape that can be substantially different from the triangular shape and lateral load distribution given by Equation (30-15). Consequently. unless the irregular structure is not more than five stories or 65 feet in height (see §1629.8.

exists.5. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A vertical geometric irregularity is considered to exist where the horizontal dimension of the lateral force-resisting system in any story is more than 130 percent of that in the adjacent story. The ratios of the two levels is Width of Level 2 (100') = = 1.3 Example 6 Vertical Irregularity Type 3 % / . fourth and fifth stories.33 Width of Level 3 (75' ) 133 percent > 130 percent ∴ Vertical geometric irregulari ty exists SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . One-story penthouses are not subject to this requirement.§1629.#1 1 ( $%&-'0'( The lateral force-resisting system of the five-story special moment frame building shown below has a 25-foot setback at the third. In this example. the setback of Level 3 must be checked. 1 2 3 4 5 4 @ 25' = 100' Level 5 4 3 2 1 Determine if a Type 3 vertical irregularity. vertical geometric irregularity.

1.3 Commentary The more than 130 percent change in width of the lateral force-resisting system between adjacent stories could result in a primary mode shape that is substantially different from the triangular shape assumed for Equation (30-15). However.4. Similarly. the effects of this adjoining frame would have to be considered under the adjoining rigid elements requirements of §1633. Note that if the frame elements in the bay between lines 4 and 5 were not included as a part of the designated lateral force resisting system.2. when the width decrease is in the lower story. However. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .3.8.2. the Type 1 soft story irregularity can be avoided by a proportional increase in the stiffness of the lower story.5. If the change is a decrease in width of the upper adjacent story (the usual situation). Item 2 may apply.4. the mode shape difference can be mitigated by designing for an increased stiffness in the story with a reduced width. then §1629. then the vertical geometric irregularity would not exist.8. Item 4 and §1630. there could be an overturning moment load transfer discontinuity that would require the application of §1630.Example 6 Vertical Irregularity Type 3 §1629.2. When there is a large decrease in the width of the structure above the first story along with a corresponding large change in story stiffness that creates a flexible tower. if the width decrease is in the lower adjacent story (the unusual situation).

3 Example 7 Vertical Irregularity Type 4 2 / .§1629. In this example. This 50-foot offset is greater than the 25-foot length of the offset wall elements. the left side of the upper shear wall (between lines A and B) is offset 50 feet from the left side of the lower shear wall (between lines C and D). A B C D 3 @ 25' = 75’ Level 5 12' Shear wall 4 12' 3 12' 25’ 2 12' 50' Shear wall 1 12' Determine if there is a Type 4 vertical irregularity.5. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 4 vertical irregularity exists when there is an in-plane offset of the lateral load resisting elements greater than the length of those elements. ∴ In . The shear wall between Lines A and B has an in-plane offset from the shear wall between Lines C and D.plane discontinu ity exists . in-plane discontinuity in the vertical lateral force-resisting element.#1 1 * $%&-'0'( A concrete building has the building frame system shown below.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

even those less or equal to the length or bay width of the resisting element. and the collector element between Lines B and C at Level 2 is subject to the provisions of §1633.6 for the strength of collector elements along the offset.2 and §1921. When the offset exceeds the length of the resisting element.6. there is also a shear transfer discontinuity that requires application of §1633.2. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . can result in an overturning moment load transfer discontinuity that requires the application of §1630.8. It should be noted that any in-plane offset.8.5.2. In this example.3 Commentary The intent of this irregularity check is to provide correction of force transfer or load path deficiencies. the columns under wall A-B are subject to the provisions of §1630.Example 7 Vertical Irregularity Type 4 §1629.5.4.4.2.

Level 3 2 Pier 4 1 5 Vn 20 k 30 15 80 15 Vm 30 k 40 10 120 10 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 Determine if a Type 5 vertical irregularity. condition exists. the story strengths are First story strength = 20 + 30 + 10 = 60 k Second story strength = 80 + 10 = 90 k Check if first story strength is less than 80 percent of that of the second story: 60k < 0.6. and the individual piers have the shear contribution given below. The story strength is considered to be the total strength of all seismic force-resisting elements sharing the story shear for the direction under consideration.3 Example 8 Vertical Irregularity Type 5 3 / .5. discontinuity in capacity – weak story.#1 1 0 $%&-'0'( A concrete bearing wall building has the typical transverse shear wall configuration shown below. Using the smaller values of Vn and Vm given for each pier. and Vm is the shear corresponding to the development of the nominal flexure strength calculated in accordance with §1921. All walls in this direction are identical. Vn is the nominal shear strength calculated in accordance with §1921.5.6. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 5 weak story discontinuity in capacity exists when the story strength is less than 80 percent of that in the story above.8 (90) = 72 k ∴ Weak story condition exists SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .6.§1629.

1) for structures greater than two stories or 30 feet in height. Elements subject to this check are the shear wall piers (where the shear contribution is the lower of either the shear at development of the flexural strength. Because a weak story is prohibited (under §1629. the column shear resistance contribution should be the shear corresponding to the development of the adjoining beam yield hinges and the column base connection capacity. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . or the shear strength). and frame columns. the column shear contribution shall not exceed the column shear capacity. Where there is a strong column-weak beam condition. Frame columns with weak column-strong beam conditions have a shear contribution equal to that developed when the top and bottom of the column are at flexural capacity.Example 8 Vertical Irregularity Type 5 §1629.9.5. or designed for Ω o times the forces prescribed in §1630.2. In any case. bracing members and their connections.3 Commentary This irregularity check is to detect any concentration of inelastic behavior in one supporting story that can lead to the loss of vertical load capacity. the first story piers in this example must either be strengthened by a factor of 72/60 = 1.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . Determine if a Type 5 vertical irregularity—discontinuity in capacity-weak story— condition exists in the first story: Determine first story strength. The frame consists of W24 beams and W14 columns with the following member strength properties (determined under 2213. Given below is the calculations for first and second stories.3 Example 9 Vertical Irregularity Type 5 / .§1629.5. Determine second story strength.4. the columns meet the exception of §2213.5): A B C D Beams at Levels 1 and 2: M b =ZF y = 250 kip-ft Columns on lines A.5 such that a strong beam-weak column condition is permitted. B. The story strength is considered to be the total strength of all seismic force-resisting elements that share the story shear for the direction under consideration.2 PD + 0.7. In this example.5 PL . Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 5 weak story discontinuity in capacity exists when the story strength is less than 80 percent of that of the story above. To determine if a weak story exists in the first story. C. Determine if weak story exists at first story. the sums of the column shears in the first and second stories—when the member moment capacities are developed by lateral loading—must be determined and compared. it is assumed that the beam moments at a beam-column joint are distributed equally to the sections of the columns directly above and below the joint. Column base connections at grade: M f = 100 kip-ft In addition. and D at both levels: M c = Z Fy − f a = 200 kip-ft at 3 @ 25' Level 5 12' 4 12' 3 12' 2 12' 1 14’ ( ) axial loading of 1.2 and 2213.#1 1 0 $%&-'0'( A four-story building has a steel special moment resisting frame (SMRF).7.

ft Checking columns B and C for strong column-weak beam considerations.3 Determine first story strength. V M b 2 = 125 k . Next. Columns A and D must be checked for strong column-weak beam considerations. 2M c = 400 > M b = 250 ∴ strong column-weak beam condition exists. 2 M c = 400 < 2 M b = 500 ∴ Strong beam-weak column condition exists.75) + 2(25. the shear in each column must be determined.5 k SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .0) = 87. the shear in each column must be determined.5.75 k 12 V M f = 100 k .Example 9 Vertical Irregularity Type 5 §1629.ft Clear height = 14 ft − 2 ft = 12 ft V A = VD = 125 + 100 = 18. V Mc = 200 k-ft Clear height = 14 ft − 2 ft = 12 ft V B = VC = 200 + 100 = 25.0 k 12 V Mf = 100 k-ft First story strength = V A + V B + VC + V D = 2(18. Next.

0) + 2(40.§1629.ft Checking columns B and C for strong column-weak beam considerations. Columns A and D must be checked for strong column-weak beam at Level 2.0) = 130.0 k 10 V Mc = 200 k-ft Second story strength = V A + V B + VC + V D = 2( 25.0 k SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . 2M c = 400 > M b = 250 ∴ strong column-weak beam condition exists. 2M c = 400 < 2 M b = 500 ∴ Strong beam-weak column condition exists.ft Clear height = 12 ft − 2 ft = 10 ft VA = VD = 125 + 125 = 25.5. V Mc = 200 k-ft Clear height = 12 ft − 2 ft = 10 ft 10’ V B = VC = 200 + 200 = 40.0 k 10 V M b 2 = 125 k . V M b 2 = 125 k .3 Example 9 Vertical Irregularity Type 5 Determine second story strength.

5 < 0.5.Example 9 Vertical Irregularity Type 5 §1629.5 k Second story strength = 130.3 Determine if weak story exists at first story.0 k 87. First story strength = 87.80 (130) = 104 ∴ Weak story condition in first story exists Table 16-L Item 5 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

In this case. shears and overturning moments must be transferred from the level above the offset to the level below the offset. represents the irregular load path category. Re-entrant corners 3. Type 3. 3. An amplification factor Ax is to be applied to the accidental eccentricity to represent the effects of this unbalanced stiffness. 2. Elements must be provided to transfer the forces into the diaphragm and the structural system. Types 1. As a consequence. The response deformations and load patterns on a system with nonparallel lateral force-resisting elements can have significant differences from that of a regular system. . and there is a horizontal “offset” in the load path for the shears. and the eccentricity between the centers of mass and rigidity will be increased along with the corresponding torsions. Diaphragm discontinuity 4. out-of-plane offset. Torsional irregularity—to be considered when diaphragms are not flexible 2.# $%&-'0'( Plan structural irregularities are identified in Table 16-M. the equivalent stiffness of the side having maximum deformation will be reduced. Excessive openings in a diaphragm can result in a flexible diaphragm response along with force concentrations and load path deficiencies at the boundaries of the openings. The opening and closing deformation response or flapping action of the projecting legs of the building plan adjacent to re-entrant corners can result in concentrated forces at the corner point. Out-of-plane offsets 5. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . and 5 are special response conditions: Type 1. The Type 4 plan irregularity. Type 4. there is the potential for an unbalance in the inelastic deformation demands at the two extreme sides of a story. Elements must be provided to transfer these forces into the diaphragms. Nonparallel systems These irregularities can be categorized as being either special response conditions or cases of irregular load path.§1629. Type 2.3 Introduction to Plan Irregularities . Further analysis of deformation and load behavior may be necessary. Type 5. There are five types of plan irregularities: 1.5. When the ratio of maximum drift to average drift exceeds the given limit.

2 Level 2 2 1 Level 1 δL. including accidental torsion effects.2 = 1.1 = 1. Torsional irregularity exists at level x when SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .Example 10 Plan Irregularity Type 1 §1629.30" δ L .1 = 1. 2 = 1.90" δ R . Under specified seismic forces.20" δR. If it does: Compute the torsional amplification factor Ax for Level 2.2 times the average of the story drifts of the two ends of the structure. it has the following displacements at Levels 1 and 2: δ L .5.#1 1 $%&-'0'( A three-story special moment resisting frame building has rigid floor diaphragms.3 4 . Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 1 torsional plan irregularity is considered to exist when the maximum story drift. Determine if a Type 1 torsional irregularity exists at the second story.2 Level 3 δR. including the effects of accidental torsion. Table 16-M Referring to the above figure showing the displacements δ due to the prescribed lateral forces.00" δ R . at one end of the structure transverse to an axis is more than 1.1 Determine if a Type 1 torsional irregularity exists at the second story.1 δL. this irregularity check is defined in terms of story drift ∆δ X = (δ X − δ X −1 ) at ends R (right) and L (left) of the structure.

2 + δ R . Ax is computed for Level 2. δ avg = δ L.x +∆ L. 2 ∆δ L.70 in. X .90 = 1.30 − 1.90 in.2(∆ R.50 in.20 = 0.§1629. This must be done for each level.1 ∆δ R .70 = 0. 2 = 1. 2 .2 ∆ avg ∆ avg 0.30 in.2 = δ R .2 criteria ∆ max ∆ R .00 = 0. X > where 1. x ) 2 = 1.1 ∆δ max = ∆δ R . and each level may have a different Ax value.2 0. the accidental eccentricity.5 ∴Torsional irregulari ty exists Compute amplification factor A X for Level 2.2 ∆ avg ( ) ∆δ L.3 Example 10 Plan Irregularity Type 1 ∆ max = ∆ R .2 avg 2 (30-16) δ max = δ R . ∆ R . equal to 5 percent of the building dimension. 2 2 = 1.90 − 1. 2 − δ L .7 = = = 1.60 in. must be increased by an amplification factor Ax . ∆ avg = 0. X + ∆δ R . δ Ax = max 1. In this example. 2 = 1.5.2 = 1.4 > 1. ∆δ avg = Determining story drifts at Level 2 ∆ L.30 + 0.7 When torsional irregularity exists at a level x .30 + 1. X 2 Checking 1. 2 = δ L .2 − δ R . §1630.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

5.Example 10 Plan Irregularity Type 1 §1629.60) = 0.0.3 1. then combined by the appropriate SRSS or CQC procedures.” The interpretation of this for the case of the story drift and displacements to be used for the average values ∆δ avg and δ avg is as follows. However. If the dynamic analysis procedure is either elected or required. The most severe condition is when both δ R. the values of ∆δ max and ∆δ avg would have to be found for each dynamic mode.7. Theoretically. This result is not the intent of the provision.2 factor.2 (1. There can be instances where the story drift values indicate torsional irregularity and where the related displacement values produce an Ax value less than one.3 requires the use of a three-dimensional model if there are any of the plan irregularities listed in Table 16-M.2.98 < 1. X and δ L. It is important to recognize that torsional irregularity is defined in terms of story drift ∆δ X while the evaluation of Ax by Equation (30-16) is in terms of displacements δ X .0 2 Commentary In §1630. then §1631. X should be evaluated for this load condition.0 ∴ use Ax = 1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . For the condition shown in this example where δ R . X and δ L. there is also §1630. The displacement and story drift values should be obtained by the equivalent lateral force method with the specified lateral forces. and both δ R. and the value of Ax used to determine accidental torsion should not be less than 1.90 A2 = 1. in view of the complexity of this determination and the judgmental nature of the 1. X are computed for the same accidental center of mass displacement that causes the maximum displacement δ max . While Table 16-M calls only for §1633. there is the provision that “the most severe load combination must be considered. and then scaled to the specified base shear.9. Item 6 (regarding diaphragm connections) to apply if this irregularity exists.7. it is reasoned that the equivalent static force method is sufficiently accurate to detect torsional irregularity and evaluate the Ax factor. which requires the accidental torsion amplification factor Ax given by Equation (30-16). X = δ max . the centers of mass at all levels should be displaced by the accidental eccentricity to the right side R. if the dynamic analysis procedure were to be used.

§1629. this occurs if δ L .80′′ .40′′ and δ R .3 2 = (− 0.3 Example 10 Plan Irregularity Type 1 For cases of large eccentricity and low torsional rigidity.3 = −0.70 2 2 in. The value of δ avg in Equation (30-16) should be calculated as the algebraic average: δ avg = δ L .40 ) + 1. the algebraic average value δ avg should be found for each mode.80 = 1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .5.3 + δ R . When dynamic analysis is used.40 = 0. For example.3 = 1. and the individual modal results must be properly combined to determine the total response value for δ avg . the static force procedure can result in a negative displacement on one side and a positive on the other.

the projection beyond the re-entrant corner is 100 ft − 75 ft = 25 ft This is 25 or 25 percent of the 100 ft plan dimension. and its lateral force-resisting system. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 2 re-entrant corner plan irregularity exists when the plan configuration of a structure and its lateral force-resisting system contain re-entrant corners.Example 11 Plan Irregularity Type 2 §1629. This is 60 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . have identical re-entrant corner dimensions.3 percent of the 60 ft plan dimension. 100 For the sides on Lines A and E. the projection is 60 ft − 40 ft = 20 ft 20 or 33.3 . For the sides on Lines 1 and 4.5. The plan configuration of this building.#1 1 & The plan configuration of a ten-story special moment frame building is as shown below: $%&-'0'( A B C D E 4 @ 25' = 100' 4 3 2 1 Determine if there is a Type 2 re-entrant corner irregularity. where both projections of the structure beyond a re-entrant corner are greater than 15 percent of the plan dimension of the structure in the direction considered.

5. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .2.3 Example 11 Plan Irregularity Type 2 Since both projections exceed 15 percent. there is a re-entrant corner irregularity.§1629.entrant corner irregulari ty exists Commentary Whenever the Type 2 re-entrant corner plan irregularity exists. ∴ Re .9 Items 6 and 7. see the diaphragm requirements of §1633.

Example 12 Plan Irregularity Type 3 §1629. The floor plan of the second floor of the building is shown below.5.000 sq ft 3.000 sq ft ∴ No diaphragm discontinu ity irregulari ty exists SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .000 sq ft Area of opening is 40'×75' = 3.#1 1 ( $%&-'0'( A five-story concrete building has a bearing wall system located around the perimeter of the building. 1 2 3 4 125' 75' A B Atrium 80' C D 40' Second floor pla Determine if a Type 3 diaphragm discontinuity exists at the second floor level. Gross enclosed area of the diaphragm is 80 ft × 125 ft = 10. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 3 diaphragm discontinuity irregularity exists when diaphragms have abrupt discontinuities or variations in stiffness. The symmetrically placed open area in the diaphragm is for an atrium.5 (10. Lateral forces are resisted by the bearing walls acting as shear walls.000 < 5.000 sq ft 50 percent of gross area = 0. and has dimensions of 40 ft x 75 ft. including cutout or open areas greater than 50 percent of the gross enclosed area of the diaphragm.3 & . or changes in effective diaphragm stiffness of more than 50 percent from one story to the next.000) = 5. All diaphragms above the second floor are without significant openings.

due to a common distributed load w . This comparison can be performed as follows: Find the simple beam mid-span deflections ∆ 2 and ∆ 3 for the diaphragms at Levels 2 and 3. w = 1 klf Level 2 ∆2 Deflected shape w = 1 klf Level 3 ∆3 Deflected shape If ∆ 2 > 1. then a diaphragm discontinuity irregularity exists for the structure. respectively.5∆ 3 .3 Example 12 Plan Irregularity Type 2 Commentary The stiffness of the second floor diaphragm with its opening must be compared with the stiffness of the solid diaphragm at the third floor. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .5.§1629. then there is diaphragm discontinuity. If the change in stiffness exceeds 50 percent. such as 1 klf.

for example: out-of-plane offsets of vertical resisting elements such as shear walls. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference An out-of-plane offset plan irregularity exists when there are discontinuities in a lateral force path. and the referenced sections in Table 16-M apply to the design. The first story shear wall on Line D has 25 ft out-of-plane offset to the shear wall on Line E at the second story and above. 3 1 2 3 $%&-'0'( 2 10' 1 10' Typical Floor Plan Typical floor plan 10' A 10' 4 @ 25' = 100' 3 B C D E Elevation Line E 2 2 @ 25' = 50' First Floor Plan 1 Ground (first) floor pla Determine if there is a Type 4 out-of-plane offset plan irregularity between the first and second stories. The plan configuration of the shear walls is shown below.#1 1 * A four-story building has a concrete shear wall lateral force-resisting system in a building frame system configuration.Example 13 Plan Irregularity Type 4 §1629. This constitutes an out-of-plane offset irregularity.3 ( .5. ∴Offset irregulari ty exists SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

and F. and the referenced section in Table 16-M applies to the design.5.§1629. A. ∴ A nonparalle l system irregulari ty exists SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . The vertical lateral force-resisting frame elements located on Line F are not parallel to the major orthogonal axes of the building (i. Therefore a nonparallel system irregularity exists. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 5 nonparallel system irregularity is considered to exist when the vertical lateral load resisting elements are not parallel to or symmetric about the major orthogonal axes of the building’s lateral force-resisting system.e. Lines 4 and A).. 4.3 Example 14 Plan Irregularity Type 5 * .#1 1 0 $%&-'0'( A ten-story building has the floor plan shown below at all levels. Special moment resisting-frames are located on the perimeter of the building on Lines 1. A B C D E F 4 @ 25' = 100' 4 3 @ 25' = 75' 3 2 1 Typical floor plan Determine if a Type 5 nonparallel system irregularity exists.

all frame lines in a story require evaluation.1 0 5 1651 . ri . ρ Evaluate the reliability/redundancy factor. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Braced frame structure. only the frame line with maximum seismic force is shown. that occurs in any of the story levels at or below the two-thirds height level of the building. for the three structural systems shown below. Note that the story shear Vi is the total of the shears in all of the frame lines in the direction considered. In actual applications. For purposes of this example. Once ρ has been determined. and the corresponding element forces E h . Given information for each system includes the story shears Vi due to the design base shear V. The E h forces given include any torsional effects. ρ . it is to be used in Equation (30-1) to establish the earthquake load E for each element of the lateral force-resisting system. The ρ factor is defined as ρ=2− 20 rmax AB (30-3) where rmax is the largest of the element-story shear ratios. and AB is the ground floor area of the structure in square feet.1. A B C D 16' 16' 16' Level 5 12' 4 12' 3 12' 2 12' 1 12' SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .Example 15 Reliability/Redundancy Facto ρ §1630.

1 .1 k 30.4 k 12' 25.800 sq ft.10 (30-3) Moment frame structure.5 k 2 28.229 Not required above 2/3 height level (see definition of ri) AB = 48 ft × 100 ft = 4.6 k 3 21. Horizontal component in each brace is Fx = 4 Eh 5 where E h is the maximum force in a single brace element in story i.8 k 11.8 k 40.6 73.4 k 27.7 k 68. rmax = 0. For braced frames.9 k 13.2 k 45.2 k 51.229 0.7 12' 46.4 kips 233.§1630.1 Example 15 Reliability/Redundancy Factor ρ The following information is given: Story i 1 2 3 4 5 Total Story Shear Vi 952 kips 731 517 320 Brace Force Eh 273 kips 292 112 91.3 k 1 38. the value of ri is equal to the maximum horizontal force component Fx in a single brace element divided by the total story shear Vi .320 ρ=2− 20 rmax AB =2− (0.4 Horizontal Component Fx 218.173 0.1 ri = Fx Vi 0.2 k 7.6 k 12' 30.320) 20 4800 = 1. where 100 ft is the building width.320 0.7 k 56.9 k 4 15. A B C D 24' 24' 24' Level 5 5.5 k 12' 12' 16.1.6 89.6 k 71.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

7VB 86.6 37.1 0.5 57.1 requires that special moment-resisting frames have redundancy such that the calculated value of ρ does not exceed 1.7 kips 64.1 49.7 0.3 kips 75. VC .7VC + VD 96.25. or 0.7 V B .270 Not required above 2/3 height level rmax = r4 = 0.4 kips 70. Column Lines B and C are common to bays on opposite sides. The story shears and ri evaluations are: Story i 1 2 3 4 5 Vi 388 kips 306 228 151 VA + 0.1.1 AB = 72'×120' = 8. ri is maximum of the sum of V A + 0. respectively.25 o. V D in column lines A.1 ri 0. D.7VC + V D divided by the story shear Vi .Example 15 Reliability/Redundancy Facto ρ §1630. Section 1630.247 0. B. (30-3) Building frame system with shear walls. or 0.k.1.640 sq ft. C.20 < 1.1.7(VB + VC) 98.5 §1630. where 120' is the building width Column shears are given above.6 60. E h = V A .6 35.270) 20 8640 = 1.253 0.1 40.7 ( V B + VC ). For moment frames.264 0.270 ρ=2− (0. V B . A 10' Level 5 12' 4 12' 3 12' 2 12' 1 12' B 20' C 20' D 20' E SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

0 (30-3) ∴ use ρ = 1.8 lwi 40 ft 40 20 20 Above 2/3 height level A-B i VI C-D-E and C-D Vwi Vi 10 l w Vwi Vi 10 l w ri 0.3 39. The following information is given l w Wall A-B Story i 1 2 3 4 5 Vi 363 kips 288 208 105 Vwi 34.175 0. V wi Vi 10 ..188 0.9 36.1.167 0.3 19.093 0.190 ρ=2− (0.094 0.1 kips 26.2 69.7 lwi 10 ft 10 10 10 Wall C-D-E and C-D Vwi 92.0 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .190 1 2 3 4 5 363 kips 288 208 105 0.065 0.094 0. where 120' is the building width E h is the wall shear V w For shear walls.§1630.064 0.093 0.400 sq ft.190 Not required above 2/3 height level rmax = r4 = 0. ri is the maximum of for the walls.4 kips 75.641 < 1.175 0.1 Example 15 Reliability/Redundancy Factor ρ AB = 70'×120' = 8.190) 20 6000 = 0.

the redundancy is such that the calculated ρ value is less than or equal to 1. Each value of ρ is applied to the elements of the vertical lateral force-resisting system for that direction.00.2 allows that the near-source factor Na need not exceed 1.1.1 requires that the number of bays of special moment resisting frames be such that the value of ρ is less than or equal to 1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .Example 15 Reliability/Redundancy Facto ρ §1630.1.4. if along with other stated conditions.1. 2. The following code provisions require the designer to provide sufficient redundancy such that ρ is less than or equal to specified values: 1.25. Note that the redundancy factor does not apply to horizontal diaphragms. Section 1629. Section 1630.1 Commentary A separate value of ρ must be determined for each principal building direction. except in the case of transfer diaphragms.

This is done for each system below to provide the approximate relationship for ρ .§1630. and walls). braces.g. The basic reliability/redundancy relationship given in §1630.. These relationships are particularly useful in the conceptual design phase.1 is ρ=2− 20 rmax AB (30-3) The term rmax is the maximum element-story shear ratio. with the exception of transfer diaphragms at discontinuous vertical lateral force-resisting elements. The value of rmax can be approximated in terms of the story shear Vi and the number of elements N in the story. For a given story level i with story shear Vi . Shear walls. 7 $%(4'' The 1997 UBC introduced the concept of the reliability/redundancy factor.1. a brief discussion of methodology is presented. AB is the ground floor area of the structure in square feet. For the following structural systems. the approximate number of lateral forceresisting elements N required a given value of ρ can be found as follows. find the approximate relation for ρ in terms of the number N of resisting elements (e. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Before developing the approximate relationships for the three structural systems. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . Moment-resisting frames. frames. Note that a redundancy factor is computed for each principal direction and that these are not applied to diaphragms. This is the fraction of the total seismic shear at a given floor level that is carried by the most highly loaded element.1. The purpose of this example is to develop approximate relationships that will enable the engineer to estimate the number of lateral force-resisting elements required to qualify for given values of the redundancy factor ρ . Braced frames. The intent of this provision is to penalize those lateral force-resisting systems without adequate redundancy by requiring that they be more conservatively designed.1 Example 16 Reliability/Redundancy Factor Applications % 5 1651 .

max .Example 16 Reliability/Redundancy Factor Applications §1630. For a moment-resisting frame system with N bays having a maximum shear per bay of V bay. Thus H max = (1. Thus. such that ρ is less than or §1630. assume that the maximum component is 125 percent of the average.1 Braced frames.25 AB Moment-resisting frames.25 AB . ρ shall not exceed 1. assume that the maximum component is 125 percent of the average component. the number of bays of special moment-resisting frames must be increased to reduce rmax .1.25 .25Vi 1.25) H average = (1.25) Vi N bays 1. ρ=2− ∴ρ = 2 − 20 N braces 1.max Vi = ∴ρ = 2 − 20 N bays 1.25) Vi N braces rmax = H max 1.1 equal to 1. where N bays = number of bays Note that for a SMRF.25 . V bay.max = (1.1. Thus. where N braces = number of braces.25 = = Vi N braces (Vi ) N braces 20 rmax AB . For a braced frame system with N braces having a maximum force component H max (this is the horizontal component of the maximum brace force).25 N bays rmax = Vbay. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

Assuming the maximum component is 125 percent of the average. Section 1630.1 requires that rmax be based on the number of 10-foot lengths of shear wall. rmax AB Following this page is a plot of ρ versus N for the equation ρ = 2 − 20 N SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .1.§1630.25 AB . Following this 20 is a plot of ρ = 2 − . where N 10 = number of 10-foot long segments of shear walls. This is Equation (30-3) and can be used for final design.1. let N 10 = number of 10-foot-long wall segments V in story i. For a shear wall system. V V 10 w = (1. rmax ∴ρ = 2 − Commentary .25) i l N 10 w max V 10 w l w max 1. This 1.25 AB approximate relationship can be used to estimate ρ for conceptual design.25 = = Vi N 10 20 N 10 1. and let the maximum shear per 10-foot length be 10 w . V w and l w l w max are the shear and length for a wall pier.1 Example 16 Reliability/Redundancy Factor Applications Shear walls.

f 00 00 0s 00 0s .20/(r max A B 1/2) t.3 1. ft.1 1. ρ = 2 . 00 2.2 1. f .20N /(1. ft t. ft.1.0 00 sq . 60.4 1.0 00 60 A ρ = 2 .0 .0 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .f sq 00 t. .5 1.00 3 6 4 1 ft. .0 . sq q. q.9 1.2 0.0 0.f 30 sq 00 .4 0. 0s .2 1.00 sq .6 0.4 1.1 0. ft 40 .0 00 00 t. . .000 =1 B ρ 0. .0 ft.f t.0 00 s q. sq sq.8 0.0 .3 0. B .0 .00 . 00 2. sq.0 0. f q. sq.00 0 8 .5 r max Reliability/redundancy factor ρ for various values of rmax and AB A ft.7 0. q. t.f 0s 80 q. sq.000 40 . 20 .f 0s t.3 1.1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 N Approximate relationship of ρ for various values of N and AB ρ 7 8 9 10 11 12 AB = 100. 1. ft .00 10 ft.Example 16 Reliability/Redundancy Factor Applications §1630.1 AB = 1. sq. .00 0s q.5 .25A B 1/2) =1 t.5 1.0 00 sq . sq . 00 5. ft.f t.0 20 ft. ft. sq.0 1.

Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1630.3 P∆ criteria for the building. P∆ effects must be considered whenever the ratio of secondary moments to primary moments exceed 10 percent.643 kips ΣL = 3.§1630. ΣD = W = 8.850 kips V1 = V = 0. P∆ effects are the result of the axial load P in a column being “moved” laterally by horizontal displacements. The purpose of this example is to illustrate the procedure that must be used to check the overall stability of the frame system for such effects. Check the first story for P∆ requirements.72 in.5 At the first story.1. h1 = 20' Determine the following: P∆ criteria for the building. The following information is given: Zone 4 R = 8.3 Example 17 P ∆ Effects 2 ∆ $%(4''( In highrise building design. A 15-story building has a steel special moment-resisting frame (SMRF).0 kips h1 = 20 ft Story drift = ∆ S1 = 0.003h1 = 0.3 of the 1999 SEAOC Blue Book Commentary. important secondary moments and additional story drifts can be developed in the lateral force-resisting system by P∆ effects. thereby causing additional “secondary” column and girder moments.1.1. As discussed in Section C105.042W = 363. this ratio is defined as a stability coefficient θ : θx = Px ∆ sx V x hx SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

3 where θ x = stability coefficient for story x Px = total vertical load (unfactored) on all columns in story x ∆ sx = story drift due to the design base shear V x = design shear in story x h x = height of story x P∆ effects must be considered when θ > 0.643 + 3.00235 Section 1630.1.02 0.1.003 > .850 = 12.1.5 Therefore.00235. These loads are unfactored for determination of P∆ effects. when the story drift in a given story of an SMRF is less than or equal to .00235 h R 8.003 h1 h1 Check drift criteria .10 An alternative approach is to check story drift. The first story drift ratio is ∆ S 1 0.02 ≤ = = . §1630. P∆ effects need not be considered for SMRF buildings whenever the story drifts satisfy the following criterion: ∆ s 0. P∆ effects need not be considered for that story.3 requires that the total vertical load P1 at the first story be considered as the total dead (ΣD ) plus floor live (ΣL ) and snow (S ) load above the first story. P1 = ΣD + ΣL + S using S = 0 for the building site P1 = 8.Example 17 P ∆ Effects §1630.3 Check P∆ requirements for the first story.003h1 = = 0. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4.493 kips SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

0)h1 ∴P∆ effects must be considered Commentary The 1999 SEAOC Blue Book Commentary.103 > 0.3. Also. provides an acceptable P∆ analysis: for any story x where P∆ effects must be considered. some computer programs include the option to include P∆ effects.1. and the 1− θ structure is to be re-analyzed for the seismic force effects corresponding to the augmented story shears. The user should verify that the particular method is consistent with the requirements of this §1630.493)(0. in Section C105.1. the θ story shear V x must be multiplied by a factor (1 + a d ) .100 V1 h1 (363. .1. where a d = .003h1 ) = = 0.3.§1630.3 Example 17 P ∆ Effects θ1 = P1 ∆ S 1 (12.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

4 C a = . given the following information: Z = 0. Method A to be used.5 W = 1.1 3 # 8 " $%(4'&' Find the design base shear for a 5-story steel special moment-resisting frame building shown below.0 R = 8. T = C t (hn ) 3 4 = .0 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . N a = 1.035.75 sec .Example 18 Design Base Shea §1630.2.626 kips 60' In solving this example.035 (60 ) 3 4 = . knowing that the seismic source type is B and the distance 5 km. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1630.4 Seismic source type = B Distance to seismic source = 5 km Soil profile type = SC I = 1.2 Determine the structure period.4 C v = .40 N a From Table 16-R for soil profile type S C and Z = . Determine base shear. the following steps are followed: Determine the structure period. Ct for steel moment-resisting frames is 0. Determine the seismic coefficients C a and Cv .56 N v Find N a and N v from Tables 16-S and 16-T. (30-8) §1628 Determine the seismic coefficients C a and Cv From Table 16-Q for soil profile type S C and Z = .2. respectively.

0 × 1.0 × 1.8 × 0.56 (1. total base shear also cannot be less than: V= .40 C v = .672 × 1. the code indicates that the total design base shear need not exceed: V= 2.8ZN v I R W= 0.5 (30-5) Another requirement is that total design base shear cannot be less than: V = 0.626 = 71.2. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .626 = 191.4 × 1.4 × 1. ∴V = 171.2 × 1.0 × 1. 1 Example 18 Design Base Shear N v = 1.0 × 1.626 = 171.75 RT (30-4) However. §1630.§1630.4.5C a I R W= 2.5 × 0. design base shear is controlled by Equation 30-4.3 kips 8.4 kips Commentary The near source factor Na used to determine Ca need not exceed 1.5 kips In Zone 4.40 × 1.11C a IW = 0.40 (1.1 The total base shear in a given direction is determined from: V= Cv I .5 × .626 = 73.0) = .5 kips 8.672 Determine base shear.1 if the conditions of §1629.2 Therefore C a = .2 are met.5 (30-7) (30-6) In this example.2.4 kips W= 8.2 ) = .11 × .

2.2 - " .Example 19 Structure Period Using Method §1630.

2 Steel special moment-resisting frame (SMRF) structure. Concrete special moment-resisting frame (SMRF) structure.2. It should be noted that the computation of the fundamental period using Equation 30-10 of this method can be cumbersome and time consuming. The additional 22-foot depth of the basement is not considered in determining hn for period calculation. C t = 0. Steel eccentric braced frame (EBF). The code also allows use of Method B for the analytical evaluation of the fundamental period. Method A uses the following expression to determine period: T = C t (hn ) 3 4 $%(4'&'& (30-8) The coefficient Ct is dependent on the type of structural system used.07 sec. Masonry shear wall building. Height of the structure above its base is 96 feet.035 T = C t (hn ) 3 4 Grade 96′ Superstructure = 0. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1630. 22′ Basement SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . With widespread use of personal computers and structural analysis software in practice. a computer can determine periods much more easily than through use of Equation 30-10.035 (96) 3 4 = 1. # 9 7 Determine the period for each of the structures shown below using Method A. Tilt-up building. Steel special moment-resisting frame (SMRF) structure.

2 Height of tallest part of the building is 33 feet. dynamic analysis is required for this type of irregularity. if the setback represents more than a 130 percent change in the lateral force system dimension.030 (33) 3 4 = 0.030 (44 ) 3 4 = 0.§1630. However. but heights of setbacks are included.” C t = 0. more than five stories or 65 feet in height. then there is a vertical geometric irregularity (Table 16-L).2. and this is used to determine period. Roof penthouses are generally not considered in determining hn . §1630.030 T = C t (hn ) 3 4 44' = 0. 10' Typ.030 T = C t (hn ) 3 4 Setback 33′ 22′ = 0.41 sec . 60' 45' Front wall elevation Back wall elevatio SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . C t = 0.51 sec . §1630. For taller structures.2.2 Example 19 Structure Period Using M ethod A Concrete special moment-resisting frame (SMRF) structure. §1630.2.2 29' 29' 10' Typ. EBF structures use the Ct for the category “all other buildings.2 Steel eccentric braced frame (EBF).2. Masonry shear wall building.

7 sq ft 12 [ ( ) ]+ [9.2 + 0.07 hn Back Wall De = 45 ft Ae = (45'−3x10') x De = 1. respectively.Example 19 Structure Period Using Method §1630.2 + 0.55 hn Using Equation 30-9.63 = 12.9.” or its value may be computed from the following formula: Ct = where D Ac = ∑ Ae 0. Ct may be taken as 0.63 = 9.7 0.020. Ac = 12.2.5 sq ft 12 7.5 ( 0. the value of Ac can be determined.2 (30-9) Solving for De and Ae for front and back walls.4 sq ft 2 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .1 Ac §1630.2 For this structure.9 2 7.2 + e h n 2 0. the value for “all other buildings. Front Wall Nominal CMU wall thickness = 8” Actual CMU wall thickness = 7. the value of Ac is determined. Note that the maximum value of De /hn that can be used is 0.625” hn = 29 ft De = 60 ft Ae = (60'−4 x10') x De = 2.9 ) ]= 22.2.

4 3 = 0. The code formula for period does not take into consideration the fact that the real period of the building is highly dependent on the roof diaphragm construction.2. This type of structural system has relatively rigid walls and a flexible roof diaphragm. Thus.020 for “all other buildings” T = C t (h n ) 3 4 = 0.1 22. 3' typ. for use in determining design base shear.020 (29 ) 3 4 = 0. It is acceptable.2 Example 19 Structure Period Using M ethod A Ct = 0.9. 150' 8' typ.021 (29 ) T = C t (h n ) 4 3 4 = 0.3. It should be noted that the actual diaphragm response is approximately taken into account in the design process by increased seismic force provisions on wall anchors and by the limit of R = 4 for calculation of diaphragm loads as required under §1633. Tilt-up building. Under current code provisions. Consider a tilt-up building 150 ft x 200 ft in plan that has a panelized wood roof and the typical wall elevation shown below.020 T = C t (h n ) 3 4 = 0.02 (20) 3 4 = 0. 20' 15' typ.2. Typical wall elevatio C t = 0.26 sec . the period can be determined using Ct = . however.25 sec . Alternately.021 = 0.19 sec . the period computed above is not a good estimate of the real fundamental period of this type of building.§1630. 20' typ. either period can be used to determine base shear. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

§1630.4 Seismic source type B Distance to seismic source = 5 km R = 5. Determine base shear. Section 1630.2 requires that a Type S D soil profile be used in seismic Zones 3 and 4. a default/prescribed soil profile must be used.2. The soil profile type for the site is unknown. Determine lateral forces at each level. the following steps are followed: Check applicability of simplified method.Example 20 Simplified Design Base Shea §1630. Determine base shear. or other buildings not more than two stories can use the simplified method.3 Because soil properties for the site are not known. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1629.3. N a = 1.2.5 W = 750k 20' Level 3 20' Story weight 150k 12' 300k 12' 2 1 12' 300k In solving this example.3 &4 " # 8 " $%(4'&'( Determine the design base shear and the design lateral forces for a three-story wood structural panel wall building using the simplified design base shear.2 Check applicability of simplified method.k.2.8. The following information is known: 1 2 3 Z = 0.0 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual Table 16-S . Light frame construction not more than three stories. ∴ o.

24 (300 ) = 72 k F3 = 0. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .0 (0.24 (150) = 36 k Commentary The following is a comparison of simplified base shear with standard design base shear.2 (750) = 150 kips R 5. 3 Example 20 Simplified Design Base Shear C a = 0.3 Determine lateral forces at each level.44 N a = 0.44 )750 W= = (0.5 R Table 16-Q (30-11) §1630.44 V= 3.0C a w x = 0.0 ) W = W = 0.24 w x R (30-12) F1 = 0.3.0C a 3.24)750 = 180 k 5.5 (30-12) The distribution of seismic forces over the height of the structure is Fx = (V − Ft ) w x h x ∑ wi hi i =1 n (30-15) where V − Ft = 150 kips since Ft = 0 in this example.5 (0.5C a I 2.44 (1.2. Fx = 3.24 (300) = 72 k F2 = 0.44 )(1. The standard method of determining the design base shear is as follows: V= 2.2.§1630.2W = 0.0) = 0.

33 0.3 allows the near source factor N a = 1. Another advantage is that the value of the near-source factor N a used to determine Ca need not exceed: 1.222 Fx 50.Example 20 Simplified Design Base Shea §1630.8.0 Fx w x 0.600 w x hx Σw i h i 0.2 are not present and 1.3 if irregularities listed in §1630. which are otherwise applicable.444 0.333 0.3.2.3 Σv = 150.4.2.11 Σw i hi = 16.400 k-ft 7.22 0. The Blue Book equation V = 0.2 are complied with It should be noted that Section 104.200 The design base shear V and the lateral force values Fx at each level are all less than those determined by the simplified method.8C aW does not contain the R factor.2. The principal advantage of the simplified method is that there is no need to conform to the provisions listed in §1630.2.2 of the 1999 SEAOC Blue Book has different requirements for applicability of the simplified method: Single family two stories or less Light frame up to three stories Regular buildings up to two stories Blue Book §105. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .0 kips 66.1 if the conditions of §1629. which eliminates the sometimes difficult problem of selecting the appropriate R value for small buildings that have complex and/or mixed lateral load resisting systems.3.3 Level x 3 2 1 hx 36 ft 24 12 wx 150 kips 300 300 w x hx 5.0 for evaluation of C a .200 3.4.7 33.

5 This combined system falls under vertical combinations of §1630. determine the required R factor and related design base shear requirements.2.2 to determine the applicable R values for combined vertical systems.6 Steel special moment-resisting frame R = 8.2 Example 21 Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical & " "1 ! / $%(4'*'& In structural engineering practice. Concrete bearing wall R = 4. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Steel ordinary braced frame over steel SMRF. Steel ordinary braced frame R = 5.§1630. the entire structure must use R = 5.5 Concrete special momentresisting frame R = 8.4.2 cannot be used. This example illustrates use of the requirements of §1630. under Item 1 of §1630. For the three systems shown below. Therefore.6 .4. it is sometimes necessary to design buildings that have a vertical combination of different lateral force-resisting systems.4. Because the rigid system is above the flexible system.2. For example.4. the bottom part of the structure may be a rigid frame and top part a braced frame or shear wall.5 . Concrete bearing wall over concrete SMRF.4. Item 2 of §1630.

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4. Therefore. Item 4: 1. ρ = 1.1 (.2 cannot be used. 2. Tupper = 0.5 .56 sec < 1.1 times period of upper portion.4.0 Stiffness = 10.56 sec Shear walls Concrete building frame system R = 5.5. Applicable criteria.2.3.k. Because the rigid portion is above the flexible portion. stiffness upper portion = 175 k/in. Flexible upper portion supported on rigid lower portion.5.2. the two stage static analysis may be used.8. Concrete SMRF R = 8. Average story stiffness of lower portion is at least 10 times average story stiffness of upper portion. Tlower = 0. the entire structure must use R = 4. Concrete SMRF over a concrete building frame system. Item 2. 0.4. Period of entire structure is not greater than 1.2.55 sec Tcombined = 0.4.55) = 0. o.Example 21 Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical §1630.000 k/in.2. Item 2 of §1630.k.000 k/in. ∴ Provisions of §1630. Under §1630. This is a vertical combination of a flexible system over a more rigid system. > 10 (175) = 1.2 This combined system falls under vertical combinations of §1630. provided the structures conform to §1629.4. 3. o. Item 4.k.3. under Item 1 of §1630.4. 10.03 sec Check requirements of §1629.8.5 Avg.750 k/in.61 sec o. ρ = 1. Item 2 can be used SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

5 and ρ = 1.5 1. Design upper SMRF using R = 8.5 and ρ = 1.2 Example 21 Combination of Structural Systems: Vertical Design procedures for upper and lower structures.0 Vframe = 1. ∴V base = Amplified V frame + (V lower ) 8.4.0 for the lower portion).03 Vframe Vbase ( ) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .§1630.5 Vframe Design the lower portion of the building frame system for the combined effects of the amplified V frame force and the lateral forces due to the base shear for the lower portion of the structure (using R = 5.5 1.5 Amplified Vframe = 5.

3 " "1 ! 7# 7 $%(4'*'( This example illustrates determination of R values for a building that has different structural systems along different axes (i. the provisions of §1630. A B C D 1 Shear wall 2 3 Typical floor plan Lines A and D are reinforced concrete bearing walls: R = 4. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .. In this example.3 require that when a structure has bearing walls in one direction.Example 22 Combination of Structural Systems: Along Different Axes §1630.e. and the building is located in Zone 4. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference In Zones 3 and 4.4.5 Lines 1. a 3-story building has concrete shear walls in one direction and concrete moment frames in the other. directions) of the building. 2 and 3 are concrete special moment-resisting frames: R = 8.5 Determine th R value for each direction. Determine the R value for each direction. Floors are concrete slab.5 in both directions.4. ∴ Use R = 4. the R value used for the orthogonal direction cannot be greater than that for the bearing wall system.

A more direct approach would be to design the orthogonal system such that the ∆ M value is below the value that would result in the loss of bearing wall capacity.3 Example 22 Combination of Structural Systems: Along Different Axes Commentary The reason for this orthogonal system requirement is to provide sufficient strength and stiffness to limit the amount of out-of-plane deformation of the bearing wall system. However. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . The design loads for the special moment-resisting frames are calculated using R = 4. the frame details must comply with the requirements for the R = 8.4.5 system.§1630.5 .

5 .6 . Lines 2 and 3 are steel ordinary braced frames: R = 5. ∴ Use R = 4. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference In Zones 2.4. 3. Determine th R value for the N/S direction. when a combination of structural systems is used in the same direction. A one-story steel frame structure has the roof plan shown below. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . §1630.Example 23 Combination of Structural Systems: Along Same Axis §1630.4 " "1 ! 7# " 7 $%(4'*'* Occasionally. This example shows how the R value is determined in such a situation. and 4.4 requires that the value of R used be not greater than the least value of the system utilized. The structure is located in Zone 4. Determine the R value for the N/S direction.4.5 for entire structure. it is necessary to have different structural systems in the same direction. 1 2 3 North 4 Roof plan Lines 1 and 4 are steel ordinary moment-resisting frames: R = 4.

Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1630.06)(233.§1630.07TV = 0. Find the vertical distribution of lateral forces Fx .5 I = 1. This is the concentrated force applied at the top of the structure. $%(4'0 A 9-story building has a moment resisting steel frame for a lateral force-resisting system.8 k 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 In solving this example.5 Example 24 Vertical Distribution of Force &* / .7 sec ∴ Ft > 0 Ft = 0. Find Fx at each level.06 sec .8) = 17. The following information is given: 1 2 3 27' Level 27' Story weight 214k 12' 405k 12' 405k 12' 405k 12' 584k 12' 422k 12' 422k 12' 440k 12' 465k 20' Zone 4 W = 3.5 Determine Ft. T = 1.06 sec . > 0.762 k C v = 0.56 R = 8. First. check that the Ft is not zero.3 k (30-14) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . It is determined as follows. V = 233. the following steps are followed: Determine Ft.07 (1.0 T = 1.

164 0.072 0. or geometric vertical irregularities of Type 1.018 Commentary Note that certain types of vertical irregularity can result in a dynamic response having a load distribution significantly different from that given in this section.061 0.134 0. it is recommended that these calculations be performed to check the computer analysis and to gain insight to structural behavior.4 requires that the dynamic lateral force procedure be used unless the structure is less than five stories or 65 feet in height.762 w x hx 24.077 0.5 wx hx i =1 ∑ wi hi 9 This equation is solved in the table below.8.3 + 17.120 37.Example 24 Vertical Distribution of Force §1630. or 3 of Table 16-L.3 = 39. weight.824 k-ft 42.5 21.712 23.080 9.2 16.260 32.039 0. Therefore Fx = 216.0 35.632 18. The vertical distribution of seismic forces is determined from Equation 30-15.050 0.058 0.103 0. Fx = (V − Ft ) w x h x ∑ wi h i =1 n (30-15) where (V − Ft ) = (233.6 8. Most structural analysis programs used in practice today perform this calculation.300 241.896 w x hx Σw i h i 0.7 12. then Item 2 of §1629. If the structural system has any of the stiffness.400 39.093 0. 2.098 0. and it is generally not necessary to manually perform the calculations shown above. The configuration and final design of this structure must be checked for these irregularities. Level x 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 hx 116 ft 104 92 80 68 56 44 32 20 wx 214 kips 405 405 405 584 422 422 440 465 Σ =3.3 29. n = 9 .082 0.2 233.174 0.8 Fx w x 0.568 14.038 Fx 22.8 − 17.5 Find Fx at each level.7 33.5k Since there are nine levels above the ground.185 0. However. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .154 0.6 kips 37.028 0.3) = 216.

§1630. R B = 100 k/in. the weight of the walls should be included in the determination of the Center of Mass (CM). particularly with concrete shear walls. In actual practice. RC = R D = 200 k/in. and in this example. Torsional shear in walls A and B. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . Direct shear in walls A and B. The mass of the roof can be considered to be uniformly distributed. The following information is given: Design base shear: V = 100 k Wall rigidities: R A = 300 k/in. Total shear in walls A and B. the weight of the walls is neglected. Lateral forces in both directions are resisted by shear walls.6 Example 25 Horizontal Distribution of Shear : " $%(4'% A single story building has a rigid roof diaphragm. Center of mass: x m = 40 ft y m = 20 ft Y D Shear wall below xR A 40' CR e B CM Roof diaphragm yR V = 100k xm = 40' ym X C 80' Roof plan Determine the following: Eccentricity and rigidity properties. Plan irregularity requirements.

D VT. With the requirements for accidental eccentricity e acc .A D VT.Example 25 Horizontal Distribution of Shea §1630.6 Eccentricity and rigidity properties.A D VD. R = R A + R B = 300 + 100 = 400 k/in. The center of rigidity (CR) along the x and y axes are xR = R B (80' ) = 20 ft.C C Direct shear contribution Torsional shear contributio SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . ) ft 2 The seismic force V applied at the CM is equivalent to having V applied at the CR together with a counter-clockwise torsion T. The rigidity of the structure in the direction of applied force is the sum of the rigidities of walls parallel to this force. R A +R B R D (40 ′) = 20 ft R D + RC yR = eccentricity e = x m − x R = 40 − 20 = 20 ft Torsional rigidity about the center of rigidity is determined as J = R A (20)2 + R B (60)2 + RC (20)2 + R D (20)2 = 300 (20 )2 + 100 (60)2 + 200 (20 )2 + 200 (20)2 = 64 × 10 4 (k/in.B A CR 20' B A CR B T = V (e ± eacc) 20' 20' 60' V C VT. the total shear on walls A and B can be found by the addition of the direct and torsional load cases: VD.B VT.6 Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1630.

5 = 47. A = RA 300 × (V ) = × 100 = 75.0 kips R A + RB 300 + 100 RB 100 × (V ) = × 100 = 25. RA 300 .0 − 15.0 .0 + 22.B = Note: these initial shears may need to be modified if torsional irregularity exists and the amplification factor Ax > 1.0 = = 0.0 kips (Torsional shears may be subtracted if they are due to the reduced eccentricity e − e acc ) V ' B = V ' D .0 = 60. which for this single story building are also the story drift values. requires the evaluation of the story drifts in walls A and B.0 ft are: V 'T .B = Plan irregularity requirements.0 kips J 64 × 10 4 V ( e + eacc ) (80 − x R ) ( R B ) 100 ( 20 + 4) (60) (100) = = 22.A = V ( e − e acc ) ( x R ) ( R A ) 100 ( 20 − 4) ( 20) (300) = = 15. VD.05 (80' ) = 4. The determination of torsional irregularity.5 kips The resulting displacements δ ' . B = 25. Item 1 in Table 16-M. This evaluation must include accidental torsion due to an eccentricity of 5 percent of the building dimension. A − V ' T .20 in. are: δ' A = V ' A 60. The initial total shears are: V ' A = V ' D .§1630.5 kips J 64 × 10 4 V ' T . B + V ' T .0 kips R A + RB 300 + 100 V D. e acc = 0. A = 75.0 ft The corresponding initial most severe torsional shears V ' using e acc = 4.6 Example 25 Horizontal Distribution of Shear Direct shear in walls A and B.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

A − VT . δ Ax = max 1.48 = 0.Example 25 Horizontal Distribution of Shea §1630.54) (60) (100) 64 × 10 4 = 13.2δ avg 2 0.54) ( 20) (300) 64 × 10 4 100 ( 20 + 5.38) ( 4.9 kips Total shear in walls A and B.0 − 13.7 requires the accidental torsion amplification factor.6 δ' B = V ' B 47. Total shear in each wall is the algebraic sum of the direct and torsional shear components.5 = = 0. B = 25.6 kips VT .0) = 5.34) = 1.48 = 1. δ max 0. RB 100 0.48 in.2 (0.6 = 61.9 = 48. A = 100 (20 − 5.41 > 1. B = = 23.2 δ avg 0.0 2 (30-16) Torsional shears in walls A and B.48 in.48 = = 1.0 + 23. 2 δ avg = δ max = δ ' B = 0.9 kips SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . A = 75. B + VT .4 kips V B = V D . The final most severe torsional shears are determined by calculating the new accidental eccentricity and using this to determine the torsional shears e acc = Ax (4.38 < 3.54' VT .34 in. Section 1630.34 ∴ Torsional irregularity exists.0) = (1. V A = V D .20 + 0.

” This load combination involves the direct and torsional shears. the torsional shear shall be based on the actual eccentricity minus the accidental eccentricity so as to give the smallest subtractive shear. For the case where the torsional shear has the opposite sense to that of the direct shear and is to be subtracted.§1630.7 requires that “the most severe load combination for each element shall be considered for design. and the “most severe” condition is as follows: 1. the torsional shear shall be calculated using actual eccentricity plus the accidental eccentricity so as to give the largest additive torsional shear. and is therefore added to the direct shear. For the case where the torsional shear has the same sense. 2.6 Example 25 Horizontal Distribution of Shear Commentary Section 1630. .

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

and accidental eccentricity eacc for each level x are given below: Level x 5 4 3 2 1 Fx 110. Separate values are given for the application of the forces Fx at the centers of mass and the ± 0.7 : 9 $%(4'2 This example illustrates how to include the effects of accidental eccentricity in the lateral force analysis of a multi-story building.0 ft ± 4. for the given lateral seismic forces Fx a computer analysis provides the following results for the second story.8 30.05 Lx displacements as required by §1630.2 for the evaluation of element actions and deformations due to prescribed loading conditions.0 80. structure dimensions.1 23.1 27. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .1. 3 @ 20' = 60' B xc A CMx B Fx C N D Floor plan at Level x The lateral seismic forces Fx in the north-south direction.0 80.0 kips 82. The structure is a five-story reinforced concrete building frame system. 1 2 3 4 5 4 @ 20' = 80' A Shear wall. Shear walls resist lateral forces in both directions.05Lx ± 4.0 80.1 42.0 ± 4.0 Lx 80.6. typ.3 31.Example 26 Horizontal Torsional Moments §1630.0 ± 4.5 eacc = 0.0 ft 80.0 In addition.0 ± 4.8 65.0 x cx 24. A three-dimensional rigid diaphragm model has been formulated per §1630.2 ft 25.

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75" 1.0 k 0.62" x c 2 − e acc 196. it is determined that V A = 196.37" 0. Check if torsional irregularity exists.33" 0.51 ∴Torsional irregulari ty exists .0 k V B = 126. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Maximum force in shear walls A and B.68 + 0. 2 ∆δ max 0.2 1.31" For the second story find the following: Maximum force in shear walls A and B.56" 0.2 ∆δ avg 0.0 k 104. The maximum force in each shear wall is a result of direct shear and the contribution due to accidental torsion.33 = 0.68 in.44" ∆δ A ∆δ B δA δB Level 2 displacement Level 2 displacement 0.0 k 0.85" 1.35" 0.0 k 126.§1630.0 k 0.18" x c 2 + eacc 174. New accidental torsion eccentricity.0 k 115. ∆δ max = 0.7 Example 26 Horizontal Torsional M oments Force Fx Position x c2 Wall shear V A Wall shear VB Story drift Story drift 185.80" 1. ∆δ avg = 0. The building is L-shaped in plan.68" 0. The following is a check of the story drifts.51 in. This suggests that it may have a torsion irregularity Type 1 of Table 16-M. Determine the amplification factor Ax.0 k Check if torsional irregularity exists. From the above table.33 > 1.68 = = 1.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

then a second torsional analysis must be done using the new accidental eccentricities. rather than static force procedure of §1630.0).5 is used.19 New accidental torsion eccentricity. Ax for the second story) is greater than unity.2. the following equivalent static force option may be used in lieu SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . While this example involved the case of wall shear evaluation. The results of the first analysis with the use of Ax are sufficient for design purposes.7 requires that the second story accidental eccentricity be amplified by the following factor. it is not necessary to find the resulting new Ax values and repeat the process a second or third time (until the Ax iterates to a constant or reaches the limit of 3.44 A2 = (1.Example 26 Horizontal Torsional Moments §1630. In practice.44 + 0.10 in.2) (1.76 ft Commentary Example calculations were given for the second story. each story requires an evaluation of the most severe element actions and a check for the torsional irregularity condition. The average story displacement is computed as δ avg = 1. If torsional irregularity exists and Ax is greater than one at any level (or levels). a second analysis for torsion must be done using the new accidental eccentricity. Because a torsional irregularity exists. δ Ax = max 1.19) ( 4. §1630.2δ avg 2 (30-16) where δ max = δ B = 1.. e acc = (1.75 = 1.e. Since A2 (i.10) = 1. However.7 Determine the amplification factor Ax. 2 2 1.44 in.0' ) = 4. When the dynamic analysis method of §1631. the same procedure applies to the determination of the most severe element actions for any other lateral force-resisting system having rigid diaphragms.

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Determine the Fx forces for the required design base shear. .05L x ) at each level x . and apply pure torsion couple loads Fx (0. 2. Then add the absolute value of these couple load results to those of the reduced dynamic analysis.05L x ) as per §1631.6: 1.7 Example 26 Horizontal Torsional M oments of performing the two extra dynamic analyses for mass positions at x cx ± (0. Perform the dynamic analysis with masses at the center of mass. and reduce results to those corresponding to the required design base shear.§1630.5.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

2 "# "1 $%(4'3'& A reinforced concrete building has the lateral force-resisting system shown below.5 Axial loads on column C: D = 40 kips L = 20 kips E h = 100 kips A B C D Table 16-N §1612.8. Shear walls at the first floor level are discontinuous between Lines A and B and Lines C and D.5 and Ω o = 2.4 Level 4 12' 3 Shear wall 12' 2 12' 1 12' Column C 24" x 24" f'c = 4000 psi Determine the following for column C: Required strength.Example 27 Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems §1630.8 Office building live load: f1 = 0. Detailing requirements. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference This example demonstrates the loading criteria and detailing required for elements supporting discontinued or offset elements of a lateral force-resisting system. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . The following information is given: Zone 4 Concrete shear wall building frame system: R = 5.

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This section requires transverse confinement tie reinforcement over the full column height if Pu > Ag f 'c 10 (24)2 (4 ksi ) = 230 kips = 10 Pu = 338 > 230 kips ∴Confinemen t is required over the full height Commentary To transfer the shears from walls A-B and C-D to the first story wall B-C.2.0(280) = − 244 kips tension (30-2) (12-17) (12-18) Detailing requirements.8.2.6.2.9(40) − 1.0 E m Pu = 0. These would have to be designed according to the requirements of §1633.8. Because of symmetry. live and seismic loads Pu = 1.2 The concrete column must meet the requirements of §1921. §1630.5.4.0 E m where E m = Ω o E h = 2.2. §1630.2 (40 ) + 0. apply to the following vertical irregularities and vertical elements: . Section 1630.8(100) = 280 kips Substituting the values of dead.8.§1630. and Pu = 0.2 requires that the column strength be equal to or greater than Pu = 1.2 D + f1 L + 1. Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems.1 Because of the discontinuous configuration of the shear wall at the first story.9 D ± 1. the column on Line A would have identical requirements. The load and detailing requirements of §1630.2 Example 27 Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems Required strength.5 (20) + 280 = 338 kips compression. Column “C” on Line D is treated in this example.8.8. collector beams A-B and C-D are required at Level 1.4. the first story columns on Lines A and D must support the wall elements above this level.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

Discontinuous column. The wall at left has a Type 4 vertical structural irregularity. and the transfer loads must use the reliability/redundancy factor ρ for the vertical-lateral-force-resisting system.8. The portion of the diaphragm transferring shear (i. the load demand Em of Equation (30-2) need not exceed the maximum force that can be transferred to the element by the lateral force-resisting system.. transfer diaphragm) to the offset wall must be designed for shear wall detailing requirements. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .2 1. and §1620.e.Example 27 Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems §1630. The wall on Line A at the first story is discontinuous. This frame has a Type 4 vertical structural irregularity.8.2 applies to the supporting columns. Transfer girder 3. This structure has a Type 4 plan structural irregularity. Discontinuous shear wall. C B A VE Discontinued wall Transfer diaphragm Supporting columns Offset wall It should be noted that for any of the supporting elements shown above. Column 2. Out-of-plane offset.

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In this example.2 D + f1 L + 1.0 E m 0.0 kips Determine the following: Applicable load combinations.0 E m (12-17) (12-18) .8.8 f1 = 0.2 for the allowable stress design of elements that support a discontinuous lateral force-resisting system. §1630. a light-framed wood bearing wall building with plywood shear panels has a Type 4 vertical irregularity in one of its shear walls.8.1 requires that the timber column have the “design strength” to resist the special seismic load combinations of §1612. These load combinations are: 1. For vertical irregularity Type 4.0 kips Live L = 3. Required column design strength.§1630.4.2.9 D ± 1.0 kips Seismic E h = ±7.5 Ω o = 2.8. as shown below. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Applicable load combinations.5 Axial loads on the timber column under the discontinuous portion of the shear wall are: Timber column Light framed wall with plywood sheathing Dead D = 6.2 Example 28 Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems ! "# "1 $%(4'3'& This example illustrates the application of the requirements of §1630. This is required for both allowable stress design and strength design. The following information is given: Zone 4 R = 5.

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SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

0) ± 1.33 given in Table 2. E h .3.0 E m P = 0.7 and a resistance factor.8 (7. §1630.2 Required column design strength.2. The resulting “design strength” = (1.3 kips and a tension load of 14. P = 1.0 (19.0) + 0. The 1.0 .6 kips For the required “design strength” check.0) + 19.8.2 kips (12-18) (12-17) (30-2) Commentary For allowable stress design. Division III.3 kips P = 0. more realistic loads that it will be required to carry because of the discontinuity in the shear wall at the first floor. In making this “design strength” check.8.0 kips L = 3. but may be combined with the duration of load increase C D = 1.0)(1.9 D ± 1. hopefully.0 ) = 19.0 kips or − 14.0 kips E m = Ω o E h = 2. the timber column must be checked for a compression load of 28.5 (3. by the factor Ω o = 2. live and seismic loads are determined as: D = 6.33) (allowable stress). In this shear wall. The appropriate dead.7 )(1. This is done by increasing the normal seismic load in the column. both Equations (12-17) and (12-18) must be checked.2 of Chapter 23. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . the timber column carries only axial loads. φ .2. This also applies to the mechanical hold-down element required to resist the tension load.1 permits use of an allowable stress increase of 1.6 = 28.3.9 (6.2 kips . The purpose of the “design strength” check is to check the column for higher and.7 increase is not to be combined with the one-third increase permitted by §1612.8 .6 ) = 25.Example 28 Elements Supporting Discontinuous Systems §1630.2 (6.2 D + f 1 L + E m P = 1. of 1.

.

Determine soil pressures for strength design of the footing section. The purpose of this example is to illustrate footing design under this situation.3.ft Determine the design criteria and allowable bearing pressure. criteria for determining footing size are also on this basis.8. Here it is elected to use the alternate basic load combinations of §1612.2. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1630. The soil classification at the site is sand (SW).§1630.ft PL = 30 k M L = 6 k . are on a strength design basis.3. A spread footing supports a reinforced concrete column.3 Determine the design criteria and allowable bearing pressure.3 Example 29 At Foundation &7 . 0.4 (12-12) (12-13) E 1. The seismic force reactions on the footing are based on strength design. and most concrete design. $%(4'3'( Foundation reports usually provide soil bearing pressures on an allowable stress design basis while seismic forces in the 1997 UBC. However.ft PE = ± 40 k V E = 30 k Snow load S = 0 Find the following: 2' M V 4' Grade M E = ± 210 k . Determine footing size.4 Because foundation investigation reports for buildings typically specify bearing pressures on an allowable stress design basis.9 D ± (12-16-1) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . Check resistance to sliding.8. D+L+S D+L+ E 1. §1629.0 for structural system PD = 80 k M D = 15 k .1 states that allowable stress design may be used for sizing the foundation using the load combinations given in §1612. The following information is given: P Zone 4 ρ = 1.

Try 9 ft x 9 ft footing size. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .1 by Equation 30-1.50) = 2.0 k .4 1.Example 29 At Foundation §1630.50 + (4 ft − 1 ft )(0. For the sand (SW) class of material and footing depth of 4 feet.4 1.4 M 210 E = M D + M L + E = 15 + 6 + = 171.4 1. E = ρE h + E v Since Ev = 0 for allowable stress design.1. Pa = D + L + P 40 E = PD + PL + E = 80 + 30 + = 138. Equation 30-1 reduces to E = ρE h = (1.5 ft 3 6 6 Calculated soil pressures due to axial load and moment p= Pa M a 138. These are default values to be used in lieu of site-specific recommendations given in a foundation report for the building.3 The earthquake loads to be resisted are specified in §1630.4 (12-13) Ma = D + L + (12-13) Select trial footing size.41 = 3.12 ksf A S 81 121. B = L = 9 ft A = BL = 81 ft 2 . S= BL2 9 3 = = 121.0 + = + = 1.4 1. lateral bearing pressure. The trial design axial load and moment will be determined for load combination of Equation (12-13) and then checked for the other combinations.2 )(1. the allowable foundation pressure p a is p a = 1.6 171.71 + 1. They will be used in this example. Determine footing size.0 ) E h Table 18-1-A of §1805 gives the allowable foundation pressure.ft 1.6 kips 1.40 ksf Table 18-1-A and Footnote 2 (30-1) A one-third increase in pa is permitted for the load combinations that include earthquake load.8.5 Check bearing pressure against allowable with one-third increase. and the lateral sliding friction coefficient.

3 Example 29 At Foundation 3. R p = Pressure resultant e Pa a p a Rp 3a The load combination 0. there is partial uplift.9 (80) ± = 100.4 kips and M a = 136. Pa 100.15 ft governs.4 1.15 ft. o.5.5' 4.ft 1.4 kips 1.ft 136.15 > 1. Pa = 0.4 (12-16-1) M a = 0. with Pa = 43.5 − 3.5 k .k.4 (12-10) B − e = 4.8. e> L L 9 = = 1. Check for the load combination of Equation (12-16-1).5 k .33 p a = 1.6 43.4 (12-16-1) M a 163. and a triangular pressure distribution is assumed to occur.9 (15) ± = 163.4 1.9 D − governs bearing pressure a= E .63 ft.§1630.20 ksf .ft = = 1. or = .9 M D ± E = 0.9 D ± M 210 E = 0.ft 1.6 kips or 43.9 D ± P 40 E = 0.ft or 136.5 k .15 = 1.9 PD ± E = 0.4 Eccentricity e = Check for uplift. ∴ e = 3.4 1.33 (2. Center line 4.5 k .5 k .12 ksf < 1.40) = 3.35 ft 2 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .4 1.5' For the footing free-body: p Pa = R p = (3a )B 2 R p must be co-linear with Pa such that the length of the triangular pressure distribution is equal to 3a .5 ft (where is the limit of the kern area) 6 6 6 Since e = 3.

5 A S (12-12) (12-12) All applicable load combinations are satisfied. 81 121.20 ksf o. check the gravity load combination (12-12) for p < p a = 3. Average 300 + 600 = 450 psf .2 ksf .ft p= Pa M a 110 21 + = + = 1.9 PD = 0.38 ksf < 1. resistance on the 2 feet deep by 9 feet wide footing face is 2 p L = 450 psf = 0.0) If p had been greater than 1. 3 aB 3 (1. Check resistance to sliding. the footing size would have to be increased.Example 29 At Foundation §1630.25 Table 18-1-A Table 18-1-A Lateral bearing resistance p L = 150 psf × depth below grade Assume the footing is 2 feet thick with its base 4 feet below grade.3 Pa = or p= p (3a ) B 2 2 1 2 1 Pa = (43. These values are: Friction coefficient µ = 0.53 ksf < 3. The vertical and lateral loads to be used in the sliding resistance calculations are: P = 0. o.k.9 PD ).4 ) = 2.2 ksf.33 p a . Unless specified in the foundation report for the building.33 p a = 3. the friction coefficient and lateral bearing pressure for resistance to sliding can be determined from Table 18-1-A. therefore a 9ft x 9ft footing is adequate.9 D = 0. Pa = D + L = PD + PL = 80 + 30 = 110 kips M a = D + L = M D + M L = 15 + 6 = 21 k .45 ksf Load combination of Equation (12-16-1) will be used because it has the lowest value of vertical load 0.35)(9.9 (80) = 72 kips 2' 300 psf 2' 600 psf Face of footing SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .k.8. Finally.

0 + 8.2 (80) + 1.§1630. f1 = 0.2 PD + 1.0 PE + 0.4 The resistance due to friction is P (µ ) = 72(0.1 = 26. punching shear.25) = 18.2 (15) + 1.45 (2 ′ × 9 ′) = 8.1 (12-5) (12-5) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . To obtain the direct shear.0 kips The resistance from lateral bearing is p L (face area) = 0.4 kips 1.3 Example 29 At Foundation Lateral load = V E 30 = = 21.5 (6) = 231 k . (12-5) (12-6) Soil pressure due to load combination 1. Total resistance = 18.0 (40) + 0.4 1.1 kips The total resistance is then the sum of the resistance due to friction and the resistance due to lateral bearing pressure.5M L = 1. ∴ No sliding occurs Determine soil pressures for strength design of footing section.5 (30) = 151 kips M u = 1.5PL = 1.0 E + f1 L 0.k. it is necessary to compute the upward design soil pressure on the footing due to factored strength loads: 1. o.2 D + 1.9 D ± 1.4 kips.2 M D + 1.0 E + f 1 L .0 (210) + 0.2.0 E The section design must have the capacity to resist the largest moments and forces resulting from these load combinations. and moments for the strength design of the reinforced concrete footing section.ft §1612.5 Pu = 1.8.0 M E + 0.1 > 21.2 D + 1.

53 ft Pu 151 Face of column L 9 e > = = 1.0 E + f1 L combination governs.9 PD ± 1.1 per Exception 1 of §1612.2 D + 1.9 D ± 1.5 − 2.97 ft p= 2 1 2 1 Pu = (151) (2.5 k .20 ksf. a = 4. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .97 )(9.0 (40) = 112 kips or 32 kips M u = 0.1.0 PE = 0. Note also that the value of p due to the strength design factored loads need not be less than 1.Example 29 At Foundation §1630.3 Eccentricity e = M u 231 = = 1. and moments must be multiplied by 1.8.ft Eccentricity e = M u 223.32 ksf therefore partial uplift occurs.5 ft 6 6 Therefore partial uplift occurs.91' p = 3.50' The footing pressure is less than that for the combination of 1.50 ft p= 2 1 2 1 Pu = (112 ) (2.77 ksf 3 aB 3 3a = 8.9 M D ± 1.0M E = 0.32 ksf 3 aB 3 3a = 7.0 = 2.5 = 1.9 (80) ± 1.5 − e = 4.0).2. Therefore the 1.9 (15) ± 1.53 = 2.77 ksf Soil pressure due to load combination 0.33 p a = 3.0 ) = 3.00 ft Pu 112 Face of column e> L = 1.0 E : Pu = 0.5 = = 2. the 1.0) = 3. punching shear.0 (210 ) = 223.5 ft 6 p = 3.2 D + 1.5 k . Note that the resulting direct shear. (Note: At the time of publication.50)(9.ft or 196.0 E + f 1 L . since it is used as a load for concrete section design rather than for determining footing size.5 k .5 − e = 4.1 factor is under consideration for change to 1.ft (12-6) (12-6) Compute pressure load due to Pu = 112 kips and M u = 223. a = 4.

0 R = 8. The elevation of Line D is also shown. Level 4 3 2 1 ∆S 1. and the following information is given: A B C D $%(4'- Zone 4 I = 1.63 .§1630. These values include both translational and torsional (with accidental eccentricity) effects.3.60 sec Seismic force Typical floor plan ∆S Level 4 Deflected shape 12' 3 12' 2 12' 1 12' Elevation of Line D The following are the design level response displacements ∆ S (total drift) for the frame along Line D.30 SEAOC Seismic Design M anual . As permitted by §1630.03 . ∆ S has been determined due to design forces based on the unreduced period calculated using Method B.5 Ω o = 2.51 in 1.8 T = 0.10.9 Example 30 Dri (4 A four-story special moment-resisting frame (SMRF) building has the typical floor plan as shown below.

37 in.2 For structures with a fundamental period less than 0. §1630.2 requires that the ∆ M story drift not exceed 0.5)(∆ S ) = 5.37 in. Check story 3 for story drift limit.9 For the frame on Line D.025 times the story height.51 in 1. ∴ Story drift is within limits SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . §1630.37 in.12 − 3.10 Story 3 is located between Levels 2 and 3.75 = 2. Story drift in story 3 due to ∆ M .7 (8.2 Maximum inelastic response displacements ∆ M . determine the following: Maximum inelastic response displacements ∆ M . Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1630.98 in 6.95∆ S Therefore Level 4 3 2 1 (30-17) ∆S 1. §1630.10. Check story 3 for story drift limit.Example 30 Dri §1630.9.12 3. Story drift limit = .025 (144) = 3.7 seconds. For story 3 Story drift using ∆ M = 2.10.7 R∆ S = 0.03 0.30 ∆M 8.79 Story drift in story 3 due to ∆ M . Thus ∆ M drift = 6. These are determined using the ∆ S values and the R-factor ∆ M = 0.63 0.75 1.60 in > 2.

Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1630.5 4 12' 3 12' 2 12' 1 16' Determine the following: 0 Maximum inelastic response displacements. Compare story drifts with the limit value.2.9.9.60 sec. are determined from the following: ∆ M = 0. the calculated story drift cannot exceed 0. Check building period. a four-story steel special moment-resisting frame (SMRF) structure has the design level response displacements ∆ S shown. T = .§1630.10.5) ∆ S = 5.7 (8. R = 8. §1630.1 Maximum inelastic response displacements.025 times the story height for structures having a period less than 0.91 1.95∆ S (30-17) Compare story drifts ith the limit value.70 sec .36 0. Maximum inelastic response displacements. In the example given below. 1. the code places limits on story drifts. The limits are based on the maximum inelastic response displacements and not the design level response displacements determined from the design base shear of §1630. ∆ M .10 Example 31 Story Drift Limitations ( "1 $%(4'4 For the design of new buildings.44 in.7 seconds.7 R∆ S ∴ ∆ M = 0.79 Zone 4 T = 0. elastic analysis.60 sec < . A Level B C D Deflected shape ∆S 2.1 using a static. These have been determined according to §1630.2 Using ∆ M story displacements.

SEAOC Seismic Design M anual .

10 Therefore. Therefore. For ∆ M drift = ∆ Mi − ∆ Mi−1 .k. 3.60 in.025 story height. o.44 in.91 1.2 ∆S 2.70 Limit 3. 11.60 4. Level 1 ∆ M drift ≤ . Commentary Whenever the dynamic analysis procedure of §1631 is used.k.36 8.025 (12 ft × 12 in.60 3.Example 31 Story Drift Limitations §1630.025h = .09 4. o. 3. Levels 4.k.10./ft ) = 4. story drift should be determined as the modal combination of the story drift for each mode.80 Status o. and 2 ∆ M drift ≤ .60 in. the story drift limits of §1630. check actual story drifts against limits: Level i 4 3 2 1 §1630. 1.025h = . o. Differences in the combined mode displacements can be less than the combined mode story drift.025 (16 ft × 12 in.39 4. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .27 3. 3.79 ∆M 14.52 in.36 0. Determination of story drift from the difference of the combined mode displacements may produce erroneous results because maximum displacement at a given level may not occur simultaneously with those of the level above or below.10 are satisfied.16 in.70 ∆ M drift 3. Determine drift limit at each level.80 in./ft ) = 3.k. limiting story drift is 0.

The following information is given: Beam unit weight = 200 plf C a = 0. The terminology of “net upward seismic force” is intended to specify that gravity load effects cannot be considered to reduce the effects of the vertical seismic forces and that the beam must have the strength to resist the actions due to this net upward force without consideration of any dead loads.40 I = 1. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1630. MA VA qE V A = q E l = 56 plf (10 ft ) = 560 lbs M A = qE l 2 56 (10) 2 = = 2.7 (0.11 Example 32 Vertical Component (& / $%(4' Find the vertical seismic forces on the non-prestressed cantilever beam shown below.800 lb/ft 2 2 The beam must have strengths φ V n and φ M n to resist these actions.11 Beam end reactions.§1630.4 Find the following: A 10' Upward seismic forces on beam. SEAOC Seismic Design M anual .7C a IW p = 0. In Seismic Zones 3 and 4.0)(200 plf ) = 56 plf §1630.0 Z = . This force is computed as q E = 0. Beam end reactions. the design of horizontal cantilever beams must consider a net upward seismic force.40)(1.11 Upward seismic forces on beam.

Example 33 Design Response Spectrum §1631. The values of C a and C v are determined from the soil profile type. using Figure 16-3 of the code and the coefficients C a and C v .64 )(1. §1629.0 From Table 16-T with seismic source type C and distance of 23 km.4 C a = 0. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference The design response spectrum can be determined.2 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . The peak ground acceleration (PGA) is the value of spectral acceleration at the zero period of the spectrum (T = 0).4 C v = 0.44g.64 N v = (0.0) = 0.4.44 N a = (0. In Zone 4. seismic source type. N v = 1.3 §1629. the values of C a and C v are dependent upon the near field factors N a and N v . the response spectrum can be constructed using Figure 16-3. Determine N a and N v From Table 16-S with seismic source type C and distance of 23 km. N v = 1.64 Once the values of C a and C v for the site are established.2 (( # 5 " Determine the elastic design response spectrum for a site in Zone 4 with the following characteristics: Soil Profile Type S D Seismic source type C Distance to nearest seismic source = 23 km $%('& Determine design response spectrum.44 )(1.4. as given in Tables 16-Q and 16-R.2. respectively.44 From Table 16-R with Soil Profile Type SD and Z = 0. and distance to nearest source. In this case it is 0. under §1631.0) = 0.0 Determine C a and C v From Table 16-Q with Soil Profile Type SD and Z = 0.

64 Cv = = 0.5C a (2. Figure 16-3 1.12 sec To = 0.5 1.44 ) = 1.0 Sa = 0.5C a = (2.44 0. In this example.5 Sa = 1.5 times C a .2Ts = (0.58 sec 2.0 1.5 0.0 0.5 3.2 Example 33 Design Response Spectrum PGA is designated as the coefficient C a by the code.1 1.0 0. it is 2. The peak of the response spectrum for 5 percent damping is 2.58 sec SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .5 T (sec) 2.44 ) Figure 16-3 To = 0. This is also called the zero period acceleration (ZPA).5)(0.64 / T Sa (g) 0.58) = 0.0 2.5 × .2 )(0.64 = T T From this information the elastic design response spectrum for the site can be drawn as shown below.0 To = 0.12 sec The long period portion of the spectrum is defined as C v 0.§1631.1g The control periods To and T s are Ts = 0.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .2 Commentary The spectrum shown above is for 5 percent damping. However. If a different damping is used.Example 33 Design Response Spectrum §1631. the value of C a is not scaled. the spectral accelerations of the control periods To and T s and values of C v / T must be scaled.

5 has been used to evaluate the seismic load E h at point A in the dual system of the building shown below. The following information is given: Shear wall Moment frame Zone 4 I = 1. In this example. the frame element design loads for a dual system are usually a result of a computer analysis of the combined frame-shear wall system. An essentially complete space frame for gravity loads. but moment-resisting frames must be provided to resist at least 25 percent of the design base shear.§1631.6.5 prescribes the following features for a dual system: 1. Section 1629. 3. Resistance to lateral load is provided primarily by shear walls or braced frames.50 sec Eh = MA = 53. Moment at A SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .7 Example 34 Dual Systems (* "1 $%('0'2 This example illustrates the determination of design lateral forces for the two basic elements of a dual system. 2.2. a dynamic analysis using the response spectrum procedure of §1631.0 k-ft T = 0. Required design lateral seismic forces F x . In present practice. The building is classified as regular and the Eh values have been scaled to correspond to 90 percent of the design base shear determined under the requirements of §1630.5.9V = 400 kips E h = M A = 53.0 k-ft Point A VD = 400 kips Determine the following for the moment frame system: Design criteria.0 Reduced dynamic base shear V D = 0. The two systems are designed to resist the total design base shear in proportion to their relative rigidities. This is the beam moment M A .

5. the use of the response spectrum analysis is not particularly appropriate since the true dynamic characteristics would be those of the combined frame and wall system. ∴V D of frame = 0.25VD. which in this case would be 0.25VD base shear.5 Item 2 requires that the moment-resisting frame be designed to independently resist at least 25 percent of the design base shear. without shear wall interaction. Section 1629. the use of the static force option is judged to be more consistent with the simple requirement that the frame strength should meet or exceed 0. The purpose of a response spectrum analysis is to better define the lateral load distribution. Section 1631.5 or the response spectrum analysis of §1631. is an idealization that never really exists.25V D = 100 kips This base shear must be distributed over the height of the structure. Therefore.5.7 seconds. Ft = 0 because the building period of 0.6. scaled to the 0.50 seconds is less than 0. ∴ Fx = 100w x h x Σwi hi SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .7 Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Design criteria. and the design lateral seismic forces at each level are determined from Fx = where (V − Ft ) w x h x Σwi hi (30-15) (V − Ft ) = 0.25V D = 0.25VD.25V D = 100 kips In this example.25 (400) = 100 kips Required design lateral seismic forces F x . and this would not be achieved by an analysis of the independent frame.5.Example 34 Dual Systems §1631.7 allows the use of either the static force method of §1630. Design base shear on the frame due to 0. Since the independent frame.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . ∴ M ' A = 75. The widespread use of computers in structural analysis revealed that the interaction between the frame and the shear wall (or braced frame) system produced results quite different than those obtained by the often cumbersome approximate methods used with hand calculations.2 k − ft In actual application. E' h = M' A = 75.§1631. Commentary Use of a dual system has the advantage of providing the structure with an independent vertical load carrying system capable of resisting 25 percent of the design base shear while at the same time the primary system. each frame element load E h due to V D in the dual system must be compared with the E'h value due to 0. carries its proportional share of the design base shear. At point A.2 k-ft > M A = 53.7 Example 34 Dual Systems Moment at A Apply the F x forces to the frame structure and find the resulting seismic moments. For this configuration. the code permits use of a larger R value for the primary system than would be permitted without the 25 percent frame system. a dual system should be carefully analyzed as a combined system to detect critical interaction effects. denoted M ' A . Consequently. either shear wall or braced frame. a shear wall system in a highrise building was found to be “loading” the frame system at the upper stories. The dual system has been in the code for many years. and the element must be designed for the larger of E h or E'h . For example.0 k-ft The seismic moment at A must be the larger of the two values.5.25V D in the independent frame.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual (32-3) . or b.0C a I pW p Generally. Loading. Shear and moment diagrams for wall panel design. determine the out-of-plane seismic forces required for the design of the wall section.2.) Equation (32-2) with the limits of Equation (32-3). The following information is given: Roof framing $%(&'& Top of parapet 4' Roof Zone 4 I p = 1. This is usually done for a representative one-foot width of the wall length.2 Out-of-plane forces for wall panel design.Example 35 Lateral Forces for One-Story Wall Panels §1632. Under §1632. For the tilt-up wall panel shown below. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1632.7C a I pW p ≤ F p ≤ 4. assuming a uniformly distributed out-of-plane loading. F p = 4.2 . it is more advantageous to use Equation (32-2) with the Equation (32-3) limits.+"1 < This example illustrates the determination of the total design lateral seismic force on a tilt-up wall panel supported at its base and at the roof diaphragm level.0C a I pW p Fp = a p Ca I p h 1 + 3 x Rp hr Wp (32-1) (32-2) 0.0 C a = 0. design lateral seismic forces can be determined using either: a.4 Panel thickness = 8 inches Normal weight concrete (150 pcf) fp Tilt-up panel 20' Assumed pin support Determine the following: Ground Out-of-plane forces for wall panel design. shear and moment diagrams for parapet design. and this will be used in this example. .) Equation (32-1).

4 and I p = 1.0)W p = 0. The value of F p to be used must represent the average of the acceleration inputs from these two attachment locations.7C a I p ∴ use 0.33C a I p < 4. the minimum force level from Equation (32-3) controls the seismic coefficient at the base. Using the coefficient method. a general expression for the force F p applied midway between the base and the top of the parapet is derived below.408W p .0 R p = 3.0C a I p ∴ use 1. h x = 0 . but this must be uniformly distributed between base and top of parapet.33C a I p < 0. and the effective seismic coefficient from Equation (32-2) is Table 16-O Table 16-O (1. For the given C a = 0.0 0 1 + 3 hr = 0.0 ) C a I p 3. the out-of-plane seismic forces on the wall panel are determined from the “average” of the seismic coefficients at the roof and the base. the wall panel seismic force is F p = 1.§1632.0 h 1 + 3 r hr = 1. a p = 1.33 + 0.33C a I p At base level.7C a I p The average coefficient over the entire height of the wall may be taken as (1.2 Example 35 Lateral Forces for One-Story Wall Panels The wall panel is laterally supported at its base and at the roof. and the effective seismic coefficient from Equation (32-2) is (1.70 ) 2 C a I p = 1. h x = hr .02C a I p The force F p is considered to be applied at the mid-height (centroid) of the panel.0 At roof level.4 )(1.02 (0. Thus.0 ) C a I p 3. As will be shown below.0 .

SEAOC Seismic Design M anual .

the total force on the panel is 40. It acts at the centroid.8 plf/ft (24ft ) = 979 plf RR = 979 (12) = 587 lb/ft 20 R B = 979 − 587 = 392 lb/ft The shears and moments are the E h load actions for strength design. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . 40.8 plf/ft 24 ft Shear and moment diagrams for wall panel design.6' RB 392 Loading Shear (lbs/ft) Moment lb-ft/ft When the uniform load is also applied to the parapet. R R . for the parapet design load. However. shear and moment diagrams are determined for a unit width of panel. the loading.Example 35 Lateral Forces for One-Story Wall Panels §1632.400) = 979 lbs/ft The force F p is the total force on the panel. the reaction at the roof. is not the force used for the wall-roof anchorage design. For design of the panel for out-of-plane forces. See step 3.408 (2.8 plf/ft 4' RR -424 163 -326 20' 1883 9. F p must be expressed as a distributed load f p : fp = 979 lbs/ft = 40. below. Using the uniformly distributed load f p .400 lbs per foot of width 12 F p = 0.8 plf/ft uniform loading is also applied to the parapet.2 The weight of the panel between base and the top of the parapet is 8 W p = (150) (24) = 2. The 40.

6W p The equivalent uniform seismic force is fp = 532 = 133 plf/ft for parapet design 4 4' 133 plf/ft RR 532 -1064 Shear (lbs/ft) Moment (lb-ft/ft) Loading SEAOC Seismic Design M anual . shear and moment diagrams for parapet design.5 .0 20 o.4 )(1.33 (400) = 532 lbs/ft < 4. Fp = a p Ca I p h 1 + 3 x Rp hr Wp (32-2) Fp = 2.§1632. hx = hr The weight of the parapet is 8 W p = (150 )(4 ) = 400 lbs per foot of width 12 The concentrated force applied at the mid-height (centroid) of the parapet is determined from Equation (32-2).0C a I pW p = 1. The parapet is considered as an element with an attachment elevation at the roof level.k. Loading. and R p = 3.2 Example 35 Lateral Forces for One-Story Wall Panels This anchorage force must be determined under §1633.1 when the roof is a flexible diaphragm.8. Table 16-O requires a p = 2.2.0 for unbraced (cantilevered) parapets.0 ) 20 1 + 3 W p 3.5(0.33W p = 1. F p = 1.

Item 1.0 C a = 0.(2) .2 Out-of-plane forces for wall panel design.0C a I p W p R p = 3.0C a I p W p Fp = a p Ca I p h 1 + 3 × x Rp hr Wp (32-1) (32-2) 0. Requirements for out-of-plane seismic forces are specified in §1632. The roof consists of 1½-inch. F p = 4. This i considered a rigid diaphragm.Example 36 Lateral Forces for Two-Story Wall Panel §1632.2 . In this example.0 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual (32-3) Table 16-O.4 Wall weight = 113 psf 38' Wall panel 20' 2 Floor nd Assumed pinned 16' Determine the following: Out-of-plane forces for wall panel design. 20 gauge metal decking on open web steel joists and is considered a flexible diaphragm. The following information is given: Roof 2' Zone 4 I p = 1. 18 gauge composite decking with a 2½-inch lightweight concrete topping. Out-of-plane forces for wall anchorage design. Either Equations (32-1) or (32-2) and (32-3) are used to determine the forces on the wall. Wall sectio Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1632.0 and a p = 1. The second floor consists of 1½-inch. The typical wall panel in this building has no pilasters and the tilt-up walls are bearing walls. +"1 < $%(&'& This example illustrates determination of out-of-plane seismic forces for the design of the two-story tilt-up wall panel shown below. a typical solid pane (no door or window openings) is assumed.A.7C a I p W p ≤ F p ≤ 4.2 for Zones 3 and 4. Walls span from floor to floor to roof.

0 (0.0 (0.486) = 1. Fp .2 Example 36 Lateral Forces for Two-Story Wall Panel To determine out-of-plane forces over the height of the wall.4 ) (1.0) = 0.296 (1.§1632.808 plf Fp 2 = Fp1 = (0.808) = 535 plf SEAOC Seismic Design M anual . An out-of-plane force.049 plf (0. is determined for each story from the average of the seismic coefficients at the support points for that story.311 36 3. The required coefficients are evaluated as follows.0Ca I p = 4.7 (0. Seismic coefficient at roof: a p Ca I p 36 h 1.0 36 Rp hr 4.0) 1 + 3 × x = 1 + 3 × = 0.0 (0.0) 1 + 3 × x = 1 + 3 × = 0.0 Rp hr Seismic coefficient at first floor: a p Ca I p 0 h 1.0 (0.533 Seismic coefficient at second floor: a p Ca I p 16 h 1.133 36 3.280 ) 2 W p1 = 0. second floor.28 Using the average of the coefficient for the given story.486 plf W p1 = (113) (16) = 1.7Ca I p = 0. the out-of-plane seismic forces are determined as follows: W p 2 = 113 (20 + 2 ) = 2.422 (2.4 ) (1.533 + 0.533 ∴ use 0.60 > 0. seismic coefficients at the roof.4 ) (1.311 + 0.133 ∴ use 0.533 3.422W p 2 = 0.28 > 0.4 )(1.296W p1 = 0.0) 1 + 3 × x = 1 + 3 × = 0.4 ) (1.311) 2 W p 2 = 0. and first floor are determined.0 Rp hr 0.0) = 1.

where W p is the weight of the panel tributary to each anchorage level. Because the code is not clear about wall anchorage requirements for buildings with both rigid and flexible diaphragms.5 §1633.1 For design of wall anchorage. or (32-2) and (32-3).8. §1633.Example 36 Lateral Forces for Two-Story Wall Panel §1632.4 psf 16' Note that the 2-foot high parapet must be designed for seismic forces determined from Equations (32-2) and (32-3) with R p = 3.1. the requirements for flexible diaphragms will be used for determination of anchorage forces at both SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .0 and a p = 1.049 = 47. respectively.2.8. Item 1 The building of this example has a flexible diaphragm at the roof and a rigid diaphragm at the second floor.422 (113) = 47.8.7 plf 22 8' Out-of-plane forces at centroids f p1 535 = = = 33. R1 = 267 plf Out-of-plane wall forces Out-of-plane forces for wall anchorage design. panel design forces can be determined using seismic coefficients as shown below.4 plf 16 16 R3 = 572 plf 2' 22' fp2 = 47. of the tiltup wall panel.5 .1 requires use of higher design forces than those used for panel design. For design of the wall these forces must be uniformly distributed over their tributary height.7 psf Alternatively.7 psf f p1 = .2 F p 2 and Fp1 are the out-of-plane forces Roof acting on the centroids of the second and first level portions. 2' Fp2 20' 2 Floor 27' nd Fp1 16' f p2 = (20 + 2 ) F p1 Fp2 = 1.2. §1633.2. This calculation is not shown. f p 2 = . Panel desi forces are given below.0 and a p = 2. Anchorage forces are determined using Equations (32-1). Values of R p and a p to be used at the second floor and roof are: R p = 3.4 psf 20' R2 = 744 plf 16' fp1 = 33.296 (113) = 33.

16 W1 = (113) = 904 plf 2 F1 = 1.0 (0.8W3 o.2 Example 36 Lateral Forces for Two-Story Wall Panel levels.085 plf > 420 plf ∴ F3 = 1.4 )(1.4 )(1.8. Item 1 Seismic anchorage force at first floor: At the first floor.6W3 > 0.133W1 3.0 36 Check limit of Equation (32-3) 4.0) 0 1 + 3 W1 = 0. will be used with hx equal to the attachment height of the anchorage.8 (1.0 because there is no diaphragm.4 )(1.0 (0. 1.0 36 (32-2) SEAOC Seismic Design M anual . Equation (32-3). Seismic anchorage force at roof: 20 W3 = (113) + 2 = 1.0 ) 16 1 + 3 W2 = .4 )(1.085 plf 3.0) 36 1 + 3 W3 = 0.0 )W3 = 1.2. a p = 1. with the limits of Equation (32-3).085 plf Seismic anchorage force at second floor: 20 + 16 W2 = (113) = 2.034 plf 2 F2 = 1.356 plf 2 Fp = a p Ca I p h 1 + 3 x Rp hr Wp (32-2) F3 = 1.0 36 (32-2) (32-3) §1633.5 (0.k.1.5 (0.0C a I pW p = 4.§1632.467 (2.034 ) = 950 plf 3.356) = 1.

7 (0. See §1633. forces would have to first be determined at the panel centroids (between floors) and then anchorage reactions determined from statics equilibrium. In all significant California earthquakes.4 )(1. If reactions are determined from the uniform out-of-plane forces used for panel design.2 Check limit of Equation (32-3) 0. Panel forces. It is extremely important that bearing wall tilt-up buildings maintain wall-roof (and wall-floor) connections under seismic motions.2.8.085 plf (32-3) 2' 22' 20' Note that the 420 plf minimum anchorage force of §1633. This is the principal reason that anchorage forces are 50-percent higher than those used for out-of-plane wall panel design. This inconsistency is rooted in the fact that the code does not call for determination of both panel design forces and anchorage design forces from the same method. with limits of Equation (32-3) and §1633.28W1 controls ∴ F1 = 0.4 for steel and 0.1 for the special material load factors used for the design of steel and wood elements of the wall anchorage system (i.. Item 1 does not apply at the first floor. Item 1. The 1997 UBC requirements reflect this change.1. when over 200 tilt-up buildings in the city of Los Angeles experienced collapse or partial collapse of roofs and/or walls. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . 1. beginning with the 1971 San Fernando event. wall-roof anchorage for flexible diaphragms has failed repeatedly.Example 36 Lateral Forces for Two-Story Wall Panel §1632.e.8.0 )W1 = 0. on the other hand. wall-roof anchorage forces were increased significantly in the 1996 Supplement to the 1994 UBC. these will be different than those determined for anchorage requirements.2.1.28 (904 ) = 253 plf F3 = 1. To be consistent. 16' F2 = 950 plf 16' F1 = 253 plf Wall anchorage forces Commentary Anchorage forces have been determined on the basis of the weight tributary to each level using Equation (32-2). Wall reactions for anchorage design are shown at right.7C a I pW p = 0.8.85 for wood). After the 1994 Northridge earthquake. have been determined using seismic coefficients for each floor level.2.28W1 = 0.

Attachment as used in the code means those components.5 Table 16-O. Item 4B SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .4 I p = 1. including anchorage. R p = 1. bracing. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1632. and support mountings. Since the equipment is rigid and has nonductile attachments a p = 1.§1632.2 Example 37 Rigid Equipment (2 5# $%(&'& This example illustrates determination of the design seismic force for the attachments of rigid equipment. Design lateral seismic force at roof. Design lateral seismic force at base. that “attach” the equipment to the structure.2 Design criteria. Wp Nonductile attachments Zone 4 Ca = 0. The total design lateral seismic force is determined from Fp = a p Ca I p h 1 + 3 x Rp hr Wp (32-2) Values of a p and R p are given in Table 16-O. The three-story building structure shown below has rigid electrical equipment supported on nonductile porcelain insulators that provide anchorage to the structure.0. Identical equipment is located at the base and at the roof of the building.0 W p = 10 k Level Roof 12' 2 12' 1 Wp 12' Find the following: Design criteria.

that has a period less than or equal to 0.0)(0.2 states that F p need not exceed 4C a I p W p Check F p ≤ 4C a I pW p = 4 ( 0. then the supporting frame must also meet the seismic design requirements of §1632. The anchorage design force F p is a function of 1 R p .4) (1. bracing.4 )(1.0) 10 = 16 k ∴ F p = 10.g. §1632.06 seconds.0. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .7 k Commentary The definition of a rigid component (e. h x = h r = 36 ft Fp = (1. also in Table 16-O states that this applies to “Any flexible equipment laterally braced or anchored to the structural frame at a point below their center of mass. and ductile anchors. shallow.” For the case where equipment. only equipment anchorage or restraints need be designed for seismic forces. and 3.7C a I p W p Check F p ≥ 0.2 Design lateral seismic force at base. comes mounted on a supporting frame that is part of the manufactured unit.0) 10 = 2. Generally. This is discussed in Footnote 5 of Table 16-O.5) 36 (32-3) Section 1632. 1. respectively.4 )(1. which can be either flexible or rigid. where R p = 1.C. Rigid equipment is equipment.5.0 ) 1 3 36 (10) 10.0)(0.8 k ∴ F p = 2.2 hx = 0 Fp = (1.4) (1.0 ) 0 1 + 3 (10) = 2.5) 36 (32-3) Section 1632.2.7C a I p W p = 0.8 k Design lateral seismic force at roof. and support mountings). item of equipment) is given in §1627. Item 3..2 has a requirement that F p be not less than 0.67 k (1.0 for nonductile.Example 37 Rigid Equipmen §1632. including its attachments (anchorages.7 k = + (1.7 (0.

0 W p = 10 k 12' 2 12' 1 Wp 12' Find the following: Design criteria. The three-story building structure shown below has flexible air-handling equipment supported by a ductile anchorage system.§1632. Attachment as used in the code means those components. bracing.4 I p = 1. The total design lateral seismic force is determined from Fp = a p Ca I p h 1 + 3 x Rp hr W p (32-2) . including anchorage. that “attach” the equipment to the structure. $%(&'& This example illustrates determination of the design seismic force for the attachments of flexible equipment. Design lateral seismic force at roof. and support mountings.2 Design criteria.2 Example 38 Flexible Equipment (3 . Identical equipment is located at the base and at the roof of the building. Wp Level Roof Ductile attachments Zone 4 Ca = 0. Design lateral seismic force at base. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1632. Anchor bolts in the floor slab meet the embedment length requirements.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

0.33 k Commentary The definition of flexible equipment is given in §1627. bracing. and support mountings).0 ) 1 3 36 (10) 13.06 seconds.0 ) 36 (32-3) Section 1632. Flexible equipment is equipment. Item 3.0) 36 (32-3) Section 1632. respectively. It should be noted that the anchorage design force F p is a function of 1 R p .2 has a requirement that F p be not less than 0.7C a I p W p = 0.4) (1.0) 10 = 16 k ∴ F p = 13. 1.2 states that F p need not exceed 4C a I p W p Check F p ≤ 4C a I pW p = 4 ( 0. and 3.7C a I p W p Check F p ≥ 0. hx = 0 Fp = (2.33 k (3.8 k ∴ F p = 3.5)(0. This is discussed in Footnote 5 of Table 16-O. including its attachments (anchorages.0 for nonductile. shallow. and ductile anchors. that has a period greater than 0.4 )(1. R p = 3.5.C of that table states that this applies to “Any flexible equipment laterally braced or anchored to the SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .4)(1.7 (0.2 Values of a p and R p are given in Table 16-O.Example 38 Flexible Equipment §1632.0) 1 + 3 0 (10) = 3.0 Table 16-O.0) 10 = 2. Item 3C Design lateral seismic force at base. Generally.33 k Design lateral seismic force at roof.5. where R p = 1.4) (1. Since the equipment is flexible and has ductile supports a p = 2.5)(0.33 k = + (3. only equipment anchorage or restraints need be designed for seismic forces. h x = h r = 36 ft Fp = (2.

2. which can be either flexible or rigid. comes mounted on a supporting frame that is part of the manufactured unit.§1632. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .2 Example 38 Flexible Equipment structural frame at a point below their center of mass. then the supporting frame must also meet the seismic design requirements of §1632.” For the case where the equipment.

Example 39 Relative M otion of Equipment Attachments

§1632.4

(5= 9 7

$%(&'*

Section 1632.4 of the UBC requires that the design of equipment attachments in buildings having occupancy categories 1 and 2 of Table 16-K, essential facilities and hazardous facilities, respectively, have the effects of the relative motion of attachment points considered in the lateral force design. This example illustrates application of this requirement. A unique control panel frame is attached to the floor framing at Levels 2 and 3 of the building shown below. The following information is given. Zone 4 Occupancy Category 1, (essential facility) Story drift: ∆ S = 0.34 in. R = 8.5 Panel frame: EI = 10 × 10 4 k/in. 2 Determine the following:

Level 4 12' 3 12' 2 12' 1 Panel

∆S

Story drift to be considered. Induced moment and shear in frame.

12'

Deflected shape

Calculations and Discussion

Code Reference

Story drift to be considered.

Section 1632.4 requires that equipment attachments be designed for effects induced by ∆ M (maximum inelastic story drift). This is determined as follows: ∆ M = 0.7 R∆ S = 0.7 (8.5) 0.34 = 2.02 in. (30-17)

§1632.4

Induced moment and shear in frame.

M=

6 EI∆ M H2

=

6 10 × 10 4 (2.02)

(

(144 ) 2

)

= 58.45 k - in.

V=

58.45 M = = 0.81 k (H 2 ) 72

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

§1632.4

Example 39 Relative M otion of Equipment Attachments

Commentary

The attachment details, including the body and anchorage of connectors, should follow the applicable requirements of §1632.2. For example, if the body of the attachment is ductile, then the induced forces can be reduced by R p = 3.0 . However, if the anchorage is provided by shallow anchor bolts, then R p = 1.5 . When anchorage is constructed of nonductile materials, R p = 1.0 . One example of a nonductile anchorage is the use of adhesive. Adhesive is a “glued” attachment (e.g., attachment of pedestal legs for a raised computer floor). It should be noted that attachment by adhesive is not the same as anchor bolts set in a drilled hole with epoxy.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

Example 40 Deformation Compatibility

§1633.2.4

*4 1

$%(('&'*

A two-level concrete parking structure has the space frame shown below. The designated lateral force-resisting system consists of a two bay special momentresisting frame (SMRF) located on each side of the structure. The second level gravity load bearing system is a post-tensioned flat plate slab supported on ordinary reinforced concrete columns,

A B C D E

1

2

3

4

5

Plan at second level

**The following information is given:
**

1 2 3 4 5

Zone 4 ∆ S = 0.42 in. R = 8.5 Column section = 12 in. x 12 in. Column clear height = 12 ft Concrete E c = 3 × 10 3 ksi Find the following:

Ordinary column

SMRF

∆S

Elevation Line E

Moment in ordinary column. Detailing requirements for ordinary column.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

§1633.2.4

Example 40 Deformation Compatibility

Calculations and Discussion

Code Reference

§1633.2.4

Moment in ordinary column.

Section 1921.7 specifies requirements for frame members that are not part of the designated lateral force-resisting system. The ordinary columns located in the perimeter frames, and the interior flat plate/column system, fall under these requirements and must be checked for the moments induced by the maximum inelastic response displacement. For this example, the columns on Line E will be evaluated. ∆ M = 0.7 R∆ S = 0.7 (8.5) 0.42 = 2.50 in. Section 1633.2.4 requires that the value of ∆ S used for this determination of ∆ M be computed by neglecting the stiffening effect of the ordinary concrete frame. The moment induced in the ordinary column due to the maximum inelastic response displacement ∆ M on Line E must be determined. For purposes of this example, a fixed-fixed condition is used for simplicity. In actual applications, column moment is usually determined from a frame analysis. M col = 6E c I c ∆ M h2 (30-17)

h = 12 × 12 = 144 in.

(12 )3 bd 3 = 12 = 1728 in. 4 12 12 The cracked section moment of inertia I c can be approximated as 50 percent of the gross section I g . Section 1633.2.4 requires that the stiffness of elements that are part

Ig = of the lateral force-resisting system shall not exceed one half of the gross section properties. This requirement also applies to elements that are not part of the lateral force-resisting system. Ic = Ig 2 = 864 in. 4 6 3 × 10 3 (864 )(2.5)

M col =

(

(144 )2

)

= 1875 k − in.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

Example 40 Deformation Compatibility

§1633.2.4

Detailing requirements for ordinary column.

Section 1921.7 requires that frame members, such as the column, that are assumed not to be part of the lateral force-resisting system must be detailed according to §1921.7.2 or §1921.7.3, depending on the magnitude of the moments induced by ∆M .

Commentary

In actual applications, the flat plate slab must be checked for flexure and punching shear due to gravity loads and the frame analysis actions induced by ∆ M . Section 1633.2.4 requires that the stiffening effect of those elements not part of the lateral force-resisting system shall be neglected in the structural model used for the evaluation of ∆ M . To evaluate the force induced by ∆ M in the elements not part of the lateral force-resisting system when using frame analysis, it is necessary to formulate an additional structural model that includes the stiffening effect of these elements. This model should be loaded by the same lateral forces used for the ′ evaluation of ∆ M to obtain the corresponding element forces FM and displacement ∆′ . The required element forces FM induced by ∆ M can then be found by: M ∆M (F ′ ) ∆′M M The values used for the displacements ∆ M and ∆′ should be those corresponding to M the frame line in which the element is located. FM = Section 1633.2.4 also requires the consideration of foundation flexibility and diaphragm deflections in the evaluation of displacement. The following criteria and procedures may be used for this consideration: 1. Foundation Flexibility If the design strength capacity at the foundation-soil interface is less than the combined loads resulting from the special load combinations of §1612.4, then the lateral stiffness of the supported shear wall, braced frame, or column shall be reduced by a factor of .5. Diaphragm Deflection For a given diaphragm span between two lateral force-resisting elements, compare the mid-span diaphragm deflection for a given uniform load with the average of the story drifts of the two lateral force-resisting elements due to the reactions from the diaphragm load. If the diaphragm deflection exceeds 20 percent of the average story drift, then include diaphragm deflection in ∆ M .

2.

Otherwise, for cases where the effects are critical for design, a soil-spring model of the foundation and/or a finite element model of the diaphragm may be required.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

§1633.2.4.1

Example 41 Adjoining Rigid Elements

* 7># 5#

$%(('&'*'

During the 1994 Northridge earthquake in southern California, nonductile concrete and masonry elements in frame structures with ductile lateral force-resisting systems experienced failure because they lacked deformation compatibility. Deformation compatibility refers to the capacity of nonstructural elements, or structural elements not part of the lateral force system, to undergo seismic displacements without failure. It also implies that structural elements of the lateral force system will not be adversely affected by the behavior of nonstructural or nonseismic structural elements. The 1997 UBC has new requirements for deformation compatibility. These are given in §1633.2.4.1. The purpose of this example is to illustrate use of these requirements. The concrete special moment-resisting frame shown below is restrained by the partial height infill wall. The infill is solid masonry and has no provision for an expansion joint at the column faces. The maximum deflection ∆ M was computed neglecting the stiffness of the nonstructural infill wall, as required by §1633.2.4. Zone 4 ∆ M = 2.5" Column properties: f ' c = 3,000 psi E c = 3 × 10 3 ksi Ac = 144 in. 4 I c = 854 in. 4 Determine the following:

Infill wall 12' 6' SMRF

∆M

Typical elevatio

Deformation compatibility criteria. Approximate column shear.

Calculations and Discussion

Code Reference

§1633.2.4.1

Deformation compatibility criteria.

The infill wall, which is not required by the design to be part of the lateral forceresisting system, is an adjoining rigid element. Under §1633.2.4.1, it must be shown that the adjoining rigid element, in this case the masonry infill wall, must not impair the vertical or lateral load-resisting ability of the SMRF columns. Thus, the columns must be checked for ability to withstand the ∆ M displacement of 2.5 inches while being simultaneously restrained by the 6-foot-high infill walls.

SEAOC Seismic Design M anual

Example 41 Adjoining Rigid Elements

§1633.2.4.1

Approximate column shear.

Column shear will be determined from the frame inelastic displacement ∆ M . For purposes of the example, the expression for the fixed-fixed condition will be used for simplicity. V col = 12 E c I c ∆ M h3 = 12 3 × 10 3

(

(72 )3

) (854)(2.5) = 205.9 kips

Column clear height = 72 in Because the SMRF is the primary lateral force-resisting system, ∆ M is to be determined by neglecting the stiffness of the ordinary columns and the rigid masonry infill per §1633.2.4. Vcol = 1,447 psi . This is approximately 26 f 'c Ac and would result in column shear failure. Therefore, a gap must be provided between the column faces and the infill walls. Alternately, it would be necessary to either design the column for the induced shears and moments caused by the infill wall, or demonstrate that the wall will fail before the column is damaged. Generally, it is far easier (and more reliable) to provide a gap sufficiently wide to accommodate ∆ M . The induced column shear stress is For this example, with the restraining wall height equal to one half the column height, ∆ the gap should be greater than or equal to M = 1.25 in . If this were provided, the 2 column clear height would be 144 inches, with resulting column shear 12 3 × 10 3 (854 )(2.5) 1 ′ = 25.7 kips . This is of the restrained column shear V col = 3 8 (144)

(

)

of 205.9 kips .

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

§1633.2.4.2

Example 42 Exterior Elements: Wall Panel

*&
! <

an exterior element of a building, in this case an exterior wall panel.

$%(('&'*'&

This example illustrates the determination of the design lateral seismic force, Fp , on

A five-story moment frame building is shown below. The cladding on the exterior of the building consists of precast reinforced concrete wall panels. The following information is known:

Level 5 12' 4 Typical exterior panel

Zone 4 I p = 1.0 C a = 0.4 Panel size : 11’-11” x 19’-11” Panel thickness: 6 in. Panel weight: W p = 14.4 kips

12' 3 12' 2 12' 1 12'

Find the following:

Design criteria. Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the fourth story. Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the first story.

Calculations and Discussion

Code Reference

§1632.2

Design criteria.

For design of exterior elements, such as the wall panels on a building, that are attached to the building at two levels, design lateral seismic forces are determined from Equation (32-2). The panels are attached at the two elevations h L and hU . The intent of the code is to provide a value of F p that represents the average of the acceleration inputs from the two attachment locations. This can be taken as the average of the two F p values at h x equal to h L and hU .

SEAOC Seismic Design M anual

Example 42 Exterior Elements: Wall Panel

§1633.2.4.2

Fp =

a p Ca I p h 1 + 3 x Rp hr

W p ≥ 0.7C a I pW p

(32-2)

a p = 1.0, R p = 3.0

Table 16-O

Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the fourth story.

Assuming connections are 1 foot above and below the nominal 12-foot panel height hU = 47 ft h L = 37 ft h r = 60 ft F pU =

(1.0 )(0.4)(1.0) + 47 1 3 60 W p (3.0) (1.0)(0.4 )(1.0 ) + 37 1 3 60 W p (3.0)

F pU + F pL 2 =

= 0.447W p

F pL =

= 0.380W p

Fp4 =

(0.447 + 0.380)

2

Wp

F p 4 = 0.414W p = (0.414 )(14.4 ) = 5.96 kips Check: F p 4 > 0.7C a I p W p = 0.7 (0.4 )(1.0)W p = 0.2W p o.k. (32-3)

Design lateral seismic force on a panel at the first story.

The following are known hU = 11ft hL = 0 h r = 60ft F pU =

(1.0 )(0.4)(1.0) 11 1 + 3 60 W p (3.0)

= 0.207W p

Check that F pU is greater than 0.7C a I pW p

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

§1633.2.4.2

Example 42 Exterior Elements: Wall Panel

F pU = 0.7 (0.4 )(1.0 )W p = 0.28W p Also F pL < F pU < 0.28W p ∴ use F pL = F pU = 0.28W p F p1 = F pU + F pL 2

not o.k.

= 0.28W p = (0.28)(14.4 ) = 4.03k

Commentary

The design lateral seismic force F p is to be used for the design of the panel for outof-plane seismic forces. This can be represented by a distributed load equal to F p divided by the panel area. Note that the §163.2.4.2 Item 1 requirement to accommodate the relative movement of ∆ M is about twice the equivalent value of the previous code.

SEAOC Seismic Design M anual

Example 43 Exterior Elements: Precast Panel

§1633.2.4.2

*( !

$%(('&'*'&

This example illustrates the determination of the total design seismic lateral force for the design of the connections of an exterior wall panel to a building. Design of the body of the panel is often controlled by the non-seismic load conditions of the fabrication, transport, and erection. An exterior nonbearing panel is located at the fourth story of a five-story moment frame building. The panel support system is shown below, where the pair of upper brackets must provide resistance to out-of-plane wind and seismic forces and in-plane vertical and horizontal forces. The panel is supported vertically from these brackets. The lower pair of rod connections provide resistance to only the out-of-plane forces.

20'

**Zone 4 C a = 0.4 I p = 1.0 Height to roof h r = 60 ft Panel weight = 14.4 k ρ = 1.0 per 1632.2
**

hU = 47'

9'

9'

Bracket

C

5' 12' 5'

hL = 37'

Wall panel

Rod

Find the following:

Strength design load combinations. Lateral seismic forces on connections and panel. Vertical seismic forces on panel. Combined dead and seismic forces on panel and connections. Design forces for the brackets. Design forces for the rods.

Calculations and Discussion

Code eference

Strength design load combinations.

**For design of the panel connections to the building, the strength design load combinations are: 1.2 D + 1.0 E + f 1 L 0.9 D ± 1.0 E
**

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

(12-5) (12-6)

§1633.2.4.2

Example 43 Exterior Elements: Precast Panel

where E = ρE h + E v ρ = 1.0 E h = load due to application of Equations (32-2) and (32-3) E v = 0.5C a I p D (30-1) §1632.2 §1630.1.1 §1630.1.1

Lateral seismic forces on connections and panel.

Out-of-plane panel seismic forces on the connections are determined from Equations (32-2) and (32-3) for the particular elevation of the connections. Forces at the upper level connections will be different than those at the lower level. Fp = a p Ca I p h 1 + 3 x Rp hr Wp (32-2)

0.7C a I pW p ≤ F p ≤ 4C a I pW p a p = 1.0 and R p = 3.0 W p = weight of portion of panel tributary to the connection Upper bracket connections h x = hU = 47 ft Tributary W p for the two brackets = 14.4 = 7.2 kips 2 = 0.447W p

(32-3) §1633.2.4.2, Item 4

F pU =

(1.0)(0.4 )(1.0) + 47 1 3 60 W p (3.0)

(32-2)

Check minimum force requirements of Equation (32-3). 0.7C a I pW p = 0.7 (0.4 )(1.0)W p = 0.28W p

SEAOC Seismic Design M anual

Example 43 Exterior Elements: Precast Panel

§1633.2.4.2

The force on each bracket is: PB = ∴ PB = 1 × F pU 2

0.447(7.2 ) = 1.61 kips/brack et 2

Lower rod connections h x = h L = 37ft Tributary W p for the two rods = 14.4 = 7.2 kips 2 = 0.38W p > 0.28W p (32-2)

F pL =

(1.0)(0.4 )(1.0) 37 1 + 3 60 W p (3.0 )

The axial force on each rod is: PR = ∴ PR = 1 × F pL 2

0.38 (7.2 ) = 1.39 kips/rod 2

Body of panel The body of the panel is also designed using a p = 1.0 and R p = 3.0 as indicated in Table 16-O, Item 1.A(2). Thus, the seismic force on the body of the panel is the sum of the forces on the upper and lower levels. Alternatively, as shown below, an equivalent coefficient for the panel body can be determined by using the average of the coefficients for the upper and the lower levels. Upper coefficient = 0.447 @ hU Lower coefficient = 0.380 @ h L Average coefficient =

**(0.447 + 0.380) = 0.413 > 0.28
**

2

o.k.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

§1633.2.4.2

Example 43 Exterior Elements: Precast Panel

The panel seismic force is the average coefficient times the weight of the entire panel: FP = 0.413 W p = 0.413 (14.4 ) = 5.95 kips This force is applied at the panel centroid C and acts horizontally in either the out-ofplane or the in-plane direction. For panel design for out-of-plane forces, this force can be made into an equivalent uniform loading: fP = 5,950 = 24.8 psf 12 × 20

§1630.1.1

( )

Vertical seismic forces on panel.

The code requires consideration of vertical seismic forces when strength design is used. Vertical forces are determined from the equation E v = 0.5C a I p D D = dead load effect (or weight W p of panel) E v = 0.5 (.4 )(1)W p = 0.2W p = 0.2 (14.4 ) = 2.88 kips §1630.1.1

Combined dead and seismic forces on panel and connections.

§1630.1.1

There are two seismic load conditions to be considered: out-of-plane and in-plane. These are shown below as concentrated forces. In this example, Equation (12-5) is considered the controlling load case. Because there is no live load on the panel, the term f 1 L of this equation is zero.

FpU out-of-plane seismic force at upper level

FP = in-plane seismic force at centroid

FpL out-of-plane seismic force at lower level

± 0.2Wp = vertical seismic force at centroid

Out-of-plane seismic forces

In-plane seismic forces

SEAOC Seismic Design M anual

Example 43 Exterior Elements: Precast Panel

§1633.2.4.2

Dead load and seismic out-of-plane and vertical forces. Panel connection reactions due to dead load, out-of-plane seismic forces, and vertical seismic forces are calculated as follows:

9' 9'

5'

FpU = 3.22 k

5'

FpL = 2.78 k

1.2Wp + 0.2Wp = 1.4Wp = 1.4 (14.4) =20.16 k

Each bracket connection takes the following out-of-plane force due to lateral loads: PB = F pU 2 = 3.22 = 1.61 kips 2

Each bracket takes the following downward in-plane force due to vertical loads: VB = 1.4W p 2 = 20.16 = 10.08 kips 2

Each rod connection takes the following out-of-plane force due to lateral loads: PR = F pL 2 = 2.78 = 1.39 kips 2

Note that each rod, because it carries only axial forces, has no in-plane seismic loading.

Dead load and seismic in-plane and vertical forces: Panel connection reactions due to dead load, in-plane seismic forces, and vertical seismic forces are calculated as follows:

9' 9'

5' C 5'

FP = 5.95 k

1.4Wp = 20.16 k

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual

§1633.2.4.2

Example 43 Exterior Elements: Precast Panel

Each bracket takes the following in-plane horizontal force due to lateral seismic load: HB = FP 5.95 = = 2.98 kips 2 2

Each bracket takes the following upward or downward force due to lateral seismic load: FB = 5 (FP ) 5 (5.95) = = ± 1.65 kips 18 18

Each bracket takes the following downward force due to vertical loads: RB = 1.4W p 2 = 20.16 = 10.08 kips 2

Under the in-plane seismic loading, each rod carries no force.

Design forces for the brackets.

Body of connection. Under §1633.2.4.2, Item 4, the body of the connection must be designed for a p = 1.0 and R p = 3.0 . These are the same values as used for the determination of F pU , F pL and FP . Therefore there is no need to change these forces. The bracket must be designed to resist the following sets of forces: PB = ±1.61 k out-of-plane together with V B = 10.08 k downward shear and H B = ± 2.98 k horizontal shear together with FB + R B = 1.65 + 10.08 = 11.73 k downward shear

Fasteners. Under §1633.2.4.2, Item 5, fasteners must be designed for a p = 1.0 and R p = 1.0 . Thus, it is necessary to multiply the FpU , FpL and FP reactions by 3.0 since these values were based on R p = 3.0 . Fasteners must be designed to resist 3PB = 3 (1.61) = 4.83 k out-of-plane together with

SEAOC Seismic Design M anual

2 V B = 10.08 = 15.0 : 3PR = 3 (1. Under §1633.2.5) + 10.39 k out-of-plane Fasteners.2.17 k out-of-plane SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . Body of connection.98) = 8. all fasteners in the connecting system must be designed to resist a force based on R p = 1.4.Example 43 Exterior Elements: Precast Panel §1633.08 k downward shear and 3H B = 3 (2.4.39 ) = 4. Under §1633.03 k downward shear Design forces for the rods.2.94 k horizontal shear together with 3FB + R B = 3 (1.4. Item 5. Item 4.2. the body of the connection must be designed to resist PR = ±1.

The 1994 UBC value is Z 5 times dead plus live load.2.” Find the minimum required tie capacity for the connection between the two simple beams shown in the example below.5C a I times the dead plus live load supported on the beam. This is on a strength design basis and is about twice the load factored value given in the 1994 UBC. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Requirements for ties and continuity are specified in §1633.4 load factor.2. or .5 (0.5 Example 44 Beam Horizontal Tie Force ** 8 : . For this particular example.44 )(1.5.2.0 D + L = 10 k/ft Support.0)(400) = 88 kips Commentary The tie force calculated above for 1997 UBC requirements is .44 I = 1. The following information is given: Tie Zone 4 C a = 0.5. where E h is the horizontal earthquake load to be used in Equation (30-1). The minimum value of E h is 0. . $%(('&'0 This example illustrates use of the beam tie requirement of §1633.22 times dead plus live load. typ.112 times dead plus live load using a 1. This requirement derives from ATC-3 and is to ensure that important parts of a structure are “tied together. This force is designated as E h . Beam 40' 40' Determine tie force. Dead plus live load supported = (10 kpf )(40 ft ) = 400 kips E h = 0.§1633. it is required to determine the “tie force” for design of the horizontal tie interconnecting the two simply supported beams.

SEAOC Seismic Design M anual .

a tilt-up building with a panelized wood roof has a partial interior shear wall on Line 2. and (2) the tributary roof diaphragm force. no parapet Wall weight = 113 psf Base shear = V = .” The purpose of this example is to show the determination of the maximum seismic force for design of collector elements. Elevation Section A-A Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1633..6 Collector design force at tie to wall. except collector.0 C a = .244W A A B 50' Shear walls C A Roof plan Note: Roof framing. Because the roof is considered flexible. A collector is necessary to “collect” the diaphragm loads tributary to Line 2 and bring them to the shear wall.5 Ω o = 2. Collectors are sometimes called “drag struts. In the example below.44 Roof dead load = 15 psf Wall height = 30 ft .2. Special seismic load of §1612. Interior shear wall 50' Collector 30' Determine the following: Collector design force at tie to wall.2. The seismic force in the collector is made up of two parts: (1) the tributary out-ofplane wall forces.8 I = 1. Seismic forces for collector design are determined from Equation SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .4 at tie to wall. the tributary roof area is taken as the 100ft by 50ft area shown on the roof plan above.e.6 *0 $%(('&'% Collectors “collect” forces and carry (i. not shown.Example 45 Collector Elements §1633. The following information is given: 1 100' 2 100' 50' 50' Tributary roof area for collector 50' Collector 3 Zone 4 R = 4. drag) them to vertical shear-resisting elements.

Collector load E h = 67.2 ) = 188.2.244 4. §1633.2.6 Example 45 Collector Elements (33-1) used for diaphragm design.8 (67.275 R diaphragm 4 F px = . The connection must have the capacity to deliver this collector load to the shear wall on Line 2.2 kips This load is to be resisted on a strength design basis using a resistance factor of φ = 1.2.5 kips 2 ∴ F px = .2 kips Special seismic load of §1612. and 1. (30-2) SEAOC Seismic Design M anual .000 + 169. This equation reduces to the following for a single story structure: F px = where Froof Wroof W px F px = collector design force W px = weight tributary to collector Froof Wroof The term is the base shear coefficient adjusted for the diaphragm R value of 4 required by §1633.275W px The tributary roof weight and out-of-plane wall weight is 30 W px = 15 psf (100)(50) + 113 psf (100) = 75.5 = . collectors must resist special seismic loads specified in §1612.5) = 67.275 (244.0 . Froof W roof = V W Rbuilding = .4.500 = 244.§1633.2 kips Required collector strength = E m = Ω o E h = 2.6 In addition to the forces specified by Equation (33-1).7 times the allowable values for allowable stress design.4 at tie to wall.9.

6 specifies that E m need not exceed the maximum force that can be delivered by the diaphragm to the collector or other elements of the lateral force-resisting system.2. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . For example.Example 45 Collector Elements §1633.2.6 Commentary Note that the UBC in §1633. the overturning moment capacity of the shear wall can limit the required strength of the collector and its connection to the shear wall.

Because of the frequent failure of wall/roof ties in past earthquakes. Equations (32-2) and (32-3) are used. Wall anchorage force. # $%(('&'3' For the tilt-up wall panel shown below. Ground Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1633. the seismic force required for the design of the wall anchorage to the flexible roof diaphragm will be determined.4 Panel thickness = 8 in. The value of F p to be used in wall/roof anchorage design is determined from Equation (32-2) using h x = hr . The following information is given: Zone 4 I p = 1. Normally. This will be done for a representative one foot width of wall.2.0 Ca = 0. Either Equation (32-1) or Equations (32-2) and (32-3) can be used to determine anchor design forces. (32-3) SEAOC Seismic Design M anual . Fp = a pCa I p 3h 1 + x Rp hr Wp (32-2) 0. Normal weight concrete (150 pcf) Fanch Top of parapet 4' Roof Tilt-up panel 20' Determine the following: Assumed pin support Design criteria.§1633.2 Design criteria.++ < 7# .1 Example 46 Out-of-Plane Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragm *% . and W p is the tributary weight. the code requires that the force used to design wall anchorage to flexible diaphragms be greater than that used to design the panel sections.8.7C a I pW p ≤ F p ≤ 4C a I pW p The wall panel is supported at its base and at the roof level.

8 W p = 150 (4 ′ + 10′)(1′) = 1.5 Also.2.80W p 3.4 )(1. Embedded straps must be attached to. a p = 1.5 The minimum force is 0.400) = 1.0 20 (32-2) (32-3) Fanch = 0. the value of Fanch must not be less than 420 plf §1633.8. it is desirable that the connections of walls to the diaphragm develop the strength of the steel.7 (0.. Generally. The following code sections apply to the anchorage design: 1. The tributary wall weight is one-half of the weight between the roof and base plus all of the weight above the roof.1 For design of elements of wall anchorage system: R p = 3.28W p = 0.400 lbs/ft 12 Since h x = h r = 20 ft R p = 3.2.8 (1.1.4 )(1.8 call for a positive direct connection.28 (1.Example 46 Out-of-Plane Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragm §1633.7C a I pW p = 0. or hooked around. the wall reinforcing steel.0) 3 (20) 1 + W p = 0. ∴ Fanch = 1.8.120 plf > 420 plf o. and < 4.120 plf Commentary Design of wall anchorage is crucial for successful earthquake performance of tilt-up buildings in Zones 3 and 4.80W p = 0. or otherwise effectively terminated to transfer forces.400 ) = 392 plf Check Equation (32-2) Fanch = 1.8.0 a p = 1. Item 1 §1633.0.1.0C a I pW p = 1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . Sections 1605. Item 1 Wall anchorage force.2.5 (0.k.2.6W p o.0 )W p = 0.3 and 1633.2.k.

8 and §1633.e.2. Section 1633. 5.85Fanch . be at least 3x members).8.8. Section 1633. When allowable stress design is used.4 SEAOC Seismic Design M anual . This is determined by substituting E = 420 plf in the load combinations of §1612. This gives: E 420 = = 300 plf . the minimum anchorage force is not 420 plf as specified in §1633. Item 5: Wood elements of anchorage must have strength to take 0.4 1.2.2.4 Fanch . 4.1 Example 46 Out-of-Plane Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragm 2. Item 4 states that Fanch may be carried by a subdiaphragm..2.8.2. Item 1 but 300 plf.1 has the following additional anchorage requirements.3.9.1.2.9.§1633. Item 4: Steel elements of anchorage must be designed to take 1. 1. Item 1 require that details of anchors tolerate ∆ M of the diaphragm. and wood elements must have minimum net thickness of 2 1 2 " (i. 3. Section 1633.

Design force for wood subpurlin tie element.1.1 *2 < 7# .1 as Fanch = 1. The manufacturer’s catalog provides allowable capacity values for earthquake loading for a given type and size of hold-down element..2. For the steel hold-down elements of the anchorage system.4 Fanch SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . In the example below. It is connected near its top to a flexible roof diaphragm.2. §1633.120 plf. a tilt-up wall panel is shown. The anchorage consists of two hold-down elements.8. The anchorage force has been calculated per §1633.2.8.4 times the force otherwise required. the code requires that the anchorage force PE used in strength design be 1. Item 4 PE = 1. The wall anchorage connections to the roof are to be provided at 4 feet on center. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Design force for premanufactured steel anchorage element.Example 47 Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms §1633.33 x allowable” capacity. The basic task is to design the steel anchorage elements (i. These include the allowabl stress increase and are typically listed under a heading that indicates a “1.e. hold-downs) that connect the tilt-up wall panel to the wood subpurlins of the roof diaphragm. # $%(('&'3' This example illustrates use of the allowable stress design procedure for the design of steel and wood elements of the wall anchorage system in a building with a flexibl roof diaphragm.8. Fanch Wall panel Subpurlin Hold-down each side Wall-roof tie detail Determine the strength design requirements for the following: Design force for premanufactured steel anchorage element. one on each side of the subpurlin.

(12-16) and (12-16-1) permit to be resisted with a one-third 1. §1633. Also. Design force for wood subpurlin tie element.85 (1120 plf )(4 ft ) = 3.4 1.1.240 lbs 2 Whenever hold-downs are used in pairs.272 P E = E = = 4.8.808 lbs Select the wood element such that 1.720 lbs 1. When singlesided hold-downs are used.4 (1.2.120 plf )(4 ft ) = 6. it is elected to use the alternate basic load combinations of §1612. Item 5 SEAOC Seismic Design M anual . is at least equal to PE 3. the paired anchorage embedment in the wall is likely to involve an overlapping pull-out cone condition in the concrete: refer to §1923 for design requirements.272 lbs Since PE is determined on a strength design basis.33 × allowable) capacity of at least 4. Generally. where the applicable combinations of E Equations (12-13).2.85 times the force otherwise required: PE = 0.4 1.8. Item 5 §1633.4 increase in allowable stress.1 Example 47 Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms PE = 1. are required to be 3x or larger. select a hold-down element having a ( 1. The strength design forces on the wood elements of the wall anchorage system can be 0.2.4 From the manufacturer’s catalog. but single-sided holddowns are often used with all eccentricities fully considered.4 Note that tie elements. In this example. double hold-downs are preferred. the through-bolts in the subpurlin must be checked for double shear bearing.480 = 2.808 = = 2.8.1. such as the subpurlin.480 lbs 1.2.§1633.33 times the allowable capacity of the element. these must comply with the requirements of Item 2 of §1633. including dead load effects. it is the earthquake load E to be used in the design load combinations.2.4 1.8.85Fanch PE = 0.1. as shown in the wall-roof tie detail above. The allowable stress design requirement for each pair of hold-down elements is: 6.3.

This type of roof construction is generally considered to have a flexible diaphragm. for the design of the roof diaphragm of a single story building. ! This example illustrates determination of the diaphragm design force F px of Equation (33-1).9 *3 # . $%(('&'- A single-story tilt-up building with a panelized wood roof is shown below.4 R = 4. 1 200' Normal wall A 6 100' Seismic force Given: Zone 4 I = 1.Example 48 Determination of Diaphragm Force Fpx: Lowrise §1633.2 Diaphragm weight = 15 psf Wall weight = 80 psf D Normal wall Roof plan A Roof diaphragm D 10' Mid-height 20' Elevation through building Find the following: Diaphragm force at the roof. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .5 (bearing wall system) ρ = 1.2.0 C a = 0.

Item 3.100) = 775 plf w px = 4 R (33-1) Note that the redundancy factor of ρ = 1.§1633.4 )(1.2. For a short period single story building.100 plf F px = 2. even though the tilt-up wall-frame system uses R = 4. using R = 4 . becomes: w px = weight of diaphragm + weight of ½ height of normal walls = 100 (15) + 2 (10)(80) = 3. Commentary 1. The weight.9 Example 48 Determination of Diaphragm Force Fpx: Lowrise Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Diaphragm force at the roof.5C a I 2.5 . the diaphragm force. includes the weight of the diaphragm plus the tributary weight of elements normal to the diaphragm that are one-half story height below and above the diaphragm level.0) (3. w px .2. The single story building version of Equation (33-1) is derived as follows: Ft + ∑ Fi i= x n F px = i= x ∑ wi n w px (33-1) Fi = (V − Ft ) w x h x ∑ w i hi i =1 n (30-15) . in the direction of the force.5 (0. §1633. from the roof diaphragm.9. Walls parallel to the direction of the seismic forces are usually not considered in the determination of the tributary roof weight because these walls do not obtain support. 2.2 is not applied to the E h loads due to F px (such as chord forces and diaphragm shear loads in the diaphragm). requires that the flexible diaphragm design force be based on the design base shear and forces F px using an R value not exceeding 4. For buildings with tilt-up concrete walls.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

for the single story building. x = 1 and n = 1 Ft = 0 .2.5C a IW R (30-5) Vw1 h1 =V w1 h1 Finally.9 For a single story building. since T < 0.5C a I w p1 R SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . Equation (33-1) is F p1 = F1 w p1 = 2.Example 48 Determination of Diaphragm Force Fpx: Lowrise §1633.7 sec ∑ wi i =1 1 =W and Equation (30-15) gives F1 = where V= 2. i = 1 .

120 37.077 0.080 9. $%(('&'- The nine-story moment frame building shown below has the tabulated design seismic forces F x .§1633. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .896 wh Σwh 0.0 35.058 0.154 0.632 18.712 23.300 241.6 37.103 0. The following information is given: 1 2 3 Zone 4 W = 3.260 32.7 33. ! # This example illustrates determination of the diaphragm design force F px of Equation (33-1) for a representative floor of a multi-story building.8 k Ft = 17.40 C v = 0.134 0.6 8.3 + 17.3 = 39.568 14.098 0.9 Example 49 Determination of Diaphragm Force F px : Highrise *- # .7 12.762 k C a = 0.2.762 wh 24.400 39.174 0.3 29.2 16.824 42.038 Fx (k) 22.2 233.2 I = 1.8 Find the diaphragm force at Level 7.164 0.3 k Level 9 12' 8 12' 7 12' 6 12' 5 12' 4 12' 3 12' 2 12' 1 20' 27' 27' Story Weight 214k 405k 405k 405k 584k 422k 422k 440k 465k Level x 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 h(ft) 116 104 92 80 68 56 44 32 20 w(k) 214 405 405 405 584 422 422 440 465 Σ =3.56 R = 8.5 21.06 sec V = 233. These were determined from Equations (30-14) and (30-15) and the design base shear.0 T = 1.5 ρ = 1.

5 (0.3 + (33.2.Example 49 Determination of Diaphragm Force Fpx: Highrise §1633.108)(405) = 43.40)(1.7k (405 + 405 + 214) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .40)(1.0k 1. in this example ρ = 1. The following expression is used to determine the diaphragm force F px at level x: F px = Ft + ∑ Fi i= x n i= x ∑ wi n w px (33-1) Section 1633.0 kips Note that the redundancy factor.2 .9 also has the following limits on F px : 0.0 (0. Fp7 = Check limits: 0. is not applied to the loads E h due to F px (such as chord forces and floor-to-frame shear connections).0) 405 = 162.3)] (405) = (0.0C a Iw px For level 7.3 + 37. [17. Seismic forces on floor and roof diaphragm are specified in §1633.0k ∴ F p 7 = 81.9 Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Diaphragm force at Level 7.9.5C a Iw px = 0.0) 405 = 81.7 + 22.0C a Iw px = 1.2.2.5C a Iw px ≤ F px ≤ 1. x = 7 .

00 0. the static displacements and information about each structure are given below. or an irregular building. Separation from an adjacent building on another property. 1.” The code requires that the structures be separated by the amount ∆ MT .38 in. where ∆ MT = (∆ M 1 )2 + (∆ M 2 )2 (33-2) ∆ M 1 = maximum inelastic displacement of Structure 1 ∆ M 2 = maximum inelastic displacement of Structure 2 The required separation is determined in the following two steps. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1633. Separation Level 4 Structure 1 Level ∆S 4 1.11.11 Separation within the same building. Requirements for building separations are given in §1633.0 — 0.§1633. into two or more parts above the foundation level.75 in 0.5 Structure 2 Level ∆S — 3 2 1 R = 7. This effectively creates separate “structures” within the same “building.47 0 3 2 1 R = 8.35 0 3 2 1 Structure 1 Structure 2 Find the required separations for the following situations: Separation within the same building.2.11 Example 50 Building Separation 04 8# " $%(('&' Building separations are necessary to prevent or reduce the possibility of two adjacent structures impacting during an earthquake. Expansion joints are often used to break a large building.2. Separation from an adjacent building on the same property. In this example.2.

§1630. Structure 1 must be set back 8. (30-17) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .2.2 in. the solution to this problem is the same as that shown above in Step 1.11 Determine inelastic displacements of each structure.68 in. individual buildings on the same property.68)2 = 7. In this case.Example 50 Building Separations §1633. Often even basic information about the structural system of Structure 2 may not be known. These are For Structure 1 ∆ M 1 = 0.5 × 1.11 The required separation is determined from the individual maximum inelastic displacements of each structure as follows: ∆ MT = (∆ ) + (∆ ) 2 M1 M2 2 = (5. we would generally not have information about the seismic displacements of Structure 2. and is generally not done except in very special cases.7 × 8. ∆ MT = 7.7 × 8.7 R∆ s = 0.9.38 inches and occurs at the roof (Level 4).2 (30-17) (30-17) Determine the required separation.5 × 1. To determine the minimum separation between parts of the same “building” that are separated by an expansion joint.95 in.0 in.2 inches from the property line.7 R∆ s = 0. the maximum inelastic floor displacements under code seismic forces must be determined for each structure. Such an analysis is difficult to do. §1633.0 = 5.75 = 3.7 × 7. The inelastic displacement is calculated as: ∆ M = 0.0 in. The code makes no distinction between an “internal” separation in the same building and the separation required between two adjacent buildings on the same property. The maximum static displacement of Structure 1 is 1. For Structure 2 ∆ M 2 = 0.11 If Structure 1 is a building under design and Structure 2 is an existing building on another property.0 × .2. Separation from an adjacent building on another property.38 = 8.95)2 + (3. (33-2) Separation from an adjacent building on the same property.7 R∆ s = 0. If Structures 1 and 2 above were adjacent.2. §1633. separation must be based only on information about Structure 1. unless a smaller separation is justified by a rational analysis based on maximum ground motions.

the base is assumed to be located at the top of the pier.64 N v = 1. only the case with the vessel full of contents will be considered. W = 150 k SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . # " A tall cylindrical steel vessel is supported by a heavy. other conditions may need to be considered. Design base shear. D = 8 ft t = 3 8 in. Overturning moment at base.2 Example 51 Flexible Nonbuilding Structure 0 . The following information is given: Weight of tank and maximum normal operating contents = 150 k Occupancy Category 2 Zone 4 I = 1. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Period of vibration. Vertical distribution of seismic forces.65 × 10 − 6 where: L wD 2 D t 2 1 L = 150 ft .1. massive concrete foundation. The period of the vessel must be determined by Method B. In actual practice.§1634. For calculation purposes.25 (toxic contents per Table 16-K) C a = 0.0 Determine the following: $%(*'& Wall thickness t = 3/8" L = 150' D = 8' Assumed base Grade Period of vibration.44 C v = 0.4. The weight of the vessel is assumed to be uniformly distributed over its height. the expression for the period of a thin-walled cantilever cylinder may be used. This is required by §1634. T = 7. In this example. For this particular vessel.

2. Design base shear. design base shear must not be less than the following: V = 0.9 and Ω o = 2. These are given in §1630. The design base shear for nonbuilding structures is calculated from the same expressions as for buildings.1.9 (1.2.25) (150) = 41.25)150 = 46.64 (1.06 seconds.2.2 kips nor in Zone 4 less than V= 1. V = Cv I W RT (30-4) Table 16-P R = 2.4 of the SEAOC Blue Book for further discussion.6 (.9 R (34-3) (34-2) ∴ V = 46.2 kips SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .65 × 10 −6 × 18. the vessel is considered flexible. nonbuilding structures such as the vessel must also satisfy the requirements of §1634.36 sec Because the period is greater than .5.4 kips W= 2. This is because Method A is intended for buildings and is not applicable to structural systems that differ from typical building configurations and characteristics.75 D 8 T = 7.6 ZN v I 1.5 Item 1.2 w= W 150. Item 2. It should be noted that the value of the period T determined using Method B is not subject to the 30-percent limit mentioned in §1630. In addition.000 = 1.0)(1. Refer to Section C109.0 V= 0.375 / 12 ) t L 150 = = 18.56 (.4 )(1.Example 51 Flexible Nonbuilding Structure §1634.000 = = 1000 plf L 150 wD 1000 × 8 = = 256.36) Under §1634.1.4 kips 2.44 )(1.000 (0.75 2 × 256.25) (150) = 30.56C a IW = 0.

V = Ft + ∑ Fi i =1 n (30-13) where T = 1.5 Item 2.7 Ft = 0.36 sec > 0.2 k Overturning moment at base. M = 4.840 k − ft (at the top of the foundation) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .4 k L = 150' F = 41.07 (1.2 − 4.8 k acting at 2L/3 (centroid of triangular distribution) The vertical distribution of seismic forces on the vessel is shown below.k.2 ) = 4.4 k < 0. This specifies the use of the same vertical distribution of force as for buildings.§1634.8 (100 ) = 4.2 Example 51 Flexible Nonbuilding Structure Vertical distribution of seismic forces. (30-14) Ft = 4.4 = 41.36)(46. either Equation (30-13) or a dynamic analysis.25V o.07TV ∴ Ft = 0. ∴ F = V − Ft = 46. Requirements for the vertical distribution of seismic forces are given in §1634. The following shows use of the static procedures of Equation (30-13).4 (150 ) + 41.8 k 2L/3 = 100' V = 46.

9 kips W= 2.114 (300) = 34. the general expressions for design base shear given in §1630. The following information is given: Zone 4 I = 1.5 (0. Because this is a flexible structure.0 Soil Profile Type D C a = 0.5C a I 2. the total base shear need not exceed V≤ 2.8 (2.0 ) (200 + 100) = 0.8 R (30-5) The total design base shear cannot be less than V ≥ 0.64 N v = 1.44 )(1.11C a IW = 0.2 k W= RT 2. Vertical distribution of seismic forces.44 C v = 0.Example 52 Lateral Force on Nonbuilding Structure §1634. Note that the Exception of §1634.2 Design base shear. provided the height of the structure is less than 50 feet and R does not exceed 2. # " $%(*'& A nonbuilding structure with a concrete intermediate moment-resisting frame (IMRF) supports some rigid aggregate storage bins. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1634.11 (0. Weights W1 and W2 include the maximum normal operating weights of the storage bins and contents as well as the tributary frame weight.0)(200 + 100) = 14.2.1 must be used.0) (200 + 100) = 117.0 sec Determine the following: W2 = 200k Level F2 W1 = 100k F1 15' 2 1 30' Design base shear.0 T = 2.2 permits use of an IMRF in Zones 3 and 4.2 .44 )(1.8.0) (30-4) However.5 kips (30-6) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . The total base shear in a given direction is determined from V= Cv I 0.64 (1.

1.5 for determination of seismic forces.0)(34.90 + (30-14) (34.3 kips W= 2. design base shear is controlled by Equation (30-7). §1634.3 − 4.90)(100)(30) = 7.3.8 (0.3) = 4.90)(200)(45) = 26.9 kips [200 (45) + 100 (30)] (30-15) F1 = (34.4 kips [200 (45) + 100 (30 )] (30-15) Commentary Section 1634. the total base shear also cannot be less than V≥ 0.07TV = 0. V = 34.§1634. .7 seconds.8ZN v 0.3 or §1634.3 kips Vertical distribution of seismic forces.4 )(1. §1634.3 − 4. a concentrated force Ft must be applied to the top level.0) (200 + 100) = 34.0 for load combinations for nonbuilding structures using §1634.8 R (30-7) In this example. Ft = 0. Fx = (V − Ft ) w x h x ∑ wi hi i =1 n = (V − Ft )(W x h x ) (W1 h 1 + W2 h 2 ) (30-15) Because T > 0.2 Example 52 Lateral Force on Nonbuilding Structure In Seismic Zone 4.90 k F2 = 4.2 The design base shear must be distributed over the height of the structure in the same manner as that for a building structure.2 permits use of ρ = 1.07 (2.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

0 for load combinations for nonbuilding structures using §1634.3 Vertical distribution of seismic forces. Design base shear is distributed according to the distribution of mass F1 = F2 = 200 (84 ) = 56.02 sec WEQUIPMENT = 100 k WSUPPORT = 200 k F2 CM $%(*'( F1 30' 20' CM Determine the following: Grade Design base shear.0 kips 300 100 (84 ) = 28. V = 0.4 I = 1. Equation (34-1) is used to determine design base shear.4 or §1634. rigid ore crushing equipment is supported by a massive concrete pedestal and seismic design forces are to be determined.4 )(1. Vertical distribution of seismic forces. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1634. In this example.3 5# # " The code has special requirements for the determination of seismic forces for design of rigid nonbuilding structures.7C a IW = 0. The following information is given: Zone 4 C a = 0. §1634.7 (0.0 )(200 + 100) = 84 kips (34-1) §1634.2 permits use of ρ = 1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . For rigid nonbuilding structures.3.3 Design base shear.Example 53 Rigid Nonbuilding Structure §1634.5 for determination of seismic forces.0 T = 0.0 kips 300 Commentary Section 1634.1.

3. The tank does not contain toxic or explosive substances.§1634.0 Weight of tank and maximum normal operating contents = 120 kips D = 10. Base shear is computed as V = 0.4 )(1. Section 1632 should be “Section 1634.0' Slab Grade 20' Find the design base shear. The following information is given: Zone 4 C a = 0. For large diameter tanks. and seismic requirements for tanks with supported bottoms are given in §1634.” or American Petroleum Institute Standard 650.4 Example 54 Tank With Supported Bottom 0* < " 8 $%(*'* A small liquid storage tank is supported on a concrete slab. *Note: There is a typographical error on page 2-21 in some versions of the 1997 UBC in §1634. “Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage” for more detailed guidance.4 I p = 1.6 kips The design lateral seismic force is to be applied at the center of mass of the tank and its contents. Refer to American Water Works Association Standard ANSI/AWWA D100-84 “Welded Steel Tanks for Water Storage.7Ca IW = 0. Also see Section C109.3* for rigid structures. This section requires that seismic forces be determined using the procedures of §1634.4. SEAOC Seismic Design M anual .4.7 (0.1 of the SEAOC Blue Book for a discussion of tank anchorage methods.5.0)(120) = 33.4 Calculations and Discussion Code Reference The tank is a nonbuilding structure. the effects of sloshing must be considered. §1634.” (34-1) Commentary The above procedures are intended for tanks that have relatively small diameters and where the forces generated by fluid sloshing modes are small.

Interconnection force between pile caps 3 and 10. Piles are located around the perimeter of the building. The following information is given: $342'& Original grade Zone 4 I = 1. of depth below natural grade. Required “tie” restraint between pile caps 3 and 10. A two-story masonry bearing wall structure has a pile foundation. 1'-6" x 2'-0" Grade beam 2'-0" Pile cap 2'-0" Pile Pile Cap 3 10 Dead Load 46 k 58 Reduced Live Load 16 k 16 Seismic N/S E/W 14 k 14 0 0 Section A-A: Typical pile cap 1 2 3 4 5 North 4 @ 25' = 100' A A 2 @ 30' = 60' 1 6 2 3 A 7 4 5 B C 8 9 10 11 12 Foundation pla Determine the following: Interconnection requirements.2 00 .0 (standard occupancy) Pile cap size: 3'-0" square x 2'-0" deep Grade beam: 1'-6" x 2'-0" Allowable lateral bearing = 200 psf per ft. The foundation plan of the building is shown below. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .Example 55 Pile Interconnections §1807.

2 ft 1. and if this is properly designed. SEAOC Seismic Design M anual .e. The latter is considered an “equivalent restraint” under the exception to §1807. This system is shown below. The ties must be capable of resisting in tension and compression. reduced live.400 lbs = 6.2 Example 55 Pile Interconnections Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1807.10 (74 ) = 7.” Interconnection force between pile caps 3 and 10. and seismic loads on the pile cap. no grade beam between pile caps 3 and 10 (or similar caps) is required. The code requires that individual pile caps of every structure subject to seismic forces be interconnected with ties. a minimum horizontal tie force equal to 10 percent of the larger column vertical load.2 allows use of “equivalent restraint. but pile cap and a tributary length of N/S grade beam on either side of the pile cap may be designed to resist “tie” forces using passive pressure. or to try to use passive pressure restraint on the pile cap in lieu of a grade beam.40 kips Required “tie” restraint between pile caps 3 and 10.. tie beam) connecting pile caps 3 and 10.2. An exception to §1807. The choices are to add a grade beam (i.§1807. This is specified in §1807. Passive pressure = (400 + 800 ) ( 2 2 ft ) = 1. The column vertical load is to be considered the dead.200 plf This is greater than 3'-0" pile cap width. Check passive pressure resistance.2.2 Interconnection requirements.200 plf Required length = 7. Maximum loads on each pile cap under E/W seismic forces are Pile cap 3 = 46 + 16 + 0 = 62 kips Pile cap 10 = 58 + 16 + 0 = 74 kips Minimum horizontal tie force is 10 percent of largest column vertical load P = 0.

and two-story buildings.2 may permit a more economical foundation design. the exception to the interconnecting tie requirement of §1807.Example 55 Pile Interconnections §1807. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .6' 3' 1. This is particularly true in the case of highrise buildings and buildings with heavy vertical loads on individual pile caps. Also note that while §1807. or geotechnical hazards. In design of relatively lightweight one.2' Equivalent restraint system in pla Section B-B: Grade beam Commentary Normally. are possible.200 plf 1'-6" Grade beam B 400 psf/ft Pile cap B 1. Ties are also necessary when the site soil conditions are poor such that lateral movements.2 has the wording “tension or compression. such as liquefaction.2 1. buildings on pile foundations are required to have interconnecting ties between pile caps. a geotechnical engineer should confirm the appropriateness of this decision. However. when interconnecting ties are omitted. Ties are essential in tall buildings.” the intent is that the ties must resist the required forces in both tension and compression.6' 2'-0" 800 psf/ft 6.

Seismic Design Manual Volume II Building Design Examples: Light Frame. Masonry and Tilt-up April 2000 .

suitability. editors. This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the Structural Engineers Association of California. The material presented in this publication should not be used for any specific application without competent examination and verification of its accuracy. SEAOC represents the structural engineering community in California. Web address: www.org The Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) is a professional association of four regional member organizations (Central California. This document is published in keeping with SEAOC’s stated mission: “to advance the structural engineering profession. expressed or implied. II (1997 UBC) . to provide the public with structures of dependable performance through the application of state-of-the-art structural engineering principles.” Editor Gail H. to promote natural hazard mitigation. or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the use. or recommendations included in this publication. California 95814-3017 Telephone: (916) 447-1198. All rights reserved. or individuals who have contributed to this publication make any warranty. to provide structural engineers with the most current information and tools to improve their practice. application of. Suite 240 Sacramento. to provide continuing education and encourage research. writers.org. conclusions. ii SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. and/or reference to opinions. and applicability by qualified professionals. California Disclaimer Practice documents produced by the Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) and/or its member organizations are published as part of our association’s educational program. Users of information from this publication assume all liability arising from such use. Fax: (916) 443-8065 E-mail: info@seaoc. San Diego. committees. to assist the public in obtaining professional structural engineering services. Vol. Shea. Northern California. Albany. and Southern California). findings.seaoc. and to maintain the honor and dignity of the profession. neither SEAOC nor its member organizations. While the information presented in this document is believed to be correct. Publisher Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) 1730 I Street.Copyright Copyright © 2000 Structural Engineers Association of California.

.Table of Contents Table of Contents Preface .............................................................................. 289 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual....................................... v Acknowledgments ........................... 2 Notation ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ix Introduction ................................................. II (1997 UBC) iii .............................................. 247 Design Example 6 Tilt-Up Wall Panel With Openings .................. 159 Design Example 4 Masonry Shear Wall Building .............................................. 10 Design Example 1 Wood Light Frame Residence................................... 1 How to Use This Document ....... 87 Design Example 3 Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure ............................................ 3 References .............................................................................. 11 Design Example 2 Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure .......................................................................................... vii Suggestions for Improvement .. Vol................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 213 Design Example 5 Tilt-Up Building ......

Vol.Table of Contents iv SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) .

Volume III—Steel. Volumes II and III: Design Examples. These illustrate the seismic design of the following structures: (1) a two-story wood light frame residence. calculation-by-calculation. Engineering judgment needs to be exercised when applying these examples to real projects. and the document is not intended to establish a minimum standard of care. Vol. (3) a three-story cold formed light frame building. Gallagher Project Manager SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Building Design Examples. The Seismic Design Manual was developed to fill a void that exists between the Commentary of the Blue Book.” was published in April 1999. Volume I: Code Application Examples. such as how to compute base shear or building period. These documents have been developed by the Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) with funding provided by SEAOC. “Code Application Examples. and SEAOC’s 1999 Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary (also called the Blue Book). furnish examples of the seismic design of common types of buildings. It is SEAOC’s present intention to update the Seismic Design Manual with each edition of the building code used in California. (5) a one-story tilt-up building with panelized wood roof. II (1997 UBC) v . The first volume. the examples shown do not necessarily illustrate the only appropriate methods of seismic design. (4) a one-story masonry building with panelized wood roof. While the Manual illustrates how the provisions of the code are used. Their purpose is to provide guidance on the interpretation and use of the seismic requirements in the 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC). published by the International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). Ronald P. how the various seismic requirements of the code are implemented in a realistic design. important aspects of whole buildings are designed to show. Work on the final volume. which explains the basis for the UBC seismic provisions.Preface Preface This document is the second volume of the three-volume SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Concrete and Cladding. provides step-by-step examples of how to use individual code provisions. (2) a three-story wood light frame building. and everyday structural engineering design practice. is nearing completion and is scheduled for release in late Spring 2000. Volume II contains six examples. Work is currently underway on a 2000 International Building Code version. In Volumes II and III. and (6) the design of a tilt-up wall panel with large openings.

II (1997 UBC) . Vol.Preface vi SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

Chittenden Stephen K. These individuals are both California registered civil and structural engineers and SEAOC members. Jon P. Consultant work on Volume III is currently underway. Shipp. Ronald P. The Steering Committee consisted of: John G. Lawson Joseph R. II and III are: Ronald P. Gallagher (Example 5). Chair Robert N. Kiland (Example 4).Acknowledgments Acknowledgments Authors The Seismic Design Manual was written by a group of highly qualified structural engineers. and John W. Thompson (Examples 1. Stedman SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. They were selected by a Steering Committee set up by the SEAOC Board of Directors and were chosen for their knowledge and experience with structural engineering practice and seismic design. Johnson Scott A. Project Manager Robert Clark David A. Kiland John W. Thompson Theodore C. Maffei Douglas S. and 3). Gallagher. II (1997 UBC) vii . Hutchinson Jon P. The Consultants for Volumes I. Vol. Lawson (Example 6). The Steering Committee was made up of senior members of SEAOC who are both practicing structural engineers and have been active in Association leadership. Many useful ideas and helpful suggestions were offered by the other Consultants. 2. Zsutty Volume II was written principally by Douglas S. Harris Martin W. Members of the Steering Committee attended meetings and took an active role in shaping and reviewing the document. Steering Committee Overseeing the development of the Seismic Design Manual and the work of the Consultants was the Project Steering Committee.

Assistant to the Chair viii SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) . Henry Huang Saiful Islam H. During its development. Chair Saif Hussain. 1999-2000 Martin W.Acknowledgments Reviewers A number of SEAOC members. John Khadivi Jaiteeerth B. Their help was sought in both review of code interpretations as well as detailed checking of the numerical computations. Khatri Harry (Hank) Martin (AISC) David McCormick Gary Mochizuki William Nelson Neil Peterson Michael Riley George Richards Alan Robinson (for CMACN) John Rose (APA) Douglas Thompson Jerry Tucker Craig Wilcox Dennis Wish Seismology Committee Close collaboration with the SEAOC Seismology Committee was maintained during the development of the document. Vol. Their assistance is gratefully acknowledged. Chittenden Tom H. Kinhal Robert Lyons Simin Naaseh Chris V. drafts of the examples were sent to these individuals. and other structural engineers. The 1999-2000 Committee reviewed the document and provided many helpful comments and suggestions. Harris Douglas C. Johnson. Past Chair David Bonowitz Robert N. The assistance of the following individuals is gratefully acknowledged: Ricardo Arevalo Gary Austin Robert Chittenden Kelly Cobeen Michael Cochran Susan Dowty Gerald Freeman Stephen K. Hohbach Y. Tokas Michael Riley. Harris Gary Ho John Lawson Dilip M. Hale Stephen K. helped check the examples in this volume.

org or on the ICBO website at http://ww.Suggestions for Improvement Suggestions for Improvement In keeping with two of its Mission Statements: (1) “to advance the structural engineering profession” and (2) “to provide structural engineers with the most current information and tools to improve their practice”.org Web address: http://www. California 95814-3017 Telephone: (916) 447-1198 Fax: (916) 443-8065 E-mail: info@seaoc.org. Vol. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Suite 240 Sacramento.icbo. SEAOC plans to update this document as seismic requirements change and new research and better understanding of building performance in earthquakes becomes available.seaoc.seaoc. II (1997 UBC) ix . may or may not issue written errata. these will be posted on the SEAOC web site at http://www. In the event that corrections or clarifications are needed. at its sole discretion.org Errata Notification SEAOC has made a substantial effort to ensure that the information in this document is accurate. SEAOC. Comments and suggestions for improvements are welcome and should be sent to the following: Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) Attention: Executive Director 1730 I Street.

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Masonry and Tilt-up .Seismic Design Manual Volume II Building Design Examples: Light Frame.

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Designs have been largely taken from real world buildings. In developing these examples. 19 (Concrete). Vol. Six examples are shown: (1) a two-story wood frame residence. and (6) the design of a tilt-up wall panel with large openings. these are brought to the attention of the reader. (3) a three-story cold formed steel light frame building. or even complete seismic designs. For this reason. although some simplifications were necessary for purposes of illustrating significant points and not presenting repetive or unnecessarily complicated aspects of a design. While the Seismic Design Manual is based on the 1997 UBC. these considerations are discussed as alternatives. (5) a one-story tilt-up building with panelized wood roof. but that they also understand their basis. (2) a large three-story wood frame building. references are made to the provisions of SEAOC’s 1999 Recommended Lateral Force Provisions and Commentary (Blue Book). however. (4) a one-story masonry (concrete block) building with panelized wood roof. The document is intended to help the reader understand and correctly use the design provisions of UBC Chapters 16 (Design Requirements). When appropriate. many examples have commentary included on past earthquake performance. but rather they are examples of the significant seismic design aspects of a particular type of building. In some examples. The buildings selected are for the most part representative of construction types found in Zones 3 and 4. When differences between the UBC and Blue Book are significant. Design practices of an individual structural engineer or office. particularly California and the Western States.Introduction Introduction Seismic design of new light frame. 21 (Masonry). SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 22 (Steel) and 23 (Wood). the performance characteristics of the structural system are discussed. SEAOC has endeavored to illustrate correct use of the minimum provisions of the code. SEAOC believes it is essential that structural engineers not only know how to correctly interpret and apply the provisions of the code. are not given. The examples are not complete building designs. which may result in a more seismic-resistant design than required by the minimum requirements of UBC. This typically includes a brief review of the past earthquake behavior and mention of design improvements added to recent codes. masonry and tilt-up buildings for the requirements of the 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC) is illustrated in this document. II (1997 UBC) 1 .

3 96 AISI E3. Allowable Stress Design. Some examples of abbreviated references are shown below. Generally. Finally. Right-Hand Margin Notation More Complete Description 23.2. which provides the solution to the example. II (1997 UBC) . this is generally done in abbreviated form. AISC-ASD Section 23.2 with 1997 UBC (Volume 2) being understood. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction. UBC notation is used throughout.2” is given as §1630. This is a description of the building to be designed. reference to specific code provisions. each design example is presented in the following format. This is followed by an “Outline” indicating the tasks or steps to be illustrated in each example. In general. Throughout the document. 2 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.223 of Volume 3. “Formula (32-2)” is designated Equation (32-2) or just (32-2) in the right-hand margins of the examples. Table 1-A of Ninth Edition. However. including plans and sketches given as the starting point for the design. Because the document is based on the UBC. Vol. tables. references and suggested reading are given under “References. “Given Information” provides the basic design information. Some examples have a subsequent section designated “Commentary” The commentary is intended to provide a better understanding of aspects of the example and/or to offer guidance to the reader on use of the information generated in the example. Vol. Next. the phrase “Table 16-O” is understood to be 1997 UBC Table 16-O.223. When the document makes reference to other codes and standards.3 of the 1996 Edition of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members. For example.” Some examples also have a “Forward” and/or section “Factors Influencing Design” that provide remarks on salient points about the design. reference to UBC sections and formulas is abbreviated. notation from other codes is also used. First.How to Use This Document How to Use This Document Generally.2.3 91 NDS Table 5A Table 1-A. This is followed by “Calculations and Discussion”. reference documents are identified in the right-hand margin. Table 5A of the 1991 National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS). and equations (the UBC calls the latter formulas) is given in the right-hand margin under the heading Code Reference. “1997 UBC Section 1630. there is an “Overview” of the example. Similarly. Section E3. of the 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC).

in square inches (vertical member at shear wall boundary) ground floor area of structure in square feet to include area covered by all overhangs and projections. the combined effective area. II (1997 UBC) .Notation Notation The following notations are used in this document.1 of the UBC (loads). in square feet of a shear wall. wood or loads) before the definition is given. AISI and NDS. These are generally consistent with that used in the UBC and other codes such as ACI. 3 A = AB = Ac = Ae = Ap = As Ase Ax Aconc a ap = = = = = = SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. AISC. of the shear walls in the first story of the structure. When the same notation is used in two or more definitions. For example. the minimum cross-sectional area in any horizontal plane in the first story. net concrete section area depth of equivalent rectangular stress block numerical coefficient specified in §1632 and set forth in Table 16-O of UBC. Vol.g.. The reader is cautioned that the same notation may be used more than once and may carry entirely different meaning in different situations. Some additional notations have also been added. A = (wood diaphragm) area of chord cross section. E can mean the tabulated elastic modulus under the NDS definition (wood) or it can mean the earthquake load under §1630. in square inches (wood shear wall) area of boundary element cross section. each definition is prefaced with a brief description in parentheses (e. in square feet. area of tension reinforcing steel equivalent area of tension reinforcing steel the torsional amplification factor at Level x. the effective area (in square inches) of the projection of an assumed concrete failure surface upon the surface from which the anchor protrudes.

in feet. as set forth in Table 16-Q of UBC. in feet (wood shear wall) wall width.Notation Btn = nominal tensile strength of anchor bolt in masonry. II (1997 UBC) . (wood) diameter the length. in pounds seismic coefficient.2 of UBC. Vol. distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber (loads) dead load on a structural element. as set forth in Table 16-R of UBC. in inches b b b btu = = = = Ca Cd CD CM Ct Cv c D D De = = = = = = = = = = d d = = d = d da = = 4 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. in pounds. of a shear wall in the first story in the direction parallel to the applied forces. in feet factored tensile force supported by anchor bolt in masonry. seismic coefficient. penetration depth factor load duration factor wet service factor numerical coefficient given in §1630. (wood) dimension of wood member (assembly) (concrete or masonry) distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement (loads) distance from lateral resisting element to the center of rigidity (wood) pennyweight of nail or spike deflection due to anchorage details in wood shear wall (rotation and slip at tie-down bolts). (concrete beam) width of compression face of member (wood diaphragm) diaphragm width.2.

Ec Em = = E. in psi tabulated and allowable compression design value perpendicular to grain. respectively. (loads) that portion of the base shear. E ' = e en = = E. Ev. Eh. Vol. in psi diaphragm eccentricity nail deformation in inches (see Table 23-2-K of UBC) = (loads) earthquake loads set forth in §1630. II (1997 UBC) 5 . in psi tabulated and allowable compression shear design value parallel to grain (horizontal shear). design seismic force on a diaphragm. in psi design seismic force applied to Level i. in psi modulus of elasticity of masonry. extreme fiber bending stress (wood) actual compression stress parallel to grain Fv ' Fv ' = Fx Fp Fpx Ft = = = = Ft Fv Fy fb fc = = = = = SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.1 of UBC. torsional shear force direct shear force specified yield strength of structural steel. n or x. Em. design seismic force on a part of the structure. V. in psi (wood shear wall) elastic modulus of boundary element (vertical member at shear wall boundary). considered concentrated at the top of the structure in addition to Fn. Fb ' Fb ' = Fc⊥ ' Fc⊥' = tabulated and allowable bending design value.Notation E E = = (wood diaphragm) elastic modulus of chords. in psi (wood) tabulated and allowable modulus of elasticity. in psi modulus of elasticity of concrete.

hx I Icr Ig = = = Ip k L = = = Lr = 6 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. (wood) actual compression stress perpendicular to grain lateral force at Level i for use in Formula (30-10) of UBC. (wood) actual shear stress parallel to grain modulus of rigidity of plywood. n or x. in feet = height in feet above the base to level i. (concrete) height of wall between points of support.Notation fc ' f c⊥ fi fm ' fp fr fy fv G = = = = = = = = = specified compressive strength of concrete. hn. in pounds per square inch (see Table 23-2-J of UBC) acceleration due to gravity. moment of inertia of cracked concrete or masonry section moment of inertia of gross concrete or masonry section about centroidal axis. in psi equivalent uniform load. II (1997 UBC) . Vol. specified compressive strength of masonry. in inches (wood shear wall) wall height. in psi specified tension yield strength of reinforcing steel. neglecting reinforcement importance factor specified in Table 16-K of UBC. (masonry) modulus of rupture. respectively importance factor given in Table 16-K of UBC. except roof live load (loads) roof live load g h = = h = hi. (wood) wall stiffness (loads) live load on a structural element.

in inches level of the structure referred to by the subscript i. = Na = Nv = P Pc Pu = = = SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. “i = 1” designates the first level above the base. II (1997 UBC) 7 . that level that is uppermost in the main portion of the structure. total concentrated load or total axial load (concrete) design tensile strength of anchors. “x = 1” designates the first level above the base. in pounds factored axial load Level i = Level n = Level x = M Mcr Mn Ms = = = = Mu = M.C. Vol. in feet (concrete) vertical distance between wall supports. near-source factor used in the determination of Cv in Seismic Zone 4 related to both the proximity of the building or structure to known faults with magnitudes and slip rates as set forth in Tables 16-T and 16-U of UBC.Notation L L lc = = = (wood) span length of bending member (wood diaphragm) diaphragm length. that level that is under design consideration. in percent near-source factor used in the determination of Ca in Seismic Zone 4 related to both the proximity of the building or structure to known faults with magnitudes and slip rates as set forth in Tables 16-S and 16-U of UBC. maximum bending moment nominal cracking moment strength in concrete or masonry nominal moment strength the maximum moment in the wall resulting from the application of the unfactored load combinations factored moment at section moisture content based on oven-dry weight of wood.

II (1997 UBC) . as set forth in Table 16-N or 16-P of UBC. SD. SF = T = elastic fundamental period of vibration. in plf T t t = = = tm ts V V = = = = Vm Vn Vn Vs Vu Vx v = = = = = = = v = 8 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. (loads) the total design lateral force or shear at the base given by Formula (30-5). Vol. (loads) torsional moment thickness (plywood) effective thickness of plywood for shear. a ratio used in determining ρ.1 of UBC. See §1630. in inches (see Tables 23-2-H and 23-2-I of UBC) thickness of main member thickness of side member (wood) shear force. in seconds.Notation R = numerical coefficient representative of the inherent overstrength and global ductility capacity of lateral-forceresisting systems. in pounds nominal shear strength of shear reinforcement (masonry) required shear strength the design story shear in Story x. SC. SE. plf (wood shear wall) maximum shear due to design loads at the top of the wall. of the structure in the direction under consideration. (30-7) or (30-11) of UBC. (30-6). SB. (wood diaphragm) maximum shear due to design loads in the direction under consideration. nominal shear strength of masonry (concrete or masonry) nominal shear strength (wood) fastener load. soil profile types as set forth in Table 16-J of UBC. r = SA.

which is the total drift or total story drift that occurs when the structure is subjected to the design basis ground motion. the weight of the diaphragm and the element tributary thereto at Level x. the weight of an element or component. including estimated elastic and inelastic contributions to the total deformation defined in §1630. (loads) the total seismic dead load defined in §1630. f. for use in Formula (30-10) of UBC. in pounds per inch. in inches.9 of UBC.1 of UBC. horizontal displacement at Level i relative to the base due to applied lateral forces. maximum inelastic response displacement. y = = Z Z. II (1997 UBC) . distance to centroid seismic zone factor as given in Table 16-I of UBC. Vol.Notation W W = = (wood) total uniform load. that portion of W located at or assigned to Level i or x. wx = Wp wpx = = x.1 of UBC. in inches.1. including applicable portions of other loads defined in §1630. load/slip modulus for a connection. which is the total drift or total story drift that occurs when the structure is subjected to the design seismic forces. (wood) the calculated deflection of wood diaphragm or shear wall. Z' = ∆ ∆M = = ∆S = ∆ cr ∆n ∆s ∆u = = = = = = γ δi SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. design level response displacement.1. 9 wi. (wood) nominal and allowable lateral design value for a single fastener connection. deflection at M cr deflection at M n (concrete) deflection at M s deflection due to factored loads. respectively.

seismic force amplification factor. 10 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. International Conference of Building Officials. which is required to account for structural overstrength and set forth in Table 16-N of UBC. Farmington Hills. American Forest & Paper Association. American Iron and Steel Institute. Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary. Other reference documents are indicated at the end of each Design Example. California. D. II (1997 UBC) . each multiplied by its distance to the nearest support. Washington. Uniform Building Code. Building Code Regulations for Reinforced Concrete. American Concrete Institute. Michigan AISC. reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain conditions. 1996. Washington. (concrete and masonry) ratio of area of flexural tensile reinforcement. 1999. UBC 1997. California. sum of individual chord-splice slip values on both sides of wood diaphragm. Allowable Stress Design-ASD.C. Sacramento.C NDS. National Design Specification for Wood Construction. ACI-318. Vol. 1995. Manual of Steel Construction. 1991. = = = ∑(∆ c X ) = References The following codes and standards are referenced in this document. Chicago. Illinois AISI. American Institute of Steel Construction. SEAOC Blue Book. As . Whittier. to area bd. D.Notation φ ρ ρ ρb Ωo = = strength-reduction factor (loads) redundancy/reliability factor given by Formula (30-3) of UBC. Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members. Structural Engineers Association of California.

are considerably different than current California practice: 1. Two of the requirements shown.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence 'HVLJQ ([DPSOH :RRG /LJKW )UDPH 5HVLGHQFH Figure 1-1. such as the one in this example.6 of the 1997 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. literal application of the 1997 UBC provisions. This assumption simplifies the analysis and allows lateral forces to be distributed to the vertical elements of the lateral force resisting system by tributary area methods. II (1997 UBC) . Traditionally. while required by the code. This example illustrates the strict. have traditionally been designed using simplified design assumptions and procedures based largely on judgment and precedent. The use of wood diaphragms as part of the lateral force resisting system. light frame dwellings have been designed assuming that such diaphragms behave as infinitely flexible elements. Vol. Wood light frame residence )RUHZRUG Small wood frame residences. The code has had a definition of a flexible diaphragm since the 1988 UBC (§1630.

.5).and two-family dwellings have been built with the conventional construction provisions of the code without an engineering design. or by a “hybrid” approach of treating closely spaced walls as a unit (i. II (1997 UBC) . the SEAOC Code and Seismology committees are of the joint opinion that the use of the more traditional design approach can provide acceptable lift-safety performance for most one. In this example. because the R value for the cantilevered columns at the garage has an R value of 2.e. Rigid versus flexible diaphragm assumptions. and the design is based on the rigid diaphragm assumption.6 permits diaphragms to be treated as flexible. light frame detached one. Therefore. Also. the entire structure in this direction has been designed using this R value. in this design example. Refer to the overview portion of this design example for further discussion about using the envelope approach. these would be designed for forces calculated using the R value associated with that system (R= 2.2). light frame detached one. the diaphragm has been determined not to meet these criteria. as rigidly connected) and treating the remaining diaphragm as flexible. may not be greater than the least value for any of the systems used in that same direction.and two-family dwellings have traditionally been designed using flexible diaphragm assumptions. UBC §1630.4 requires that the R value used in each direction. The use of a system with limited ductility specifically cantilevered columns. only if the maximum deflection of the diaphragm under the lateral loading is equal to or greater than twice the deflection of the vertical elements supporting the diaphragm in the story below.and two-family dwellings. The commentary below provides more discussion of these issues: 2. The first analysis uses the traditional flexible diaphragm assumptions and the second analysis is based on rigid diaphragm assumptions.2. Although these examples are a literal application of the 1997 UBC. In conventional practice.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence UBC). The lateral resisting elements have been designed for the most severe forces produced by either assumption. Small. Two exceptions to light frame structures performing satisfactorily—both of which were addressed in the 1997 UBC by more stringent requirements—have been related to problems with the height-to-length ratio of shear wall panels and the use of plaster and drywall materials to resist seismic forces.4. with the balance of the structure designed with an R value with light framed shear walls (R=5. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. the cantilevered columns are used to provide lateral resistance at the garage door openings. neither fully flexible nor fully rigid. UBC §1630. In this example. Vol. However. recognizing that the diaphragms in this structure likely behave as semi-rigid elements. These light frame structures have historically performed satisfactorily from a life-safety standpoint when subjected to strong seismic shaking. in this example an envelope approach has been used in which two analyses are performed.

diaphragms.4 (page 12) recommends the following alternative approach: Exception: For light frame buildings in occupancy groups 4 and 5 and of two stories or less in height. the literal application of §1630. II (1997 UBC) . The second is purely a method of discouraging the more nonductile systems.44 would discourage the use of ordinary moment frames and cantilever column systems in favor for the use of slender shear walls that have been known to perform poorly. The value of R used for design of SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. As a result. Cantilever column elements in light frame construction. Further. the use of the rigid diaphragm assumptions generally will not significantly improve the seismic behavior. The first is that in most structures. the 1999 SEAOC Blue Book §105. However. the use of the rigid diaphragm assumptions may not be significantly better than the traditional flexible diaphragm assumption for structures of this type. The UBC requirement that buildings be designed using the least value R for combinations along the same axis was developed with two considerations in mind. The engineer is cautioned. may be better represented as rigid. mostly large buildings. including the stiffness contributed by finishes and nonstructural elements and taking into account the fact that stiffness of these elements will degrade as the ground shaking intensifies. as opposed to flexible. Therefore.4. the lateral force resisting elements are permitted to be designed using the least value of R for the different structural systems found on each independent line of resistance.and two-family dwellings are typically lightly loaded. Consequently.3. Consequently.1). the code has assigned a low R value to this system. however. Relative to the small structure used in this example. to discuss this with the building official prior to performing substantive design work. cantilever columns used in one. both the SEAOC Code and Seismology Committees agree that many one. The potential for P∆ instability of cantilevered column systems limits the column’s capacity to carry large gravity loads when subjected to large building drifts. it is recognized that lateral forces for many structures with wood diaphragms. However.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence In the Commentary of the 1999 SEAOC Blue Book (§C805. and can not develop this P∆ instability. the rigid diaphragm assumptions will better reflect the initial stiffness of the building system. SEAOC recommends modification of the 1997 UBC provisions to allow use of the flexible diaphragm assumption for the design of one.and two-family dwellings. At the time of this publication. the building’s ability to resist seismic forces can be limited to the weakest element in the structure.and two-family residential structures can be safely designed using the traditional flexible diaphragm assumptions. it is not practically possible to accurately calculate the stiffness of all the various elements. While the building response remains elastic. Vol.

the lateral load is factored up for the line with the cantilever column elements. roof. The residence cannot be built using conventional construction methods for reasons shown in Part 8 of this design example. Due to the high h/w (height/width) ratios of the walls next to the garage doors.2. these design examples. 2YHUYLHZ This design example illustrates the seismic design of a 2. flexible and rigid. Consequently. the diaphragms in this design example are judged to be semi-rigid. II (1997 UBC) . As stated in the introduction of this manual. 1-2. the analysis in this design example will use the envelope method. 1-3. The following steps illustrate a detailed analysis for some of the important seismic requirements of the 1997 UBC that pertain to design of wood light frame buildings. As shown in Figure 1-3. although not explicitly required by the code. Therefore. 1-4 and 1-5. including this one. there is an out-of plane offset from the cantilevered column elements on Line E to the glulam beams (GLBs) supporting the shear walls above Line D. The wood structural panel shear walls over the GLBs in the garage do not meet the required h/w ratios without the addition of straps and blocking above and below the window. but the conventional R value is used on the remainder of the structure.5. In other words. Many aspects of building design are not included. As is common for Type V construction (see UBC §606).800-square-foot single family residence. and floor diaphragms. Vol. Roofing is clay tile. shown in Figures 1-1. with the shear walls located along other lines of force designed using R = 5. which considers the worst loading condition from both the flexible and rigid diaphragm analyses for vertical resisting elements. are not complete building designs. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. before using this recommendation. a complete wind design is also necessary. but is not given in this design example. It should be noted that the envelope method. and only selected parts of the seismic design are illustrated. is of wood light frame construction with wood structural panel shear walls. cantilevered column elements are used to provide lateral support. Although the code criteria only recognize two diaphragm categories. The structure. will produce a more predictable performance than will use of only flexible or rigid diaphragm assumptions. The cantilever columns (together with any shear walls along that line of force. SEAOC recommends this alternative approach.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence diaphragms for a given direction of loading in such structures shall not be greater than the least value used for any of the systems in that same direction. if present) would be designed using an R = 2. Consult with your local building official. however.

Detail the continuous load path at the low roof above the garage doors. Lateral forces on shear walls and shear wall nailing assuming flexible diaphragms. Diaphragm deflections and whether diaphragms are flexible or rigid. Diaphragm shears at the low roof over garage. Rigidities of shear walls and cantilever columns at garage. 2XWOLQH This example will illustrate the following parts of the design process: Design base shear and vertical distributions of seismic forces. but is not the only method available to determine shear wall rigidities. Distribution of lateral forces to the shear walls with rigid diaphragms. Detail the wall frame over the GLB on line D. II (1997 UBC) . Centers of mass and rigidity of diaphragms. Detail the anchorage of wall frame to the GLB on line D. The Commentary at the end of this design example illustrates two other simplified approaches that would also be appropriate. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Reliability/redundancy factor ρ. Vol.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence This design example will first determine the shear wall nailing and tiedown requirements obtained using the flexible diaphragm assumption to determine shear wall rigidities for the rigid diaphragm analysis. The method of determining shear wall rigidities used in this design example is by far more rigorous than normal practice. Does residence meet requirements for conventional construction provisions? Design shear wall frame over garage on line D.

0 0.0 psf 1. 32/16 span rating. however. 1S-Dry.5 psf Floor weights: Flooring 5/8" sheathing Floor framing Miscellaneous Gyp ceiling 1. Three-ply 15/32-inch sheathing has lower allowable shears and the inner ply voids can cause nailing problems. proj. sheathing Roof framing Insulation Miscellaneous Gyp ceiling D (along slope) = D = dead load D = (horiz.8 10. 42/20 span rating) with Exposure I glue.0 1. the code minimum of 20 psf (vertical load) and 10 psf (lateral load) is often exceeded in residential construction. The floor is 19/32-inch thick APA-rated Sturd-I-floor 16 inches o. vaulted) Weights of respective diaphragm levels.000 lb (roof and tributary walls) W floor = 39.c. Vol. 32/16 span rating with Exposure I glue.4 2. 4-ply is also acceptable.2 2. rating (or APA-rated sheathing. add one-half the height of walls at the second floor to the roof and one-half the height of second floor walls plus one-half the height of first floor walls to second floor diaphragm. instead of splitting the weight between floor levels. including exterior and interior walls: W roof = 64. 5-ply with Exposure I glue. The roof is 15/32-inch thick APA-rated sheathing (equivalent to C-D sheathing in Table 23-II-4).1 psf (the roof and ceilings are assumed to be on a 5:12 slope..5 4. Framing lumber is Douglas Fir-Larch grade stamped No. APA-rated wood structural panels for shear walls will be 15/32-inch thick Structural I. e.000 lb (floor and tributary walls above and below) W = 103. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.000 lb 10.0 psf 1.8 4. It is acceptable practice to ignore the weight of shear walls parallel to the direction of seismic forces to the upper level and add 100 percent of the parallel shear wall weight to the level below. Weights of bearing partitions (not shear walls) should still be split between floors.0 0.8 19.QIRUPDWLRQ Roof weights (slope 5:12): Tile roofing ½-in.) = 19.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence *LYHQ . Unlike commercial construction.0 psf Weights of diaphragms are typically determined by adding the tributary weights of the walls to the diaphragm.g.5 (13/12) = 21. II (1997 UBC) .

and straps. S D can be used as a default value.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence Boundary members for the shear walls are 4x posts. Common wire nails are to be used for diaphragms. Closer nail spacing may be required for smaller diameter nails). Foundation plan (ground floor) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Sinker nails are to be used for design of the shear wall sill plate nailing at the second floor.4 (Zone 4) I = 1. Without a geotechnical investigation. II (1997 UBC) . shear walls. (Note: many nailing guns use the smaller diameter box and sinker nails instead of common nails. Seismic and site data: Z = 0. Vol. Table 16-I Table 16-K Figure 1-2.0 (standard occupancy) Seismic source type = B Distance to seismic source = 12 km Soil profile type = S C S C has been determined by geotechnical investigation.

Vol. Second floor framing plan and low roof framing plan Figure 1-4.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence Figure 1-3. Roof framing plan SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) .

the wet service factor. many engineers and building officials are not aware of the reduction requirements. the level of engineering design required to meet code requirements in present-day California practice. and effects of box nails on wood structural panel shear walls. and shear walls that is permanent. Dry lumber has a moisture content (MC) less than or equal to 19 percent.QIOXHQFH 'HVLJQ Prior to starting the seismic design of the residence. Actual drawings commonly use other graphic depictions. or wet service factors. screws. lags and screws (91 NDS Table 7.3 This design example is based on dry lumber. Moisture content in lumber connections. building designers should be aware that some building departments now require shear wall lengths to be called out on plans.3. Actual drawings commonly do not call out shear wall lengths.67 for bolts. The engineer should exercise good engineering judgment in determining whether it is prudent to base the structural design on dry or green lumber. This has been done for clarity in this example. related to installation of nails. 91 NDS Table 7. Drying of the lumber after installation of the connectors does not improve the connector capacity.3). three important related aspects of the design bear discussion. Construction of structures using lumber with moisture contents greater than 19 percent can produce shrinkage problems in the structures. Project specifications typically call for lumber to be grade stamped S-Dry (Surfaced Dry). II (1997 UBC) .75 for nails and C M = 0. there is a 25 percent to 33 percent reduction in the strength of connections. Other areas of concern are geographical area and time of year the structure will be built. For fasteners in lumber with moisture contents greater than 19 percent at the time of installation. C M = 0. and bolts (fasteners) into lumber with moisture contents greater than 19 percent at time of installation.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence Figures 1-2 through 1-4 depict the shear walls as dark solid lines. However. In other words. this generally takes about two to 3 weeks of exposure to dry air. Practice varies on how framing plans are actually shown and on which level the shear walls are indicated. Thicker lumber takes even longer. Moisture contents can easily be verified by a hand-held “moisture meter.” SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. )DFWRUV 7KDW . It is possible for green lumber (or dry lumber that has been exposed to rain) to dry out to a moisture content below 19 percent. Also. Partially Seasoned or Green lumber grade-stamped S-GRN (surfaced green) has a MC between 19 percent and 30 percent. in lumber whose moisture content exceeds 19 percent. For 2x framing. diaphragms. These are the effect of moisture content on lumber. Vol.3. Wet lumber has a MC greater than 30 percent.

and residences in other high seismic zones. this may not be required by the building official or may not be warranted given the specifics of the design and the overall strength of the lateral force resisting system. The former may not be necessary in some situations. the addition of a shear wall at this location would improve performance). the completed structure must have a continuous lateral load path to resist lateral forces. The reduced scope of many structural engineering service contracts. Lack of a lateral resisting element along line 4. rigorous analysis has been performed. 2. even for simple structures. Complete detailing is necessary.” Footnote number five of Table 23-II-I-1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. In all cases. The designer must chose between use of the more rigorous approach of considering a rigid diaphragm with torsional resistance characteristics with the more common approach of considering flexible diaphragms with tributary mass. II (1997 UBC) . In this design example. Most contractors use gun nails for diaphragm and shear wall installations. (Although this is not a code violation per se.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence Level and type of engineering design required for California residences. selection of a shear wall location that is continuous to the foundation would improve performance). This often leads to poorly coordinated drawings and missing structural information. (Although this is not a code violation per se. Effects of box nails on wood structural panel shear walls. Vol. Based on cyclic testing of shear walls and performance in past earthquakes. a complete. Refer to the Commentary at the end of this design example for further discussion on this subject. such as “calculation and sketch” projects where the structural engineer provides a set of calculations and sketches of important structural details and the architect produces the actual plans and specifications. 3. In some jurisdictions. The discontinuous shear wall at the north end of the line 5. states that the galvanized nails shall be “hot-dipped or tumbled” (these nails are not gun nails). This method also makes structural observation requirements of the building code less effective when the engineer responsible for the design is not performing the site observation. the use of common nails is preferred. is the level of sophistication and rigor required by the designer. The residence structure in this design example was chosen because it contains many of the structural problem areas that are commonly present in residential construction. UBC Table 23-II-I-1 lists allowable shears for wood structural panel shear walls for “common or galvanized box nails. These include: 1. This design example uses common nails for fastening wood structural panels. while at the same time recognizing that the laws of physics must be obeyed. An important factor in the design of California residences. The UBC does not have a table for allowable shears for wood structural panel shear walls or diaphragms using box nails.

3A and 12. eases driving. which can be subtracted out. In addition to the reduction of the shear wall and diaphragm capacities.2. the reduction would be 0.75 or a 40 percent reduction in capacity. Period using Method A (see Figure 1-5 for section through structure): T = Ct (hn )3 / 4 = . SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. and they cost less. Using 8d box nails would result in a 22 percent reduction in allowable load for diaphragms and shear walls as compared to 8d common nails.21sec.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence Box nails have a smaller diameter shank and a smaller head size.3B in the 1997 NDS for one-half-inch side member thickness (t s ) and Douglas Fir-Larch framing. A contributor to the problem is that when contractors buy large quantities of nails (for nail guns). D Design base shear. The results shown will be slightly conservative since W includes the wall weights for the direction of load.2 This example uses the total building weight W applied to each respective direction. for 10d nails installed into green lumber. the result is a compounding of the reductions. the word “box” or “common” does not appear on the carton label. (30-8) where: hn is the center of gravity (average height) of diaphragm above the first floor. if an engineer designs for “dry” lumber (as discussed above) and “common” nails. This is why it is extremely important to list the required nail lengths and diameters on the structural drawings for all diaphragms and shear walls. the walls will also drift more than when common nails are used. and subsequently “green” lumber and “box” nails are used in the construction. Another problem is that contractors prefer box nails because their use reduces splitting.020(23)3 / 4 = . Just to illustrate a point. &DOFXODWLRQV DQG 'LVFXVVLRQ &RGH 5HIHUHQFH Design base shear and vertical distribution of seismic forces. This approach is simpler than using a separated building weight W for each axis under consideration. II (1997 UBC) . For example. Vol. This is based on comparing allowable shear values listed in Tables 12. §1630.81 times 0. when box nails are used. Nail length and diameters are the most common listing on the labels. Using 10d box nails would result in a 19 percent reduction in allowable load for diaphragms and shear walls as compared to 10d common nails.

Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence With seismic source type B and distance to source = 12 km N a = 1.40 N a = 0.5(.0 ) W = W = 0.0 ) W = W = 0.0(.182W R 5.40) W= W = 0.5 Table 16-N Design base shear is: CV I 0.3 shows that it is more advantageous to use the standard method of determining the design base shear.2.5 (30-5) A check of Equations 30-6 and 30-7 indicates these do not control: ∴ V N − S = 0.56(1.56 Table 16-Q Table 16-R North-south direction: For light framed walls with wood structural panels that are both shear walls and bearing walls: R = 5.0C a 3.218W > 0.0 Table 16-S Table 16-T For soil profile type S C and Z = 0. V= 3.56(1. Vol.485W RT 5.0 ) = 0.0 ) = 0.40 C v = 0.56 N v = 0. II (1997 UBC) .5C a I 2.182W Comparison of the above result with the simplified static method permitted under §1630.5 (30-11) All of the tables in the UBC for wood diaphragms and shear walls are based on allowable loads.5(.182W R 5.40(1.40 )(1.21) (Note that design base shear in the 1997 UBC is now on a strength design basis) V = (30-4) but need not exceed: V = 2.0 N v = 1.4 C a = 0. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

II (1997 UBC) .0 E h (30-1) where: E v is allowed to be assumed as zero for allowable stress design. and ρ is assumed to be 1.750 lb §1612. This design example will use the following format: Vbase shear F px Fx v = = = = strength strength force to wall (strength) wall shear at element level (ASD) ASD v= Fx 1. This is done later in Part 6. determine the controlling R value. E = ρE h + E v = 1.182(103. when the code will be all strength design. This is the case for most of Type V residential construction structures.000 lb ) = 18. the value for ρ will have to be verified.0 E h + 0 = 1. For light framed walls with wood structural panels that are both shear walls and bearing walls: R = 5 . Errors in calculations can occur and confusion on which load is being used— strength or allowable stress design. Since the maximum element story shear is not yet known.4 1.0.4b = 2.4 (12-9) VN − S = 0.182W ∴V N −S = 0.5 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. The basic load combination for allowable stress design is: D+ E E E = 0+ = 1. Vol.1 East-west direction: Since there are different types of lateral resisting elements in this direction.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence It is desirable to keep the strength level forces throughout the design of the structure for two reasons: 1.3. This design example will not be applicable in the future.4 1.

Some engineers use the greater R factor for light framed walls (e.40 ) W = W = 0.454W This is less than that obtained with the simplified static method: V = 3.454W R 2.5 2. determine the design base shear.545W > 0. Vol.454(103.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence For cantilevered column elements: R = 2 .5) .5) .4 Design base shear is: V = CV I 0. the factoring up approach does not appear to meet the intent of the UBC requirements.40)(1.1 Discussion of R factors. R = 5.0 ) W = W = 1. The design base shear for the east-west direction is two and a half times that for the north-south direction.2 §1630.21W RT 2. therefore the value for the cantilevered column elements must be used for the entire east-west direction..454W R 2.0C a 3.4. II (1997 UBC) .2 (30-5) A check of Equations 30-6 and 30-7 indicates that these do not control: ∴ V E −W = 0. However.g.21) (30-4) but need not exceed: V = 2.5C a I 2.g. This provision for combinations along the same axis first appeared in the 1994 UBC.2 (30-11) V E −W = 0.750 lb §1612..0 ) W = W = 0.0(. R = 2 . under a strict interpretation of the UBC.454W VE −W = 0. 5. the UBC requires the use of least value for any of the systems utilized in that same direction.000 lb ) = 46.2 = 2.2(. and then factor up the force for the respective frame element by using the ratio of the R for the shear walls over the R for the frame element (e.3.2 Table 16-N For combinations along the same axis. The UBC places a severe penalty on the use of cantilevered column elements.56(1.5(. Another approach could be to design the residence SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

Some are as narrow as 16 inches wide. Additionally. cantilevered column elements are preferred over moment frames by engineers and builders because of the elimination of field welding. leaving unanswered the question of whether this is a shear wall or a cantilever column (by comparison. this design example uses the cantilevered column elements with the higher design base shear for the entire east-west direction. the minimum wall length needed would be 4’-6". but also exceed the old aspect ratio limit of 3½: 1. An ordinary moment-resisting frame could be used with an R value equal to 4. 2. Many building officials are requesting that the same aspect ( 2:1) ratio limit for wood structural panel shear walls be adhered to for the pre-manufactured systems.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence using a rigid diaphragm assumption with the wood shear walls taking 100 percent of the lateral force using R = 5. Another solution would be to increase the concrete curb height at the base of the wall such that the h/w ratio limit of 2:1 is not exceeded. the architecture could be modified to provide shear wall lengths that meet the h/w ratio limit of 2:1. With the plate height at 9’-0". The local building department should be consulted on whether or not they will accept this exception. 4. Building system R values are to be based on officially adopted evaluation reports. Special design considerations should be given when using these systems as outlined below: 1. For illustrative purposes. Then design the cantilever columns using R = 2. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. This would produce design base shear values only 22 percent higher than in the north-south direction. The 1999 Blue Book has added an exception for light frame buildings in Occupancy Groups 4 and 5 and of two stories or fewer in height. This conforms to the 1997 UBC. II (1997 UBC) .2 and a flexible diaphragm. Many of the these “systems” exceed not only the new aspect ratio limit of 2:1. 5.5 . if the “system” were a steel channel with the same width. Pre-manufactured systems should not be used in the same line as field-built shear walls because of deformation compatibility uncertainties. such as ICBO reports. A higher force level could be counter productive in terms of splitting caused by added close nailing. it would be considered a cantilever column).5. Usually in residential construction. Pre-manufactured proprietary trussed wall systems and factory-built wood shear wall systems are also available. Pre-manufactured systems should be limited to the first floor level only (of multi-story wood frame buildings) until testing is completed for these systems that sit on wood framing and are not rigidly attached to a concrete foundation. 3. Vol.

II (1997 UBC) . Ft = 0 Determination of F px is shown in Table 1-1. Vol. Figure 1-5.7 seconds.21 seconds < 0. F px = (V − Ft )wx hx ∑ wi hi i =1 n (30-15) where: h x is the average height at level i of the sheathed diaphragm in feet above the base.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence E Vertical distribution of seismic forces. The vertical distribution of seismic forces is determined from Equation 30-15. Cross-section through residence SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Since T = 0.

The UBC does not require torsional effects to be considered for flexible diaphragms. an approach that is fairly comprehensive.251 0.472.0 10.182 0.000 ∑wi hi (%) 79 21 100 w x hx Fpx N −S Fpx N −S wx Fpx E −W Fpx E −W wx (lb) 14. An easier and more common method would be to use a uniform load equal to the widest portion of the diaphragm. A continuous beam approach may not be accurate because of shear deformations in the diaphragm.000 39.454 Lateral forces on shear walls and shear wall nailing assuming flexible diaphragms.950 9.07 psf ) (43. Vol. The tributary area approach works with reasonable accuracy for a continuous beam with 100 percent shear deflection and zero bending deflection.577 0.750 0.000 390. The selected method of determining loads to shear walls is based on tributary areas with simple spans between supports.950 lb = 17.000 (ft) 23. II (1997 UBC) . The effects of torsion and wall rigidities will be considered later in Part 5 of this design example.862.0 ft ) = 734 plf SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.950 18. this portion of the example assumes flexible diaphragms. Vertical distribution of seismic forces Level Roof Floor Σ wx hx w x hx (lb) 64.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence Table 1-1.164 sq ft f p roof = w1 = 36. Roof diaphragm: Roof area = 2. As has been customary practice in the past.164 sf (17.800 46. which results in conservative loads to the shear walls.750 (lb) 36.101 0.0 — (lb-ft) 1.800 3. Another method of determining loads to shear walls can assume a continuous beam.000 1. This design example uses the exact tributary area to the shear walls. D Forces on east-west shear walls. Determine the forces on shear walls.000 103.07 psf 2 .231 0.

0 ft ) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol.542 sf f p floor = = 9.800 lb 1.092 + 4. Roof diaphragm loading for east-west forces Check sum of forces: 1. with the tributary area approach.074 + 1.468 = 36. II (1997 UBC) . Note that Figures 1-6.074 + 8. In actuality. 1-7.36 psf 102 plf w4 (6. 1-8 and 1-9 are depicted as a continuous beam.950 lb o.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence w2 = w3 = (17.938 lb ≈ 36.106 + 4.0 ft ) = 632 plf (17. From a technical standpoint.k.256 + 4.07 psf )(32. “nodes” should be shown at the interior supports. these are considered as separate simple span beams between the shear wall “supports” (Figure 1-6 has three separate single span beams).788 + 5.07 psf )(37.0 ft ) = 546 plf Figure 1-6.080 + 8. Floor diaphragm: Second floor area = 1.938 lb V Roof = 36.36 psf )(16.542 sf = = 6.

36 psf )(20.814 lb V floor = 9.198 = 9.106 lb) Figure 1-7.0 ft ) = = = = = 127 plf 210 plf 178 plf 204 plf 5.470 + 1.640 + 1.092 lb + 4. Second floor diaphragm loading for east-west forces Check sum of forces: 408 + 5.0 ft ) (6.655 + 3.0 ft ) (6.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence w5 = = = = = (6.36 psf )(33.233 + 1.012 − 5. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.814 lb ≈ 9.470 + 1.136= 15. II (1997 UBC) .800 lb o.0 ft ) (6.k.012 lb Subtract PD from the sum of forces: 15.36 psf )(28.36 psf )(32. Vol.198 lb w6 w7 w8 PD (1.

Some jurisdictions. sheathing has been provided on both sides with closer nail spacing in order to increase the stiffness of this short wall. 3. 8. East-west shear walls at roof level (second floor to roof)1.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence E Required edge nailing for east-west shear walls using 10d common nails. Minimum framing thickness. 4. However. in this example. Refer to Design Example 2 for discussions about fasteners for pressure—preservative treated wood and the gap at bottom of sheathing. The 1997 UBC (Table 23-II-I-1 footnotes) requires 3x nominal thickness stud framing at abutting panel edges and at foundation sill plates when the allowable stress design shear values exceed 350 pounds per foot or if the sheathing is installed on both sides of the studs without staggered panel joints.044 5.0 8.044 5.) 2(2) (4) 3(4) 3(4) 2(2) (4) 681(6) 671(6) 760(6) 619(6) Σ Notes: 1.938 b (ft) 10. The 1994 and earlier editions of the UBC required 3x nominal thickness stud framing and blocking at abutting panel edges when 10d common nails were spaced 2 inches on center or when sheathing is installed on both sides of the studs without staggered panel joints.0 38.6.500 plf on wood shear walls. II (1997 UBC) . 9 Wall (grid line) A B C D ∑ Fabove ∑ Fx (lb) 0 0 0 0 0 (lb) 9. Section 1806.5 v= Ftot (b )1. as a matter of judgment. 7. Because of vertical displacements of holdowns. Table 23-II-I-1 Table 1-2. Note forces are strength level and shear in wall is divided by 1.542 13. 3. 6. Errata to the First Printing of the 1997 UBC (Table 23-II-I-1 footnotes) added an exception to the 3x foundation sill plates by allowing 2x foundation sill plates when the allowable shear values are less than 600 pounds per foot. put a limit of 1. 8.198 36.2 for the cantilever column elements. 2. It should be noted that having to use a nail spacing of 2 inches is an indication that more shear wall length should be considered.154 9. The plate washers are intended to help resist uplift forces on shear walls.5 6. 5. Sill bolt washers. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 14. Vol.154 9. 9. 6. these plate washers are required even if the wall has holdowns designed to take uplift forces at the wall boundaries. These changes were a result of the splitting of framing studs and sill plates observed in the Northridge earthquake and in cyclic testing of shear walls. and many engineers.542 13. 2.4 (plf) Sheathing(5) 1 or 2 sides One Two Two Two(8) Allowable Shear (plf) 870 1330 1330 1740 Edge Nail Spacing (in. provided that sill bolts are designed for 50 percent of allowable values. 4. APA Structural I rated wood structural panels may be either plywood or oriented strand board (OSB).4 to convert to allowable stress design. A minimum of 3-inch nail spacing with sheathing on only one side is required to satisfy shear requirements. the close nail spacing is a direct result of R = 2. 5. The 1999 Blue Book recommends special inspection when the nail spacing is closer than 4-inch on center.938 Ftot (lb) 9.198 36. 7.1 requires a minimum of 2-inch-square by 3/16-inch-thick plate washers to be used for each foundation sill bolt (regardless of allowable shear values in the wall). In this design example. The washer edges shall be parallel/perpendicular to the sill plate.

164 sq ft = = = = 6.198 0 36.0 ft ) (6.063 46.012 Ftot (lb) 10. II (1997 UBC) .4 (plf) Ftot Sheathing 1 or 2 sides One Two Two(3) Allowable Shear (plf) 870 1330 1330 Edge Nail Spacing (in) 2 3 3 763(2) 809(2) 532(2) 0 Frame Σ Notes: See notes for Table 1-2.063 15.136 2.84 psf 376 plf 274 plf 233 plf (6.857 14.703 5.752 b (ft) 10.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence Table 1-3.542 13.84 psf ) (55. Roof diaphragm: f p roof w1 w2 = = = = 14 .154 9.938 (lb) 1. Vol.0 19.0 ft ) (6.0 ft ) w3 Figure 1-8.678 15.110 0 6. Roof diaphragm loading for north-south forces SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.044 5.0 0 Frame 43.800 lb 2 . F Forces on north-south shear walls.154 0 6. East-west shear walls at floor level (first floor to second floor) Wall (grid line) A B C D E ∑ Fabove ∑ Fx (lb) 9.84 psf ) (34.0 14.0 v= (b)1.84 psf ) (40.

56 psf ) (60.653 + 2.0 ft ) (2.56 psf ) (23.800 lb Vroof = 14.950 lb 1.800 lb o.56 psf ) (9.k.264 + 752 = 14.952 lb ≈ 3.0 plf 154 plf 110 plf 97.8 plf (2.2 plf 58. II (1997 UBC) .0 ft ) (2.952 lb V floor = 3.0 ft ) (2.56 psf 23.0 ft ) w6 w7 w8 w9 Figure 1-9.56 psf ) (38.56 psf ) (43.950 lb o. Vol.028 + 46 = 3. Floor diaphragm: f p floor w4 w5 = = = = = = = 3.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence Check sum of forces: 466 + 713 + 767 + 726 + 848 + 5.k.0 ft ) (2.542 sq ft = = = = = = = 2.9 plf 35.0 ft ) (2.56 psf ) (14.800 lb ≈ 14.264 + 5. Second floor diaphragm loading for north-south forces Check sum of forces: 99 + 126 + 1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

is used to estimate deflections of shear walls with fixed bases and free tops for design level forces.112 6.493 6. There is the well-known expression for shear wall deflection found in UBC Standard 23-2.) 4 4 4 4 Σ Table1-5. virtually impossible short of full-scale testing. rigidity determination becomes even more difficult. Table 23-II-I-1 Table 1-4.0 22.074 3. even for design loads.952 Ftot (lb) 1.016 14.0 46. Vol.891 8. Estimation of wood shear wall rigidities.0 10.016 14. as occur under strong earthquake motions.112 6.800 b v = (ft) 18.573 b (ft) 10.0 69.179 1. In addition. North-south shear walls at floor level (first floor to second floor) Wall 2 3 5 ∑ Fabove (lb) 1. 3 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.800 Ftot (lb) 1. = 8vh 3 vh h + + 0. shown below.0 26.016 13.493 6.75hen + d a EAb Gt b §23.223.0 14. It is complicated by a number of factors that make any exact determination.0 (b )1.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence G Required edge nailing for north-south shear walls using 10d common nails.0 15.179 1. This expression.621 ∑ Fx (lb) 99 1.0 v= Ftot (b )1.4 (plf) 47 107 291 165 Ftot Sheathing 1 or 2 sides One One One One Allowable Shear (plf) 510 510 510 510 Edge Nail Spacing (in. when walls are loaded substantially beyond their design limits.592 7.090 17.112 6. Vol.779 2.493 6. Determination of the rigidities of wood shear walls is often difficult and inexact. North-south shear walls at roof level (second floor to roof) Wall 1 2 3 5 ∑ Fabove (lb) 0 0 0 0 0 ∑ Fx (lb) 1. II (1997 UBC) .4 (plf) Sheathing 1 or 2 sides One One One Allowable Shear (plf) 510 510 510 Edge Nail Spacing (in) 4 4 4 114 256 413 Σ D Rigidities of shear walls and cantilever columns at garage. in a general sense.

However. At the present time. Rigidity based on estimated nail slip. and these are often penetrated by ducts. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Further. Also. many walls in residences are not designed as shear walls. there was very little cyclic testing of wood shear walls (to simulate actual earthquake behavior) or testing of walls with narrow aspect ratios. and door openings. as opposed to the accepted floor-to-floor clear height. stucco. It can be argued that wall rotation of the supporting wall below needs to be considered when considering shear wall rigidities. In modern wood frame building construction. it is difficult to calculate wall rigidities with the UBC equation alone. At present. things like shrinkage can significantly effect deflection and subsequent stiffness calculations. Vol. many typically 8-foot x 8-foot in size. considering rotation of the supporting wall below would be similar to measuring the shear wall as the cumulative height. in strong earthquake motions. II (1997 UBC) . and cyclic degradation effects can occur that significantly change the relative stiffness of shear walls at the same level. It is merely one of the present-day methods. Not considering rotation of the supporting wall below is appropriate for determining relative wall rigidities. shear walls may see forces and displacements several times larger than those used in design. etc. In general.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence The expression above was developed from static tests of solid wood shear walls. Until then. CUREe (California Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering) is conducting a large testing program to study earthquake effects on wood structures. particularly when only relative rigidities are desired (see Blue Book §C805.). new approaches will be developed and/or existing approaches reaffirmed or refined. the practicing structural engineer must use judgment in the method selected to determine wood shear wall rigidities. Rigidity incorporating both UBC Standard 23-2 and shrinkage. SEAOC does not intend to establish a standard procedure or indicate a standard of care for calculation of wood shear wall rigidities. including research on shear walls and diaphragms. It is expected that in the years ahead. Until recently. producing indeterminate structural systems. Several other procedures. shear walls take many forms and sizes. Only one of these approaches is given in this design example. windows. walls are stacked on the walls of lower floors. yet have stiffness from their finish materials (gypsum board. These include: 1. Rigidity calculated from UBC Standard 23-2 (the four term equation given above). 4. As will be shown in subsequent paragraphs. By using this one approach. In multi-story structures.3). 2. 3. there are number of ways to estimate shear wall rigidities.

see the deflection of wall frame at line D later in Part 3c. the displacements will first be computed using the Ftot forces already determined above in Tables 1-2 and 1-3. and testing showed that displacements were not adequately predicted. and reflects tests conducted by the American Plywood Association. The first part of the equation accounts for cantilever beam action using the moment of inertia of the boundary elements.75hen + d a EAb Gt b §23. End stud elongation due to compression or tension is not considered. Compute values for k : F = k∆ or k = F ∆ The basic equation to determine the deflection of a shear wall is the four-term equation shown below. = 8vh 3 vh h + + 0.1. k . Vol. ∆ . The second term accounts for shear deformation of the sheathing. The third term accounts for nail slippage/bending. panel edges blocked. 3 The above equation is based on a uniformly nailed. II (1997 UBC) . For a calculation of this crushing effect. the wall drift increases significantly. E Discussion of rigidity calculation using the UBC deflection equation. subject to the limitations mentioned above.223. and the fourth term accounts for tiedown assembly displacement (this also should include bolt/nail slip and shrinkage). cantilever shear wall with a horizontal point load at the top. nor the end rotations of the base support. The UBC references this in §2315. The deflection is estimated from the contributions of four distinct parts. of a shear wall or cantilever column is based on its displacement. Testing on wood shear walls has indicated that the above formula is reasonably accurate for aspect ratios (h w) lower than or equal to 2:1. Vol.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence It is recommended that the local building official be contacted for determination of what is acceptable in a particular jurisdiction. Since the rigidity. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Recent testing on wood shear walls has shown that sill plate crushing under the boundary element can increase the deflection of the shear wall by as much as 20 percent to 30 percent. For higher aspect ratios. Use of the new aspect ratio requirement of 2:1 (1997 UBC) makes this formula more accurate for determining shear wall deflection/ stiffness than it was in previous editions of the UBC.

since interpolation and adjustments are necessary.276 APA Table B-4 where: Vn is the fastener load in pounds per fastener. because the code is not specific. This means that the table is based on nails being driven into green lumber and the engineer must use one-half of these values for nails driven in dry lumber. Many engineers have a concern that if the contractor installs the nails at a different spacing (too many or too few). For 10d common nails there are two basic equations: When the nails are driven into green lumber: en = (Vn / 977 )1. II (1997 UBC) . since the lumber is fabricated when green. and also enable computations to be made by a computer. It is recommended that values for en be computed based on fastener slip equations from Table B-4 of APA Research Report 138. then the rigidities will be different than those calculated. Don’t be misled by the word “seasoned. These values are based on Structural I sheathing and must be increased by 20 percent when the sheathing is not Structural I. Both the Research Report and the UBC will produce the same values. its use is somewhat time-consuming. The 50 percent reduction for dry lumber is a conservative factor. Using the fastener slip equations from Table B-4 of Research Report 138 will save time. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence Fastener slip/nail deformation values (en). The values in the table are actually green values. This design example includes both shrinkage and crushing these in the d a factor.894 APA Table B-4 When the nails are driven into dry lumber: en = (Vn / 769 )3. Vol. Note that this Research Report is the basis for the formulas and tables in the UBC. Volume 3 of the UBC has Table 23-2-K for obtaining values for en . The values in Table 23-2-K are based on tests conducted by the APA.” It is uncertain whether or not the d a factor is intended to include wood shrinkage and crushing due to shear wall rotation. Footnote 1 to Table 23-2-K requires the values for en to be decreased 50 percent for seasoned lumber. However. The actual tested slip values with dry lumber were less than 50 percent of the green lumber values. However. The language in footnote a in UBC Table B-4 states “Fabricated green/tested dry (seasoned)…” is very misleading. nominal changing of the nail spacing in a given wall does not significantly change the stiffness.

19 0. To determine roof level wall rigidities. to estimate the roof level displacements ∆s in each shear wall connecting to the roof (Table 1-7).2 in the fourth and later printings.13 0.19 0.19 0. Given below are a series of calculations. Drift and shear wall forces will be based on strength-level forces.280 8.19 0.915 5. Vol. all of the design equations and tables in Chapter 23 are based on allowable stress design.02 0 0. II (1997 UBC) . F Estimation of roof level rigidities. done in table form.02 0 da(8) (in.02 0 0.04 0.2. Roof design level displacements.430 0 0 830 0 0 Tiedown(3) Device Bolted Bolted Bolted Bolted Not required Not required Strap Not required Not required Uplift (lb) 8. the ∆s for this wall must also be determined.02 0 0.19 0.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence Determination of the design level displacement ∆s.04 0. roof level wall rigidities are summarized in Table 1-8 and a drift check is given in Table 1-9. Finally. roof level displacements must first be determined.004 0 0 Strength Design Tiedown Assembly Displacement Shrink(5) Crush(6) Slip(7) 0. Remember that the structural system factor R is based on using strength-level forces.002 0.) 0.21 0.19 0.) 0.04 0.38 0.3 is incorrect and will be changed back to reference §1612. Because there is a wall with openings supported by a GLB on line D.02 0.21 0. since the code requires drift checks to be strength-level forces.1 For both strength and allowable stress design.975 7.21 Notes: 1.02 0. With 4x members at the ends of the wall.160 0 0 Tiedown(4) Elongation (in. which covers load combinations using strength design or load and resistance factor design. the 1997 UBC requires building drifts to be determined by the load combinations of §1612. §1630.365 10.38 0. This can create some confusion. Using allowable stress design. Tiedown assembly displacement is calculated at the second floor level.21 0.19 0. The reference to §1612.38 0.05 0.13 0.400 0 0 1. or the length of wall minus 5½ inches when using a bolted holdown with 2-inch offset from post to anchor bolt. Wood design using the 1997 UBC now means that the engineer must use both strength-level forces and allowable stress forces. Determine tiedown assembly displacements for roof level shear walls1 ASD Wall A1 A2 B C 1 2 3 5a 5b Uplift/1. Table 1-6. Errata for the second and third printing of the UBC unexplainably referenced §1612.915 5. Uplift force is determined by using the net overturning force (M OT − M OR ) divided by the distance between the centroid of the tiedown to the end of the shear wall.4(2) (lb) 5. this equates to the length of the wall minus 1¾ inches for straps.9.19 0.17 0 0 0.04 0.02 0. tiedown devices SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 2.45 0.02 0.02 0.3 for allowable stress design.280 8.13 0. However.04 0.

0. For nails. From the manufacturer’s ICBO Evaluation Report. plus 1/16" oversized hole for bolts. dimensionally stable. the tiedown deflection at the highest allowable design load (15. This can accomplish two things: it takes the slack out of the oversized bolt hole and compensates for some wood shrinkage.25) (19 − 13) = 0.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence 3. Per 91 NDS 7. Shrinkage: 2 × DBL Top Plate + 2 × sill plate = (0. Continuous tie rod holdown systems can also be used.02 inches. When f c⊥ = F ’c⊥ crushing is approximately 0.000 lb/in. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. wood I joists are considered not to shrink. d a is the total tiedown assembly displacement. Short walls that have no uplift forces will still have a wood crushing effect and contribute to rotation of the wall. Wood shrinkage based on a change from 19 percent moisture content (MC) to 13 percent MC with 19 percent MC being assumed for S-Dry lumber per project specifications. The strength design uplift force is used to determine tiedown assembly displacement in order to determine strength-level displacements. II (1997 UBC) . The final equilibrium value can be higher in coastal areas and lower in inland or desert areas.05 inches. the total slip is twice the bolt slip. 4.13 inches. Therefore the total tiedown elongation is (8. Since there are two tiedown devices (one above and one below the floor).000 lb allowable load for a 5½-inch-thick (net) member.) (19 − 13) = 0. and would thereby reduce the shrinkage to 0. Example for slip at tiedown at A1 (tiedown has five 1-inch diameter bolts to post): Load/bolt = 8.05 2 × 12 Floor Joist = (0. 16 2 8. need only be sized by using the ASD uplift force. Good detailing practice should specify the tiedown bolts to be re-tightened just prior to closing in.280 15. See Design Example 2 for method of calculating tiedown assembly displacement.5 = 270.000) (1)1.656 270. This also could include mis-cuts (short-studs) and lack of square cut ends. The effect of sill plate crushing is the downward effect with uplift force at the opposite end of the wall and has the same rotational effect as the tiedown displacement.280 / 5 = 1. This equates to (0. the total elongation is twice the tiedown deflection of one device. Vol. slip = (1. where d is the dimension of the lumber (see Figure 1-10). The use of pre-manufactured.3.04 inches.5 in. values for en can be used.19 in. 1 1 Therefore.000)0.12 inches. This design example will assume that about one-half of the bolt hole slack is taken out.04 inches.002 ) (3 × 1. Since there are two tiedown devices (one above and one below the floor).12 × 2 = 0. = 0.6γ = (270.006 × 2) + = 0.6. Per 91 NDS 4. total slip equals (0.002)(11.000) = 0.006 in.656 lb/bolt = (270.002 ) (d ) (19-13).000 lb/in.5 = 270. Example for tiedown elongation at A1: tiedown selected has a 15. The MC of 13 percent is the assumed final MC at equilibrium with ambient humidity for the project location.2.000 lb) is 0. 5.14 6.000)(1)1. when compression perpendicular to grain ( f c⊥ ) is less than 7. Tiedown elongation is based on actual uplift force divided by tiedown capacity times tiedown elongation at capacity (from manufacturer’s catalog).73F ’c⊥ crushing will be approximately 0.

0057 0.23 Notes: 1.25 19.000 90. 7. and wall 1. 3 EAb Gt b h values are from the bottom of the sill plate to the bottom of the framing at diaphragm level (top plates).25 9. but also eliminate possible arithmetic errors with these repetitive calculations. The shear wall deflections must be determined using the strength design forces. The calculated deflection of a shear wall is linear up to about two times SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 16. 8vh 3 vh h + + 0.535 0. Second floor diaphragm connection to shear wall Table 1-7.0009 0. This will not only save time. A values are for 4 × 4 posts for walls 2. 6.000 90. 3.0 14.535 Vn (lb) 159 159 118 133 22 50 136 90 56 en (5) (in. G values are for Structural I sheathing.93 0.0 8.7E6 1.0 9.06 0.000 90.7E6 1.25 19. Vol. C.0032 8.25 19.7E6 1.38 0.0 9. 3.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence Figure 1-10.7E6 b (ft) 5.21 0.000 t (in.000 90.000 90.535 0.25 12.0057 0.0001 0.0 10.) 0.535 0. 2.6.535 0.0 15.0 G(4) (psi) 90.7E6 1.45 0.535 0.000 90.0 10.7E6 1.) 19.535 0.0002 da (in.93 0.7E6 1.8E-6 0.39 0.) 0. II (1997 UBC) . 4.68 0. en values for Structural I sheathing with dry lumber = (V n 769 )3. Deflections of the shear walls at the roof level1.25 12.23 0. Vol.21 0.0034 0.25 12.21 0. A values are for 4 × 6 posts for walls A1.535 0.535 0. Deflection of walls (∆ S ) is based on strength level forces.000 90.04 0.25 E (psi) 1.) 0.0 10.38 0. 5a.21 ∆ S (7) (in.0 10.0 5. and 5b.7E6 1.2.276 The use of a computer spreadsheet is recommended.75he n + d a §23.22 0.10 Wall A1 A2 B(8) C(8) 1 2 3 5a(9) 5b(9) ASD v (plf) 681 681 336 380 47 107 291 194 120 Strength v (plf) 953 953 470 532 66 150 407 271 168 h (ft) 9.18 0.0 9.0 9.25 19.25 12. A2.0 A(3) (sq in.7E6 1.000 90.5 18. Testing of shear walls has indicated that the G values are slightly higher for oriented strand board (OSB) than plywood.0022 0.) 0.0 15.223. B. but not enough to warrant the use of different values. ∆S = 5.38 0.

and dead loads that resist overturning. Volume 3). For deflection of shear wall at line D. then a deflection for a horizontal window strip is subtracted. and the results are very similar. Elevation of wall frame on line D SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Since there are tiedown assembly displacements. the deflection of the shear wall is determined by using one-half the values from Table 1-2. ( ) 10. The deflection for the solid wall is computed. The deflection for the shear wall can be approximated by using an analysis similar to computing the stiffness for a concrete wall with an opening in it. However. Attempting to equate deflections is desirable. When sheathing is applied to both sides of the wall. the method shown below is one way to approximate the deflection. II (1997 UBC) . see the following Part 3c. 9. the factoring up approach of ASD forces is not appropriate. However. Example for wall at line 5a: R = 162 162 + 102 = 72 percent. Figure 1-11. Vol.223. the calculations are iterative and indeterminate. Determine deflection of wall frame at line D (with force transfer around openings). which is appropriate for two walls in a line. the allowable stress design values. In-plane shears to walls 5a and 5b are proportioned based on relative lengths (not per §23. and the deflection for the wall piers added back in.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence 8. Engineering judgment may be used to simplify this approximation. but not necessarily for three or more walls in line.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.276 = 0. c.7 ft computes the seismic downward component of the 4 × 6 post: P = 52.05 in. Wall has 2 × 6 studs with 4 × 6 at ends. For crushing: from Part 9e.5) = 281 psi < 0.407 lb fc = P A f c = 5.. determine deflection of the entire wall.13 in..73(625) = 456 psi ∴ crush = 0.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence First.198 lb v= 5.223 Vol.7 = 5.002(17-13) 16.13 in.75hen + d a EAb Gt b §23.198 lb = 260 plf (2 )10. and wood crushing of .0 ft With edge nailing at 2 inches on center: Vn = load per nail = 260(2 12 ) = 43 lb/nail e n = (43 769 )3. without an opening: Deflection of solid wall: = 8vh 3 vh h + + 0.20 in. the strength level overturning moment M OT = 52.5 × 5.0001 inch With a tiedown elongation of 0. II (1997 UBC) .452 9.5= 0.452 ft-lb. it gives a tiedown assembly displacement of 0.02 in For shrinkage of GLB fabricated to AITC specifications at 17 percent MC: 0. Dividing by the distance L = 9.02. 3 Sheathing is on both sides of wall with 10d common nails @ 2 inches o.407 (3. V = 5. wood shrinkage of 0. Vol.

Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence For strap: PL + strap nail slip = 0. −∆= 8 (260) 4.20 ) + + 0.03 260(9.7Ε6 (19.7 E6(19.25)10.0 Second.535 Note that this deflection is negative because it is subtracted from the sum of the deflections.25) 10.02 in.000) 0.198 lb = 260 plf (2 )10.276 = 0.0 3 260 (4.13 + 0.0) 0. the value of d a equals the sheathing nail deformation value calculated above (boundary element “chord” elongation is neglected): d a = 0.20 in.0001) + + 0. determine deflection of window strip: V = 5.0 (0. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 ) 9.0001 in.0 ft Vn = load per nail = 260(2 12 ) = 43 lb/nail e n = (43 769 )3.23 in.75(9.0) 4. as shown later.0001 + = 0.05 in. AE d a = 0. ∆= 8(260 )9.0 (90.0 (0.75 (4. 10.0001 + = 0.198 lb (strength) With sheathing on both sides: v= 5.535 10. 1.02 = 0.0001 in Since the boundary elements are connected to continuous posts that extend above and below the opening.05 + 0. II (1997 UBC) .0 (90.0 1. Vol.000) 0.0) 0.

599 lb 2 2.0 Last.23 − 0.04 = 0.25 in Thus the stiffness of the wall is (0.000) 0.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence Third.0004 + = 0. d a = 0.0004 in.25) .02 + 0. determine deflection of wall piers: V= 5.0 (0.0 ) 0. or 92 percent of that of the solid wall. the value of d a equals the sheathing nail deformation value calculated for the wall piers.0004 in. Determine deflection of wall due to deflection of GLB (see Figure 1-12).0004 ) + + 0. determine the sum of the deflections: ∆ = 0. II (1997 UBC) .599 lb = 433 plf (2 )3.0 ft v = Vn = load per nail = 433(2 12 ) = 72 lb/nail e n = (72 769 )3. 1.198 lb = 2. ∆= 8 (433) 4.535 3.23 0.7 Ε (19.0) 4.75 (4. ∆h = Shear wall deflection due to deflection of the support beam tan θ = ∆V ∆h = b h ∴ ∆h = h (∆V ) b SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol.276 = 0. Since the boundary elements are connected to continuous posts that extend above and below the opening.25) 3.04 in.0 (90.0 3 433 (4.

0 × 12 )(0.278 ) = 0.800. 3(1.0 ft ROT = For 5.918 in. II (1997 UBC) .25 in. (10 .Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence ROT = Vh b 5.5 GLB 24 FV 4 : E = 1.50 in.0 × 12 )2 (10. Vol.678 lb (strength) 10.0 ft ) = 4.25 + 0.8E6 )1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.918(18.25 = 0.678(8.278 in.0 × 12 )2 = 0.198 lb(9.0 × 12 ) Total deflection of shear wall including GLB rotation and tiedown assembly displacement: ∆h = 0.125 × 16.4 ROT a 2 b 2 3EIL 4 .0 × 12 ) ∆V = ∆V = ∆h = h (∆ V ) b ∆h = (9.000 psi I = 1.

112 4.50 0.39 0. II (1997 UBC) . SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. ∆S is the design level displacement from Table 1-7 and calculations of wall frame.32 31.044 5. Vol.73 13.684 k= Ftot (k/in.23 Ftot (lb) 4. 2.) ∆s 5.06 0.93 0. Wall elevation at line D Table 1-8.65 6.130 5.57 24.) 0.771 13.) ∆s 10.30 10.40 19.07 7.332 1.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence Figure 1-12. Wall rigidities at roof level1(walls from second floor to roof) Wall A1 A2 B C D 1 2 3 5a 5b ∆s(2) (in.39 Notes: 1.26 33.79 26.23 0.771 4.22 0.179 1.93 0.18 0.198 1.154 9.130 k= Ftot (k/in.68 0.493 6. Deflections and forces are based on strength force levels.

2 )∆ S = 1.88 Max. which is less than 0. §1630.0 9.70 2.) 0.0 10.2 for the east-west direction ∆ M = 0. II (1997 UBC) . the maximum inelastic response displacement ∆ M must be computed. ∆M (1) (in.0 15.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence Determination of ∆M.0 9.) 2.025 times the story height for structures that have a fundamental period less than 0.2 Before checking drift.025 drift limitation applies.0 9. This is done as follows: ∆ M = 0.7 R∆ S R R = 5.9.06 0.77 0.70 2.2 The calculated story drift using ∆ M shall not exceed the maximum ∆ M which is 0.70 2.18 0. §1630.85 0.22 0.00 3.43 1.85∆ S for the north-south direction ∆ M = 0.7 seconds.) 1.68 0. therefore the 0. Drift check at roof level Wall A1 A2 B C D 1 2 3 5a 5b ∆S (in.7(5.23 h (ft) 9.0 9.43 0.0 10. Vol.93 0.7(2.05 0.0 ∆M (in.70 3.93 0. The building period for this design example was calculated to be 0.00 2.23 0.21 seconds.57 2.5)∆ S = 3.70 4.25 9. Table 1-9.0 9.50 0.54∆ S for the east-west direction Determination of maximum drift.60 1.7 seconds.70 2.69 0.23 0.39 0.88 0.70 Status ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok North-South East-West SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.10.5 for the north-south direction = 2.

Load/bolt = 18. This equates to the length of the wall minus 3½ inches for straps.12 = 0. 2. The drift check.14 0.830 18. From the manufacturer’s ICBO approval.000 lb.5 inches for a 3 × sill plate.6.01 0.01 0. Example of tiedown elongation at A1: Tiedown selected has a 15.04 0.000 lb allowable load for a 5½-inch member. which includes a 2-inch offset from post to tiedown bolt. Per 91 NDS 4. and wall rigidities calculated in Table 1-13.2.450 12.01 0. when f c ⊥ = F ’c ⊥ crushing is approximately 0.15 0.890 0 825 400 (2) LRFD Tiedown Device Bolted Bolted Bolted Bolted Bolted Not req’d Strap Strap Uplift (lb) 18.03 0.002 × d × (15-13).002 0.04 0.01 0. ( ) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.02 inches. Where d is 2.05 0.04 0 0.4 (lb) 13.830 5 = 3.745 15.04 0.15 0.675 11. Wood shrinkage is based on a change from 15 percent MC to 13 percent MC.01 0.05 0.) 0. II (1997 UBC) . For nails.22 0. Per 91 NDS 7.830 15.6 γ = load/slip modulus = (270.24 0.12 inches. Uplift force is determined by using the net overturning force (M OT − M R ) . Tiedown elongation is based on actual uplift force divided by tiedown capacity multiplied by the tiedown elongation at capacity from manufacturer’s catalog.13 0.04 0.01 0.5 plus 1/16" oversized hole for bolts. the displacement can be assumed to be linear and therefore extrapolated.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence G Estimation of second floor level rigidities.000 0)0.450 13.25 0.01 0. Pressure-treated lumber has a moisture content of less than 15 percent at completion of treatment. 4. when compression perpendicular to grain ( f c ⊥ ) is less than 0.25 0.03 Tiedown Assembly Displacement Shrink(4) Crush(5) Slip(6) 0.04 0.02 0. Tiedown assembly displacement is calculated at the foundation. 6. divided by the distance to the centroids of the boundary elements assuming 4x members at the ends of the shear wall.02 0.11 0. This equates to 0.06 Notes: 1. giving a tiedown elongation of (18.) 0.155 560 Tiedown(3) Elongation (in.02 0. Vol.05 0.15 inches. Since the tiedown device has an average ultimate strength of 55.04 inches.05 0.870 5. First floor level rigidities are determined by first calculating tiedown displacements (Table 1-10) and then deflections of shear walls at the second floor level (Table 1-11).335 3. Tiedown assembly displacements for first floor level walls1 ASD Wall A1 A2 B C1 C2 2 3 5 Uplift/1. or the length of wall minus 7¼ inches when using a bolted holdown.445 0 1.01 0.002 da (in. 5.766 lb/bolt 3.08 0. the tiedown deflection at the highest allowable design load (15. discussed in Part 3c. Table 1-10.04 0.000 lb) is 0.73F ’c ⊥ crushing will be approximately 0.830 17.3.02 0 0. Example for slip at tiedown at A1 (Tiedown has five 1-inch diameter bolts to post). is given in Table 1-12. values for en can be used. First floor level design displacements.000) D1.

For example.0 9.000 90.0023 0. If the diaphragm is flexible.000 90.535 0.535 0. however the calculations are iterative and indeterminate.0 14. Vol.7E6 1. where the average is ∆ = 0. 3 EAb Gt b G values are for Structural I sheathing.0 10.222 Vol.25 0.11 inches.3.19 0.000 90.000 90. Another approach would be to use a weighted average that includes the force in the wall.25 12. This design example assumes that about one-half of the bolt hole slack is taken out.0 9.0083 0.0 9. 1 1 Therefore the total slip = (0. ∆ = 0.29 0.766 270.0008 0.03 0.7E6 1.0 G (psi) 90. This can accomplish two things: it takes the slack out of the oversized bolt hole. and the results are very similar. 3.000) (1)1. 8vh 3 vh h + + 0.223.01 = 0.25 12.23 Notes: 1. For deformation compatibility.0 10.25 19.067 1.74 0. h values are from bottom of sill plate to bottom of framing at diaphragm level (top plates).06 ∆S (in.0002 0.) 0. en values for Structural I sheathing with dry lumber = (Vn 769 )3. this assumes no rotation and a rigid diaphragm. Slip = (3.000 90.74 0.0106 da (in. if 99 percent of the load is carried by a stiff wall with ∆ = 0.10 inches and 1 percent is carried by wall with ∆ = 1.0 5.0 9.11 0. ∆S = SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 16 2 Table 1-11.000 lb/in. 4. Good detailing should specify the tiedown bolts to be re-tightened just prior to closing in.000 90.2.0 14.0 × 0.0 22.0 9. Deflections of the shear walls at the second floor level 1. then the weighted average approach is appropriate.25 0. II (1997 UBC) .7E6 1. but not enough to warrant different values.000) = 0.535 0.) 0.276 Shear distributed to walls C1 and C2 are proportioned based on relative lengths.535 0. B.014 in.000 90. 3) Vn (lb) 178 178 141 98 88 53 120 192 en (in.) 0.5 = 270.25 12.05 in.75hen + d a §23.535 (§23.25 E (psi) 1.0 A (sq in.00 inches.42 inches.08 0. 5.25 19.29 0.4 Wall A1 A2 B C1(5) C2(5) 2 3 5 ASD v (plf) 763 763 404 279 251 114 256 413 Strength v (plf) 1. The engineer should exercise good engineering judgment in determining deformation compatibility. and C at the second floor level is 0.0039 0.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence γ = (270.12 0.7E6 1. Testing of shear walls has indicated that the G values are slightly higher for OSB than plywood.24 0.0 9.22 0. Vol.000 t (in.7E6 1.0083 0.99 + 1.067 566 391 351 159 359 578 h (ft) 9.25 19. Attempting to equate deflections is desirable. The average ∆ for walls A. then deflection compatibility is not an issue.7E6 1.0012 0. it has been decided to size the cantilever column elements at line E for the deflections nearest shear wall at C. and compensates for some wood shrinkage.) 19.0 9.06 0.7E6 1.014 ) + = 0.10 × 0.535 0.25 19.) 0.535 0. 2.535 0.7E6 b (ft) 5.0 9.24 inches.

0 ∆M (in.70 2.) 1. Another approach is to provide a specially detailed base plate with anchor bolts that are bolted to the top of the grade beam.70 2. II (1997 UBC) .46 0.29 0.70 2.23 0.29 0.74 0.14 0.06 0.70 2.022 (9 × 12 )3 = = 122 in. and all lateral forces were resisted by the wood shear walls.70 2.23 h (ft) 9.4 6 3 29 × 10 0. From Figure 1-7 at line E.0 9.12 0.0 9.021 lb/column NorthSouth East-West I req ’d 2 . which should be considered in computing the column deflections. ∆= PL3 3EI It should be noted that if the steel columns were not needed to resist lateral forces (gravity columns only). Vol. Drift check at second floor level Wall A1 A2 B C1 C2 2 3 5 ∆S (in.70 Status ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok Drift for cantilever columns at line E.) 2.44 0.29 0.44 0.0 9. The bolts and base plate will allow for some rotation. This can be accomplished by setting the column on a footing and then casting the grade beam around the column.0 9.74 0. The grade beam should have a stiffness of at least 10 times greater than that of the column for the column to be considered fixed at the base. The cantilever column is assumed to be fixed at the base.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence Table 1-12.0 9.655 lb+408 lb)/ 3 = 2 .70 2. the force to each of the three cantilever columns: P = (5. It is common for columns of this type to have drift control the size of the column rather than bending.) 0.14 1.0 9.88 Max.19 0. the stresses in the flange of the column caused by concrete bearing at the top of the grade beam should be checked.0 9. With this type of connection. then only relative rigidities of the wood shear walls would need to be calculated.70 2. ∆M (1) (in.24 ( ) Use TS10 × 5 × 3 8 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

has necessitated consideration of diaphragm rigidities.5 o.74 0. Vol.334 6. and the fact that diaphragms tend to be much more rigid than the shear walls.34 k= Ftot (k/in. ∆S is the design level displacement from Table 1-11.) Ftot (lb) 5.215 7.820 6.lb (allowable stress design) fb = M 12 . recent earthquakes and testing of wood panel shear walls have indicated that expected drifts are considerably higher than what was known or assumed in the past.17 Notes: 1. In this design example.29 0. See Part 7 for later confirmation of this assumption. This. In this Part.76 35. 128 M = (2.339 15.74 0. 4 122 ∆ TS = 0. This is not intended to imply that seismic design of residential construction in the past should have been necessarily performed in this manner. II (1997 UBC) . Wall rigidities at second floor level (walls from first to second floor)(1) Wall A1 A2 B C1 C2 E 2 3 5 ∆S (2) (in.992 ft .592 7.090 k= Ftot (k/in. the diaphragms are assumed to be rigid.96 33.215 26. the rigid diaphragm assumption will be used.68 60.857 7.19 0. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.66(46. This knowledge of the increased drifts of short wood panel shear walls has increased the need for the engineer to consider the relative rigidities of shear walls.k.29 0.23 0. Deflections and forces are based on strength force levels.12 0.23 in.063 1.000 ) S 25. 2.06 0.53 65.23 14.) ∆s 0.Design Example 1 n Wood Light Frame Residence I x = 128 in.24 = 0. Determine centers of mass and rigidity of diaphragms. Table 1-13. It has been a common practice for practicing engineers to assume flexible diaphragms and distribute loads to shear walls based on tributary areas.992 × 12 = = 6.339 5.115 psi < 0.021 / 1. However. This has been done for many years and is a well-established conventional design assumption.36 26.30 26.) ∆s 7.43 54.4 ) = 12 .891 8.

II (1997 UBC) 51 . Using diaphragm loading from flexible diaphragm analysis for east-west direction (Figure 1-6) and summing forces about line D: 734 plf (34.792 lb × + (15 − 2) ft 2 15 8.190 lb × − 2 2 36. Roof diaphragm centers of rigidity and mass Determine center of mass of roof diaphragm from wall loads.lb 60.956 lb × + 6 + (15 − 2 ) ft 2 6 3.0 ft ) 546 plf (15.045 ft .lb SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 ft ) = = = 34 24.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence 4a. 4a For roof diaphragm.lb 45.672 ft .133 ft .0 ft ) 632 plf (6.lb 1.938 lb = = = 898.004. Figure 1-13.416 ft . Vol.

398 lb × 1.65(0) + 6.79(6. II (1997 UBC) .800 lb = 1.0 ) + 26.26(51.40 + 13.73(29.0 ft 274 plf (5.133 ft − lb = 27.0) 1557.30(15.5 ft @ roof 84.2 ∴ xr = = 18.lb 311.398 ft .0) + 31.57(11.5 ft 1.103 ft .9 ∴ yr = = 25.79 + 26.0 ) + 10.73 + 10.032 lb × 25.370 lb × 6.103 ft − lb = 21.57 + 31.40 52 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.800 ft .0 ft ) = 12.0) + 33.lb 8.39 ) = 19.0 ft 10.40(0) + 13.39(39.26) = 10.1 ft @ roof 67.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence ∴ ym = ∑ wx = 1. Vol.0 ft ) 233 plf (6.0 ft ) = = = = 300.004.69 x= ∑ (k yy x ) ∑ k yy or x ∑ k yy = ∑ k yy x x (19.65 + 6.2 ft @ roof 36.30 + 33.lb 1.0) 1700.905 ft .800 lb ∑w Determine center of rigidity for roof diaphragm.lb ∴ xm = ∑ wy = 311.938 lb ∑w Using diaphragm loading from flexible diaphragm analysis for north-south direction (Figure 1-8) and summing forces about line 1: 376 plf (32. Using the rigidity values R from Table 1-8 and the distance y from line D to the shear wall: y= ∑ (k xx y ) ∑ k xx or y ∑ k xx = ∑ k xx y y (10.0 ft @ roof 14.

II (1997 UBC) 53 .590 ft .lb ∴ ym = 238. 4b For second floor diaphragm. Vol.815 lb SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.3 ft @ second floor 9.lb 38. Figure 1-14.715 ft .lb 4.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence 4b.836 lb × 2.5 ft 9.846 ft . Using diaphragm loading from flexible diaphragm analysis for east-west direction (Figure 1-7) and summing forces about line E: 102 plf (17.5 ft 2.0 ft ) 210 plf (14.0 ft ) 178 plf (15.lb 85.260 ft .833 ft .448 ft . Second floor diaphragm centers of rigidity and mass Determine center of mass of floor diaphragm from wall loads.734 lb × 49.5 ft 1.940 lb × 29.846 ft − lb = 24.0 ft ) = = = = = 1.lb 238.5 ft 635 lb × 38.0 ft 2.lb 24.670 lb × 14.815 lb = = = = = 85.0 ft ) 204 plf (9.0 ft ) 127 plf (5.

lb 6.43(58.0) + 54.5 54 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.953 lb Determine center of rigidity for floor diaphragm.0 ft ) = = = = = = 46 lb × 34.0 ft 778 lb × 9.lb 61.0) + 14.53(0.0) + 35. Using the rigidity values k from Table 1-13 and the distance y from line E to the shear wall: y r (26.lb 7.7 ft @ second floor 127.397 ft − lb = 19.43) = 26.17(33.397 ft − lb ∴ xm = 77.6 ft @ second floor 3.0 ft ) 58.002 ft .0 ft ) 154 plf (16.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence Using diaphragm loading from flexible diaphragm analysis for north-south direction (Figure 1-9) and summing forces about line 2: 23 plf (2.36(0 ) + 60.68(36.464 lb × 25.5 ft 3.0 ft 440 lb × 15.0 = 26.9 plf (2.53 + 65.30 + 54. II (1997 UBC) .76 + 35.0) + 65.0 ft 2.600 ft .lb 77.0 ft ) 110 plf (4.30(22.8 plf (3.lb 160 ft .953 lb = = = = = = 5. Vol.36 + 60.76(5.600 ft .lb 471ft .0 ft ) 35.4 = 11.68 + 14.0) ∴ yr = 4132.0) ∴ xr = 1489.2 plf (8.0 ft ) 97.0 ft 107 lb × 1.77 Using the rigidity values k from Table 1-13 and the distance x from line 2 to the shear wall: x r (26.564 ft .5 ft @ second floor 155.0 ft 118 lb × 4.17 ) = 26.

In this example. II (1997 UBC) 55 .9 ft or 24.1 = 4.360 ft − lb Tx = Fx e y = 36. This design example does not consider eccentricities between the center of masses between levels.5 = = 29.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence 5. The code requires that the story force at the center of mass to be displaced from the calculated center of mass a distance of 5 percent of the building dimension at that level perpendicular to the direction of force. these eccentricities are small and are therefore considered insignificant. the base shear was distributed to the two levels in Part 1.1 − 24.950 lb (4. §1630. Vol. In this Part.7 ft 27.6 Using the rigid diaphragm assumption. Distribution of lateral forces to the shear walls with rigid diaphragms. Forces in the east-west (x) direction: Distance to the calculated CM : y m Displaced e y = (0.7 ft 25. This is to account for accidental torsion. lateral forces must be considered to act in each direction of the two principal axis. The engineer must exercise good engineering judgment in determining when these effects need to be considered.950 lb (0.5 ft e y = 29. Tx = Fx e y = 36.05 × 55 ft ) New y to displace CM Distance to the calculated CR : y r = = = = = 27.2 ft ± 2. the story forces are distributed to the shear walls that support each level.170 ft − lb or SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. The code requires the most severe load combination to be considered and also permits the negative torsional shear to be subtracted from the direct load shear.8 ft ) = 177. 5a.8 ft or e y 0. For the roof diaphragm (Figure 1-13).2 ft 2.1 ft 25.9 − 25.6 Note that displacing the center of mass by 5 percent can result in the CM being on either side of the CR and can produce added torsional shears to all walls.6 ft ) = 22. However.

Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence Forces in the north-south (y) direction: Distance to the calculated CM : x m Displaced e x = (0.2 ft 18.360 ft .lb for walls C and D 69.950 lb (Table 1 .8 − 18.2 ft 21.2 − 18.0 ft 2.1) 14.3 ft ) or Fe-w Fn-s Tx Tx Ty Ty = = = = = = 36.560 ft − lb 4. Vol.05 × 43 ft ) New x to displace CM Distance to the calculated CR : x r = = = = = = = 21.3 = 23.170 ft .lb for wall 5 4.5 = 4. II (1997 UBC) .5 ft 18.440 ft − lb = 0.8 ft e x = 23.1) 177.7 ft ) T y = Fy e x = 14.7 ft or e x T y = Fy e x = 14.440 ft .800 lb (0.800 lb (Table 1 . 2. and 3 56 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.5 69.lb for walls A and B 22.0 ft ± 2.lb for walls 1.800 lb (4.2 ft or 18.560 ft .

5 -7. For roof wall forces.40 67.185 Total Force Fv + Ft 6.800 Torsional Force Ft 1247 617 79 151 -42 -10 -24 1.357 6.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence 5b.39 84.1 25.689 East-West 19. This only occurs when both of the displaced center of mass is on SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.73 13.30 10.778 Direct Force Fv 5601 18.504 14.26 33.848 19.552 15.40 North-South -18. II (1997 UBC) 57 .192 22.659 5.7 131.5 -84.9 3.57 31. Distribution of forces to shear walls below the roof level Wall A B C D Σ 1 2 3 5 Σ Σ Rx 10.0 -363.3 261.339 5.181 4.404 1.061 1.5 20.828 3.883 513 1.635 6. The direct shear force Fv is determined from: Fv = F R ∑R and the torsional shear force Ft is determined from: Ft = T where: Rd J 2 2 J = ∑ Rd x + ∑ Rd y R = rigidity of lateral resisting element d = distance from lateral resisting element to the center of rigidity T = Fe Table 1-14.79 26.029 7.5 For simplicity.446 1.5 134.305 6.65 6.260 5.473 37. The average torsional force added to the shears walls in this design example is 11 percent of the direct force. Vol. Adding only 5 percent of the wall shears can be unconservative.9 10.5 -12.1 Rd 265.950 3.495 13.3 643.412 7. Torsional forces are subtracted from direct forces for this design example as now allowed by code.191 4.677 36.69 Ry dx dy 25.8 -199.5 Rd 2 6.725 1. many engineers will add 5 percent or 10 percent of the direct force shears to account for torsional effects.

5 ft = 27.2 ft ) = = 37.750 lb (adding forces from roof and floor from Table 1-1) Fn-s Ty 116.0 ft 24.3 ft or 21.7 = 9. Vol.6 ft 1. When the center of rigidity occurs between the two displaced centers of mass.2 ft ) 116.5 = 0.0 ft 26.950 + 9.lb for walls A and B = Tx 243.750 lb (6.6 ft ) or = T y = Fy e x = 18.7 180.lb for walls C and E = = (14.6 ft ± 1.100 ft − lb Forces in the north-south (y) direction: Distance to the calculated CM : x m Displaced e x = (0.2 ft Tx = Fx e y = 46.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence the same side of the center of rigidity for a given direction.3 − 11.7 ft 19.3 ft ± 3.3 = 5. II (1997 UBC) .05 × 35 ft ) New x to displace CM Distance to the calculated CR : x r = = = = = = 19.950) = 18. Many engineers still neglect these negative forces.6 ft or e x T y = Fy e x = 18.2 ft e x = 21.250 ft .100 ft .400 ft − lb 243.9 − 11.750 lb (9.05 × 60 ft ) New y to displace CM = = = = 24.9 ft 6.3 ft or 17.7 ft 11. For the floor diaphragm (Figure 1-14).8 ft ) or Tx = Fx e y = 46.7 ft 17.750 lb (5.8 ft or e y = 26.800) = 46.lb for walls 2 and 3 = Ty 180.000 ft − lb = = 21.250 ft − lb = (36. then torsional forces can not be subtracted (which occurs at the roof in the east-west direction). Forces in the east-west (x) direction: Distance to the calculated CM : y m Displaced e y = (0.5 − 21.3 − 26.lb for wall 5 = 58 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.750 lb (0.3 ft 3.3 ft Distance to the calculated CR : y r e y = 27.000 ft . 5c.750 lb (adding forces from roof and floor from Table 1-1) Fe-w Tx 37.400 ft .800 + 3.

43 1.956 22.46 -11.4 (plf) Sheathing 1 or 2 sides Allowable Shear (plf) Edge Nail Spacing (in.30 26.08 1.016 10.848 19.76 35.76 2.0 26.35 1.0 14.632 2.) A B C D 1 2 3 5 A B C E 2 3 5 9.154 6.843 7.493 6.05 1.173 18.339 5.44 0.76 1.404 1.318 8.77 Ry dx dy 31.607 16.985 3.540 61.828 3.11 0.331 16.79 0.5 -310 -440 749 Rd 2 14.857 14.592 7.5 9.181 4.542 13.198 1.5 519.5 271.0 18.169 10.0 14.097 7.91 b (ft) v= Fmax (b )1.318 8.5 26.53 65.760 -585 -831 2.0 10.0 19.318 4.3 Σ Σ Table 1-16.910 46.12 2.607 16.750 3.179 1. II (1997 UBC) 59 .410 18.0 22.689 4.935 1.903 9.670 3.364 10.843 7.511 38.635 6.678 15.221 18.43 54.72 1.029 7.364 East-West Σ 2 North-South 3 5 26.169 10.952 15.89 0.0 8.0 10.191 Total Force Fv + Ft 4.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence Table 1-15.750 Torsional Force Ft 276 316 1.5 6.5 Rd 454.17 127.154 9.072 2.726 19.0 Roof Level 682 970 760 693 135 107 292 184 Floor Level 762 853 721 — 237 287 413 One Two Two Two One One One One One Two Two — One One One 870 1330 1330 1740 510 510 510 510 870 1330 1330 — 510 510 510 2 3 3 2 4 4 4 4 2 3 3 — 4 4 4 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.726 19.0 14.090 6.36 155.891 8.0 — 10.525 Direct Force Fv 4. Vol.81 1.112 6.Comparison of loads on shear walls using flexible versus rigid diaphragm analysis and recheck of nailing in walls Wall F flexible (lb) Frigid (lb) Rigid/ Flexible Ratio 0.12 0.68 60.670 3.674 5. Distribution of forces to shear walls below the second floor level Wall A B C E Rx 14.7 -6.063 1.3 698.0 15.044 5.5 4.7 21.

Where rigid diaphragm analysis shows seismic forces to the shear walls are higher than from flexible diaphragm analysis.1.0 .Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence Shear walls with shears that exceed 350 pounds per lineal foot will require 3x framing at abutting panel edges with staggered nails. Or in the case of a three-story building. Engineering judgment should be used to determine if a rigid diaphragm analysis should be repeated due to changes in wall rigidity. l w = length of wall in feet AB = the ground floor area of the structure in square feet. the ratio for the wall with the largest shear per foot at or below two-thirds the height of the building is calculated. the diaphragm shears should be rechecked for total load divided by diaphragm length along the individual wall lines. See also notes at bottom of Table 1-2.1 The reliability/redundancy factor penalizes lateral force resisting systems without adequate redundancy. the lower two levels. ρ = 2− 20 rmax AB (30-3) where: rmax = the maximum element-story shear ratio. 6. In this example (in Part 1). II (1997 UBC) . ri = Vmax (10 l w ) F AB = 1. Vol. Reliability/redundancy factor ρ. the wall stability and anchorage must be reevaluated. the reliability/redundancy factor was assumed to be ρ = 1. If rigid diaphragm loads are used.542 sq ft 60 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. This will now be checked. §1630. For shear walls. The value of rmax is computed from the total lateral load in the wall multiplied by 10 l w and divided by the story shear.

Since the shear wall forces were determined using both flexible and rigid diaphragm assumptions.542 = 0. there is no increase in base shear required due to lack of reliability/redundancy.0 Therefore.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence For east-west direction: Using strength-level forces for wall C: rmax = 16. Note that the cantilevered column elements are not considered to be a moment frame and are not subject to the ri and ρ requirements of §1630.542 = 0.1.0 minimum o.31 1. 7.0 ) = 0.31 18. Vol. but in this design example has no effect.04 < 1.0” in the 1999 SEAOC Blue Book—which will not penalize longer walls. This step is shown only as a reference for how to calculate horizontal diaphragm deflections.26 46.k. For north-south direction: Using strength-level forces for wall 5: rmax = 8. there is no requirement to verify that the diaphragm is actually rigid or flexible.0 Therefore.0 minimum o. ρ = 2− ∴ ρ = 1.726(10 14. ρ = 2− ∴ ρ = 1. The SEAOC Seismology Committee added the sentence “The value of the ratio 10 l w need not be taken as greater than 1.750 20 0.090(10 14.750 20 0.36 < 1. II (1997 UBC) 61 . for both directions there is no increase in base shear required due to lack of reliability/redundancy. Diaphragm deflections and whether diaphragms are flexible or rigid.26 1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.k.0 ) = 0.

II (1997 UBC) . ∆= 5vL3 vL + + 0.48 psf 1.5C a Iw px nor greater than 1.40 )(1.701 lb (governs) (39. The basic equation to determine the deflection of a diaphragm is shown below. The basic equation to determine seismic forces on a diaphragm is shown below.000 ) = 7. Ft + ∑ Fi i= x n F px = i= x ∑ wi n w px (33-1) Ft = 0 in this example because T < 0. Vol. the roof and floor diaphragms spanning between line A and line B will be used to illustrate the method. Note that the forces in the east-west direction are higher.164 sq ft Fp roof = For the uppermost level.000 36.20(39.542 sq ft floor In this example. (30-15).9 min = 0. 3 62 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.222 Vol.2.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence The design seismic force in the roof and floor diaphragms using Equation 33-1 must first be found.950 × 64.950 lb = 17.000) = 36.07 psf 2.800 lb = 17 . The design seismic force shall not be less than 0.0 )w px = 0.188 Len + 8 EAb 4Gt ∑ (∆ c X ) 2b §23. The design seismic force is then divided by the diaphragm area to determine the horizontal loading in pounds per square foot (refer to Figures 1-13 and 1-14 ).7 seconds. The following will compute the seismic forces in the north-south direction.800)× 39.000) §1633.000 + 64. the above calculation will always produce the same force as computed in Eq. Fp Fp Fp = floor (36. Fp = roof (36.0C a Iw px .701 lb = 11.950 lb 64.000 = 17.950 × 9.5C a Iw px = 0.5(0.

assume the diaphragm is a simple span supported at A and B (refer to Figures 1-13 and 1-14). In other words.950 lb = 17. 3. 2. The UBC specifies that the deflection be calculated on a unit load basis. determine strength loads on building diaphragm.07 )43. simple span diaphragm with blocked panel edges and is based on monotonic tests conducted by the American Plywood Association (APA).2 (see Part 3b for additional comments). 1. Wall length is 39 ft. Area of roof including over hangs is 22' x 43'. uniformly nailed. the allowable shear of 190 plf is based on 15/32-inch APArated wood structural panels with unblocked edges and 10d nails spaced at 6 inches on center at boundaries and panel edges.0) = 148 plf < 190 plf allowable 1.0 (22.4 (39.164 sq ft roof SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Since the code now requires building drifts to be determined by the load combinations of §1612. Based on the F p roof = 17. The UBC references this in §2315.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence The above equation is based on a uniformly loaded. v= (17. The first part of the equation accounts for beam bending. APA-rated wood structural panels may be either plywood or oriented strand board (OSB). with continuity at B. Check diaphragm shear. Diaphragm shears are converted to allowable stress design by dividing by 1. 7a. and the last part accounts for chord slippage.1. II (1997 UBC) 63 . The equation has four separate parts. In reality. the diaphragm deflection should be based on the same load as the load used for the lateral resisting elements. the actual deflection will be less. the third accounts for nail slippage/bending.0 )2 From Table 23-II-H.07 psf 2. fp = 36 . not F px total force at the level considered. Check diaphragm deflection. Vol.07 psf as computed above.4. find roof shear to line A for the east-west direction. For the purpose of this calculation. the second accounts for shear deformation. Roof diaphragm.

en = 1. The nail slip value from APA Research Report 138 can be used: e n = (V n 769 )3. Vn = 120 lb/nail in the strap.0 ft ) With nails at 6 inches on center.3F for a 10d nail in a 12-gauge strap). II (1997 UBC) .0 ft L = 39. If a metal strap is not used.000 psi G Table 23-2-J Vol. 3 = 1.0 ft b = 90.03 ∆ c = 0.700. Note that the area for 2 − 2 × 4 top plates (chord) has been used. where: The allowable load is 120 pound per nail (from NDS Table 12. Vol. Fastener slip/nail deformation values (en).276 = 0. then use of the area for one top plate is recommended. The deflection calculation will conservatively use the chord area of the 2 2x4s at line 5. Therefore.0 ft ) = 207 plf 2(39.298 in. × 2 = 10. Assume a chord splice of the diaphragm at mid-span. the chord slip is: ∆ c = 0.0 ft (22. The slippage for both the diaphragm chords is to be included. Sum of individual chord-splice slip.002 in.276 = (120 769 )3.50 sq in. Also note that the top plates at line 1 are 2 − 2 × 6 .20(104 769 )3.03 inches. (for CDX or Standard Grade) Table 23-2-H The chord-splice of the diaphragm will be spliced with a 12 gauge metal strap using 10d nails.032 in.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence v= (17.276 = 0. The elongation of the metal strap is assumed to be 0. 64 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.002 + 0.07 psf ) 43.000 psi E A 2×4 chords = 5.25 sq in. the load per nail is 207(6 / 12 ) = 104 lb/nail = V n = 22. All top plates are connected with metal straps.0017 t = 0.

.7 E 6 )10 .50 (39 . Based on diaphragm deflection test results performed by the APA.4 where: v= (11.0 ) 0. The APA is currently working on a simplified formula for unblocked diaphragms.0 )0. Vol. an unblocked diaphragm will deflect between 2 to 2½ times more than that of a blocked diaphragm or can be proportioned to allowable shears. Check diaphragm shear. when the chord is in the plane of the roof (pitched). SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.188 (22 .48 psf as computed in Part 7 above.ft Where the distance to the nearest support is 11'–0" and to get the sum for both chords you multiply by 2.0017 + = 0.4)2(16.0) Table 23-II-H Allowable shear of 190 plf is based on 15/32-inch APA-rated sheathing with unblocked edges and 10d nails spaced at 6 inches on center at boundaries and panel edges supported on framing.000 )0 . the chord connection at the ridge should be carefully detailed to accommodate the uplift component of the chord. Based on the F p floor = 11.0') = 90 plf < 190 plf (1.0 ) 4 (90 . It is assumed that the unblocked diaphragm will deflect: ∆ = 0.0 ft (2 ) = 0.48 psf )16. which is believed to increase the deflection (but has not been confirmed with tests). This design example has unblocked panel edges for the floor and roof diaphragms. so a conversion factor is necessary.06 in. The UBC does not have a formula for an unblocked diaphragm. 7b. find floor shear to line A for the east-west direction (area of floor is 22 × 16 ). II (1997 UBC) 65 .70 + + 0.06(2. Note that at gable ended roofs.15 in.0 3 207 (22 . Diaphragm shears are converted to allowable stress design by dividing by 1.032 )11.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence ∑ (∆ c X ) = (0.298 This deflection is based on a blocked diaphragm. 2 (39 .5) = 0.0 ) 8(1.0' (22.70 in. Floor diaphragm. The roof diaphragm is also sloped at 5:12. ∆= 5(207 )22 . APA-rated wood structural panels may be either plywood or oriented strand board (OSB).

This would be eight times the computed “simple span” deflections of the diaphragms.0) Converting to an unblocked diaphragm: ∆ = 0.8 E-05 n t = 0. 8 (1.000 psi E = 1.0 ft b = 16.25 inches.319 2(16.70 ∆= + + 0.25 sq in.319 in Table 23-2-J.10 in.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence Check diaphragm deflection: fp = 9. As defined by the UBC.542 floor v= (6. assuming a simple span for the diaphragm. II (1997 UBC) .6 The maximum diaphragm deflection is 0.000 psi A2×4 chords = 5. 7c.032 )11.700.5) = 0.7 E6 )10. 7c Flexible versus rigid diaphragms. × 2 = 10.0 ) 4.800 = 6. 66 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. e = 1. 5 (70) 22. Vol.36 psf 1.50 sq in.0 ft ) = 70 psf 2(16.276 = 4.0 ft (2 ) = 0.188 (22. the maximum diaphragm deflection will have to be more than two times the average story drift.04 in.70 in.36 psf )16.000 )0. Tables 1-9 and 1-12 for the computed deflections of the shear walls).0 ft (22. or 1.0 3 70 (22. §1630.04(2.8E − 05 + = 0. The average story drift is on the order of 0.62 inches (see Part 4. For the diaphragms to be considered flexible. 3 Table 23-2-H Using an assumed single chord-splice slip of 0. Vol.15 inches.0) 4 (90.0 ft G = 90.032-inch at the mid-span of the diaphragm: Σ∆ c X = (0.0) 0.50 (16.2(35 769 )3.0 ft ) With nails at 6 inches on center the load per nail is 70(6 12 ) = 35 lb/nail = Vn L = 22.

5. In this procedure. As engineered design code changes continue to get more restrictive. Does residence meet requirements of conventional construction provisions. Consequently. some engineers perform their design based on the roof diaphragm being flexible and the floor diaphragm being rigid. building designers. Dead load of roof exceeds the 15 psf limit §2320. engineered design) continues to widen. but by flexible analysis it is found to be 50 percent to line A and 50 percent to line B. conventional construction vs. Roof total loads. and homeowners to build structures under these provisions without any engineering design. 95 percent to line B. For further discussion. II (1997 UBC) 67 . it must also be checked against §2320. Vol. In other words. the engineer should exercise good engineering judgment in determining if the higher load of the two methodologies is actually required. §2320 The UBC has had prescriptive provisions for Type V (light frame) construction for many years. There has not been any testing of sloped (e. Results of these checks are shown below. the engineer should probably design for the larger of the two loads for the individual walls.e. However. tile roofs.g. the “gap” between the double standard (i. if the load to two walls by rigidity analysis is found to be 5 percent to line A. Note that the same definition of a flexible diaphragm has been in the UBC since the 1988 edition.1. The draft of the IBC 2000 has repeated this same definition in Chapter 23 (wood) definitions. see the Commentary at end of this example. roof) and complicated diaphragms as found in the typical wood-framed single-family residence. Additionally. Diaphragm deflection analysis and testing to date has been performed on level/flat diaphragms. because this structure is in Seismic Zone 4.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence the diaphragms are considered rigid. it generally has not been enforced by building officials for Type V construction. the analysis is highly complex and beyond the scope of what is normally done for this type of construction. The size and style of current singlefamily residences now being constructed—with vaulted ceilings and large floor openings. Due to misuse of the conventional construction requirements. It used to be quite common for building officials to allow developers. Since some amount of diaphragm deformation will occur. more stringent limitations on the usage of these provisions were placed in the 1994 UBC. The structure must be checked against the individual requirements of §2320. Following is an analysis of the construction of the residence proposed in this design example compared with conventional construction requirements and an explanation of why an engineering design is required for both vertical and lateral loads. 8.1 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. and larger window sizes—require an engineering design be done. architects.

0 = 3. Vol. §2320.11.5. II (1997 UBC) .4.828 lb (from Table 1-16) Converting to allowable stress design for the wall frame: V = 5. ∴ The residence cannot be designed using the conventional construction provisions of the code.1 Spacing between braced wall lines 3 and 5 exceeds 25 feet maximum. Design shear wall over garage on line D.3 §2320. Exterior braced wall panels at line D over the garage are horizontally offset from the bracing systems at the floor below and therefore not in one vertical plane.1 §2320.5.0 3. the wall piers need to be designed to transfer forces around opening. New h w ratio = 4.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence Unusually shaped buildings. Minimum individual panel length is less than 4'-0" at second floor at line D.0 = 1.2 §2320. Cantilever column bracing at the garage door does not conform to prescribed methods. Table 23-II-G Figure 23-II-1 68 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.4 = 4.0 Maximum h w = 2. Braced wall lines. V = 5. §2320.5. Floor opening exceeds 12 feet and 50 percent of the least floor dimension at line A.k.4 §2320.828 1.0 for Seismic Zones 3 and 4 Therefore.159 lb (refer to Figures 1-11 and 1-15) Determine h w aspect ratios for the shear walls: h w = 9.4.3 9.33 < 2.11.0 o. Stud height exceeds 10'–0" without lateral support at line 1. Floor is not laterally supported by braced wall lines on all edges.0 3.11.4.1 §2320.5.

It is possible to get the misleading impression from Table 23-II-1 that all a designer needs to do is add some blocking and straps in order to reduce the h/w ratio.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence 9a. the wall shears above and below the opening will be higher than in the wall piers. Using statistics. II (1997 UBC) 69 . determine the shears and forces in each free body panel. Figure 1-15. Most often. which is a more common plate height. This is a two-step procedure as follows: First: Find forces acting on upper left corner of wall frame (Figure 1-15). some engineers will argue that vertical loads need to be considered when determining wall shears. This design example analyzes the wall frame and neglects gravity loads. when the plate height is 8'-0". This design example has a structure with 9'-0" plate heights. However. there are chord development and panel nailing capacity problems. although from a technically correct standpoint. Vol. Gravity loads are considered for anchorage of the wall in Part 9b. The standard practice of neglecting gravity loads when considering wall shears is considered appropriate. Wall frame elevation at line D SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 9a Design of wall frame (perforated shear wall with force transfer around opening). which makes using a wall frame feasible. Second: Break up wall frame into free-body panel sections and balance forces for each panel starting with upper left corner forces already determined (Figure 1-16).

Vol. Free-body individual panels of wall on line D 70 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) .Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence Figure 1-16.

546 lb Consult ICBO Evaluation Reports for the allowable load capacity of premanufactured straps. but shear stresses above and below the window may become higher. which occurs (to some degree) when they are not provided.33 o. 9b Design horizontal tie straps above and below windows (Figure 1-18). 9b.k.975 lb > 1. with this type of design.148 = 1. II (1997 UBC) 71 .Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence Many engineers will arbitrarily add tiedowns at the window jamb members (Figure 1-18).4" Required penetration for full value = 12 D = 12 × 0.0 − 0. 1. Vol. Tie force is maximum at header beam.5 = 2. Check penetration depth factor: C d : for 10d nail thru-strap and ½" sheathing penetration = 3.3F SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.6 × 33)1.546 lb o. However.06(0.3 nails 113 lb/nail × 1. Allowable strap load is (1. Ftie = 1. the tiedowns at these locations are not necessary.25)0.33 = 1. Adding tiedowns at the window jambs would increase the wall frame performance and help prevent sill plate uplift at the window jambs.4" Allowable load per 10d common nail with 16 ga metal side plate = 113 lb Number of 10d nails required each end = (nailing does not control) Use a continuous 16 gauge x 1¼-inch strap across the opening head and sill to blocking. Determine the tie force for the horizontal strap (from Figure 1-16).8 < 2. 91 NDS Table 12.k.060 − 0.546 lb = 10.

Since this exact same load combination is listed in the basic load combinations.3. The Errata to the first printing of the UBC added 0.4 9d.740 plf o. 9c Load combinations using allowable stress design. An inspection of Figure 1-13 would indicate that the center of rigidity would shift to the north and hence add more torsional force to the wall. Vol. The former UBC provision of using 85 percent of the dead loads for consideration of uplift effects has now been replaced with the basic load combinations in UBC §1612. II (1997 UBC) . the alternate basic load combinations of §1612. 9e Determine anchorage of wall to the supporting GLB.828 lb h M OT = 5.3.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence 9c. E to the alternate basic 1.3 The basic load combinations of §1612.828 lb (9. From Figure 1-16: Maximum panel shear = 773 plf 2-inch edge nailing with sheathing both sides v allowable = 2 × 870 = 1.9 D ± load combinations as Eq. §1612.1 do not permit stress increases. To eliminate sheathing on one side.lb (strength level) 72 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.1 or §1612. the UBC is in contradiction and is confusing (to say the least). This design example uses the alternate basic load combinations with the one-third stress increase.0 ft) = 52.100 lb E = V = 5. (12-16-1). a complete design would recheck the force distribution with the reduced wall rigidity.2 do permit stress increases.3.452 ft . 9e. Table 23-II-I-1 Note that sheathing on both sides of this wall does not appear to be required by the code. However.2 From Figure 1-17: wDL = 100 plf (triangle loading from hip roof) PDL = 700 lb Wall DL = 1.3. 9d Check shear panel nailing in wall frame.k.

8.100 (10.0 ft 2 ) + 700 lb (10.9 D ± 1. 1.0 ft 2 )(10.0 3) + 1. check special seismic load combination for elements supporting discontinuous systems.0 × 2 3) + 1.4 ) − (14.0 ft ) = 14.0 E m 0.5 in.167 ft − lb Uplift at B = (52. II (1997 UBC) 73 .Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence Figure 1-17.9 D ± (12-10) 1.7 ft Determine anchorage at B: M R = 100 plf (10.167 × 0.7 ft Elements supporting discontinuous systems §1630. Vol.2 Since location A does not continue to the foundation.4 (52.452 1.0 − 12 E The critical loading condition is: 0.0 E m (12-17) (12-18) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.833 × 0.2 D + f1 L + 1.548 lb 9.0 ft ) = 8.043 lb Uplift at A = 9.833 ft − lb 3.4) − (8.7 ft With a 4 × 6 post at each end wall L = 10.0 ft 2 )(10.9) = 3.9 ) = 2.100 (10. Wall frame elevation at D at second floor Determine anchorage at A: M R = 100 plf (10. = 9.452 1.0 ft 2 ) + 700 lb (10.

656 lb(9. Ω o = 2.3 ft ) Consult ICBO Evaluation Reports for the allowable load capacity of premanufactured straps.4 (30-2) §1630.lb Therefore.9) = 6. 74 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Allowable load per 10d nail common with 14 ga metal side plate = 115 lb From Part 9b. Number of 10d common nails required = 6.0 ft ) = 104.656 lb M OT = 11.0 for cantilevered column building systems For east-west axis of structure R = 2.5 for live loads Em = Ωo Eh Determine the seismic force overstrength factor Ωo Ω o = 2.0 for roof live loads (non-snow) f1 = 0.5 nails 115 lb/nail (1.828 lb ) = 11.8.7 )(1.904 ft .0 ft − 0. uplift = §1612.33) §1630.0 .905 lb = 26.3F Use a continuous 14 gauge x 3-inch strap bent around GLB.3.833 × 0.0 Determine anchorage force at A for special seismic load combination: E m = Ω o E h = 2.2. the allowable stress increase factor is 1. II (1997 UBC) . with 3-inch nails penetration factor C d = 1.8 for wood structural panel wall Ω o = 2.904 1.4 §1612.1 91 NDS Table 12.2 for cantilevered building systems Therefore.4) − (8.1 Table 16-N Table 16-N (104.7 for steel. For allowable stress design.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence where: f1 = 0. Vol.0(5.905 lb (10.

Note that the adequacy of the GLB to resist the overturning of the wall must be checked using the special seismic load combinations. From Table 16-M.0 2 ) + 5. Item 5. as prohibited in §2316.9 requires the diaphragm force used in UBC Equation (33-1) to be used.7 with the duration of load increase in Chapter 23.2.2.7 increase.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence Note that §1630.2 references special seismic load combinations of §1612.4 and §1630. Also. UBC §1630. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.4 and does not allow the one-third increase permitted under §1612.828 lb VE = 22. an allowable stress increase of 1.g.96 psf For simplification of analysis.96 (28. (C D ).0. UBC §1633.2.0 ft 22. Since the allowable shear values in Table 23-II-H already include a increase for short-term loading.33 for C D . Load from wall D above = 5.0 ft ) = 11. As permitted in §1612.4 (28.1 allows the combination of allowable stress increase of 1.1.48 psf From Table 16-P: Ω o for cantilever column type structures is 2.2 From Part 7 in this design example: fp floor = 11.7 can be used in addition to the duration of load increase of 1. Vol.1 and §1612. f p Ω o = 11. panel edges need to be blocked.3.8.0451 lb 1.828 lb (15. this has plan irregularity type 4.2.045 lb v E = 11. Table 23-II-H Therefore. the duration of load increase (§1612.3.1 10. II (1997 UBC) 75 .8. the boundary post at the wall corner must be checked for orthogonal effects with shear wall 5 (and on other locations in the structure with common corners).8. assume the diaphragm over the garage is a simple span between lateral resisting elements at lines C and E. §1633. The diaphragm between lateral resisting elements C and E is required to transfer the design seismic force from shear wall D due to the offset between D and E.3.0) = 281 plf > 215 plf (for unblocked) n.48 × 2. 10 Diaphragm shears at the low roof over garage (Figure 1-20).2) cannot be used concurrently with the 1.0 ft )(22.0 = 22.

the allowable diaphragm shear for 19/32-inch APA sheathing. Wall frame details must be shown on the drawings. when multiple wall frames are on a project.c. with blocked edges. it is necessary at times to have individual details for each condition. ∴ Use 10d @6 inches o. 320 plf>281 plf o. it should be noted that a separate anchorage detail (keynote 10) may be necessary where the end of the GLB is connected to the supporting post. Details of wall frame on line D at second floor 76 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Figure 1-18. is 320 plf. with 10d common wire nails spaced at 6-inch centers. II (1997 UBC) . Depending on the variations.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence From Table 23-II-H. While the detail shown in Figure 1-18 is somewhat generic.k. Vol. 11. with blocked edges on 19/32-inch sheathing. 11 Detail the wall frame over the GLB.

Cross-grain shrinkage of the GLB may be a problem when using a connection of the type shown in Figure 1-19. Also. It should be noted that a separate anchorage detail may be necessary where the end of the GLB is connected to the supporting post (intersection of grids D and 5). all nail holes are to be filled. nails above the neutral axis of the GLB should be left out from the design to avoid cross-grain tension. To avoid confusion in the field. Figure 1-19. Detail of anchorage at point A (see also Figure 1-18) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol. In other words.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence 12. only the nails below the neutral axis are considered effective for uplift forces. 12 Detail the anchorage of wall frame to the GLB. II (1997 UBC) 77 .

The low roof above the garage is an important part of the continuous load path. 13 Detail the continuous load path at the low roof above the garage doors. or down the wall to the GLB and across the horizontal diaphragm to the exterior wall. Figure 1-20 shows one way that the shear transfer can be made. This detail has two load paths: the loads from the roof can either go through the pitched roof. Historically. Vol. Figure 1-20. II (1997 UBC) . Detail of load path for low roof over garage 78 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence 13. Also note that the chord/drag tie of the top plates will be interrupted by the GLB-to-post connection and will require detailing at grids D3 and D5. this type of detail has been mis-detailed and mis-constructed.

Structural framing plans and details should be separate from the architectural drawings. the use of calculations and sketches lends itself to poorly coordinated drawings and missing structural information.and two-family dwellings have rigid SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. it has been a common design practice to have an engineer provide only calculations and sketches for the architect to include on the architectural drawings. 2. are even less effective. the “calc and sketch only” service is a practice which should be discontinued.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence Commentary Following are some issues and topics related to the seismic design of wood frame residences that can be used to improve design practices and/or understanding of important aspects of design. since the architect did not design the structural system and often can not identify what is missing or incorrect. The common practice of referring to details on architectural drawings as “similar” leads to further confusion as to the design intent. when enforced (many jurisdiction do not require structural observation for single-family residences). It also illustrates that most one. Rigid versus flexible diaphragm. Architects and building officials need to be encouraged to adopt the following standards: 1. Most new wood residential building designs are complex and beyond the scope and intent of the prescriptive conventional construction requirements of the UBC. Vol. This approach has some significant problems based on reviews of how residential framing is actually being constructed. Since the engineer generally is not asked to review the architect’s final drawings. with a few exceptions. Any new building (or remodel requiring the existing building to be brought into conformance with the current building code) that cannot be clearly shown to conform with building code conventional construction framing requirements should require submittal of structural drawings and calculations signed for by a licensed civil or structural engineer.” This is done to provide a cost savings to the owner. resulting in poor performance in earthquakes. “Calc and sketch” philosophy. Misuse of these conventional requirements has led to structures with incomplete lateral force systems. In wood frame construction. particularly for single-family residences. II (1997 UBC) 79 . The structural observation requirements of the code. This design example illustrates seismic design using both flexible and rigid diaphragms.

Based on actual tiedown post locations. as occurs when there is only a single-sided tiedown. and 5 of this design example use rigid diaphragms per UBC requirements. the engineer needs to consider where the tiedown posts will actually be located. a chart of these is included in this section and is also considered appropriate in determining wall rigidities. Tiedown location. the upper shear wall only requires a tiedown device on one side of the tiedown post. II (1997 UBC) . The shear wall deflections used in this design example use UBC equations.g. a design based on flexible diaphragm assumption would not be required if the design is based on the rigid diaphragm assumption. When designing shear walls. The tiedown posts occur where shear walls stack from floor to floor. Since the posts must align between story levels. This needs to be viewed as one possible approach that is substantiated by the code. Using the common approach of basing wall rigidities on deflections of shear walls and other vertical elements. Double-sided tiedowns are generally preferred over singlesided. Part 2 of this design example uses flexible diaphragms to determine shear wall construction. This being the case. The lower level wall requires tiedown devices on each side of the tiedown post. Shear wall rigidities can be based on graphs of the four-term shear wall code deflection equation (see Part 3b). However. the engineer first needs to know or assume how the shear walls will be constructed (e. As shown in Figure 1-21. the upper level tiedown post will need to be offset inward in order to line up with the post below. However. Without performing a preliminary analysis. 2. This method can be appropriate provided the tiedown assembly displacements are kept to a minimum. other approaches can also be used. nail size and spacing). Vol. 80 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 4. is avoided. the upper level shear wall design may have to be rechecked once the lower level shear wall design is complete. The use of tiedown devices on each side of the post will improve the shear wall performance. then use the construction required from the flexible diaphragms for determining the wall rigidities.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence diaphragms as defined by code. since eccentricity in the connection. Parts 3. One method (as used in this design example) to avoid this process is to first perform an analysis based on flexible diaphragms. Two of these are given below: 1. the procedure of just doing a design based on rigid diaphragms may be subject to a trial and error process. The rigidities of the shear walls can be based on the length of the wall times the allowable shear capacity. This may involve using specific types of tiedown devices that limit displacements to less than 1/8"..

0 10.033) e n =0. (v=340 plf.024) e n =0.) 50. (v=510 plf. To complete this design.c.0 d = deflection =(8vh 3)/(EAb ) +(vh )/(Gt ) + 0.033) e n =0.0 20. and special inspection are considered every bit as important as a comprehensive set of structural calculations.) F = applied force = Vb (kips) 60.0 K = stiffness = F/d = (Vb )/d 70. e n = nail deformation slip (in. including the foundations.c. This design example fills a void in the available engineering literature on the subject—many engineers have stated that there simply are not sufficient reference documents available on this subject.0 0 5 10 15 20 Wall Depth b (ft) 25 30 35 40 Figure 1-21.0 Stiffness K (kips/in. This design example illustrates a detailed analysis for some of the important seismic requirements of the 1997 UBC. the engineer will have to check all the major structural elements along the various lateral load paths of the residence.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence Design comments. (v=665 plf. structural site observation. clear construction documents with adequate detailing.c. e n =0.033) 30.0 [C2] h = 10 ft [D1] h = 8 ft [D2] h = 10 [A] [B] [C] [D] edge nail spacing at 2” o. A = area of end post = 12. This design example illustrates a very comprehensive approach to the engineering calculations. (v=870 plf. Vol. Stiffness of one-story ½-inch Structural-I plywood shear walls 81 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.75he n + d a [A1] h = 8 ft Where: E = modulus of elasticity = 1.0 [A2] h = 10 [B1] h = 8 ft [B2] h = 10 ft [C1] h = 8 ft 40. edge nail spacing at 6” o. The use of good detailing practices with ductile elements to absorb energy.c. edge nail spacing at 4” o.0 0. edge nail spacing at 3” o.” it is expected that actual peak earthquake forces may be 2 to 3 times greater than the equivalent static forces required by the UBC and used in this example.25 in. 80.2 v = shear/foot d a = slip at hold down = 1/8 in. II (1997 UBC) . The seismic calculations and details for this example residence are approximately 50 percent complete. In the so called “big one.8x106 psi G = shear modulus = 90x103 psi h = wall height (ft) b = wall depth (ft) t = plywood thickness = 15/32 in. Normal engineering design of this type of structure may omit many of the calculations shown in this example and rely on good engineering judgment.

1997. Applied Technology Council. Applied Technology Council. David A. Applied Technology Council. Tacoma. Washington. Washington. Cyclic Testing of Narrow Plywood Shear Walls ATC R-1. Redwood City. 2. II (1997 UBC) . American Plywood Association. Engineered Wood Association. American Plywood Association. Diaphragms and Shear Walls.C. American Plywood Association. Applied Technology Council.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence References American Forest and Paper Association.” Building Standards. 1997. Tacoma. Washington D. 1981. 1996. Tacoma. Engineered Wood Association. “A Linear Elastic Dynamic Analysis of a Timber Framed Structure. Report 105. Performance Standards and Policies for Structural– Use Panels [Sheathing Standard. Redwood City. Report T94-5. Tacoma.C. Standard PRP–108. 1995. Wood Structural Panel Shear Walls. Plywood Diaphragms. Building Seismic Safety Council. Vol. California. revised. American Plywood Association. Proceedings of a Workshop on Design of Horizontal Wood Diaphragms. Design/ Construction Guide – Diaphragms and Shear Walls. Applied Technology Council. Research Report 138. 1999. California. Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings. Washington.3].3. International Conference of Building Officials. Sec. Report 154. Tacoma. Redwood City. Washington D. Washington. Washington. 1988.. American Plywood Association. Engineered Wood Association. Engineered Wood Association. California 82 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. American Plywood Association. American Plywood Association. ATC-7-1. American Forest and Paper Association. Whittier. Guidelines for Design of Horizontal Wood Diaphragms. California Earthquake. Building Seismic Safety Council. 1994. Northridge. 1980. Bugni. Tacoma. Washington. California. National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program. 1997. Engineered Wood Association. 1993. Applied Technology Council. ATC-7. Wood Construction Manual.

1996. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Proceedings of the Workshop on Seismic Testing. Thomas G. and Heine. and Williamson. Monotonic Tests of Wood Frame Shear Walls with Various Openings and Base Restraint Configurations.. Countryman. K. Commins. Dolan. 1996. Timber Engineering Report No. Sequential Phased Displacement Cyclic Tests of Wood Frame Shear Walls with Various Openings and Base Restrain Configurations.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence Cobeen. 11. California. J. “Seismic Retrofit of an Existing Multi-Story Wood Frame Structure. Structural Engineers Association of California.. California. Sacramento. D.D. Sacramento. 1954. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Experimental Results from Cyclic Racking Tests of Wood Shear Walls with Openings.E. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. and Design of Wood Frame Construction.P. Blacksburg. Timber Engineering Report No. 1997c. Blacksburg.” Proceeding: Annual SEAOC Convention. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.D. Dolan.. II (1997 UBC) 83 . Coil. 1999.. California. Blacksburg.. 1954 Horizontal Plywood Diaphragm Tests. Vol. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Dolan. 1996. “Reconnaissance Report: Northridge Earthquake of January 17. and Heine. Analysis.. J. Tacoma Washington. 1997b.P. Laboratory Report 63. Virginia. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. J. C.D. McGraw Hill.C. Vol. C. TE-1997-002.. Virginia. Supplement C. TE. Virginia. Sequential Phased Displacement Test of Wood Frame Shear Walls with Corners. C. California Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering.” Proceedings: Annual SEAOC Convention. CUREe. Pleasanton. and Heine. TE-1997-001. 1996. Simpson Strong-Tie Co. Timber Engineering Report No... and Col Benson. R. 1997a. Effect of Hold Downs and Stud-Frame Systems on the Cyclic Behavior of Wood Shear Walls. D.. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 1995. Structural Engineers Association of California. Keith F. Timber Engineering Report No.1996-001. Wood Engineering Construction Handbook. A. TE-1997003. Faherty. Virginia.. and Gregg. Washington D..” Earthquake Spectra. J. Dolan. 1994. Oakland. Blacksburg.P. California. J. “Performance Based Design of Wood Structures. Douglas Fir Plywood Association. 1999.

” Proceedings: Annual SEAOC Convention.A. D.K. Birmingham. “Comparison of Building Analysis Assuming Rigid or Flexible Floors.C.. 1996. Washington D. National Forest Products Association. S.C..113. 1999. Greg C.” Journal of Structural Engineering.C. Applied Technology Council. Washington D. Washington D. . D. “Lessons Learned From Four Earthquake Damaged Multi-Story Type V Structures. 1997. Wisconsin. Goers R.” Proceedings: Annual SEAOC Convention. Redwood City. and Lin. National Design Specification for Wood Construction. Foliente. Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings. 84 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.. 1994. Earthquake Performance and Safety of Timber Structures. Ju. Castle. Mendes. Ficcadenti. Sandercock. 1995. M. 1999.. “Rigid versus Flexible: Inappropriate Assumptions Can Cause Shear Wall Failures!” Proceedings: Annual SEAOC Convention. S. Forest Products Society.. Structural Engineers Association of California. Sacramento. National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program. Design and Testing of Timber Structures Under Seismic Loads. Sacramento. Washington. NFPA. Kazanjy. National Design Specification for Wood Construction. International Building Code – Final Draft. and R. American Society of Civil Engineers. Analysis. S. S. and Associates. Mendes. California. Madison Wisconsin. Forest Products Laboratory. A Methodology for Seismic Design and Construction of Single-Family Dwellings. 2000.A. University of California Forest Products Laboratory. 1998. Foliente. Sacramento. Vol. International Code Council. 1987. “Laboratory Testing to Investigate Pneumatically Driven Box Nails for the Edge Nailing of 3/8" Plywood Shear Walls. Madison.1999. Richmond. California.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence Federal Emergency Management Agency. II (1997 UBC) . 1976.C. 1997b. California. Natural Forest Products Association. Structural Engineers Association of California.K. Alabama. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Structural Engineers Association of California. 1991a. California. International Code Council. California. T. Greg C. Wood Handbook Publication FPL – GTR. NFPA.

. California. Sec. Sacramento. “Standard of Care in Structural Engineering Wood Frame Multiple Housing. Structural Engineers Association of California. Steinbrugge.” Proceedings: Annual SEAOC Convention. Guidelines for Diaphragms and Shear Walls... Shipp. 1997. Timber Design.3. Wood Structural Panel Shear Walls with Gypsum Wallboard and Window [ Sheathing Standard. Structural Engineers Association of California.D. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 1992. California.The Engineered Wood Association. J. Tacoma. II (1997 UBC) 85 . Sacramento. APA – Engineered Wood Association. California. SEAOC. Inc. Rose. J. 2. 1999. California. Washington. J. Professional Engineering Development Publications. 1996. Research Report 158. 1999. Sacramento. SEAOC. Tacoma Washington. Structural Engineers Association of California. and E. Volumes IV and V.. Research Report 158. Preliminary Testing of Wood Structural Panel Shear Walls Under Cyclic (Reversed) Loading. 1998. SEAOC. 1994. APA .3 ]. Keith. Seismic Detailing Examples for Engineered Light Frame Timber Construction.Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence Rose.L. Plan Review – Codes and Practice. Structural Engineers Association of California. California. Vol. D. J. Huntington Beach.. Sacramento.

Vol. II (1997 UBC) .Design Example 1 ! Wood Light Frame Residence 86 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

Vol. The application of this definition in wood construction often requires the use of the rigid diaphragm assumption. This method represents a significant change from current practice. such as the three-story building in this design example.6 of the 1997 UBC). it is now the joint opinion of the SEAOC Code and Seismology Committees that this definition should be considered in wood framed diaphragms. At present. there has been a definition of diaphragm flexibility in the code (§1630. II (1997 UBC) 87 . if not most. for distribution of story shears to shear walls. a rigid SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Wood light frame three-story structure elevation Foreword After careful consideration and extensive discussion. this definition results in many. California practice has almost exclusively used the flexible diaphragm assumption for determining distribution of story shears to shear walls. when introduced in 1988. For example. First. this definition may not have been intended to apply to wood framed diaphragms. Many engineers feel that exclusive use of the flexible diaphragm assumption results in underestimation of forces on some shear walls. and subsequent calculation of shear wall rigidities. After considerable discussion and re-evaluation.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Design Example 2 Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Figure 2-1. Arguably. In fact. diaphragms in wood frame construction being considered rigid. be designed for seismic forces considering both rigid and flexible diaphragm assumptions. There are two principal reasons for considering both rigid and flexible diaphragms. SEAOC is recommending that large wood frame structures. since adoption of the 1988 UBC.

and lightweight concrete fill is placed over the floor sheathing (for sound insulation). Overview This design example illustrates the seismic design of a three-story 30-unit hotel structure. These materials in combination provide significantly stiffer diaphragms than those represented by the diaphragm deflection equation of UBC standard 23-2. Flexible diaphragm assumptions encourage the placement of shear walls around the perimeter of the floor and roof area. and 2-4. the UBC recognizes only two diaphragm categories: flexible and rigid. The roofs have composite shingles and are framed with plated trusses. The light frame structure. In general. The following sections illustrate a detailed analysis for some of the important seismic requirements of the 1997 UBC. gyp board is applied to the framing underside for ceiling finish. II (1997 UBC) . particularly where one or more lines of shear walls (or other vertical resisting elements) are more flexible than the others are. This design example is not a complete building design. This also requires use of judgment because at the present time there is no consensus method for estimating rigidities. several alternatives are discussed. therefore minimizing the need to have wood diaphragms to resist torsional forces. 88 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. has wood structural panel shear walls. in some instances. In this design example. shown in Figures 2-1. 2-3. sheathing is glued to the framing members (to reduce floor squeaks). including wind design (see UBC §606 ). the floor diaphragms are constructed using screw shank nails. Only selected items of the seismic design are illustrated. Second.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure diaphragm analysis is judged more appropriate when the shear walls are more flexible compared to the diaphragm. However. This structure cannot be built using conventional construction methods for reasons shown in Part 6 of this design example. the engineer must also select a method to estimate shear wall rigidities (and rigidities of other vertical resisting elements). and many aspects of a complete design. The floors have a 1½-inch lightweight concrete topping framed with engineered I joists. users of this document should check with the local jurisdiction regarding both the level of analysis required and acceptable methodologies. Additionally. 2-2. the diaphragms in this design example are considered to be semi-rigid. are not included. Prior to starting design of a wood light frame structure. and roof and floor diaphragms. In the commentary of Design Example 1. Vol. For the part of the analysis that assumes a rigid diaphragm. the use of flexible diaphragm assumptions can actually force the engineer to provide a more favorable lateral force resisting system than would occur by only using rigid diaphragm assumptions. The primary tiedowns for the shear walls use a continuous tiedown system.

Tiedown forces for shear wall on line C. Does structure meet requirements of conventional construction provisions? Diaphragm deflections to determine if the diaphragm is flexible or rigid. 8. The commentary following Design Example 1 illustrates two other simplified approaches that would also be appropriate for this design example. Initially.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Hence. 6. the analysis will use the envelope method. Secondly. Rigidities of shear walls. 5. Tiedown connection at the second floor for the shear wall on line C. Outline This example will illustrate the following parts of the design process: 1. Reliability/redundancy factor ρ. 7. 9. 89 3. although not explicitly required by code. 11 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Finally. which considers the worst loading condition from the flexible and rigid diaphragm analyses for each vertical shear resisting element. further iterations may be required with significant stiffness redistributions. 10. Lateral forces on the shear walls and required nailing assuming flexible diaphragms. II (1997 UBC) . 4. Distribution of lateral forces to the shear walls. Design base shear and vertical distributions of seismic forces. the shear wall nailing and tiedown requirements are determined using the flexible diaphragm assumption. Anchor bolt spacing and tiedown anchor embedment for shear wall on line C. It should be noted that the envelope method. 10 11. 2. Tiedown connection at the third floor for the shear wall on line C. The method of determining shear wall rigidities used in this design example is by far more rigorous than normal practice but is not the only method available to determine shear wall rigidities. use these shear wall forces to determine shear wall rigidities for the rigid diaphragm analysis. Vol. is deemed necessary and good engineering practice for this design example.

4 2. Detail of shear transfer at exterior wall at floor (Figure 2-18).288 sq ft Weights of respective diaphragm levels.0 1. 14 15.000 lb = 230. (Figure 2-10).1 psf Stair landings do not have lightweight concrete fill Area of floor plan is 5. 13. Vol. 20 21.7 2.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 12. Detail of shear transfer at interior shear walls at foundation (Figure 2-15). 18 19. wt.) = 13. 13 14.8 25. Detail of wall intersection at exterior shear walls (Figure 2-11). Detail of shear transfer at interior shear wall at roof (Figure 2-13).5 0.5 (13.5 3. Detail of shear transfer at exterior wall at roof (Figure 2-17). II (1997 UBC) . 17 18.8 5. Detail of sill plate at foundation edge (Figure 2-16). Detail of shear transfer at interior shear walls at floors (Figure 2-14).000 lb = 2300.0 0. Detail of tiedown connection at the second floor for shear wall at line C. including tributary exterior and interior walls: Wroof W3rd floor W2nd floor W 90 = 135.41/12) = 15. 12 Detail of tiedown connection at the third floor for shear wall on line C (Figure 2-9). proj. 16 17.8 13. 15 16.000 lb SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Detail of tiedown connection at foundation (Figure 2-12).5 psf Floor weights: Flooring Lt.0 psf DL (horiz.5 psf 1. 21 Given Information Roof weights (slope 6:12): Roofing ½" sheathing Trusses Insulation Miscellaneous Gyp ceiling DL (along slope) 3.000 lb = 595. concrete 5/8" sheathing Floor framing Miscellaneous Gyp ceiling 1.0 psf 14.5 1. 19 20.

The potential for wood shrinkage problems proportionally increases with the number of stories in the structure. The shrinkage of lumber can effect the architectural and mechanical systems as well as the structural system. Framing lumber is Douglas Fir-Larch (DF-L) grade stamped No. Three-ply 15/32-inch sheathing has lower allowable shears and the inner ply voids can cause nailing problems. Vol. 1 S-Dry. and straps. Without a geotechnical investigation. shear walls. Common wire nails are used for diaphragms. The floor is 19/32-inch-thick APA-rated Sturd-I-Floor 24" o/c rating (or APA-rated sheathing.) Foundation sill plates are pressure-treated Hem-Fir. However. (Note: The designer must recognize the increased potential for shrinkage problems when green lumber is used.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Weights of diaphragms are typically determined by taking one-half height of walls at the third floor to the roof and (with equal story heights) full height of walls for the third and second floor diaphragms. II (1997 UBC) 91 . 48/24 span rating) with Exposure I glue. Closer nail spacing may be required if the smaller diameter nails are used). Seismic and site data: (Zone 4) I = 1. 32/16 panel index span rating. S D can be used as a default value. APA-rated wood structural panels for shear walls will be 15/32-inch-thick Structural I.0 (standard occupancy) Seismic source Type = B Distance to seismic source = 12 km Soil profile type = S C S C has been determined by geotechnical investigation. 5-ply with Exposure I glue is specified. 4-ply is also acceptable. The roof is 15/32-inch-thick APA-rated sheathing (equivalent to C-D in Table 23-II-4). 32/16 span rating with Exposure I glue. Table 16-I Table 16-K SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Sinker nails will be used for design of the shear wall sill plate nailing at the second and third floor. (Note: Many nailing guns use the smaller diameter box and sinker nails instead of common nails.

Foundation plan (ground floor) 92 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) .Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Figure 2-2. Vol.

Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Figure 2-3. Floor framing plan (second and third floors) Note: Shear walls on lines 2 and 3 do not extend from the third floor to the roof. Vol. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) 93 .

Roof framing plan 94 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol. II (1997 UBC) .Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Figure 2-4.

67 for bolts.7 requires consideration of lumber shrinkage.3) are used. Project specifications typically call for lumber to be grade-stamped S-Dry (Surfaced Dry). and bolts (fasteners) into lumber with moisture content greater than 19 percent. four important related aspects of the design will be discussed. this generally takes about 2 to 3 weeks of exposure to dry air. Partially seasoned or green lumber grade stamped S-GRN (surfaced green) has a MC between 19 percent and 30 percent. any trusses that are to be used as collectors or lateral drag struts should be clearly indicated on the structural framing plan. In addition. there is a 25 percent to 33 percent reduction in the strength of connections. if the roof sheathing at the hip SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. special considerations must be made in the design and detailed on the plans. This design example is based on dry lumber. To accomplish this.3. Other areas of concern are the geographical area and the time of year the structure is built. For construction using lumber of MC greater than 19 percent. These are the effect of moisture content on lumber. not while stacked on pallets (unless shimmed with stickers).Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Factors That Influence Design Before starting the example. The magnitude of the forces. Moisture content can easily be verified by a hand held “moisture meter. Under seismic forces. many engineers and building officials are not aware of the reduction requirements or wet service factors related to installation of nails. Note that UBC §2304. Construction of structures using lumber with moisture contents greater than 19 percent can produce shrinkage problems. For fasteners installed in lumber with moisture content greater than 19 percent. Drying occurs when the surfaces are exposed to air on all sides. lags and screws (91 NDS Table 7. It is possible for green lumber (or dry lumber that has been exposed to rain) to dry out to a moisture content below 19 percent on the construction site. and effects of box nails on wood structural panel shear walls. Wet lumber has a MC greater than 30 percent. the wet service factor C M = 0. In particular. and shear walls that is permanent. Vol. The engineer needs to exercise good engineering judgment in determining whether it is prudent to base the structural design on dry or green lumber. diaphragms. Dry lumber has a moisture content (MC) less than or equal to 19 percent. 4 × lumber takes even longer. these must transfer the lateral forces from the roof diaphragm to the tops of the interior shear walls.75 for nails and C M = 0. II (1997 UBC) 95 . The structural design in this design example uses the pre-manufactured wood roof trusses. Also.” Use of pre-manufactured roof trusses to transfer lateral forces. proper detailing of shear walls at building pop-outs. Moisture content in lumber connections. the means by which the forces are applied to the trusses and transferred from the trusses to the shear walls must be shown on the plans. screws. the use of pre-manufactured roof trusses. For 2 × framing.

and they cost less. Vol. The designer should not consider these walls as shear walls unless special detailing and analysis is provided to substantiate that there is a viable lateral force path to that wall and the wall is adequately braced.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure ends breaks above the joint between the end jack trusses and the supporting girder truss. For 96 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Using 8d box nails would result in a 22 percent reduction in allowable load for diaphragms and shear walls as compared to 8d common nails. Box nails have a smaller diameter shank and a smaller head size. This is why it is extremely important to list the required nail lengths and diameters on the structural drawings for all diaphragms and shear walls. Another problem is that contractors prefer box nails because their use reduces splitting. The structure for this design example has doubled-framed walls for party walls and exterior “planted-on” box columns (pop-outs). Based on cyclic testing of shear walls and performance in past earthquakes. Nail length and diameters are the most common listing on the labels. states that the galvanized nails shall be “hot-dipped or tumbled” (these nails are not gun nails). when box nails are used.3B in the 1997 NDS for one-half-inch side member thickness (t s ) and Douglas Fir-Larch framing. The drawings also must specify the load combinations and whether or not a stress increase is permitted. Using 10d box nails would result in a 19 percent reduction in allowable load for diaphragms and shear walls as compared to 10d common nails. Just to illustrate a point. This is based on comparing allowable shear values listed in Tables 12. The UBC does not have a table for allowable shears for wood structural panel shear walls or diaphragms using box nails. Proper detailing of shear walls at building pop-outs. Most contractors use gun nails for diaphragm and shear wall installations. A contributor to the problem is that when contractors buy large quantities of nails (for nail guns). if an engineer designs for “dry” lumber (as discussed above) and “common” nails. eases driving. II (1997 UBC) . and subsequently “green” lumber and “box” nails are used in the construction. In addition to the reduction of the shear wall and diaphragm capacities. the lateral forces to be resisted by the end jacks should be specified so that an appropriate connection can be provided to resist these forces. the use of common nails is preferred.3A and 12. Effects of box nails on wood structural panel shear walls. UBC Table 23-II-I-1 lists allowable shears for wood structural panel shear walls for “common or galvanized box nails.” Footnote number five of Table 23-II-I-1. This design example uses common nails for fastening wood structural panels. the walls will also drift more than when common nails are used. the result is a compounding of the reductions. special detailing for shear transfers must be included because normal diaphragm continuity is disrupted. If ridge vents are being used. the word “box” or “common” does not appear on the carton label.

1a.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure example.2. for 10d nails installed into green lumber.81 times 0. II (1997 UBC) 97 . Typical cross-section through building SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. the reduction would be 0.2 Design base shear. §1630.63)3 / 4 = 0.020(33.28 sec (30-8) Figure 2-5. Vol. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference 1. 1a Design base shear and vertical distributions of seismic forces.75 or a 40 percent reduction in capacity. Determine period using Method A (see Figure 2-5 for section through structure): T = Ct (hn )3 / 4 = .

40 C v = 0.0 ) = 0.40)(1.044W < 0.5 (0. 98 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.40 N a = 0.56(1.364W W= 5.5 (30-5) V = 0.28) RT (30-4) Table 16-Q Table 16-R Table 16-S Table 16-T Table 16-N Note: design base shear is now on a strength design basis.0 )W = 0.5 Design base shear is: V= Cv I 0.11C a IW = 0.56 (1.11 (0.8ZN v I 0.5 V = 0. II (1997 UBC) .Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure With seismic source type B and distance to source = 12 km N a = 1.0 ) W = 0. Vol.40(1.56 Because the stud walls are both wood structural panel shear walls and bearing walls R = 5.182W R 5.058W < 0.182W Check Equation 30-7: V= 0.4 C a = 0.0 ) = 0.56 N v = 0.182W All of the tables in the UBC for wood diaphragms and shear walls are based on allowable loads.0 W= W R 5.0 N v = 1.5 (0.8 × 0.5C a I 2. but need not exceed: V= 2.4 × 1.0 × 1.40 )(1.0) W= W = 0.0 For soil profile type S C and Z = 0.

12-11) For vertical uplift: 0.4 (12-9) For vertical downward loads: D+ E E or D + 0.4 1.4 1.182(595.290 lb 99 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 for Type V construction with interior shear walls).9 D ± E 1.000 lb ) = 108. Since the maximum element story shear is not yet known. = = = Fx = 1.1 ∴V = 0.3. This design example will use the following format: Vbase shear = F px Fx v v= 2. II (1997 UBC) .Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure It is desirable to use the strength level forces throughout the design of the structure for two reasons: 1.182W §1612. (This will be shown in Part 5.4 (12-10. and ρ will be assumed to be 1.) The basic load combination for allowable stress design for horizontal forces is: D+ E E E = 0+ = 1. Errors in calculations can occur and which load is being used—strength design or allowable stress design—may be confused.4 (12-10) V = 0. Vol. E = ρE h + E v = 1.0 E h + 0 = 1.0 (under most cases is 1.4 1. the assumed value for ρ will have to be verified.0 E h (30-1) where: E v is permitted to be taken as zero for allowable stress design.4b strength strength force-to-wall (strength) wall shear at element level (ASD) ASD Future editions of the code will use only strength design.75 L + (Lr or S ) + 1.

The UBC does not require torsional effects to be considered for flexible diaphragms.2 108.045 w x hx (%) ∑ wi hi 41.5 87.0 h x (ft) 33. wind loading may control the design in the east-west direction.092 Ftot (k) 44. In this step. In this example.347 2.162 11. Vertical distribution of seismic forces Level Roof 3rd Floor 2nd Floor w x (k) 135. This is done as follows: F px = (V − Ft )wx hx ∑ wi hi i =1 n (30-15) Where h x is the average height at level i of the sheathed diaphragm in feet above the base. Under the flexible diaphragm assumptions. 1b Vertical distributions of forces. Ft = 0 Determination of F px is shown in Table 2-1.536 4. this portion of the example assumes flexible diaphragms. Lateral forces on the shear walls and required nailing assuming flexible diaphragms.4 w x h x (k-ft) 4. designers must also check wind loading.0 230.0 230. This design example uses the total building weight W applied to each respective direction.5 42. The base shear must be distributed to each level. The results shown will be slightly conservative.186 0. Since T = 0.330 0. Vol. The effects of torsion and wall rigidities will be considered in Part 4 of this design example.3 Σ 2. Another method of determining loads to shear walls can assume a continuous beam. Note: Although not shown here. loads to shear walls are determined based on tributary areas with simple spans between supports.6 18.28 second < 0.1 108. since the building weight W includes the wall weights for the direction of load.7 second.9 9.0 595. §1630.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 1b. II (1997 UBC) . forces on shear walls due seismic forces will be determined.5 Table 2-1. As has been customary practice in the past. which can be subtracted out.5 F px (k) 44.4 19.3 F px wx 0. This example converts the story forces into seismic forces per square foot of floor or 100 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.7 21.1 39.

075 psf 5.. A detailed analysis will include the derivation of these tributary weights.288 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.g.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure roof area. which includes the tributary exterior and interior wall weights.288 sq ft f p roof = 44.7 × 1. calculate tributary weights.000 = 8. This may result in loosing a certain amount of precision.000 = 8.288 sf. a mechanical penthouse).5 × 1.288 sq ft f p 2 nd = 21.990 psf 5. Using forces from Table 2-1 and the area of the floor plan = 5. II (1997 UBC) 101 .000 = 3.288 For second floor diaphragm: Floor area = 5. For roof diaphragm: Roof area = 5.415 psf 5. This approach is generally considered acceptable unless there is seen to be a concentration of dead load in a particular area (e.288 sq ft f p 3rd = 42. but in turn results in much simpler calculations. Vol.288 For third floor diaphragm: Floor area = 5.1 × 1.

The 1999 SEAOC Blue Book recommends special inspection when the nail spacing is closer than 4" on center. 3 ∑ FAbove (lb) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.5 87.375 42.830 43.200 198 85 205 190 190 135 155 85 160 400 370 370 265 300 160 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 340 510 510 510 510 510 340 6 4 4 4 4 4 6 Σ A B C E F G H Σ Notes: 1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 A B C E F G H Σ A B C E F G H 170 746 1.160 15.805 12. The plate washers are intended to help resist uplift forces on shear walls. II (1997 UBC) 102 .0 11.0 330 11.0 11.344 1.485 12.305 22.485 12.210 680 21.805 12.430 6.430 44.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Table 2-2.0 22.0 1.288 170 746 1.660 43.5 6.135 22.430 12. 3.160 43.0 2.500 2. provided that sill bolts are designed for 50 percent of allowable values.850 10.5 200 108.310 8.0 22.375 6.100 Shear Walls at Roof Level (7) 1.344 960 554 170 5.080 43.805 87.6. The 1997 UBC (Table 23-II-I-1 Footnote 2 and 3) requires 3 × nominal thickness stud framing at abutting panels and at foundation sill plates when the allowable shear values exceed 350 pounds per foot or if the sheathing is installed on both sides of the studs without staggered panel joints.344 960 554 170 5.660 1.310 11.0 500 27. Vol.280 22.135 2.0 8.160 22.805 12.0 460 19.365 5.830 9.430 12.430 6.5 200 15.280 22.280 11.1 of the 1997 UBC requires that a minimum of 2-inch-square by 3/16-inch-thick plate washers be used for each foundation sill bolt (regardless of allowable shear values in the wall). these plate washers are required even if the wall has tiedowns designed to take uplift forces at the wall boundaries.310 43.025 10.080 4.525 43.288 170 746 1. Errata to the First Printing of the 1997 UBC (Table 23-II-I-1 Footnote 3) added an exception to the 3 × foundation sill plates by allowing 2 × foundation sill plates when the allowable shear values are less than 600 pounds per foot.344 960 554 170 5.500 198 Shear Walls at Third Floor Level 2.080 4.850 7. Shear Walls at Second Floor Level 3.200 ∑ Fx (lb) Ftot (lb) b (4) (ft) v= (plf) Ftot (5) Sheathed (1.660 22.0 370 3.310 11.750 4. The washer edges shall be parallel/perpendicular to the sill plate.830 2.525 43. Minimum framing thickness: The 1994 and earlier editions of the UBC required 3 × nominal thickness stud framing at abutting panel edges when 10d common nails were spaced 3 inches on center or closer (2" on center for 8d) or if sheathing is installed on both sides of the studs without staggered panel joints.475 1.5 44.975 5. 2.344 1.305 22.5 12.4)b 1 or 2 sides 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Allowable Shear(6) (plf) 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 Edge Nail Spacing (in.500 1.430 44.344 1.0 460 27.0 15.660 1. Forces to walls and required panel nailing for east-west direction Wall Trib Area (sq ft) 1. Sill bolt washers: Section 1806.0 4.288 1.365 3.310 43.160 43.300 198 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 340 665 665 665 665 665 340 6 3 3 3 3 3 6 2.700 680 2. These changes were a result of splitting of framing studs and sill plates observed in the Northridge earthquake and in cyclic testing of shear walls.0 9. Because of observed vertical displacements of tiedowns.345 22.310 8.280 11.

5 0 0 64. 3 ∑ FAbove (lb) 0 0 0 0 0 22.645 60. These changes were a result of splitting of framing studs and sill plates observed in the Northridge earthquake and in cyclic testing of shear walls.5 410 108.202 1. Forces to walls and required panel nailing for north-south direction Wall Trib.795 5. 2. The 1999 SEAOC Blue Book recommends special inspection when the nail spacing is closer than 4" on center.400 60.0 1 340 6 Σ 1 2 3 4 Σ 1 2 3 4 Shear Walls at Third Floor Level 31.288 1.288 22.5 129.645 11.250 0 0 22.4 to convert to allowable stress design. The shear wall length used for wall shears is the “out-to-out” wall length.0 31.5 11. APA Structural I rated wood structural panels may be either plywood or oriented strand board (OSB).795 21. Because of observed vertical displacements of tiedowns. Minimum framing thickness: The 1994 and earlier editions of the UBC required 3 × nominal thickness stud framing at abutting panel edges when 10d common nails were spaced 3 inches on center or closer (2" on center for 8d) or if sheathing is installed on both sides of the studs without staggered panel joints. Project plans call for trusses at these lines to be designed for these horizontal forces (see also comments in Part 8). Errata to the First Printing of the 1997 UBC (Table 23-II-I-1 Footnote 3) added an exception to the 3 × foundation sill plates by allowing 2 × foundation sill plates when the allowable shear values are less than 600 pounds per foot.100 22.0 355 140 140 355 1 1 1 1 510 340 340 510 4 6 6 4 1.955 11.500 9.644 5.0 210 17. 4.250 44. Shear walls at lines C. Table 2-3. Area (sq ft) 1. 3.645 9. Allowable shear from UBC Table 23-II-I-1.645 60.755 5.250 44.750 64.202 1.300 249.0 210 36.202 5.4 to convert to allowable stress design. II (1997 UBC) Σ Notes: Shear Walls at Second Floor Level 36. The 1997 UBC (Table 23-II-I-1 Footnote 2 and 3) requires 3 × nominal thickness stud framing at abutting panels and at foundation sill plates when the allowable shear values exceed 350 pounds per foot or if the sheathing is installed on both sides of the studs without staggered panel joints.4)b 250 0 0 250 Sheathed 1 or 2 sides 1 Allowable Shear (plf) 340 Edge Nail Spacing (in.705 11. Note that forces are strength level and that shear in wall is divided by 1.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 4.1 of the 1997 UBC requires that a minimum of 2-inch-square by 3/16-inch-thick plate washers be used for each foundation sill bolt (regardless of allowable shear values in the wall).250 0 0 22. 2. B. The plate washers are intended to help resist uplift forces on shear walls.645 31.750 64.500 64.288 1.645 11.500 31.442 1.442 1.644 0 0 2. and H.0 1 1 1 1 510 340 340 510 4 6 6 4 103 . Sill bolt washers: Section 1806. Note that forces are strength level and that shear in wall is divided by 1.705 42.955 64.400 60. and F extend to the bottom of the prefabricated wood trusses at the roof level.5 410 17.200 ∑ Fx (lb) Ftot (lb) b (4) (ft) v= Ftot ( 4) (plf) (1. Vol. G. E. 5.755 4.200 249.202 5. provided that sill bolts are designed for 50 percent of allowable values.250 0 0 22.5 87.442 1.700 4. 6.955 87.250 44. The washer edges shall be parallel/perpendicular to the sill plate.6.955 64.) 6 Shear Walls at Roof Level (5) 1 2 3 4 2.0 11. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 7. Shear transfer is obtained by framing clips from the bottom chord of the trusses to the top plates of the shear walls.442 1. Roof shear forces are also transferred to lines A. these plate washers are required even if the wall has tiedowns designed to take uplift forces at the wall boundaries.

This is because installing wall sheathing (blocking panels) perpendicular to plated trusses is labor intensive. 3a. However. In this example. consult with the local building official regarding methods acceptable to the jurisdiction. the designer must exercise judgment in selecting an appropriate method to be used for a given structure. At the time of this publication. In practice. Some walls and their collectors may attract significantly more lateral load than anticipated in flexible or rigid diaphragm analysis. During an earthquake. use of the rigid diaphragm method indicates that some lateral resisting elements can attract significantly higher seismic demands than from tributary area (i. and use of these other more simplified methods is often appropriate. The method illustrated in this example is by far the most rigorous method used in practice. It must be understood that the method of analyzing a structure using rigid diaphragms takes significantly more engineering effort. flexible diaphragm) analysis methods. When in doubt. With rigid diaphragms. The alternate methods are briefly discussed in the Commentary to Design Example 1.e. This approach will increase the third floor diaphragm transfer (redistribution) forces. Vol. that at the present time every method is approximate. approximate methods are often used. Rigidity calculation using the UBC deflection equation. particularly for multistory structures such as in this example. some low-stressed walls may maintain their stiffness and others degrade in stiffness. It must be emphasized. Wall rigidities are approximate.. 3. Determination of wood shear wall rigidities is not a simple task. 3a Rigidities of shear walls. There are other methods that are more simplified. The interior shear walls at lines 2 and 3 were not used to brace the roof diaphragm. Often it is not installed correctly. and occasionally it is not even installed due to contractor error. drywall. and areas over doors and windows. II (1997 UBC) . The initial rigidity R of the structure can be significantly higher due to stucco. Until more definite general procedures are established through further testing and research.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 5. the type of seismic design required for a project of this type varies greatly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. stiffening effects of walls not considered. you must carefully follow the load paths. shear wall rigidities (k) are computed using the basic stiffness equation: F = k∆ or: k= F ∆ 104 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

a horizontal point load at top. cantilever shear wall with fixed base and free top. and the fourth term accounts for tiedown assembly displacement (this also should include bolt/nail slip and shrinkage). and deflection is estimated from the contributions of four distinct parts. The first part of the equation accounts for cantilever beam action using the moment of inertia of the boundary elements.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure The basic equation to determine the shear wall deflections is shown below. and panel edges blocked. II (1997 UBC) 105 . There are other approaches that can also be used. ∆= where: v = shear in the wall in pounds per lineal foot h = height from the bottom of the sill plate to the underside of the framing at diaphragm level above (top plates) 8vh 3 vh h + + 0. Vol. the boundary elements consist of 3-3x4s: b = is the shear wall length in feet G = shear modulus values from Table 23-2-J. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.1. This should be viewed as one possible approach that can be substantiated with code equations. 3 A = area of the boundary element in square inches At the third floor.223 Vol. the boundary elements consist of 2-2x4s (see Figure 2-9) At the second floor.75hen + d a EAb Gt b §23. in inches Vn = load per fastener (nail) in pounds en = nail slip values are for Structural I sheathing with dry lumber = (Vn 769 )3.276 d a = displacement of the tiedown due to anchorage details in inches The above equation is based on tests conducted by the American Plywood Association and on a uniformly nailed. the boundary elements consist of 3-2x4s (see Figure 2-10) At the ground floor. The UBC references this equation in §2315. The second term accounts for shear deformation of the sheathing. The third term accounts for nail slippage/bending. in pounds per square inch t = equivalent thickness values from Table 23-2-I.

This research report is the basis for the formulas and tables in the UBC. However. see the deflection of wall frame at line D later in this same Part 11c. The actual tested slip values with dry lumber were less than 50 percent of the green lumber values. Testing on wood shear walls has indicated that the above deflection formula is reasonably accurate for wall aspect ratios (h w) lower than or equal to 2:1. using the fastener slip equations from Table B-4 of Research Report 138 will save time and also enable computations to be made by a computer. However. The 50 percent reduction for dry lumber is a conservative factor. This means that the table is based on nails being driven into green lumber and the engineer must use one-half of these values for nails driven in dry lumber. Do not attempt to change the units.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure The engineer should be cautioned to use the units as listed in §23. Using the new aspect ratio requirement of 2:1 (UBC 1997) makes this formula more accurate for determining shear wall deflection/stiffness than it was in previous editions of the UBC. Recent testing on wood shear walls has shown that sill plate crushing under the boundary element can increase the shear wall deflection by as much as 20 to 30 percent. Footnote 1 to Table 23-2-K requires the values for en to be decreased 50 percent for seasoned lumber. subject to the limitations mentioned above. its use is somewhat time-consuming since interpolation and adjustments are necessary. Volume 3 of the UBC has Table 23-2-K for obtaining values for en . The values in Table 23-2-K are based on tests conducted by the APA. II (1997 UBC) . the wall drift increases significantly. It is recommended that values for en be computed based on fastener slip equations from Table B-4 of APA Research Report 138. For 10d common nails used in this example. there are two basic equations: When nails are driven into green lumber: en = (Vn 977 )1. and displacements were not be adequately predicted by the formula. For higher aspect ratios.223 (and as listed above). Faster slip/nail deformation values (en). Both the research report and the UBC will produce the same values.276 where: Vn = fastener load in pounds per fastener APA Table B-4 APA Table B-4 106 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.894 When nails are drive into dry lumber: en = (Vn 769 )3. Vol. For a calculation of this crushing effect.

This is the term d a . The values in the table are actually green values. Finally.2. because the code is not specific. These are summarized in Tables 2-5 and 2-6 for the roof level. nominal changing of the nail spacing in a given wall does not significantly change the stiffness. shear wall rigidities are calculated using the four-term code deflection equation in §23. vertical elongation) of the tiedown assemblies and the crushing effect of the boundary element. the rigidities of the shear walls are summarized in Tables 2-7. the 1997 UBC now requires building drifts to be determined by the load combinations of §1612. In this example. since the assembly is fabricated when green. Many engineers are concerned that if the contractor installs the nails at a different spacing (too many or too few). which covers load combinations using strength design or load and resistance factor design.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure These values from the above formulas are based on Structural I sheathing and must be increased by 20 percent when the sheathing is not Structural I. and 2-16 for the roof. The language in Footnote A in Research Report 138. II (1997 UBC) 107 . For both strength and allowable stress design. After the tiedown assembly displacements are determined. third floor. 2-12. 3b.3 for allowable stress design.” It is uncertain whether or not the d a factor is intended to include wood shrinkage and crushing due to shear wall rotation. and in Tables 2-10 and 2-11 for the third floor level.3 is incorrect and will be changed back to reference §1612.. Don’t be misled by the word “seasoned. which states “Fabricated green/tested dry (seasoned)…” is potentially misleading. Table B-4. These calculations are facilitated by the use of a spreadsheet program. The first step is to calculate the displacement (i. then the rigidities will be different than those calculated. The reference to §1612. Errata for the second and third printing of the UBC unexplainably referenced §1612. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.2 in the fourth and later printings. 3b Calculation of shear wall rigidities. These forces are summarized in Tables 2-4. The force considered to act on the tiedown assembly is the net uplift force determined from the flexible diaphragm analyses of Part 2. Vol.223 of Volume 3. and second floor.e. the four-term deflection equation is used to determine the deflection ∆ S of each shear wall. However. and in Table 2-14 and 2-15 for the second floor level. This design example includes shrinkage and crushing in the d a factor. which eliminates possible arithmetic errors from the many repetitive computations that must be made. respectively. and 2-13 for the roof at the third floor and second floor. respectively. 2-9.

To determine roof level wall rigidities.) 0.05 0.02 0.04 0.175 1. However. a drift check is performed. These. First.11 0.02 0.09 0.02 0. 4d 1e. Uplift force is determined by using the net overturning moment (M OT − M OR ) divided by the distance between the centroids of the boundary elements with 4x members at the ends of the shear wall.07 0.02 0.02 0. roof level displacements must first be determined.02 0. Given below are a series of calculations.175 140 140 140 140 0 0 700 700 0 170 0 0 0 0 170 0 0. all of the design equations and tables in Chapter 23 are based on allowable stress design.02 0.002 0 0 0 0 0.02 0. 4f 0 840 840 100 100 100 100 0 0 500 500 0 120 0 0 0 0 120 Not required Strap Strap Strap Strap Strap Strap Not required Not required Strap Strap Not required Strap Not required Not required Not required Not required Strap 0 1.05 0.02 0.02 0.002 0 0.002 0.02 0.07 0.05 0. 4e 1f.09 0.02 0.002 d a (7) (in.05 0.09 0. Vol.07 0. to estimate the roof level displacements ∆s in each shear wall. 3c. II (1997 UBC) 108 . 4a 1b.02 0 0 0.05 0.02 0.02 0 0 0 0 0. 4b 1c.05 0.05 0.07 0.002 0.07 0.02 0.09 Notes: 1. Remember that the structural system factor R is based on using strength-level forces.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Using strength level forces for wood design using the 1997 UBC now means that the engineer will use both strength-level forces and allowable stress forces. Rigidities are estimated in Table 2-7 for walls in both directions.05 0.002 0 0 0.05 0. and the parameters given in Table 2-5.) Shrink(4) Crush(5) Slip(6) A B1 B2 C1 C2 E1 E2 F1 F2 G1 G2 H 1a. 3c Estimation of roof level rigidities. the shear wall tiedown assembly displacements are determined (Table 2-4).02 0.02 0. since the code requires drift checks to be strength-level forces.05 0. This equates to the length of the wall minus 3½ inches for straps or the SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Determine tiedown assembly displacements at roof level ASD Strength Design TIedown Assembly Displacement Wall Tiedown(3) Tiedown Uplift/1.02 0 0.02 0. done in table form. 4c 1d. are used to arrive at the displacements ∆s for each shear wall at the roof level (Table 2-5 and 2-6).09 0.02 0.05 0.02 0. 2.02 0.05 0. Once the ∆s displacements are known.002 0.05 0.02 0.002 0.09 0.11 0.05 0.04 0.07 0.02 0 0.05 0.4 (2) Uplift (lb) (lb) Device Elongation (in.002 0. This can create some confusion.09 0.09 0.07 0. 1 Table 2-4. Tiedown assembly displacements for the roof level are calculated for the tiedowns at the third floor level.05 0. Drift and shear wall rigidities should be calculated from the strength-level forces.02 0.05 0. This is summarized in Table 2-8.05 0.07 0.002 0.

3. Pressure-treated lumber has moisture content of less than 16 percent at treatment completion.04 in AE Note that the rod length is 4. Vol.15 in . Using allowable stress design.6 load/slip modulus γ = (270. The tiedown rod at line B will elongate as follows: PL for 5 8" rod: ∆ = = 6.000) D1. when compression perpendicular to grain ( f c⊥ ) is less than 0. Short walls that have no uplift forces will still have a crushing effect and contributes to rotation of the wall. 4. and collector studs will need to be considered. crushing of bridge support studs. For nails. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) 109 . See Design Example 1. 6.05 in . compression bridges. d a is the total tiedown assembly displacement. 5.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 3.44)(12 ) 0.090 lb(4. sill plates. The elongation for the portion of the rod at the level below will be considered at the level below. where d is the dimension of the lumber (see Figure 2-11).002 )(d )(19 − 15) . Per 91 NDS 7.002 )(4 × 1. The final equilibrium value can be higher in coastal areas and lower in inland or desert areas. Most of these systems have shrinkage compensation by either pre-tensioning of cables or a “self-ratcheting” hardware connector and are proprietary. The effect of sill plate crushing is the downward effect at the opposite end of the wall with uplift force and has the same rotational effect as the tiedown displacement. The device selected in this design example has adjusting grooves at 1/10-inch increments. If the selected device does not have a shrinkage compensating device then.6.5)(12 ) 0. The strength design uplift force is used to determine tiedown assembly displacement in order to determine strength-level displacements.5 in )(19 − 15) = 0. Shrinkage of 2 × DBL Top Plate + 2 × DBL sill plate = (0.04 inches. tiedown devices need only be sized by using the ASD uplift force. with 19 percent MC being assumed for S-Dry lumber per project specifications.31(29 E6 ) = 0.31(29 E6 ) = 0.040 lb(9.5 . AE Wood shrinkage is based on a change in moisture content (MC) from 19 percent to 15 percent. This equates to (0.73F ' c⊥ length of wall minus 7¼ inches when using a bolted tiedown with 2-inch offset from post to anchor bolt. shrinkage of floor framing. 7.44 feet (Figure 2-12): PL for 5 8" rod: ∆ = = 12.2. crushing will be approximately 0. The continuous tiedown (rod) system selected for this structure will have a “shrinkage compensating” system.02 inches.5 feet (Figure 2-12). meaning the most the “system” will have not compensated for in shrinkage and crushing will be 1/10-inch. Part 3c for an example calculation for a bolted connection. This also could include mis-cuts (short studs) and lack of square cut ends. For level below (Table 2-13) rod length is 9. When f c⊥ = F 'c⊥ crushing is approximately 0. The MC of 15 percent is the assumed final MC at equilibrium with ambient humidity for the project location. plus an additional 1/16" for the ( ) oversized hole for bolts. values for en can be used. Per 91 NDS 4.

5 43.) 0. 4a 1b.0 11.0078 0.7E6 1.535 0.7E6 1.7E6 1.000 90.) 10.21 8.000 90.535 0.5 10.000 90. 4 ASD v (plf) 250 250 250 250 250 250 Strength v (plf) 350 350 350 350 350 350 h (ft) 8.21 8.535 0.0 11.7E6 1.5 10.0 21. 4d 1e.) 0.5 10.7E6 1.0032 0.07 0.5 8.21 0.) 0.5 21.5 43.0 22.535 0.09 0.12 0.09 0.000 90.) 0.0041 0.7E6 1.5 21.5 10.000 90.0 22.0078 da (in.5 10.21 8.21 8.21 8.5 G (psi) 90.07 0.16 0.07 0.21 8.5 G (psi) 90.5 11.21 110 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.) 0.5 10.000 90.10 0.0078 0.5 10.5 21.09 ∆S (in.7E6 1.0 64.07 0.535 0.16 0.07 0.07 0.000 90.535 0.2) 10.7E6 b (ft) 12.000 t (in.0032 0.16 0.7E6 1.0002 0.11 0.5 43.5 10.21 8.0 14.5 10.0011 0.0002 da (in.07 Table 2-6.10 0.000 90.7E6 1.7E6 1.5 10.5 A E (psi) 1.21 8.7E6 1.7E6 1.000 90.10 0.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Table 2-5.21 8.17 0. Deflections of shear walls at the roof level in east-west direction Wall A B1 B2 B C1 C2 C E1 E2 E F1 F2 F G1 G2 G H ASD v (plf) 85 205 205 190 190 190 190 135 135 155 155 85 Strength v (plf) 119 287 287 266 266 266 266 189 189 217 217 119 h (ft) 8.535 Nail Spacing (in.5 11.) 0.07 0.5 10.7E6 1.07 ∆S (in.17 0.12 0.21 8. 4f 1.535 0.7E6 1.535 0.21 8.09 0.07 0.0041 0.535 0.535 0.5 10. 4e 1f.0078 0.535 0.0 12.09 0.) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Vn (lb) 60 144 144 133 133 133 133 95 95 109 109 60 en (in.5 10.000 90.07 0.21 (in.0 21.000 90.21 8.000 90.535 0.535 0. 4b 1c.5 11.0078 0.) 0.09 0.5 10.10 0.21 (in. II (1997 UBC) .535 0.000 90.0 11.5 10.000 t (in.535 0.0 21.5 10.09 0.0032 0.5 A (2) E (psi) 1.21 8.0078 0.09 0.) 0.535 0.7E6 1.21 8.17 0.11 0.0 11.21 8.) 6 6 6 6 6 6 Vn (lb) 175 175 175 175 175 175 en (in.0011 0.0017 0.07 0. Vol.21 8.7E6 1.535 Nail Spacing (in. Deflections of shear walls at the roof level in north-south direction Wall 1a.000 90.7E6 b (ft) 8.000 90. 4c 1d.0032 0.0017 0.000 90.

4f 1.10 0.55 113.71 115.655 11.10 0. 4b 1c.830 3.84 20.07 0. 4 1 ∆ S (2) (in.330 4.1 56.655 5. II (1997 UBC) 111 .12 0.310 5. Vol.84 20.1 113. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.970 3.140 3.4 38.430 3.5 Notes: 1.07 0.655 5.42 13.040 4.330 2.10 0. 2.080 2.4 19.16 0.42 126.1 115.965 3.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Table 2-7.14 30.) ∆s k total (k/in.21 0.21 F (lb) 1. 4d 1e.62 19. ∆ S are the design level displacements from Tables 2-5 and 2-6. 4a 1b.10 0.35 23.16 0.140 6.43 19.16 0.32 13.14 126.) 20.07 0.55 56. Shear wall rigidities at roof level Wall A B1 B2 B C1 C2 C E1 E2 E F1 F2 F G1 G2 G H 1a.310 4.55 56.24 113.040 8.24 56.07 0.12 0.55 113.760 22.655 11.430 2.71 57.1 57.) 0.5 39.17 0.280 5.43 20. Deflections and forces are based on strength force levels.32 23.760 4.17 0.965 2.17 0.19 23.660 1.250 ki = F (k/in.42 38. 4c 1d.62 39. 4e 1f.42 19.

16 0. This is defined in §1630.7 seconds. 3d Drift check at roof level.65 0. 4f ∆ S (in.46 2.65 0.07 0.46 2.21 8.10.) 2.10.46 2.21 8. Vol.62 0.2 To determine drift.21 8.46 2.025 times the story height for structures having a fundamental period less than 0.2.46 2.7 seconds.12 0.46 2.21 8.21 8.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 3d. the calculated story drift using ∆ M shall not exceed 0.21 8.025 drift limitation applies.7 R∆R S R = 5.2 and computed as follows: ∆ M = 0.81 0.07 0.) 8.46 2.38 0.7(5.46 2.17 0.21 8.21 8.21 8. 4d 1e.27 0. the maximum inelastic response displacement ∆ M must be determined.21 8. which is less than 0.46 2. 4b 1c.46 2.10 0.62 0.65 0.17 0. 4e 1f.21 8.10 0.46 0. The drift check is summarized in Table 2-8. ∆ M (in.9. 4c 1d. II (1997 UBC) .28 seconds. therefore the 0.46 2.27 0.21 0.17 0.46 2. (30-17) Table 16-N Table 2-8. 4a 1b.) 0.46 Status ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok 112 North-South East-West SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. §1630.) 0.5 ∆ M = 0.21 ∆ M (in.81 Max.27 0.16 0.21 8.5)∆ S Under §1630.07 0.21 Height (ft.38 0. The building period for this design example was calculated to be 0. Drift check at roof level Wall A B C E F G H 1a.

3c 0 Not req’d 0 0 0.05 0.05 0.14 0.10 G2 2.02 0. The calculations are summarized in Tables 2-9. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.07 0.14 0.) 0. 4b 0 Not req’d 0 0 0.09 0.02 0 1c.02 0.05 0.02 0.002 F2 550 Strap 770 0.275 Strap 3.05 0.05 0.10 B2 4.) A 135 Strap 190 0.10 H 135 Strap 190 0.800 Rod 3.05 0.07 0.090 0. 4c 0 Not req’d 0 0 0. II (1997 UBC) 113 .09 0.800 0.185 0.002 1b.02 0 1 da (7) (in.05 0. and 2-12.800 0.000 Strap 2.05 0.02 0.09 0. 2-11.07 0.02 0 2b.02 0.02 0. 4f 2.07 0.800 0.10 C1 2.275 Strap 3.02 0 1e. 4a 2.002 F1 550 Strap 770 0.920 0.000 Strap 2.02 0. Footnotes 2-6. 4d 0 Not req’d 0 0 0.12 0.07 0. Tiedown assembly displacements at third floor level ASD Strength Design Tiedown Tiedown AssemblyDisplacement Wall Tiedown Uplift Uplift/1. 3b 0 Not req’d 0 0 0.920 0.09 0.09 0.09 0. 2.07 Notes: 1.02 0.05 0.002 E2 2.800 Rod 3.04 0 0 0.04 0 0 0.002 1a. Tiedown assembly displacements for the third floor level are calculated for the tiedowns at the second floor level. 2-10.185 0.02 0. Table 2-9.02 0 0 0.02 0.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 3e.05 0. 4e 0 Not req’d 0 0 0.05 0.000 Strap 2.02 0.02 0.002 2a.02 0 1f.02 0.4(2) Elongation (3) (lb) Device (lb) Crush(5) Slip(6) Shrink(4) (in.02 0.05 0. Estimation of third floor level rigidities.12 0.02 0 1d.05 0.350 Rod 6.02 0. 3a 0 Not req’d 0 0 0. see Table 2-4. Shear wall rigidities at the third floor are estimated in the same manner as those a the roof.02 0.07 0.09 0. A drift check is not shown.002 B1 4.05 0.350 Rod 6.05 0.02 0 2c.002 C2 2.02 0.02 0.002 G1 2.02 0.09 0.09 0. Vol.002 E1 2.09 0.090 0.000 Strap 2.800 0.02 0.02 0 0 0.05 0.05 0.

0 11.535 0.20 0.43 9.43 9.43 9.21 0.0 22.09 0.7E6 1.07 0.22 0.7 15.0066 0.43 9.000 90.08 0.) 0.31 0.7 15.43 9.000 t (in.7 15.535 0.2) 15.000 90.) 0.07 0.09 0.535 0.7E6 1.7E6 1.000 t (in.31 0.7 15.000 90.0066 0.43 9.09 0.09 0.7 E (psi) 1.7 15.09 0.07 0.0038 0.7E6 1.43 A (in.07 0.535 0.7 15.0 12.5 G (psi) 90.000 90.09 0.535 0.000 90.0012 0.43 9.535 0.0 22.5 8.535 0. 3 ASD v (plf) 355 355 355 355 355 355 140 140 140 Strength (v) (plf) 497 497 497 497 497 497 196 196 196 h (ft) 9.535 0.5 11.43 9.5 21.43 9.43 9.7 15.) 0. 4c 1d.) 0.5 11.7E6 1.7 15.0018 0.0 21.0 18.0075 0.7 E (psi) 1.000 90.7E6 1.000 90.5 43.5 21.0012 0.0097 0.000 90.535 0.07 ∆S (in.535 0.0 60.09 0.000 90.43 9. Deflections of shear walls at third floor level in east-west direction Wall A B1 B2 B C1 C2 C E1 E2 E F1 F2 F G1 G2 G H ASD v (plf) 160 400 400 370 370 370 370 265 265 300 300 160 Strength v (plf) 224 560 560 518 518 518 518 371 371 420 420 224 h (ft) 9.7 15.7E6 b (ft) 12.000 90.20 0.) 0.43 A (in.14 0.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Table 2-10. 3c 2. 4e 1f. 4f 1.0 21. Vol.535 0.535 0. 3b 2c.0075 0.7 15.0038 0.7 15. 4 2a.0075 0.14 0.7 15.7 15.13 Table 2-11.535 0.5 43.535 0.0066 0.000 90.09 0.000 90.7 15.0 64.7E6 1.43 9.535 Space (in.0066 0.7 15.0025 0.20 0.5 18.43 9.7 15.000 90.7E6 1.) 0.13 0.7 15.43 9.43 9.7E6 1.13 0.) 0.09 ∆S (in. 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 Vn (lb) 166 166 166 166 166 166 98 98 98 en (in) 0.0 11. 4a 1b.27 0.000 90.0066 0.0066 0.7 15.7E6 1.535 0.07 0.7E6 1.7E6 1.000 90.22 0.43 9.09 0.0 21.2) 15.535 Space (in) 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 Vn (lb) 112 187 187 173 173 173 173 124 124 140 140 112 en (in.7E6 1.0075 0.09 0. 3a 2b. 4d 1e.5 21.21 0.0 14.000 90.000 90.13 0.535 0.7E6 1.7E6 1.20 0.12 0. Deflections of shear walls at the third floor level in north-south direction Wall 1a.7E6 1.7 15.0018 da (in.7E6 1.12 0.0097 0.43 9.535 0.20 0.535 0.07 0.0 G (psi) 90.7E6 1.0 11.27 0.43 9.43 9.5 43.0 11.7E6 1.09 114 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0012 da (in.5 11.000 90.0025 0.21 0.7E6 b (ft) 8. 4b 1c. II (1997 UBC) .0 24.535 0.000 90.

21 0.645 ki = F (k/in. Deflections and forces are based on strength levels.52 21.805 6.080 11.153 12.58 19.80 55. 4 2a.12 27.40 55.568 4.830 4. 4e 1f.80 60.805 3.13 0.84 39.20 0.40 135.27 0.20 0.20 0. 4b 1c.936 5.160 7.152 6. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.21 0.) 21. 3b 2c. 3a 2b.13 0.13 0.966 31.915 7.080 11.12 14.09 F (lb) 2.160 11.305 11.) (2) 0. 4a 1b.68 34.22 0. 3c 2.58 21.) ∆s k total (k/in.20 0.13 0.080 22.696 5.68 55.76 41.40 110. Shear wall rigidities at third floor Wall A B1 B2 B C1 C2 C E1 E2 E F1 F2 F G1 G2 G H 1a.27 0.21 38.70 41.58 145.31 0.21 0.31 0.84 19.80 121.696 3.68 27.08 0.80 Notes: 1.915 15.82 135.70 20.494 11.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Table 2-12.80 39.52 21.20 0.88 60. 4c 1d. ∆s are the design level displacements form Tables 2-10 and 2-11.88 121. 2.080 22.58 14.955 3.494 4. Vol.40 38.22 0. 4d 1e.68 145.12 27.82 58.76 20.80 110. 3 1 ∆ S (in.696 5.68 110.965 6. II (1997 UBC) 115 .09 0.40 110. 4f 1.567 9.40 55.135 2.657 3.

05 0.000 Strap 1.) A 1.380 Rod 6.565 Rod 2.20 0.01 0.380 Rod 6.10 F2 1.15 0 0 0.002 B1 8.000 Strap 1.02 0 1 d a (7) (in.130 0.4(2) Uplift (lb) Elongation(3) (lb) Device Crush(5) Slip(6) Shrink(4) (in. A drift check is not shown. 3b 0 Not req’d 0 0 0.200 0.13 0.340 0.05 0.18 0.10 H 1.02 0.02 0.525 0.18 0.08 0 0 0.10 G1 5.002 1a.02 0. See Table 2-4 for footnotes 2-6.700 Rod 7.600 Rod 12.200 0. Tiedown assembly displacements for the second floor level are calculated for the tiedowns at the first floor level.25 0.02 0.10 G2 5. 3c 0 Not req’d 0 0 0. The calculations are summarized in Tables 2-13.03 0.02 0 1c.980 0.10 1b.10 F1 1. 3f Estimation of second floor level rigidities. 3a 0 Not req’d 0 0 0.01 0.400 0.565 Rod 2.380 Rod 6.10 0 0 0.01 0.700 Rod 7.02 0.600 Rod 12.10 0 0 0. 116 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.10 C2 4.05 0.08 0 0 0.10 B2 8.10 E2 4.10 0 0 0.090 Strap 1. 2-14.130 0. and 2-16.01 0.10 E1 4.380 Rod 6.) 0.040 0.980 0. 2.01 0.03 0 0 0.130 0.002 1d.090 Strap 1.10 2a.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 3f.400 0. 4d 1.240 Rod 7. Table 2-13. 4f 5. 4b 0 Not req’d 0 0 0. 4a 5. 2-15. 4c 1.03 0 0 0.15 0 0 0.040 0.01 0.240 Rod 7.20 0.18 0.10 0 0 0.10 C1 4.000 Strap 1.02 0.002 1f. II (1997 UBC) .002 1e.05 0.01 0.02 0.13 0.18 0.08 0 0 0.03 0.01 0.08 0 0 0.20 0.02 0 2c.03 Notes: 1.400 0. Tiedown assembly displacements at second floor level ASD Strength Design Tiedown Tiedown Assembly Displacement Wall Tiedown Uplift/1.02 0.02 0.02 0.340 0.130 0.25 0. 4e 1. Shear wall rigidities at the second floor level are estimated in the same manner as those for the roof and third floor.525 0.01 0.20 0.02 0 2b.05 0.03 0. Vol.

0104 0.0 22.7E6 1. 4 2a.43 9.2 26.03 0.0 G (psi) 90.43 0.43 A (in.05 0.23 0.43 A (in.5 11.43 9.535 0.7E6 1.20 0.0 18.535 0.0 60. Vol.) 0.0104 0.7E6 1.43 9. 3b 2c. 4f 1.13 0.000 90.16 0.18 0.0060 0.000 90.535 0.43 9.5 21. 3a 2b.23 0.20 0.2 26.0038 da (in.05 0.18 0.5 G (psi) 90.000 90.2 E (psi) 1. 4d 1e.7E6 1.7E6 b (ft) 8.25 0.000 90.03 ∆S (in.43 9.000 90.5 43.0 24.30 0.535 0.535 0.2 26.2 26.0044 0.000 90.) 0.0104 0.10 0.000 90. 4e 1f.7E6 1.0044 da (in.5 21.7E6 1.000 t (in.43 9.7E6 1.) 0.2 26.23 0.2 26.7E6 1.535 0.535 0.25 0.2 26.) 0.2 26.2 26.2 26.0060 0.535 Space (in.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Table 2-14.535 0.20 0. 3 ASD v (plf) 410 410 410 410 410 410 210 210 210 Strength v (plf) 574 574 574 574 574 574 294 294 294 h (ft) 9.000 90.10 0.43 9.535 0. Deflections of shear walls at the second floor level in east-west direction Wall A B1 B2 B C1 C2 C E1 E2 E F1 F2 F G1 G2 G H ASD v (plf) 200 500 500 460 460 460 460 330 330 370 370 200 Strength v (plf) 280 700 700 644 644 644 644 462 462 518 518 280 h (ft) 9.2 26.000 90.000 90.0 11.000 90. 4b 1c.05 0.0 64.0060 0.16 0.2 26.0 11.2) 26.535 0.7E6 1.42 0.43 9.5 21.03 0.000 90.2 26.0104 0.18 0.0 21.535 0.43 9.535 0. 4a 1b.) 6 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 6 Vn (lb) 140 175 175 161 161 161 161 115 115 130 130 140 en (in.0030 0.7E6 1.5 8.000 90. II (1997 UBC) 117 .43 9.0 21.000 90.000 90.7E6 1.7E6 1.535 0. 4c 1d.535 0.25 0.5 18.0030 0.12 Table 2-15.43 9.43 9.0 14.7E6 1.) 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 Vn (lb) 191 191 191 191 191 191 147 147 147 en (in.0038 0.2 26.535 0.5 43.30 0.0078 0.0 11.43 9.13 0.2 26.43 9. 3c 2.43 9. Deflections of shear walls at the second floor level in north-south direction Wall 1a.000 90.2 E (psi) 1.535 Space (in.2 26.5 11.43 0.2 26.0060 0.) 0.21 0.42 0.0020 0.43 9.) 0.2) 26.535 0.25 0.25 0.0104 0.05 ∆S (in.7E6 1.43 9.43 9.25 0.7E6 1.7E6 1.535 0.5 11.000 90.0 12.7E6 1.535 0.2 26.03 0.0020 0.2 26.535 0.000 t (in.10 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.7E6 1.0 11.0 21.000 90.12 0.0044 0.7E6 1.05 0.0104 0.43 9.000 90.0078 0.) 0.20 0.7E6 b (ft) 12.) 0.0 22.18 0.5 43.

4d 1e. 3c 2. 4e 1f.10 F (lb) 3. 4f 1.25 0.60 37.221 17. See Part 7 for a later confirmation of this assumption.750 5.400 ki = F (k/in.485 4.38 110.525 13.) 29. 3b 2c.763 27. Wall rigidities at second floor Wall A B1 B2 B C1 C2 C E1 E2 E F1 F2 F G1 G2 G H 1a.978 6.30 0.558 7.38 55.25 0.6 The base shear was distributed to the three levels in Part 2.19 18.1 55.60 144.1 110.16 0.958 5.280 13.6 52. II (1997 UBC) .04 144.345 3. 4c 1d.82 29.42 0.221 6.1 61.10 0.25 0.23 0.48 10.552 6. Distribution of lateral forces to the shear walls.672 5.1 122. 4a 1b.58 52.04 29.21 69.05 110.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Table 2-16.82 29.05 55.30 0. 4.552 4.43 0.) 0.04 18. 2. §1630.558 36.12 0.660 5. the story forces are distributed to the shear walls supporting each level using the rigid diaphragm assumption.) ∆S k total (k/in.830 19.21 0.19 36. 4b 1c.6 174.8 18.10 0. This is not intended to imply that seismic design of wood light frame construction in the past should 118 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.552 6.830 9.23 0.640 7. In this design example. 3a 2b.48 28. This has been done for many years and is a well-established conventional design assumption.44 61. 3 1 ∆ S (2) (in.91 37.640 15. In this step.42 0.05 55.05 110. Deflections and forces are based on strength force levels.762 13.0 Notes: 1.43 0.485 7.673 11.21 174. It has been a common engineering practice to assume flexible diaphragms and distribute loads to shear walls based on tributary areas. ∆s are the design level displacements from Tables 2-14 and 2-15.99 28.0 36.525 9.8 37.04 10.763 27.44 122.48 28.23 0. Vol.25 0.91 18. the rigid diaphragm assumption will be used.762 13.12 0.16 0. 4 2a.

The direct shear force Fv is determined from: R ∑R and the torsional shear force Ft is determined from: Fv = F Ft = T where: J = ΣRd x 2 + ΣRd y 2 R = shear wall rigidity d = distance from the lateral resisting element (e. The engineer must exercise good engineering judgment in determining when those effects need to be considered.. In this design example. The code requires that the story force at the center of mass to be displaced from the calculated center of mass (CM) a distance of 5 percent of the building dimension at that level perpendicular to the direction of force.500 lb (for roof diaphragm) e = eccentricity SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. This knowledge of the increased drifts of short wood panel shear walls and the fact that the diaphragms tend to be much more rigid than the shear walls has increased the need for the engineer to consider the relative rigidities of shear walls.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure have been necessarily performed in this manner. these eccentricities are small and are therefore considered insignificant. The net effect of this is to add 5 percent accidental eccentricity to the calculated eccentricity. The code requires the most severe load combination to be considered and also permits the negative torsional shear to be subtracted from the direct load shear. II (1997 UBC) 119 . However. However. This design example does not consider eccentricities between the centers of mass between levels. This is to account for accidental torsion.g. shear wall) to the center of rigidity (CR) Rd J T = Fe F = 44. lateral forces must be considered to act in each direction of the two principal axis. recent earthquakes and testing of wood panel shear walls have indicated that drifts can be considerably higher than what was known or assumed in the past. Vol.

Forces in the east-west (x) direction: yr = ∑ k xx y ∑ k xx or y r ∑ k xx = ∑ k xx y Using the rigidity values k from Table 2-7 and the distance y from line H to the shear wall: y r (20.24(106) + 113.9 = − 1.0 ) + 115. center of mass.42(0) Distance to calculated CR y r = 24.1 + 115.84 + 20. 4a Determine center of rigidity.0) + 113.9 ft ∴ e y = 63.1 + 113.9 ft 460.2 − 53. 120 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.84(10.0 ft ± 5.4(26.3 = 53.43 + 39.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 4a.0) + 38.0 ft 2 The minimum 5 percent accidental eccentricity for east-west forces.24 + 113.4 + 38.9 = 9.2 ft The total eccentricity is the distance between the displaced center of mass and the center of rigidity y r = 53.05 × 116 ft ) = ±5.847. e y = (0. e y .8 ft = 63.0 ) + 20. Vol. is computed from the length of the structure perpendicular to the applied story force.1(82.8 ft The new y m to the displaced CM = 58.7 f t Note that displacing the center of mass 5 percent can result in the CM being on either side of the CR and can produce added torsional shears to all walls.43(116 ) + 39.8 ft or 52.9 ft or 52.42 ) = 20. II (1997 UBC) . eccentricities for roof diaphragm.8 − 53.0 = 58.53 The building is symmetrical about the x-axis (Figure 2-6) and the center of mass is determined as: ym = 116.1(50.

4 ft SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) 121 . e x = e' x ∴ e x = 2. Forces in the north-south (y) direction: The building is symmetrical about the y-axis (Figure 2-6). the CM and CR locations coincide.0 = 24. the distance to the CM and CR is: xm = 48. Also.4 ft Because.05)(48 ft ) = ± 2. Use engineering judgment when selecting the eccentricity e . the location of the calculated center of rigidity is less reliable than in other structural systems.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Note that the 5 percent may not be conservative.0 ft 2 e' x = (0. Vol.4 ft or − 2. The contents-to-structure weight ratio can be higher in wood framing than in heavier types of construction. Therefore.

Vol. Center of rigidity and location of displaced centers of mass for second and third floor diaphragms 122 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Figure 2-6. II (1997 UBC) .

Torsion on the third floor diaphragms F = (44. The critical force will then be used for the design of these walls. G. the torsional forces can be subtracted for those walls located on the opposite side from the displaced center of mass.200 lb(9. Torsion on the roof diaphragm is computed as follows: Tx = Fe y = 44.700) = 87.200 lb(2. F. it can be assumed that the center of rigidity for the third floor and the second floor diaphragms will coincide with the center of rigidity of the roof diaphragm. II (1997 UBC) 123 .lb for walls A.200 lb Tx = Fe y = 87.550 ft . Since the walls stack with uniform nailing.800 ft .280 ft . G.500 lb(1.lb for walls A. and H T y = Fe x = 44.lb for walls E.lb for walls E.4 ft ) = 209. and eccentricities for the third and second floor diaphragms.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 4b. and H T y = Fe x = 87.9 ft ) = 440.240 ft .4 ft ) = 106. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 4b Determine total shears on walls at roof level.500 lb(9.280 ft .7 ft ) = 148. and C or 87. 4c Determine the center of rigidity. Vol. and C or Tx = 44.500 lb(2.lb Since the building is symmetrical for forces in the north-south direction. Ft .200 lb(1. The total shears on the walls at the roof level are the direct shears Fv and the shears due to torsion (combined actual torsion and accidental torsion).7 ft ) = 75. 4c. Table 2-17 summarizes the spreadsheet for determining combined forces on the roof level walls. center of mass. B.500 + 42.650 ft .9 ft ) = 863.lb Results for the third floor are summarized in Table 2-18. F. B.

500 22.513 89.044 3.178 441 3.984 11. G.300 lb(2.0 24.864 72.4 ft ) = 259.43 39.920 ft .330 72. Vol.952 2. Table 2-20 summarizes wall forces determined under the separate flexible and rigid diaphragm analysis.220 1.0 124 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.500 + 42.9 Rd 1. Distribution of forces to shear walls below the roof level Wall A B C E F G H Rx 20.100) = 108.835 5. 4d.036 Rd 2 78.5 253.53 Ry dx dy 62.9 53.752 1.970 3.700 + 21.101 3. and H T y = Fe x = 108. F.300 lb(9.250 22.970 44.1 52.10 113.786 106. Since nailing requirements were established in the flexible diaphragm analysis of Part 2.lb for walls E.185 13.305 1.250 44.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Torsion on the second floor diaphragms: F = (44.099 10.lb Results for the second floor are summarized in Table 2-19. and C or 108.728 646.7 ft ) = 184.752 21.720 89.269 2.530 3.500 Ft +865 +1394 +2167 +52 +377 +200 +129 +502 -502 Fv + Ft 2.099 22.932 11.40 38. they must be checked for results of the rigid diaphragm analysis and adjusted if necessary (also given in Table 2-20).9 ft ) = 1.84 20.9 43.24 113.324 500.5 126.791 10.748 East-West Σ North-South 1 4 Σ Σ 126.1 3.10 115. rigid diaphragm results.036 -3.300 lb Tx = Fe y = 108.829 74.110 ft . II (1997 UBC) .1 28. 4d Comparison of flexible vs.864 145.932 10.300 lb(1.853 59.42 460.0 -24.705 1.9 27.170 ft .153 3. B. Table 2-17.058 Direct Force Torsional Force Total Force Fv 1.lb for walls A.072.

04 475.221 107.750 86.823 1. II (1997 UBC) 125 .4 562.325 East-West Σ North-South 1 2 3 4 Σ Σ 144.200 22.067 3.399 20.914 93 733 393 251 1.750 169.660 20.6 637.693 23.300 Torsional Force Total Force Ft 2.5 -2.8 110.732 80.756 720.82 29. Distribution of forces to shear walls below second floor level Wall A B C E F G H Rx 29.094 429 3.251 Fv + Ft 9.1 3.417 23.9 43.480 Σ North-South 1 2 3 4 Σ Σ 145. Vol.936 1.887 84.4 24.064 259 -259 -1.490 340 -340 -3.9 53.675 95.9 27. Distribution of forces to shear walls below the third floor level Wall A B C E F G H East-West Rx 21.194 83.709 9.056 21.547 83.52 21.6 174.133 29.750 849 849 83.574 20.694 517.04 36.843 4.58 467.982 8.024 7.4 135.574 29.056 22.2 24.618 6.340 2.58 39.064 Fv + Ft 5.0 174.1 110.8 37.731 29.576 108.66 Ry dx dy 62.042 7.0 2.299 11.1 28.5 -24.68 110.490 Rd 2 83.950 Direct Force Fv 6.708 87.425 8.9 27.489 1.0 Table 2-19.0 144.1 122.275 23.745 Direct Force Fv 4.682 2.290 168.660 1.018 62.9 Rd 1.8 135.5 -24.5 -2.690 25.0 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.559 3.0 2.315 20.367 552.426 1.134 4.685 94.9 Rd 1.544 21.589 72.8 121.200 Torsional Force Total Force Ft 1.9 53.685 2.197 28.395 1.300 24.692 7.608 21.803 1.741 4.1 52.660 22.290 1.544 87.1 3.017 25.8 145.617 108.602 109 875 424 400 1.990 98.198 686.088 27.998 24.251 157 -157 -1.024 87.797 21.617 8.857 9.290 25.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Table 2-18.113 432 3.28 Ry dx dy 62.827 29.7 41.574 24.088 83.911 3.1 52.38 110.9 43.1 28.576 29.163 3.088 1.088 25.565 3470 435 -435 -3470 Rd 2 111.

752(3) 5.690 25.0 22.0 43. Allowable shears from UBC Table 23-II-I-1 Shear walls with shears that exceeds 350 pounds per lineal foot will require 3 × framing at abutting panel edges with staggered nails.310 11. A redesign will not be necessary.645 31.345 3.485 36.133 29.0 43. The shear of 355 plf exceeds allowable of 340 plf.5 64.) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4(2) 4 4 4 4 6 4 6 6 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 6(5) 6(5) 4 A B C E F G H 1 4 A B C E F G H 1 2 3 4 A B C E F G H 1 2 3 4 +98% -17% +15% -3% +43% -15% +46% +2% +2% +103% -18% +11% -7% +48% -11% +52% -26% +83% +83% -26% +167% -27% +7% -9% +47% -20% +100% -30% +70% +70% -30% 165 205 220 190 195 155 120 255 255 330 400 415 370 390 300 245 355 255 255 355 535 500 495 460 480 370 400 410 355 355 410 Notes: 1.197 28.134 4.5 Second Floor 12.952 2.185 13.430 22.827(3) Rigid/ Flexible ratio b (ft) Roof Level 12.5 64.5 60.485 15.0 43. 126 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.250 22.731(3) 25.5 22.731 29.0 22.750 17.827 29.984 11.305 22.310 8.608 21. 4.0 12.299 11.709 9.5 22.400 17.0 64.0 60.955 3. therefore the nail spacing will need to be decreased to 4-inch spacing.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Table 2-20.5 22. Vol.099 22.160 22.315(3) 23.0 22.250 2. The shear of 535 plf exceeds allowable of 510 plf therefore the nail spacing will need to be decreased to 3 inch spacing. Comparison of loads on shear walls using flexible versus rigid diaphragm analysis and recheck of nailing in walls Wall F flexible (lb) 1.750 Frigid (lb) 2.5 v= Fmax (b )1.525 19.574 20.0 43.430 6.0 64. 3.805 31.608(3) 9.017 25. 2.280 11.0 43.525 27.0 60.400 36. Designates the force used was the higher force for the same wall at the opposite side of the structure.998 24.5 60.5 64.857 9.080 4.042 7.4 (plf) Plywood 1 or 2 sides 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Allowable Shear (plf) (1)(2) 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 510 510 510 510 510 340 510 340 340 510 510 665 665 665 665 665 510 510 340 340 510 Edge Nail Spacing (in.830 9.693 23.160 15.835 5.0 12. II (1997 UBC) . 5.5 64.315 21.660 11.0 43.0 43.280 27.805 12.0 43.530 3.099 10.752 22.955 11. A redesign will not be necessary.275 23.0 12.425 8. See also notes at bottom of Table 1-3.135 2.0 43.645 11.660 1.5 Third Floor 12.

For shear walls.1). In Part 1 of this example.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Where forces from rigid diaphragm analysis are higher than those from the flexible diaphragm analysis. wall stability and anchorage must be re-evaluated. the ratio for the wall with the largest shear per foot at or below two-thirds the height of the building is calculated. If rigid diaphragm loads are used. Or in the case of a three-story building. the diaphragm shears should be rechecked for total load divided by diaphragm length along the individual wall lines. The total lateral load in the wall is multiplied by 10 l w and divided by the story shear.1. This will now be checked. However.1. 5. Determine reliability/redundancy factor ρ. II (1997 UBC) 127 .288 sq ft SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 . ρ = 2− 20 rmax AB (30-3) where: rmax = the maximum element-story shear ratio. Vol. l w = length of wall in feet AB = the ground floor area of the structure in square feet ri = Vmax (10 l w ) F AB = 5. the reliability/redundancy factor was previously assumed to be ρ = 1.1. §1630.1 The reliability/redundancy factor penalizes lateral force resisting systems that do not have adequate redundancy. engineering judgment may be used to determine if a complete rigid diaphragm analysis should be repeated due to changes in wall rigidity. the ground level and the second level are calculated (see the SEAOC Blue Book Commentary §C105.

k.300 20 0.300 20 0. Vol. ∴ ρ = 1.552 )(10 11.288 = 0.300 = 0.068 ρ = 2− = −2.5) 108.k. for both directions there is no increase in base shear required due to lack of reliability/redundancy.053 5. ∴ ρ = 1.053 Note that this is the same as using the whole wall.5) 108.5 = 6. rmax = (36. 128 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 Therefore.750 × 11.068 5. For east-west direction: Using strength-level forces for wall A: rmax = (9.0 minimum o. there is no increase in base shear due to lack of reliability/redundancy.299)(10 12.288 = 0.0 < 1.2 < 1. For north-south direction: Using strength-level forces for walls 1 and 4: Load to wall: 36.0 Therefore.0 minimum o.053 ρ = 2− = −3.552 lb ri = (6.5) 108. II (1997 UBC) .5 64.750)(10 64.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure For ground level.

0” in the 1999 SEAOC Blue Book— which will not penalize longer walls. Vol. For north-south direction: Using strength-level forces for walls 1 and 4: rmax = (31.0 minimum o.574 × 5)(10 21.200 20 0.057 ρ = 2− = −2.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure For second level.8 < 1. ∴ ρ = 1.288 = 0.955)(10 64. The SEAOC Seismology Committee added the sentence “The value of the ratio of 10/lw need not be taken as greater than 1.0 Therefore.5) 87. II (1997 UBC) 129 . SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.2 < 1.065 ρ = 2− = −2.057 5. ∴ ρ = 1. but in this design example has no effect. For east-west direction: Using strength-level forces for wall B: rmax = (24.k.288 = 0. there is no increase in base shear due to lack of reliability/redundancy. there is no increase in base shear due to lack of reliability/redundancy.5) 87.0 minimum o.0 Therefore.k.065 5.200 20 0.

5. 130 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) . and because it is in Seismic Zone 4. While SEAOC is not encouraging the use of conventional construction methods. The design seismic force shall not be less than 0. this step is included because conventional construction is allowed by the UBC (however. These values are used for determining diaphragm shears (and also collector forces). The roof diaphragm has been selected to illustrate the methodology. §1230. Diaphragm deflections to determine if the diaphragm is flexible or rigid. there is no requirement to verify that the diaphragm is actually rigid or flexible.5. 6a Floor total loads.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 6. 6a. and therefore the entire lateral system requires an engineering design. Therefore. it is often misused) and can lead to poor performing structures.2 The dead load weight of the floor exceeds the limit of 20 psf limit.0C a IW px . and therefore the structure requires an engineering design for vertical and lateral forces. the hotel structure requires an engineering design for both vertical and lateral loads. Since the shear wall forces were determined using both flexible and rigid diaphragm assumptions. The design seismic force in the roof diaphragm using Eq (33-1) must first be determined. it must also be checked against §2320. 6b.5. If all walls were drywall and the floor weight was less than 20 psf. Vol. The design seismic force is then divided by the diaphragm area to determine the horizontal loading in pounds per square foot. Determine if structure meets requirements of conventional construction provisions.5C a IW px nor greater than 1.2 The spacing of braced wall lines exceeds 25 feet on center. The structure must be checked against the individual requirements of §2320. However. §2320. conventional construction is not recommended for this type of structure. 7. Results of these checks are shown below. This step is shown only as a reference for how to calculate horizontal diaphragm deflections. then use of conventional construction provisions would be permitted by the UBC.2. 6b Braced wall lines.

not F px total force at the level considered. the shear in the diaphragm will be determined and compared to allowables. the diaphragm deflection should be based on the same load as the load used for the lateral resisting elements. The basic equation to determine seismic forces on a diaphragm is shown below.0')2 Diaphragm span = 32. 7a Roof diaphragm check.2 (see Step 4 for additional comments).41)48.4(48. where: v= (8. II (1997 UBC) 131 . The roof diaphragm will be checked in two steps.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 7a. In other words. Next. the diaphragm deflection is used to determine whether the diaphragm is flexible or rigid. Check diaphragm deflection: The code specifies that the deflection is calculated on a unit load basis. First.0') = 96 plf 1. Vol. Check diaphragm shear: The roof diaphragm consists of 15/32"-thick sheathing with 10d @ 6" o/c and panel edges are unblocked.4 From Table 23-II-H.0 ft Diaphragm depth = 48. Loading on the segment between C and E.0' (32. the allowable shear of 190 plf is based on 15/32-inch APA-rated wood structural panels with unblocked edges and 10d nails spaced at 6 inches on center at boundaries and supported panel edges. Ft + ∑ Ft i= x n F px = i=x ∑ wi n w px (33-1) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. the diaphragm deflection will be calculated. APA-rated wood structural panels may be either plywood or oriented strand board (OSB).0 ft Diaphragm shears are converted to allowable stress design by dividing by 1. In Part 7b. Since the UBC now requires building drifts to be determined by the load combinations of §1612. strength loads on building diaphragm must be determined.

Vol. II (1997 UBC) .288 In this example. Table 23-2-J Vol. 3 132 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.222. Vol.000 psi A2×4 chords = 5. and the last part accounts for chord slippage.0) = 44.700. the roof and floor diaphragms spanning between C and E will be used to illustrate the method. with continuity. f p roof = 44. Then divide by the area of the diaphragm to find the equivalent uniform force. the above calculation will always produce the same force as computed in Eq (30-15). For the purpose of this design example.188 Le n + 8 EAb 4Gt ∑ (∆ C X ) 2b §23. the third accounts for nail slippage/bending.5 × 135.1. Other terms in the deflection equation are: L = 32. The equation has four parts.0 For the uppermost level.7 seconds f p roof = (44.50 sq in.41 psf 5. the second accounts for shear deformation. The UBC references this in §2315.4(6 12 ) = 67 lb/nail = Vn .Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure where Ft = 0 in this example because T < 0. With nails at 6 inches on center the strength load per nail is 96 × 1. the actual deflection will be less.5 k 135. simple span diaphragm with panel edges blocked and is based on monotonic tests conducted by the American Plywood Association (APA).000 psi E = 1.000 = 8. In reality. The first part accounts for beam bending.25 sq in × 2 = 10.0 ft G = 50. 3 The above equation is based on a uniformly nailed.0 ft b = 48. the diaphragm is assumed to be a simple span supported at C and E (refer to Figure 2-4).5 × 1. The basic code equation to determine the deflection of a diaphragm is shown below. ∆= 5vL3 vL + + 0.

The allowable loads for fasteners are based on limit state design.0004 t = 0. since interpolation and adjustments are necessary. however. Values for en can be computed based on fastener slip equations from Table B-4 of APA Research Report 138. and also enable computations to be made by a computer.” en = 1. since the lumber is fabricated when green.894 When the nails are driven into dry lumber: en = (Vn 769 )3. its use is somewhat time-consuming.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Fastener slip/nail deformation values (en ) are obtained as follows: Volume 3 of the UBC uses Table 23-2-K for obtaining nail slip values en .298 in. Using the values of en from Volume 3 of UBC requires interpolation and is very time-consuming. The values in Table 23-2-K are based on tests conducted by the APA. The 50 percent nail slip reduction for dry lumber is a conservative factor.05 diameters of the fastener. II (1997 UBC) 133 . Table 23-2-H APA Table B-4 APA Table B-4 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. there are 2 basic equations: When the nails are driven into green lumber: en = (Vn 977 )1. (for CDX or Standard Grade) Assume chord-splice at the mid-span of the diaphragm that will be nailed.01 inch will be used. The deformation limit is 0. the deformation is set at a limit rather than the strength of the fastener.20(67 769)3. Footnote 1 in Table 23-2-K requires the nail slip values en be decreased 50 percent for seasoned lumber. be more accurate. This means that the table is based on nails being driven into green lumber and the engineer must use half of these values for nails driven in dry (seasoned) lumber. a conservative slippage of 0. For 10d common nails. For a 16d nail. This will save time. Vol. Again. Footnote a in UBC Table B-4 states “Fabricated green/tested dry (seasoned)…” is very misleading. The actual tested slips with dry lumber were less than 50 percent of the green lumber slips.276 = 0. don’t be misled by the word “seasoned. The values in the table are actually green values.276 where: Vn is the fastener load in pounds per fastener These values are based on Structural I sheathing and must be increased by 20 percent when the sheathing is not Structural I. In other words.

0) 8(1. 2 (48. The floors will similarly neglect the stiffening effects of lightweight concrete fill and gluing of sheathing. some amount of diaphragm deformation will occur.01)16.0) 4 (50. the maximum diaphragm deflection was estimated as 0. the engineer should exercise good engineering judgment in determining if the higher load of the two methodologies is actually required. The APA is currently working on a simplified formula for unblocked diaphragms. the diaphragms in this design example are considered rigid. 7b.6 In this example.298 This deflection is based on a blocked diaphragm. The average story drift is on the order of 0. II (1997 UBC) . some engineers perform their design based on the roof diaphragm as flexible and the floor diaphragms as rigid. The roof diaphragm is also sloped at 6:12.0 ft (2 ) = 0.4 )32. There has not been any testing of sloped and complicated diaphragms. For the diaphragms to be considered flexible.32 + + 0.4 (32. so a conversion factor is necessary. This design example has unblocked panel edges for the floor and roof diaphragms. as found in the typical wood framed structure. As defined by the code.10 inches at the roof (see Step 3c for the computed deflections of the shear walls). In reality.0 3 96 × 1. and the true analysis is highly complex and beyond the scope of what is normally done for this type of construction. an unblocked diaphragm will deflect between 2 to 2½ times that of a blocked diaphragm or can be proportioned to the allowable shears of a blocked diaphragm divided by the unblocked diaphragm.20 in.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Using strength level diaphragm shear: ∑ (∆ C X ) = (0. 7b Flexible versus rigid diaphragms. This assumes a simple span for the diaphragm. and the actual deflection would probably be less.188 (32.7 E 6)10.0004 + = 0. In using this procedure. For example.20 inches.32 in. Therefore.08(2.50 (48. It is assumed that the unblocked diaphragm will deflect: ∴ ∆ = 0.0 ) 0. Based on diaphragm deflection test results (performed by the APA). This conversion is for the roof diaphragm. The other diaphragm spans would easily qualify as “rigid” diaphragms. Diaphragm deflection analysis and testing has been performed on level/flat diaphragms. .ft ∆= 5 (96 × 1. if the load to two walls by rigidity analysis is found to be 5 percent to line 134 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol. the maximum diaphragm deflection will have to be more than two times the average story drift. which is believed to increase the deflection (but this has not been confirmed with tests).08 in. §1630.000 )0. The UBC does not have a formula for an unblocked diaphragm.5) = 0. This is right at the limit of a definition of a flexible diaphragm.0 )0.

All of the systems have some type of rod and hardware connector system that goes from the foundation to the top of the structure. it has not been enforced by building officials for Type V construction. The continuous tiedown system is a relatively new method for resisting shear wall overturning. Contrary to that perception. Note that though the same definition of a flexible diaphragm has been in the UBC since the 1988 edition. 8.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure A and 95 percent to line B. but it should be noted: the code has two new provisions for one-hour wall assemblies—Footnotes 17 and 18 of Table 7-B in Volume 1. have concluded that there can be large displacements associated with this type of connection. 8a. deflection of the tiedown. tiedown forces for the three-story shear wall on line C are determined. and oversized holes for the through-bolts. Tiedowns are required to resist the uplift tendency on shear walls caused by overturning moments. Footnote 18 requires values for F ' c to be reduced to 78 percent of allowable in one-hour walls. Footnote 17 requires longer fasteners for gypsum sheathing when the sheathing is applied over wood structural panels. etc. These devices will also compensate for other slack in the tiedown system caused by crushing of plates. Not included in this design example. conventional premanufactured straps are used. these systems are in many instances superior to the one-sided bolted tiedowns. In this step. At the third floor. but by flexible analysis it is found to be 50 percent to line A and 50 percent to line B. wood crushing. studs. seating of posts. Shrinkage-compensating devices are desirable in multi-level wood frame construction. wood shrinkage. Similar to the many metal connectors used for wood framing connections. 8a Discussion on continuous tiedown systems. most are proprietary and have ICBO approvals. Vol. II (1997 UBC) 135 . Tiedown forces for the shear wall on line C. the engineer should probably design for the larger of the two loads for the individual walls. Some of the proprietary systems compensate for shrinkage either by pre-tensioning of the rod or by a self-ratcheting connector device. Investigations after the Northridge earthquake as well as independent testing of the conventional one-sided bolted tiedowns. A common misconception that engineers have with these types of systems is that the elongation of the rod will produce large displacements in the shear walls. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. The draft of the IBC 2000 has repeated this same definition into Chapter 23 (wood) definitions. The large displacements are a result of eccentricity with the boundary element. The design chosen uses continuous tiedowns below the third floor.

738 lb Fsecond = (29.558 lb Figure 2-7.099 2 = 6. Vol. II (1997 UBC) .690 − 24.550 lb Fthird = (24. The shear wall on line C is shown on Figure 2-7.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 8b. 8b Determine strength shear wall forces. Forces at each story are determined as follows (from Table 2-20): Froof = 13.574 − 13.574 ) 2 = 2. Shear wall C elevation 136 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.099 ) 2 = 5.

+ (13 2 ) = 11.110 Differential Load (2) (lb) 740 2. this has been replaced with the basic load combinations of §1612.25 ft at third floor for roof level (Figure 2-11) d d The resisting moment M R is determined from the following loads: Wroof = 13. = 0.5 ft at second floor for third level (Figure 2-12) 21.125) = 21.4 ) − 0.5 in.0 plf Wwall = 10. (Note that it is also considered acceptable to use the distance from the end of the shear wall to the centroid of the tiedown. e = 1.9 (1) (ft-lb) 22.731 82.0 ft ) = 27.595 Notes: 1. in feet.590 91.9 M R (lb) d 740 3.920 MR (ft-lb) 25.5 in.5 psf (2. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 ft ) = 19.0 plf Table 2-21. II (1997 UBC) 137 .769 (M OT Uplift 1.775 3.1.0 ft ) = 50. e e Use d= = = the distance to the center of tiedown rod and boundary studs or collectors studs (Figure 2-12) 2 × 2.0 plf W floor = 25. The UBC no longer has the 0.515 7.775 169.958 in.5 ft − 2(1.694 52.216 58.3. Tiedown forces for shear wall C Level Roof Third Second M OT (ft-lb) 53.774 309. The differential is the load difference between the uplift force at level x and the level above.0 ft the distance between centroids of the tiedown and the boundary studs.0 psf (2.85 DL provision for stability. This is shown below.) = = 21.5 ft − (2 × 0.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure The distance between the centroid of the boundary forces that represent the overturning moment at each level must be estimated. 2.965 M R × 0. Vol.

3F §1612.) + 6 in. §C101.5 in.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 9. P1 = P2 = total uplift force from above = 740 lb 138 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.515 lb (Table 2-21). This exact same load combination is listed in the basic load combinations. The basic load combinations of §1612.1 do not permit stress increases.5 in.3 for further explanation).5 inches on center the length of strap required is 2(0.2. Vol. This is confusing to many engineers on this topic. P 1= 740 lb The tiedowns will be designed using allowable stress design. P2 .3 10. 10 Design tiedown connection at the second floor for the shear wall on line C. This is the conventional pre-manufactured strap and is fastened to the framing with nails. + 5 × 1. = 22. because the basic load combinations are based on duration factors (see 1999 SEAOC Blue Book Commentary.75 in. Refer to Figure 2-12 for illustration of this system and the location of forces P1 .25 -in strap and 10d common nails. II (1997 UBC) . As previously mentioned. the second floor tiedown will be part of the continuous tiedown system used below the third level. With a 16-gauge × 1.7. however.2.4 alternate basic load combinations. do permit stress increases. and P3 . E The Errata to the first printing of the code added 09 D ± . The alternate basic load combinations of §1612.33) = 150 lb/nail Number of nails required = 740 150 = 4. Allowable load per nail is ZC D = 113(1. Figure 2-11 illustrates the typical tiedown connection for the shear wall on line C at the third floor. to the 1. The total uplift force at the second floor is 3. (12-16-1).9 ∴use 5 With nails at 1. Design tiedown connection at the third floor for the shear wall on line C.2. ∴use 24-inch-strap NDS Table 12. This design example will use the one-third stress increase of the alternate basic load combination method. The total uplift force at this level is 740 lb. Eq.

388 lb Since the strap from above is only connected to one pair of collector studs.775 lb/2 = 1. the tension in the tiedown rod is increased due to cantilever action between the centroids of the forces. This will produce the total force P2 on support stud (Figure 2-9): Figure 2-9. Vol. the total uplift force for the outside set of collectors is equal to the uplift force plus the uplift force on the second floor shear wall from the third floor. Taking a free-body diagram of the system. Free-body force diagram of compression bridge 139 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. as computed above. the tension in the tiedown rod between the second floor and the compression bridge is the differential load plus the tension load.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure P3 = uplift force for the collector studs = differential load/2 = 2. Free-body force diagram of compression bridge Next. A downward component is actually applied to the interior-most support stud (Figure 2-8): Figure 2-8. II (1997 UBC) .

5 × 3.5 × 3.255 lb 140 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 = 262 psi < Fc ⊥ = 625 psi o.028 lb (1.028 lb The allowable lateral load for a 16d common nail in a 1½-inch side member is: ZC D = 141(1. see Figure 2-12): T1 = 4.388 lb (2.388 lb f c ⊥ = P A = 1.25 × 5. ∴Use 6-inch o. Table 4A NDS Table 12. for the flat nailing Check compression perpendicular to grain for the bridge support studs to compression bridge: Critical at P2 f c max = 2.4 nails ∴use 6 nails Maximum spacing = 48 in (6 + 1) = 6.33) = 187 lb With 2 rows of 16d nails.8 in.3B Check bearing perpendicular to grain on the top plate from the collector studs from below: First floor is framed with 3 × 4 studs Force at P3 = 1. Vol.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Determine spacing for the flat nailing: Pmax = 2. NDS Supp.5) = 160 psi < Fc ⊥ = 625 psi o. Check shear on 4 × 8 compression bridge (assume tiedown is at center of wall and not at party wall.k.028 lb 2 × 187 = 5.k. the number of nails per row is 2.k. II (1997 UBC) .c. Check the bearing perpendicular to grain on bearing plate: F = T1 = 4.255 lb f c ⊥ = 4.255 lb 3.5) = 386 psi < Fc ⊥ = 625 psi o.

Vol.5 − 0. which is 3. 1: FV ' = FV C D = 95 × 1.130 lb 2 2 2. Check shear on plates at floor: Tiedown connector reaction is the differential load.6 in 3 M= fb = M 12.33)(1.255 lb T1 × L 4.69)7.6 For Douglas Fir Larch No.235 in.130 × 1. II (1997 UBC) 141 .k.k.800 × 1.33 = 126 psi o.595 lb.5 × 3.235 = = 497 psi S 24.255 × (10 + 1. Check bending on 4 × 8 compression bridge: T1 = 4. T = 3.25 fV = For Douglas Fir-Larch No.595 lb Assuming 2 sill plates and 2 top plates to take all shear: V = T 3.5) = = 12.595 = = 1.000(1.5 = 126 psi 3.25 2 6 = 24.lb 4 4 S x for 4 × 8 with hole for 5 8" rod = (3.729 psi o.5 = 130 psi 4(1.255 = = 2. . 1: Fb ' = Fb C D C F = 1.5) fV = SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Assuming compression bridge to take all shear: V = T1 4.3) = 1.5 × 7.800 lb 2 2 1.

6 ft = 43 in. 11. 142 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 (plates rarely check on the edges) FV ' = FV C H C D = 95(2.690 lb = = 690 lb/ft L 43 ft The 1997 UBC references the 1991 NDS.33)(1.690 lb v= V 29. there aren’t any tables for 6x to 6x members.0 )(1. the tiedown connection shown on Figure 2-12 meets the requirements of code. For a side member. an easier method would be to use the new tables in the 1997 NDS. is equal to t m = Z ts = twice the thickness of wood member. leaving only the Z formulas. Design anchor bolt spacing of sill plate on Line C. II (1997 UBC) . 11 11a.2E 97 NDS Z C (1. thickness = 2. 11a Design tiedown connection and anchor bolt spacing for shear wall on line C. which are specifically for ledgers and sill plates.2.33) = 252 psi o. which specifies in §8.350)(1. From Table 2-20: V = 29. In lieu of using the complex Z formulas. See discussion about fasteners for pressure-preservative treated wood and in Step 19. The problem is.4 is the strength conversion factor ∴Use ¾" diameter bolts at 32 inches on center.5 inch in Hem-Fir wood (note that designing for Hem-Fir will require a tighter nail and bolt spacing): Z11 = 1. Therefore. Required spacing = 11 D = v 690 where 1.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Since plate have no spits C H = 2.350 lb/bolt Table 8.k. Vol.4 ) = 3. Z .3 that the allowable bolt design value.

000 = 57.4 × 1. Neglecting the area of bolt head bearing surface.000 = 16.4 is the strength conversion factor and 1. A p = 406 in.0 × 4 × 406 3. 2 ΦPC = Φλ 4 A p f ' c = 0.8 k PSS = 0.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 11b.3 = 13.000 lb (critical) Provide an oversized hole for the tiedown rod in the foundation sill plate.9 × 0. 11c. Tiedown bolts resist vertical loads only. II (1997 UBC) 143 . 11c Check the bearing perpendicular to grain on sill plates. The rod has no nut or washer to the sill plate.000 lb where 1. the tiedown anchor will be assumed to occur at the center of the exterior wall. From Table 2-21: T = 7.4 (12-13) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.75(l e )2 For l e = 15 in.580 lb > 13. This will produce a lower capacity than if the rod were located at the double-framed wall shown in Figure 2-13.110 × 1. 11b Determine tiedown anchor embedment. anchor bolts are designed to resist the lateral loads. Vol. the critical load combination is: E D+ L+ 1.110 lb T y = 7. assumed concrete failure surface is: ( ) (A p ) = πl2e 2 + 1.3 is for special inspection per §1923. the effective area A p of the projected (Figure 2-10). assume V = 0 lb in the rod.2. therefore. In this calculation.65 × 1. Assuming all compressive force for overturning will be resisted by end boundary elements.307 × 60.

920 ft .350 + 795 + 320 = 12.4) 19. II (1997 UBC) .73Fc'⊥ = 0.4. Vol.350 lb d (1.465 = 240 psi < Fc'⊥ = 626 psi 6(8. 144 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Table 4A Therefore. This crushing will be compensated by the ratcheting effect of the continuous tiedown system as discussed in the notes for Table 2-4. the bearing area is equal to six 3x4 studs.75 square inches. f c < 0.02 inches (Table 2-13) is correct.4 ) PDL = Wroof + W floor + Wwall (27 ft ) [ ( ) ] 16"+8" PDL = [27. where the area of a 3 × 4 is 8. Conversion to allowable stress design is obtained by dividing by 1. fc max = 12.0 + 2 (50. the assumed crushing effect of 0. the strength level overturning moment is: M OT = 309. Note that if a Hem-Fir sill plate is used the allowable compression perpendicular to grain Fc'⊥ = 405 psi .5(1.920 = = 11.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure From Table 2-21.k.0 ) + 10. Pseismic = M OT 309.465 lb with full width bearing studs bearing on both sill plates (Figure 2-13).lb The seismic compressive force is obtained by dividing by the distance d.75) o.0(27' )] = 795 lb 12" 16"+8" PLL = (40 psf × 2'×2 ) = 320 lb 12" ∑ P = 11.73(405) = 295 psi NDS Supp.

Tiedown bolt SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Figure 2-10. II (1997 UBC) 145 .

146 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. the 16d at 12 inches o. internailing of the two tiedown studs should have the capacity to transfer one-half the force to the interior stud (Figure 2-11). These nails may be installed from either side (normally nailed from the outside).Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 12. See Figure 2-16 for the location of the top plates and commentary about plate locations. Vol. Figure 2-11. Note that since the boundary element is a double stud and the wall panel edge nailing is nailed to the end stud. II (1997 UBC) . Tiedown connection at the third floor for shear wall C.c. 12 Detail of tiedown connection at the third floor for shear wall on line C.

Vol. Tiedown connection at second floor for shear wall C SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Figure 2-12. This tiedown rod system (Figure 2-12) may also be extended to the third floor instead of using the conventional metal strap shown in Figure 2-11. II (1997 UBC) 147 . See Figure 2-16 for the location of the top plates and commentary about plate locations.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 13. 13 Detail of tiedown connection at the second floor for shear wall on line C.

The detail shows full-width studs at tiedown (Figure 2-13). 14 Detail of wall intersection at exterior walls. there is no design requirement or minimum shear wall to shear wall connection requirement other than that required by the UBC standard nailing schedule. both sill plates will need to be 3x thickness (not as shown in Figure 2-17). This is desirable when sheathing is applied to both stud walls. Wall intersection at shear wall (plan view) 148 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) . Vol.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 14. Tiedowns may be located at the center of the stud wall that is also sheathed. It is good practice to tie the wall together. Figure 2-13. In this case. When full-width studs are used for bearing. It is also desirable for bearing perpendicular to grain because the bearing area is doubled.

Vol. This can easily be done in a schedule (Figure 2-14). Tiedown connection at foundation SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. The manufacturer of the tiedown system usually requires the engineer of record to specify the tiedown forces at each level of the structure.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 15. II (1997 UBC) 149 . 15 Detail of tiedown connection at foundation. Figure 2-14.

Figure 2-15.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 16. It is also common to use a double collector truss at these locations. 16 Detail of shear transfer at interior shear wall at roof. Note: Edge nailing from roof sheathing to collector truss may need to be closer than the roof sheathing edge nailing due to shears being collected from each side of the truss. The 2 × 4 braces at the top of the shear wall need to be designed for compression or provide tension bracing on each side of the wall (Figure 2-15). II (1997 UBC) . Vol. Shear transfer at interior shear wall at roof 150 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

17 Detail of shear transfer at interior shear wall at floors. shear transfer is required through the glue joint in the webs and heavy nailing from the joist chord to the top plate. Shear transfer at interior shear wall at floor Note: The nailers for the drywall ceiling need to be installed after the wall sheathing and wall drywall have been installed. Another detail that is often used is to bear the floor joists directly on the top plates. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. This is advantageous for shear transfer. Figure 2-16. However.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 17. II (1997 UBC) 151 . when the floor joist is on top of the top plates. This detail uses the double top plates at the underside of the floor sheathing (Figure 2-16). Vol.

Shear transfer at foundation 19. The code change was proposed by the wood industry. requiring the framer to put down his nail gun and change nailing procedures. where fasteners were found to react with the preservative treatment when “… in the presence of moisture…. it is uncertain whether a sill plate in a finished “dried-in” building is “in the presence of moisture. a literal interpretation of the section would require hot-dipped zinc-coated galvanized nails and anchor bolts. Although it does not appear to be the intent of the provision.3 and 1811. Vol. Fasteners for pressure. 152 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.” However.3 of the 1997 UBC added a new requirement for corrosion-resistant fasteners. Figure 2-17.3 is from a report in the wood handbook by the Forest Products Lab. and §2304. 18 Detail of shear transfer at interior shear wall at foundation.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 18. II (1997 UBC) .” This can create a construction problem because hot-dipped zinc coated nails have to be hand-driven. 19 Detail of sill plate at foundation edge.or preservative-treated wood. Sections 2304.

which has lower fastener values for nails and bolts than for Douglas-Fir-Larch. or a double stagger row can be used. Figure 2-18 shows two rows of edge nailing to the sill plate as a method of compensating for a Hem-Fir sill plate. Investigations into wood-framed construction have found that plywood or oriented strand board sheathing that bear on concrete at perimeter exterior edges can “wick” moisture up from the concrete and cause corrosion of the fasteners and rotting in the sheathing. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. A tighter nail spacing to the sill plate is necessary. Sill plate at foundation edge Note: The UBC only requires a minimum edge distance of 3/8-inch for nails in sheathing.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure An additional caution for sill plates is the type of wood used. Figure 2-18. A ¼-inch gap is recommended for a 3x sill plate and an 1/8-inch gap is recommended for a 2x sill plate (Figure 2-18). Tests have shown that sheathing with greater edge distances have performed better. The most common species used on the west coast for pressure treatment is Hem-Fir. II (1997 UBC) 153 . Vol. the sheathing can be placed with a gap above the concrete surface. Gap at bottom of sheathing. To help prevent this problem.

II (1997 UBC) .Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 20. Figure 2-19. 20 Detail of shear transfer at exterior wall at roof. Double top plates are also a chord and collector. Shear transfer at exterior wall at roof Note: The roof truss directly above the exterior wall is also a “collector” truss. Roof edge nailing to this truss and the 16d nails to the blocking need to be checked for the “collector” load. 154 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol.

See Figure 2-16 for additional commentary. 21 Detail of shear transfer at exterior wall at floor. Another detail that is often used is bearing the floor joists on the double top plates. Figure 2-20.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 21. Vol. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Shear transfer at exterior wall at floor Note: This detail uses double top plates at the underside of the floor sheathing. II (1997 UBC) 155 .

American Plywood Association. revised. 1996. 1997. American Plywood Association. Engineered Wood Association. Washington.3. Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings. Washington. Tacoma. Performance Standards and Policies for Structural– Use Panels [Sheathing Standard. California. Applied Technology Council. California Earthquake. Wood Structural Panel Shear Walls. Cyclic Testing of Narrow Plywood Shear Walls ATC R-1. California. Proceedings of a Workshop on Design of Horizontal Wood Diaphragms. Applied Technology Council. Applied Technology Council. “A Linear Elastic Dynamic Analysis of a Timber Framed Structure.” Building Standards. 1988. Washington. Bugni. Washington. Applied Technology Council. Standard PRP–108. California 156 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Tacoma. 2. Washington. Tacoma. National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program. Building Seismic Safety Council. American Plywood Association. Guidelines for Design of Horizontal Wood Diaphragms. ATC-7-1. Wood Construction Manual. Engineered Wood Association. Applied Technology Council. Tacoma. 1997. Report T-94-5. International Conference of Building Officials. Research Report 138. Report 105.3]. American Plywood Association. ATC-7. Washington D. Whittier. American Plywood Association. Northridge. 1995. Redwood City. Redwood City. Design/ Construction Guide – Diaphragms and Shear Walls. 1981. Engineered Wood Association. Vol. Engineered Wood Association. Applied Technology Council. Plywood Diaphragms. California. 1994. Tacoma. Engineered Wood Association. 1997.C. Washington D. 1993. 1999. Redwood City. 1980. American Forest and Paper Association. Diaphragms and Shear Walls. Washington. Sec. American Plywood Association. American Plywood Association. Building Seismic Safety Council. David A.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure References American Forest and Paper Association. II (1997 UBC) . Report 154.C.. Tacoma.

and Gregg. Tacoma Washington. “Northridge Earthquake of January 17. Oakland. 1999. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 1999. Washington D. C. 1996. Vol. 1997c. and Col Benson.D. Dolan. 1994. Blacksburg. Timber Engineering Report No. California. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. California.” Proceedings: Annual SEAOC Convention.P... Dolan. Analysis. Wood Engineering Construction Handbook. “Performance Based Design of Wood Structures. 1996. D.. Thomas G. J. 1954. Sacramento. Blacksburg. Simpson Strong-Tie Co. Timber Engineering Report No. and Heine.C. Blacksburg.. K. Faherty. J. Pleasanton. 1996. Virginia. Countryman. Vol. Earthquake Spectra. Keith F. 1997a. J. Timber Engineering Report No. TE-1997-001.E. Virginia. A. R. 1954 Horizontal Plywood Diaphragm Tests. TE. and Heine.P.. California..” Proceeding: Annual SEAOC Convention. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.. Proceedings of the Workshop on Seismic Testing. and Williamson. 1997b. California. Effect of Hold Downs and Stud-Frame Systems on the Cyclic Behavior of Wood Shear Walls. 1996. Laboratory Report 63. Virginia. 11. J. Structural Engineers Association of California. TE-1997-003..D. D. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Sacramento. and Heine .. “Seismic Retrofit of an Existing Multi-Story Wood Frame Structure. Structural Engineers Association of California. II (1997 UBC) 157 . Timber Engineering Report No. Monotonic Tests of Wood Frame Shear Walls with Various Openings and Base Restraint Configurations. California University for Research in Earthquake Engineering.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Cobeen. Blacksburg. Dolan. Coil. Douglas Fir Plywood Association. 1995. J. McGraw Hill. C. Sequential Phased Displacement Test of Wood Frame Shear Walls with Corners.D.. Virginia. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.. Supplement C. Commins..P. Sequential Phased Displacement Cyclic Tests of Wood Frame Shear Walls with Various Openings and Base Restrain Configurations.1996-001. Dolan. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. TE-1997-002. CUREe. C. and Design of Wood Frame Construction. Experimental Results from Cyclic Racking Tests of Wood Shear Walls with Openings.” Reconnaissance Report.

Mendes. Structural Engineers Association of California. Natural Forest Products Association. 1997. Alabama. 1998. T. 1995. 1997b.. Sacramento.. NFPA. California. Structural Engineers Association of California. A Methodology for Seismic Design and Construction of Single-Family Dwellings. Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings. 1996. Mendes.. National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program. “Comparison of Building Analysis Assuming Rigid or Flexible Floors.C.K. International Building Code – Final Draft. Greg C. and Associates. Washington D. D.1999. II (1997 UBC) . Redwood City.. and R. Wisconsin. International Code Council. Sacramento.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Federal Emergency Management Agency. S. California. D.C. California. Forest Products Society. Birmingham. 2000. S. Madison. Foliente.” Journal of Structural Engineering. Richmond.” Proceedings: Annual SEAOC Convention. S.” Proceedings: Annual SEAOC Convention. Kazanjy. Ju. Foliente. Washington D. Washington D.. California. “Lessons Learned From Four Earthquake Damaged Multi-Story Type V Structures. Applied Technology Council. “Rigid versus Flexible: Inappropriate Assumptions Can Cause Shear Wall Failures!” Proceedings: Annual SEAOC Convention. Wood Handbook Publication FPL – GTR. Madison Wisconsin. 1994. 1991a. National Design Specification for Wood Construction. Analysis. International Code Council.A. National Forest Products Association. Earthquake Performance and Safety of Timber Structures.K.A. University of California Forest Products Laboratory.C. M. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Sandercock. “Laboratory Testing to Investigate Pneumatically Driven Box Nails for the Edge Nailing of 3/8" Plywood Shear Walls. 1999. Castle. Washington. 1976. Design and Testing of Timber Structures Under Seismic Loads. NFPA. 1999. Goers R. National Design Specification for Wood Construction. 158 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Greg C. Ficcadenti. Vol. 1987. American Society of Civil Engineers. Sacramento. and Lin. Forest Products Laboratory.113. S. .C. Structural Engineers Association of California. California.

Structural Engineers Association of California. Sacramento.Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure Rose. II (1997 UBC) 159 . Sacramento. California. D.. Guidelines for Diaphragms and Shear Walls. Inc. J. Keith. 1999.” Proceedings: Annual SEAOC Convention. Vol. “Standard of Care in Structural Engineering Wood Frame Multiple Housing. 1994. Washington. Plan Review – Codes and Practice.L.D. Steinbrugge.. Professional Engineering Development Publications. California. J. APA – Engineered Wood Association. Sacramento. 1992.. Preliminary Testing of Wood Structural Panel Shear Walls Under Cyclic (Reversed) Loading. SEAOC. E. and E. P. Sec.The Engineered Wood Association. Wood Structural Panel Shear Walls with Gypsum Wallboard and Window [ Sheathing Standard. Tacoma Washington. Sacramento. APA . Rose. Research Report 158. California. SEAOC. California. J.3. Structural Engineers Association of California. 1999. Shipp. 1998. Volumes IV and V. J. Timber Design. Seismic Detailing Examples for Engineered Light Frame Timber Construction. Structural Engineers Association of California..3 ].. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Tacoma. Structural Engineers Association of California. Huntington Beach. SEAOC. 1996.. Research Report 158. California. 2. 1997. .

II (1997 UBC) .Design Example 2 ! Wood Light Frame Three-Story Structure 160 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol.

Vol. many structural engineers routinely use the flexible diaphragm assumption. This is because the past and present California design practice in seismic design of light framed structures has almost exclusively considered flexible diaphragms assumptions when determining shear distribution to shear walls. However. Cold-formed light frame three-story structure elevation Foreword The building in this example has cold-formed light-gauge steel framing. II (1997 UBC) 161 . The application of this definition often requires the use of the rigid diaphragm assumption. and calculation of shear wall rigidities for distribution to shear walls. there has been a definition in the code (§1630. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. it does not reflect present-day practice. for reasons of simplicity and precedence. In actual practice. and shear walls and diaphragms that are sheathed with wood structural panels.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Design Example 3 Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Figure 3-1. While the latter is rigorous and complies with the letter of the code.6 of the 1997 UBC) that defines diaphragm flexibility. since the 1988 UBC. This example presents a new approach to the seismic design of this type of building.

The following steps illustrate a detailed analysis of some of the important seismic requirements of the 1997 UBC. The building in this example is the same as in Design Example 2. Vol. light-gauge) steel structure. or cantilever columns are more flexible than the rest of the shear walls. As is common for Type V construction (see UBC §606). The code also requires only one type of analysis. with the exception that light-gauge metal framing is used in lieu of wood. The roofs have composite shingles over the wood panel sheathing that is supported by light-gauge metal trusses. and roof and floor diaphragms. The analysis in this design example will use the envelope method. The structure is shown in Figures 3-2.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure A rigid diaphragm analysis is recommended where the shear walls can be judged by observation to be flexible compared to the diaphragm. II (1997 UBC) . 3-3 and 3-4. The envelope method considers the worst loading condition from both flexible and rigid diaphragm analyses to determine the design load on each shear-resisting element.e. Although code requirements recognize only two diaphragm categories. making the diaphragms significantly stiffer than that determined using the standard UBC diaphragm deflection equations. but is deemed appropriate for this design example. the diaphragms in this example are judged to be semi-rigid due to the fact that the diaphragms do deflect. flexible and rigid. this example is not a complete building design. It should be noted that the envelope method is not a code requirement. The structure has wood structural panel shear walls. The floors have 1½ inches of lightweight concrete fill and are framed with metal joists. users of this Manual should check with the local jurisdiction regarding the level of analysis required for cold-formed light framed structures. As stated in the introduction of the manual. a complete wind design is also necessary. Before beginning design. Overview This design example illustrates the seismic design of a three-story cold-formed (i. and only selected steps of the seismic design have been illustrated. flexible or rigid.. Many aspects have not been included. 162 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. and particularly where one or more lines of either shear walls. This design example has floor diaphragms with lightweight concrete fill over the floor sheathing (for sound insulation). moment frames. because neither flexible nor rigid diaphragm analysis may accurately model the structure. but is not given here.

7 Gyp ceiling 2.0 0. 9. Shear transfer at second floor on line C.5 psf ½" sheathing 1. proj. 5.41/12) = 15. Distribution of lateral forces to the shear walls. Shear transfer at roof at line C. 10 screws. 12 Design base shear and vertical distributions of seismic forces. 1. Shear transfer at foundation for walls on line C. 7. 2.5 Trusses 3. Tiedown connection at third floor for wall on line C. II (1997 UBC) 163 . 6.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Outline This example will illustrate the following parts of the design process. Rigidities of shear walls.288 sq ft SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Reliability/redundancy factor ρ. Given Information Roof weights ( slope 6:12 ): Roofing 3. Vol. Boundary studs for first floor wall on line C. 10 11.0 1. 4. 11 12.8 DL (along slope ) 13. concrete 5/8" sheathing Floor Framing Miscellaneous Gyp ceiling 1.5 Miscellaneous 0.8 5.) = 13.0 psf 14.5 (3. wt.8 25. Tiedown forces for shear wall on line C.0 psf DL (horiz.1 psf Stair landings do not have lightweight concrete fill Area of floor plan is 5. 3. Tiedown connection at the second floor for shear wall on line C. 8.5 psf Floor weights: Flooring Lt. Allowable shear and nominal strength of No.4 2. 10.5 Insulation 1.

II (1997 UBC) . floor. It should be noted that the changing stud sizes or thickness of studs at various story heights is common (as is done in wood construction). This side-by-side comparison has been done so that the engineer can have a better “feel” for the similarities and differences between structures with wood studs and structures with cold-formed metal studs. AZ50 and GF60 respectively. floor. The ratio of tensile strength to yield point is at least 1. grade 33'-4" × 18-gauge metal studs at 16 inches on center. and wall weights used in Design Example 2 are also used in this example.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Weights of respective diaphragm levels. These have a 1-5/8-inch flange with a 3/8-inch return lip. It should be noted that roof. 164 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Consequently. APA-rated wood structural panels for shear walls will be 15/32-inch-thick Structural I. including tributary exterior and interior walls: Wroof = 135.08. ASTM A653 steel is one of three ASTM steel specifications used in light frame steel construction.000 lb = 595. and zinc-5 percent aluminum (A875) respectively. The thickness of studs and tracks should be identified by visible means such as coloring or metal stamping of gauges/sizes on studs and tracks. This has been done to better illustrate a side-by-side comparison of cold-formed light-gauge steel construction with the more traditional wood frame construction used in Design Example 2. The difference between the specifications are primarily the coatings which are galvanized. It should be noted that the studs do not require painting with primer. Wall framing is ASTM A653. 5-ply with Exposure I glue is specified. wall shears and overturning forces would be reduced accordingly. however 4-ply is also acceptable. 55 percent aluminum-zinc (A792). Vol. Weights of diaphragms are typically determined by taking one-half height of walls at the third floor to the roof and full height of walls for the third and second floors diaphragms. and wall weights for light-gauge steel framed structures are typically lighter than similar structures constructed of wood framing. 32/16-span rating. The others are A792 and A875.000 lb W2 nd floor = 230. a more accurate estimate of building weight for this structure would be about 560 kips instead of the 595 kips used in this example.000 lb The same roof. Because of light-gauge steel framed structures being lighter. Studs are painted with primer.000 lb W3rd floor = 230. The recommended minimum coating classifications are G60.

as required by footnote 2 of Table 22-VIII-C of the UBC.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Framing screws are No. Seismic and site data: Z = 0.0 (standard occupancy) Seismic source type = B Distance to seismic source = 12 km Soil profile type = S C S C has been determined by geotechnical investigation. The floor is 19/32-inch thick APA-rated Sturd-I-Floor 24" o/c rating (or APA-rated sheathing. 32/16-span rating with Exposure I glue. The roof is 15/32-inch thick APA-rated sheathing. Vol. 8 by 5/8-inch wafer head self-drilling with a minimum head diameter of 0. S D can be used as a default value. Table 16-I Table 16-K SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.4 (Zone 4) I = 1. Without a geotechnical investigation. 48/24-span rating) with Exposure I glue. II (1997 UBC) 165 .292-inch.

II (1997 UBC) . Foundation plan (ground floor) 166 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Figure 3-2. Vol.

Figure 3-3.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Note: Shear walls on lines 2 and 3 do not extend from the third floor to the roof. Floor framing plan (second and third floors) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol. II (1997 UBC) 167 .

Roof framing plan 168 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) . Vol.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Figure 3-4.

II (1997 UBC) .and 18-gauge studs would be acceptable for attaching sheathing with #8 screws.and 16-gauges and placed a limitation of 0. and are used in this example (Table 3-1). The industry has gone away from the use of the gauge designation and is.11 of the 1994 UBC relating to seismic design. The tables for shear walls (Tables 22-VIII-A. Subsequent to the code change proposal. Since the UBC is no longer referencing gauge.3 of Division VIII states that the uncoated base metal thickness for the studs used with wood structural panels shall not be greater than 0.033-inch) studs. Division VIII has provisions for both wind and seismic forces for shear walls with wood structural panels framed with cold-formed steel studs.043-inch thickness was intended to be a nominal thickness.0451-inch thickness.043-inch. Vol. and AISI agreed.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Factors That Influence Design Requirements for seismic design of cold-formed steel stud wall systems are specified in Division VIII of the UBC. which can not support a significant bearing or out-of-plane loading. Thus. The 0. The SEAOC Seismology Committee felt. the 0. this implies that the heaviest gauge studs that can be used are 20-gauge studs. Section 2220. Division VIII is a new addition to the UBC and it contains information previously found in §2211. Before starting the example. switching to a mil (thousandths of an inch) 169 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. AISI has modified this limitation by taking the average thickness between the old 18.043-inch thickness represents 95 percent of the design thickness and is the minimum acceptable thickness delivered to the job site for 18-gauge material based on Section A3. several important aspects of cold-formed construction will be discussed. for the purposes of framing applications.4 of the 1996 AISI Code. that there should be a cap on the maximum thickness permitted until testing could be performed on thicker studs.043-inch in the AISI code. 22-VIII-B and 22-VIII-C) are primarily based on static and cyclic tests conducted by the Light-gauge Steel Research Group at the Santa Clara University Engineering Center for the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Since an 18-gauge stud has 0. 18-gauge studs can be used. At the time the code change proposal by AISI was submitted to ICBO for inclusion in the 1997 UBC. These are: Stud thickness Screw type Material strength Use of pre-manufactured roof trusses to transfer lateral forces Proper detailing of shear walls at building “pop-outs” AISI Specification for design of cold-formed steel Stud thickness. It was felt at the time that limiting the system to 20. testing had been performed on only 33 mil (0.

Design Thickness 0. For ASD. Self-piercing screws can also be used in 170 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.and 14-gauge studs in an attempt to come up with a fastening system that will be ductile. and track will have their thickness expressed in mils.0566 inch Gauge Reference 20 18 16 The reason for the limitation on maximum stud thickness of 43 mils (18-gauge) is for ductility.55)=1.043 inch 54 0. The values in Table 22-VIII-C for 15/32-inch Structural I sheathing using No.033 inch 43 0.375 times higher than shears for ASD or working stress design. The reason for the self-drilling screws (or drill point screws) is to be able to penetrate 43-mil steel and thicker steel.55. Table 3-1. studs. This is consistent with the ASD conversion factor of 1. Vol. For LRFD the design shear values are determined by multiplying the nominal shear values by a resistance factor (φ) of 0.0346 inch 0. Values are to be modified for both allowable stress design (ASD) and load and resistance factor design (LRFD or strength design). At the time of this publication (March 2000). Stud thicknesses Mils Min.054 inch Min. the cyclic tests to date of wood structural panels fastened to 16. joists. Cyclic tests for the 20. the assemblies have been retested using 43 mil end studs.3. The values in Table 22-VIII-C are for seismic forces and are nominal shear values.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure designation. and higher capacities have been proposed for such assemblies. II (1997 UBC) .0451 inch 0.4 in §1612.5(0. the allowable shear values are determined by dividing the nominal shear values by a factor of safety (Ω) of 2. Footnote 2 of UBC Table 22-VIII-C requires the framing screws to be self-drilling. In other words. Comparing the difference to the two designs: 2.375.and 14-gauge studs with screws have shown nonductile (brittle) failures with the screws shearing off at the face of the stud flange.and 18-gauge studs resulted in ductile behavior with the screw fasteners rocking (tilting) about the plane of the stud flange. design shears for LRFD (or strength design) are 1. Screw type. 8 screws are almost identical to the values for the same sheathing applied to Douglas Fir with 8d common nails at the same spacing. Subsequent to the code change proposal included in the 1997 UBC. The failure mode of the tests with 33-mil studs for screw spacings of 3 inches and 2 inches on center was end stud compression failure.5. In the future. Tests are still being conducted by AISI and other organizations on wall systems using the thicker 16. Delivered Thickness 33 0.

000 psi. but with some difficulty.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure 33-mil steel. If ridge vents are being used. II (1997 UBC) 171 . the means by which the forces are applied to the trusses. clips and tiedown devices). the lateral forces to be resisted by the end jacks should be specified so that an appropriate connection can be provided to resist these forces. The drill point alone will not prevent jacking. Only a blank shaft (i. The magnitude of the forces.g. Jacking occurs when the drill point spins for a rotation or two before the drill point pierces the metal. drag struts) should be clearly indicated on the structural framing plan. If the roof sheathing at the hip ends breaks above the joint between the end jack trusses and the supporting girder truss. for 18-gauge and lighter. The structural design in this design example utilizes pre-manufactured roof trusses to transfer the lateral forces from the roof diaphragm to the tops of the interior shear walls. 3.000 psi. 4. smooth with no threads) for the depth of the sheathing will remove the jacking created by the drill point spin prior to piercing.. Special considerations need to be included in the design and detailed on the plans for this including: 1.. 33.e. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. The “unused portion” of the screw protruding from the connection of sheathing and metal stud can be used as a simple inspection gauge to see if jacking has occurred. The drawings should also specify the load combinations and whether or not a stress increase is permitted. the stiffness of the shear wall is significantly reduced. 5. There is a significant concern in screw installation when there is a gap between the stud flange and the sheathing after installation (e. 2. special detailing for shear transfers need to be indicated in the details. jacking). but not for manufactured hardware (straps. A detailed drawing or explicit specifications should be included in the design drawings and should specify that the distance from the screw head to the beginning of the thread portion be equal to or less than the thickness of the plywood or OSB (oriented strand board). Both self-drilling and self-piercing screws have performed equally well in the shear tests. and how the forces are transferred from the trusses to the shear walls should be shown. Common practice is for material 16-gauge and heavier to have a yield strength of 50. When jacking occurs. Vol. Provision that any trusses used as collectors (i. Use of pre-manufactured roof trusses to transfer lateral forces.e. This practice holds true for studs and track. Material strength.

§1630. AISI Specification for design of cold-formed steel. exterior “planted-on” box columns (pop-outs). 1a Design base shear and vertical distributions of seismic forces. ” The structure for this design example has double framed walls for party walls. Some sections of the 1996 sections have been used for the solution of this design example. Period using Method A (See Figure 3-5 for section through structure): T = Ct (hn )3 / 4 = .2. The code uses the 1986 version of AISC Specification for Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members as an adopted “Standard” by reference (UBC §2217). Calculations and Discussion Code Reference 1. Vol. These for the most part are from the 1996 version of the manual.28 sec With seismic source type B and distance to source = 12 km N a = 1.0 N v = 1.020(33. The designer should not consider these walls as shear walls unless special detailing and analysis is provided to substantiate that there is a viable lateral force path to that wall and the wall is adequately braced. II (1997 UBC) .0 Table 16-S Table 16-T (30-8) 172 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Section 2218 amends the 1986 manual.2 Design base shear. 1a.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Proper detailing of shear walls at building “pop-outs.63)3 / 4 = 0.

0 ) = 0.56(1.40 C v = 0.40(1.5(0. II (1997 UBC) 173 .40 N a = 0.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Figure 3-5.4 C a = 0.5 Design base shear is: V = Cv I 0. Typical cross section through building For soil profile type S C and Z = 0.56(1.56 Since the stud walls are both wood structural panel shear walls and bearing walls: R = 5.28) RT (30-4) Table 16-N Table 16-Q Table 16-R SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.364W W = 5.0 ) = 0. Vol.0 ) W = 0.56 N v = 0.

ASD F v = x = ASD 1. This Design Example uses the following format: Vbase shear = strength F px = strength Fx = force-to-wall strength v = wall shear at element level . but need not exceed: V= 2.4 × 1. It is desirable to use the strength level forces throughout the design of the structure for two reasons: 1.0 E h + 0 = 1.0)W = 0. when the code will be all strength design.290 lb In this Design Example.0 × 1.044W < 0.40 )(1.11C a IW = 0. Errors in calculations can occur and confusion on which load is being used.182W R 5.5 V = 0.182 (595.3. Vol.0) W= W = 0.0 E h §1612. allowable strength design must be used. II (1997 UBC) .Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Note that design base shear is now on a strength design basis. E = ρE h + E v = 1. In Design Example 2.5 (0.182W Check Equation 30-7: V= 0.1 (30-1) 174 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.5 (30-5) V = 0.5C a I 2.8ZN v I 0. This design example is not paving the way for the future.40 )(1.0 W= W = 0.058W < 0.8 × 0. strength or allowable stress design.182W ∴V = 0.000 lbs ) = 108. however.182W R 5.11 (0. the designer may choose either allowable stress design or strength design.4b 2.

Vol.4 (12-9) For vertical downward: D+ E E or D + 0. The design base shear must be distributed to each level. This is done later in Part 4.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure where: E v is permitted to be taken as zero for allowable stress design and initially ρ will be assumed to be 1.75 L + (Lr or S ) + 1. II (1997 UBC) 175 . as follows: F px = (V − Ft )wx hx ∑ wi hi i =1 n (30-15) Where h x is the average height at level i of the sheathed diaphragm in feet above the base.0 for Type V construction with interior shear walls. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.4 1.7 seconds. 12-11) For vertical uplift: 0.4 1. and in most cases ρ = 1. Since the maximum element story shear is not yet known.4 1.4 (12-10.9 D ± E 1. Since T = 0.4 (12-10) 1b. Ft = 0 Determination of F px is shown in Table 3-2.0.28 seconds < 0. The basic load combination for allowable stress design for horizontal forces is: D+ E E E = 0+ = 1. 1b Vertical distribution of forces. the assumed value for ρ will have to be verified.

can be used with somewhat reasonable results.5 = 312 plf . In this example.5 42.4 wx hx (k-ft) 4.3 Note: Although not shown here.50 in.347 2. the measured deflection was 0. 2. Vol. Tests have indicated that measured deflections are partially dependent on the stiffness of the studs used.5 F px (k) 44.6 18. as tested EAb Gt b §23.045 w x hx (%) ∑ wi hi 41.5 87.9 9. 3 176 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 4-inch × 18-gauge studs are used.40 in.536 4.186 0. Using this table would give an allowable shear of 780 2. The shear panel test results should not be compared to the nominal shear values from UBC Table 22-VIII-C. Vertical distribution of seismic forces Level Roof 3rd Floor 2nd Floor Σ w x (k) 135 230 230 595 h x (ft) 33. Vol. 3 is shown below: ∆= 8vh 3 vh h + + 0.223. Vol.1 39.75hen + d a = 0.7 21. Deflection using the formula of UBC standard §23.2 108. Given below is a comparison of results from shear panel tests conducted by the Light-gauge Steel Research Group and those determined using the UBC formula. This does not mean that the deflections.223. The formula in UBC Standard §23. there is not a UBC formula.092 Ftot (k) 44. ≈ 0.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Table 3-2. designers must also check wind loading. 2a Rigidities of shear walls. II (1997 UBC) .3 F px wx 0. drifts. This panel test is used only to show the relationship of the measured deflection with results using the UBC formula. wind load may control the design in the east-west direction. 2a.162 11. At the time of this publication.330 0. nor any accepted guideline.5 inch. For an 8 ft × 8 ft test panel with 15/32-inch APA-rated sheathing and #8 screw fasteners at 6-inch spacing to 3½-inch x 20-gauge studs and 485 pounds per foot shear.1 108. 3. for determining the deflection for a diaphragm or shear wall framed with metal studs and structural wood panels.223. and shear wall rigidities need not be considered (though some engineers may argue otherwise).4 19. Vol. Deflection of panel assemblies with metal studs. In this Design Example 3.

this example uses wall rigidities based on the chart in Figure 3-6.000 psi t = 0 . II (1997 UBC) . 2b Calculation of shear wall rigidities. 298 in.2(242 769 )3. shrinkage is zero.0625 in (assumed at 1 16 in. and second floor are shown in Figures 3-3. Vol. 3 2b.) Table 23-2-J. The chart in Figure 3-6 uses a tiedown displacement (e. 3 Table 23-2-H.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure where: v = 485 plf h = 8 ft E = 29 × 10 6 psi A = 0.2 for 3 1 2 . 3-4. Vn = load per screw = (485)6 12 = 242 lb/screw en = 1. and 3-5. b = 8 ft d a = 0. elongation) of 1/8 inch. With metal framing.0272 in.. Vol. F = k∆ or k= F ∆ To simplify the calculations compared to the more rigorous approach used in Design Example 2. Actual determinations of shear wall rigidities at the roof. Vol.276 = 0.223. In this Design Example 3. It should be noted that Design Example 2 considered wood shrinkage and tiedown displacements.inch × 20 gauge stud G = 90. which is based on judgment and considered appropriate for this structure. respectively.250 in. shear wall rigidities (k) are computed using the basic stiffness equation. third floor. 177 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. This Design Example also assumes a fixed base and pinned top for all shear walls. This chart is based on the shear wall deflection equation given in UBC Standard §23.g.

033) 30.033) e n =0.0 Stiffness K (kips/in. Stiffness of one-story Structural-I 15/32-inch plywood shear walls 178 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 K = stiffness = F/d = (Vb )/d 70.75he n + d a [A1] h = 8 ft Where: E = modulus of elasticity = 1.c. edge nail spacing at 4” o. edge nail spacing at 6” o.033) e n =0.c.25 in.024) e n =0.0 10.) 50. e n = nail deformation slip (in.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure 80. (v=870 plf.c.0 20.0 [C2] h = 10 ft [D1] h = 8 ft [D2] h = 10 [A] [B] [C] [D] edge nail spacing at 2” o. II (1997 UBC) . A = area of end post = 12.0 d = deflection =(8vh 3)/(EAb ) +(vh )/(Gt ) + 0. (v=510 plf. (v=340 plf.c.2 v = shear/foot d a = slip at hold down = 1/8 in.0 0 5 10 15 20 Wall Depth b (ft) 25 30 35 40 Figure 3-6.8x106 psi G = shear modulus = 90x103 psi h = wall height (ft) b = wall depth (ft) t = plywood thickness = 15/32 in. Vol.0 [A2] h = 10 [B1] h = 8 ft [B2] h = 10 ft [C1] h = 8 ft 40. (v=665 plf. e n =0. edge nail spacing at 3” o.0 0.) F = applied force = Vb (kips) 60.

0 8. 4c 1d.0 — — 30.5 — 21.0 46.0 — — 30.0 10.5 15.0 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.5 8.0 15.0 — 12.0 6.0 8.0 7.0 k total (k/in. 4a 1b.) 8. II (1997 UBC) 179 .0 — — 15. Shear wall rigidities at roof level Wall Depth Edge Fastener k (From Fig. 4d 1e.0 14.0 11.0 — — — — — — 46.0 15. 4 12.5 11.0 15.0 11.0 15. 4b 1c.5 7.5 15.5 — 11.0 7.0 30.5 21.0 — — 30.0 — 21.0 15.0 11. Vol.) b (ft) 6) (k/in.0 — — 15.0 30.) A B1 B2 B C1 C2 C E1 E2 E F1 F2 F G1 G2 G H 1a.5 — 21.5 11.0 8.0 8. 3— Wall Spacing (in.5 21.0 6.0 15.0 — 6 6 6 — 6 6 — 6 6 — 6 6 — 6 6 — 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 — 8.5 7. 4e 1f. 4f 1.5 21.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Table 3-3.5 11.0 8.0 30.5 8.

0 — — 38.5 21. Shear wall rigidities at third floor Wall A B1 B2 B C1 C2 C E1 E2 E F1 F2 F G1 G2 G H 1a.0 10.5 — 11.0 19.5 8.5 21.) 8.0 38.0 20. 4f 1.0 — — 20. 4d 1e. 3c 2. 3-6) (k/in.5 — 21. 4a 1b.0 8.0 19.0 18.0 — — 38.0 14. Vol.0 k total (k/in.0 11.0 19.0 11.0 10. 4c 1d.) 6 4 4 — 4 4 — 4 4 — 4 4 — 4 4 — 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 — 6 6 6 — k (From Fig.5 — 21.0 10.0 7.0 — — — 39.0 38.5 11.0 19.0 — — 38.0 38.0 19.0 — 12.5 11.0 10.0 10. 3 Wall Depth 12.0 — 18.0 20.0 12.5 21.0 10.0 — — 20. 4e 1f. 3b 2c.) 8.0 8. 3a 2b.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Table 3-4.0 7.0 10.0 12.0 56.0 19. II (1997 UBC) .0 39.0 11.0 180 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.5 11.5 8. 4b 1c.0 15.0 12.0 — b (ft) Edge Fastener Spacing (in.0 — — — — — — 56.0 — 21.0 24. 4 2a.

5 11.5 22.0 — — 22.0 15.0 11.0 11.0 2c.) 8. Vol.5 8. 3a 2b.3 for allowable stress design.0 22.5 45.0 22.5 21.0 k total (k/in.0 — — 45.) 6 3 3 — 3 3 — 3 3 — 3 3 — 3 3 — 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 — 6 6 6 — k (From Fig. 3-6) (k/in.5 11.0 — 21. the UBC now requires building drifts to be determined by the load combinations of §1612. 4 2a.0 — — 22.2.0 12. or LRFD.0 12. §1630.0 11. 3c 2.0 10.5 45. 4c 1d.0 11.0 56. 4f 1.5 45.0 — b Edge Fastener Spacing (in.5 21. An errata for the second and third printing of the UBC unexplainably referenced §1612.0 10.0 14.0 — 12.0 — — — — — — 56.0 11. Shear wall rigidities at second floor Wall A B1 B2 B C1 C2 C E1 E2 E F1 F2 F G1 G2 G H 1a. Shear wall displacements for a structures of this type (generally) are well below the maximum allowed by code and the computation of these displacements is 181 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 8.0 — — — 39.0 8. II (1997 UBC) .0 10.9.5 — 21.0 22.0 39.0 — — 45.5 22. 4b 1c.0 12.0 — — 45. 3b 2c.0 18.1 For both strength and allowable stress design.2 (Strength Design) in the fourth and later printings. 3 Wall Depth (ft) 12. 4e 1f. 4d 1e. The reference to §1612.5 8.0 22.0 24.0 — 18.5 — 21.0 7. 2c Determination of the design level displacement ∆s.0 11.0 7.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Table 3-5.0 11.0 22. 4a 1b.5 — 11.5 22.) 8.5 11.3 (Allowable Stress Design) is incorrect and will be changed back to reference §1612. these being the load combinations that use strength design.5 21.

It has been common practice for engineers to assume flexible diaphragms and distribute loads to shear walls based upon tributary areas. T = Fe F = story shear e = eccentricity 182 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. §1630.7 requires the most severe load combination to be considered and also permits the negative torsional shear to be subtracted from the direct load shear.6 requires the center of mass (CM) to be displaced from the calculated center of mass a distance of 5 percent of the building dimension at that level perpendicular to the direction of force. (Refer to Design Example 2 for a code confirmation of the applicability of this assumption). The net effect of this is to add 5 percent accidental eccentricity to the actual eccentricity. shear wall) to the center of rigidity (CR). Vol. Refer to Design Example 2 for an illustration of this procedure. II (1997 UBC) . story shears are distributed to shear walls with the diaphragms assumed to be rigid.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure considered not necessary. The procedures used in this Design Example 3 are not intended to imply that seismic design of light frame construction in the past should have been performed in this manner. Knowledge of the increased drifts of short wood panel shear walls has increased the need for the engineer to consider relative rigidities of shear walls. 3.g. Section 1630. Recent earthquakes and testing of wood panel shear walls have indicated that drifts can be considerably higher than what was known or assumed in the past. The direct shear force Fvi in wall i is determined from: Fvi = F R ∑R and the torsional shear force Fti in wall i is determined from: Fti = T Ri d i J where: i = wall number J = ΣRd x 2 + ΣRd y 2 R = shear wall rigidity d = distance from the lateral resisting element (e. Section 1630.6 In this part.. Distribution of lateral forces to the shear walls.

Vol.8 ft or 52. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.5 = 9.0 (0 ) ∴ yr = 7.0 + 30.5 ft 136.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure 3a.0 = 58. Note that in this Design Example. Forces in the east-west (x) direction: yr = ∑ k xx y ∑ k xx or y r = ∑ k xx = ∑ k xx y Using the rigidity values k from Table 3-3 and the distance y from line H to the shear wall: y (8.0 + 30.2 ft The total eccentricity is the distance between the displaced center of mass and the center of rigidity y r = 54.0 (116) + 15.0 + 15. 3a Determine center of rigidity.0 ) = 8.05)(116 ft ) = ±5. e' y = (0. e' y .0 (82.0 ft ± 5.5 = − 2.0 ) + 8. eccentricities for roof diaphragm.0 + 15.8 ft = 63.0 (50.0 ) + 15.0) + 30.0 (10. displacing the center of mass 5 percent can result in the CM being on either side of the CR and can produce added torsional shears to all walls. II (1997 UBC) 183 .3 ft Note that the distance is slightly different than in Design Example 2.0 (26.0 (106) + 30. is computed from the length of the structure perpendicular to the applied story force.408 = 54.0 + 30.2 − 54.5 ft ∴ e y = 63. center of mass.8 − 54.3 ft or 52.0 + 8.8 ft The y m to the displaced CM = 58.0 The building is symmetrical about the x-axis and the center of mass is determined as: ym = 116.0 ft 2 The minimum 5 percent accidental eccentricity for east-west forces.0) + 30.

The contents-to-structure weight ratio can be higher in light framed structures than in heavier types of construction. e x = e′ x ∴ e x = 2. Forces in the north-south (y) direction: The building is symmetrical about the y-axis. II (1997 UBC) .4 ft Because the CM and CR locations coincide. the location of the calculated center of rigidity is less reliable for light framed structures than for other structural systems.05)(48 ft ) = ±2.4 ft or − 2. e' x = (0.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Note that the 5 percent may not be conservative. the distance to the CM and CR is xm = 48. Use engineering judgment when selecting the eccentricity e . Therefore. Vol.4 ft 184 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Also.0 ft 2 min.0 = 24.

Center of rigidity and location of displaced centers of mass for diaphragms SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol. II (1997 UBC) 185 .Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Figure 3-7.

815 4.618 44.500 lb (2.500 lb (2.500 22.5 28. when the forces are reversed then the torsional forces will be additive. As required by the UBC.724 A B C E F G H Σ North-South 1 4 8.205 5.lb Since the building is symmetrical for forces in the north-south direction. The total shears on the walls at the roof level are the direct shears Fv and the shears due to torsion (combined actual and accidental torsion) Fti .338 9. Torsion on the roof diaphragm is computed as follows: T x = Fe y = 44. However. B.3 ft ) = 102. and H T y = Fe x = 44.817 22.496 52. II (1997 UBC) .500 lb (9.500 East-West Σ Σ 186 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.5 27.850 ft . F.3 ft ) = 413. The critical force is then used for the design of these walls.368 29.250 44.5 825.0 135. the torsional forces can be subtracted for those walls located on the opposite side from the displaced center of mass.0 855.496 26.0 -24.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure 3b.992 224.800 ft .910 9.336 11.0 30.5 436. and C or T x = 44.lb for walls E.688 608 24.164 2. 3b Determine total shears on walls at roof level.350 ft .0 667.910 2.0 15.5 54. Table 3-6 summarizes the spreadsheet for determining combined forces on the roof level walls.776 21.815 9.104 30.0 772.0 136. Vol.877 10.617 4.lb for walls A. Distribution of forces to shear walls below the roof level Direct Force 2 Ry dy Rx dx Wall Rd Rd Fv Torsional Force Ft +908 +1.0 92.258 39.0 30.172 26.815 9.0 8.250 22. G.0 30.762 171.0 61.0 1.215 2.0 46.104 -1.5 51.0 24.525 6.5 492.784 22.426 +1.5 4.4 ft ) = 106.0 46. the larger values are used in this Design Example. Table 3-6.704 23.0 15.5 44.523 +62 +390 +305 +199 +526 -526 Total Force Fv + Ft 3.

700) = 87.0 56.900 17. F.116 +126 +798 +656 +329 +1.lb for walls A.5 28.492 19. Vol.0 39.043 4.0 38.900 25.734 17.5 27.960 ft .034 +76 -76 -1.3 ft ) = 810.433 26.lb Results for the third floor are summarized in Table 3-7.043 32.104 87. center of mass. II (1997 UBC) 187 .000 272. Torsion on the third floor diaphragm is: F = (44. 3c Determine center of rigidity.700 17.0 170.0 24 2. Distribution of forces to shear walls below the third floor level Direct Ry dy Rx dx Wall Rd Rd 2 Force F v A B C E F G H 8.200 lb (9. Table 3-7.500 + 42.280 ft .467 +3.865 39.034 Total Force Fv + Ft 5.258 53.329 22. and C or 87.605 23. it can be assumed that the center of rigidity for the third floor and the second floor diaphragms will coincide with the center of rigidity of the roof diaphragm.0 39.5 -2. and eccentricities for the third floor diaphragm.5 44. and H T y = Fe x = 87.5 -97.256 65.5 51.0 38.258 4.0 20.344 97.4 ft ) = 209. Since the walls stack with uniform fasteners.914 4.5 492 1030 1045 171 1083 890 436 1.618 20.0 38.0 8.045 28.344 30.200 25.762 207.560 ft .5 -24 61.492 19.200 Torsional Force Ft +1.104 10.608 19.290 10.571 13.200 lb T x = Fe y = 87.492 10.0 20.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure 3c.200 lb (2.700 87.0 56.5 4.666 East-West North-South Σ 1 2 3 4 Σ Σ SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. G.976 17.5 54.3 ft ) = 200. B.lb for walls E.071 +3.738 770 30.200 lb (2.256 244 244 32.258 19.824 24.0 190.5 -1.

lb for walls E. Torsion on the second floor diaphragm is. and H T y = Fe x = 108.4 ft ) = 259.258 4.256 31.725 190.3 ft ) = 249.920 ft .230 -87 22.992 +1. Vol.344 32. Table 3-8.090 ft .5 1.5 1.lb for walls A.143 4 56.428 108.695 6.344 32. II (1997 UBC) .5 436 23.300 Σ 1 56. 3d Determine center of rigidity.218 +3.0 -24. center of mass.218 +834 13.238 34.565 12. F.119 C 45 27.133 58.5 492 30.551 24.283 36.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure 3d.5 97.230 +87 22.815 195 227.255 E 45 4.3 ft ) = 1.500 + 42.300 lb T x = Fe y = 108.0 -2.350 12.115 2 39.0 -1.992 +172 25.317 3 39.0 65.300 lb (2.031 24. F = (44. B.164 F 45 28.762 4.5 244 22.007.300 Σ 292.000 108.920 +1.428 Σ North-South East-West 188 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.052 H 8 54.5 979 43.263 29.195 33. and C or 108.300 lb (2.920 -1. G.100) = 108.5 -97.093 26.444 +371 4. and eccentricities for the second floor diaphragm.139 B 22 51.085 G 22 44.0 1.700 + 21.0 +2.901 16.444 +1.300 lb (9.lb Results for the second floor are summarized in Table 3-8.195 30. Distribution of forces to shear walls below second floor level Torsional Total Force Direct Ry dy dx Wall R x Rd Rd 2 Force Fv Force Ft Fv + Ft A 8 61.0 +24.992 +4.190 ft .5 203 911 24.5 1.256 31.5 244 22.

750 17.215 2.0 340 22. rigid diaphragm results.734 17.0 205 43.205 5.645 31.5 410 Plywood 1 or 2 sides 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Allowable Shear(1) (plf) 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 400 400 400 400 400 310 400 310 310 400 310 585 585 585 585 585 310 400 310 310 400 Edge Nail Spacing (in.0 265 60.5 205 22.5 165 64.255 25.115(4) (plf) Roof Level 12.805 12.160 15.914 4.329 22.776 22.5 275 64.0 370 43.976(4) 26.) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6(2) 4(2) 4 4 4 4 6 4 6 6 4 6(2) 3 3 3 3 3 6 4(2) 6 6 4(2) Notes: SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.618 20.305 22.877 10. These determinations should be checked for results of the rigid diaphragm analysis and adjusted if necessary (also shown in Table 3-9).5 410 60.0 190 43.430 6.525 6.5 320 22.0 355 12.433 26.830 9. Fastener requirements were established in Part 2 in Design Example 2.525 19. Table 3-9.338 9.317(4) 33.5 350 22.525 27. Comparison of loads on shear walls using flexible versus rigid diaphragm results and recheck of wall fastening Wall F flexible (lbs) (3) Frigid (lbs) Rigid/ Flexible ratio +147% +1% 0% -13% +26% +11% +97% +2% -2% +99% +8% +2% -11% +28% +19% +58% -16% +54% +54% -16% +77% +5% +6% -9% +33% +15% +38% -10% +28% +28% -10% b (ft) v= Fmax (b )1.0 460 43.280 27.135 2.734(4) 6.336 11.290 10.4 A B C E F G H 1 4 A B C E F G H 1 2 3 4 A B C E F G H 1 2 3 4 1.400 36.317 22.0 525 43.645 11.805 31.0 435 43.280 11.0 375 43.250 2.119 29.955 3.608 19.0 170 22. Vol.250 22.776(4) 5.5 355 Second Floor 12.817 22.080 4.660 1.164 26.750 3.160 22.310 8.0 265 64.310 11. II (1997 UBC) 189 .0 215 64.815 33.115 22.955 11.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure 3e.5 255 64.571 13.0 215 60.0 435 22.085 13.485 36.0 190 43.052 4.0 485 43. 3e Comparison of flexible vs.5 355 60.485 15.660 11.976 17. Table 3-9 summarizes wall forces determined under the separate flexible and rigid diaphragm analysis.5 255 64.0 425 12.139 16.345 3.0 170 12.430 22.5 255 Third Floor 12.400 17.

4.1. Reliability/redundancy factor ρ. the wall with the largest shear per foot at or below two-thirds the height of the building. Part 1.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure 1. Vol. Comment: Wall rigidities used in this analysis are approximate. the ground level and the second level. In this Design Example. and areas over doors and windows. This rigid diaphragm analysis method indicates that some lateral resisting elements can attract significantly higher seismic demands than those determined under tributary area analysis methods. The reliability/redundancy factor penalizes lateral force resisting systems without adequate redundancy. 3. The total lateral load in the wall is multiplied by 10 l w and divided by the story shear. During an earthquake. See also discussion about building weight for the two example problems. drywall walls not considered. some low stressed walls may maintain their stiffness and others may degrade in stiffness.288 sq ft 190 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. For shear walls. ri = Vmax (10 l w ) F AB = 5.1.5. Forces taken from Design Example 2. or in the case of a three-story building. l w = length of wall in feet AB is the ground floor area of the structure.1. the reliability/redundancy factor was previously assumed to be ρ = 1. Allowable shears are determined from UBC Table 22-VIII-C for 15/32-inch Structural I sheathing using nominal shear values divided by factor of safety (Ω ) of 2. See the SEAOC Blue Book Commentary §C105.0. 4. This will now be checked: ρ = 2− 20 rmax AB (30-3) where: rmax = the maximum element-story shear ratio. Designates the force used was the higher force for the same wall at the opposite side of the structure. 2. Sheathing may by either plywood or oriented stand board (OSB). Screw spacing needs to be decreased from that required for Design Example 2 forces. It must be understood that the method of analyzing a structure using rigid diaphragms takes significantly more engineering effort. Some walls and their collectors may attract significantly more lateral load than anticipated in either a flexible or rigid diaphragm analysis. II (1997 UBC) . The initial rigidity R can be significantly higher than estimated due to the stiffening effects of stucco.

068 5.k.5 64. II (1997 UBC) 191 .5) 108.2 < 1.0 < 1.0 minimum o.750 × 11. there is no increase in base shear due to lack of reliability/redundancy.053 5.300 = 0. For north-south direction: Using strength level forces for walls 1 and 4: Load to wall: 36.550 lbs ri = (6.5)(10 11.0 Therefore.300 20 0. ∴ ρ = 1. For east-west direction: Using strength level forces for wall B: Vmax = 16.5 = 6.k.053 ρ = 2− = −3.068 ρ = 2− = −2.053 Note that this is the same as using the whole wall.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure For ground level.750)(10 64. ri = (16.550)(10 11. ∴ ρ = 1.5) 108. Vol.119 lb applied to 2 walls.288 = 0.0 minimum o.300 20 0. ri = (36.119 × 0.288 = 0.0 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0) 108.

200 20 0. The SEAOC Seismology Committee added the sentence “The value of the ratio of 10 l w need not be taken as greater than 1.8 < 1.955)(10 64.0) 87. ∴ ρ = 1. For east-west direction: Using strength-level forces for wall B: rmax = (13.5) 87.0 minimum o.057 ρ = 2− = −2. 192 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.288 = 0.069 5. For north-south direction: Using strength-level forces for walls 1 and 4: rmax = (31.200 20 0.k.288 = 0. there is no increase in base shear due to lack of reliability/redundancy. II (1997 UBC) . there is no increase in base shear required due to lack of reliability/redundancy.0” in the 1999 Blue Book—which will not penalize longer walls. but in this Design Example has no effect.9 < 1.069 ρ = 2− = −1.k.0 Therefore. ∴ ρ = 1. for both directions.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure For second level.0 Therefore. Vol.0 minimum o.329 )(10 11.057 5.

forces from Table 3-7 must be divided by two. Since there are two identical shear walls on line C.635 lb Fsec ond = (29.2 Determination of tiedown forces. 5a Tiedown forces for the shear wall at line C.255 − 22. tiedown forces for the three-story shear wall on line C (Figure 3-8) are determined.8 bearing wall system Table 16-N Figure 3-8. In this step. Vol.338 2 = 5. Froof = 11. Note that forces are on strength design basis.324 lb Ω o = 2. Typical shear wall C elevation SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 5a.608) 2 = 3. Computation of story forces for one of the two walls is shown below. II (1997 UBC) 193 .338) 2 = 5.608 − 11.669 lb/wall (two walls on line C) Fthird = (22. §2220. Tiedowns are required to resist the uplift tendency of shear walls caused by overturning moments.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure 5.

755 23. This is shown below.315 35.5 ft − 2(0. Calculations are facilitated by use of a spreadsheet.375 Roof Third Second Notes: 1.330 429. II (1997 UBC) .115 815.0 ft The resisting moment M R is determined from the following dead loads: wroof = 13.33 ft ) = 18. Vol.25 ft d = the distance between centroids of the tiedowns and the boundary studs.85M R (ft-lb) 19. d = 21.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure The distance between the centroid of the boundary forces that represent the overturning moment at each level must be estimated.25 ft ) = 21. Tiedown forces for shear wall C Level M OT (ft-lb) 46.85M R d (1. Table 3-10. e = the distance to the center of tiedown and boundary studs or collectors studs (Figure 3-10) e = 3 in.. Note that it is also considered acceptable to use the distance from the end of the shear wall to the centroid of the tiedown.33 ft ) = 33.9 factor of §1612.695 69. Table 3-10 summarizes the tiedown (i. uplift) forces for the shear walls on line C.85M R (1) Ω o M OT − 0.5 psf (1.525 Ω o M OT − 0.025 0.080 25.0 plf w floor = 25.255 291. = 0.5.580 82.0 psf (1.665 44.545 153.1 is different from the 0.4.275 18.770 13. 194 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 plf wwall = 10.720 Strength Uplift ASD Uplift d (lbs) 5.340 Ω o M OT M (ft-lb) R (ft-lb) 130.0 plf Overturning resisting moments are determined from simple statics.4 ) (lbs) 3. The 0.135 52.85 dead load factor of §2213.e.

3. Allowable shear and nominal shear strength of No.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure 5b. The basic load combinations of §1612. §2220 is used. The first is to use the values established in an ICBO Evaluation Report with appropriate conversion to strength design. Tiedown connections for the line C shear wall will utilized 12-gauge straps at the third floor. There are two basic ways of determining the shear strength of the screws.1 do not permit stress increases.1 deals with wood stud walls and does not have any such special requirements.2 permit stress increases. The alternate basic load combinations if §1612.5. Both methods are shown below.5.5. Vol. The UBC has two special sections for shear walls with light framing in Seismic Zones 3 and 4. In the case of identical building types (as in Design Example 2 and Design Example 3 of this manual) this would give an apparent advantage to wood framing.1 for load combinations.9 D ± E to the alternate basic load combinations 1. Section 2220. and for wood framing. Section 2315. Errata to the First Printing added Equation (12-16-1): 0. 10 screws that will be used to connect the tiedown straps to the 18-gauge boundary studs. 5b Load combinations using allowable stress design. For metal framing. 6. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.4 (12-16-1) Since this exact same load combination is listed in the basic load combinations the code is in contradiction and confusing (to say at least).3. II (1997 UBC) 195 . This Design Example will use one-third stress increase of §1612.2 specifies requirements for steel stud wall boundary members and anchorage and refers to §2213.3.2. 10 screws.1. The second is to compute the shear strength of a screw using the ’96 AISI specification. Section 2315. This part shows determination of the shear strength of the No.

The Metal Stud Manufacturers’ Association provides ICBO ER No.0(258 lb ) = 774 lb per screw Note that ER No. Pns = ΩPas where: Pns = nominal shear strength per screw Pas = allowable shear strength per screw Ω = 3. 6a Nominal shear strength determined from ICBO Evaluation Report.190 in. 10 screws. For No. Fu1 = 45. 6b Calculation of nominal shear strength using strength design. 4943 also specifies a minimum edge distance and a minimum on center spacing of 9/16 inch for No. 4943.0 Pns = 3. II (1997 UBC) . This must be increased as shown below to convert to the strength design basis used in this example. d = 0. which will give higher screw capacities.000 psi 196 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.000 psi Note: some connector straps and hardware have an Fu = 65. The nominal shear strength is the screw capacity without the appropriate reduction factors for allowable stress design (Ω) or load and resistance factor design (φ). Vol. the allowable shear is given as 258 lbs per screw.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure 6a. 10 screws in an 18-gauge stud. Shear values on an ASD basis are provided for various gauge studs having a minimum yield strength of 33 ksi and a minimum ultimate strength of 45 ksi.000 psi . Fu 2 = 45. 96AISI E4 6b.

186 lb Pns = 2.3.0451in. Vol.0902 in.3.1-3) 197 Pns = 2.0 Pns = 4.3. above. t 2 t1 = 0.2 t 2 3 d ( ) 12 Fu 2 = 2.1017 = 0. Assume 10-gauge galvanized strap: t1 = 0.44 < 1.3.1-2) 96 AISI (E4.65 < 1.138 in. With 18-gauge studs: Since there are two stud webs.1-1) 96 AISI (E4. Assume 12-gauge galvanized strap: t1 = 0.232 lb 96 AISI (E4. thickness t 2 is doubled. Case 2: Strap applied to double stud webs (Figure 3-10).0451 × 2 = 0.0902 0.3.2 t 2 3 d ( ) 12 Fu 2 = 789 lb 96 AISI (E4.041 lb Using the smallest value of Pns : Pns = 789 lb per screw Note how this value is almost equal to the 774 lb determined from Part 6a.7t 2 dFu 2 = 1. t 2 t1 = 0.3. t 2 = 0.1017 in.1-2) 96 AISI (E4.0451 0.138 = 0.1-3) Pns = 2.1-1) 96 AISI (E4.7t 2 dFu 2 = 2.0 Pns = 4.7t1dFu1 = 2. With 18-gauge studs: t 2 = 0.7t1 dFu1 = 3.082 lb SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) .Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Case I: Strap applied to stud flange (Figure 3-9).348 lb Pns = 2.

0 = 263 lb per screw Case II: Strap applied to double stud webs (Figure 3-10): From Part 6b.082 3. Case I: Strap applied to stud flange (Figure 3-9): From Part 6b.0 = 694 lb per screw 7. II (1997 UBC) .770 lb Try a 12-gauge × 3 inch strap and No. 6c Calculation of allowable shear using ASD. above: Pns = 789 lb Pas = Pns Ω = 789 3. Vol. Tiedown connection at third floor for wall on line C.082 lb Pas = Pns Ω = 2. Shown below is the strength design of the tiedown strap to be used for the shear walls on line C at the third floor. above: Pns = 2.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Using the smallest value of Pns : Pns = 2.1) 198 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.082 lb 6c. The configuration at the tiedown is shown on Figure 3-9. Uplift = 3. 10 screws: Pns = 789 lb per screw LRFD design strength = ϕPns 96 AISI (3.

75 + 12) = 65. Vol. It is probable that the steel used in the strap will have strengths that differ from the steel used in the studs.640 lb > 3. the manufacturer should be contacted to determine the strength of the steel used.0 ∴Use 72-inch-long strap Check capacity of strap for tension: Strap to be used will be a pre-manufactured strap for which there is an ICBO Evaluation Report.k. If the strap does not have an ICBO rated capacity.75 + (1 + 12 )1.5(789) = 395 lb Number of screws required: 3.75 inches on center.640 lb. plus the 12-inch depth for the floor joist: (1. Need to add in thickness of 1½ inch lightweight concrete and ¾-inch sheathing.0 in. Net spacing is screws is 1. including 33 percent increase for wind or seismic loading. Generally. is given as 9.5 ∴ Use 12 minimum With 2 rows of #10 screws @ 3½ inches on center the length of strap required: Strap is pre-manufactured.770 lb o. use half spacing for end distance or 1¾ inch.75 + 1.5 + 0.1046 in. (strap thickness) d = 0.75)2 + (1.770 395 = 9. 9. (strap width) t = 0. (diameter of holes) 96 AISI (C2-1) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. The rated capacity. II (1997 UBC) 199 .Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure where: ϕ = 0. strengths differ from manufacturer to manufacturer.171in. Checking capacity of strap: Tn = An F y b = 3.50 ϕPns = 0.

2 (net area of strap) F y = 45.000 ) = 13. Vol.770 lb = allowable tension = 1.000 psi (yield strength of particular manufacturer) Tn = 0. Use 12-gauge × 3 in.275 lb o. × 72 in. II (1997 UBC) .k.c. each end.443 = 8. strap with 12 #10 screws @ 3½ inches o.275 lb (Table 3-10) ϕTn = tension strength = 0.770 lb (Table 3-10) Tn 13.050 lb > 3.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure An = 0. Figure 3-9. Typical tiedown connection at the third floor on line C.443 lb (nominal strength of strap) For ASD: Tie force = 3.95(13.67 Ωt o. 200 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.k.2987 in.443) = 12. For LRFD: Tie force = 5.2987(45.770 lb => 5.

In general. pre-manufactured holdown device. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Tiedown connection at second floor for wall on line C. consult with ICBO Evaluation Service or the manufacturer for the necessary approvals for hardware selection.080 lb o. II (1997 UBC) 201 . when using pre-manufactured tiedowns. Using two holdowns. one on each boundary stud. Design of the pre-manufactured tiedowns for the second floor shear walls on line C is shown below. Uplift = 13.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure 8. Vol.900 lb. Figure 3-10 shows the configuration of the tiedown.800 lb > 13.900 = 19. the capacity is: 2 × 9.080 lb from Table 3-10 The connector is an ICBO approved. The rated capacity including the 33 percent increase for wind or seismic loading is 9.k.

Vol.5. The studs at each end of the shear walls on line C must be designed to resist overturning forces. This requirement does not apply for boundary elements of wood stud shear walls.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure 9. Boundary studs for first floor wall on line C. The critical aspect of design is checking the studs for axial compression. In this example. This includes use of the seismic force amplification factor Ω o to account for structural overstrength. This is shown below. II (1997 UBC) .1. Figure 3-10. double studs as shown in Figure 3-10 will be used at each end.2 of Division VII (Lateral Resistance of Steel Stud Wall Systems) requires use of the requirements of §2315. Typical tiedown connection at the second floor on line C Note that §2220. 202 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

7 is the allowable stress increase Therefore.0 ft )(1.0 PDL + 0.696 ft . the design load to boundary studs using the equation of §2213.745 lb Thus. 28. II (1997 UBC) 203 . the load combination to be used is: 1.1 4.5 psf + (25.1 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0)2](16 12 ) + [10 psf (8 ft )(16 12 )(3) ] = 405 lb From Table 3-10: Ω o M OT = 815.lb Ω o PE = 815.lb (21. of studs required = where: 1.5.5.0 (405) + 0.250 = 4.7 (145) + 27.4 ) = 27. use 5 studs at ends of wall as follows: Use two back-to-back studs.1 is: 1.042 lb with the flanges braced at mid-height.745 = 28. plus two back-to-back studs with additional stud (Figure 3-10).042 × 1.7 PLL + Ω o PE PLL = [40 psf + (16 12 )(16 12 ) ]2 = 145 lb PDL = [13.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure For axial compression. the allowable axial load for a 4"× 18-gauge stud with 2-inch flanges is 4.755 ft .250 lb With a computer program using 1996 AISI Specifications. No.7 §2213. Vol.

Figure 3-11. v 485 91NDS Table II.9 in. Typical detail for shear transfer through floor on line C 204 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.2 ∴Use # 8 screws at 3 inches on center. Vol.3. From Table 3-9.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure 10. by inspection.3B §1612.33) 12 = = 3. Shear forces in the second floor diaphragm are transferred to the shear walls below as shown in Figure 3-11.K. Capacity of the #8 screws in the 18-gauge tracks and runner channels are O. 10 Shear transfer at second floor on line C.33 Maximum spacing = ZC D 119(1. II (1997 UBC) . 18-gauge metal side plates and Douglas Fir plywood: Z = 119 lb/screws C D = 1. the ASD shears in the wall are: v = 485 lb/ft Try using #8 screws.

From Table 3-9: v = 485 lb/ft Allowable load based on bolt bearing on track: For 5/8" bolts and 18-gauge track: Pn = 2.0451in.0451) = 282 k bolt 96 AISI. 11 Shear transfer at foundation for walls on line C.22 (45)(0.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure 11.625)(0. This detail is shown in Figure 3-12. Pn = 2.3) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.625 in. II (1997 UBC) 205 . Table E3.22 Fu d where: Pn = nominal resistance Fu = 45 ksi (minimum value) d = 0. Vol. t = 0. Shown below is the design of the connection to transfer the shear force in the walls on line C to the foundation.3-2 96 AISI (E3.

485 ∴Use 5/8" diameter bolts at 4'−0" o. spacing 206 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.750 = 5.67 ft o. For 5/8" bolts and 3000 psi concrete: Allowable shear = 2.c.750 lb bolt Table 19-D Therefore the bolt in concrete governs the required spacing: Maximum spacing 2. Allowable service load on embedded bolts in concrete is determined as follows. Vol.c.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Figure 3-12. Detail for shear transfer at foundation on line C. II (1997 UBC) .

Shear forces in the roof diaphragm are transferred to the shear walls below as shown in Figure 3-13. Figure 3-13. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. With framing clips at 4. but that only one stud is considered in shear wall calculations. Shear transfer at roof at line C Note that double studs are used for sound control. From Table 3-9 are the ASD shears in the wall. the design ASD force is: (190)(4) = 760 lb < 915 lb o. allowable load for the 6-3/8-inch-long framing clip is 915 pounds. v = 190 lb/ft From manufacturer’s catalog.k. II (1997 UBC) 207 .0 ft centers.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure 12. Vol. 12 Shear transfer at roof on line C.

II (1997 UBC) . D. 1997. D.C. Washington. Applied Technology Council. Washington. Building Seismic Safety Council. Washington. 1997. Wood Structural Panel Shear Walls. American Plywood Association. It should be noted that the structure shown in example could not use the IRC prescriptive provisions. Cold Formed Steel Design Manual. 1995. Vol. Inasmuch as there is no one standard for the manufacturing of the studs. Tacoma. 1997. Redwood City. American Iron and Steel Institute. Report 105. Report 154. Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Commentary The code does not have conventional construction provisions for cold-formed steel similar to the conventional light frame construction provisions for wood. American Plywood Association. 208 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 1996. in the AISI code it is recommended that engineers designing in cold-formed steel utilize computer software for design. National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program. American Iron and Steel Institute. Washington. The 2000 International Residential Code (IRC) has included prescriptive provisions for cold-formed steel for one. References American Iron and Steel Institute. Design/Construction Guide – Diaphragms and Shear Walls.C. D.C. 1996 Edition. California. Revised. 1986. Due to the complex nature of the equations. Engineered Wood Association. BSSC.and two-family dwellings. The AISI Specification for Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members has complex equations and is considered by most engineers too difficult to be readily used in design. Cold Formed Steel Design Manual. the process to design gravity load members is a tedious method and should not be done by prescriptive means. Cyclic Testing of Narrow Plywood Shear Walls. Tacoma. 1993. American Iron and Steel Institute. 1986 Edition. Applied Technology Council. ATC R-1. Engineered Wood Association. Washington.

C.P.. and Col Benson. C. National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program. TE-1997-003. Foliente. “Northridge Earthquake of January 17. Madison. Richmond. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. TE-1997-001. Dolan. Supplement C. Laboratory Report 63. and Heine. California. Dolan. “Performance Based Design of Wood Structures. 1997b.. K. Foliente. Vol. 1994. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Wisconsin. Greg C. Cobeen. Dolan. 1999. Monotonic Tests of Wood-frame Shear Walls with Various Openings and Base Restraint Configurations. Design and Testing of Timber Structures Under Seismic Loads.D. Blacksburg. 1954 Horizontal Plywood Diaphragm Tests. TE-1997-001. Vol.P. Countryman. Blacksburg.” Proceedings. Washington. 1997. Blacksburg. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Wood Handbook Publication FPL – GTR – 113.D. 1996. 1954. J.E. Greg C. and Heine. Timber Engineering Report No. Sequential Phased Displacement Cyclic Tests of Wood frame Shear Walls with Various Openings and Base Restrain Configurations. Douglas Fir Plywood Association. University of California Forest Products Laboratory.. Structural Engineers Association of California.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Building Seismic Safety Council. Tacoma.. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.. California. Virginia. Madison Wisconsin. Annual SEAOC Convention. C. 1997c. and Heine .P. 1997a. II (1997 UBC) 209 . Dolan. Reconnaissance Report. Experimental Results from Cyclic Racking Tests of Wood Shear Walls with Openings. J. Forest Products Lab.. 1996. Forest Products Society. 1997.1996-001. Timber Engineering Report No. 11. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings. Building Seismic Safety Council. Blacksburg. Earthquake Performance and Safety of Timber Structures.D..” Earthquake Spectra. California. Washington D.. 1996. C. Sacramento. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Virginia. 1994. Virginia. D. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.. J. Virginia. Timber Engineering Report No. Analysis. Sequential Phased Displacement Test of Wood-frame Shear Walls with Corners. TE. D. Oakland. Timber Engineering Report No. J.

Light-gauge Steel Engineers Association. Applied Technology Council.3. 210 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. A Methodology for Seismic Design and Construction of Single-Family Dwellings. Keith. Lateral Load Resisting Elements: Diaphragm Design Values. National Design Specification for Wood Construction. Washington. Light-gauge Steel Engineers Association. Ju. International Code Council. Box 1211. Redwood City. revised December 1993. Nashville. 1998.C. J..Research Report 158. Light-gauge Steel Engineers Association. Birmingham. 2. and Lin M. Tacoma Washington. Tech Note 556a-4. “Comparison of Building Analysis Assuming Rigid or Flexible Floors. Light-gauge Steel Engineers Association. 2400 Crestmoor Road. Alabama. Nashville. 2400 Crestmoor Road. 2400 Crestmoor Road. Tacoma.. APA – The Engineered Wood Association. Shear Transfer at Top Plate: Drag Strut Design.D. International Building Code – Final Draft. Washington D. Washington 98411. Light-gauge Steel Engineers Association. Tech Note 558b-1. Tennessee 37215. Sec. Metal Stud Manufacturer’s Association. International Code Council. Tennessee 37215. Sec. APA .” Journal of Structural Engineering. Rose.3]. Vertical Lateral Force Resisting System Boundary Elements. Tennessee 37215. Research Report 158. Washington D. Vol. Tennessee 37215.3. and E. Wood Structural Panel Shear Walls with Gypsum Wallboard and Window [ Sheathing Standard.O. Tech Note 565c. APA-The Engineered Wood Association. California.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Goers R. Preliminary Testing of Wood Structural Panel Shear Walls Under Cyclic (Reversed) Loading. American Society of Civil Engineers. 1999.D. Tacoma.. ICBO Evaluation Report No. National Forest Products Association. Light-gauge Steel Engineers Association. APA Standard PRP-108. Corvallis. II (1997 UBC) . Performance Standards and Policies for Structural-Use Panels [Sheathing Standard.. National Forest Products Association.L. Nashville.. Light-gauge Steel Engineers Association. 1993.The Engineered Association. February 1997. P. 2.3]. J. 2400 Crestmoor Road. Rose. 2000. Screw Fastener Selection for Light-gauge Steel Frame Construction.C. 4943. Nashville. and Associates. 1996. 1991. 1976. S. Metal Stud Manufacturer’s Association. Oregon97339. Tech Note 556a-6. Light-gauge Steel Engineers Association.

” Structural Engineers Association of California.Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure Structural Engineers Association of California. New York. Santa Clara. 1999. Sacramento. Serrette. 1991. R. Inc. Final Report: Shear Wall Values for Lightweight Steel Framing. Cold-Formed Steel Design. II (1997 UBC) 211 .. 1996. Santa Clara University Engineering Center. John Wiley & Sons. New York. Wei-wen. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. “Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary. Vol. California. California 95053. Yu.

II (1997 UBC) .Design Example 3 ! Cold-Formed Steel Light Frame Three-Story Structure 212 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol.

Roof construction consists of a plywood diaphragm over wood framing.” The masonry building for this example is shown schematically in Figure 4-1.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building Design Example 4 Masonry Shear Wall Building Figure 4-1. and institutional buildings. retail. Schematic CMU building elevation Overview Reinforced concrete block masonry is frequently used in one-story and lowrise construction. An SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. The building is characterized as a heavy wall and flexible roof diaphragm “box building. Vol. Floor and roof plans are given in Figure 4-2 and 4-3. respectively. This type of construction has generally had a good earthquake performance record. some one-story buildings with concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls and panelized wood roofs experienced wall-roof separations similar to that experienced by many tilt-up buildings. However. light commercial. The building is a one-story bearing wall building with CMU shear walls. during the 1994 Northridge earthquake. II (1997 UBC) 213 . particularly for residential. This building in this Design Example 4 is typical of one-story masonry buildings with wood framed roofs.

1.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building elevation of the building on line A is shown in Figure 4-4. Design 8'-0" shear wall on line A for in-plane seismic forces. 9. 214 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) . and a plan view of an 8'-0" CMU wall/pier is shown in Figure 4-6. Design 8'-0" shear wall on line A for out-of-plane seismic forces. Outline This example will illustrate the following parts of the design process. Design 8'-0" shear wall on line A for axial and in-plane bending forces. 5. 10. 2. The design example illustrates the strength design approach to CMU wall design for both in-plane and out-of-plane seismic forces. Deflection of shear wall on line A. 4. 10 Design base shear coefficient. 3. 6. Vol. Wall-roof out-of-plane anchorage for lines 1 and 3. 8. Chord design. Requirements for shear wall boundary elements. 7. Base shear in the transverse direction. A CMU wall section is shown in Figure 4-5. Shear in wall on line A.

5 1. Insulation Total dead load Roof live load 7.0 psf Exterior 8-inch CMU walls: 75 psf (fully grouted.000 psi Seismic and site data: Z = 0.0 (standard occupancy) Seismic source type = A Distance to seismic source = 5 km Soil profile type = S D Table 16-I Table 16-K Figure 4-2.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building Given Information Roof weights: Roofing+ one re-roof ½" plywood Roof framing Mech.0 psf 20.5 4.500 psi f y = 60.4 (Seismic Zone 4) I = 1. Floor plan SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) 215 .5 1.5 17. light-weight masonry) f ' m = 2.5 psf 1. Vol./elec.

II (1997 UBC) .Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building Figure 4-3. Roof plan Figure 4-4. Vol. Elevation of wall on line A 216 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building Figure 4-5. Reinforcement in 8’-0” CMU shear walls on lines A and D SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Section through CMU wall along lines 1 and 3 Figure 4-6. Vol. II (1997 UBC) 217 .

§1630.5 Calculation of design base shear: V= Cv I 1.6 Seismic coefficients for Zone 4 and soil profile type S D are: C a = 0.16 ) (30-4) Table 16-N Table 16-Q Table 16-R Table 16-S Table 16-T (30-8) but need not exceed: V= 2.020 (16 ft )3 / 4 = 0. Vol. II (1997 UBC) .6 4 N v = 1.53 C v = 0.11C a IW = 0.02 The R coefficient for a masonry bearing wall building with masonry shear walls is: R = 4.2 Period using Method A (see Figure 4-5 for section through structure): T = C t (h n )3 / 4 = .02 (1.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building Calculations and Discussion Discussion Code Reference 1.53)(1.5 (30-5) The total design shear shall not be less than: V = 0.16 sec Near source factors for seismic source type A and distance to source = 5 km N a = 1.417W W= RT 4.5 (0.2.2 N v = 1.5 (0.5C a I 2.0 ) W= W = 0.0 )W = 0.53)(1.058 (30-6) 218 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.11 (0.0 ) W = 1. Design base shear coefficient.44 N a = 0.294W R 4.

The building weight (mass) calculation is separated into three portions: the roof. and out-of-plane walls at lines A and D. Vol. Base shear in transverse direction.400 sf ) = 92 kips SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. The orthogonal analysis is similar in concept. the wall lines could have slightly different wall shears on opposing wall lines 1 and 3 and also on A and D.294W 2. The diaphragm spans as a simple beam between resisting perimeter walls in both directions and will transfer 50 percent of the diaphragm shear to each resisting wall. II (1997 UBC) 219 .8 (0. This concept will be demonstrated in this example for the transverse (north-south) direction. The design in the orthogonal direction is similar and the base shear is the same. longitudinal walls. The roof diaphragm then transfers its seismic forces to the transverse masonry walls (in-plane walls oriented north-south) located on lines A and D.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building In addition. Roof weight: Wroof = 17 psf (5. the roof diaphragm resists seismic inertia forces originating from the roof diaphragm and the longitudinal masonry walls (out-of-plane walls oriented east-west) on lines 1 and 3. which are oriented perpendicular to the direction of seismic ground motion. Thus. However.0 ) W= W = 0. in a building that is not symmetric or does not have symmetric wall layouts.114W R 4. This building has a flexible roof diaphragm and heavy CMU walls (see Figure 4-3). for Seismic Zone 4. However. Equation (30-5) controls the base shear calculation and the seismic coefficient is thus: V = 0. seismic forces are generated from three sources: the roof diaphragm.5 (30-7) Therefore. and transverse walls for ease of application at a later stage in the calculations. the total base shear shall also not be less than: V= 0. the proportion of diaphragm and in-plane seismic forces is different. The reason to separate the CMU wall masses is because masonry walls that resist ground motions parallel to their in-plane directions resist their own seismic inertia without transferring seismic forces into the roof diaphragm.8ZN v I 0.4 )(1.60)(1. and thus is not shown in this example. For the transverse direction. The transverse walls resist seismic forces transferred from the roof diaphragm and seismic forces generated from their own weight. in-plane walls at lines 1 and 3.

long = 75 psf (2 walls)(90 ft )(19 ) = 152 kips 2(16 ft ) 2 16 ft For forces in the transverse direction. diaph 2 + Vtrans.294(244 kips ) = 72 kips The seismic inertial force (shear force) generated in the transverse walls (in-plane walls) is calculated using the full weight (and height) of the walls (with openings ignored for simplicity). diaph = 0. ∴Vtrans. The seismic shear tributary to the wall on line A comes from the roof diaphragm (transferred at the top of the wall) and the in-plane wall inertia force: VA = Vtrans.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building For longitudinal wall weight (out-of-plane walls). walls 2 = 72 kips 50 kips + = 61 kips 2 2 4. Design 8'-0" shear wall on line A for out-of-plane seismic forces. Vtrans. walls = 72 k + 50 k = 122 kips 3. which is generated in the roof diaphragm is calculated as follows: Vtrans. = Vtrans. This example neglects openings in the top half of the walls. diaph = 0. II (1997 UBC) . diaph + Vtrans. seismic inertial forces from the transverse walls (lines A and D) do not transfer through the roof diaphragm. the effective diaphragm weight in the north-south direction is: Wtrans. long = 92 k + 152 k = 244 kips The transverse seismic inertial force (shear force). note that the upper half of the wall weight is tributary to the roof diaphragm. It must be capable of supporting both gravity and out-of-plane seismic forces. and gravity plus in-plane seismic forces at different instants in time 220 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. diaph = Wroof + W walls. the 8'-0" shear wall on line A (Figure 4-4) will be designed for out-of-plane seismic forces. (19 ft )2 19 ft 1 = 75 psf (180 ft ) W walls.294 (75 psf )(19 ft )(60 ft )(2 walls) = 50 kips The design base shear in the transverse direction is the sum of the shears from the roof diaphragm shear and the masonry walls in-plane shear forces.294Wtrans. Vol. This wall is a bearing wall and must support gravity loads. In this part. Shear wall on line A. walls = 0. Therefore.

2.5 (7.840 lb 2 2 Under §2106.2. Assuming a 12-inch bearing width from a beam hanger.650 lb 2 2 Live load reduction for gravity loads: R = r ( A − 150) ≤ 40 percent A = (30 ft )(15 ft ) = 450 sq ft R = 0. Vol.4. 4a Vertical loads. The analysis incorporates static plus P∆ deflections caused by combined gravity loads and out-of-plane seismic forces and calculates an axial plus bending capacity for the wall under the defined loading. In this Part. II (1997 UBC) .650 lb + 6. the first of these two analyses will be performed.11 + = 23.) = 44 in. Gravity loads from roof framing tributary to the 8'-0" shear wall at line A: 60 ft 30 ft PDL = (17 psf ) = 7. PbeamD +L = §1607.840 lb) = 3.952 plf (44 in. 12 in.8 (450 sq ft − 150 sq ft ) = 24 percent DL 17 Rmax = 23. the glulam beam reaction load may be supported by the bearing width plus four times the nominal wall thickness. 12 in.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building depending on the direction of seismic ground motion.650 lb = 2.) 221 PbeamD = SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.7 percent LL 20 ∴ R = 24 percent The reduced live load is: 60 ft 30 ft PRLL = (20 psf ) (100 percent − 24 percent ) = 6.11 + = 42.086 plf (44 in. + 4 (8 in. 4a. the vertical load is assumed to be carried by a width of wall 12 in.) 7. The analysis will be done using the “slender wall” design provisions of §2108.7.

The coefficients are determined under the provisions of §1632.600 lb + 7 .750 lb) = 27. Fp = a p Ca I p h 1 + 3 x Rp hr W p (32-2) 0. and since dead load combinations will control.600 lb 2 6.750 lb + 6. Vol.) 2 = 26 in. and two lintels are: ∑ PDL = (6.600 lb w wall DL = = 825 plf 8 ft Dead load from wall lintels: 20 ft PL intel D = (75 psf )(9 ft ) = 6. Since the lintel loads are heavier than the beam load.0C a I pW p (32-3) 222 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. the loads over the wall/pier length will be averaged.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building Wall load on 8-foot wall (at wall mid-height): 16 ft Pwall DL = (75 psf )(8 ft ) + 3 ft = 6.750 lb ∑ PRLL = 6.750 lb 2 l = (96 in. The gravity loads on the 8'-0" wall from the weight of the wall. w L int elD = 6. 4b Seismic forces.2 using Equation (32-2) and the limits of Equation (32-3). II (1997 UBC) .840 lb 4b. the roof beam.7C a I pW p ≤ F p ≤ 4. − 44 in. 12 in.750 lb = 3. Out-of-plane seismic forces are calculated as the average of the wall element seismic coefficients at the base of the wall and the top of the wall.650 lb + 6.115 plf 26 in.

0)C a I p Rp 0' 1 + 3 W p 16' = 1. II (1997 UBC) 223 .37W p Thus.33C a I pW p ≤ 4.70(75 psf ) = 52.7C a I pW p F p = 0.37W p = 0.7C a I pW p ∴Use 0.33C a I pW p = 0.5 psf F p = 1.33(.133C a I pW p ≤ 0.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building At the base of the wall: Fp = a p Ca I p h 1 + 3 x Rp hr W p = (1.0 )W p = 0.8 psf + 52.0 )W p = 0. use the average value of F p = (1 2 )(27.5 psf ) = 40. See Figure 4-7 for wall out-of-plane loading diagram and Figure 4-8 for tributary widths of wall used to determine the loading diagram.53)(1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.37(75 psf ) = 27.8 psf At roof: Fp = a p Ca I p h 1 + 3 x Rp hr W p = (1.7 (.2 psf Calculation of wall moments due to out-of-plane forces is done using the standard beam formula for a propped cantilever.53)(1.0)C a I p Rp 0 ft 1 + 3 W p 16 ft = 0. Vol.0C a I pW p ∴Use 1.

Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building R2 W1 3' 16' W2 R1 10' Figure 4-7. II (1997 UBC) . Vol. Tributary width of wall for out-of-plane seismic inertial force calculations 224 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Propped cantilever loading diagram Tributary width of wall considered 18'-0" W1 9'-0" Lintel beam resists out-of-plane forces W2 “h” 10'-0" 10'-0" 8'-0" 10'-0" Figure 4-8.

04 f m or less are designed under the requirements of §2108. 4c Design for out-of-plane forces. However.6 (6840 lb ) = 44 .6 Lr 1.750 lb ) + 1.2.5)C a ID = 0.1(0.1 factor be applied to the load combinations for strength design of masonry elements including seismic forces.1(1. The SEAOC Seismology Committee has recommended that this factor be deleted. Vol. Comparison of seismic out-of-plane forces with wind (approximately 25 psf) indicate that seismic forces control the design.in.2 (27 .750 lb ) + (0. ' Slender wall design of masonry walls with an axial load of 0. (12-3) (12-5) (12-3) (12-5) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.1 requires that a 1.125 plf W2 = 8 ft (40.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building W1 = (10 ft + 8 ft + 10 ft )(40.2 D + 1.1 The wall section shown in Figure 4-6 will be designed. The controlling load combinations for masonry are: 1.1E v = 1.8 feet: M oop = 15.53)(1.2 D + 1.2 psf ) = 1.244 lb Pu = PD + L + E = PD + 1.32(27 .30 D Note: Exception 2 of §1612.0) D = 0.1E v = 1. the location of maximum moment is at h = 9.30 )(27 .4.4. 4c. II (1997 UBC) 225 .55(0.955 lb The controlling load case by examination is Equation (12-5) for gravity plus seismic out-of-plane forces.360 lb . §1612.750 lb ) = 44 .2.0 E ) = 1.2 psf ) = 322 plf Using simple beam theory to calculate moment M oop for out-of-plane forces.1( E h + E v ) 1.32 D + 1. thus: PD + RLL = 1.2.ft = 186.530 lb . this example shows use of the factor because it is a present requirement of the code.

2.050 lb .04 f m 27. = 60.85 f ' m b a = 0.31 in.90 in )2 = 365.) ( ) (8-25) c= n= E s 29 .625 in.000 psi ) = 0. − 0.81 in.0 )(2.(0.500 )1 2 = 186.875. (8-30) 226 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 4 3 ( ) Calculate M cr using the value for f r from §2108.12. Equation (8-31): 96 in.000 .000 psi) + 44.85 (2500 psi )(96 in.k. Calculate equivalent steel area Ase : Ase = As f y + Pu fy 2 (0. Vol. II (1997 UBC) .04 f m using unfactored loads: Pw + Pf Ag ≤ 0.2.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building ' Check axial load vs.62 in.04 (2500 psi ) = 100 psi (7.77 in.85 = 44 .90 in.0 in.000 psi Calculate I cr : a= (8-24) 2 (Pu + As f y ) .(7.86 in.000 psi Em bc3 + nAse (d − c )2 3 §2106.750 lb = 38 psi ≤ 0. )(6 bars)(60.1 I cr = = 96 in.in.000 psi = = 15. 2 (60 . .6.955 lb = 2.955 lb + 1.625 ft )(8 ft )(12 in.61 in. 0.)2 M cr = S g f r = 6 (4.)3 + (15. 2 (3.46 1.46) 2.86 in.4.) ∴ o. .

in.in.540 lb .6 in.in. 4 12 Calculate M u based on Equation (8-20) of §2108.000 psi ) 365.in.050 lb .1E + 1.)(192 in.360 lb .4: First iteration for moment and deflection (note that eccentric moment at mid-height of wall is one-half of the maximum moment): M u = M out −of − plane + M eccentric = 1. ∆ u = 0. 4 ( ) = 0.11 in.)2 48 (1.11 in. Second iteration for moment and deflection: M u = 235. II (1997 UBC) 227 .290 lb .2 D ) + 1. and pinned-pinned boundary conditions.38 in. ∆u = 5M cr h 2 5 (M u − M cr )h 2 + 48 E m I g 48 E m I cr 5 (186.) 2 = 235.0 in. + 0.37 in.540 lb .in. − 186.546.11 in. 4 ( Note: The deflection equation used is for uniform lateral loading.000 psi ) 365. Beam deflection equations can be found in the AITC or AISC manuals or accurate methods can be derived.625 in.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building Calculate I g : Ig = (96 in.in.) (7.2. = 0. + 44.875.1(1. Vol. maximum moment at mid-height.955 lb (0.) = 252.1 (186. For other support and fixity conditions.28 in.in.050 lb .1(1.875.050 lb . = 0.48 in.000 psi ) 3.0 in.650 lb )(6 in. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 4 ( ) ) = 0.)2 48 (1. + 0.32 (7. + 5(252.)(192 in.) 3 = 3546.) + 1.290 lb .960 lb . + 5 (235.875.38 in.)2 (8-20) (8-28) ∆u = 48 (1. − 186.4. moments and deflections should be calculated using established principals of mechanics.6 in.in.in.6)(L = 0 ) M u = M out −of − plane + M eccentric = 1.)(192 in.

6. there is no need to check service deflections in this example.in. + 44. + 0.in.4.. 2 ) = 0.) = 256. = 0.in. therefore convergence can be determined): M u = 235. + 44.290 lb .40 in. Check that the wall reinforcement is less than 50 percent of balanced reinforcement per §2108.217 lb .891 lb .Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building Third iteration for moment and deflection: M u = 235.000 psi ) 3.2: ρb = . 4 ( ) = 0.000 + = 0.891 lb .2. Thus the deflection is within allowable limits.4.e. ∆ u = 0.0 in.0089 (3.4.000 psi ) 365. ≥ 258.85β1 f ' m 87.)(96 in.in.0051 ≤ 0.6 is 0.k.000 + f y ( ) ρ= (6)(0. Since the wall strength is greater than the demand. (i.2. Check the unbraced parapet moment: 228 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.)2 48 (1.11 in.80 2.050 lb .47 in.34".51 in.007(16'×12") = 1.81 in.50 inches. − 186. II (1997 UBC) .in.81 in. PD = 27. Calculation of wall out-of-plane strength: a φM u = φAse f y d − 2 0.31 in.007 h per §2108.in.875.48 in.) = 258. Since ultimate deflections are within allowable.73 in.290 lb . Vol.2.955 lb (0. = 0. the wall section shown in Figure 4-4 is okay.in.in.11 in.955 lb .51 in. The deflection from this analysis is 0.) ∴ o.)(192 in. 2 (60. + 5 (256. Note that out-of-plane deflections need to be checked using same iteration process. The limiting deflection is 0.(0.in.0178 fy 87. − 2 = 408.217 lb .439 lb .750 lbs). Final moment (successive iterations are producing moments within 3 percent. but with service loads per §2108.

13 1 where ∆ is the deflection under load Vi . respectively) in proportion to their relative rigidities. 5a. This can be accomplished by assuming that the walls are fixed at the tops by the 9-foot-deep lintel. ≤ 408.ft = 7.53)(1.76 (75 psf ) = 132.5)(. 5a Design 8'-0" shear wall on line A for in-plane seismic forces.4 E m for concrete masonry under §2106. II (1997 UBC) 229 . Relative rigidity is thus SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. ∆i = Vi h 3 1. 8'.439 lb . and 6' in width. Shear force distribution.2Vi h + for walls/piers pinned top and fixed at bottom AG 3E m I (6-6) ∆i = G = 0.5 psf M u (132. the percentage shears to each wall are shown in Table 4-1.5 R p = 3.155 lb . Reference deflection equations are given below for CMU or concrete walls with boundary conditions fixed top or pinned top.0 Fp = a pCa I p h 1 + 3 x Rp hr (2.12.76W p = 1. ∴ Wall section is okay at parapet. 5. For this Design Example. Vol.2Vi h + for walls/piers fixed top and bottom AG 12 E m I Vi h 3 1.in. The shear force on line A must be distributed to three shear wall piers (6'.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building a p = 2. Using the ∆ fixed/fixed equation. the fixed/fixed equations are used because the deep lintel at the wall/pier tops will act to fix the tops of wall piers.in.0) 16 ft 1 + 3 W p = 16 ft W p (3.2.5 psf )(3 ft )2 8 = 596 lb .0) Table 16-0 = 1.

28 313. Vol.6 k ) = 30.17E-05 3.28 26.56E-06 1. Vertical reinforcement is #5@16 inches o.1 (0. The in-plane shear strength of the wall must be determined and compared to demand.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building Table 4-1. horizontally. II (1997 UBC) . Note that concrete masonry cells are spaced at 8-inch centers.6 k )(10 ) / 8 ft / 122 k = 0.82E-06 1.2 8 6 Totals 6.c.) Wall Shear (k) Length (ft) Deflection (in. Calculation of reliability/redundancy factor ρ is shown below. 40 inches.06 The strength design shear for the 8'-0" wall is: ∴V8' wall = 1. 32 inches.20E-05 83.6 k.0 The seismic shear force E h to the 8-foot pier is (0. The strength of the wall is determined as follows. Wall Moment Shear Deflection Total Deflection Distribution to Rigidity (1/in. and 48 inches).) Piers (%) 6 1.6% 16.50E-07 1.635 83.8% 26.2 k )(10) / 6 ft / 122 k = 0.6 16. Try #4@16 inches o. 5b Determination of shear strength.2 61.50E-07 6. For shear walls the maximum element story shear ratio ri is determined as: ri8 = (28.468)61 k = 28.62E-07 3.400 ft 2 ∴ ρ = 1.) (in.29 for 8 ft segment ri 6 = (16. Typical reinforcement spacings are 16 inches and 24 inches for horizontal and vertical reinforcement.06(28. Distribution of line A shear to three shear walls.22 for 6 ft segment ∴ rmax = 0. 24 inches. thus reinforcement arrangements must have spacings in increments of 8 inches (such as 8 inches. 16 inches.29 ) 5. 230 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.200 46.c.1.6% 100% 28.) (in.29 ρ=2− 20 rmax AB =2− 20 (30-3) §1630.17E-05 2.3 k 5b.20E-05 146.

c.80)(7.000 psi ) = 43. For this example.625 in. 2 φV s = φAmv ρ n f y = (0.9 k ) + 43.)(16 in.6 k (7.) (60.9 k (8-36) (8-37) (8-38) ( ) ( ) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. for 0.)(16 in.60)(7.)(96 in.k. Since the bending failure is more desirable and safer.) 2.3 k ≤ φVn = 82.500 psi = 65. the φ factor is allowed to be higher.0.5 k .) for φ = 0.2 k (7. there will be a bending failure.7 k .60.20 in.3 k ) = 33.625 in.1(30. horizontally: 0.3 k )(8 ft ) From Table 21-K and by iteration. If failure mode is in shear. Vol. horizontally: 0.)(96 in.60. using φ = 0. φ = 0.∴ o. with #4 @16" o.ft M = = 0. Later in the example this will be checked.60. If failure mode is in bending.c.625 in. ∴ Use #4 @16" horizontal reinforcement in the wall/pier.000 psi ) = 57.8 Vn = Vm + V s Vm = C d Amv Vs = Amv ρ n f y for φ = 0.) Thus.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building Calculate M Vd : 151.6 (65.625 V d (30. The method of checking the failure mode is to check how much moment M u is generated when the shear force is equal to shear strength Vn with φ = 1. If there is reserve moment capacity.80)(7.2 k = 82. 2 φV s = φAmv ρ n f y = (0. there will be a shear failure.80. f m = (1. II (1997 UBC) 231 .0. we will conservatively use φ = 0.) (60. The reason the failure mode should be checked is to understand whether a brittle shear failure will occur or a ductile bending failure.7 k The designer should check the failure mode. If not. Vu = 1.625 in.60. with #4 @16" o. φ = 0.625 in. conservatively.60 φV n = 0.20 in.)(96 in. the nominal shear strength coefficient C d = 1. Then that moment is compared with the wall Pn and M n with a φ = 1.80.

1 (0.9 D + 0. These are as follows (with the 1.5C a ID = 0.750 lb ) = 44.9 D − 1.1.1 232 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.3 k Axial loads Pu are calculated as Pu1 and Pu 2 for load combinations of Equations (12-5) and (12-6): Pu1 = 1. The load combinations to be considered are specified in §1612.5 (0. Vol.1E h E h = V8' −0" wall = 1.63(27. This Part illustrates design for wall overturning moments combined with gravity loads.3 k ) = 33.61(27.0 E ) E = ρE h + E v E v = 0. L = 0) 1.27 D The resulting Equation (12-5) is: 1.0 E h ) = 0.1.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building 6.27 D + 1. II (1997 UBC) .5 L + 1.7 kips Pu 2 = 0. Part 5 illustrated the design of the wall for shear strength.2 D + 0. A free body diagram of the wall/pier is needed to understand the imposed forces on the wall.53)(1.5 kips (12-5) (12-6) (30-1) §1630.2.1(1.0 E h ) = 1.1 factor of Exception 2 applied): 1. Design 8'-0" shear wall on line A for combined axial and in-plane bending actions.1 (30.1(1.1 (0.63D − 1.1E h The resulting Equation (12-6) is: 1.0 E ) (floor live load.2 D + 0.61D − 1.27 D + 1.0) D = 0.750 lb ) = 17.

bottom = (33. Hart. See Figure 4-10 for concrete masonry stress-strain behavior. The axial load vs. CA. published by Concrete Masonry Association of California and Nevada. 1997.5 k . Verdee. bending moment capacity (P-M) diagram for the wall must be calculated. (for under-reinforced sections). by Brandow. the masonry has reached maximum permissible strain (0.3 k )(10 ft ) 2 = 166. At yield moment.2. This book describes the calculation of masonry wall/pier strength design in detail./in.002 in. the steel strain is the yielding strain (0. the designer must understand the controlling strain levels that define yielding and ultimate strength./in. II (1997 UBC) 233 .Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building By performing a sum of moments about the bottom corner at point A (Figure 4-9): Pu Mu. Sacramento.1.bottom 8'-0" Figure 4-9. Second Edition. For this. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. strain) and the masonry strain must be below 0./in.00207 in. Vol. Free body diagram of 8’-0” shear wall ∑ M A = 0 = 2 M u − Vu (10 ft ) M u . top Vu 10'-0" A Vu Mu.) and the steel strain is considered to have gone beyond yield strain level (see§2108.003 in. At ultimate strength.2 for a list of design assumptions). top ≈ M u . A representation of these strain states is shown in Figures 4-11 and 4-12 (the pier width is defined as h ).ft The reader is referred to an excellent book for the strength design of masonry Design of Reinforced Masonry Structures.

.003 ε s2 ε s3 c SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.00207 be used to simplify calculations 234 ε m ≥ 0.002 ε s2 ε s1 = 0.5 f ' m fm (psi) Figure 4-10.. Strain diagram at yield moment. masonry strain =0. steel strain =0.00207 ε s3 c Figure 4-12. II (1997 UBC) . 0.00207 in./in. steel strain has exceeded 0. Strain diagram at ultimate moment./in.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building Compressive stress f 'm 0.003 in./in. Assumed masonry compressive stress versus strain curve 0..00207 in.002 Strain. Vol. masonry strain is less than yield for under-reinforced sections ε m ≤ 0.003 em Figure 4-11. the Whitney stress block analysis procedure can ε s1 ≥ 0.

Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building Note that masonry strain may continue to increase with a decrease in stress beyond strains of 0. the axial load in the pier is calculated as: ∑ F = P = C1 = T1 = T2 = T3 The corresponding yield moment is calculated as follows: h h h h c M y = T1 d 1 − + T2 d 2 − + T3 d 3 − + C − 2 2 2 2 3 The ultimate moment is calculated as: h h h h a M u = T1 d 1 − + T2 d 2 − + T3 d 3 − + C − 2 2 2 2 2 Strength reduction factors.10 f ' m Ae ./in. By performing a summation of axial forces F . For axial loads.003. φPn . φPn . II (1997 UBC) 235 .1.80 − Pu . The balanced axial load. Vol. is determined by Equations (8-2) and (8-3). φ = 0. masonry strains can be as large as 0. decreases to zero. At strains of 0. 0. less than 0. φ . With boundary element confinement.6 ≤ φ ≤ 0.1 φ = 0.4.8 (Ae f ' m ) (8-1) Strength reduction factors for axial load.85 f ' m ba b em a b = 0.1.5 f ' m . at which time stresses are at f ' m .85 as axial load. the value of φ may be increased linearly to 0.85d f em + y Es (8-2) (8-3) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Pb .002 in. for in-plane flexure are determined by Equation (8-1) of §2108.65. masonry stresses are 0./in. Pb = 0.006 in.

φM n values shown in Figure 4-13. The P-M diagrams were calculated and plotted using a spreadsheet program. M n can be seen in Figure 4-13 and for φPn vs.ft ) are within the nominal strength limits of φPn .625 in.000 1.200 1.000 800 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1.85 (2.)(0. 2. M u = 167 k . Plots for Pn vs.003 0.400 Mn (k-ft) Figure 4-13. Vol.85)(92 in. 236 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.000 1. The Pn-Mn nominal strength curve with masonry strain at 0. II (1997 UBC) .003 in.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building Pb = 0./in.)(0.600 1.200 1. the design values Pu and M u (Pu = 43 k. φM n in Figure 4-14.00507 ) = 750 kips φPb = 0.400 Pn (kips) 1.500)(7.65(750 kips ) = 487 kips A P-M diagram can thus be developed. By observation.800 1.

800 1.10.7 k By looking at the Pn − M n curve.400 φPn (kips) 1. 7. the deflection of the shear wall on line A will be determined.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building 2. this Pu − M u load is just outside the Pn . This is done to check actual deflections against the drift limits of §1630.200 1.000 1.2Vi h + for wall/piers fixed top and bottom AG 12 E m I 237 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. M n curve. Vol.10 In this part. the designer might still consider a φ = 0.000 800 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1./in. The shear wall failure will likely be a bending failure.60 Mu = = 689 k .7 k (10') Vn (10') 0.ft = 2 2 Pu = 43. §1630. II (1997 UBC) .200 1. However.60 for shear design to be conservative. Deflections based on gross properties are computed as: ∆s = Vi h 3 1.400 φMn (k-ft) Figure 4-14. Check for type of wall failure by calculating wall moment at shear Vn : 82.000 1.600 1. The φPn-φMn design strength curve with masonry strain at 0.003 in. Deflection of shear wall on line A.

For this example.) = 0.) + = 0.176 in ) (732 in 2 ) (750 ksi ) Assume cracked section properties and I cr = 0.3I g (approximately): ∆s = (28.021 in. are confined./in. 3 12 (1./in.0015 in.1 This P-M point is not within the P-M curve using a limiting masonry strain of 0.0015 in. Tests have been performed to show that masonry walls can achieve 0.5.5.2 (28.)3 1. II (1997 UBC) . 8. The code requires boundary elements to have a minimum dimension of 3 × wall thickness. ∴ o.k.5)(0. the regions experiencing strain greater than 0.5 (166. but to support the reinforcement in compression to prevent buckling.ft 1./in.0 in.6 k )(120 in. The purpose of masonry boundary ties is not to confine the masonry for compression.5 k . The intent of masonry boundary elements is to help the masonry achieve greater compressive strains (up to 0. After yield moment capacity is exceeded.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building ∆s (28.652 in ) ( 732 in 2 ) (750 ksi ) 168 (30-17) ∆ m = 0.6 requires boundary elements for CMU shear walls with strains exceeding 0. boundary ties are required./in.6 k )(120 in.5 .006 in.6 k )(120 in.6 k )(120 in. if boundary element ties are provided at each end of the wall/pier extending 24 inches inward. Thus.) = + = 0.0015 in. compressive strains when boundary ties are present.2 (28.066 in.7 R∆ s = 0. (see Figure 4-15). 3 12 (1.ft ) = = 619 k . 238 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.)3 1.025h = 3.2.021 in./in. From an analysis it can be determined that the maximum c distance to the neutral axis is approximately 22 inches.2. which is 24 inches due to yield moments. deflections are less than 0.7 (4.) without experiencing a crushing failure.011 in.1 1.875 ksi ) ( .006 in. Thus. the c distance is reduced. Vol. Requirements for shear wall boundary elements. from a wall analysis with R = 1.6 Section §2108. Note that narrow shear wall performance is greatly increased with the use of boundary ties. Space boundary ties at 8-inch centers.875 ksi ) (562. §2108. The axial load and moment associated with this case is: Pu = 44.7 kips Mu = 4.

Vol.500 2.000 M (k-ft) 1./in./in. P-M curve for boundary element requirements. At 8-inch CMU walls pre-fabricated products such as the “masonry comb” are the best choice for boundary reinforcement because these walls are too narrow for reinforcement ties (even #3 and #4 bars). and by increasing the steel tension strain at the opposite wall reinforcement bars. masonry strain is limited to 0. The boundary reinforcement should extend around three vertical #4 bars at the ends of the wall. Boundary element confinement ties may consist of #3 or #4 closed reinforcement in 10-inch and 12-inch CMU walls.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building 1. II (1997 UBC) 239 . The P-M curve shown in Figure 4-15 is derived by setting masonry strain at the compression edge at 0. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0015 in. P-M points located at the outside of the denoted P-M boundary element curve will have masonry strains exceeding the allowable. It can be seen that boundary reinforcement is required for the point (Pu = 45 k. M u = 619 k ) .000 Figure 4-15.000 900 800 700 P (kips) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 500 1.100 1. and thus will require boundary element reinforcement or devices.0015 in. Moments are calculated about the center of the wall pier and axial forces are calculated about the cross-section.

elements of the wall out-of-plane anchorage system shall be designed for the forces specified in §1632 where R p = 3. Wall-roof connection loading diagram 240 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.53)(1. Fp = a p Ca I p h 1 + 3 x Rp hr W p (32-2) Fp = or: 16' 1. 6'-0" or 4'-0" might be more appropriate and should be considered for many buildings. UBC §1633.1. a common failure mode has been separation of heavy walls and roofs leading to partial collapse of roofs. This anchorage should also be provided on lines A and D.2.0 f p = 1.0 and a p = 1. In earthquakes.5(. which will require similar but different details at the roof framing perpendicular to wall tie condition. Per §1633.8. A recommended spacing is 8’-0" maximum. Wall-roof out-of-plane anchorage for lines 1 and 3.06W p 16' 3.9 requires that diaphragm struts or ties crossing the building from chord to chord be provided that transfer the out-of-plane anchorage forces through the roof diaphragm. II (1997 UBC) . and is not presented in this example. CMU walls should be adequately connected to the roof diaphragm around the perimeter of the building. including the 1994 Northridge event. However.2.0 ) 1 + 3 × W p = 1. Diaphragm design is presented in Design Example 5. Vol.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building 9.5 . where w p is the panel weight of 75 psf (see Figure 4-16) loading. a qroof fp h Figure 4-16.06w p .

Alternately.175 lbs 1.180 lb per Table 21-E-2. q roof = 5.4 = 5.06)(75 psf )(16 ft + 3 ft )2 2 (16 ft ) = 897 plf Section 1633. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.4 = 7.175 lb Therefore. The roof diaphragm must also be designed to resist the required force with the use of subdiaphragms (or other means).125 lb .5. This type of connection must be secured into a solid roof framing member capable of developing the anchorage force. the strength provisions of §2108.2.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building Calculation of the reaction at the roof level is: q roof = w p (h + a )2 2h = (1. T. for bolt embedment is T = E 1. The subject of diaphragm design is discussed in Design Example 5. These values are for use with allowable stress design (ASD). T = 2.1 requires a minimum wall-roof anchorage of q roof = 420 plf q roof = 897 plf ≥ 420 plf ∴ use q roof = 897 plf The design anchorage reaction at different anchor spacings is thus: at 4'-0" centers. The required tension. choose wall-roof anchors that will develop the required force at the chosen spacing. First check anchor capacity in concrete block of Tables 21-E-1 and 21-E-2 of Chapter 21. a double holdown connection spaced at 8'-0" centers will be used (see Figure 4-19).2 can be used.382 lb at 8'-0" centers. Vol. II (1997 UBC) 241 . For ¾-inch diameter bolts embedded 6 inches. q roof = 3.1. q roof = 7.588 lb at 6'-0" centers.830 lb per Table 21-E-1 and 3. For this example.8.

175 lb. 2 (50 psi ) = 5.2.685 lb = 7 . By choosing a pair of pre-fabricated holdown brackets with adequate capacity for a double shear connection into a 2½-inch glued-laminated framing member. Intersection of anchor bolt tension failure cones The anchor bolts are spaced at 6-5/8 inches center to center (considering purlin and hardware dimensions) and have 12-inch diameter pull-out failure cones.1. A p = 37.4 ASD factor = 7. 2 2 (50 psi ) = 9.528 lb ≥ 7. In accordance with §2108.410 lb ) = 7. Vol.04 A p f ' m = 1. the maximum tension of this bolt group may be determined as follows: Calculate Bt n per bolt using the strength provisions of Equation (8-5): Btn = 1. Thus.8 in.876 lb ( ) (8-5) Calculate one-half the area of intersection of failure surfaces from two circles with radius 6 inches and centers (2-1/16" + 2½" + 2-1/16") 6 5/8" apart.8(9.k. 242 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) .5. Thus the bolt group tension can be calculated as: (1.410 lb ) φ Btn ≥ Btu ∴ 0. the failure surfaces will overlap (Figure 4-17).175 lb × 1. 2 − 2 × 37. Thus.04 113 in.0) (2 × 113 in.307 lb (ASD) > 7.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building Figure 4-17.175 lb ∴ o. the brackets are good for 2 × 3. the brackets are okay.4 steel element factor/1.2 from Equations (8-7) and (8-8).8 in.

2. Therefore. Verify that the CMU wall can span laterally 8'-0" between anchors. if the failure is yielding of bolt (Mode IIIs or IV failure).356 lb. Assume a beam width of 6'-0" (3' high parapet plus an additional three feet of wall below roof) spanning horizontally between wall-roof ties. therefore a minimum 4-#4 bars in 6'-0" wall section.1. 4 .176 lb .125 lb = 4 . If the failure is in crushing of wood (Mode I m failure).81 in.) a= As f y . II (1997 UBC) 243 .175 lb.060 lb × 1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.85 × 5.3B. Thus.000 psi ) 3. w = q roof = 897 plf Mu = 2 wl 2 (897 plf )(8 ft ) = = 7. the wall-roof connections must be made with 2½-inch minimum net width roof framing members (2½-inch GLB members or similar) and developed into the roof diaphragm with diaphragm nailing and subdiaphragm design.85 f ' m b = ( ) a φM n = φAs f y d − 2 . 2 (60.85 (2. 7/8-inch bolts) per NDS Table 8.314 in.ft ≤ 7.000 psi ) = 0.20 in. ( ) Per §1633.k.ft 8 8 The wall typically has #4@16-inch horizontal reinforcement.314 in.176 lb .140 lb > 7 . the required force is 0.8 (4 ) . the double shear bolts and pre-fabricated holdown brackets can be used.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building Also check bolt adequacy in the double shear holdown connection with metal side plates (2½-inch main member.ft φM n = 0. 2 (60. ∴ o.33 = 8.500 psi )(72 in. Vol. . item 5. use two holdown brackets on each side of a solid framing member connecting the masonry wall to the framing member with connections spaced at 8'-0" centers. T = 2 × 3.20 in.689 lb . − 2 12 in. 1 = 11.8.

Section 2106.14. Embedment of anchor bolts in CMU walls (MIA.2.14.2. It is recommended that the minimum clear dimension is ¼-inch if fine grout is used and ½-inch if coarse pea gravel grout is used (Figure 4-18).14.1 and §2106. 1998) 244 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. thus the anchor bolt end distance to the inside face of the exterior shell is 7-5/8"-1¼"-6" = 3/8".2. Section 2106.2.2 requires that the anchor bolt end must have 1½ inches clearance to the outside face of masonry. II (1997 UBC) . Figure 4-18.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building Anchor bolt embedment and edge distances are controlled by §2106. Thus. for a 7/8-inch diameter anchor bolt.1 requires that the shell of the masonry unit wall next to the wood ledger have a hole cored or drilled that allows for 1-inch grout all around the anchor bolt.14. the core hole is 2-7/8-inch in diameter at the inside face masonry unit wall.2. The face shell thickness for 8-inch masonry is 1¼ inches. Vol.

10 Chord design.2.125 M diaph.125 (1. trans.62 in.80 )(60 ksi ) Thus 2-#5 chord bars As = 0.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building 10. ( ) wdiaph.356 plf 90' §1633. Since roof framing often is sloped to drainage. Place chord bars close to the roof diaphragm level.ft 60 ft = 25. Vol. 2 φf y (0. Analysis of transverse roof diaphragm chords is determined by calculation of the diaphragm simple span moment wl 2 8 divided by the diaphragm depth.2 are adequate to resist the chord forces.545 k .7 k = = 0. Item 3 Modify w for R = 4. CMU wall section at wall-roof ties 245 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.356 plf )(90 ft )2 8 = 1.0) = 1.5/4. required = Tu 25.545 k . II (1997 UBC) .7 kips Using reinforcement in the CMU wall for chord forces: As . = wl 2 8 = 1. the chord placement is a matter of judgment.54 in. ( ) Figure 4-19.0 by factor (4.ft Tu = C u = 1. = (72 k + 50 k ) = 1.9.

CMD97. 1997. 2550 Beverly Boulevard. Masonry Institute of America. Amrhein. 1999. Sacramento.N. Sacramento. Los Angeles. Vol. Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Buildings. 1998. Paulay. 1992. G E. Virginia. Farmington Hills. The Masonry Society. New York. American Society of Civil Engineers. Concrete Masonry Design to the 1997 UBC.. Reinforced Concrete Masonry Construction Inspector’s Handbook: Conforming to the 1997 UBC. J. Masonry Institute of America. Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures. 5th Edition. Hart. American Concrete Institute. 246 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Reinforced Masonry Engineering Handbook. and Virdee. Brandow. 1996. Reston. Michigan.J. Robinson. Colorado. A. John Wiley & Sons. Concrete Masonry Association of California and Nevada (CMACH). California. Los Angeles. 1999. II (1997 UBC) .. MIA. California. Computer Aided Design of Reinforced Concrete and Clay Masonry Elements in Accordance with the 1997 Uniform Building Code. and Priestly.. Concrete Masonry Association of California and Nevada (CMACH). and Uzarski.. Inc.. A.. M.E. Boulder. J. California 90057.. T. Design of Reinforced Masonry Structures.Design Example 4 ! Masonry Shear Wall Building References ACI 530-99 / ASCE 6-99 / TMS 402-99. California. G.

substantial improvements. the seismic design of major components of a tilt-up building are presented. The most common problem is wall-roof separation. In the 1997 UBC. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. This building has tilt-up concrete walls and a panelized plywood roof system. Tilt-up building of Design Example 5 Overview In this example. including higher wall-roof anchorage forces. and a typical section through the building is given in Figure 5-3. and a major collector. The example building is the warehouse shown in Figure 5-1. Vol. The emphasis in this Design Example 5 is the seismic design of the roof diaphragm.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building Design Example 5 Tilt-Up Building Figure 5-1. Many tilt-up buildings have suffered severe structural damage in earthquakes. II (1997 UBC) 247 . particularly during the 1971 San Fernando and 1994 Northridge events. wall-roof anchorage. The building’s roof framing plan is shown in Figure 5-2. with subsequent partial collapse of the roof. have been added to help prevent the problems that appeared in tilt-up buildings built to codes as recent as the 1994 UBC.

4.000 psi A615. Design shear force for east-west panel on line 1. 2. 9. 8.4 (Zone 4) I = 1. II (1997 UBC) . 10. Vol. 3. Design continuity ties for north-south direction.0 ρ E/W = 1.0 (Standard occupancy) seismic source type = B distance to seismic source = 13km soil profile type = S D ρ N/S = 1. Design of collector along line 3 between lines B and C. Design typical north-south subdiaphragm.25" height = 23' normal weight concrete = 150 pcf f ' c = 4. Required diaphragm chord for east-west seismic forces. 5. Deflection of east-west diaphragm. 7. Design wall-roof ties for north-south subdiaphragm. Grade 60 rebar f y = 60 ksi Seismic and site data: Z = 0. Required wall panel reinforcing for out-of-plane forces.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building Outline This example will illustrate the following parts of the design process: 1. Given Information The following information is given: Roof: dead load = 14. 6. Design the roof diaphragm.0 psf Walls: thickness = 7.5 (due to short wall on line 3) ( ) Roof sheathing: Structural I plywood 248 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 10 Design base shear coefficient.

Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building Figure 5-2. Typical cross-section SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol. II (1997 UBC) 249 . Roof framing plan of tilt-up building Figure 5-3.

the period computed above using Equation (30-8) is not a good estimate of the real fundamental period of the building.0 ) = .5(. Vol.21) (30-4) Table 16-N Table 16-Q Table 16-R Table 16-S Table 16-T but base shear need not exceed: V = 2.0 N v = 1.020(21) 3 3 4 = .244W W = 4.2 Using Method A. Consequently.44 )(1.64(1.5(.2.44(1.44 C v = .677W RT 4.44 N a = .5 R (30-5) 250 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. the period is calculated as: T = Ct (hn ) 4 = . The code formula for period does not take into consideration that the real period of the building is highly dependent on the roof diaphragm construction. Design base shear coefficient. With seismic source type B and distance to source = 13 km N a = 1.64 N v = .Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building Calculations and Discussion Code Reference 1.0 For soil profile type SD and Z = .0 ) W = .64(1. §1630.64 Since tilt-up concrete walls are both shear walls and bearing walls: R = 4.4 C a = . II (1997 UBC) .20 sec (30-8) Comment: The building’s lateral force-resisting system has relatively rigid walls and a flexible roof diaphragm.0 ) = . however it is acceptable for determining design base shear.5C a I 2.0 ) W = W = .5 Design base shear is calculated from: V = Cv I .

6 psf (2 ft + 10. the effect of any wall openings has been neglected. 2b Roof diaphragm shear. The principal reason for this is that base shear under the 1997 UBC is determined on a strength design basis.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building A check of Equations (30-6) and (30-7) indicate these do not control. This calculation is shown below: roof area = 110 ft (64 ft ) + 140.244W Note that the base shear is greater than that required under the 1994 UBC. If allowable stress design (ASD) is used. Vol. 2. The roof diaphragm must be designed to resist seismic forces in both directions. Fpx .67 ft )(2 ) = 318. II (1997 UBC) 251 . separate forces are computed for each direction.7 kips wall weight = 7. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.3 kips In this example.3.6 kips east-west walls = 90.5 ft )(140.5 ft )(288 ft )(2 ) = 652. Roof diaphragm weight. This is considered an acceptable simplification because the openings usually occur in the bottom half of the wall. 2a Design the roof diaphragm.550 sq ft roof weight = 38.6 psf 12 north-south walls = 90. therefore the base shear in both directions is V = . Seismic forces for the roof are computed from the weight of the roof and the tributary weights of the walls oriented perpendicular to the direction of the seismic forces.550 sq ft (14 psf ) = 539.67 ft (224 ft ) = 38.6 psf (2 ft + 10. 2a. the base shear is divided by 1. In general. on the diaphragm at a given level of a building. The following formula is used to determine the total seismic force.25 × 150 = 90. 2b.4 according to §1612.

B and E are considered lines of resistance for the north-south seismic forces.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building F px = Ft + ∑ Fi i= x n i= x ∑ Wi n W px (33-1) Base shear for this building is V = . This was determined using R = 4.244W .244) W px = 0. and using R = 4 .0 (. and the load on the B-E segment is slightly greater than that shown.3 kips F px = .7 k + 318.22W px Therefore. A collector is needed along line B to drag the tributary north-south diaphragm forces into the shear wall on line B.5 (.275W px W px = 4 W 4 §1633.3) = 236.275 (858. For diaphragm design. (Refer to Examples 15 and 16 in Volume I of the Seismic Design Manual for a discussion of the ρ factor.275W px Note: The reliability/redundancy factor ρ is not applied to horizontal diaphragms. §1633. This has been done to simplify the computations. Since this is a one-story building with Ft = 0 .2.6 for definition of flexible diaphragm). II (1997 UBC) .44 )(1.0 kips The equivalent uniform load on the diaphragm can be computed as: w= 236.678 plf 140. except transfer diaphragms. The shear diagram is shown below. Vol.5C a IW px = 0. Equation (33-1) becomes the following: F px = 4.5 as shown in Part 1 above.9 requires that R not exceed 4.9 Fpx need not exceed 1.0 )W px = .0C a IW px = 1.0 kips = 1. Because the panelized wood roof diaphragm in this building is considered flexible (see §1630. for diaphragm design use F px = .44W px but cannot be less than 0.2. lines A. an approximation has been made that the uniform load between lines A and B is the same as that between B and E.5 (.67' In this calculation. however.44 )(1.6 k = 858. 252 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.) North-south direction: W px = 539. The actual load on the A-B segment is less.5 V 4.0 )W px = .2.9 §1633.

Seismic loading and shear diagram for north-south diaphragm 1 3 64'-0" 224'-0" 10 Diaphragm shear at line A and on the east side of line B is: 25.4 k W px = 539.3 k Shear Figure 5-4. w = 327.3 k = 1.7 k 25.3 k E Loading 92.5 k 36. Seismic loading and shear diagram for east-west diaphragm SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 k ) = 327.5 k Shear Figure 5-5. and the load on 3-10 slightly greater.8 k = 1. 0 kips F px = .192.192.138 plf Loading East-west direction: Diaphragm forces for the east-west direction are computed using the same procedure and assumptions as the north-south direction.300 lb = 320 plf 288 ft w = 1. 36. II (1997 UBC) 253 . Vol.275 (1.678 plf 110'-0" 25.7 k + 652.4 k 127.7 k 92. The actual load on segment 1-3 is less than that shown.8 kips Equiv.138 plf 288 ft 127.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building A 30'-8" B w = 1.700lbs = 115 plf 224' Diaphragm shear at the west side of line B and at line E is: 92.

Allowable stress design (ASD) will be used. However. II (1997 UBC) .4 Assume the diaphragm is to be constructed with ½-inch Structural I plywood with all edges supported. the reliability/redundancy factor does not apply to the diaphragm.4 to convert to ASD.0 E h + 0 = 1. The east-west diaphragm has been selected to illustrate the design of a plywood roof diaphragm. When ASD is used.500 lb = 906 plf 140. Required nailing for panel edges for various zones of the roof (for east-west seismic only) is given in Table 5-1 below. This simplifies to the following: D+ E = 0+ E = E 1. and strength is therefore limited by the 2-inch nominal width. Diaphragm shear forces must be divided by 1. and ρ=1 in Equation (30-1).400 lb = 331 plf 110 ft Diaphragm shear at the south side of line 3 and at line 10 is: 127. Minimum field nailing is 10d @ 12 inches.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building Diaphragm shear at line 1 and the north side of line 3 is: 36. Sheathing arrangement (shown in Figure 5-2) for east-west seismic forces is Case 4. in the north-south direction. As discussed earlier. vertical effects need not be considered. and in this example of the diaphragm design. Because open web truss purlins with double 2x4 chords are used in this direction. A similar calculation (not shown) must be done for north-south seismic forces. 2c Design of east-west diaphragm. the framing width in the east-west direction is 3½ inches.67 ft 2c. the basic load combination to be used to combine earthquake and dead load is Equation (12-9). (12-9) (30-1) 254 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 E h For ASD. they would not come into use even if strength design was being used. the framing consists of 2 × subpurlins.4 1. Refer to use UBC Table 23-II-H for nailing requirements.4 1. The basic earthquake loading combination is given by Equation (30-1). Vol. E = ρE h + E v = 1.

k. Design of ledger bolts. required to transfer the diaphragm shear to the wall panels. o. Design of the chord for the east-west diaphragm is shown in Part 7 of this example.k. 2. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.4 = 236 plf Status say o. o. 1 64'-0" 3 40'-0" 144'-0" 10 40'-0" A C B A Figure 5-6. zone A extends a distance of 40 feet from lines 3 and 10 as shown below.4 = 416 plf 331/1. 425 plf × 1. II (1997 UBC) 255 . Diaphragm nailing for east-west seismic forces Boundary and East-West Edge North-South Zone Edge Nailing (2) Allowable Shear Nailing (1) A 10d @ 2½" 4" 640 plf B C 10d @ 4" 10d @ 6" 6" 6" 425 plf 320 plf ASD Shear 906/1.e. Nailing zones for east-west roof diaphragm The above illustrates design of the east-west diaphragm for shear. The demarcation between nailing zones A and B is determined as follows.4 = 647 plf 583/1.. is not shown. Notes: 1.4 feet from lines 3 and 10. The limiting shear for 10d at 4 inches (from Table 23-II-H) is 425 plf. The east-west running sheet edges are the “continuous panel edges parallel to load” mentioned in Table 23-II-H. Rounding to the nearest 8-foot increment because purlins are spaced at 8 feet o. It was decided to use 10d at 2½-inch spacing in A and 4-inch spacing in B. Vol.. Shear reduces from a maximum of 906 plf at lines 3 and 10 to 595 plf (i. Note that the nailing for north-south running diaphragm boundaries is 10d @ 2½ inches. The north-south sheet edges are the “other panel edges” in Table 23-II-H.c.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building Table 5-1.k.4 = 595 plf) at 38.

Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building 3. 3a.8.5 to 1 From Figure 5-2. Design of subdiaphragm for east-west seismic forces is similar but not shown. 3b Forces on subdiaphragm. II (1997 UBC) . Seismic forces on a typical north-south subdiaphragm are determined from Equation (32-2) with R p = 3. 256 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Maximum allowable subdiaphragm ratio is 2. Subdiaphragms are used to transfer out-of-plane seismic forces from the tilt-up wall panels to the main diaphragm. w p = 90.67 ft = 14. the maximum north-south subdiaphragm span = 36. The tributary wall weight is one-half of the weight between the roof and base plus all of the weight above the roof.5.67 ft 2. and W p is the tributary weight. Because subdiaphragms are part of the out-of-plane wall anchorage system.1.2. Consequently.0 and a p = 1.2.67 ft 3 §1633. In the example below.9 Minimum subdiaphragm depth = Typical roof purlin spacing = 8 ′ − 0 ′′ Minimum subdiaphragm depth = 16 ′ − 0 ′′ ∴ Must use subdiaphragm at least = 16 ′ − 0 ′′ deep 3b. Vol. subdiaphragms are considered to be part of the wall anchorage system as defined in §1627.6 psf Fp = a p Ca I p h 1 + 3 x Rp hr W p (32-2) The value of F p to be used in wall-roof anchorage design is determined from Equation (32-2) using h x = hr . design of a typical subdiaphragm for north-south seismic forces is shown. they are designed under the requirements of §1633. Design typical north-south subdiaphragm. 3a Check subdiaphragm aspect ratio.5 110 ft = 36.

0 21 1 + 3 × W p = .5 ft )(1 ft ) = 1. II (1997 UBC) 257 .133)= 997 plf 2'-0" q 10'-6" .k. 3c Check subdiaphragm shear. Second. the deeper than required subdiaphragm depth (32 feet vs.5 (.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building W p = 90. the GLB along Line 9 can be used as a chord.8. First. at the roof level q = .88W p 3.2.88 (1. This is done for two reasons. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 16 feet) makes the subdiaphragm displacement more compatible with that of the main north-south diaphragm.1(1) 3c.88Wp 10'-6" Figure 5-7. §1633.44 )1.133 lb/ft Fp = 1.0 21 Solving for the uniform force per foot. Vol. Loading diagram for wall-roof anchorage design Check minimum wall-roof anchorage force 997 plf > 420 plf ∴ q = 997 plf o. q .6 psf (2 ft + 10.88W p = . Assume a 32-foot deep subdiaphragm as shown below.

∴Use of Zone A nailing for subdiaphragm okay 258 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. capacity = 640 plf > 347 plf o. Load on an ASD basis with the 0.85 load factor of §1633. except at boundaries.2.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building Figure 5-8. Vol. II (1997 UBC) .280 lb 2 18. the minimum nailing in Zone A (Figure 5-6) is 10d @ 4 in. for Case 2.280 lb = 571 plf 32 Maximum shear = From Table 5-1.1(5) applied is 0.67 ft ) = 18. Typical north-south subdiaphragm Shear reaction to glulam beams along lines C and D: R= 997 plf (36.8.85 (571 plf ) = 347 plf 1.k.4 Table 23-II-H Check 10d @ 4 in. along north-south edges.

Under this loading. Glulam beams (GLB) along lines 2 and 9.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building 3d.85 (5. Note that 0.237 lb) 1.8.150 psi ft = 0.4 (5.000 ) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. the subdiaphragm system shown above is provided. 3d Check GLB as subdiaphragm chord. 91 NDS = 20 psi < 1 × 1. 2 Table 5A. The 1. because it is necessary to demonstrate that there is a system to resist the out-of-plane forces on the diaphragm edge. It will be loaded in tension only when compressive wall anchorage forces act on the diaphragm. the GLB along line 9 may not act in tension as a subdiaphragm chord as shown above. Check to see if the GLB can carry additional seismic force within incremental one-third allowable tension increase using ASD. 3 Comment: In reality.9 (60.1(4) must be applied to the reinforcement.4 load factor of §1633.150 psi = 383 psi o.237 ) P = = 0.2.1(5) is applied to the chord force when checking the tension stress in the GLB. act as chords for the subdiaphragms.85 load factor of §1633. However. and the continuous horizontal reinforcement in panels along lines 1 and 10.67 )2 = 5.2. Chord force = 997 plf (36.k.2 Ft = 1. II (1997 UBC) 259 .2 φf y 0.14 in. 3e.4 × 162 in. the subdiaphragm may effectively be much deeper than shown. Vol.237 lb 8(32 ) Assume GLB 6 3 4 × 24 with 24F-V4 DF/DF A = 162 in.8. Subdiaphragm chord force = P = 5.237 lb As = 1. This Design Example 5 assumes that there is continuous horizontal reinforcement in the walls at the roof level that acts as a chord for both the main diaphragm and the subdiaphragms. 3e Determine minimum chord reinforcement at exterior concrete walls. the seismic forces probably do not follow only the subdiaphragm path shown above but are also transmitted through the wood framing to other parts of the diaphragm. Even if subdiaphragm action does occur.

Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building This is a relatively small amount of reinforcement. Wall-roof ties are used to transfer out-of-plane seismic forces on the tilt-up wall panels to the subdiaphragms. Generally. are the wall-roof ties.8.976 lb Comment: When tie spacing exceeds 4 feet. §1633.2. Seismic forces are determined using Equations (32-1) or (32-2). Design of the holdown hardware not shown. the main diaphragm chord reinforcement exceeds this amount.2.2.8. Determination of the main chord reinforcement is shown in Part 7. 4b. Values of R p and a p are: R p = 3.8.2. spacing. as specified in §1633. This connection (Figure 5-9) is designed to take both tension and compression as recommended by the SEAOSC/COLA Northridge Tilt-up Building Task Force and the SEAOC Blue Book (§C108. and are q = 997 plf . Consult ICBO Evaluation Reports for allowable load capacity of pre-manufactured holdowns.1. using the same values of R p and a p . §1633.1(2). Vol. the subdiaphragm chord steel requirement is not added to the chord steel requirement for the main diaphragm. 4a.1). defined in §1627. 260 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 4a Seismic force on wall-roof tie.8.8. In present California practice. and determine F p F p = 8 ft × 997 plf = 7.1 The key elements in the wall anchorage system.8.1(1) Forces on the anchorage were computed above in Part 3.2. the SEAOC Blue Book (§108. Generally. Note that if a one-sided holdown is used.6) recommends that walls be designed to resist bending between anchors.2.1(5) Try prefabricated metal holdowns with two ¾-inch bolts in subpurlin and two ¾-inch bolts connecting the subpurlin to the wall panel.2. II (1997 UBC) . 4. 4b Design typical wall-roof tie.0 a p = 1. one-sided wall-roof anchorage is not recommended. Minimum required thickness of a subpurlin used as wall-roof tie = 2½ inches Try ties at 8 ft-0 in. Design wall-roof ties for north-south subdiaphragm.5 §1633. eccentricities in the subpurlin must be considered. Requirements for connection of out-of-plane wall anchorages to flexible diaphragms are specified in §1633.

A larger SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.2.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building precast wall panel ¾"anchor bolt (2 total) 6" plywood sheathing holdown each side of subpurlin w/ 2-¾" M. The minimum recommended value is 4.1) makes a recommendation for the minimum length to diameter ratio of the through-bolts connecting the holdowns to the subpurlin.843 lb 1. Note that the .8.5..630)(2 bolts)(1. and the use of a 6-inch edge distance will ensure compliance with the 7D requirement. Typical subpurlin wall-roof tie Check capacity of the two ¾-inch bolts in DF-L subpurlin using ASD: Table 8.976 lb) = 4. Comment: The Blue Book (§C108.8. Vol.1(5) is used to reduce the seismic force. bending of the through-bolts).3.996 lb > 0. Minimum required end distance = 7 D = 7 (. This applies to forces on nails and bolts connecting brackets or strips to the wood framing because these are considered “wood elements” under the code (see SEAOC Blue Book §C108.5/0. This ratio is necessary to maintain a ductile failure mode (e. In this case.4 o. II (1997 UBC) 261 .85 (7 .8.33) = 6. 3x subpurlin 5" nut and washer.75) = 5. 91 NDS (2.75 = 3. the l/d ratio is 2. To satisfy the Blue Book recommendation. 91 NDS A distance of 6 inches from the through-bolt in the holdown to the ledger will be used.4. a 4x subpurlin would be required in this situation.5.2. Often. Table 8.k.85 load factor of §1633.2.25 in.3B. typical ledger 7¼" Figure 5-9. there is a gap of 1/8-inch or more between the end of the subpurlin and the side of the ledger due to panelized roof erection methods.1).B.g.

2. Section 1633.1875-inch Assume L = 4½-inch L 4. In this case.2.k.33) P = (20. and the bolts are not required to be “hooked” around the wall reinforcement. Rp is 3.33) = 23. In fact. the 1.4418 in.k.0 ksi P = Ft AB (2 bolts)(1.8.8. This section requires that wall anchorage using straps be attached or hooked so as to transfer the forces to the reinforcing steel.4 (1.75-inch/4 = 0.0 kips o.33) P = (20. Vol. we are using cast-in-place bolts instead of straps.33) = 23..8. Although this embedment is considered shallow anchorage under §1632.1875" Fa = 20.4.4 steel factor has been used to increase the seismic force.2 do not apply.8 are the appropriate design rules in this situation.0 regardless of whether the anchorage has shallow embedment because §1633.0 kips o. 1982].2.2. This is because the tilt-up panels are both bearing walls and shear walls. Check compression capacity of two ¾-inch A307 anchor bolts using ASD: Radius of gyration of ¾-inch rod = 0. headed anchor bolts have been shown to be more effective than L-bolts in resisting pull-out forces [Shipp and Haninger.5" = = 24.1 is applicable. The requirements of §1633. and 262 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.5 k > 1.1(4).1 is intended as a stand-alone section. r 0.4976) lb = 8.2.0 ksi ) 0. 2 Table 1-A.85 for wood) are intended to provide the nominal overstrength necessary to resist brittle failure of the wall anchorage system when subjected to the maximum anticipated roof accelerations of flexible diaphragms. The material specific load factors of §1633. II (1997 UBC) .2. AISC-ASD ( 7 ) (2 bolts)(1.2. 2 ( ) (2 rods)(1.4418 in. but the requirements of §1633.4 for steel and 0. As specified in §1633.35 ksi ) 0. Check tension capacity of two ¾-inch A307 anchor bolts using ASD: Ft = 20.1 (1. Check tension capacity of anchor bolts in wall panel for concrete strength: The tilt-up panels are exterior wall elements.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building distance can be used to ensure that through-bolt tear out does not occur in the 3 × subpurlin.8.35 ksi Table C-36. Try anchor bolts with a 5-inch embedment. AISC-ASD P = Fa AB (2 rods )(1.9 k > 8.

II (1997 UBC) 263 .8. Thus.200 Fp 2 = 7 . This overstrength approach was selected.000 psi and assuming Special Inspection.8. and 0.8. in lieu of a ductility approach.2. The latter is also discussed in §C108. Vol.988 = 2. after wall anchorage failures were observed in steel strap connectors with limited yield and deformation range.1. 6¾ in. A background discussion on this is given in the Blue Book Commentary §C108.800 lb (1.1 and is shown to be equivalent to doubling the design anchorage force F p .8. it must be prevented by having sufficient embedment strength.33) = 6 . spacing is shown below with f 'c = 4.2. Allowable = 4. a load multiplier of 1.2.1 should have the overstrength that just meets the maximum expected demand of 2 F p .2. Bolt Spacing 9 in. From Table 19-D. Alternately. 1.2 could be used with computation for overlapping pull-out cones.4 for steel. the requirements of §1923. where the load factors are shown to provide a connection having nominal overstrength of approximately 2. This is required to meet the maximum expected roof acceleration of four times the peak ground acceleration. If §1923. using strength design.65 would be used: Tension Capacity (w/Special Inspection) 6.976 lb Actual bolt spacing is: 2½ in. They are applied to the anchorage force determined from Equation (32-2).988 lb/bolt 2 3.4 o. Because anchor bolt pull-out is a critical and brittle failure mode. These factors are 1.2 is used.3 and a strength reduction factor of 0.400 lb/bolt 4. F p = 7.0 for concrete. 4½ in.0.k.1). Minimum spacing is 50 percent of this.976 = 3. The nominal factor of two SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.384 lb > Comment: The code in §1633.2 do not apply (see Blue Book §C108. (width of 3 × subpurlin) +4¼ in.800 3. (2 times bolt edge distance of holdown flange) 6¾ in. an anchorage connection designed under §1633.8.849 1. or 4½ in.85 for wood. required spacing for full capacity is 9 inches.1 requires that material-specific load factors be applied in the design of elements of the wall anchorage system. Interpolation for 6¾ in.2.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building the more restrictive requirements on R p of §1632.

the design engineer must compute the capacity of each element separately. Therefore.0 kips o. 1999).65 λ =1. Vol. 2 φ = 0. and wood elements.3. If the overstrength desired was only 2. A p = 0. and A p is computed as follows.785 (10 + 1. In general.0. it is recommended that the concrete pull-out strength exceed the code minimum by a substantial margin (as shown above). a φ-factor of 0. Note that the capacity φPc is greater than 2 F p . this connection.2 §1923. The code requires that different loads be applied to the various materials involved in the wall anchorage system.000 = 28. then φ=1. However.3. steel.0)4 172 in.8. Often there is a 1/8-inch to 1/4-inch gap at each end. Compression forces in the subpurlin generally must be carried by the strap and/or plywood sheathing because subpurlins are typically not installed snugly against the ledgers.2.65 as discussed in §C108. This is based on dividing the 1.785)(11. Shown below is the calculation of the strength of the anchorage shown in Figure 5-9 using the method of §1923. In this case.65 is used to provide an additional margin of safety beyond the code minimum. 2 < 2(0.75(10 + 1. the anchorage in Figure 5-9 is strong enough to resist the expected pull-out forces for code-level ground motions.2 §1923. If this is not possible.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building overstrength for concrete anchorage just meets the expected maximum demand. .2 For ¾ in.3 load factor by a φ-factor of 0.2.0 φPc = (0. Providing both tension and compression capability in wall-roof ties protects the diaphragm edge nailing under the reversible seismic forces.0 would be used.2 (an alternate method is given in Cook. An alternate wall-roof tie connection is in Figure 5-10.125)2 + 6. the width across the flats is 1 18 in. which utilizes a heavy-gauge strap. To properly apply code requirements.2 ( ) 4.3. II (1997 UBC) . However. 264 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.3.125) = 172 in. which often includes concrete. bolts with hex heads.3 kips > 2 F p = 16. it is recommended that the concrete pull-out strength exceed the bolt yield strength. In this calculation.1 of the Blue Book.65)(1. most hardware manufacturer’s catalogs provide only a single allowable stress capacity for the component.k. φPc = φλ 4 A p f c' §1923. the strap is hooked around a reinforcing bar to meet the requirements of §1633. does not offer the same compression resistance as the bolt scheme (Figure 5-9).125)2 = 194 in.8.

Vol. the force to be transferred is one-half and one-fourth. but this is not required by rational analysis. Comment: Some engineers use the full. Alternate wall-roof tie 4c. 1 × 7 . unreduced force. 4c Design connection to transfer seismic force across first roof truss purlin.982 lb 4 At the second and third roof truss purlins. continuity ties in the subdiaphragms are considered part of the wall anchorage system.988 lb 2 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. then the connection at the first roof truss purlin must carry three-quarters of the wall-roof tie force.976 lb If the subdiaphragm is 32-foot deep and roof truss purlins are spaced at 8 feet. of the wall-roof tie force.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building pre-manufactured 12-gauge strap plywood sheathing #5 bar 3x subpurlin 4" 7¼" ledger Figure 5-10.976 = 5. respectively. (32 − 8) × F 32 p = 3 × 7 . the forces used to design the wall-roof ties must also be used to design the continuity ties within the subdiaphragm. F p = wall-roof tie load = 7. II (1997 UBC) 265 . Consequently. Under §1627.976 = 3.

is usually controlled by the nails. Note that the 1.85 (5.976 = 1. 91 ND 12-gauge strap with 24-10d nails each side of roof purlin subpurlin open web roof truss purlin Figure 5-11.2. Consult ICBO Evaluation Reports for allowable load capacity of pre-manufactured straps.1(5) applies to the nails. Subpurlin continuity tie at first purlin 266 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol.994 lb 4 Try 12-gauge metal strap with 10d common nails.8.33) ∴ Use 12-gauge metal strap with 24-10d nails each side Table 23-III-C-2 Table 12-3F.4 )(1.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building 1 × 7 .85 load factor of §1633.982 lb ) = 22.8 120 lb (1. The tensile capacity of the strap. The following calculation shows determination of the number of 10d common nails required at the first connection: 0.1(4) applies to the strap design and that the 0.8. Tension on the gross and net areas of the strap must be checked separately. II (1997 UBC) .2. Design of strap not shown.4 load factor of §1633. Consult with the strap manufacturer for appropriate values of F y and Fu . which is generally not indicated in the ICBO Evaluation Report.

5.0 )(18.027 lb < 36. 5a Seismic forces on continuity ties on lines C and D.5 (.560 lb 2 The splice near line 9 must also be checked for the minimum horizontal tie force of §1633. In this example.2. F p = 0. Vol. 5a. II (1997 UBC) 267 .5 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.5C a IWD + L W DL = 14 psf . Design continuity ties for north-south direction In a tilt-up building. The first is to transmit the subdiaphragm reactions (from out-of-plane seismic forces on the wall panels) and distribute these into the main roof diaphragm.67 ft ) 32 ft − − = 18.306 lb ) = 4 . the continuity ties on lines C and D will be designed.560 lb ∴ Subdiaphragm reaction controls §1633.67 ft ) (2 subdiaph.5. P9 = 997 plf (36. The second function is that of “tying” the interior portions of the roof together.) = 36.306 lb 5 5 F p = 0. continuity ties have two functions. Design of the second and third connections is similar to that shown above.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building Note that both subpurlins in Figure 5-11 would be 3 × members because of the heavy strap nailing. Force in the continuity tie at line 10 is the wall-roof tie force: P10 = (997 plf )(8 ft ) = 7 .44)(1. Assume the splice is at fifth point of span as shown on the roof plan of Figure 5-2. This requirement imposes a minimum tie force on the GLB connections and is based only on the dead and live loads carried by the beams. W LL = 12 psf 32 ft 32 ft W D + L = (14 psf + 12 psf )(36.976 lb Force in continuity tie at the glulam beam splice north of line 9 is the sum of both subdiaphragm reactions.2.

In this example. ledger plywood sheathing P Stud (typical) bracket GLB 5" 7¼" Figure 5-12.976 lb ) . the kind of detail shown in Figure 5-12 must be used.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building 5b. Consequently. The tie force is the same as that for wall-roof tie of Part 5a (P10 = 7. This provides for a much stronger “tie” between the wall and the GLB for buildings without pilasters (the usual practice today) to help prevent loss of support for the GLB and subsequent local collapse of the roof under severe seismic motions. Bracket for wall-roof anchorage at GLB It should be noted that the alternate wall-roof tie of Figure 5-10 is not acceptable in this situation because the strap cannot resist compression. 268 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol. some designers design the wall-GLB tie to take all of the tributary wall-roof forces (assuming the subpurlin wall ties carry none) and carry this force all across the building as the design force in the continuity ties. this force is P9 = 36. This detail provides both vertical support for the GLB and the necessary wall-roof tie force capacity. II (1997 UBC) . The horizontal force design is similar to that shown in Part 4.560 lb . walls are bearing walls. Comment: Although not required by code. 5b Design glulam beam (continuity tie) connection to wall panel. Details of the design are not given. In this example. The detail has the capacity to take both tension and compression forces. and pilasters are not used to vertically support the GLBs.

8.197 lb o.260 lb )(1. Note that the 0. Note that the bolt capacity is based on the species of the inner laminations (in this case DF-L). P= 0.1). 5c Design continuity tie across glulam splice.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building 5c.2.2. Note that use of the amplified force check of §1633. Vol. 5d Check GLB for continuity tie force.4 6-3/4” glulam beam 22.2 k vertical slotted holes hinge connector Figure 5-13. Table 8. Typical continuity tie splice Try four 7/8-inch bolts in vertical slotted holes at center of hinge connector. 4 (4 .3D. Design of hinge connector hardware not shown.k.8. The glulam beams along lines C and D must be checked for the continuity tie axial force. 91 NDS 5d.197 lb 1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.33) = 22 .85 (36 . P9 = 36. See Part 6 for an example of this calculation.2 k 22.663 lb > 22 .1(5) is used for bolts in wood (see discussion in Blue Book §C108.85 wood load factor of §1633. Consult ICBO Evaluation Reports for allowable load capacity of pre-manufactured hinge connectors. II (1997 UBC) 269 .560 lb at splice near line 9 The ASD design force for the continuity tie is computed below.560 lb ) = 22.2.6 is not required for continuity ties that are not collectors.

The force in the collector is “collected” from the tributary area between lines B and E and transmitted to the shear wall on line 3.4 (12-16) w DL = 8 ft (14 psf ) + 34.237 klf (91. and w = 34.4 k + 140.5 plf M DL = 270 0. Design collector along line 3 between lines B and C.00 ft − 36. A = 141.237 plf L 110.67 ft ) = 113. D+L+S + E 1.4 kips tension or compression in beam 6c.67 ft 127.2 . q= R 136. Assume the collector is a GLB 6 3 4 × 21 with 24F-V4 DF/DF and it is adequate to support dead and live loads.147 k / ft (36.00 ft 6b. II (1997 UBC) . The collector and shear wall ledger along line 3 carry one-half of the east-west roof diaphragm seismic force.100 lb = = 1.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building 6. 6b Determine the collector force in GLB between lines B and C. 6a.67 ft = 91.67 ft 2 P = ql = 1. From diaphragm shear diagram for east-west seismic forces.1 kips tension or compresion Uniform axial load in collector can be approximated as the total collector load on line 3 divided by the length of the collector (110'-0") in this direction. the maximum collector load on at line 3 is: 110. S = 496 in. Tributary length for collecting axial forces is l = 110.0 ft R = 36. Calculate seismic force at mid-span. Vol. 6a Determine seismic forces on collector.2 .8 in. 6c Check GLB for combined dead and seismic load as required by §1612.5 k = 136.67 ft )2 = 24.7 kip −ft 8 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.2.5 plf.3.5 plf = 146.

1' < 30'−8" Since both projections are greater than 15 percent of the plan dimension in the direction considered. a Type 2 plan irregularity exists. by inspection.15 × (288) = 43.79 < 1.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building Fb * = 2. North-south direction check: .3.000 lb = 571 psi 141. II (1997 UBC) 271 .00 Fb * Ft ' 598 571 + = 0. 91 NDS Table 16-M Table 16-M SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.8 Because there is a re-entrant corner at the intersection of lines B and 3. Vol. 91 NDS Ft = 1.7 k −ft (12. and the one-third allowable stress increase cannot be used.2 ft < 64 ′ − 0 ′′ East-west direction check: .k.50 = 0.0 + 30.2.150 psi Fc = 1. 2.00 o.4 = 81.3 = 598 psi Table 5A.000) 496 in. a check for Type 2 plan irregularity must be made.9-2) of NDS o. 91 NDS Table 5A.1.9 apply.5.29 + 0.9-1) of NDS: fb f + t ≤ 1.4 Table 5A.088 1.0 kips tension or compression on ASD basis 1.150 Equation (3. The requirements of Item 6 of §1633. 3.088 psi fb = 24.9.67 ) = 21.k. Checking combined bending and axial tension using Equation (3. Requirements for irregular structures are given in §1629. 91 NDS P= 113.15 × (110.650 psi ft = fc = 81.

6.67) = 36.650 (0. The relevant equations are: 1.73 1 + (1.3.523 psi 3.523 / 1.k . 6d.0 3.9 ) 0.9 2 Fc′ = Fc C p = 1.0 Em 0.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building Checking combined bending and axial compression using Equation (3. 6d Check GLB collector for amplified force requirements.9-3) of NDS and considering the weak axis of the GLB laterally braced by the roof: fb fc ′ + f Fc Fb′ 1 − c FcE 2 ≤ 1.0 (36. The GLB must also be checked for the special collector requirements of §1633.523 / 1.650 − 2(0. Vol.5.2 D + f1 L + 1. 91 NDS Find Fc ' by first calculating the column stability factor C p .0 E m Em = Ω o Eh 272 (12-17) (12-18) (30-2) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) .0 1. 3.7. 91 NDS = 1. l e = k e l = 1.205 psi 598 571 = 0. 91 NDS 1 + (1.0881 − 1.000 ) (36.9 D ± 1.68 < 1. 91 NDS Table 5A.523 2 ( ) Table 2.7-1.418(1. an allowable stress increase of 1.22 + 0.46 = 0.205 + 571 2.2.1. 91 NDS Supplement 2 (le /d ) = 0.7 may be used for this check.650 ) 1.7.2. Using ASD.67 × 12 / 21)2 Fc * = Fc = 1650 psi Cp = 1 + (FcE /Fc* ) FcE /Fc* 1 + (FcE /Fc* ) − − 2c 2c c Eq.9 ) C p = 0.73) = 1. 91 NDS o.1.600.650 ) − Cp = 2(0.92.523 / 1.1.67 ft FcE = K cE E' 2 3.

85 (2.040 psi ft = fc = 317. Generally.400 psi ) = 2.0 on seismic forces. Under both §1612. II (1997 UBC) . Equation (12-17) controls over Equation (12-18). S = 820 in. roof live load is not included in the seismic design load combinations.8 E h = 113.4 times greater than those of the 1994 UBC. This appears to result in an unnecessarily conservative design for elements like the GLB collector in this example. the seismic force Eh is scaled by the amplification factor Ω o for estimating Em .4 ) = 317. Check tension using NDS Equation (3.2 on dead load and 1.4 ASD factor when increasing the axial force by the Ω o = 2.5 kips tension or compression in beam Comment: The axial force E m = 317.4.8 factor.5 kips in the above calculations is 1. 91 NDS Table 16-N Fb = 0.700 lb −ft (12) = 361 psi 820 Table 5A. the 1997 UBC does not first reduce the forces by the 1. The load factors are 1.3 plf .Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building Em is an estimate of the maximum force transmitted by the collector elements in the seismic event. A = 182 in.7. can transmit to the collector determined.7 kip −ft fb = 24.8 (113. Because the 6 3 4 × 21 GLB will not work. above E m = 2. Ω o = 2. Vol. and the allowable stress increase is 1.2. and w = 44. Unless a more refined analysis is done and the maximum force that the diaphragm. This is because forces in the 1997 UBC are strength based and were established to be 1. 3 .4 kips from Part 6b.1 and §1612. or the shear wall. Dead load bending stress at mid-span is (neglecting small increase in beam weight): M DL = 24. a 6 3 4 × 27 beam will be tried.745 psi 182 Check combined dead plus tension and compression seismic stresses using Equation (12-17).9-1): 273 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 2 .500 lb = 1.4 times greater than that which would be obtained using the 3R w / 8 factor applied to collector forces obtained under the 1994 UBC provisions. Unfortunately.

Vol.7 F * + 1.9-3) as modified below: 1.2 f b 1.k.50 + 0.2.0 FcE = (le /d ) K cE E' 2 0.6 has necessitated that the size of the GLB be increased from 6 3 4 × 21 to 6 3 4 × 27 . 274 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building 1.67 × 12 / 27 )2 = 2. The connection must be designed to carry the same seismic forces as the beam.0 f c + ' 1.k. Check compression using NDS Equation (3.89 = 1.0 NDS Equation (3. Because there is also a collector along line B.2. This is an important connection because it transfers the large “collected” seismic force into the shear wall. including the amplified collector force of §1633. 91 NDS C p = 0. Note that the special collector requirement of §1633. The design of the connection of the GLB to the shear wall on line 3 is not given.0 f t 1.650 (0.150) = 0.1.518 ∴Use GLB 6 3 4 × 27 1.0 b t 1.040 ) + 1.2 (361) = 0.7 (2 .7 (2 . 1.9-2) is o.1.518 psi 3.41 = 0.7 Fc 2 say o.418 (1.6.7 (1. there is similarly an important connection of the GLB between lines 3 and 4 to the shear wall on line B.745 + 1.745 1.000 ) (36.k.452 psi 1. 6e Collector connection to shear wall.745 1.600 .2 (361) 1. Having to carry two large tension (or compression) forces through the intersection of lines B and 3 (but not simultaneously) requires careful design consideration.01 ≈ 1.2 f b 1. 91 NDS o.3.7 Fb' 1 − FcE = ≤1.88) = 1.12 + 0. by inspection.040)1 − 2 . II (1997 UBC) . 6e.0 1.91 < 1.7 (1.452 ) 2 ( ) Table 2.7.88 Fc' = Fc C p = 1.5.0 f c 1.7 F ' ≤ 1.

II (1997 UBC) 275 . This reinforcement is for the panels on lines A and E. Required diaphragm chord reinforcement for east-west seismic forces. Equiv. Vol. Chords are required to carry the tension and compression forces developed by the moments in the diaphragm. the chord reinforcement between lines 3 and 10 will be determined. The plywood diaphragm is considered flexible.150 kip −ft 8 8 2 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. the chords are continuous reinforcement located in the wall panels at the roof level as shown in Figure 5-14.138 plf from Part 2 wl 2 1.) A E precast wall panel plywood sheathing ledger chord reinforcement Figure 5-14. (These must be properly spliced between panels.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building 7.14 klf (224 ) M= = = 7. w = 1. Diaphragm chord The east-west diaphragm spans between lines 1 and 3 and lines 3 and 10. In this example. and the moments in segments 1-3 and 3-10 can be computed independently assuming a simple span for each segment. In this building.

and includes the reaction from a large GLB. Equation (32-2) is used to determine forces on the wall. 8a. The load factor of Equations (12-5) and (12-6) is 1. and has no pilaster under the GLB.0 C a = 0. Item 1.94 o. As = 1. design of a typical solid panel (no door or window openings) is shown.20 in 2 > 0. Requirements for out-of-plane seismic forces are specified in §1632. Alternately. In this part. Comment: The chord shown above consists of two #7 bars.0 and a p = 1. II (1997 UBC) .94 in. Required wall panel reinforcing for out-of-plane forces.(2) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.A. chords can also be combined with the ledger such as when steel channels or bent steel plates are used.8 k T = = 0.2. There are no recesses or reveals in the wall.8 kips 140.2 φ f y 0. These must be spliced at the joint between adjacent panels.150 k −ft = 50.0 for seismic forces.44 276 Table 16-0.0C a I pW p R p = 3. 8. The panel selected is for lines 1 and 10.9 (60 ksi ) ∴Use minimum 2-#7 bars.67 ft The chord will be designed using strength design with Grade 60 reinforcement. Vol.7C a I pW p F p max = 4.k.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building The chord forces are computed from T =C= 7. typically using details that are highly dependent on the accuracy in placing the bars and the quality of the field welding. Fp = a p Ca I p h 1 + 3 x Rp hr W p (32-2) (32-3) (32-3) F p min = 0. The wall spans from floor to roof. and good quality splices can be easier to make. As = 50. 8a Out-of-plane seismic forces.

0 21 Check maximum value from Equation (32-3): 4. hx = 0.587 3.587 The average force over the height of the wall is: F p = 1 (0.6 psf ) = 40.7C a I p = 0.0 ) 21 = 1 + 3 = 0. Vol. The average of the two values is used to determine the uniform out-of-plane seismic force applied over the height of the wall.0 (.44)(1. Solving for the uniform force per foot f p : f p = .448W p 2 Design of the wall for moments from out-of-plane seismic forces is done by assuming the force Fp to be uniformly distributed over the height of the wall as shown in Figure 5-15. At the ground level.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building F p can be determined by calculating the equivalent seismic coefficient at the ground and roof levels.44)(1.0C a I p = 4.0 ) 0 = 1 + 3 = 0.0 21 Check minimum value from Equation (32-3): 0.308 > 0.587 )W p = 0.587 ∴ Use 0.6 psf SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.7 (. II (1997 UBC) 277 .308 At the roof level.44 )(1.44 )(1.0) = 1.0 (.147 ∴ Use 0. and the effective seismic coefficient from Equation (32-2) is: aa Ca I p h 1 + 3 x Rp hr 1.76 > 0.147 3.0 (.0 ) = 0.448 (90. hx = hr .308 + 0. and the effective seismic coefficient from Equation (32-2) is: aa Ca I p h 1 + 3 x Rp hr 1.

this section also carries axial load.5 Tributary width = t GLB + H 2 − d GLB = + − = 8. The GLB is supported on the wall as shown in Figure 5-12. and the wall is assumed to span from finished floor to roof in resisting out-of-plane forces. The vertical reaction on the wall is assumed to be at the bottom of the GLB. as well as bending moments due to the eccentricity of the GLB reaction on the wall and P∆ effects. The section at mid-height carries the maximum moment from out-of-plane seismic forces. Assume 6 3 4 × 25 1 2 GLB bearing on wall 6. The tributary width of wall for support of the vertical loads of the GLB was determined as follows. This assumption would result in a lower moment in the wall due to the out-of-plane forces.94 ft 12 2 12 §1914. from the weight of the panel and the GLB. At the same time.75 21. Loading diagram for out-of-plane wall design 8b.8. This assumption would result in a wider effective width of wall to carry vertical loads.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building 2'-0" q 21'-0" fp = 40. Vol. For example. 8b Check applicability of alternate slender wall design criteria. The panel to be designed is shown in Figure 5-16. The mid-depth of the beam could be assumed to be the point to which the wall spans for out-of-plane forces.2(4) 278 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.6 psf Figure 5-15. the center of the stud group (see Figure 5-12) can be assumed to be the location of the GLB reaction on the wall. These are conservative assumptions made for the convenience of the analysis. Other assumptions can be made.0 25. II (1997 UBC) .

04 f c ' Ag SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. These are indicated in §1914.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building 2.37 ft 2 H = 21. check the limitations on the use of this criteria.05 kip / ft ∴ Vertical service load is less than 0. 1.8.000 )(12 )(7. As a first step.8.0 Pwall = 90.92 kip / ft 8.13 kip / ft 2 P = Proof + Pwall = 0.92 + 1.04 (4 .13 = 2.04 f c ' Ag : Proof = 14 psf (36.13 ft GLB roof 8.25) = 13.94 ft Figure 5-16.0 ft H/2 1 A B H/2 fin. II (1997 UBC) 279 . This will be shown below.7 )(32 / 2 ) = 0. it is advantageous to use the alternate design slender wall criteria of §1914. Typical panel supporting a GLB.05 kip / ft 0.0 = 1.9 kip / ft > 2.8.94 §1914.6 psf + 2. line A-B denotes the tributary width of wall to be checked for the vertical load of the GLB and the moment due to out-of-plane seismic forces Generally.2.04 f ' Ag = 0. Vol. Check that vertical service load is less than 0. floor 8.2(1) 21.

1 for concrete as required by Exception 2 of §1612. φ must be determined.42 D. Check that φM n > M cr : Before φM n is calculated.1 (1.000 87 .6ρ b .0171 > 0.1 ( ) f y bd − As f y = (0.22 D ) = 1.2 D + 0. Check that the reinforcement does not exceed 0.0285 60 .000 + f y fy §1914.20)(60 ) = 62.2 φPb = (0. E v = 0. E v .2 states that φ may be increased up to 0.44 )(1. Calculate φPb and 0.63) − (0. Calculate φ based on requirements of §1909. The axial load considered to determine M n is the factored vertical load.2.6ρ b = 0.000 = 0.2(2) ρb = (8-1) ρb = 0.0 ) D = 0.7 )62.k.1. must be added to the vertical load.000 0. Pu = 1.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building 2.22 D to a total of 1.00459 bd (12 )(3.6(0. in center panel: ρ= As 0.0285)(60 )(12 )(3.85β1 f c ' 87.20 = = 0.1 f c ' Ag : Pb = b §1914.000 87.3.2(3) §1630. The net effect of this is shown below.2.00459 o.8.5 C a ID = 0.2.56 (2.5 (0.4 kip / ft §1910.2.000 + 60 .22 D Ev has the effect of increasing the dead load by 0. the load effect of vertical motion.1.56 D Pu = 1.9 as φPn decreases from the smaller of φPb and 0.1 f c ' Ag to zero. II (1997 UBC) .3.8.1 §1612.20 kip / ft Section 1909. Vol.2.05) = 3. and this is also used in determining φ . Because strength design is being used.4 = 43.56 Proof + Pwall = 1. ∴ Reinforcement does not exceed 0. Assume vertical #4 @ 12 inches o. The load factors of Equation (12-5) must be multiplied by 1.0285) = 0.63) 0.000) 87 .7 kip / ft 280 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.c.85)(4 .85 (0.3.6ρ b 3.

882 (52. A 2:1 slope may be used for the distribution of the concentrated load throughout the height of the panel (Figure 5-16).9 − 0.3 kip − in.2 (3.253 (60) 3.2 Calculate M n for the given axial load of 2. §1914. 4.2 ( Pu ) 0.1 f c ' Ag in calculating φ φ = 0. 3. Vol. bh 3 12 (7.25) Ig = = = 381in.8 0.8 kip / ft < φPb ∴ Use 0.882 34.372 a M n = Ase f y d − = 0 .1 f ' c Ag = 0.k.63 − = 52.8.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building 0. Note that values of Ase and a are taken from Part 8c below. II (1997 UBC) 281 . 0. 2 2 φM n = 0.4 12 12 3 M cr = 5 f c′ I g yt ( ) = 5 4000 (381) = 33.0 M cr < φM n o.0 )(12 )(7.63 §1914. Calculate the cracking moment M cr .2 kip − in.2.1 kip − in.3.1 f 'c Ag §1909.05 kip / ft .2(4) ∴ Slender wall criteria may be used SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.20) = 0.1 (4.3) = 46.25) = 34.9 − = 0.

605 ksi E s = 29.438 in. II (1997 UBC) .4 §1908.63 in.85 β1 d = 3.438)2 Maximum potential deflection is: ∆n = 12 (0.0 + = 5.63 in. Combine factored moment due to out-of-plane seismic forces with moment due to roof vertical load eccentricity and the moment due to P∆ effects.0)12 c= a 0. E c = 57.438)3 + = 21.000 = = 8. Vol.253 in.000 f c ' = 3.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building 8c.372 in.4 2 5 M nlc 5 (52. 0. 4 3 §1914.56 Proof = 1. from the face of wall e = 2. 48 E c I cr 48 (3. 2 2 Pu.8.1 in.605 Pu + As f y Fy Ase f y 0.2 Ase = a= 0.000 ksi n= E s 29. roof = 1.55 in. 8c Check wall strength. Calculate P∆ moment using the maximum potential deflection.25 = 2.20 + 0.253 (60 ) = 0.1 §1908.20 (60 ) = 0.8.1) Assuming the GLB reaction is 2 in.5.04 Ec 3.04 (0. 0.85 f ' c b = = 3.605)(21. I cr = n Ase (d − c )2 + bc 3 3 = 8.92 ) = 1.44 kip / ft 282 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 60 §1914.253)(3.0 + t wall 7.85 (4.5. ∆ n .63 − 0.372 = = 0.56 (0.3)(21 × 12)2 = = 4.

63) 3.k. 8d.85 (2.3 φV c = 0.8.10 kip − ft = 25.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building Pu.63) + = 0.roof (e ) 2 + Pu ∆ n Mu = 40.0 )2 0. wall = 1.458 kip / ft 2 (1. > M u Required factored shear is: Vu ≈ f p lc 2 + Pu. φM n = 46.05 (1.0)2 1.000) 12 (21. 150 150 (14-3) The service level moment M s is determined as follows: 40.0 ) 1.63) = 4.56 Pwall = 1.8.000) 12 (2)(12) M u = 2. II (1997 UBC) 283 .1 kip − in.44 (5.4)(8)(1.0 ) o.56 (1.24 + 0. 2 f p lc Proof (e ) Note M s < M cr SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.68kips/ft.44 (5.ft = 45. §1914.13) = 1. §1914.6 (21.4)8 2 12 M s = 2.6 (21. ∴ Wall strength is o.34 + 1.0 (12) = = 1.21 M u = 3.4 The mid-height deflection under service lateral and vertical loads cannot exceed the following: ∆s = lc 21. 8d Check service load deflection.2 kip − in.k. Vol.000 (12 )(3.roof (e ) h = 40. >> Vu ) ( ) o.6 (21.0) 4 .76 kip / ft Required factored moment at mid-height of the wall is: Mu = 2 f p lc 8 + Pu.55) + + 8 (1.85 (2.0) ( f c' bd = 0.5 kip − in.92 (5.k.000) 2 (12) (1.20 (4.79 kip .68 in.68) Ms = + + P∆ s = + + (1.63) 2.

Columns and walls connected to the diaphragm must satisfy the deformation compatibility requirements of §1633.67 ft ) L = 224'−0" 284 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 4.4. 9.c. This check is not shown.2 )(21 × 12 )2 = = 0.138 plf )(224 ft ) = = 906 plf 2b 2 (140.2.12 in. An acceptable method of determining the horizontal deflection of a plywood diaphragm under lateral forces is given in §23. Values for each of the parameters in the above equation are given below: v= wl (1. These can change the tributary width of wall available to resist combined axial loads and moments.0 and a p = 2. II (1997 UBC) . The parapet must be checked as a separate structural element for seismic forces determined from Equation (32-2) with R p = 3.605)(381) ∴ Use #4 @ 12 in. An iterative approach to the calculation of M u and M s may allow for a less conservative analysis.188 Len + 8 EAb 4Gt 2b The deflection of the diaphragm spanning between lines 3 and 10 will be computed. Deflection of east-west diaphragm. 8e Additional comments. vertical reinforcing in wall.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building ∆s = 2 5M s l c 5 (25. o. if these are used. 2.5. < 1. Diaphragm deflections are estimated primarily to determine the displacements imposed on attached structural and nonstructural elements. 1.68 in. 3. The effective depth of the wall must be modified for architectural reveals. 8e.222 of 1997 UBC Standard 23-2. 48 E c I g 48 (3. Attention must be given to the location of panel joints and wall openings. Vol. The following equation is used: ∆= Σ(∆ c X ) 5vL3 vL + + 0.

044 Substituting the above parameters into the deflection equation.042 ) + 0. II (1997 UBC) 285 .0025 times the story height. Vol. This is the R value used to determine the shear in the diaphragm in Part 2b under the requirements of §1633.4.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building E = 29 × 10 6 psi A = 2 #7 bars = 2 × .20 in.5/12) = 189 lb 583(4.67 ft G = 90.7 (4 )(4.6 in.30 + 1.044 ) + 0 8 (29 × 10 6 ) (1. the deflection (in inches) at mid-span of the diaphragm is determined.000 psi Table 23-2-J Table 23-2-I Table 23-2-K t = 0.9(3). In this example.63 + 1.54 ) + 5 (906)(224 )3 ∆ = 1.67 ) 4 (90. Note that the R value used above is R = 4 .2 b = 140. (30-17) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.7 R∆ S = 0. The “expected” displacements are amplified displacements taken as the greater of ∆ M or a story drift of 0.54 en = see Table 5-2.188 (80)(0.16 in.2.188 (144 )(0. Determination of en Zone A B L 80'-0" 144'-0" Nails 10d 10d s 2½" 4" Shear per nail 906(2. all structural framing elements and their connections that are part of the lateral force-resisting system and are connected to the roof must be capable of resisting the “expected” horizontal displacements.0/12) = 194 lb en .04 + 0.16 in ) = 11.2. below.) Table 5-2. Under §1633. ∆ c = 0 (Assume no slip in steel chord.000)(0. the “expected” displacement is: ∆ M = 0.19 = 4.60 = 1.20 )(140.042 . ∆= (906)(224 ) + 0.

5.1. II (1997 UBC) . be increased by a factor of 1. and four panels are assumed to carry the total shear.244) from Part 1. seismic forces due to panel weight must also be included. Earthquake loads on the shear walls must also be modified by the reliability/redundancy factor ρ . determination of the in-plane shear force on a typical wall panel on line 1 is shown. Finally.5 .9 k ) = 11.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building Comment: The diaphragm deflection calculation shown above is based on strength design seismic forces.4 kips . determined from the analysis shown in Part 2. The panel seismic force is determined as follows: Panel weight: width = 110 ft = 22 ft 5 7.0 and a maximum of 1. This requires that shear forces in individual east-west panels. In this part. These are determined using the base shear coefficient (. Vol. The panel with the large opening is assumed not effective in resisting in-plane forces.244W p = 0. Except for the diaphragm.5. and an adjustment should be made to determine in-plane wall forces. From Part 2.5 as shown below. the building is designed for R = 4. seismic forces are based on ASD loads.244 (45. 10. There are a total of five panels on line 1 (Figure 5-1).2 kips 286 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. rmax of §1630.1. is large and the resulting reliability/redundancy factor for the east-west direction is the maximum value of 1. Because the shear wall on line 3 (not shown) has large openings for a truck dock.25 W p = 0. 10 Design shear force for east-west panel on line 1. Under the 1994 UBC. the maximum element-story shear ratio.9 kips 12 Seismic force due to panel weight: F p = 0. the total shear on line 1 is 36.15 (23 ft )(22 ft ) = 45. This force is on a strength basis and was determined using R = 4 for the diaphragm. This factor varies between a minimum of 1. and a smaller deflection would be calculated.

The Tilt-up Design and Construction Manual. City of Los Angeles Division 91. In general. 1997. Cook. and McCormick. Michigan 48333. D.. Hugh. 1994 Northridge Earthquake on Tilt-up and Masonry Buildings with Wood Roofs. Design of Wood Structures Allowable Stress Design.. HBA Publications.2 k ) = 19.” 287 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. is the horizontal shear transferred from the diaphragm and the horizontal seismic force due to the panel weight.J.. E . 1999. R.O. Fourth edition.5 Ev = 0 ∴ V panel = ρE h + E v = 1. both adjusted for the reliability/redundancy factor.E. A redundancy factor is computed for each principal direction. II (1997 UBC) . (30-1) References ACI.3) + (0 ) = 29. Vol. R. Inc. Los Angeles.E. 200 N. McGraw Hill. Practitioner’s Guide to Tilt-Up Construction. Fourth edition. California 90012.. and Cobeen. 1999.. P.3 kips 4 4. D.0 kips per panel Comment: The 1997 UBC introduced the concept of the reliability/redundancy factor. Los Angeles Dept. Brooks. Illinois. American Concrete Institute. K.4 k ) + (11.. Skokie. The intent of this provision is to penalize those lateral force resisting systems without adequate redundancy by requiring that they be more conservatively designed. K. New York. Earthquake Hazard Reduction in Existing Tilt-up Concrete Wall Buildings. 1996.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building The total seismic force on the panel. Box 9094. Strength Design of Anchorage to Concrete. Hamburger.A. of Building and Safety. Fridley. except transfer diaphragms. they are not applied to diaphragms. Breyer. Spring Street. 1994. 2027 Vista Caudal. Farmington Hills. This calculation is shown below: E = ρE h + E v 1 4 Eh = (36. California 92660. “Implications of the January 17. Newport Beach.. Portland Cement Association.5 (19.

. 1994 Northridge Earthquake (Structural Engineers Association of Southern California/City of Los Angeles) Special Investigation Task Force.” Proceedings of 51st Annual Convention. California 94105-3411. SEAOSC/COLA.Design Example 5 ! Tilt-Up Building 1994 Fall Seminar Notes. 288 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. J. and Haninger. Tilt-up Subcommittee. 1982. “Design of Headed Anchor Bolts. Suite 230. September 30-October 2. Structural Engineers Association of Northern California (SEAONC). 74 New Montgomery Street. 1982. San Francisco. E.G.. Shipp. Final report dated September 25. II (1997 UBC) . 1994.R. Vol. Structural Engineers Association of California. 1994.

The example is a single-story tilt-up concrete wall panel with two openings. site-cast.8. Wall elevation and section Overview Walls designed under the alternative slender wall method of UBC §1914. These slender walls differ from concrete walls designed under the empirical design method (UBC §1914.Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings Design Example 6 Tilt-Up Wall Panel With Openings 32'-0" 28'-0" 12' × 14' opening 3' × 7' door 3'-0" 12'-0" 4'-0" 3'-0" Figure 6-1. In addition.5) in that there are greater restrictions on axial loads and reinforcement ratios. are typically tilt-up concrete panels that are site-cast. secondary effects of eccentricities and p-delta moments play an important role in analysis and design of these slender tilt-up panels. Vol. the out-of-plane lateral design forces for a one-story tilt-up concrete slender wall panel with openings are determined. and tilted into place. The pier between the two openings is analyzed using the slender SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) 289 . cured. They are designed to withstand out-of-plane forces and carry vertical loads at the same time. and tilted up into place. and the adequacy of a proposed reinforced concrete section is checked. In this example.

Factored moment including eccentricity and p-delta effects. Given Information Wall material: f’c = 3000 psi normal weight concrete Reinforcing steel material: fy = 60. Outline This example will illustrate the following parts of the design process: 1. Roof loading eccentricity = 4 inches from interior face of panel. Soil profile = SD Seismic importance factor = 1. Seismic Zone = Zone 4 Near-source influence = more than 10 km to any significant seismic source (Na = 1). Reinforcing steel area = 7 #5 each face at wall section between openings. 290 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Basic moment from the out-of-plane forces. Special horizontal reinforcing.Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings wall design method (UBC §1914.000 psi Wall thickness = 9¼ inches with periodic ¾-inch narrow reveals. 2. Reinforcing depth based on 1-inch minimum cover per UBC §1907.8). Service load out-of-plane deflection. Loading data: Roof loading to wall = uniform loading. 40-foot span of 12 psf dead load. II (1997 UBC) . 7. 6. Nominal moment strength φMn. 3.1 item 4. Analysis of the wall panel for lifting stresses or other erection loads is not a part of this example. Out-of-plane lateral design forces. Vol.0 Wind does not govern this wall panel design. no snow load. Vertical design forces acting on the pier. 4. 5.7.

Vol.Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) 291 .

Vol. Typically. as well as the tributary loading from above each opening. However.Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings Calculations and Discussion Code Reference 1. where wall openings are involved. The distributed loading accounts for the strip’s self-weight. a solid panel is subdivided into one-foot-wide design strips for out-of-plane design. Design strip and distributed out-of-plane loading 292 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. II (1997 UBC) . the entire pier width between openings is generally used as the design strip for simplicity. Out-of-plane lateral design forces. The wall panel is subdivided into a design strip. W3 W1 W2 tributary load area W3 W2 W1 roof parapet design strip 12' × 14' opening 3' × 7' door 4'-0" floor 4'-0" Figure 6-2.

30 when adjusted for strength design and the different seismic zone coefficient Ca defaults: Fp (1994 UBC equivalent) = 0. 1999 SEAOC Blue Book Commentary §C107.0) 0 1 + 3 Wp = 0. Fp grade = Fp wall = Fp grade + Fp roof 2 = 0.44)(1.0 hr but Fp min = 0.0)(0.0 hr (1.7CaIpWp ≤ Fp ≤ 4CaIpWp ap = 1.30 1.3]. Seismic coefficient of wall element.448Wp 0.0 Therefore.44 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings 1a.448 is virtually the same as the 1994 UBC coefficient 0. Fp = ap Ca Ip hx 1 + 3 Wp Rp hr (32-2) (32-3) Table 16-O Table 16-O Table 16-Q Table 16-K Except : FP is limited by 0.308Wp ≤ Fp ≤ 1. The wall panel is considered an element of a structure. thus §1632.291 ≈ 0.147Wp . Since the wall panel is connected at two different heights.587 + 0.2.587Wp 3.0)(0. II (1997 UBC) 293 . 3. Vol. an equivalent lateral force will be obtained using the average of the roof Fp and the at-grade Fp [ref.40 = 0.4 0.44 Ip = 1. the limits on Fp are: 0.76Wp hx is defined as the attachment height above grade level. Fp roof = (1.308Wp governs.44)(1.448Wp 2 Note: The seismic coefficient 0.0 Ca = 0.0 Rp = 3. UBC Equations 32-2 and 32-3 are used to determine forces for design.0) hr 1 + 3 Wp = 0.308 = 0.2 applies in determining the lateral seismic force.

1 is applicable. the 1. 1b Load combinations for strength design.56D + 1.1 multiplier has been included in order to conform to the 1997 UBC as originally published.0Eh or (1.42D + 1.5CaI)D + 1. ICBO.2.5CaID Load combination (12-5) reduces to: (1.2 + 0. Load combination (12-5) increases to: 1. Vol.2.0E + (f1L + f2S) where: D = self weight of wall and dead load of roof L = 0 (floor live load) S = 0 (snow load) E = ρEh + Ev where ρ = 1. For additional information.Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings 1b. 1c Lateral out-of-plane wall forces. Ghosh.1. Wall weight = 9. Three different distributed loads are determined due to the presence of two door openings of differing heights.2 + 0. For the purposes of this example. Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary.1(1.” by S. May-June 1998. published in Building Standards. For this example. The lateral wall forces Eh are determined by multiplying the wall’s tributary weight by the lateral force coefficient. and governs for concrete strength design under seismic loading. has been determined to be inappropriate by SEAOC and others.2) and Ev = 0.25 150 pcf = 116 lb/ft2 12 Fp wall = 0.22)D + 1.0Eh or 1.1. see “Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings under the 1997 UBC.2D + 1.0Eh Note: Exception 2 under §1612. and has not been included in the 1999 SEAOC Blue Book.0 (§1632.1Eh (12-5) (30-1) 1c. II (1997 UBC) ( ) . 1. See Figure 6-2. which multiplies strength design load combinations by 1.42D + 1.0Eh) = 1.K. the use of load combination (12-5) of §1612.448 116 lb/ft 2 = 52lb/ft 2 W1 = 52 lbs/ft2 x 4 ft = 208 plf W2 = 52 lbs/ft2 x 3/2 ft = 78 plf W3 = 52 lbs/ft2 x 12/2 ft = 312 plf 294 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

II (1997 UBC) 295 . special care should be taken to use the shortest occurring parapet height.0. This example conservatively assumes the maximum moment occurs at a critical section width of 4'-0".618 lbs Loading Shear Moment Figure 6-3. W3 W2 W1 7.5). The parapet should be checked separately later. Corresponding loading. shear. If the designer decides to use the parapet’s negative moment to reduce the positive moment. In cases where the maximum moment occurs well above the doors.212 lbs W 3=312 plf 14' x maximum moment W 2=78 plf 7' W 1=208 plf 7' 4. the seismic coefficient for the parapet shall be the same as that for the wall below (ap = 1.Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings 2. Basic moment from out-of-plane forces. which would account for a wider design section at the location of maximum moment and for a narrower design section with reduced moments near the top of the doors. a more comprehensive analysis could consider several critical design sections. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. but is not a part of this example. For this analysis. Vol. and moment diagrams Locate the point of zero shear for maximum moment. Ignore the parapet’s negative moment benefits in reducing the positive moment for simplicity of analysis. not 2.

8 k-ft 3. The applicable portion of the wall component is the top portion Pwall top above the design section. excluding p-delta effects and vertical load eccentricity effects. The pier’s vertical loads are comprised of a roof component Proof and a wall component Pwall. However.1)2 = 47. above): (12. Rgrade = shear reaction at grade level for design strip Rroof = shear reaction at roof level for design strip (28)2 + 78 (21)2 + 312 (14)2 1 = 4. Vol. 2b Determine Mu basic This is the primary strength design moment.2.Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings 2a.837 lb-ft Mu basic = 1.1 feet to point of zero shear (maximum moment) (208 + 78 + 312) 2b. 296 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.212 lbs Determine the distance of the maximum moment from the roof elevation downward (Figure 6-3): X = 7212 =12.1.618 lbs Rgrade = 208 2 2 2 28 Rroof = [208( 28) + 78( 21) + 312(14)] − 4618 = 7. II (1997 UBC) . strength designs considering wind loads must include a portion of roof live loads per §1612.1) − (208 + 78 + 312 ) 2 Mu basic = 47. Vertical design forces acting on the center pier. Proof = gravity loads from the roof acting on the design strip The appropriate load combinations using strength or allowable stress design do not include roof live load in combination with seismic loads.17212(12. but including the 1.1 load factor (see the earlier discussion of this load factor in Step 1b. 2a Determine the shear reactions at each support.

Use the net concrete section considering the reveal depth: stress = Ptotal 26772 = = 66 psi < 0. Pwall top = the portion of the wall’s self weight above the flexural design section. such as from a girder.25 − 0.2 item 1). 2 fy 60000 §1909. Vol.9 − = 0.31) (60000) = = 1. The nominal moment strength φMn is given by the following equation: a φMn = φAsefy d − 2 where: 0.83 0. The compressive stress is low enough to use the alternative slender wall method.40 in.2 a= Pu + Asfy 1. are applied to slender walls.Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings Proof = (roof dead load) x (tributary width of pier) x (tributary width of roof) 3 12 40 Proof = (12 psf ) 4 + + = 2.10 f c′ Aconc Ase = Pu + Asfy 1. II (1997 UBC) 297 .56 ( 26772) + 7 (0. 0. Nominal moment strength φMn. otherwise a different method.2.75) 0.56 ( 26772) + 7 (0.2 Pu φ = 0.k.8.2.85 (3000) ( 48) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. the loads are assumed to be distributed over an increasing width at a slope of 2 vertical to 1 horizontal down to the flexural design section height (§1914.2 (1.25 − 0. 4.772 lbs Check the vertical service load stress for applicability of the slender wall design method (UBC §1914.10 ( 3000) ( 48) (9.04(3000) = 120 psi Aconc 48 (9.56) ( 26772) 0.87 in.4).85 f c′b 0.760 lb 2 2 2 Note: When concentrated gravity loads. It is acceptable to assume the design section is located midway between the floor and roof levels 3 12 28 Pwall top = (116 psf ) 4 + + + 4 = 24.04 f c′ = 0.75) o. would be required along with its restrictions on wall height.9 − = 0.012 lbs 2 2 2 Ptotal = Proof + Pwall top = 2760 + 24012 = 26.5).8. such as the empirical design method (§1914.31) (60000) = = 2.3.

6 k − ft Verify that Mcr < φMn to determine the applicability of the slender wall design method (UBC §1914. 3/4" reveal #3 ties 9 1/4" thick d = depth Figure 6-4. II (1997 UBC) . Mcr is defined uniquely for slender walls in UBC §1914.k.83 (87.2 item 3). the exclusion of the reveal depth in the Mcr calculation produces more accurate deflection values when reveals are narrow. Design section Thus: 1.8.25 2 (9.5 would be necessary.2 item 3.0 M cr = 15.25) 3 12 = 187. 298 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. d = thickness − reveal − cover − tie diameter − 1 2 bar diameter d = 9 1 4 − 3 4 − 1 − 3 8 − (1 2 )(5 8 ) = 6.6 k − ft o.458 lb − in.87 (60000) 6.0.1 item 4.6 k − ft M cr = 5 f c′ Ig yt = §1914.Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings Reinforcing depth is based on new tilt-up cover provision §1907. In addition.8.7.8 in. = 15. Ig and yt are conservatively based on the gross thickness without consideration for reveal depth.40 Mn = 2.5 k − ft 2 φMn = 0. Note: For the purposes of §1914. This approach creates a worst-case comparison of Mcr to φMn.6 k − ft < φ M n = 72.8 − = 1050 k − in = 87. 5 3000 ( 48) 9. Vol. Sufficient reinforcing is provided to use the alternative slender wall method.5) = 72. otherwise the empirical design method of UBC §1914.

85(0. bd 48(6.6 = 0. Determine the design moment including the effects from the vertical load eccentricity and p-delta (P∆): Mu = Mu basic + Mu eccentricity + Mu P∆ Use the figures below to determine Mu eccentricity and Mu P∆: eccentricity "e" H Proof Pwall top eccentricity "e" H Proof lc 2 Pwall top lc deflected shape M Pwall bottom 2 ∆n 3 ∆n 3 Figure 6-6.k. the slender wall method is applicable. Vol.85)3000 87000 = 0. Freebody of upper half 2∆n 3 ∆n 3 Figure 6-5.6 0.8) Therefore.8. Vertical loading SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.6ρ b = 0.6ρ b to determine the applicability of the slender wall design method (§1914.Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings Verify the reinforcement ratio ρ ≤ 0 .0128 fy 87000 + f y 60000 (87000 + 60000) (8-1) ρ= As 7(0.2 item 2): 0.85β1 f c′ 87000 0. 5. II (1997 UBC) 299 .0128 o.0066 < 0. including eccentricity and p-delta effects. Factored moment.31) = = 0.

65 in. as is similar to panels without openings.65) 3 = 2.1 300 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. For ease of calculation. 5b Determine moment component M from statics using Figure 6-6 to account for eccentricity and P∆ effects: ∆ M = Proof (∆ n + e) + Pwall top M = Proof ∆n l +H c 3 2 e + ( Pwall top + Proof )∆ n 2 5c.85 0. conservatively assume Pwall bottom = Pwall top. II (1997 UBC) . Vol. assuming a parabolic deflected shape: ( Pwall top + Pwall bottom ) lc 2∆ n − Proof e 3 H= Since the panel’s openings are not positioned symmetrically with the panel’s mid-height. H = 4 Pwall top ∆ n 3l c − Proof e lc 5b.122 3 where c = bc 3 . 5c Determine the wall's deflection at full moment capacity ∆n.65) 2 + = 779 in.87(6.85 29. 5a Determine force component H from statics (moment about base of wall).4 where: Mn is from Step 4. E c = 57 f c′ = 3122 ksi I cr = nAse ( d − c ) 2 + I cr 1.5. 3 §1908.8 − 1. From Figure 6-5. 0. Pwall bottom will be less than Pwall top.40 a = = 1. 4 3. 2 5M n l c ∆n = 48E c I cr §1914.8.000 48(1.Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings 5a.

7 ( ) Mu = 67.76)(5.5) ( 28) 2 (12) 3 = 5. but are beyond the scope of this example. 6a Service load out-of-plane deflection.8.1(1. unless a more comprehensive analysis is used.76 ) 2. An iterative approach or use of a moment magnifier are examples of acceptable “more comprehensive” analyses.k. 48 (3122) (779) Section 1914.56( 2. II (1997 UBC) .00 k − ft Ms = M u basic M u eccentricity + + M s P∆ 1. Mu = Mu basic + Mu eccentricity + Mu P∆ e Mu = 47.8 + 1.0 + 2.0 + 2. 5d Determine and check the total design moment Mu.8 + Pu roof + Pu wall top + Pu roof ∆ n 2 1 9. Determine if the wall’s cross-section is cracked.24 = 59.56 lc : 150 (14-3) Assume the service load deflection is the maximum allowed ∆s Maximum = lc 28 (12) = = 2.75 1 1 Mu = 47. 150 150 M s P∆ = Pwall + Proof ∆ s = (24.24 in. The service load moment Ms is determined with the following formula where the denominators are load factors to convert from load combination (12-5) to load combination (12-13): Ms = M u basic M u eccentricity + + M s P∆ 1. the design section’s strength is acceptable.1 (1.76) 4 + + 1.8 + 1. 6a.3 requires the maximum potential deflection ∆n be assumed in the calculation of the P∆ moment.Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings ∆n = 5 (87.5 + 17.6k − ft o.1 in. 6.0k − ft < φM n = 72.4) 1.56 301 ( ) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. (14-2) Therefore.56( 24. Vol.9 k − in. 5d.4) 1. = 5.1) 2 2 12 12 Mu = 47.25 − 0.

6c.00 = 37. 302 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. o.5 + + 5.67 in. 6b Determine the deflection at initiation of cracking ∆cr.0 k − ft 1.6k − ft < M s Therefore.6 ∆ s = 1. 150 §1914.8 1.k. section is cracked and Equation (14-4) is applicable for determining ∆s. 48E c I g ( 48) (9. If the section is uncracked.56 M cr = 15. without consideration for the architectural reveal depth. ∆ cr = 5M cr l c 2 5 (15.4) 1.1 − 0.1(1.6 ∆ s = 0. Equation (14-5) is applicable.22 ) = 1.8. the proposed slender wall section is acceptable using the alternative slender wall method.4 Therefore. Vol.4 Ig is based on gross thickness.67 in. 87.6) ( 28) 2 (12) 3 = = 0.24 in. < lc = 2.Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings Ms = 47.22 + (5. since this produces more accurate results when the reveals are narrow. 6b.25) 3 48 (3122) 12 §1914. M − M cr ∆ s = ∆ cr + s M −M cr n (∆ n − ∆ cr ) (14-4) 37.8.22 in.0 − 15. II (1997 UBC) .5 − 15. 6c Determine and check the service load deflection ∆s.

II (1997 UBC) 303 .1: (opening width )2 M u = 1.03 k − ft 2 = 1.85 f c′b 0. 0. The portion of wall above the twelve-foot-wide door opening spans horizontally to the vertical design strips on each side of the opening.21 in. 2 18 a= (0.1 52 12 8 Try using #5 bars at 18-inch spacing to match the same bar size as being used vertically at the maximum allowed spacing for wall reinforcing.2. Vol.41 in. d= d= 1 2 (thickness − reveal ) − bar diameter 1 2 (9 1 4 − 3 4 ) − 5 8 = 3. a φMn = φAsfy d − 2 where: 12 φ = 0. 7a.448(116 lbs/ft2) = 52 lb/ft2 The moment is based on a simply supported horizontal beam with the 1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings 7. Fp wall = 0. This wall portion will be designed as a one-foot unit horizontal design strip and subject to the out-of-plane loads computed in this example earlier. 7a Special horizontal reinforcing.21) ( 60000) Asfy = = 0.63 in.9 and As = 0. The horizontal reinforcing in concrete tilt-up construction is typically place over the vertical reinforcing when assembled on the ground.1 F p 8 = 1030 lb − ft = 1.85 (3000) (12) Assume the reinforcing above the opening is a single curtain with the vertical steel located at the center of the wall’s net section.31 = 0. Determine the horizontal reinforcing required above the largest wall opening for out-of-plane loads.1 multiplier per Exception 2 under §1612.

6.k.8 k − in.41 φMn = 0. but which have high in-plane shears.” as defined in §1921. In these situations.6. Therefore. The vertical reinforcing on each face between the openings provides two bars along each jamb of the openings.13.k. In narrow piers. 2 = 3. 7c.9 (. II (1997 UBC) . Wall pier reinforcing has special spacing limitations and is often provided in the form of closed ties. 304 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. and thus satisfies this requirement along vertical edges.2. In addition. the horizontal reinforcing is acceptable. it is common to add diagonal bars at the opening corners to assist in limiting the cracking that often occurs due to shrinkage stresses (Figure 6-7).2. two bars above and below the openings are required to be provided. the transverse reinforcing is required to be terminated with a hook or “U” stirrup.3. even if not required by the special wall pier analysis (Figure 6-7). Sections conforming to “wall piers. 7b Typical reinforcing around openings.Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings 0. 7c Required horizontal (transverse) reinforcing between the wall openings. Vol.03 k − ft φMn ≥ M u o.24 k − ft ≥ 1.6.7. 7b. Configurations not defined as wall piers.21) (60) 3.63 − = 38. o. these ties are often preferred so as to assist in supporting both layers of reinforcing during construction. Two #5 bars are required around all window and door openings per §1914. Horizontally.1. The style and quantity of horizontal (transverse) reinforcing between the wall openings is dependent on several factors relating to the in-plane shear wall design of §1921. also have special transverse reinforcing requirements per §1921. shall be reinforced per §1921.

the 1997 UBC anchorage design forces and detailing requirements are significantly more stringent than they have been under past codes (see Design Example 5).Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings typical horizontal reinforcing #5 at 18" o. In response to these failures. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. vertical reinforcing (7) #5 each face reinforcing around openings (2) #5 transverse reinforcing design section (see Figure 6-4) Figure 6-7. Tilt-up wall construction has become very popular due to its versatility and its erection speed. It is largely based on the equations. II (1997 UBC) 305 . wall anchorage failures at the roofline have occurred during past earthquakes. The American Concrete Institute (ACI) has incorporated similar provisions for slender wall design in their publication ACI 318-99.c. and full-scale testing developed by the Structural Engineers Association of Southern California and published in the Report of the Task Committee on Slender Walls in 1982. However. Vol. Typical wall reinforcing Commentary The UBC section on the alternative slender wall method made its debut in the 1988 edition. concepts.

K. II (1997 UBC) . 1982. ICBO. HBA Publications. 5360 Workman Mill Road. Farmington Hills. Whittier. MI 48333 (248) 848-3700. Newport Beach. Southern California Chapter American Concrete Institute and the Structural Engineers Association of Southern California. Report of the Task Committee on Slender Walls.Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings References Recommended Tilt-up Wall Design. Vol. P. “Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings under the 1997 UBC. May-June 1998. Hugh. Brooks. S.” Building Standards. Whittier. 1990. Box 9094. Fourth Edition. 1997. The Tilt-up Design and Construction Manual. 1979. Tilt-Up Concrete Structures Reported by ACI Committee 551. 5360 Workman Mill Road. Ghosh.O. CA 90601 (562) 908-6131. 2027 Vista Caudal. American Concrete Institute. Structural Engineers Association of Southern California. CA 90601 306 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. CA 92660.

Vol. II (1997 UBC) 307 .Design Example 6 ! Tilt-Up Wall Panel with Openings SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

N a and N v have been plotted below.4.1 to calculate design base shear.2 The 1997 UBC introduced the concept of near-source factors. This example illustrates the determination of the near-source factors N a and N v .2 Example 1 Seismic Zone 4 Near-Source Factor §1629.36 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual 1 .08 N v = 1. California. Lancaster is shown on map M-30. 5. Determine N a and N v . Thus.Vertical Irregularity Type 1 Example 1 ! §1629. Code Reference First locate the City of Lancaster in the book Maps of Known Active Fault NearSource Zones in California and Adjacent Portions of Nevada. For other distances. and 15 km. Therefore Seismic source type: A The distance from the site to the beginning of the fault zone is 6 km. Distance from site to fault zone: 8 km. Calculations and Discussion 1.2. N a and N v can be determined by entering the figures at a distance 8 km. the distance from the site to the source is 6 km + 2 km = 8 km. For this site. 1. and using the source type A curves. This is published by the International Conference of Building Officials and is intended to be used with the 1997 Uniform Building Code. Values of N a and N v are given in Tables 16-S and 16-T for distances of 2. and then determine the following: The shaded area on map M-30 indicates the source is a type A fault. Another 2 km must be added to reach the source (this is discussed on page vii of the UBC fault book). interpolation must be done. Determine the near-source factors N a and N v for a site near Lancaster. These are used to determine the seismic coefficients Ca and Cv used in §1630. 10.4. From this N a = 1. Structures built within close proximity to an active fault are to be designed for an increased base shear over similar structures located at greater distances. Locate the site on this map (see figure).

1 when determining Ca .2 ! Example 1 Vertical Irregularity Type 1 Commentary The values of N a and N v given above are for the site irrespective of the type of structure to be built on the site. provided that all of the conditions listed in §1629.2 were met. 2 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .4.1. Had N a exceeded 1.4. it would have been possible to use a value of 1.§1629.

0 0 5 10 Distance to Source (km) 15 R 2.Vertical Irregularity Type 1 Example 1 ! §1629.4.0 N 1.0 Source Type B 0.0 Source Type A Source Type B 0.0 0 5 10 Distance to Source (km) 15 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual 3 .0 Source Type A a 1.2 R 2.

§1629.2 ! Example 1 Vertical Irregularity Type 1 4 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .4.

Discontinuity in capacity—weak story The first category. For regular structures without abrupt changes in stiffness or mass (i.e. Weight (mass) irregularity 3. These are irregularity Types 1. In-plane discontinuity in vertical lateral-force resisting element 5. The designer may opt to go directly to the dynamic analysis procedure and thereby bypass the checks for vertical irregularity Types 1. The first are dynamic force distribution irregularities.3 Introduction to Vertical Irregularities Vertical irregularities are identified in Table 16-L. for irregular structures. The second category are irregularities in load path or force transfer. Regular structures are assumed to have a reasonably uniform distribution of inelastic behavior in elements throughout the lateral force resisting system. dynamic force distribution irregularities.. the code prescribes additional strengthening to correct the deficiencies. and these are Types 4 and 5. the pattern can be significantly different and must be determined by the combined mode shapes from the dynamic analysis procedure of §1631. However. 2. The five vertical irregularities are as follows: 1. this shape can be assumed to be linearly-varying or a triangular shape as represented by the code force distribution pattern. Vertical geometric irregularity 4. 2. requires that the distribution of lateral forces be determined by combined dynamic modes of vibration. When vertical irregularity Types 4 and 5 exist. there is the possibility of having localized concentrations of excessive inelastic deformations due to the irregular load path or weak story. and 3. These can be divided into two categories. structures without “vertical structural irregularities”). and 3. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual 5 .Introduction to Vertical Irregularities §1629. Stiffness irregularity—soft story 2.5. In this case.

The story stiffness is less than 80-percent of the average stiffness of the three stories above. it is not practical to use stiffness properties unless these can be easily determined.3 ! Example 2 Vertical Irregularity Type 1 Example 2 Vertical Irregularity Type 1 §1629.02" 1. Calculations and Discussion 1. there are two tests: 1. The definition of soft story in the code compares values of the lateral stiffness of individual stories. If the stiffness of the story meets at least one of these two criteria.3 For example: A five-story concrete special moment-resisting frame is shown below.§1629.08" ∆S5 = 2. 2. stiffness irregularity—soft story. and a dynamic analysis is generally required under §1629. Determine if a Type 1 vertical irregularity—stiffness irregularity-soft story—exists in the first story.71" 12' Triangula r shape ∆S4 = 1. Recognizing that the basic intent of this irregularity check is to determine if the lateral force distribution will differ significantly from the linear pattern prescribed by Equation (30-15).8. Code Reference Code To determine if this is a Type 1 vertical irregularity. the structure is considered to have a soft story. The specified lateral forces Fx from Equations (30-14) and (30-15) have been applied and the corresponding floor level displacements ∆x at the floor center of mass have been found and are shown below. unless the irregular structure is not more than five stories or 65feet in height (see §1629. There are many structural configurations where the evaluation of story stiffness is complex and is often not an available output from computer programs.4 Item 2.45" ∆S2 = 1. which assumes a triangular shape for the 6 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . Generally.5.5.75" ∆S3 = 1.8.3 Item 3). The story stiffness is less than 70-percent of that of the story above. F t + F5 10' F4 10' F3 10' 10' F2 F1 ∆S1 = 0.

The story drift ratio is the story drift divided by the story height. this type of irregularity can also be determined by comparing values of lateral story displacements or drift ratios due to the prescribed lateral forces. When 80 percent of 1 (∆S 2 − ∆S 1 ) ( ∆S 3 − ∆S 2 ) (∆S 4 − ∆S 3 ) + + 3 h2 h3 h4 The story drift ratios are determined as follows: ∆S1 (0.. it is necessary to use the reciprocal of the limiting percentage ratios of 70 and 80 percent as they apply to story stiffness or reverse their applicability to the story or stories above. 00308 ∆S 3 − ∆S 2 = 120 h3 ∆S 4 − ∆S 3 (1 . Floor level displacements and corresponding story drift ratios are directly available from the computer programs. These will be used for the required comparisons since these better represent the changes in the slope of the mode shape when there are significant differences in inter-story heights. From the given displacements.71 − 0) = = 0. This deformation comparison may even be more effective than the stiffness comparison because the shape of the first mode shape is often closely approximated by the structure displacements due to the specified triangular load pattern.00308 = 120 h2 (1 .3 first dynamic mode of response.71 ) = 0 .5.45 ) = 0 .00493 h1 144 ∆S 2 − ∆S1 (1 . (Note: story displacements can be used if the story heights are nearly equal.) In terms of the calculated story drift ratios. the soft story occurs when one of the following conditions exists: 1.00250 = 120 h4 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual 7 . story drifts and the story drift ratio values are determined. 45 − 1 .75 − 1 . or h1 h2 ∆S 1 exceeds h1 2. To compare displacements rather than stiffness.08 − 0 . When 70 percent of ∆S 1 ∆ − ∆S 1 exceeds S 2 . 08 ) = 0 . The following example shows this equivalent use of the displacement properties.Vertical Irregularity Type 1 Example 2 ! §1629.

1.00216 0. all stories must be checked.00308 0.7x (Story Drift Ratio) 0. However.27 in.00216 0.§1629.00289 h 1 ∴ Soft story exists Commentary Section §1630.08 0. In practice.00493 ) = 0 .00175 0.00246 0.00308 h 1 ∴ Soft story exists Checking the 80 percent requirement: ∆ 0 .00345 > 0. Level 5 4 3 2 1 Story Displacement 2.71 Story Drift 0. In the example above.00308 + 0.70 S 1 = 0.71 Story Drift Ratio 0.5.00180 0.00158 0. for the purpose of the story drift.37 0.30 0. or story drift ratio.37 0.00250 ) = 0.80 S 1 = 0 . comparisons needed for soft story determination.75 1.00261 0.3 ! Example 2 Vertical Irregularity Type 1 1 (0.00394 > 0 .70 (0.45 1. the displacements ∆S due to the design seismic forces can be used as done in this example. It is often convenient to create a table as shown below to facilitate this exercise. of Story Drift Ratio of Next 3 Stories ---------0.00246 0.10. only the first story was checked for possible soft story vertical irregularity.00493 ) = 0.02 in.00250 0.00289 Soft Story Status No No No No Yes 8 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .80 (0 .00493 . unless a dynamic analysis is performed.00225 0.1 requires that story drifts be computed using the maximum inelastic response displacements ∆M .00200 0. 0.00289 3 Checking the 70 percent requirement: ∆ 0.00308 0.00394 Avg.00308 + 0.00345 .8x (Story Drift Ratio) 0.

or mass.3 The five-story special moment frame office building has a heavy utility equipment installation at Level 2. this type of irregularity also results in a primary mode shape that can be substantially different from the triangular shape and lateral load distribution given by Equation (30-15). the appropriate load distribution must be determined by the dynamic analysis SEAOC Seismic Design Manual 9 .5 × W3 = 1. Checking the effective mass of Level 2 against the effective mass of Levels 1 and 3 At Level 1 1. Consequently. this requirement does not apply to the roof if the roof is lighter than the floor below.5 × W1 = 1. However. vertical irregularity is considered to exist when the effective mass of any story is more than 150 percent of the effective mass of an adjacent story. This results in the floor weight distribution shown below: 5 4 3 2 1 W 5 = 90k W 4 = 110k W 3 = 110k W 2 = 170k W 1 = 100k Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A weight.5(100k ) = 150k At Level 3 1.5.5(110k ) = 165k W2 = 170k > 150k ∴ Weight irregularity exists Commentary As in the case of irregularity Type 1.Vertical Irregularity Type 2 Example 3 ! 1629.3 Example 3 Vertical Irregularities Type 2 §1629.5.

3 Item 3) 10 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .8.§1629. unless the irregular structure is not more than five stories or 65-feet in height (see §1629.5.3 ! Example 3 Vertical Irregularity Type 2 procedure of §1631.

3 Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A weight. the appropriate load distribution must be determined by the dynamic analysis procedure of §1631. Consequently.5 × W3 = 1. this requirement does not apply to the roof if the roof is lighter than the floor below. §1629.Vertical Irregularity Type 3 Example 4 ! §1629. unless the irregular structure is not more than five stories or 65-feet in height (see §1629.3 Example 4 Vertical Irregularity Type 3 1.5 × W1 = 1. Checking the effective mass of Level 2 against the effective mass of Levels 1 and 3 At Level 1 1.5(110k ) = 165k W2 = 170k > 150k ∴ Weight irregularity exists Commentary As in the case of irregularity Type 1.8. vertical irregularity is considered to exist when the effective mass of any story is more than 150 percent of the effective mass of an adjacent story. or mass. Determine if there is a Type 2 vertical weight (mass) irregularity.5(100k ) = 150k At Level 3 1.5. However.3 Item 3).5. fourth and fifth stories. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual 11 . The lateral force-resisting system of the five-story special moment frame building shown below has a 25 foot setback at the third. this type of irregularity also results in a primary mode shape that can be substantially different from the triangular shape and lateral load distribution given by Equation (30-15).

Determine if a Type 3 vertical irregularity. vertical geometric irregularity.33 Width of Level 3 (75') 133 percent > 130 percent ∴ Vertical geometric irregularity exists Commentary The more than 130-percent change in width of the lateral force-resisting system between adjacent stories could result in a primary mode shape that is substantially different from the triangular shape assumed for Equation (30-15).5. If the change is a decrease in width of the upper adjacent story (the usual situation). the mode shape 12 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .3 ! Example 4 Vertical Irregularity Type 3 1 2 3 4 5 4 @ 25' = 5 4 3 2 1 1. The ratios of the two levels is Width of Level 2 (100') = = 1.§1629. the set-back of Level 3 must be checked. exists. One-story penthouses are not subject to this requirement. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A vertical geometric irregularity is considered to exist where the horizontal dimension of the lateral force-resisting system in any story is more than 130 percent of that in the adjacent story. In this example.

However. then the vertical geometric irregularity would not exist. Note that if the frame elements in the bay between lines 4 and 5 were not included as a part of the designated lateral force resisting system.3. Similarly.4.2.1.2. then §1629. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual 13 . the effects of this adjoining frame would have to be considered under the adjoining rigid elements requirements of §1633.Vertical Irregularity Type 3 Example 4 ! §1629.2.8. there could be an overturning moment load transfer discontinuity that would require the application of §1630.4. When there is a large decrease in the width of the structure above the first story along with a corresponding large change in story stiffness that creates a flexible tower. if the width decrease is in the lower adjacent story (the unusual situation). Item 2 may apply. when the width decrease is in the lower story. However.5.3 difference can be mitigated by designing for an increased stiffness in the story with a reduced width. the Type 1 soft story irregularity can be avoided by a proportional increase in the stiffness of the lower story. Item 4 and §1630.8.

even those less or equal to the length or bay width of the resisting element. When the offset exceeds the length of the resisting element. Determine if there is a Type 4 vertical irregularity. in-plane discontinuity in the vertical lateral force-resisting element. there is also a shear transfer discontinuity that requires application of §1633.2.2. the left side of the upper shear wall (between lines A and B) is offset 50-feet from the left side of the lower shear wall (between lines C and D). can result in an overturning moment load transfer discontinuity that requires the application of §1630. ∴ In-plane discontinuity exists Commentary The intent of this irregularity check is to provide correction of force transfer or load path deficiencies.§1629.3 ! Example 5 ! Vertical Irregularity Type 4 Example 5 Vertical Irregularity Type 4 §1629. In this example. It should be noted that any in-plane offset. A B C D 3 @ 25' = 75’ 5 12' Shear wall 4 12' 3 12' 2 12' 1 12' 50' Shear wall 25' Calculations and Discussion Code Reference A Type 4 vertical irregularity exists when there is an in-plane offset of the lateral load resisting elements greater than the length of those elements. The shear wall between Lines A and B has an in-plane offset from the shear wall between Lines C and D.5. 1.8.6 for the strength 14 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .3 A concrete building has the building frame system shown below.5. This 50-foot offset is greater than the 25-foot length of the offset wall elements.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual 15 .6.2 and §1921.5. In this example.8.4. and the collector element between Lines B and C at Level 2 is subject to the provisions of §1633.Vertical Irregularity Type 4 Example 5 ! §1629.4.2.3 of collector elements along the offset.5. the columns under wall A-B are subject to the provisions of §1630.

Seismic Design Manual Volume III Building Design Examples: Steel. Concrete and Cladding November 2000 .

RBS “Dog Bone” connection—Buehler & Buehler. opinions. . to provide structural engineers with the most current information and tools to improve their practice. individuals. All rights reserved. Albany. Fax: (916) 443-8065 E-mail: info@seaoc. Publisher Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) 1730 I Street. Web address: http://www. committees. calculations. calculations. Users of this publication and its contents assume all liability arising from such use. and other information herein. to provide continuing education and encourage research. or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the use. The material presented in this publication is intended for educational purposes only. and all narrative texts. and to maintain the honor and dignity of the profession. Suite 240 Sacramento. suitability. application of and/or reference to the text. California. Calif. are published as part of SEAOC’s educational program.Copyright Copyright © 2000 Structural Engineers Association of California. Clark Pacific. Disclaimer Practice documents produced by the Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC).—Joe Maffei. Northern California. neither SEAOC nor its member organizations. San Diego. Campbell. clockwise from upper right: 900 E. SEAOC represents the structural engineering community in California. Cover photos.org/ The Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) is a professional association of four regional member organizations (Central California. drawings. samples. Hamilton Ave. drawings. or entities which have in any way contributed to it make any warranty. Rutherford & Chekene. references.seaoc. findings. and applicability to a specific project by a qualified structural engineer.” Editor: Gail Hynes Shea. or recommendations included in this publication. to promote natural hazard mitigation. California 95814-3017 Telephone: (916) 447-1198. While the information presented in this publication is believed to be correct. editors. UBC. SCBF connection—Buehler & Buehler. writers. Office Complex. it should not be used or relied on for any specific application without the competent examination and verification of its accuracy. express or implied. and Southern California). This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the Structural Engineers Association of California. This document is published in keeping with SEAOC’s stated mission: “to advance the structural engineering profession. to provide the public with structures of dependable performance through the application of state-of-the-art structural engineering principles. conclusions. to assist the public in obtaining professional structural engineering services.org.

..... 19 1B Ordinary Concentric Braced Frame ..................................Table of Contents Table of Contents Preface .......... 3 Notation .......................................................................................... 271 Design Example 7 Precast Concrete Cladding.................................................................................................................... 313 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual............................................................................................ Vol....................... III (1997 UBC) iii ........................................................................ 143 3B Steel Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame........................................................ v Acknowledgements ...............................vi Introduction ............................................................................... 1 How to Use This Document ............. 89 Design Example 3 3A Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame.................................................................................................................................................... 209 Design Example 5 Reinforced Concrete Wall with Coupling Beams....................................................................... 77 Design Example 2 Eccentric Braced Frame ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 189 Design Example 4 Reinforced Concrete Wall................ 4 Design Example 1 1A Special Concentric Braced Frame ........... 237 Design Example 6 Concrete Special Moment Resisting Frame............................................................................ 67 1C Chevron Braced Frame.................

iv SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .

Masonry and Tilt-up was published in April 2000. and everyday structural engineering design practice. such as how to compute base shear or building period. and the document is not intended to establish a minimum standard of care. 4. The first volume. Volumes II and III: Design Examples furnish examples of the seismic design of common types of buildings. Gallagher Project Manager v SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. provides step-by-step examples of how to use individual code provisions.Preface Preface This document is the third volume of the three-volume SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Code Application Examples. published by the International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). In Volumes II and III. These illustrate the seismic design of the following structures: 1. the examples shown do not necessarily illustrate the only appropriate methods of seismic design. 3. calculation-by-calculation. The second volume. ordinary. Work is presently underway on an 2000 International Building Code version. which explains the basis for the UBC seismic provisions. Building Design Examples: Light Frame. how the various seismic requirements of the code are implemented in a realistic design. Engineering judgment must be exercised when applying these Design Examples to real projects. These documents have been developed by the Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) with funding provided by SEAOC. While the Seismic Design Manual illustrates how the provisions of the code are used. important aspects of whole buildings are designed to show. 5. Volume I: Code Application Examples. and in SEAOC’s 1999 Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary (also called the Blue Book). 7. was published in April 1999. 6. 2. Their purpose is to provide guidance on the interpretation and use of the seismic requirements in the 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC). The Seismic Design Manual was developed to fill a void that exists between the Commentary of the Blue Book. III (1997UBC) . Volume III contains ten examples. Ronald P. Vol. Three steel braced frames (special. and chevron) Eccentric braced frame Two steel moment-resisting frames (special and ordinary) Concrete shear wall Concrete shear wall with coupling beams Concrete special moment-resisting frame Precast concrete cladding It is SEAOC’s present intention to update the Seismic Design Manual with each edition of the building code used in California.

Lawson Joseph R. Kiland John W. Harris Martin W. Gallagher.Acknowledgments Acknowledgments Authors The Seismic Design Manual was written by a group of highly qualified structural engineers. II and III are: Ronald P. They were selected by a Steering Committee set up by the SEAOC Board of Directors and were chosen for their knowledge and experience with structural engineering practice and seismic design. Members of the Steering Committee attended meetings and took an active role in shaping and reviewing the document. The Consultants for Volumes I. 1B and 1C. Shipp. Project Manager Robert Clark David A. Kiland (Design Examples 2 and 6). The Steering Committee consisted of: John G. These individuals are California registered civil and structural engineers and SEAOC members. and Robert Clark (Design Example 7). and 3A and 3B). Stedman vi SEAOC Seismic Design Manual . The Steering Committee was made up of senior members of SEAOC who are both practicing structural engineers and have been active in Association leadership. Chair Robert N. Hutchinson Jon P. Johnson Scott A. Jon P. Joseph R. Maffei (Design Examples 4 and 5). Maffei Douglas S. Steering Committee Overseeing the development of the Seismic Design Manual and the work of the Consultants was the Project Steering Committee. Chittenden Stephen K. Thompson Theodore C. Many useful ideas and helpful suggestions were offered by the other consultants. Hutchinson (Design Examples 1A. Zsutty Volume III was written principally by David A.

Hale Stephen K. Hohbach Y. K. III (1997 UBC) vii . Kinhal Robert Lyons Simin Naaseh Chris V. (AISC) James O’Donnell Richard Phillips Paul Pina Mehran Pourzanjani Rafael Sabelli C. John Khadivi Jaiteeerth B. Tokas Michael Riley. During its development. Vol. Chair Saif Hussain. drafts of the examples were sent to these individuals. Mark Saunders David Sheppard Constantine Shuhaibar Seismology Committee Close collaboration with the SEAOC Seismology Committee was maintained during the development of the document.Reviewers Reviewers A number of SEAOC members. Assistant to the Chair SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. The assistance of the following individuals is gratefully acknowledged: Vin Balachandran Raymond Bligh Dirk Bondy David Bonowitz Robert Chittenden Michael Cochran Anthony Court Juan Carlos Esquival Brent Forslin S. helped check the examples in Volume III. 1999-2000 Martin W. Harris Douglas C. Their assistance is gratefully acknowledged. Their help was sought in both review of code interpretations as well as detailed checking of the numerical computations. and other structural engineers. Henry Huang Saiful Islam H. The 1999-2000 Committee reviewed the document and provided many helpful comments and suggestions. Chittenden Tom H. Past Chair David Bonowitz Robert N. Johnson. Ghosh Jeff Guh Ronald Hamburger Douglas Hohbach Dominic Kelly Edward Knowles Kenneth Lutrell Robert Lyons Peter Maranian Harry (Hank) Martin.

viii SEAOC Seismic Design Manual .Suggestions for Improvement Suggestions for Improvement In keeping with two of its Mission Statements: (1) “to advance the structural engineering profession” and (2) “to provide structural engineers with the most current information and tools to improve their practice”. Fax: (916) 443-8065 E-mail: info@seaoc.org. at its sole discretion. Web address: http://www. Comments and suggestions for improvements are welcome and should be sent to the following: Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) Attention: Executive Director 1730 I Street.org or on the ICBO website at http://ww.seaoc. SEAOC.seaoc. In the event that corrections or clarifications are needed. these will be posted on the SEAOC web site at http://www. SEAOC plans to update this document as seismic requirements change and new research and better understanding of building performance in earthquakes becomes available.org Errata Notification SEAOC has made a substantial effort to ensure that the information in this document is accurate.icbo. California 95814-3017 Telephone: (916) 447-1198. Suite 240 Sacramento. may or may not issue written errata.org.

Concrete and Cladding .Seismic Design Manual Volume III Building Design Examples: Steel.

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This typically includes a brief review of the past earthquake behavior and mention of design improvements added to recent codes. When appropriate. In developing these Design Examples. The Design Examples are not complete building designs. and precast cladding. but rather they are examples of the significant seismic design aspects of a particular type of building. In some examples. these considerations are discussed as alternatives. Chapter 19 (Concrete). The document is intended to help the reader understand and correctly use the design provisions of UBC Chapter 16 (Design Requirements). or even complete seismic designs. are not given. and Chapter 22 (Steel). particularly California and the western states. for the requirements of the 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC) is illustrated in this document. however. III (1997 UBC) 1 . Design practices of an individual structural engineer or office. Ten examples are shown: 1A 1B 1C 2 3A 3B 4 5 6 7 Steel special concentric braced frame Steel ordinary concentric braced frame Steel chevron braced frame Eccentric braced frame Steel special moment-resisting frame Steel ordinary moment-resisting frame Concrete shear wall Concrete shear wall with coupling beams Concrete special moment-resisting frame Precast concrete cladding The buildings selected are for the most part representative of construction types found in Zones 3 and 4. which may result in a more seismic-resistant design than required by the minimum requirements of UBC. SEAOC believes it is essential that structural engineers not only know how to correctly interpret and SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.Introduction Introduction Seismic design of new steel and concrete buildings. SEAOC has endeavored to illustrate correct use of the minimum provisions of the code. Designs have been largely taken from real world buildings. although some simplifications were necessary for purposes of illustrating significant points and not presenting repetitive or unnecessarily complicated aspects of a design. Vol. the performance characteristics of the structural system are discussed.

Vol. but that they also understand their basis. III (1997 UBC) . When differences between the UBC and Blue Book are significant. references are made to the provisions of SEAOC’s 1999 Recommended Lateral Force Provisions and Commentary (Blue Book). these are brought to the attention of the reader. many examples have commentary included on past earthquake performance. For this reason.Introduction apply the provisions of the code. While the Seismic Design Manual is based on the 1997 UBC. 2 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

“1997 UBC Section 1630. references and suggested reading are given at the end of the example. Chicago.2. Right-Hand Margin Notation More Complete Description Table 1-A AISC-ASD Table 1-A of Ninth Edition. This is followed by an “Outline” indicating the tasks or steps to be illustrated in each example. Some Design Examples have a section entitled “Factors that Influence Design” that provides remarks on salient design points.2 with 1997 UBC (Volume 2) being understood. In general. “Given Information” provides the basic design information.2. Generally. This is a description of the building and the seismic aspects to be designed.8 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction.How to Use This Document How to Use This Document Each Design Example is presented in the following format. the phrase “Table 16-O” is understood to be 1997 UBC Table 16-O. Finally. Some examples of abbreviated references are shown below. reference documents are identified in the right-hand margin. Next. tables.8 of Commentary of SEAOC Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary (Blue Book). 1997. reference to UBC sections and formulas is abbreviated. including plans and sketches given as the starting point for the design. Similarly. Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings. there is an “Overview” of the example.2” is given as §1630. Vol.” which provides the solution to the example. 3 AISC-Seismic §15. Allowable Stress Design. UBC notation is used throughout. III (1997 UBC) . notation from other codes is also used. Throughout the document. “Formula (32-2)” is designated Equation (32-2) or just (32-2) in the right-hand margins of the Design Examples. 1989. Some Design Examples have a subsequent section designated “Commentary.” The commentary is intended to provide a better understanding of aspects of the example and/or to offer guidance to the reader on use of the information generated.3b SEAOC C402.3b of the American Institute of Steel Construction. This is followed by “Calculations and Discussion. and equations (the UBC calls the latter formulas) is given in the right-hand margin under the heading Code Reference. When the document makes reference to other codes and standards. Illinois. 1999. this is generally done in abbreviated form. Section 15. Because the document is based on the UBC. However. reference to specific code provisions. Section C402. First. For example.

in square inches area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement ABM Ab Ac = = = Ach = Acv = Ae = Af Ag Ap = = = As = 4 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. in square inches the combined effective area. When the same notation is used in two or more definitions.Notation Notation The following notations are used in this document. For example. These are generally consistent with that used in the UBC and other codes such as ACI and AISC. each definition is prefaced with a brief description in parentheses (e. of the shear walls in the first story of the structure cross-sectional area of a structural member measured out-toout of transverse reinforcement net area of concrete section bounded by web thickness and length of section in the direction of shear force considered the minimum cross-sectional area in any horizontal plane in the first story of a shear wall. AB = ground floor area of structure in square feet to include area covered by all overhangs and projections cross-sectional area of the base material area of anchor. in square feet flange area gross area of section the effective area of the projection of an assumed concrete failure surface upon the surface from which the anchor protrudes. in square feet. Some additional notations have also been added. The reader is cautioned that the same notation may be used more than once and may carry entirely different meaning in different situations. Vol. E can mean the tabulated elastic modulus under the AISC definition (steel) or it can mean the earthquake load under §1630. steel or loads) before the definition is given.1 of the UBC (loads)..g. III (1997 UBC) .

III (1997 UBC) 5 . or area of shear reinforcement perpendicular to flexural tension reinforcement within a distance s for deep flexural members total area of reinforcement in each group of diagonal bars in a diagonally reinforced coupling beam area of shear-friction reinforcement (web) link web area (weld) effective cross-sectional area of the weld the torsional amplification factor at Level x (concrete) depth of equivalent rectangular stress block (concrete spandrel) shear span. given in §1632 and Table 16-O of UBC (concrete) width of compression face of member flange width web width member width-thickness ratio seismic coefficient. as set forth in Table 16-Q of UBC Ask As.min Ast Av = = = = Avd = Avf Aw Aw Ax a a = = = = = = ac = ap = b bf bw b/t Ca = = = = = SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.Notation Ash = total cross-sectional area of transverse reinforcement (including crossties) within spacing s and perpendicular to dimension hc area of skin reinforcement per unit height on one side face minimum amount of flexural reinforcement area of link stiffener area of shear reinforcement within a distance s. Vol. distance between concentrated load and face of supports coefficient defining the relative contribution of concrete strength to wall strength in-structure component amplification factor.

of a shear wall in the first story in the direction parallel to the applied forces effective depth of section (distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement) (anchor bolt) anchor shank diameter (concrete) bar diameter column panel zone depth (steel) modulus of elasticity flexural stiffness of compression member (loads) earthquake loads set forth in §1630. in psi (concrete) modulus of elasticity of reinforcement EBF link length axial compressive stress that would be permitted if axial force alone existed bending stress that would be permitted if bending moment alone existed nominal strength of the base material to be welded SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Eh.1 Cq = Ct Cv Cm c D De = = = = = = d = db db dz E EI = = = = = E.2. Ev. Fn= Ec Es e Fa = = = = modulus of elasticity of concrete. Vol. and gust factor coefficient as given in Table 16-G of UBC pressure coefficient for the structure or portion of structure under consideration as given in Table 16-H numerical coefficient as given in §1630. Em. III (1997 UBC) Fb = FBM 6 = .2 seismic coefficient as set forth in Table 16-R coefficient defined in Section H1 of AISC-ASD distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis dead load on a structural element length.Notation Ce = combined height. in feet. exposure. Fi.

III (1997 UBC) .Notation FEXX = classification number of weld metal (minimum specified strength) design seismic force on a part of the structure specified minimum tensile strength. Vol. ksi (steel LRFD) nominal strength of the weld electrode material (steel ASD) allowable weld stress specified yield strength of structural steel Fy of a beam Fy of a column expected yield strength of steel to be used Fy of column flange (steel) specified minimum yield strength of transverse reinforcement Fy of the panel-zone steel computed axial stress bending stress in frame member specified compressive strength of concrete average splitting tensile strength of lightweight aggregate concrete minimum specified tensile strength of the anchor 12 π 2 E Fp Fu Fw Fw Fy Fyb Fyc Fye Fyf Fyh = = = = = = = = = = Fyw fa fb f c' fct = = = = = fut F' e = = = = = 23(Kλb / rb )2 lateral force at Level i for use in Formula (30-10) specified compressive strength of masonry equivalent uniform load 7 fi fm' fp SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

hn. f r = g h = = hc = hc he = = hi. measured center to center of confining reinforcement (steel) assumed web depth for stability assumed web depth for stability height in feet above the base to Level i. neglecting reinforcement (concrete. or shear wall boundary zone.Notation fr Ftt fy = = = modulus of rupture of concrete through-thickness weld stresses at the beam-column interface (concrete) specified yield strength of reinforcing steel (steel) weld stresses at connection interface acceleration due to gravity overall dimensions of member in direction of action considered (concrete) cross-sectional dimension of column core. importance factor specified in Table 16-K moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section f x. neglecting reinforcement) moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis. Vol.hx = hr hw I I = = = = Icr Ig = = Ig = Ip Ise = = 8 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. f y. or x. transformed section) moment of inertia of cracked section transformed to concrete. III (1997 UBC) . n. respectively height in feet of the roof above the base height of entire wall or of the segment of wall considered (loads) importance factor given in Table 16-K (concrete) moment of inertia of section resisting externally applied factored loads moment of inertia of cracked section transformed to concrete (concrete.

or related internal moments and forces (steel) unbraced beam length for determining allowable bending stress limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic flexural strength. measured from center to center of the joints in the frame distance from column centerline to centerline of hinge for reduced bending strength (RBS) connection design clear span measured face to face of supports unsupported length of compression member length of entire wall. x = 1 designates the first level above the base (steel) maximum factored moment factored moment to be used for design of compression member Iw K k L = = = = L = Lp = lc = lc = lh = ln lu lw = = = Level i = Level n = Level x = M Mc = = SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. i = 1 designates the first level above the base the level that is uppermost in the main portion of the structure the level that is under design consideration.Notation It = moment of inertia of structural steel shape. or of segment of wall considered. uniform moment case (steel RBS) length of radius cut in beam flange for reduced beam section (RBS) design length of a compression member in a frame. Vol. pipe or tubing about centroidal axis of composite member cross section importance factor as set forth in Table 16-K of UBC (steel) effective length factor for prismatic member effective length factor for compression member (loads) live load due to occupancy and moveable equipment. in direction of shear force. III (1997 UBC) 9 . level of the structure referred to by the subscript i.

Vol. MLL. member bending strength at plastic capacity ZFy (concrete) factored moment at section (steel) required flexural strength on a member or joint moment corresponding to onset of yielding at the extreme fiber from an elastic stress distribution Mn Mp = = Mp Mpa Mpe = = = Mpr = Mpr = Ms Ms = = Mu Mu My = = = 10 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 (steel RBS) probable plastic moment at the reduced beam section (RBS) (concrete) moment due to loads causing appreciable sway (steel) flexural strength.25 fy and a strength reduction factor φ of 1.1) MDL. Mseis = unfactored moment in frame member Mf Mm Mm = = = moment at face of column (concrete) modified moment (steel) maximum moment that can be resisted by the member in the absence of axial load nominal moment strength at section (concrete) required plastic moment strength of shearhead cross-section (steel) nominal plastic flexural strength.2.4.Notation Mcl Mcr = = moment at centerline of column moment causing flexural cracking at section due to externally applied loads (see §1911. Fy Z nominal plastic flexural strength modified by axial load nominal plastic flexural strength using expected yield strength of steel (concrete) probable moment strength determined using a tensile strength in the longitudinal bars of at least 1. III (1997 UBC) .

Notation M1 = smaller factored end moment on a compression member. or nominal axial strength of a column nominal axial load strength at zero eccentricity 1.5) Fy A M2 = Na = Nv = P P = = PDL. III (1997 UBC) 11 . where F'e is as defined in Section H1 of AISC-ASD nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity. Pseis Pb = Pbf Pc Pc Pe = = = = Pn = Po Psc = = Psc.3.7 Fa A strength level axial number force for connection design or axial strength check (see §2213. PLL.2) connection force for design of column continuity plates (concrete) critical load (concrete anchorage) design tensile strength (23/12)F'e A. positive if member is bent in single curvature. negative if bent in double curvature larger factored end moment on compression member.Pst = = Psi SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol. always positive near-source factor used in the determination of Ca in Seismic Zone 4 related to both the proximity of the building or structure to known faults with magnitudes and slip rates as set forth in Tables 16-S and 16-U near-source factor used in the determination of Cv in Seismic Zone 4 related to both the proximity of the building or structure to known faults with magnitudes and to slip rates as set forth in Tables 16-T and 16-U (steel) factored axial load (wind) design wind pressure = unfactored axial load in frame member nominal axial load strength at balanced strain conditions (see §1910.

or required axial strength on a column or a link (concrete anchorage) required tensile strength from loads nominal axial yield strength of a member. Vol.2 and Table 16-0 required strength ratio of expected yield strength Fye to the minimum specified yield strength Fy (loads) a ratio used in determining ρ (see §1630.1) (steel) radius of gyration of cross section of a compression member radius of gyration about y axis spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in direction parallel to longitudinal reinforcement. or spacing of transverse reinforcement measured along the longitudinal axis Pu = Pu Py = = PDL PE PLL qs = = = = R = Rn Rnw Rp = = = Ru Ry = = r r = = ry s = = 12 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. which is equal to Fy Ag axial dead load axial load on member due to earthquake axial live load wind stagnation pressure at the standard height of 33 feet. given in §1632. as set forth in Table 16-F numerical coefficient representative of the inherent overstrength and global ductility capacity of lateral force resisting systems. III (1997 UBC) . or factored axial load at given eccentricity (steel) nominal axial strength of a column. as set forth in Table 16-N or 16-P nominal strength nominal weld strength component response modification factor.Notation Pu = (concrete) factored axial load.

including shear magnification factors for overstrength and inelastic dynamic effects (loads) factored horizontal shear in a story 13 Vs = Vs Vu = = Vu = Vu = SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. of the structure in the direction under consideration thickness of flange thickness of web column panel zone thickness required strength to resist factored loads or related internal moments and forces the total design lateral force or shear at the base given by Formula (30-5).Notation SA. VLL. SD. SB. 0. SE. Vol. Vseis = unfactored shear in frame member Vn Vn Vp Vpa = = = = (concrete) nominal shear strength at section (steel) nominal shear strength of a member (steel) shear strength of an active link nominal shear strength of an active link modified by the axial load magnitude (concrete) nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement (steel) shear strength of member. III (1997 UBC) . (30-7) or (30-11) (concrete) nominal shear strength provided by concrete (concrete anchorage) design shear strength tf tw tz U = = = = V = Vc Vc = = VDL. S F = soil profile types as set forth in Table 16-J SRBS T = = section modulus at the reduced beam section (RBS) elastic fundamental period of vibration.55 Fy dt (concrete anchorage) required shear strength from factored loads (concrete) factored shear force at section. (30-6). in seconds. SC.

1. which is the total drift or total story drift that occurs when the structure is subjected to the design seismic forces Vx W W Wp wc = = = = = wi.1 design level response displacement.9 relative lateral deflection between the top and bottom of a story due to Vu. including applicable portions of other loads defined in §1630. III (1997 UBC) . which is the total drift or total story drift that occurs when the structure is subjected to the design basis ground motion.1 (wind) load due to wind pressure the weight of an element of component weights of concrete. Vol.11. as defined in §1630. in pcf that portion of W located at or assigned to Level i or x.1 column panel zone width (loads) seismic zone factor as given in Table 16-I (steel) plastic section modulus plastic section modulus at the reduced beam section (RBS) design story drift maximum inelastic response displacement. including estimated elastic and inelastic contributions to the total deformation. wx = = wpx wz Z Z ZRBS ∆ ∆M = = = = = = ∆O = ∆S = 14 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. computed using a first-order elastic frame analysis and stiffness values satisfying §1910.1. including shear magnification factors for overstrength and inelastic dynamic effects the design story shear in story x (seismic) the total seismic dead load defined in §1620.Notation Vu Vu * = = (steel) required shear strength on a member factored shear force at section. respectively the weight of the diaphragm and the element tributary thereto at Level x.

2. f. 1. III (1997 UBC) .2) ratio of area of distributed reinforcement parallel to the plane of Acv to gross concrete area perpendicular to that reinforcement.85 for “sandlightweight” concrete 15 = = = = = = ∝.75 for “all lightweight” concrete.3 (loads) redundancy/reliability factor given by Formula (30-3) (concrete) ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement (As/bd) reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain conditions (see §1910. ratio of volume of spiral reinforcement to total volume of core (outto-out of spirals) of a spirally reinforced compression member ratio of area of distributed reinforcement perpendicular to the plane of Acv to gross concrete area Acv lightweight aggregate concrete factor.3.7. β ∝c βc β1 ρ ρ ρb ρn ρs ρv λ = = = = = = = = = = SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. and 0.3) (steel) resistance factor for flexure (steel) resistance factor for compression resistance factor for shear strength of panel zone of beam-tocolumn connections (concrete) angle between the diagonal reinforcement and the longitudinal axis of a diagonally reinforced coupling beam (steel) centroid locations of gusset connection for braced frame diagonal coefficient defining the relative contribution of concrete strength to wall strength ratio of long side to short side of concentrated load or reaction area factor defined in §1910. 0.Notation δί φ φb φc φv ∝ = horizontal displacement at Level i relative to the base due to applied lateral forces. Vol.0 for normal weight concrete. for use in Formula (30-10) (concrete) capacity reduction or strength reduction factor (see §1909.

III (1997 UBC) .Notation λp la = = limiting slenderness parameter for compact element length of radius cut in beam flange for reduced beam section (RBS) connection design distance from column centerline to centerline of hinge for RBS connection design clear span measured face to face of supports unsupported length of compression member length of entire wall or of segment of wall considered in direction of shear force (loads) seismic force amplification factor. which is required to account for structural overstrength and set forth in Table 16-N (steel) horizontal seismic overstrength factor coefficient of friction lh = ln lu lw Ωo Ωo µ = = = = = = 16 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol.

1999. UBC. 1997. 2nd Edition. American Institute of Steel Construction. 1995. Building Code Regulations for Reinforced Concrete. 1994. III (1997 UBC) 17 . Manual of Steel Construction. April 15. 1. Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary. Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings. Structural Engineers Association of California. Allowable Stress Design. Illinois. Uniform Building Code. American Concrete Institute. Chicago. Michigan. American Institute of Steel Construction. AISC-Seismic. AISC-ASD. Manual of Steel Construction. Chicago. 1989. International Conference of Building Officials. Chicago. 1997 and Supplement No. AISC-LRFD. SEAOC Blue Book. California. Farmington Hills. American Institute of Steel Construction. Load and Resistance Factor Design. Whittier. California. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Illinois. Illinois. Sacramento. 9th Edition. February 15. Vol. 1999.References References ACI-318.

III (1997 UBC) . Vol.18 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

Design Example 1C illustrates a chevron braced frame design. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Design of eccentric braced frames (EBFs) is illustrated in Design Example 2. III (1997 UBC) 19 .Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Design Example 1A Special Concentric Braced Frame Figure 1A-1. Four-story steel frame office building with special concentric braced frames (SCBF) Foreword Design Examples 1A. " " " Design Example 1A illustrates a special concentric braced frame (SCBF). These Design Examples have been selected to aid the reader in understanding design of different types of concentric braced frame systems. Vol. 1B and 1C show the seismic design of essentially the same four-story steel frame building using three different concentric bracing systems. Design Example 1B illustrates an ordinary concentric braced frame (OCBF).

Figure 1A-2. without local buckling or kinking that would result in a permanent plastic deformation of the brace. Vol. Research performed has demonstrated that systems with this ductile buckling behavior perform well under cyclic loading. Typical floor framing plan 20 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. The typical floor plan is shown on Figure 1A-2. and a building section is shown in Figure 1A-3. Several references are listed at the end of this Design Example. Design of the major lateral force resisting structural steel elements and connections uses AISC Allowable Stress Design (ASD). The 1997 UBC design provisions for special concentric braced frames (SCBFs) are attributed to research performed at the University of Michigan.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Overview The 4-story steel frame office structure shown in Figure 1A-1 is to have special concentric bracing as its lateral force resisting system. The basis for SCBF bracing is the proportioning of members such that the compression diagonals buckle in a well behaved manner. III (1997 UBC) . Figure 1A-4 depicts a two-story x-brace configuration and elevations.

Braced frame elevations SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Figure 1A-3. Vol. III (1997 UBC) 21 . Typical building section Elevation A Elevation B Figure 1A-4.

gypsum board. 4.0 3. Vol.0 44.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Outline This Design Example illustrates the following parts of the design process: 1. metal panels Structural materials: Wide flange shapes Tube sections Weld electrodes Bolts Shear Plates Gusset plates 15 psf ASTM A36 (Fy = 36 ksi) ASTM A500 grade B (Fy = 46 ksi) E70XX ASTM A490 SC ASTM A572 grade 50 (Fy = 50 ksi) ASTM A36 (Fy = 36 ksi) 22 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 9.0 72.0 7. Distribution of lateral forces. Bracing connection design. III (1997 UBC) . 2. Given Information Roof weights: Roofing Insulation Concrete fill on metal deck Ceiling Mechanical/electrical Steel framing 4.0 10.0 psf 20.0 psf 3. 5.0 psf Live load: Live load: Exterior wall system weight: steel studs.0 psf 80. Typical diaphragm design.0 psf 44. Interstory drifts. Design base shear. 6.0 psf Floor weights: Flooring Concrete fill on metal deck Ceiling Mechanical/electrical Steel framing Partitions 1. 3. Braced frame member design.0 5.0 3.0 5.0 66.

Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Site seismic and geotechnical data: Occupancy category: Standard Occupancy Structure Seismic Importance Factor: I=1. Table 16-I §1629. Z = 0.0. Factors that Influence Design Requirements for design of steel braced frames are given in the 1997 UBC. III (1997 UBC) 23 . Table 16-J §1629. The following paragraphs discuss some important aspects of braced frame design. N v = 1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. in cooperation with the Structural Engineers Association of California) provide a means for easily determining the seismic source type and distance to the seismic source. Vol. If no geotechnical report is forthcoming. these represent the state-of-the-art and are recommended by SEAOC.3. These maps (prepared by the California Department of Conservation Division of Mines and Geology. Each of these can be design as either an ordinary concentric braced frame (OCBF) or a special concentric braced frame (SCBF).1. ICBO has published Maps of Known Active Fault Near-Source Zones in California and Adjacent Portions of Nevada [ICBO. 1998].08 §1629. It should be noted that the only difference between an SCBF and an OCBF is the connection detailing and some prescriptive code requirements. and chevron (or V) braced frames. This discussion is based on SEAONC seminar notes prepared by Michael Cochran.4. After the adoption of the 1997 UBC provisions by ICBO.2 Table 16-U Tables 16-S. particularly for design of SCBF connections. Although not adopted into the code. 16-T The geotechnical report for the project site should include the seismologic criteria noted above. the 1997 AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings (AISC-Seimsic) became available. Shown in Figure 1A-5 are various types of concentric braced frames permitted by the code.4. Permissible types of concentric braced frames. SE.0 Soil Profile Type “Stiff Soil”: Type S D (default profile) Seismic zone: Zone 4. ordinary concentric braced frames (OCBF).2 Table 16-K §1629. These cover special concentric braced frames (SCBF).4 Seismic Zone 4 near-source factors: Seismic source type: Type B Distance to seismic source: 8 km Near source factors: N a = 1.

Inverted V (or chevron) e. Vol. The AISC-Seismic provisions address this overstrength issue using the R y factor. High strength steel is required in order to keep the gusset plate thickness and dimensions to a minimum. Fy = 36 ksi. except for the one-story X-brace (Figure 1A-5c). The title “special” is given to braced frames meeting certain detailing and design parameters that enable them to respond to seismic forces with greater ductility. or A572. Brace behavior. The Blue Book Commentary is an excellent reference for comparison and discussion of these two systems. Permissible types of braced frames All of the frames shown in Figure 1A-5 are essentialy variations on the chevron brace. Grades of steel used in SCBFs. tube sections (ASTM A500. Use of A36 material (as shown in this Design Example) will generally result in larger connections. X-bracing d. The gusset plate material used in SCBF connections should be of equal yield strength to the brace member. Fy = 46 ksi). but these are heavily penalized since they must take 100 percent of the force in compression unless multiple single diagonal braces are provided along the same brace frame line. grade B. the strength of the gusset plate material should be at least 50 ksi. or pipes (ASTM A53. Fy = 35 ksi). Zipper b. which is not addressed by the UBC or considered in this Design Example. Single diagonal braced frames are also permissible by the code. Since the actual expected yield strength of most structural sections used as brace members is in excess of 50 ksi. SCBF members are typical wide flange sections (ASTM A36. grade B. 2-story-X c. grade 50. Fy = 50 ksi). 24 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Concentric braced frames are classified by the UBC as either ordinary or special.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame a. When designing brace connections. V-bracing Figure 1A-5. the actual yield strength of the steel needs to be considered. III (1997 UBC) .

3. Generally. The reader is referred to the SEAOC Blue Book for a further discussion on chevron braces. The problem is that it is difficult to develop this type of fixity when you are using gusset plate connections which tend to lend themselves to outof-plane buckling of the brace and behave more like a pin connection. therefore the zipper. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Chevron brace post-buckling stage and potential hinging of columns The SEAOC Blue Book (in Section C704) has gone as far to recommend that chevron bracing should not be used unless it is in the Zipper or 2 story x configuration in high seismic zones. 2-story-X and X-bracing schemes are the preferred configurations. There are limited structural shapes availble that can be oriented such that the brace will buckle in-plane. for example. III (1997 UBC) 25 .Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Both inverted V-frames and V-frames have shown poor performance during past earthquakes due to buckling of the brace and flexure of the beam at the midspan connection instead of truss action. Hollow structural sections about their weak axis. Vol. a TS 6x3x1/2 arranged as shown in Figure 1A-7a (Note: there can be a problem with shear lag in HSS sections). 2. V Figure 1A-6. the preferred behavior of bracing is in-plane buckling when fixity is developed at the end connections and three hinges are required to form prior to failure of the brace. Wide flange shapes buckling about their weak axis (Figure 1A-7c). Double angles with short legs back to back (Figure 1A-7b). The following is a list of such shapes: 1.

First.65 to ensure that the brace will buckle in-plane. and the end connections then have a great influence as to how the brace will actually buckle. As can be seen in the Figure 1A-8. and second. the gusset plate has significantly less stiffness in the out-of-plane direction. the architect may not want to reduce the floor space by putting the brace in the flat position.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame y y x x x x x y a. Vol. Two architectural restrictions typically occur that inhibit in-plane buckling. Since there is significantly less stiffness in the out-of-plane direction. When a brace buckles out-of-plane relative to the gusset plate. If the brace is symmetrical. Both AISC and UBC steel provisions provide an exception that when met. this exception is probably used 95 percent of the time in brace design. This is illustrated in Figure 1A-9 and Figure 1A-10. it is recommended that the ratio of rx ry not exceed 0. it attempts to form a hinge line in the gusset plate. Double angles (SLV) y c. Flat tube (HSS) y b. often there are infill steel studs above and below the brace. which may prevent the brace from buckling in-plane and force it to buckle out-of-plane. you have a 50-50 chance as to whether it will buckle in-plane or out-of-plane. In order for the brace to rotate and yield about this hinge line (act as a pin connection). 26 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. allow for the brace to buckle out-of-plane. The brace connection using a vertical gusset plate has a tendancy to buckle outof-plane due to the lack of stiffness in this direction. the brace will buckle outof-plane. Wide flange (weak axis) Figure 1A-7. Various brace shapes oriented for in-plane buckling When designing a brace to buckle in-plane. III (1997 UBC) . the yield lines at each end of the brace must be parallel. With the predominate use of gusset plates.

gusset plates resist axial loads without buckling. gusset plate stiffness can influence brace buckling direction Plan view force yield line C T Isometric view Figure 1A-9.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame buckling perpendicular to gusset plate (least resistance) y x yield line (hinge) x y gusset plate x x Figure 1A-8. In-plane vs out-of-plane buckling of braces. Out-of-plane buckling of the brace. III (1997 UBC) 27 . but can rotate about the yield line to accommodate the brace buckling SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol.

there physically is insufficent distance to accomodate yielding of the gusset plate without fracture. the axis of the yield line must be perpendicular to the axis of the brace.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame yield line 90 degrees to slope of brace Figure 1A-10. 2t (min) 4t (max offset plastic hinge forms at yield line brace gusset plate (t) yield line 90 degrees to slope of brace Beam Figure 1A-11. Yield line in gusset plate must be perpendicular to the brace axis To ensure that rotation can occur at each end of the brace without creating restraint. Another requirement to allow for rotation about the yield line to occur. Figure 1A-11 depicts the minimum offset requirement of the building codes. is a minimum offset from the end of the brace to the yield line. If this distance is too short. Vol. III (1997 UBC) . it is recommended that this design offset not be less than three times the gusset plate thickness (3t). in practice 3t is often used to allow for erection tolerances 28 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Yield line offset requirements. as shown in Figure 1A-11. Due to erection tolerances and other variables.

Vol. III (1997 UBC) 29 . Shaping end of brace creates restraint Figure 1A-12 (not recommended) depicts what happens when you try to shape the end of the brace to match the yield line slope. that all that was necessary was shape the end of the brace relative to the yield line so that they both were parallel to each other. Inherently.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame There has been a misconception in some previous interpetations of the yield line offset. The only way to relieve the stress is for the gusset plate to tear at one end of the brace. This creates several problems. Figure 1A-12. until the yield lines at each end of the brace are again parallel to each other. The end tip of the brace along the upper edge is generally not stiff enough to cause a straight yield line to bend perpendicular to the brace axis about the tip end of the brace since there is only one side wall at this location to apply force to the gusset plate. since the curve creates more stiffness than a shorter straight line between two points that wants to be the hinge. possible yield line 90 degrees to axis of brace 2t offset (from brace tip) detailed 2t offset from yield line brace gusset plate theoretical curved yield line as gusset attempts to bend around tip 2t offset (clamp force) Beam Note: This detail is not recommended. what happens is that the yield lines at the opposite ends of the brace are not parallel (see Figure 1A-10 for parallel yield line illustration) to each other and restraint builds up in the gusset plate as it attempts to buckle out-of-plane. the yield line will attempt to bend around corner of the brace. in that it is impossible to bend the plate about a longer curved line. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Due to the offset in the end of the brace.

but need to consider the potential restraint that occurs due to the floor deck since it will impact the gusset plate design. Beam Figure 1A-13. the gusset plate should be isolated from the concrete slab so the yield line can extend below the concrete surface. III (1997 UBC) . To keep the gusset plate size as small as possible.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Detailing considerations. more restraint occurs. The SCBF connections design details in Design Example 1A have been simplified. can cause additional restraint to buckling out-of-plane and must be taken into account during design. just that area where the yield line occurs. The compressible material which can be used would be a fire caulk that has the same required fire rating as the floor system. Floor slabs. the gusset plate must be isolated from the slab 30 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol. If the yield line crosses the edge of the gusset plate below the concrete surface. Figure 1A-13 shows how the gusset plate could be isolated from restraint caused by the slab. typically metal deck and concrete topping slab in steel frame buildings. Note that the entire gusset plate does not have to be isolated. the gusset plate will likely tear along the top of the concrete surface. For the yield line to develop in the gusset plate. compressible material gusset plate 2t (min) 4t (max) offset Plan 1" ± brace gusset plate yield line 90 degrees to slope of brace concrete slab compressible material each side of gusset plate 2" min .

4t maximum offset from the yield line to brace end is maintained at each end of the brace. and structural drawings shall take precedent over the shop drawings…”. 2. The following is a list of items that should be included in the checklist given to the Special Inspector: 1.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame A recent development in the design of gusset plate connections is the need to consider the length of the unstiffened edge of the gusset plate and the possibility of a premature buckling. as well as additonal gusset plate design and sizing criteria such as the “Critical Angle Concept” and other practical design information. III (1997 UBC) 31 . 1999) seminar notes on the design and detailing of SCBF steel connections. the reader is referred to the recent SEAONC (May. Field inspection of SCBFs. 3. 2000) and SEAOSC (November. the actual field erection of SCBFs must be carefully inspected. Because of the critical importance of the connections. Vol. Verify that the 1-inch minimum offset from the brace to the edge of the gusset plate is maintained and that the gusset plate edge slopes are the same slopes as shown on shop drawings and structural drawings. Occasionally. In the case of tube bracing. it is very common to have an erection bolt hole placed at each end of the brace. For additional information about this subject. Verify that the 2t minimum. The design engineer needs to remember that structural steel is erected using the shop drawings and that the structural drawings are often not checked. erector crews ignore these erection aids while placing the bracing over the gusset plates and making the weldments without verifying that the required 2t to 4t offset from the yield line has been maintained. These are used to properly center the brace on the gusset plate. Shop drawings often show erection aids such as clip angles and erection bolts. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. even though it is common practice to provide some form of general note that states “shop drawings are an erection aid. Verify that the gusset plate yield line has been isolated from the concrete slab and that is is away from an edge stiffener plates.

1b. §1629. the structure is likely to have Torsional Irregularity Type 1. and therefore is designated as having Plan Irregularity Type 2. Items 6 & 7 The building plan has a re-entrant corner with both projections exceeding 15 percent of the plan dimension. Vol. as delineated in §1633.6 The structure is a building frame system with lateral resistance provided by special concentrically braced frames (SCBFs) (System Type 2. The seismic factors are: R = 6. the bracing is consistent in all stories with no discontinuities or offsets. Items 6 and 7. Design base shear. Table 16-L The structure is L-shaped in plan and must be checked for vertical and horizontal irregularities. the structure has no vertical irregularities. Check configuration requirements. Review Table 16-L.5. Vertical irregularities. Classify structural system and determine seismic factors.2.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Calculations Calculations and Discussion Code Reference §1630. Plan Irregularity Type 2 triggers special consideration for diaphragm and collector design.2. 1a. Review Table 16-M.1 1. This condition will be investigated with the computer model used for structural analysis later in this Design Example. Table 16-M.a per Table 16-N). Table 16-N 32 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Plan irregularities. §1633.9. III (1997 UBC) . Given the shape of the floor plan.2 hmax = 240 ft §1630. §1629. By observation. and the mass is similar at all floor levels.5.3.4 Ω o = 2.9.

3 T A = 1. it is less than 65 feet in height.8.0 ) = 0.020 3 (30-8) T A = 0. §1629. Determine seismic response coefficients Ca and Cv. the periods are: North-south direction: TB = 0. upper bound on period governs use T = 0.44) = 0.8 The static lateral force procedure is permitted for irregular structures not more than five stories or 65 feet in height (§1629. §1629. Select lateral force procedure.2.64(N v ) = 0. Evaluate structure period T.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame 1c.2. A dynamic analysis is not required. §1630.02(62 ) Per Method B: 3 4 = 0.44(1.2 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.44 sec From three-dimensional computer model. Although the structure has a plan irregularity. III (1997 UBC) 33 .66 sec East-west direction: TB = 0.69 Table 16-Q Table 16-R 1e.08) = 0.44(N a ) = 0.57 sec Therefore. so static lateral procedures will be used.64(1.2 Per Method A: T A = C t (hn ) 4 C t = 0.4.66 sec Maximum value for TB = 1.44 C v = 0.3). 1d.57 sec §1630.3(0. Vol.3 For Zone 4 and Soil Profile Type S D : C a = 0.

These are E and E m as set forth in Equations (30-1) and (30-2).0 ) W = W = 0.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame 1f. III (1997 UBC) . the design base shear for either direction is: V = Cv I 0. Before determining the earthquake forces for design.1 specifies earthquake loads.0) W = = 0.4 (30-5) For Zone 4. Vol.189W RT 6.69(1. It is used only when specifically required. §1630.172W R 6.57 ) (30-4) Base shear need not exceed: V = 2. the reliability/redundancy factor must be determined. Reliability/redundancy factor ρ = 2 − 20 rmax Ab (30-3) (30-1) (30-2) 34 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.4(0.1.0 ) W = = 0. The load E m is the estimated maximum earthquake force that can be developed in the structure.4 )(1. Determine earthquake load combinations. ∴ V = 0.5(0.4 (30-7) Equation (30-5) governs base shear.8ZN v I 0.44)(1. The total design base shear for a given direction is determined from Equation (30-4).08)(1. base shear shall not be less than: V = 0. as will be shown later in this Design Example.8(0.054W R 6.1 Section 1630.172W 1g. Determine design base shear. E = ρE H + E v Em = Ω o E H The normal earthquake design load is E . Since the period is the same for both directions.5Ca I 2.

10 = 0.0 ≤ ρ ≤ 1.061 18 §1630. For load combinations of §1612. ∴ rmax = and: ρ = 2− and: 1.0 The value for ρ should be confirmed upon completion of the computer analysis for the brace forces. Distribution of lateral forces. Vol. Braced frame locations are noted in Figure 1A-14 below.91 1. (30-2) (30-1) 20 0.2(V ) Note that seismic forces may be assumed to act non-concurrently in each principal direction of the structure.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Ab = (180)2 + 180(132 + 192 ) = 90. For rmax . Calculated building weights and centers of gravity at each level are given in Table 1A-1. Included is an additional 450 kips (5. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. except as per §1633.5 ∴ Use ρ = 1.720 ft 2 To estimate an initial value for ρ .1.0(V ) ( E v = 0 since allowable stress design is used in this Design Example) Em = Ω o Eh = 2.1. III (1997 UBC) 35 .1 2.720 )1 / 2 = 0. Calculate building weights and mass distribution. 2a. for purposes of preliminary design. E and E m are as follows: E = ρE h + E v = 1. Building mass properties are summarized in Table 1A-2.061(90. an assumption for the value of rmax is made. assume that the highest force in any brace member is 10 percent greater than average for the 18 total braces.0 psf) at the roof level for mechanical equipment.

404 6.300 2.560 16. Braced frame location plan Table 1A-1.416 ft 2 2.036 677. & 2nd Floor Weights (2) Mark2 I II III Walls Totals ∴ w DL (psf) 72 72 72 15 Area (sf) 23.368 ft ) = 20.209.826 207.238 41.520 Wi (kips) 1. Roof weight: wDL = 66.687 X cg (ft) 90 90 276 168 Ycg (ft) 66 222 222 175 W X cg ( ) W Ycg ( ) (lbs) 151.488 308 6.404 4th.368 ft ) = 16.0 + 5.776 51. wall area = (15)(1.368 1. wall area = (7. 3rd.400 34.077. III (1997 UBC) .840 = 180.760 32.687 = 161. Ycg = 1.5)(1.400 34.454 246 6.468 6. Ycg = 1.092 1. Vol.965 209.952 686.0 psf .Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame A denotes two braced bays B denotes one braced bay Figure 1A-14.735 43. exterior walls: wwall = 15 psf . Building weight Roof Weight (1) Mark2 I II III Walls Totals ∴ w DL (psf) 71 71 71 15 Area (sf) 23.908 517.520 ft 2 36 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.760 32.102. exterior walls: wwall = 15 psf .885 6.061 6.061 X cg = 1.840 ( ) W Ycg ( ) (lbs) 112.687 = 180.237.333 2.416 Wi (kips) 1.0add'l mech = 71.407 53.560 20.9 Note: 1.865 1.468 (lbs) 111.237.711 2.882 552.840 = 161.339 510.102.1 .710 1.855 X cg = 1.209.9 X cg (ft) 90 90 276 168 Ycg (ft) 66 222 222 175 W X cg (lbs) 153.687 2.0 psf .5 + 4.689 544.077.1 . wDL = 72.

680 kips 2c.5 For the static lateral force procedure.7 17.172W = 0.7 sec For this structure Ft = 0 .183 324.840 6.687 6. Mass (M) and mass moment of inertia (MMI) are used in analysis for determination of fundamental period (T).9 M (2) 17. As noted above. 2. M = (W 3.9 180.07T (V ) Except Ft = 0 where T ≤ 0. Equation (30-5) governs.4 MMI (3) 316. Determine design base shear.86.183 324. vertical distribution of force to each level is applied as follows: V = Ft + ∑ Fi where: Ft = 0.3 17.1 (1) Ycg (ft) 180.1 161.9 180. MMI = (M A) I x + I y kip ⋅ sec 2 ⋅ in ( )( ) 2b.1 161. §1630.207 X cg (ft) 161.4 )(kip ⋅ sec in.183 Notes: 1.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Table 1A-2. Mass properties summary Level Roof 4th 3rd 2nd Total WDL (kips) 6.) 3.7 70. and design base shear is: V = 0.172(27207) = 4. Vol.931 324. Determine vertical distribution of force.9 180.840 27. III (1997 UBC) 37 . and the force at each level is Fx = (30-14) (30-13) (V − Ft )W x hx ∑ Wi hi W h =V x x ∑W h i i (30-15) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.7 17.840 6.1 161.

North-south seismic: M t = 0.0 (kips) 1.11 1. In this Design Example.3 1. The accidental torsion is equal to that caused by displacing the center of mass 5 percent of the building dimension perpendicular to the direction of the applied lateral force.811.172.0 4.680.0 4.6.3 3.234 w x hx Σw x hx 0.6 Structures with concrete fill floor decks are generally assumed to have rigid diaphragms.687 6. For our structural computer model. this can be achieved by combining the direct seismic force applied at the center of mass at each level with the accidental torsional moment (M z ) at that level. the distribution of forces to the frames is generated by computer analysis.20 0.2 508. III (1997 UBC) . §1630.8 4.680.594 321. (For the computer model.880 116.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame The vertical distribution of force to each level is given in Table 1A-3 below. a three-dimensional computer model is used to determine the distribution of seismic forces to each frame.404.280 1. member sizes are initially proportioned by preliminary hand calculations and then optimized by subsequent iterations.39 0.00 Fx (kips) 1.071.215.05(372 ft )Fx = (18.) 38 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. For rigid diaphragms. Distribution of base shear Level Roof 4th 3rd 2nd Total wx (kips) 6.840 6.480 218.811. an accidental torsion must be applied (in addition to any natural torsional moment).6)Fx East-west seismic: M t = 0.0 ΣV 2d. Vol. as specified in §1630.05(312 ft )Fx = (15.5 956.207 hx (ft) 62 47 32 17 w x hx (k-ft) 414.840 27.30 0. Forces are distributed to the braced frames per their relative rigidities.6 )Fx Using the direct seismic forces and accidental torsional moments given in Table 1A-4. Table 1A-3.840 6. Determine horizontal distribution of force.

414 487 4.067 1.063 1.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Table 1A-4.084 1.917 7. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. and that the most severe combination be used for design.124 17.132 1. forces in each bracing member are totaled to obtain the seismic force resisted by each frame.005 1.7.013 1.449 E-W M t (k-ft) 28.054 1.280 481 4.680 977 937 1.931 1. Distribution of forces to frames Frame East-West Direction A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 Total A5 A6 A7 A8 B2 Total Direct Seismic (kips) 1.7 require that the 5 percent center-of-mass displacement be taken from the calculated center-of-mass.811.404. The frame forces are then summed and compare to the seismic base shear for a global equilibrium check. III (1997 UBC) 39 .023 1. 2e.018 509 4.089 1. Type 1) to determine if a torsional amplification factor (Ax ) is required under the provisions of §1630.5 956. Forces at the base of each frame are summarized in Table 1A-5 below: Table 1A-5.910 14. North-South Direction §1630.0 N-S M t (k-ft) 33. However.3 1.2 508.6 and 1630. we must check for a torsional irregularity (per Table 16-M. the accidental torsional moment has been accounted for as required by §1630. Accidental torsional moments Level Roof 4th 3rd 2nd Fx (kips) 1.018 1.7 As shown above. Vol. Sections 1630. Determine horizontal torsional moments.256 21.690 26.105 521 4.986 Note that the torsional seismic component is always additive to the direct seismic force.680 Torsional Force (kips) 61 65 26 87 12 77 76 13 134 6 Direct + Torsion (kips) 1.925 From the computer analysis.785 9.6.

including torsional effects.9 The design level response displacement (∆ S ) is obtained from a static elastic analysis using the seismic forces derived from the design base shear. no torsional irregularity exists. For this evaluation. 3a.95 in @ Line 1 1.48∆ S The greatest calculated values for ∆ S and ∆ M are to be used. III (1997 UBC) . For this example. total seismic displacements at the roof level are compared.3 eliminates the upper limit on TB .07 o.k.05 in @ Line N 1. 3rd. When determining displacements. and 4th floors are similar to those at the roof.10. considering both direct seismic forces plus accidental torsion. The relative displacements at the 2nd.7(R )∆ S = 0. (30-17) 40 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.2 times the average drifts at both ends. The maximum inelastic response displacement (∆ M ) includes both elastic and estimated inelastic drifts resulting from the design basis ground motion: ∆ M = 0. allowing for a reduction in seismic forces calculated using Equation (30-4).3 in @ Line 11 1. Ratio (max/avg) 1. §1630.2 times the average drift. Roof displacements North-South Direction East-West Direction @ Line A 0. Story drift ratios are calculated from lateral displacements at each level for both the north-south and east-west directions (as generated by the computer analysis). §1630. and are presented in the Table 1A-7.7(6.4 )∆ S = 4. Table 1A-6. no torsional irregularities were found to exist at those levels. Vol.16 o.22 in Average 1. For determination of ∆ M .135 Ratio (max/avg) 1. P∆ effects must be included. The displacements in Table 1A-6 below are taken from the computer model for points at the extreme corners of the structure. Determine ∆s and ∆m. with a proportional reduction in calculated drifts. Because the maximum drift is less than 1. 3.k. the base shear could be reduced about 5 percent using TB with Equation (30-4). Interstory drift.125 Average 1.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Torsional irregularity exists when the drift at one end of the structure exceeds 1.

(Note: Using the full value for TB would result in a lower base shear and smaller story displacement. For structures with T < 0.0064 0.36 (0.0) = 0.9 In multistory buildings.) 4.7 the maximum allowable drift is 0.025 times the story height.98) = 0.9 Item 2 Ft + ∑ Fi ∑ wi (w px ) (33-1) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.26 (1.0082 0.52 Drift Ratio (1) (2) 0.52 1.34) = 0. including the roof.08 1. 3b.70) = 0.0089 0.5C a IW px < F px ≤ 1. 4a.61 1.34-0.) 1.34 ∆M (in. Vol.39 1.) (1.31 (0. diaphragm forces are determined by the following formula: F px = where: 0.0077 0.67) = 0. A review of drift ratios tabulated in Table 1A-7 shows that all interstory drift ratios are less than 0.4). ∆ M . In this Part.48 1.16 1. 2. Typical diaphragm design. Interstory drift ratio = ∆ M /story height.98-0.34) = 0.30-1.34 (1. The roof was selected because it is the most heavily loaded diaphragm. Determine story drift limitation.67-0.34 (0. Determine diaphragm load distribution.) 180 180 180 204 180 180 180 204 ∆S (in.2.34-0. seismic forces on each diaphragm will be determined.04-0. §1633.0) = 0.33 (0.0084 0.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Table 1A-7. The building has rigid diaphragms at all levels.2.70-0.10 Story drift limits are based on the maximum inelastic response displacements.0C a IW px §1633.0060 0.24 (0.025 using the period of Equation (30. and the roof level diaphragm designed. §1630. III (1997 UBC) 41 .04) = 0. Story displacements and drift ratios Story North-South Displacements 4th 3rd 2nd 1st 4th East-West Displacements 3rd 2nd 1st Height (in.22-0. Maximum drift occurs at Line N for north-south direction and Line 11 for east-west direction.0075 Notes: 1.0075 0.52 1.

this force is divided by the plan area to obtain an average horizontal seismic force distribution.8 1. To facilitate diaphragm and collector design.1 1.687 13.527 20. Figure 1A-15. are calculated as shown in Table 1A-8.811.942.504.504. with the upper and lower limits.0 .009.207 Fpx 1.811.811 = 0.0Ca Iw px 2.3 1.5Ca Iw px 1.44 and I = 1.840 Σw i 6.471. III (1997 UBC) . so the north-south direction will control.8 1.0 ΣFi 1.840 6.172.1 1.720 The maximum diaphragm span occurs between Lines A and N.215. 4b.1 1.009. Roof diaphragm north-south seismic load and shear 42 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame The diaphragm forces at each level.3 1. Vol.687 6.401.6 3.3 3.8 1.6 0.2 508. q roof = 1. Table 1A-8. The maximum diaphragm design force occurs at the roof level.020 kips/ft 2 90.6 Note: C a = 0. Both loading and shear for the roof diaphragm under northsouth seismic forces are shown in Figure 1A-15.8 4.626.0 wx 6.504.367 27.404.6 3.3 3.811. Determine diaphragm shear. q roof . Diaphragm forces (kips) Level Roof 4th 3rd 2nd Fi 1.0 4.840 6.009.680.176.5 956.

2.24 = 562 k 2 192 VGN = V N = 3. (12-13) §1612. the allowable deck shear per the manufacturer’s ICBO evaluation report is: Vallow = 1.020(180 ) = 3.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame The computer model assumes rigid diaphragms or load distribution to the frames.020(312) = 6.75 > 1. we envelop the solution by next considering the diaphragms flexible.3.3.44 k/ft at Line N Using allowable stress design and the alternate load combinations of §1612.4 Maximum design shear: 2. we compare the flexible diaphragm shear at Line N with the force resisted by Frame A8 (Figure 1A-14) assuming a rigid diaphragm. using 4 puddle welds per sheet. III (1997 UBC) 43 . Vol.74 kips/ft o. we find at Frame A8: Froof = 440 k . so the greater force is used to obtain the maximum diaphragm shear at Line N: q N = 440 180 = 2.44 qN = = 1. which considers the relative stiffness of the diaphragm and braced frames. From the computer model.74 kips/ft 1. w1 = q roof (312 ft ) = 0. the (12-13) basic load combination is: E 1.24 kips/ft w2 = q roof (180 ft ) = 0.2 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. In lieu of an exact analysis.6 kips/ft Diaphragm shears: 180 V A = VGA = 6. Shears at each line of resistance are derived assuming the diaphragms span as simple beam elements under a uniform load.6 = 346 k 2 To fully envelop the solution. The force from the rigid analysis (440 k) is greater than the force from the flexible analysis (346 k).4 With 3-1/4 inch lightweight concrete over 3"×20 gauge deck.k.

9 Items 6 and 7 Note that this value must be compared to the collector force at Lines 1 and 7. There are two ways to achieve this: 44 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.2.9. This code section also requires chords and collectors be designed considering “independent movement of the projecting wings.2 kips 8d 8(180) §1633. the code disallows the one-third stress increase for allowable stress design for collector design (§1633.” for motion of the wings in both the same and opposing directions. it is good practice to place additional welded studs in every low flute of the deck for shear transfer. Roof diaphragm zones For structures with plan irregularity type 2. Figure 1A-16. and the largest value used for design.6(192) 2 CF = = = 92. Vol. III (1997 UBC) .2. At seismic collectors. seam welds) must also be designed for this loading. Item 6).. for north-south seismic loads the maximum chord force on lines 1 and 7 is: wl 2 3. parallel supports.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Other deck welds (e. 4c. Determine collector and chord forces.g. Using a flexible analysis and assuming diaphragm zone III acts as a simple beam between Lines G and N (Figure 1A-16).

75 kips/ft Next.589 kips-ft 8 8 The maximum tie force (TG ) along Lines 1 and 7 at the intersections with Line G is: TG = 16.4)1. the collector forces for east-west seismic loads are determined.589 180 = 92. If each wing is assumed to be flexible relative to the central diaphragm (Zone II). respectively.44(180 2) = 670 kips From the computer model. at the roof level the frames on Line 1 (Frames A1 and A2) resist loads of 405 kips and 425 kips. For this example.44 k/ft The collector force at Line 1 is: R1 = 7.2 kips = 37. Vol. R1 = 405 A1 + 425 A2 = 830 kips > 670 kips SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame 1. The maximum moment at Line G is: M fixed w2l 2 3.020(372 ) = 7.6 ft (1.6(192)2 = = = 16.2 kips With allowable diaphragm shear of 75 k/ft. For Zone III between Lines 1 and 7. this tie force must be developed back into diaphragm zone II over a length of at least: 92. the equivalent uniform lateral load is: w3 = q (depth ) = 0. Make a simplifying assumption that gives reasonable values for collector forces at the re-entrant corner. the wings can be considered as “fixed-pinned” beams. the second option is chosen. III (1997 UBC) 45 . Use a three dimensional computer model with membrane or thin-shell diaphragm elements to capture the relative stiffness between the floor and braces. 2.

supplemental slab reinforcing is used. In this example. collector forces at points a. collectors must be designed for the special seismic load combinations of §1612.6 46 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.23(244 ) + 405 = 140 kips Fd = 2. III (1997 UBC) .2. and therefore govern the collector design at Line 1. using the strength design method. is: q1 = 830 372 = 2. Figure 1A-17.6. E m = Tm = Ω oT = (2.2)T §1633.23(30 ) = 67 kips Fb = 2. b. Collector force diaphragm at Line 1 The collector forces for east-west seismic loads exceed the chord forces calculated for north-south seismic.2.23 kips/ft As shown in Figure 1A-17. Under §1633. Vol.23(90 ) + 405 = 204 kips Fc = 2.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Therefore.4. and d are: Fa = 2. c.23(64 ) = 143 kips The maximum collector force as shown in Figure 1A-17 is T = 204 kips . and the shear flow along Line 1 (q1 ) . the “rigid diaphragm” analysis governs. Use maximum T1 = 204 kips and minimum T1 = 140 kips . The collector element can be implemented using either the wide flange spandrel beams and connections or by adding supplemental slab reinforcing.

000 psi ) is derived from §1923.3 ∴ Use 2-3/4" diameter studs at 12-inch cc over length of Frame A1.9 kips/ft = 1.2) On Line 1. again using the special seismic load combination of §1612.3: φVc = φ800 Abλ f 'c = 0.75) 3.2(140) = 308 kips Maximum As = Tmu φ f y = 449 0.9 (60) = 8.4: Tmu = (1.0 )(2. III (1997 UBC) 47 . SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.7 in. the collected load must be transferred from the slab to the frame. This can be done with ¾" diameter headed studs.4 kips/stud The required number of studs per foot (n ) is: n= 14.3 in. and additional 3-#8 (for a total of 11) along frame A1 to Line G.4.59 studs/ft 9.0 (2.2(204) = 449 kips Minimum Tmu = 2.2 )T Maximum Tmu = 2.0 )E m = (1.44 )(0.4 (30-2) (12-18) ( ) Minimum As = 308 0.000 = 9. 2 ∴ Use 8-#8 (As = 6.69 in.9 (60 ) = 5.3.0 o A1 = = 14. At Frame A1: Ω F 1. Vol.9 kips/ft L 60 A1 The shear strength of ¾" diameter headed studs as governed in this case by the concrete strength ( f ' c = 3.4 kips/stud §1923.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Using the factored loads of §1612.2 ) 405 vu = 1.000 1. With slab reinforcing.3.2 §1612. place 8-#8 bars continuous from Lines A to N.65 (800)(0.32 in.2 ∴ Use 11-#8 As = 8.

live. III (1997 UBC) .600 kip-in.1 kips V LL = 10. and seismic loads as output from the computer model. V DL = 14. Vol.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame 5.193 kip-in.9 of Chapter 22. Division V. is shown in Figure 1A-18. Typical braced bay TS brace @ 3rd story: PDL = 24 kips PLL = 11 kips Pseis = 348 kips PE = ρ (Pseis ) = 1. M LL = 1. Member axial forces and moments are given for dead. Figure 1A-18. §2212 In this part. All steel framing will be designed per Chapter 22. Allowable Stress Design. Requirements for special concentrically braced frames are given in §2213.3 kips 48 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. The design bay. taken from Elevation A.0(348 ) = 348 kips WF beam @ 3rd floor: M DL = 1. the design of a typical bay of bracing is demonstrated. Figure 1A-4. Braced frame member design.

3.0(18.3.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Pseis = 72 kips PE = ρ (Pseis ) = 1.1 with no one-third increase are used.7511 + 1. Diagonal brace design at the 3 story.75 L + = 219 kips (compression) : Ρ3 = 24 + 0. The clear unbraced length (l ) of the TS brace is 18. D+ 348 E : Ρ1 = 24 + = 273 k (compression) 1.5) = 18.1 The basic ASD load combinations of §1612.000 ≤ r Fy (12-11) §2213.4 1. Vol.2.9(24 ) − = −227 kips (tension) 1. measured from the face of the beam or column.5 feet.0 for pinned end. rd §1612.4 348 E : Ρ2 = 0.9 D ± (12-10) 348 E D + 0. kl = 1.1 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.9.5 ft Maximum slenderness ratio: kl 1. Assuming k = 1.4 1.4 (12-9) 0.0 (Pseis ) = 1.4 1.4 The compressive axial load of Equation (12-9) controls.0(114 ) = 114 kips 5a. III (1997 UBC) 49 .0(72 ) = 72 kips WF column @ 3rd story: PDL = 67 kips PLL = 30 kips Pseis = 114 kips M seis ≈ 0 PE = 1.

(12-11) 50 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. F y = 46 ksi ∴ 1.600 + 0.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame For a tube section.600 kip-in. 3-41 b 8 = = 12. The loads are: D + L : M D +L = 1. 147.75(1.k o.2 t 0.5) kl = = 1.000 46 = 147.2 Maximum width-thickness ratio ≤ Fy t Try TS 8 × 8 × 5 8 : r = 2.75 = 38.96 > 1. o.k.8 < 16.495 kip-in.193) = 2.51in.3. pp.4 b 110 = 16.600 + 1.4 kips 1. D± E : 1.6 kips 1.793 kip-in.4 Minimum r = 12(18.75 L + : Pseis = 0.4 147.1 as noted above.4 §2213. Girder design at the 3 floor. Pallow = 324 kips > 273 kips ∴ Use TS8 × 8 × 5 8 5b. III (1997 UBC) .k.4 M D + L+ seis = 1.2.51 in.4 Pseis = 72 = 51. E 72 D + 0. o. rd The girder will be designed using the basic load combinations of §1612.193 = 2.9.625 For kl = 19 ft. AISC-ASD. Vol.4 (12-8) (12-9) M DL = 1.4 1.

ry = 1.793 = 147 in.0 ksi ∴ S req'd 2.7 = 9.6 ksi then.3 19.55 r x 12 (10.87 r y Fa = 17. and maximum Fa = 0. Assume that the bottom beam flange is braced at third points ∴ly = 30 = 10. Vol.6(36 ) = 21.12 Fa 21.6 For an allowable bending stress. 12(30 ) kl = 37. pp. use: f b = (1 − 0.2 = 1. 20 fa 2. 3-16 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.60)(36 ) = 19.1 in.2 Find the required beam section modulus.0 ) kl = 64.6 ksi .87 in. use ASTM A36 steel with F y = 36 ksi .6 = = 0. assume a beam with a cross-section area of area of 20 in.3 A = 20.12 )(0.0 ft 3 As a starting point for design.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame For the girder.02 ksi (compression governs) AISC-ASD.4 = 2.2 rx = 9.55 in.0 Try W 24 × 68 beam S = 154 in. III (1997 UBC) 51 . fa = 51.

Vol.3.11 + 0. o.k. The X-bracing configuration shown in this Example ensures the desired post-buckling capacity of the braced frame without inducing the large unbalanced seismic loading on the girder that occurs in a chevron brace configuration. AISC-ASD Part 5.4 kips (compression) : P1 = 67 + 1. fa 2.55 = = 0. Ch.48 = 0. use AISC Equation H1-3.6 ) o.495 + b = + = 0. Check load combination of Equation (12-8).k.0 Fa Fb 20. III (1997 UBC) .0 Fb 154(21.k. 5c. Column design at the 3 floor.02 154(21.793 = = 0.15 Fa 17.1 with no one-third increase.149 < 0.02 ) 154(21.86 < 1. D + L : P0 = 67 + 30 = 97 kips (compression) D+ E 114 = 148. rd The frame columns will also be designed using the basic load combinations of §1612.15 + 0.6 2.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame Maximum f a = 51.1 requires the girders to be continuous through brace connections between adjacent columns.84 < 1. fa f 38.02 For combined stresses. several additional requirements are placed on the girder design.63 < 1.0 Fa Fb 17.55 1.1 o. o.1(17.4 1.600 + b = + = 0.55 ksi 20.k. fb 2.75 = 0. H Check load combination of Equation (12-9).6 ) Check load combination of Equation (12-11). fa f 2.4 (12-8) (12-9) 52 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. For chevron bracing configurations.6 ) ∴ Use W 24 × 68 girder Note that §2213.4 = 2.9. Those requirements are addressed in Design Example 1C.

2 Note that §2213. = 0.6 kips (compression) : P3 = 67 + 0.9(67 ) − = 21.k.4) = 518.k. not less than 4 feet above the beam flange.4 Per the requirements of §2213. §2213.2(114 ) = −194 kips (tension) For the columns.7 ΡLL + Ω o ΡE : Pcomp = 67 + 0.4 1. Item 2 Pallow = 242 kips > 150. 3-30 Check the column for the special column strength requirements of §2213.5.9.1.7 Pallow Psc = 1.2: Psc = 1.5.5 using member strength per §2213.5.9.4 > 194 kips (tension) o. The splice must occur within the middle one-third of the column clear height.k. Item 1 §2213.1 kips (tension) 1.5.75 30 + 1.75 L + = 150.9.4. Finally.3: SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.85ΡDL ± Ω o ΡE : Ρtens.5 requires that the columns meet the width-thickness ratio limits of §2213. Vol. III (1997 UBC) 53 .5. full-penetration welds at splices are recommended.4 1. o.4.7(30 ) + 2. The unbraced column height (floor height less ½ beam depth) is: h = 15 − 1 = 14 ft Try a W 10 × 49 column with kl = 14 ft (12-11) §2213. To ensure the column splice can meet the ductility demand from the maximum earthquake force (E m ) .7(242 ) = 411 > 339 kips (compression) Pst = F y A = 36(14.2 places special requirements on column splices.9 D ± E 114 : P2 = 0. the columns must have the strength to resist the special column strength requirements of §2213.85(67 ) − 2.6 kips o.1: ΡDL + 0. §2213. pp.2(114 ) = 339 kips (compression) 0. ASTM A36 steel with F y = 36 ksi will be used. AISC-ASD.4 (12-10) 114 E D + 0.7.Design Example 1A ! Special Concentric Braced Frame 0.

Design Example 1A

!

Special Concentric Braced Frame

bf 2t f

≤ 8.5 for F y = 36 ksi bf 2t f

§2213.7.3

For a W 10 × 49 Try a W 10 × 54 bf 2t f = 8.1 < 8.5

=

10 (0.56) = 8.9 > 8.5 2

no good

Division III, §2251N7

o.k.

AISC-ASD, pp. 5-96

Thus, the column design is governed by the local buckling compactness criterion. ∴ Use W10 x 54

6.

Bracing connection design.

In this part, the connection of the TS8 × 8 brace to the W 10 column and W 24 girder will be designed. Connection of the braces to the mid-span of the girder is similar, and is shown in Example 1C.

6a.

Determine connection design forces.

§2213.9.2

Section 2213.9.3.1 requires that bracing connections have the strength to resist the lesser of: 3. The strength of the brace in axial tension, Pst . 4. Ω o times the design seismic forces, plus gravity loads. 5. The maximum force that can be transferred to the brace by the system. For the TS8 × 8 × 5 8 brace used in the design bay, the connection force is taken as the lesser of: Pst = Fy A = 46(17.4 ) = 800.4 kips controls

54

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual, Vol. III (1997 UBC)

Design Example 1A

!

Special Concentric Braced Frame

or: Pm = PD + PL + Ω o PE = (24 + 11) + 2.2 (348) = 800.6 kips ∴ Use 800.4 kips for design

6b.

Design procedure using the uniform force method.

Based on research by AISC [Thornton, 1991], the Uniform Force Method (UFM) has been presented as an efficient, reliable procedure for design of bracing connections. The basis for the UFM is to configure the gusset dimensions so that there are no moments at the connection interfaces: gusset-to-beam; gusset-tocolumn; and beam-to-column. [For more information on the UFM, refer to AISC 1994 LRFD, Volume II, Connections.] Figure 1A-19 illustrates the gusset configuration and connection interface forces for the UFM. Note that the distances to the centroids of the gusset connection, ∝ and β , are coincident with the brace centerline. To achieve the condition of no moments at the interfaces, the following relationship must be satisfied: ∝ − β tan θ = eb tan θ − ec The connection forces are then given by these equations: r=

(α + ec )2 + (β + eb )2

α H b = Ρ r e Vb = b Ρ r β Vc = Ρ r e H c = c Ρ r If the connection centroids do not occur at ∝ and β , moments are induced on the connection interface. The UFM can also be applied to this condition (see the LRFD Connections manual for the Special Case No. 2 example). In some cases, it may be beneficial to first select proportions for the gusset, then design the welds using unbalanced moments computed per the UFM Special Case No. 2.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual, Vol. III (1997 UBC)

55

Design Example 1A

!

Special Concentric Braced Frame

6c.

Gusset plate configuration and forces.

Application of the UFM essentially involves selecting of gusset dimensions, then analyzing plate and connection stresses and capacities at the interfaces. It is inherently a trial and error solution, and can readily be formatted for a spreadsheet solution. For this example, welded connections are used from gusset-to-beam and gusset-to-column. The beam-to-column connection will be made with highstrength bolts. A suggested starting point for determining the length of weld between gusset and column (2 β ) is to assume half the total length of weld to the brace. Note that per the AISC reference, these welds should be designed for the larger of the peak stress or 140 percent of the average stress. The 40 percent increase is intended to enhance ductility in the weld group, where gusset plates are welded directly to the beam or column. For this example brace connection, these parameters are fixed: θ = 45° ec = eb = 10.0 = 5.0" (W 10 × 54) 2 23.7 = 11.9" (W 24 × 68) 2

α − β tan θ = eb tan θ − ec α − β(1.0) = 11.9(1.0 ) − 5.0 ∴ α = 6.9 + β After a few trials, the following are selected: α = 15.9" and β = 9.0" Using the axial strength of the brace, Pst = 800.4 kips , the connection interface forces are as follows: r=

(15.9 + 5)2 + (9.0 + 11.9)2

= 29.56"

Gusset-to-beam: 15.9 11.9 H b = 800.4 = 431 kips , Vb = 800.4 = 322 kips 29.56 29.56

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Gusset-to-column: 9.0 5.0 Vc = 800.4 = 244 kips , H c = 800.4 = 135 kips 29.56 29.56 From review of the computer output for the braced frame at the third floor, the collector force (Ab ) to the beam connection is: Ab = 41 kips

6d.

Brace-to-gusset design.

Bracing connections must have the strength to develop brace member forces per §2213.9.3.1. The capacities of the connection plates, welds and bolts are determined under §2213.4.2. Determine TS brace weld-to-gusset. For 5/8-in. tube, minimum fillet weld is ¼-in. Try ½-in. fillet weld using E70 electrodes. Per inch, weld capacity = 1.7(8)(0.928) = 12.62 kips-in. lreq = 800.4 = 15.9" @ 4 locations 12.62 ( 2)(2) AISC-ASD Table J2.5

∴ Use 18-inches of ½-in. fillet each side, each face Check minimum gusset thickness for block shear: RBS = (1.7 ) 0.30 Av Fu + 0.50 A t Fu Fu = 58 ksi (A36 plate) where: Av = net shear area At = net tension area For TS 8 × 8 with Lweld = 18 in. Av = 2(18)t , At = (8)t

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]

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Special Concentric Braced Frame

RBS = (1.7 )[0.3(36 ) + 0.5(8)](58)(tmin ) = 1,361kips tmin = 0.93 in. ∴ Use 1-in. plate gusset minimum, ASTM A36, F y = 36 ksi Check gusset plate compression capacity. Section 2213.9.3.3 requires the gusset plate to have flexural strength exceeding that of the brace, unless the out-of-plane buckling strength is less than the in-plane buckling strength and a setback of 2t is provided as shown in Figure 1A-19. The gusset plate must also be designed to provide the required compressive capacity without buckling. The 2t setback is a minimum requirement. A setback of 3t provides for construction tolerance for brace fit-up, and should be considered during design. From Figure 1A-19, the gusset plate provides much greater in-plane fixity for the tube. The effective length factor (k ) for out-of-plane buckling is by observation greater than the in-plane factor (k ) , so the out-of-plane buckling strength will be less than the in-plane buckling strength. The setback of 2t promotes enhanced post-buckling behavior of the brace by allowing for hinging in the gusset instead of the brace. The gusset plate must be designed to carry the compressive strength of the brace without buckling. Using the Whitmore’s Method (see AISC LRFD Manual Vol. II), the effective plate width at Line A-A of Figure 1A-19a is: b = tube width + 2 (λ w ) tan 30° = 8 + 2 (18) tan 30° = 28.8 in. The unsupported plate length Lu is taken as the centerline length from the end of the brace to the edge of beam or column. From Figure 1-19a, this length measures 20 in. As recommended by Astaneh-Asl [1998], a value of k = 1.2 will be used. Maximum l u = 20 in. r= t 1.0 = = 0.289 in. 12 3.464 Fa = 15.0 ksi AISC-ASD, Table C-36 §2213.9.3.3

**kl 1.2 (20 ) = = 83.0 ∴ for F y = 36 ksi, r 0.289 Gusset capacity: Pplate = 1.7(1.0)(28.8)(15.0 ) = 734 kips
**

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§2213.4.2

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Design Example 1A

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Special Concentric Braced Frame

TS 8 × 8 brace compression capacity: Pbrace = 1.7(324 ) = 551 < 734 kips o.k.

Comment: Where tube sections are slotted for gusset plates, as shown in Figure 1A-19, recent testing has shown that over-cut slots are of concern. Net section fracture at the end of the slot should be checked considering shear lag at the connection. If required, it is recommended that the tube section be reinforced with a cover plate at the end of the slot.

a. Symbols for connection design

b. Force diagram at gusset plate

c. Force diagram at column

d. Force diagram at beam

Figure 1A-19. Connection design using the uniform force method (UFM) 59

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Design Example 1A

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Special Concentric Braced Frame

6e.

Gusset-to-beam design.

In this section, the connection of the 1-inch-thick plate gusset to the W24 beam will be designed. The weld length from gusset to beam is the plate length less the 1-inch clear distance between the beam and column. l w = 2(15.9 − 1.0 clr ) = 29.8" Per inch of effective throat area, weld stresses are: fx = Hb 431 = = 7.23 ksi (x-component) 2(l w ) 2(29.8) Vb 322 = = 5.40 ksi (y-component) 2(l w ) 2(29.8)

fy =

fr =

(7.23)2 + (5.40)

2

= 9.0 ksi (resultant) §2213.4.2

For E70 electrodes, the allowable weld strength is: Fw = 1.7(0.3)(70 ksi ) = 35.7 ksi The required weld size is: t weld = 9.0 = 0.36 in. 35.7(0.707 )

Under AISC specifications (Table J2.4), the minimum weld for a 1-inch gusset plate is 5/16-in., but as noted in Part 6c, we increase the weld size by a factor of 1.4 for ductility. t weld = 0.36(1.4 ) = 0.50 in. use ½-in. fillet weld Comparing the double-sided fillet to the allowable plate shear stress, the minimum plate thickness is: t pl = 2 (0.707 )(21)(0.50 ) = 1.0 in. 0.4 (36.0 ) o.k.

∴ 1-inch plate

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Special Concentric Braced Frame

**Check compressive stress in web toe of W 24 × 68 beam: t w = 0.415 in.
**

k = 1.375 in.

N = lw = 29.8 in. R = Vb = 322 kips R ≤ 1.33(0.66 )F y t w (N + 2.5 k ) 322 kips = 23.3 ksi ≤ 1.33 (0.66 )(36 ksi ) = 31.6 ksi (0.415)(29.8 + 2.5 (1.375)) AISC-ASD, K1.3

o.k.

6f.

Gusset-to-column design.

The gusset plate connection to the column is designed using the same procedure as the gusset-beam connection. The weld length to the column is: lw = 2(9 ) = 18 in. Per inch of effective throat area, weld stresses are: fx = Hc 135 = = 3.75 ksi (x-component) 2(l w ) 2(18) Vc 244 = = 6.77 ksi (y-component) 2(l w ) 2(18)

fy =

fr =

(3.75)2 + (6.77 )2

= 7.75 ksi (resultant)

Determine the required weld size, with the 1.4 factor to enhance ductility of the weld. 7.75 ksi t weld = 1.4 = 0.42 in. 35.7(0.707 )

∴ ½-in. fillet weld

o.k.

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Special Concentric Braced Frame

Check compressive stress in the web toe of the W 10 × 54 column: R 135 = = 17.3 ksi t (N + 2.5k ) (0.37 )(18 + 2.5(1.25)) 1.33(0.66 )(36 ksi ) = 31.6 ksi > 17.3 ksi o.k. AISC-ASD K1.3

6g.

Beam-to-column connection.

The connection of the W 24 beam to the W 10 column must carry the dead and live loads on the beam as well as the vertical and horizontal components of the brace force transferred from the gusset plates to the top and bottom of the beam. From the diagonal brace above the beam (see Figure 1A-19d), the connection forces to the beam are: Ab + H c = 41 + 135 = 176 kips Rb = V DL + V LL = 14.1 + 10.3 = 24.4 kips Rb + Vb = 24.4 + 322 = 346 kips The diagonal brace below the beam also contributes to the beam-to-column connection forces. The horizontal component from the brace below (H c ) acts opposite to the brace above, while the vertical component (Vb ) adds to that from the brace above. The connection forces above are based on the tensile capacity of the brace, so it is reasonable to use the compressive strength of the brace below. Assuming a TS8 × 8 × 5 8 -in. brace below: Psc = 1.7(324 ) = 551 kips ∴ Vb = 322(551 800 ) = 222 kips H c = 135(551 800) = 93 kips The net beam-to-column connection forces (as shown in Figure 1A-19b) are: Ab + H c = 176 − 93 = 83 kips Rb + Vb = 346 + 222 = 568 kips

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Design Example 1A

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Special Concentric Braced Frame

Using an eccentricity of ± 3 inches: M ecc = (3)(568) = 1,704 kip-in. Try a single shear plate (A572 grade 50) with 2 rows of 7-1¼-inch diameter A490 SC bolts (14 bolts total) and a complete penetration weld from the shear tab to the column. Slip critical bolts are required for connections subject to load reversal per AISC. Check the plate and weld stresses with capacities per §2213.4.2. Assuming a plate thickness of 1-inch, stresses are: Shear tab length = 6(3") + 3" = 21 in. fx = 83 = 3.95 ksi (x-component) (21)(1) 568 = 27.0 ksi (y-component) (21)(1)

fy =

Z plastic = f x⋅x = fr =

(21)2

4

= 110.3

1,704 = 15.4 ksi (rotation) 110.3

(27.0)2 + (3.95 + 15.4)2

= 33.2 ksi (resultant)

Required minimum plate thickness F y = 50 ksi : t PL = f r (1) 33.2 = = 0.66 in. Fy 50 §2213.4.2

(

)

Try ¾-in. shear tab with complete penetration weld to column. Check shear capacity of plate. Vs = 0.55 F y dt = 0.55 (50 )(21)(0.75) = 433 kips < 568 kips Try 1-inch plate. 1.0 Allowable Vc = 433 = 577 kips > 568 kips 0.75

∴Use 1-in. plate shear tab

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Design Example 1A

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Special Concentric Braced Frame

Check shear plate net area for tension. Ae 1.2αF * ≥ Ag Fu where: F* = 83 = 3.95 ksi (1.0)(21)

§2213.9.3.2 §2213.8.3.2 (13-6)

1.2αF * 1.2(1.0 )3.95 = = 0.073 Fu 65 Ae = 21(1.0) − 7 (1.375)(1.0) = 11.38 in. Ae 11.38 = = 0.54 > 0.073 Ag 21.0 o.k.

Check bolt capacity for combined shear and tension. Per bolt: Fx = Fy = FR = 83 = 5.9 kips 14 568 = 40.6 kips 14

(5.9)2 + (40.6)2

= 41.0 kips

**For 1-1/4-in. diameter A490-SC bolts, the allowable shear bolt is: Vbolt = 1.7(25.8) = 43.9 kips > 41.0 kips
**

∴Use 1¼-inch A90-SC bolts

o.k.

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Design Example 1A

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Special Concentric Braced Frame

Commentary

As shown on the frame elevations (Figure 1A-4), a horizontal steel strut has been provided between the columns at the foundation. Welded shear studs are installed on this strut with the capacity to transfer the horizontal seismic force resisted by the frame onto the foundations, through grade beams or the slab-on-grade. This technique provides redundancy in the transfer of seismic shear to the base, and is recommended as an alternate to transferring the frame shear force solely through the anchor bolts.

References

AISC-ASD, 1989. Manual of Steel Construction, Allowable Stress Design. American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, Illinois. 9th Edition. AISC/LRFD, 1994. Manual of Steel Construction, Load and Resistance Factor Design. Volumes I and II. American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, Illinois. 2nd Edition. Astaneh-Asl, A., 1998. “Seismic Behavior and Design of Gusset Plates,” SteelTips. Structural Steel Educational Council. Cochran, Michael, 2000. “Design and Detailing of Steel SCBF Connections,” SEAONC Seminar Series. Structural Engineers Association of California, Sacramento, California. Hassan, O. and Goel, S., 1991. Seismic Behavior and Design of Concentrically Braced Steel Structures. Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Michigan. ICBO, 1998. Maps of Known Active Fault Near-Source Zones in California and Adjacent Portions of Nevada. International Conference of Building Officials, Whittier, California. Lee, S. and Goel, S., 1987. Seismic Behavior of Hollow and Concrete Filled Square Tubular Bracing Members. Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Michigan. Sabelli, R., and Hohbach, D., 1999. “Design of Cross-Braced Frames for Predictable Buckling Behavior,” Journal of Structural Engineering. American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol.125, no.2, February 1999. Thornton, W., 1991. “On the Analysis and Design of Bracing Connections,” National Steel Conference Proceedings. American Institute of Steel Construction, pp. 26.1-26.33 Chicago, Illinois.

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Special Concentric Braced Frame

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Design Example 1B

!

Ordinary Concentric Braced Frame

Design Example 1B Ordinary Concentric Braced Frame

Figure 1B-1. Four-story steel frame office building with ordinary concentric braced frames (OCBF)

Overview

This Design Example illustrates the differences in design requirements for an ordinary concentric braced frame (OCBF) and a special concentric braced frame (SCBF) (illustrated in Design Example 1A). The same four-story steel frame structure from Example 1A is used in this Design Example (Figure 1B-1). Building weights, dimensions, and site seismicity are the same as Example 1A. Coefficients for seismic base shear are revised as required for the OCBF. The “typical design bay” is revised for the OCBF, and the results compared to those for the SCBF structure. It is recommended that the reader first review Design Example 1A before reading this Design Example. Refer to Example 1A for plans and elevations of the structure (Figures 1A-1 through 1A-4).

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Design Example 1B

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Ordinary Concentric Braced Frame

In the Blue Book Commentary (C704.12), OCBFs are not recommended for areas of high seismicity or for essential facilities and special occupancy structures. SCBFs are preferred for those types of structures, since SCBFs are expected to perform better in a large earthquake due to their ductile design and detailing. OCBFs are considered more appropriate for use in one-story light-framed construction, non-building structures and in areas of low seismicity.

Outline

This Design Example illustrates the following parts of the design process:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Design base shear. Distribution of lateral forces. Interstory drifts. Braced frame member design. Bracing connection design.

Calculations and Discussion

Code Reference

1. 1a.

Design base shear.

Classify the structural system.

§1629.6

The structure is a building frame system with lateral resistance provided by ordinary braced frames (System Type 2.4.a of Table 16-N). The seismic factors are: R = 5.6 Ω = 2.2 hmax = 160 ft Table 16-N

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Ordinary Concentric Braced Frame

1b.

Select lateral force procedure.

§1629.8.3

The static lateral force procedure will be used, as permitted for irregular structures not more than five stories or 65 feet in height.

1c.

Determine seismic response coefficients.

§1629.4.3

For Zone 4 and Soil Profile Type SD: C a = 0.44(N a ) = 0.44(1.0 ) = 0.44 C v = 0.64(N v ) = 0.64(1.08) = 0.69 Table 16-Q Table 16-R

1d.

Evaluate structure period T.

From Design Example 1A: TB = 0.57 sec §1630.2.2

1e.

Determine design base shear.

§1630.2.1

V =

Cv I 0.69(1.0) W = W = 0.216W RT 5.6(0.57)

(30-4)

Base shear need not exceed:

V =

2 .5C a I 2 . 5 ( 0 . 44 ) (1 . 0 ) W = = 0 . 196 W R 5 .6

(30-5)

For Zone 4, base shear shall not be less than: V = 0.8ZN v I 0.8(0.4)(1.08)(1.0) W = = 0.062W R 5.6 (30-7)

Equation 30-5 governs base shear. ∴ V = 0.196W

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Design Example 1B

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Ordinary Concentric Braced Frame

1f.

Determine earthquake load combinations.

§1630.1

Reliability/redundancy factor ρ = 2 −

20 rmax Ab

(30-3)

From Design Example 1A, use ρ = 1.0 . For the load combinations of §1630.1: E = ρE h + E v = 1.0(V ) E m = ΩE h = 2.2(V ) (30-1) (30-2)

2. 2a.

Distribution of lateral forces.

Building weights and mass distribution.

The weight and mass distribution for the building is shown in Table 1B-1. These values are taken from Design Example 1A.

Table 1B-1. Mass properties summary

Level Roof 4th 3rd 2nd Total W (kips) 6,687 6,840 6,840 6,840 27,207 X cg (ft) 161.1 161.1 161.1 161.1 Ycg (ft) 1,80.9 1,80.9 1,80.9 1,80.9 M (kip⋅ sec2/in.) 17.3 17.7 17.7 17.7 70.4

(kip ⋅ sec2 ⋅ in.)

316,931 324,183 324,183 324,183

MMI

2b.

Determine total base shear.

As noted above, Equation (30.5) governs, and V = 0.196W = 0.196(27207) = 5,333 kips (30-5)

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Calculate interstory drift.280 1. The maximum interstory drift (obtained from a computer analysis and summarized in Table 1A-7 of Design Example 1A) occurs in the north-south direction at the second story.57 = 0.10.234 w x hx Σw x hx 0.40 in.665 4.9.30 0.7(5. §1630. 3a.2 as: ∆ M = 0.7(R )∆ S = 0.36 inches with R = 5. The maximum inelastic response displacement. Check story drift.840 6.840 27.5 For the Static lateral force procedure.92∆ S (30-17) 3b. and is 0.6 ∆ M drift = 0.207 hx (ft) 62 47 32 17 w x hx (ft) 414.090 579 5.840 6.594 321.064 3. vertical distribution of force to each level is applied as follows: Fx = W h (V − Ft )W x h x =V x x ∑W h ∑ Wi hi i i (30-15) Table 1B-2.57 in. 5.40(3.333 ΣV (kips) 2.11 1.754 5.36") = 0.6 .39 0.2 used for OCBF systems. is determined per §1630.025 180 o. Vol.064 1.2 ∆ S drift = (0. This value must be adjusted for the R = 6.2 71 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.20 0.071. Distribution of base shear Level Roof 4th 3rd 2nd Total wx (kips) 6.880 116.k. Drift ratio = 1. Determine vertical distribution of force.Design Example 1B ! Ordinary Concentric Braced Frame 2c.333 3. III (1997 UBC) .009 < 0.92 ) = 1. Determine ∆M.6 )∆ S = 3. ∆ M .480 218. 6.600 1.00 Fx (kips) 2. 1630.687 6.

Braced frame member design. govern braced frame designs. SCBF member seismic forces are increased proportionally for the OCBF using a ratio of the R values. there is essentially no difference in the calculated maximum drifts for OCBFs and SCBFs. Drift limitations rarely. Allowable Stress Design. Typical braced bay TS brace @ 3rd story: Ρ DL = 24 kips ΡLL = 11 kips ΡE = 400 kips 72 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol. Figure 1B-2. All steel framing is designed per Chapter 22. except SCBF and EBF. Member axial forces and moments for dead load and seismic loads are shown below (Figure 1B-2). Braced frame member design will be done using the same typical design bay as shown in Example 1A. Requirements for braced frames. 4. if ever. III (1997 UBC) . And. Division V. as a design consideration. but the maximum inelastic displacement (∆ M ) is equivalent to the SCBF.8. are given in §2213.Design Example 1B ! Ordinary Concentric Braced Frame Comment: The elastic story displacement is greater for the SCBF than the OCBF.

9 D ± (12-10) 400 E D + 0. The unbraced length.3 kips ΡE = 83 kips WF column @ 3rd story: ΡDL = 67 kips ΡLL = 30 kips ΡE = 130 kips ME ≈ 0 4a.Design Example 1B ! Ordinary Concentric Braced Frame WF beam @ 3rd floor: M DL = 1600 kip-in.4 (12-9) 0.4 400 E : P2 = 0.7511 + 1.5 feet.1 kips V LL = 10.3.1 with no one-third increase will be used.5) = 18.4 The compressive axial load of Equation (12-9) controls. D+ 400 E : P = 24 + = 310 kips (compression) 1 1. III (1997 UBC) 73 . lw. (12-11) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. M LL = 1193 kip-in. V DL = 14. Vol. Diagonal brace design at the 3 story.4 1.5 feet .4 1. rd The basic ASD load combinations of §1612. The effective length kl = 1. of the TS brace is 18.0(18.9(24 ) − = −264 kips (tension) 1.75 L + = 246 kips (compression) : P3 = 24 + 0.4 1.

k.78 > 2.1 Minimum r = b 110 = 16.09" o. o.2: Fas = BFa B = 1 /{ + [(K l r ) / (2C c )]} 1 where: Cc = 2π 2 E Fy 1. III (1997 UBC) .8.Design Example 1B ! Ordinary Concentric Braced Frame Maximum slenderness ratio: kl 720 ≤ r Fy For a tube section: Fy = 46 ksi ∴ 720 = 106 46 12(18.2.7 2 (111.5 §2213.09 in. r = 3.0 < 16.2 Maximum width-thickness ratio ≤ Fy t Try TS 10 × 10 × 5 8 .2 t 0.0(12)(18.8.6 )] 74 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.k.5) = 58.79 1 + [58.2. Vol. b 10 = = 16.8. 106 106 §2213.78 (13-4) (13-5) AISC-ASD §E2 ( Kl ) / r = B= 1 = 0.625 For an OCBF.5) kl = = 2.7 3. the capacity of bracing members in compression must be reduced by the stress reduction factor “B” per §2213.

AISC-ASD.9 D ± (12-10) 130 E D + 0.Design Example 1B ! Ordinary Concentric Braced Frame For kl = 18.k.4 130 E : Ρ2 = 0. rd The columns will be designed using the basic ASD load combinations with no onethird increase. 3-30 ∴ Use W 10 × 49 column SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. ASTM A36 steel with F y = 36 ksi . Girder design at the 3 story. the vertical load moment governs the girder design. select a W 10 × 49 column with kl = 14 ft . D + L : Ρ1 = 67 + 30 = 97 kips (compression) D+ 130 E : Ρ1 = 67 + = 160 kips (compression) 1. Vol.7530 + 1.9(67 ) − = 33 kips (tension) 1. The unbraced column height is: h = 15 − 1 = 14 ft Per AISC-ASD manual. 3-30.4 For the columns. rd From a review of Design Example 1A.5 ft Pallow = 482 kips Pas = (0. (12-11) AISC-ASD pp.4 1. 3-41 ∴ Use TS 10 × 10 × 5 8 4b. With only a nominal increase in axial force from seismic loading.4 1. Column design at the 3 story. III (1997 UBC) 75 .k.4 1. 4c. pp.75 L + = 159 kips (compression) : Ρ3 = 67 + 0.4 (12-8) (12-9) 0. p.79)(482) = 380 > 310 kips o. Pallow = 242 > 160 kips o. the girder is okay by inspection.

Design Example 1B ! Ordinary Concentric Braced Frame Note that without the local buckling compactness requirement of §2213.1. PM = PD + PL + Ω M PE = ( 24 + 11) + 2. Vol. hence the greater seismic design forces for the OCBF. 76 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. §2213.1 do not apply to the OCBF.4) = 1030 kips §2213.8.8.4.3.2. where a W 10 × 54 is required for the SCBF of Example 1A. the W 10 × 49 works in the OCBF. This allows the end of the tube brace to extend closer to the beamcolumn intersection. the OCBF connections must be designed for the lesser of: 1. Maximum force that can be transferred to brace by the system.9. with one significant difference. III (1997 UBC) . Also note that the special column strength requirements of §2213.8.2( 400) = 915 kips 3. may be eliminated. Braced connection design. The remainder of the connection design follows the same procedure as for Design Example 1A.3 The design provisions for OCBF connections are nearly identical to those for SCBF connections. the minimum “2t” setback. The SCBF requirements for gusset plates do not apply to OCBF connections. Under the requirements of §2213. The relaxation of ductility requirements for the OCBF reflects lesser inelastic displacement capacity than the SCBF. thereby reducing the size of the gusset plate. 5.3.1 2. Therefore. with all components designed for the 915 kip force derived above. PST = F y A = 46( 22.5. as shown in Figure 1A-19(a) of Design Example 1A for the SCBF.

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. The typical design bay from Design Example 1A is modified for use in this example. III (1997 UBC) 77 . It is recommended that the reader first review Design Examples 1A and 1B before reading this example.Design Example 1C ! Chevron Braced Frame Design Example 1C Chevron Braced Frame Figure 1C-1. Refer to Design Example 1A for plans and elevations of the structure (Figures 1A-1 through 1A-4). For comparison. Vol. the member forces are assumed to be the same as for Design Examples 1A and 1B. Four-story steel frame office building with chevron braced frames Overview This Example illustrates the additional design requirements for chevron bracing designed as either an Ordinary Concentric Braced Frame (OCBF) or a Special Concentric Braced Frame (SCBF).

8 Section 2213. Chevron bracing elevations As discussed in the Blue Book Commentary §C704. due to the additional design parameters placed 78 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.” It also defines V-bracing and inverted V-bracing as chevron bracing occurring above or below the beam (Figure 1C-2). 4. Chevron bracing design under SCBF requirements. the design force for chevron bracing in OCBF systems is increased so that the bracing members remain elastic during moderate earthquakes. 2213. 2. III (1997 UBC) . Bracing configuration.9. Chevron bracing design under OCBF requirements. For this reason. 3.2 defines chevron bracing as “…that form of bracing where a pair of braces located either above or below a beam terminates at a single point within the clear beam span.Design Example 1C ! Chevron Braced Frame Outline This Design Example illustrates the following parts of the design process: 1. Vol. Brace to beam connection design. Bracing configuration.2. §2213. the seismic performance of chevron braces can degrade under large cyclic displacements if the diagonals have poor post-buckling behavior. Chevron bracing in SCBF systems has demonstrated enhanced post-buckling behavior. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference 1. Chevron V-bracing Chevron inverted V-bracing Figure 1C-2.

as shown below in Figure 1C-3. Vol. III (1997 UBC) 79 . §2213. The typical design bay from Design Example 1A is re-configured for chevron inverted V-bracing. Typical chevron braced bay under OCBF requirements 2. By providing some balance in the distribution of tension and compression diagonals. Chevron bracing design under OCBF requirements. assume the forces to the diagonal bracing members are the same as for Example 1B: TS brace @ 3rd story: PDL = 24 kips PLL = 11 kips PE = 400 kips SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Item 1) imposed on chevron braces in OCBF systems. Chevron braces designed to SCBF requirements are therefore not subject to the load amplification factor (§2213. Recognizing that the buckling capacity of the compression diagonals is critical to all forms of braced frame performance.Design Example 1C ! Chevron Braced Frame on SCBF members and connections.8. For comparison.8.3 requires that no more than 70 percent of the diagonals act in compression along any line of bracing.1.4.2. Figure 1C-3. ultimate inelastic story drifts are compatible for both directions.

5.2.8. For the diagonal brace at the third story.4 1.2 is: Pas = 342 kips < 453 kips n.0 (18. From Design Example 1A.9(24 ) − = −407 kips (tension) 1.5) = 18.4 (12-9) §2213. III (1997 UBC) .8.8. §2213.5: PE = 1.75 11 + 1.1 For F y = 50 ksi.8. 50 steel F y = 50 ksi will be required in lieu of a tube section.5(400 ) = 600 kips Also note that the same section requires the beam to be continuous between columns. ( ) Effective length @ centerline: kl = 1.4 The compressive axial load of Equation (12-9) controls. we have the following basic ASD load combinations with no one-third increase: D+ 600 E : P = 24 + = 453 kips (compression) 1 1.1 requires that the seismic force be increased by a factor of 1.4 1. (12-11) §2213.8.75 L + = 354 kips (compression) : P3 = 24 + 0.Design Example 1C ! Chevron Braced Frame For OCBF chevron bracing. the W 24 × 68 girder satisfies these conditions.8. 720 50 = 102 80 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.9 D ± (12-10) 600 E D + 0.4.5 The TS 10 × 10 × 5 8 is the largest section that satisfies the width-thickness ratio for tubes as required by §2213.g. the capacity of a TS 10 × 10 × 5 8 tube section. and that the beam be capable of supporting gravity loads without support from the diagonal braces. A wide flange section using A572 grade. Vol.4 1.2.5 ft Maximum slenderness ratio: kl 720 ≤ r Fy §2213. From Design Example 1B.2.4 600 E : P2 = 0.4 0.2. adjusted by the stress reduction factor (B ) of §2213.

18 in. 3.k. This provision is waived for SCBF chevron bracing due to an additional requirement for beam design.k. the beam intersected by chevron braces is to have sufficient strength to resist gravity loads combined with unbalanced brace forces. and that the beam be capable of supporting gravity loads without support from the diagonal braces. III (1997 UBC) 81 . pp. 3-27 o.18 in.13 > 2.4.5 Pa = 733 kips Pas = (0. Table B5.9.1 also requires the beam to be continuous between columns.4. As for OCBF braces.13 1 = 0.5) kl = = 2.6 < 9.75 1 + [70.2 o.0(12)(18.5 as is required for OCBF chevron braces.1 For SCBF chevron bracing. 102 102 65 ≤ = 9.9 3. §2213. o.k.4. §2213. §2213.9 / 2(107)] For kl = 18.8.9.2 (13-4) (13-5) Stress reduction factor: Pas = BPa B = 1 /{1 + [(kl / r ) / 2C c ]} kl / ry = B= 1.5) = 70. This requirement SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. for special chevron bracing. Chevron bracing design under SCBF requirements.75)(733) = 550 > 453 kips ∴Use W 12 × 120 brace member AISC-ASD.2 Fy AISC-ASD.Design Example 1C ! Chevron Braced Frame ∴ Minimum r = 12(18.1 bf Maximum width-thickness ratio 2t Try W 12 × 120 brace: ry = 3.1 does not require the seismic force to be increased by a factor of 1. §2213.9. bf 2t = 5. Vol.2. Additionally.

7(324 ) = 551 kips 82 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. V DL = 14.4.4 kips Psc = 1. For comparison.3. the brace forces are as follows: Pst = A F y = 17. TS brace @ 3rd story: PDL = 24 kips PLL = 11 kips PE = 348 kips WF beam @ 3rd story: M DL = 1.7 Pallow = 1. The diagonal brace design for the SCBF chevron brace remains the same as that of the two-story X-brace presented in Design Example 1A.1 imposes a severe mid-span point load to the beam. with reduced contribution from the buckled compression bracing members. III (1997 UBC) ( ) .9. M LL = 1. ∴ Use TS 8 × 8 × 5 8 brace member 3b. Diagonal brace design. the unbalanced brace force specified in §2213. Using a TS 8 × 8 × 5 8 section. assume the member forces remain the same as for Design Example 1A. and enhanced post-buckling behavior. Beam design at the 3 floor. rd As demonstrated in Design Example 1A. the W 24 × 68 beam satisfies the basic load combinations of §1612.600 kip-in. However.4(46 ) = 800.1 kips V LL = 72 kips PE = 72 kips 3a. Vol.1.Design Example 1C ! Chevron Braced Frame provides for overall frame stability.193 kip-in.

410 = 42. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.1.927 kip-in. Vol.9. §2213.3 Try W 36 × 232 Z = 936 in.3Psc as show in Figure 1C-4.1 P st 0.707[800.9 D − Pb M min = 0. The beam must have the strength to resist load combinations similar to the Special Seismic Combinations of §1612.1193) + 40.Design Example 1C ! Chevron Braced Frame The maximum unbalanced brace force Pb is taken as the net difference of the vertical components of Pst and 0. 0.9. M s = Z F y > M max ∴ Z reqd ≥ 42927 50 = 859 in.600 ) + 0. Unbalanced chevron brace forces Pb = 0. III (1997 UBC) 83 .3 > 859 in.4.4.4 − 0.3 ∴Use W 36 × 232 beam §2213.3(551)] = 449 kips M b = Pb L 4 = 449(12)(30 ) 4 = 40. Item 3 ( ) o.9(1600) − 40410 = −38970 kip − in. the minimum required plastic modulus Z is solved below (using A572 grade 50 steel).2 D + 0.4: 1. and using the flexural strength.5L + Pb M max = 1.5(. Neglecting consideration of composite beam action.2(1.3P sc Figure 1C-4.k.410 kip-in.

4. Chevron brace-to-beam connection 84 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.1 The brace to beam connection is shown in Figure 1C-5 below. without the 2t setback between the end of the brace and the line of restraint for the gusset plate. §2213. Given their superior cyclic performance. This Example uses the SCBF bracing and forces. For the SCBF chevron bracing. chevron bracing will require a substantial increase in member sizes.9. it is recommended that SCBF chevron bracing be used in regions of moderate to high seismicity. For the OCBF chevron-braced system. the brace size will increase. III (1997 UBC) . the beam size increases to provide the capacity to meet the strength demand imposed by the unbalanced. Brace to beam connection design. the beam-to-column connection should be checked for the reaction from vertical load plus (Pb 2) . possibly resulting in larger demands at the connections. Vol. The design for the OCBF connection is similar.3. post-buckling brace forces. it is apparent that compared to X-bracing. Comment: From the foregoing examples in Parts 2 and 3. Figure 1C-5. as required for SCBF systems.Design Example 1C ! Chevron Braced Frame To complete the beam design.

0(86 in. The brace-to-gusset design is as given in Part 6d of Design Example 1A: Connection force: Pst = A F y = 800. Check plate shear stress: V Plate = 2(800.Design Example 1C ! Chevron Braced Frame 4a.375 kip-in.4) 2 = 1.375 = 11. III (1997 UBC) .) o. From Figure 1C-5 we determine the plate length to be 86 inches.0 ksi 1.132 kips = 13. use an assumed moment couple length as distance between intersections of brace centerlines with beam flange.4 kips Brace weld to gusset: 18" of 1 2" ( ) fillet weld each side each face Gusset plate thickness: 1" plate gusset minimum The gusset plate is also checked for shear and bending at the interface with the beam.2 Allow Fv = 0.1 ksi 1.4 ) 2 = 20.4. From Figure 1-4. M plate = 2(18)(800.0(86 )2 = 1.k.849 85 fb = SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Gusset plate design. §2213. Vol. Z= 1.4 4 20.55 F y = 0. the TS 8 × 8 × 5 8 brace strength is used for connection design.849 in.55(36 ) = 19.8 ksi Check plate bending stress.132 kips fv = 1. From Design Example 1A.

08) = 32.2 kl 1. Minimum fillet weld for 1-inch plate is 5/16-inch.26 ksi (y-axis) Sw 2(86 )2 fy = fr = (6.29(1.7(Fa ) = 1.4.375(6 ) M = = 8.3)70 = 35.26)2 = 10. From Figure 1C-5: l 2 = 10" and assume k = 1. Per inch of effective throat area.7 ) ∴ Use 1/2-inch fillet weld each side plate 86 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.4 ksi > 11.0 ksi ∴Use 1-inch plate gusset AISC-ASD.2(10 ) = = 41. III (1997 UBC) .k. weld stresses are: fx = V 1.4 r 0. 0. Length of weld to beam is l w = 86 inches.7(19.7 ksi Required weld size: t w = 10.2 Allow Fw = 1.7(0. Vol.41in.58 ksi (x-axis) 2(l w ) 2(86) 20.56 = 0. Table C-36 o.08 ksi Allowable Fsc = 1.132 = = 6.0 ) ∴ Fa = 19.58)2 + (8.707(35.Design Example 1C ! Chevron Braced Frame The allowable compressive bending stress is governed by the unsupported plate length perpendicular to the beam.56 ksi (resultant) §2213. 4b. Gusset to beam design.

To mitigate these effects. chevron configurations that use two-story X-bracing or zipper columns are recommended. Vol. III (1997 UBC) 87 . SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. configurations may be susceptible to large inelastic displacements and P-delta effects.Design Example 1C ! Chevron Braced Frame Commentary The Blue Book Commentary warns that even with the strong-beam SCBF chevron. These bracing configurations are presented in the section Factors That Influence Design at the beginning of Design Example 1A.

Design Example 1C ! Chevron Braced Frame 88 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol. III (1997 UBC) .

Eccentric braced frames may be configured with several geometric patterns. When links are located adjacent to columns. Also. including centrally located links (as chosen in this problem) or with links located adjacent to columns. it has not yet been extensively tested in actual earthquakes. Eccentric braced frame (EBF) building Overview Use of eccentric braced frames (EBFs) in steel frame buildings in high seismic regions is a fairly recent development. This system was introduced in the 1988 UBC. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Braces may be oriented to slope up to central link beams (inverted “V” braces) or down (“V” braces) to central link beams. Many structural engineers. feel that it offers superior earthquake resistance. While the concept has been thoroughly tested in laboratories. a seismic SMRF connection is required at the link beam/column intersection.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Design Example 2 Eccentric Braced Frame Figure 2-1. Several papers and many practitioners recommend that configurations using centrally located links be chosen to avoid the use of link beam/column SMRF connections. many buildings that previously would have been designed as SMRF structures are now being designed with EBF systems. however. Vol. III (1997 UBC) 89 . which increase the risk of brittle failure. a twostory frame section can be designed with upper and lower braces meeting at a common link beam located between the two levels. Following the problems with steel moment frame connections in the 1994 Northridge earthquake.

A typical floor/roof plan for the building is shown in Figure 2-2.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame It is also desirable to prevent single-story yield mechanisms. Note: Many calculations in this Design Example were performed using a spreadsheet program. 2. not updated. extending from the second level to the roof. A typical EBF frame elevation is shown in Figure 2-3. which ensures two story yield mechanisms. or zipper columns at either side of link beams. The round off errors are usually within a percent or two. which ensures multi-story mechanisms. Design base shear and vertical distribution of shear. Outline This Design Example illustrates the following parts of the design process. Reliability/redundancy factor. Vol. Typical EBF details. Design base shear coefficient. Some options for this include using inverted braces at two levels with common link beams. 90 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. The typical frame is designed in both allowable stress design (ASD) and load and resistance factor design (LRFD) because the code allows a designer the choice of either design method. The ASD method has been in the UBC for several cycles and is considered to be older. code methodology. EBF member design using allowable stress design (ASD). the five-story steel frame building shown schematically in Figure 2-1 is to have eccentric braced frames for its lateral force resisting system. and thus will have round off errors when compared to hand calculations with two or three significant figures. EBF member design using load and resistance factor design (LRFD). 7. III (1997 UBC) . The LRFD method is from the 1997 AISC-Seismic. 3. 4. 6. 1. The floor and roof diaphragms consist of lightweight concrete fill over steel decking. The reader should keep this in mind when comparing tables and calculations performed by hand. Horizontal distribution of shear. In this Design Example. 5. which is considered by SEAOC to be the most current EBF design method. Spreadsheet programs carry numbers and calculations to ten significant figures of accuracy.

0 10.0 76. III (1997 UBC) 91 .0 psf 50. Grade 50 F y = 50 ksi E70XX f c ' = 3.0 47.0 5.0 13.0 2.0 3.0 8. steel studs.0 psf 47.0 2.0 psf 3.0 psf 6.0 psf 1.4 (Seismic Zone 4) I = 1.0 (standard occupancy) Seismic Source Type = A Distance to seismic source = 5 km Soil profile type = S D Table 16-I Table 16-K SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. EIFS skin.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Given Information Roof weights: Roofing Insulation Steel deck and fill Roof framing Partition walls (10 psf) Ceiling Mechanical/electrical Total Live load: Exterior curtain wall. gypsum board.0 74.0 psf 20.000 psi ( ) Seismic and site data: Z = 0.0 seismic 3.0 psf ASTM A572. Vol. weight: Structural materials: Wide flange shapes and plates Weld electrodes Light weight concrete fill Floor weights: Floor covering Steel deck and fill Framing (beams and columns) Partition walls Ceiling Mechanical/electrical Total Live load: 20.

Typical floor and roof framing plan Figure 2-3. Typical frame elevation at frame EBF4 92 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Figure 2-2. III (1997 UBC) .

§1630.2.0 .66 sec Near source factors for seismic source type A and distance to source of 5 km are: N a = 1.44(1.030(62 )3 4 = . III (1997 UBC) 93 .53 Cv = 0.189W R 7 (30-5) The total design shear shall not be less than: V = 0.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Calculations and Discussion Code Reference 1.66 ) §1630.058W (30-6) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.02(1.2.64 N v = 0.11C a IW = 0.1 (30-4) but need not exceed: V = 2.0)W = 0.5C a I 2.2 The static force procedure will be used and the building period is calculated using Method A.53)(1. Design base shear coefficient.6 Seismic coefficients for Zone 4 and soil profile type S D are: C a = 0.22W RT 7(0.53)(1. height limit is 240 feet Calculation of design base shear: V = Cv I 1.2 ) = 0. T = Ct (hn )3 4 = .64(1.02 R coefficient for a steel frame building with eccentric braced frames: R = 7.2 (30-8) Table 16-S Table 16-T Table 16-Q Table 16-R Table 16-N §1630. Vol.2 N v = 1.6 ) = 1.0 ) W = W = 0.0 ) W = W = 0.44 N a = 0.5(.11(.

1. Vol.13 for east-west direction ρ = 1.128 (8 braces.6)(1. This assumption can be checked after final analysis.1 The reliability/redundancy factor ∆ must be estimated.13 (30-3) 1.8(0.0) W = W = 0. III (1997 UBC) .Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame In addition.0 ≤ ρ ≤ 1. Reliability/redundancy factor.02) §1630.5. Since the building in this Design Example has four frames in the east-west direction. the total base shear shall also not be less than: V = 0. in this analysis it is determined without a structural analysis.02).4)(1.073W R 7 (30-7) Therefore.224 ∴ ρ = 1.5 ρ = 2− 20 .8ZN v I 0. ∆ is determined based on eight braces (two per frame) and a maximum torsional contribution of 2 percent (thus 1.224 ft 2 rmax = 1 = 0. ∴ V = 0.1 = 1. ρ = 2− 20 rmax AB (30-3) AB = 212′ ×15′ = 32.0 for north-south direction 94 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. The factor was added to the code to penalize non-redundant systems. §1630. However.189W 2. The assumption is that all frames will be identical and that the horizontal component carried by each brace is equal.1. for Seismic Zone 4. It varies from a minimum of 1. Equation (30-5) controls the base shear calculation.128 32.0 to a maximum of 1. 2 percent from torsion) 8(1. It is determined for each principal direction.

120 wi (psf) 74 76 76 76 76 Wr f (kips) 2. Assume that the curtain wall weights distribute to each floor by tributary height.385 2.189(12900 ) = 2.66 sec for this Design Example Fx = (V − Ft )w x hx ∑ wx hx (30-15) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.224 32.1 Using the design base shear coefficient from Part 1.7 sec . Table 2-1.224 32. §1630.624 2.224 32.181 Length exterior walls (ft) 728 728 728 728 728 h Walls (ft) 10 12 12 12 13 w i Walls W Walls (kips) (psf) 20 20 20 20 20 146 175 175 175 11 871 Wi (kips) 2. Design base shear.062 3a.449 2. design base shear) is distributed over the height of the building in accordance with §1630. Design base shear and the vertical distribution of shear.5 The floor area at each level is 32. The following equations apply: V = Ft + ∑ Fi i =1 n (30-13) (30-14) Ft = 0.449 12.449 2.789 k 3b.624 2. §1630.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame 3.5.224 square feet.13 × 0. The building mass calculation is shown in Table 2-1.2. §1630.224 32. the base shear for the east-west direction is V = 1. The perimeter of the exterior curtain wall is 728 feet.e. III (1997 UBC) 95 .07TV ≤ 0. Vol.660 13. T = 0..25V Ft = 0 for T ≤ 0.530 2.13 × 0. The roof parapet height is 4 feet.449 2.624 2.189W = 1. Building mass calculation Level Roof 5 4 3 2 Totals Floor area (sf) 32.224 161. Vertical distribution of shear.5 The total lateral force (i.

in this Design Example the numerical application of the code provisions will be shown. Assume R1 = R2 = . §1630.220 w x hx Σw i h i (%) 32 27 20 14 7 100 Fx (k) 887 742 564 386 211 2. equal to 5 percent of the building dimension perpendicular to the direction of force regardless of the relative location of the centers of mass and rigidity.624 10. This assumption can be refined in a subsequent analysis.871 131.702 68.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Using the building mass tabulated in Table 2-1 above.530 2..778 2. Vertical distribution of shear Level R 5 4 3 2 Totals wx (k) w (k) hx (ft) 62 50 38 26 14 h (ft) 12 12 12 12 14 w x hx (k-ft) 156.187 99. Horizontal distribution of shear.154 2.598 . eew = (0.. However.6 Although the centers of mass and rigidity coincide.5 ft for north-south direction Assume that all frames have the same rigidity. Vol.401 2.193 2. The calculation of direct shear plus torsion for a given frame is based on the following formula: V ec V i Vi = Ri i ± Ri R ∑ R xy c 2 ∑ 96 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 .789 ΣVI (k) 887 1.629 2. III (1997 UBC) .624 7. Table 2-2.062 4. after members have been sized and an elastic deflection analysis has been completed.05)(150 ) = 7.6 requires designing for an additional torsional eccentricity.R14 = 1.660 13.624 5. §1630.242 493.05)(210) = 10.062 13. the vertical distribution of shear is determined as shown in Table 2-2 below. e .789 2 2. Many designers estimate the torsional contribution for a symmetric building by adding 5 percent to 10 percent to the element forces. where Ri is the rigidity of each EBF frame.530 2.5 ft for east-west direction ens = (0. since all are similar EBFs.217 37.

00% 25.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Table 2-3 gives the distribution of direct shear and torsional shear components as percentages of shear force (based on geometry).629 2.7% 16.12% 1.57% 1. Vol.918 Frame V4 (kips) 222 407 548 645 697 Frame T4 (kips) 7 14 18 22 23 Vi .9% 18.338 20. Tx and Ty are shear forces on frames that resist torsional moments on the building. III (1997 UBC) 97 .16% 1.84% 25.000 66. Table 2-3.3% 18.84% 16.18% -1. 2.625 5.7% 16.16% 0.9% 16.7% -1.57% 16.00% 25.11% 0.18% -1.12% 25.e. 4.653 12.7% 16.23% 0. Story shear forces for design of frame EBF4 Frame ID 4 4 4 4 4 Level R 5 4 3 2 Story V x (kips) 887 1. X and Y are distances from the center of mass (i. Vx and Vy are direct shears on frames in the X and Y directions.84% -1. ∑ Rd 2 = ∑ x Ri + ∑ y 2 Ri 2 Based on the direct and torsional shear values tabulated in Table 2-3.4 (kips) 229 192 146 99 55 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.000 10.100 12.900(4) 100% 0% 100% 0% Notes: 1.73% 0. respectively. respectively.100 100 100 10.7% 16.23% -1. 3.7% 16.84% 0.6 (kips) 229 421 567 666 721 Story Fx . Calculation of direct shear plus torsion as percentage of story shear Frame X(ft) (1) Y(ft) (1) ID Longitudinal 1 2 3 4 Transverse 5 -110 6 -110 7 10 8 10 9 100 10 100 Totals 75 75 75 75 Ri XRi YRi 1 1 1 1 1 -110 1 -110 1 10 1 10 1 100 1 100 -75 -75 75 75 X 2Ri Y 2Ri 5.625 5.3% 12.73% -1.7% 16.625 J= ΣRd 2 Sum Vi Vy Sum Ty (%) (3) V Vi / Vy (2) Tx (%) (3) V (%) (2) i I (%) 25% 25% 25% 25% -0.625 5.445 19.578 2.18% 1.11% 1. These shear forces are either in the X or Y directions and can be additive or subtractive with direct shear forces. the center of the building) to frames in the X and Y directions.84% 0.789 Story Tx (ft-kips) 6.84% -0. the story forces to be used for design of the typical eccentric braced frame (EBF4) are as follows: Table 2-4.217 16.18% 1.193 2. and on the vertical distribution of shear tabulated in Table 2-2..7% 16.

7 23.1 3. In part 6. The inelastic behavior of a link is influenced by its length.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame 5.18 1. Vol. The following is a summary of link behavior as a function of the link length e .2 57. The shorter the link length. e .39 0. Table 2-5.7 10.1 62. Link length.83 1. Seismic forces for initial member design. depending on the method chosen. The forces E . In the 1997 UBC. is thus Vi 6 210 feet. Shear yielding of short links is very ductile with an inelastic capacity in excess of that predicted by calculations. The compression force in the link is equal to half the story shear tributary to the frame. the greater the influence of shear forces on the inelastic performance.4 (kips) 229 192 146 100 54 Line 6 Vi 4 (klf) 2.5 83. III (1997 UBC) . 98 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Both are defined in §2213.0 109. Shear yielding tends to occur uniformly along the link length.1 FxiR (east) (kips) 98.4 7. In part 5. applied to EBF4 are calculated first by determining the seismic load along line 6. The results are slightly different.51 FxiL (west) (kips) 131.10 Seismic forces on a typical EBF.0 31. minus the frame force at the right side (F4iL + F4iR ) 2 − F4iR .4.9 5b. MS is the flexural strength of the link and VS is the shear strength. vi 6 .3 C =T (link) (kips) 16.95 0. will be determined. in this case EBF4 on line 6. Table 2-5 summarizes the forces at each level of frame EBF4. §2213. a designer has a choice of whether to design using allowable stress design (ASD) methods or whether to use load and resistance factor design (LRFD) methods. the LRFD method is illustrated.4 42. Frame EBF4 has a tributary collector length of 210 feet / 2 = 105 feet.2 82. The frame forces are thus F4iL = vi 6 (60 feet) and F4iR = vi 6 (45 feet). The unit shear load along line 6.2. the ASD method is illustrated. and tributary lengths on the west side of the frame of 60 feet and on the east side of the frame of 45 feet. EBF member design using (ASD). Axial forces through shear links on frame EBF4 Level R 5 4 3 2 Frame Fx .4 13. 5a.

0 M s Vs the link may not yield as expected.080 radians (LRFD) due to ∆ m deflections. The load combinations for allowable stress design procedures are given in Equations (12-7) through (12-11) or (12-12) through (12-16) in §1612. however.4 to account for allowable stress design. the stiffer the EBF frame will be.4/2 = 237.8 kips 15' Level 3 V3. ΣV2 = 721k/1. link ΣV3 = 666kips/1. 5.3 S VS VS MS VS MS VS MS VS Ensures shear behavior and is the recommended upper limit for shear links.090 radians (ASD) and 0. region is transition between shear governed behavior and bending governed behavior.3 M s Vs work well.6 e > 2.4/2 = 257.0 e ≥ 3. Preliminary sizes of the EBF frame beams are determined by calculating the required shear area (dt w ) due to the story forces and frame geometry. III (1997 UBC) 99 . These load combinations use load values of E 1. link 12' 14' Link analysis at Level 2 Link analysis at Level 3 (levels 4. 5c. For most designs.4 kips 15' Level 2 V2. The code sets limits on link plastic rotation of 0. the greater the link rotation.3. Preliminary link analysis SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol. The shorter the link length.0 M MS ≤ e ≤ 1. e ≤ 1. R. however. Link behavior is theoretically balanced between shear and flexural yielding.0 to 1.0 Elastic deformation is controlled by flexural yielding. Elastic behavior is controlled by shear behavior. Preliminary EBF frame member sizes. similar) Figure 2-4.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame 1. Links less than 1. link lengths of 1.

9 kips = 1.10.55 F y dt w M s= Zx F y Preliminary beam sizes are determined as shown in Table 2-6 (forces are E 1.link 721 kips (14' ) = 240.4 30' 229 kips (12' ) = 65.80 × 0.4 kips = 1. VS and M S are calculated as follows: Minimum dt w = V s = .link V R .Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame For initial sizing.4 30' 421 kips (12' ) = 120.link The values for dt w .55 F y §2213.link V4.link = ΣVi ( h) ΣVi / 2( h) = l l/2 V2.5 kips = 1.2 kips = 1.4 ). Vol.4 30' V3. V i .link 0. shear forces in the links may be approximated as follows: Vi .link V5.4 30' 666 kips (12' ) = 190.4 30' 567 kips (12' ) = 161. III (1997 UBC) .5 100 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.3 kips = 1.

9 81.1 50.e. Preliminary link analysis and sizing for frame EBF4 Vi .98 5.link min.0 10550 274 211. The frame displacement at the second level. (in. Link rotation.39 0.6 190. ∆ S 2 = 0.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Table 2-6.2 49.4 240. the EBF member design will be based on use of a W 21× 132 link beam at Level 2.0 7500 207 9300 243 47.8 50..95 9.5 120.16 2. The results of the computer analysis. maximize dt w . III (1997 UBC) 101 .1 61.4 Link Beam Size W16x77 W18X86 W18X97 W18X97 d (in.) 24 34 36 36 46 Ω 16.) (kips) (in. Have compact flanges with sufficient bending capacity to ensure shear failure of the section under ultimate load.3 61.0 161.9 238. The frames must meet the deflection and link rotation limitations and thus be sized for stiffness.0 16650 390 257.e.47 7.4 52. i.19 The most efficient link sections usually: 1. i.52 0.0 35.92 W21X132 21.0 10550 274 333.2 10. dtw Level h 2 2 (ft) (kips) (kips) link (in. 2.1 55.3 Link Lg. Fi Story Vi req.62 211.65 14. The computer model was analyzed with moment resisting connections. Optimize the required shear area.) tw (in.4 19.4) and not increased by ∆ because frame distortion limits are based on calculations using applied strength level seismic forces not increased by the redundancy factor.46 18.48 18.36 8. minimize dt w . which more closely estimates the real behavior of the frame with end moments much less than M p . ∆ S 2 . 5d..3 1. For the first story.02 1.48 in. including forces and displacements.54 18. The recommended [Engelhardt and Popov. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.59 0. 1989] link length is emax = 1.0 186.9 65.2) 7.3 68. 4.95 Zx Ms Vs M s Vs (in.3) (k-in.69 1.5 2. Vol.52 8.65 150.7 68. have been determined.59 0.44 1.6 M s Vs (in.7 61.) 150. was determined from a separate computer analysis (not shown) using the design base shear (not divided by 1.83 0.) 58.) dtw (in.54 3.3 202.5 1. Are the deepest section possible while complying with the compact web criteria .83 9.2) shear R 5 4 3 2 12 12 12 12 14 81.3 MS VS A computer model has been created for EBF4. 3.

For a frame of story height h . The link rotation is computed as a function of the frame story drift and frame geometry. must be limited to 0. link beams outside the link lengths) will also have corresponding excess capacity.7 R∆ s = .10. It therefore has greater strength than required 102 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.62 ≥ 1.k. and (l − e) .4.8Vs under design seismic forces.5 requires than the link shear does not exceed 0. Vol.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame The corresponding maximum inelastic response displacement at the second level. bay width l . may be greater than 1.8) = 1. in the first story is 180 inches. if the links have excess capacity.55 (50 ksi )(21.25 V i. III (1997 UBC) . the link rotation may be calculated by the following dimensions a = 2 formula [Becker and Ishler. Thus links have a minimum overstrength factor Ω min = (1. or 15 ft-0 in.40 in. ∆ M 2 is estimated as follows: ∆ M = .10.83")(. link length e . Link rotations.2 ∴ o.48" = 2.2 kips Ω= 390. Section 2213.link = 240.650") = 390.55 F y dt w = . θ= ∆M 2 a 1. Ω . all other elements in the frame (braces. §2213.25 which provides a safety factor on shear capacity.090 radians per §2213. Note that the frame height. columns.k . for the W 21× 132 link beam with applied shear Vi .090 e 180" h 46" (30-17) ∴ o.2 k §2213. Thus.2 kips (see Table 2-6): V s = . Therefore. θ . the link overstrength factor. The link beam in this Design Example is sized for stiffness to thus limit deflections and link rotations under code loads. Depending on the actual link beam chosen for design. h .5 The purpose of EBF design is to ensure that any inelastic behavior in the structure under seismic motions occurs in the links.37" 2(157 ") l + = l + = 0. 1996].25.2 k Vs = = 1. 5e.7 (7 )0. all elements other than the links are designed to have strengths greater than the forces that will be induced in them when the links experience yielding.060 radians ≤ 0. because the base plate is anchored 12 inches below the slab.4.link 240. To achieve this. Link shear strength.10.0 0.

and Ricles] §2213. §2213.08 Ms 16.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame 5f.2 For frame stiffness. III (1997 UBC) . The link must be checked for bending plus axial loads using the flanges only (because the web is assumed to have yielded in shear and not capable of carrying axial load).3 M s = 55. Beam and link axial loads. use e = 46 in. and rotation control purposes at the second level.2 kips) = = 1. 5h. plus axial loads. Vol. (the sum of level shears from the roof to level 3) is 666k (476k on an ASD basis).035") Fy ∴ o. The ASD frame forces in level 2 at the left connection and right connection are F2 L = 31.4 = 16. The summation of story forces down to level 3.7 k . 52 = 7. ΣFi = V3 in Table 2-4. drift. the link beams have been limited to lengths less than 3 M s Vs .650 kip − in.2 Check to assure that the beam flanges are compact to prevent flange buckling.0 ≤ = 2t f 2 (1. Thus: eVs (46" ) (390. Link length.650 kip-in. ∴ o.4 = 22. The link beam outside the link must be checked for combined bending.36 50 ksi 5g.2 kips e ≈ 1.10. 103 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.k. To ensure shear yielding behavior. Beam compact flange. Englehardt.5 in. V s = . Vs 3 M s = Z x F y = (333 in. 12.55 F y dtw = 390.44" 52 bf = = 6. ) (50 ksi) = 16. The length of the link will determine whether the link yields in shear or in bending.k.2 [Popov.4.2 k and F2 L = 23.4. §2213.1 k 1.3 k 1.

5i.4 1.6 A = 38.7 ksi = 0. The maximum d/tw ratio permitted for compact beam sections is dependent on the axial load in the beam.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Therefore.1 k − 23.1 of (AISC-ASD).1 = 104 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. The web should be compact along the full length of the beam.3 k ) = 2. Ω = 1.13 ≤ 0. Beam compact web.62 and the link axial force can be factored to be 4.8 k 2 × 1.7 ksi A 38.8 in. III (1997 UBC) .2 Maximum axial force in link beam outside the link: V 3 666 kips + 31.2 6.5). Table B5. the section should be checked using allowable stress design of UBC Chapter 22.10. The UBC does not allow doubler plates to reduce d/tw requirements for a link beam (see §2213. Table B5.16 50 ksi AISC-ASD. Vol. If a beam section is chosen that does not have a compact web for all axial loads. For this link.8 in.4 fa= fa Fy P 2L = 260 k = 6.5 kips.1 kips + F 2L 2 2 = = 260 kips P 2L = 1. Ω . Division V. Wide flange sections listed in the AISC W shapes tables (AISC-ASD) have compact webs for all combinations of axial stress when the yield strength is less than the tabulated values of F y . For the W 21× 132 beam at the second level of EBF4: dt w = 33.4 The axial force can be factored up to account for actual link design overstrength. the axial force in the link on an ASD basis is: C link = T link = (31.

2 = 267.7 ksi ≤ 50 ksi 2 2 12. This calculation is made to check the combined bending plus axial strength of the link (using loads anticipated to yield the link with the link design overstrength factor. Ω = 1. 5j.16 F y .link Zf = 4.62 ).10.3 requires that the flexural capacity of the section.7 ksi 640 l − 3. Section 2213.k.875 in.440") × (1.link = VS . 267.3 P2.10. III (1997 UBC) 105 .link = 2. d tw = f 640 l − 3.74 = 45. If this is the case. When a beam has reached flexural capacity. The link shear strength Vs was determined using the web area d/tw.875 in.1in.7 in. e = 390. be considered as a possible upper limit of the link capacity. the flexural capacity of the section will limit the shear capacity of the link.3 ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ∴ Link combined axial plus bending capacity is o.3 50 ksi 50 ksi AISC-ASD.k. 5k.2 Z f = d − t f b f t f = (21.1in. of the beam. shear in the link may be less than the shear strength of the section.975 ksi + = 33.035") 12. Vol.035") = 12.1 ∴ d tw = 33.83"−1. This will be checked below. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.62) = 4.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame For f a ≤ 0. 2 (46") = 8. reduced for axial stress.6 in.link 2 Af + M 2.975 kip-in. Combined link loads. Verification of link shear strength.3 ∴ o. the allowable d/tw to prevent local buckling is determined from the equation below. §2213.7 in.74 a = Fy Fy 6.875 in.5 kips M 2.2 ≤ 45.8 k (1. P2.2 k 2 2 A f = b f t f = (12.3 The strength of the link is used to establish the minimum strength required of elements outside the link. Table B5.5 k 8.

(Note: the composite steel deck and lightweight concrete fill is not considered effective in bracing the top flange. The maximum interval l u . §2213. Vs = 390 kips and Vrs = 721 kips .5 k = 0. the controlling mode of yielding is shear in the link.3 (50.13 The beam outside the link is required to resist 130 percent of the bending. Note that the ASD version of capacity design is being used because the beam is being checked under forces generated with a yielding link element in shear.10. §2313.10.593 kip − in. III (1997 UBC) .) 5m. 1-21 Z x = 333 in.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Vs = 390. Forces are from a hand evaluation of EBF frame behavior and from computer model analysis: 106 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.3 4.10. Section N.2 AISC-ASD.18 requires lateral braces for the top and bottom flanges at the ends of the link beams.593 kip-in. Therefore the controlling shear capacity is 390 kips. l u .max = 76 bf Fy = 76 (12.17 ksi ) = 16. Vrs = 2 M rs 2 (16.4" ≅ 11'−6" 50 ksi §2313. Thus.link 2 Af = ( ) §2213.10. Beam analysis (outside of link).2 kips M rs = Z x f y − f a fa = P2. because the shear required to yield the beam in bending will not be developed.0 ksi − 0. The combined beam bending plus axial interaction equations are referenced from AISC-ASD. Vol.) = = 721 kips e (46") The controlling shear capacity is the least of Vs or Vrs . 5l.4 M rs = 333 in.17 ksi 2 × 12.18 Therefore the beam bracing at 10 ft 0 in.max is determined below.10.18 Section 2213.87") = 138.875 in. is adequate. In this case. pp. Required beam brace spacing. plus axial forces generated in the link beam.

3ΩP2.7 ksi 3 5 3 ( 41.4 k-in.0) 2 1 − Fy 50 ksi 1 − 2 2C c 2 2(107) = = = 25.974 k-in.974 k-in.3 × 1.62 × 260 k ) + (1.0 2. 2 Beam slenderness parameters.0) 3 5 3 ( kl / ry ) (kl / ry ) + − + − 3 8 (107) 8 (107) 3 3 8C c 8C c 3 Fay AISC-ASD §E2 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 : kl ry kl rx = (1.3 × 11 kips ) = 564 kips From EBF frame analysis: M E = 8.0) (41.) = 11. Increased moment on beam outside the link: M = 1.4 k-in.3 V link e + 1. From computer analysis: M D = 188.0)(120") = 41.4 9.3 (188.912 k-in.93" = (1. Vol.0)(150") = 16.link + 1. III (1997 UBC) 107 . assuming k = 1.3PDL = (1.) + 1.12" Allowable axial stress based on beam slenderness and bracing: ( kl / ry ) 2 ( 41.3M DL = 1.3 (8.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Axial force in beam outside link: PE = 260 kips From computer model: PD = 11 kips Increased axial load on beam outside the link: P = 1.

Design Example 2

!

Eccentric Braced Frame

**Euler buckling stress multiplied by a safety factor:
**

' Fey =

12π 2 E 23 kl / ry

(

)2

=

12 (3.14 )2 (29,000,000 psi ) 23 (41.0 )2

= 88,834 psi = 88.8 ksi

AISC-ASD §E2

Beam slenderness parameter: Cc = 12 (3.14 )2 (29,000 ksi ) 12π 2 E = = 107 Fy (60 ksi ) AISC-ASD §E2

ASD axial capacity: Pcr = 1.7 Fa A = 1.7 (25.69 ksi )(38.8 sq in.) = 1,695 kips Euler buckling capacity: 23 23 Pe = Fe' A = (88.8 ksi ) 38.8 in.2 = 6,603 kips 12 12 ASD axial yielding load: Py = F y A = (50 ksi ) 38.8 in.2 = 1,940 kips AISC-ASD §N4,

(

)

AISC-ASD §N4

(

)

AISC-ASD §N4

Maximum moment that can be resisted by the member in the absence of axial load: M m = M p = F y Z x = (50 ksi ) 333 in.3 = 16,650 k-in. Coefficient for sidesway: C m = 0.85 Check AISC Equations (N4-2) and (N4-3): P Pcr + 564 kips 0.85 (11,912 k − in.) Cm M + = 1,695 kips Pbu 564 kips 1 M m 1 6,603 kips 16,650 k − in. Pe AISC-ASD (N4-2)

(

)

AISC-ASD §N4

= 0.33 + 0.67 = 1.0 ∴ Say o.k.

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Design Example 2

!

Eccentric Braced Frame

P Py

+

564 kips 11,912 k − in. M = + 1.18 M p 1,940 kips 1.18 (16,650 k − in.)

AISC-ASD (N4-3)

= 0.29 + 0.61 = 0.90 ≤ 1.0 ∴ o.k.

5n.

Beam stiffeners.

§2213.10.7

There are two types of stiffeners required in links: link stiffeners at ends at brace connections and intermediate stiffeners (Figures 2-7 and 2-11).

Link end stiffeners.

Full depth web stiffeners are required on both sides of the link beam at the brace connections. The stiffeners are used to prevent web buckling and to ensure ductile shear yielding of the web. The stiffeners shall have a combined width not less than bf - 2tw and a thickness not less than 0.75t w or 3/8 inch. For the W 21× 132 beam B f − 2t w = 12.440"−2 (.650") = 11.14" use 2 × 5.625" The minimum thickness of the stiffener is t stiff ≥ 0.75t w = 0.75 × .650" = 0.49" use ½ in. stiffeners. Therefore, use 55/8 in. × ½ in. link beam stiffeners at link ends at each side of web (total 4).

Intermediate link stiffeners.

§2213.10.10

Section 2310.10.8 requires intermediate full depth web stiffeners (see Part 7, Figure 2-7) for either of the following conditions: 1. 2. Where link beam strength is controlled by Vs . Where link beam strength is controlled by flexure and the shear determined by applying the reduced flexural strength, M rs exceeds 0.45F y dt w .

Therefore, intermediate web stiffeners are required for this Design Example.

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Design Example 2

!

Eccentric Braced Frame

The spacing limits are a function of the link rotation per §2310.10.9. For a link rotation 0.09 radians, the maximum allowed, the spacing shall not exceed 38t w − d w 5 . For link rotation of 0.03 radians, the spacing shall not exceed 56t w − d w 5 . Linear interpolation may be used between link rotations of 0.03 and 0.09 radians. Thus, 38t w − dw 21.83" = 38 (.650") − = 20.33 in. 5 5 dw 21.83" = 56 (.650") − = 32.03 in. 5 5 §2213.10.9

56tw −

§2213.10.9

Since the link rotation is 0.088 radians for the beam, interpolation must be used to determine the maximum spacing of intermediate stiffeners. This is shown below. 0.090 rad − 0.088 rad (32.03"−20.33") + 20.33" = 20.72 in. 0.090 rad − 0.030 rad Since the link length is 46 inches, use three equal spacings of 46/3 =15.33 inches. The web stiffener location is determined in accordance with §2313.10.10. Since the link beam is a W21, one sided stiffeners are required of thickness 3/8-inch. The width shall not be less than:

(b f 2)− tw + (12.44" 2) − .650"+5.57 in.

Therefore, use 5-5/8 in. × 3/8 in. intermediate (one-sided) stiffener plates (2 total).

Web stiffener welds.

Fillet welds connecting the web stiffener to the web shall develop a stiffener force of: Ast F y = (5.625"× .375")(50 ksi ) = 105.5 kips The minimum size of fillet weld, per AISC Table J2.4, is ¼-inch to the link web and 5/16 in. to the link flange. Using E70XX electrodes and 5/16-inch fillet welds each side, the weld capacity is 1.7 allowable. The required weld length is 1required = 105.5 kips (70 ksi )(1.7 )(2 × 5 16")(.707 ) = 6.7 in. .3

Therefore, 5/16 in. fillet welds, both sides of the stiffener, at the flanges and the web are adequate.

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Design Example 2

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Eccentric Braced Frame

Fillet welds connecting the web stiffener to the flanges shall develop a stiffener force of Ast F y / 4 = (5.625"×.375")(50 ksi ) / 4 = 26.4 kips 1, required = 26.4 kips (70 ksi )(1.7 )(2 × 5 16")(.707 ) = 1.7 in. .3

Therefore, 5/16-inch fillet welds, both sides of the stiffener, at the flanges are adequate.

5o.

Link beam design.

Tables 2-7a through 2-7g presents tabular calculations that show the results from procedures from Parts 5a through 5s applied to all beams in the frame EBF4. The link beam design for all levels is as shown below in tabular form following the equations given above (each link beam at each level of the frame has a row calculation which extends through the full table):

**Table 2-7a. Link beam section properties
**

Level R 5 4 3 2 Link W16x77 W18X86 W18X97 W18X97 W21X132 A (in.2) 22.60 25.30 28.50 28.50 38.80 Zx (in.3) 150.0 186.0 211.0 211.0 333.0 br (in.) 10.30 11.09 11.15 11.15 12.44 tr (in.) 0.76 0.77 0.87 0.87 1.04 d (in.) 16.52 18.39 18.59 18.59 21.83 tw (in.) 0.46 0.48 0.54 0.54 0.65 e (in.) 24 34 36 36 46 a (in.) 168 163 162 162 157 h (in.) 144 144 144 144 168 Af (in.2) 15.6 17.1 19.4 19.4 25.8 Zf (in.3) 123.3 150.5 171.8 171.8 267.7 Fy (ksi) 50 50 50 50 50

**Table 2-7b. Compact flange, compact web
**

Level R 5 4 3 2 Vs 206.7 242.7 273.5 273.5 390.2 Ω 3.16 2.02 1.69 1.44 1.62 Ms 7,500 9,300 10,550 10,550 16,650 bf 2tf 6.77 7.20 6.41 6.41 6.01 Compact 1.3 Flange Compact Flange Limit M s Vs Results bf 2tf 7.35 7.35 7.35 7.35 7.35 o.k. o.k. o.k. o.k. o.k. 47.2 49.8 50.1 50.1 55.5 fa 4.14 6.33 7.36 8.53 6.71 fa Fy 0.08 0.13 0.15 0.17 0.13 dtw 36.3 38.3 34.7 34.7 33.6 Compact Compact web Web Limit dtw Results 62.5 47.7 40.7 36.3 45.1 o.k. o.k. o.k. o.k. o.k.

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Eccentric Braced Frame

**Table 2-7c. Combined link stresses, controlling shear, unsupported length
**

Shear Levels Level Above (kips) R 5 4 3 2 0 229.2 420.9 566.6 666.3 Level at level (kips) 131.0 109.5 83.3 57.0 31.1 Pmax Link Beam (kips) 94 160 210 243 260 fa (ksi) 4.14 6.33 7.36 8.53 6.71 Plink Diaph. M link (kips) Factor (k-in.) 16.4 13.7 10.4 7.1 3.9 1.00 1.12 1.31 1.69 2.70 785.9 2.044.5 2.914.1 3.426.8 5.525.6 Comb. fa Vs Link (psi) Stress (kips) (psi) 0.75 0.64 0.50 0.44 0.29 6.7 13.9 17.2 20.2 20.8 206.7 242.7 273.5 273.5 390.2 M rs (k-in.) 7.388 9.181 10.444 10.456 16.553 Vrs (kips) 615.7 540.0 580.2 580.9 719.7 Vmin (kips) 206.7 242.7 273.5 273.5 390.2 lu Max (in.) 110.7 119.2 119.8 119.8 133.7

**Table 2-7d. Calculation of design forces, beam outside the link
**

Level R 5 4 3 2 P (kips) 94 160 210 243 260 M = Vs e 2 (k-in.) 2,480 4,127 4,923 4,923 8,975 Link Ω 3.16 2.02 1.69 1.44 1.62 Beam Overstress Factor 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 Pcomp DL (kips) 10 8.73 11.2 10 11 Mcomp "DL" (k-in.) 208.8 226.8 213.6 200.4 188.4 Beam Overstress Factor 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 Pbu Design (kips) 397 431 475 467 564 M bu Design (kips) 3,496 5,660 6,678 6,661 11,912

**Table 2-7e. Beam properties
**

Level R 5 4 3 2 Section W16x77 W18X86 W18X97 W18X97 W21X132 A (in.2) 22.6 25.3 28.5 28.5 38.8 Z (in.3) 150 186 211 211 333 Fy (ksi) 50 50 50 50 50 Lu (ft) 10 10 10 10 10 rx (in.) 5.89 7.77 7.82 7.82 9.12 ry (in.) 1.92 2.63 2.65 2.65 2.93 kl ry 62.5 45.6 45.3 45.3 41.0 Cc (ksi) 107.0 107.0 107.0 107.0 107.0

kl r y C c

0.58 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.38

**Table 2-7f. AISC-ASD equations (N4-1) and (N4-2)
**

Level R 5 4 3 2 Fa (ksi) 22.3 25.0 25.1 25.1 25.7 F'e (ksi) 38.2 71.7 72.8 72.8 89.0 Pcr (k) 856 1,076 1,214 1,214 1,695 Pe (k) 1,655 3,478 3,978 3,978 6,620 Py (k) 1,130 1,265 1,425 1,425 1,940 M m ,M p (k-in.) 7500 9300 10550 10550 16650 Cm 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 P Design (k) 397 431 475 467 564 M Design (k-in.) 3,496 5,660 6,678 6,661 11,912 AISCASD (N4-2) 0.98 0.99 1.00 0.99 1.00 AISC ASD (N4-3) 0.75 0.86 0.87 0.86 0.90 Results o.k. o.k. o.k. o.k. o.k.

**Table 2-7g. Link rotations at each level
**

Level R 5 4 3 2 Delta S Deflection (in.) 1.01 0.87 0.69 0.46 0.24 Delta M Drift (in.) 0.69 0.88 1.13 1.08 1.18 Rotation (rad) 0.0715 0.0649 0.0783 0.0749 0.0548 Results o.k. o.k. o.k. o.k. o.k.

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Design Example 2

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Eccentric Braced Frame

5p.

Brace design.

§2213.10.13

The braces are required to be designed for 1.3Ω times the earthquake forces in the braces, plus 1.3 times the gravity loads. There is a misprint in 97 UBC §2213.10.13, where the brace and beam overstrength factor is both 1.5 and 1.3. However, the factor 1.5 was from the 1994 UBC and should have been deleted. The factor 1.3 should be used. PE = 1.3Ω Pcomputer due to E loads 1.4 E loads 1.4

M E = 1.3Ω M computer due to

Using plastic design procedures outlined in AISC Section N, obtaining forces from a computer analysis, and showing calculations in tabular form. Design forces for braces ( P and M ) are calculated as 1.3φ times seismic forces plus 1.3 times gravity forces. Column shear forces are not a controlling factor and are not shown for brevity. Tables 2-8a through 2-8c show tabular design of braces for EBF4 at all levels.

**Table 2-8a. Brace forces
**

Level 5 4 3 2 1 PE E/1.4 106 194 262 302 372 ME E/1.4 10.2 11.7 23.4 26.7 38.5 Ω 3.16 2.02 1.69 1.44 1.62 Brace Overstress Factor 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 PD D 11.8 14.6 14.7 14.4 13.9 MD D 5.1 4.4 4.3 4.3 3.4 Brace Overstress Factor 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 P Design 519.5 609.3 686.0 672.4 927.2 M Design 55.9 42.0 65.7 64.0 98.9

**Table 2-8b. Brace section properties
**

Level 5 4 3 2 1 Brace Section W12X87 W12x87 W12x87 W12X106 W12X120 A (in.2) 25.60 25.60 25.60 31.20 35.30 Z (in.3) 132.0 132.0 132.0 164.0 186.0 Fy (ksi) 50 50 50 50 50 L (ft) 20.5 20.2 20.2 20.2 19.9 rx (in.) 5.34 5.38 5.43 5.57 5.66 ry (in.) 3.31 3.32 3.34 3.41 3.44 kl ry 74.4 73.1 72.5 71.0 69.4 Cc (ksi) 107.0 107.0 107.0 107.0 107.0 kl / ry / Cc 0.70 0.68 0.68

0.66 0.65

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Design Example 2

!

Eccentric Braced Frame

**Table 2-8c. Brace, axial plus bending interaction calculations
**

Level 5 4 3 2 1 Fa

(ksi)

F' e

(ksi)

Pcr

(k)

Pe

(k)

Py

(k)

M m ,M p

(k-in.)

Cm 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85

P Design

(k)

M Design

(k-in.)

AISC

(N4-2)

AISC

(N4-3)

Results o.k. o.k. o.k. o.k. o.k.

20.1 20.3 20.5 20.7 21.0

262.1 262.1 262.1 262.1 262.1

875.2 885.6 890.8 1100.5 1262.8

12,860 12,860 12,860 15,673 17,732

1280 1280 1280 1560 1765

6600 6600 6600 8200 9300

450.2 528.0 594.5 582.8 803.5

659.0 493.7 778.7 757.5 1178.6

0.60 0.66 0.77 0.61 0.75

0.35 0.41 0.46 0.37 0.46

5q.

Column design.

§2213.10.14

The columns are required to resist 1.25 times the strength developed in the links to assure that the yielding mechanism is the link beams (Section 2213.10.14). Design forces ( P and M ) are calculated as 1.25Ω times (frame analysis) seismic forces plus 1.25 times gravity forces. Column shear forces are not a controlling factor and are not shown for brevity. Tables 2-9a through 2-9c show tabular design of columns for EBF4 at all levels

**Table 2-9a. Design column forces
**

Level km5 4 3 2 1 PE E/1.4 106 3.16 2.02 1.69 372 ME E/1.4 10.2 1.25 1.25 1.25 38.5 Ω Brace Overstress Factor 5.1 4.4 4.3 1.25 PD D 1.25 1.25 1.25 13.9 MD D Brace Overstress factor P Design 432.9 507.7 571.7 560.3 772.6 M Design 46.6 35.0 54.8 53.3 82.4

11.8 14.6 14.7 1.62

4.3 3.4

1.25 1.25

**Table 2-9b. Column section properties
**

Level 5 4 3 2 1 Column Section W12X65 W12X65 W12X65 W12X87 W12X87 A (in.2) 19.10 19.10 19.10 25.60 25.60 Z (in.3) 96.8 96.8 96.8 132.0 132.0 Fy (ksi) 50 50 50 50 50 L (ft) 12 12 12 12 14 rx (in.) 5.28 5.28 5.28 5.38 5.38 ry (in.) 5.67 5.67 5.67 5.72 5.72 kl ry 2.48 2.48 25.4 25.2 29.4 Cc (ksi) 107.0 107.0 107.0 107.0 107.0 kl / ry / Cc 0.02 0.02 0.24 0.24 0.27

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**Table 2-9c. Column axial plus bending interaction calculations
**

Level 5 4 3 2 1 Fa

(ksi)

F' e

(ksi)

Pcr

(k)

Pe

(k)

Py

(k)

M m ,M p

(k-in.)

Cm 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85

P Design

(k)

M Design

(k-in.)

AISC

(N4-2)

AISC

(N4-3)

Results o.k. o.k. o.k. o.k. o.k.

29.8 29.8 27.7 27.7 27.2

262.1 262.1 262.1 262.1 262.1

968 968 899 1,206 1,185

9,594 9,594 9,594 12,860 12,860

955 955 955 1280 1280

4840 4840 4840 6600 6600

432.9 507.7 571.7 560.3 772.6

559.4 420.2 657.5 639.9 989.0

0.55 0.60 0.76 0.55 0.79

0.45 0.53 0.60 0.44 0.60

5r.

Foundation design considerations.

In EBF design, special consideration should be given to the foundation design. The basis for design of the EBF is that the yielding occurs in the EBF links. Thus, all other elements should have the strength to develop the link beam yielding strengths. The code does not require the foundation design to be capable of developing the link beam strengths. However, if only a minimum code foundation design is performed, the foundation will generally not develop the EBF link beam strengths, and yielding will occur in the foundation. This is not consistent with the design philosophy for EBF frames. The SEAOC Blue Book recommends that the foundation be designed to develop the strength of the EBF frame. The intention is to have adequate foundation strength and stability to ensure the development of link beam yield mechanisms to achieve the energy dissipation anticipated in the eccentric braced frames. A static pushover analysis of an EBF frame can give a good indication of the foundation adequacy.

5s.

Final frame member sizes (ASD).

**Table 2-10. Final frame member sizes for EBF4 (ASD)
**

Level Roof 5 4 3 2 1 Beams W16X77 W18X86 W18X97 W18X97 W21X132 Link Lengths 24" 34" 36" 36" 46" Columns W12X65 W12X65 W12X65 W12X87 W12X87 Braces W12X87 W12X87 W12X87 W12X106 W12X120

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Figure 2-5. EBF4 frame member sizes (ASD)

6.

EBF member design using (LRFD).

In the 1997 UBC, a designer has a choice of whether to design using allowable stress design (ASD) methods or whether to use load and resistance factor design (LRFD) methods. In part 5, the ASD method is illustrated. In part 6, the LRFD method is illustrated. The results are slightly different, depending on the method chosen. In this part, the frame EBF4 that was designed to ASD requirements in Part 5 is now designed to LRFD requirements of AISC-Seismic. LRFD design provisions for EBF frames are contained in Section 15 of the AISC document, “Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings,” published in 1997. This document is commonly known as AISC-Seismic. Note that the Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, 1992 edition, is included in the AISCLRFD Manual, Part 6, which is adopted by reference in the code in Chapter 22, Division II, §2206. However, the 1997 AISC-Seismic provisions have been updated and are recommended in the SEAOC Blue Book, Section 702.

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6a.

Link shear strength.

The link shear strength Vn can be found from the minimum values of V p or 2 M p e . The values for V p are calculated as follows: Vi (d − 2t f )t w ≥ 0.90(0,link ) .60 AISC-Seismic §15.2d AISC-Seismic §15.2d

Fy

V p = 0.60 F y t w (d − 2 t f ) M p = ZxFy

Preliminary beam sizes are determined as shown in Table 2-11. Note that seismic forces for LRFD procedures use both E h and E v . The E v seismic force is additive to dead load D and is included in the load combination of Equation (12-5). 1.2 D + f1l + 1.0 E E = ∆E h + E v Ev = 0.5Ca ID = 0.5(0.53)(1.0 )D = 0.265 D Substituting for E h , E v , and f1 in Equation (12-5) 1.2 D + 0.5l + 1.0(∆E h + E v ) = 1.2 D + 0.5l + 1.0(1.13E h + 0.265D ) = 1.465D + 0.5l + 1.13E h Tables 2-11a through 2-11c show preliminary link analysis and sizing (LRFD).

Table 2-11a. Design seismic forces at EBF frame

Level R 5 4 3 2 Story Forces 229 192 146 100 54 Frame Forces, E h Left 131.0 109.5 83.2 57.0 31.1 Right 98.2 82.1 62.4 42.7 23.3 C, T link 16.4 13.7 10.4 7.1 3.9 Fil 131.0 109.5 83.2 57.0 31.1 Frame Forces, E h Fir 98.2 82.1 62.4 42.7 23.3 Vi 229.2 420.9 566.6 666.2 720.6 Fi 229.2 191.7 145.7 99.7 54.4 Vi 2 114.6 210.4 283.3 333.1 360.3

(12-5)

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**Table 2-11b. Preliminary link beam sizes and properties
**

Level Story Height 12 12 12 12 15 Fi 2 114.6 95.8 72.8 49.8 27.2 Fi 2 114.6 95.8 72.8 49.8 27.2 Vli 105.8 194.3 261.5 279.8 415.8

(d − 2t f )t w

min. 3.92 7.19 9.68 10.36 15.40

Size

d

tw 0.31 0.53 0.55 0.60 0.73

tf 0.52 0.88 0.88 0.96 1.19

R 5 4 3 2

W14X38 W16X89 W21X111 W21X122 W27X178

14.10 16.75 21.51 21.68 27.81

**Table 2-11c. Preliminary link beam results
**

Level R 5 4 3 2

(d − 2t f )t w

4.05 7.88 10.87 11.86 18.44

Results o.k. o.k. o.k. o.k. o.k.

Zx 61.50 175.00 279.00 307.00 567.00

Mp 3,075 8,750 13,950 15,350 28,350

φVp 109 213 293 320 498

1.3 M p Vp 36.5 53.5 61.8 62.3 74.0

1.6 M p Vp 45.0 65.8 76.1 76.7 91.1

Link e 32 48 56 56 66

Ratio M p Vp 1.26 1.30 1.31 1.30 1.29

Ω 1.15 1.22 1.25 1.27 1.33

CDR 1.03 1.09 1.12 1.14 1.20

For the first (ground level) story, the EBF link beam design will be based on use of a W 27 × 178 link beam at Level 2. Note that §15.2 of AISC-Seismic limits the yield strength of the link beam to F y = 50 ksi .

6b.

Link rotation.

The frame displacement at the second level, ∆ S 2 , was determined from a separate computer analysis (not shown) using the design base shear without ∆ . ∆ S 2 = 0.28 in. The corresponding inelastic displacement, ∆ M 2 may be estimated from a static analysis by the following formula: ∆ M = .7 R∆ s = .7(7 )0.28" = 1.37 in. (30-17)

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Eccentric Braced Frame

The link rotation is computed as a function of the frame story drift and frame geometry. For a frame of story height h , bay width l , link length e, and dimensions a = l − e 2 , the link rotation may be calculated by the following formula. Link rotations, θ , must be limited to 0.080 radians per AISC-Seismic §15.2g. θ= ∴ ∆M 2a 1.37" 2 (147 ") 1 + = 1 + = 0.042 radians ≤ 0.080 e 180 " H 66 o.k.

Comment: The above formula makes the assumption that all deformation occurs within the link rotation at a particular level. It has been observed that there is significant contribution to deformations from column and brace elongation and shortening. A more accurate analysis of link rotation can be made looking at joint displacements and calculating rotations based on relative joint displacements. Another simple method is to perform an analysis using very strong column and brace section properties in the model and force all deformations into the link beam for purposes of evaluating the link rotations.

6c.

Link shear strength.

AISC-Seismic §15.2d

The nominal shear strength of the link, Vn , is equal to the lesser of V p or 2 M p e . Solving for the design strength φVn . φVn ≤ Vi ,link at any given level φVn = 0.9 (0.60 )F y t w d − 2t f = 0.9 (0.6 )(50 ksi )(.73")[27.8"−2 (1.19")] = 498 kips φ2 M p e = 0.9 (2 )M p e = 0.9 (2) F y Z x e = 0.9 (2 )(50 ksi ) 567.0 in.3 = 773 kips 66"

(

)

(

)

φVn = 498 kips φVn = 498 kips = 553 kips 0.9

The design overstrength factor for this link beam Ω is calculated as follows: Ω= Vn 553 kips = = 1.33 Vi ,link 416 kips

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Design Example 2

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Eccentric Braced Frame

The minimum link design shear overstrength ratio is controlled by the φ factor. Thus, the minimum Ω is Ω min = 1.0 φ = 1.0 0.9 = 1.11 . The significance of the overstrength ratio is that the link will not yield until seismic forces overcome the link yield point. The overstrength factor Ω is a relationship between code forces and design overstrength forces which will likely yield the link. Note that the Ω factor does not include the R y factor for expected yield stress of the steel. The link beam in this Design Example has been sized for strength and stiffness. In beams above the level under discussion, it was found necessary to add cover plates for the beams outside the links (for increased beam capacity outside the link). The attempt was made to balance the design between good ratios of Mp /Vp of approximately 1.3 and the requirement for cover plates outside the link. It was decided to use cover plates to meet strength requirements for EBF beams outside the link to maintain desired ratios of Mp /Vp. The trade-off is to lessen the ratio of Mp /Vp and not require cover plates. It is believed that the performance of the link is more important than the cover plate requirement, and thus it was not possible to size beams to meet requirements outside the link without beam cover plates for this configuration of EBF frame.

6d.

Beam compact flange.

Check the W 27 × 178 beam to ensure that the flanges are compact to prevent flange buckling. 14.09" 52 bf = = 5.92 ≤ = 2 t f 2(1.19") Fy ∴ o.k. 52 = 7.35 50 ksi AISC-Seismic, Table I-9-1

6e.

Link length.

The length of the link will determine whether the link yields in shear or in bending deformations. To ensure the desired shear yielding behavior (see discussion in Part 5b), the link beams have been limited to lengths less than 1.3Mp /Vp. From part 6c, Vp and Mp are calculated: V p = 553 kips

3 M p = Z x F y = 567 in. (50 ksi ) = 28,350 kip-in.

(

)

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Eccentric Braced Frame

Check that the 1.3 M p V p criteria is not exceeded. eV p Mp ∴ =

(66")(553 kips ) = 1.29 ≤ 1.3

28,350 k − in.

o.k.

Second floor link length of 66 inches is o.k.

6f.

Verification of link shear strength.

The strength of the link is used to establish the minimum strength required of elements outside the link. The link shear strength Vp was determined using the web area (d-2tf) of the beam. When the beam has reached flexural capacity, shear in the link may be less than the shear strength of the section. If this is the case, the flexural capacity of the section will limit the shear capacity of the link. AISCSeismic §15.2f requires that the shear strength of the section be the minimum of shear yielding strength or shear required for plastic moment yielding behavior. V p = 553 kips 2M p e = 2 (50 ksi ) 576 in.3 = 872 kips 66"

(

)

The controlling nominal shear capacity Vn is the minimum of V p or 2V p e . From Part 6c, Vn = 553 kips . By selecting the W27x178 section as the link beam, the controlling mode of yielding is shear yielding in the link and therefore bending yielding will not be developed.

6g.

Required beam brace spacing.

§2313.10.18

The limiting unbraced length for full plastic bending capacity, L p , is determined as follows. Lateral beam braces for the top and bottom flanges at the ends of the link beams are still required. Lp = 300ry F yf = 300(3.26") 50 ksi = 138.3" ≅ 11'−6" AISC-LRFD (F1-4)

Therefore, the beam bracing at 10 ft.-0 in. is adequate. (Note: the composite steel deck and lightweight concrete fill is not considered effective in bracing the top flange.)

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6h.

Beam and link axial loads.

The summation of story forces down to level 3, ΣFi = V3 in Table 2-4 (the sum of level shears from the roof to Level 3) is 666 k. The frame forces in Level 2 at the left connection and right connection are F2 L = 31.1 k and F2 R = 23.3 k . If the required axial strength of the link Pu is equal to or less than 0.15 Py , the effect of axial force on the link design shear strength need not be considered. Therefore, the axial force in the link is: C link = T link =

(31.1 k - 23.3 k ) = 3.90 k

2

The maximum axial stress in the link must be checked for the requirements of §15.2e of AISC-Seismic: fa = Ω(3.9 kips ) 1.33(3.9 kips ) = = 0.10 ≤ 0.15 F y Ag 52.30 in.2

Therefore, the effect of axial force on the link design shear strength need not be considered.

6i.

Beam compact web.

AISC-Seismic §9.4

The maximum hc t w ratio permitted for compact beam sections is dependent on the axial load in the beam. Sections noted Fy′′′ in the AISC-LRFD (2nd Edition) have compact webs for all combinations of axial stress when the yield strength is less than the tabulated values. If a beam section is chosen that does not have a compact web for all axial loads, the section should be checked using Table I-9-1, of AISC-Seismic. The web should be compact along the full length of the beam. Both the UBC and AISC-Seismic do not allow the use of doubler plates for a link beam. For a W 27 × 178 beam. A = 52.30 in.2 hc d − 2k 27.81"−2(1.875") = = = 32.9 tw tw 0.73"

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Design Example 2

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Eccentric Braced Frame

Maximum axial force in link beam outside the link: V 3 666 kips + 31.1 kips = 484 kips P 2L = Ω + F 2L = 1.33 2 2 Pu 484kips = = 0.21 ≥ 0.125 φ b Py 0.90 (50 ksi ) 52.30 in.2

(

)

AISC-Seismic, Table I-9-1

For Pu φ b Py ≥ 0.125 , allowable d t w to prevent local buckling is determined from the equation below. hc 191 2.33 − 2.75 Pu = φ b Py tw Fy ∴ hc / t w = 32.9 ≤ 58.8 ∴ o.k. AISC-Seismic, Table I-9-1 = (364 kips ) = 58.8 ≥ 253 = 5.06 2.33 − 0.9 (2,615 kips ) Fy 50 ksi 191

6j.

Combined link loads.

The combined bending plus axial strength of the link must be checked and compared with the yield stress. In the link, axial and bending stresses are resisted entirely by flanges. Pu = 3.9 kips (Ω ) = 3.9 kips(1.33) = 5.2 kips Pu 364 kips = = 0.14 ≤ 0.15 Py (50 ksi ) 52.30 in.2

(

)

AISC-Seismic §15.2f

Moment from yielding link shear: Mu = Vp

(66") = 18,249 kip − in. e = 553 k 2 2

A f = b f t f = (14.09")× (1.19") = 16.77 in.2

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Eccentric Braced Frame

Z f = d − t f b f t f = (27.81"−1.19") 16.77 in. 2 = 446.2 in.3 Pu M 10.5 kips 18,249 k − in. + u = + = 40.9 ksi ≤ 50 ksi 2 Zf 2Af 2 16.77 in. 446.2 in.3

(

)(

)

(

)

(

)

∴ Link combined axial plus bending capacity is o.k.

6k.

Beam analysis (outside of link).

AISC-Seismic, AISC §15.6b

Link beams have difficulty resisting the link beam moments increased by 1.1 and Ry when using a lower bound strength not including Ry. Although AISC-Seismic allows the LRFD design strength to be increased by Ry, it is not very clear how AISC-Seismic had intended it to be performed. In conversation with representatives of AISC-Seismic, it was conveyed to the author of this Design Example that the intention was simply to increase LRFD design strengths (Pn, Mn) by an Ry factor. It was not the intention of the AISC-Seismic subcommittee to increase Fy by Ry and carry those values through all the LRFD design equations. The solution in this Design Example has the beam outside the link resisting the entirety of the link beam moment. A more refined analysis can be performed where the brace contributes to the resistance of moment, which would reduce the moment on the beam outside the link. The analysis in this Design Example includes the use of flange cover plates to increase the bending capacity of the beam outside the link. The beam outside the link is required to resist 110 percent of the bending and axial forces corresponding to the link beam yield, using its nominal strength Ry. The combined beam bending plus axial interaction equations are referenced from AISC-LRFD Section H. Axial load analysis is referenced from AISC-LRFD Section E and bending analysis is referenced from AISC-LRFD Section F. The steps below yield forces from the hand evaluation of EBF frame behavior and from the computer model (not shown). Axial force in beam outside link is: PE = 364 kips From computer model, the load combination of Equation (12-5), including E v = 0.265 D , is: 1.2 D + 0.265 D + 0.5l + 1.0 E h 1.465D + 0.5l ; PD +L = 18 kips

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For W 27 × 170 beam without cover plates: A = 52.4 S x = 503 in. III (1997 UBC) 125 .2 D + 0.1ΩR y PE + 1.1)(1.0 Eh M D + L = 307 kip-in. Beam section properties.1R y V p e 2 + 1.26 in.3 Z f = 446 in. Pu = (1.33)(1.3)(553 kips )(66") + 1. The beams at Levels 3-Roof all require cover plates and thus have transformed section properties for use in the following equations.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame From EBF4 frame analysis: M E = 18. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.6a = 1.) 2 = 26.3 ry = 3.3 in. the reader should understand how to convert typical beam section properties to those with cover plates: The beam at Level 2 does not require cover plates.1(307 kip-in.1M D + L AISC-Seismic §15. Vol.2 Z x = 567 in.3)(364 k ) + (1. load combination Equation (12-5): 1.1PD + L From computer analysis.3 I x = 6.265 D + 0. Combined section properties are given in Table 2-12.15)(18 kips ) = 712 kips Pu = 1.1(1. Mu= 1.249 kip-in.443 kip-in.5l + 1.990 in.

3 ksi AISC-LRFD (E2-2) φ c = 0.3 in.26" Slenderness parameter for beam-column lc is calculated as follows: lc = kl Fy 36. III (1997 UBC) ( ) AISC-LRFD (E2-1) AISC-Seismic §15.1416 29.5 in.5 : 2 2 Fcr = 0.6b AISC-LRFD§F1.487 = rπ E 3.000 ksi AISC-LRFD (E2-4) The critical axial stress Fcr is calculated: For lc ≤ 1.8 3.85 Nominal axial strength is calculated as follows: Pn = Ag Fcr = 52.543 X 2 = 0.658lc Fy = 0.658.078 kips Bending capacity calculations are calculated: φ b = 0.2 (45.8 (50 ksi ) = 0.4 C w = 98.4 J = 19.487 ( ) (50 ksi) = 45.300 in.00375 Beam slenderness parameters: kl ry = (1.6 X 1 = 2.3 ksi ) = 2.1 AISC-LRFD (F1-1) ( ) .3(2.368 kips ) = 3.3 (50 ksi ) = 28. Vol.350 k-in. 126 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame I y = 555 in.368 kips R y Pn = 1.90 M n = M p for a limit state if flexural yielding M p = Z x Fy = 567 in.0)(120") = 36.

Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic yielding: Lp = 300ry F yf = 300(3. AISC-LRFD (F1-2) AISC-LRFD (F1-2) Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral torsional buckling: Lr = ry X 1 FL 1 + 1 + X 2 FL 2 AISC-LRFD (F1-6) Limiting buckling moment: M r = FL S Beam buckling factors.0 Unbraced length: Lb = 120 in.00375)(40 ksi )2 = 396 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.26)(2.543) (40 ksi ) 1 + 1 + (0. Vol. AISC-LRFD §F1. X 1 and X 2 : X1 = π Sx EGJA 2 2 AISC-LRFD (F1-7) AISC-LRFD (F1-8) X2 = 4 Cw S x I y GJ AISC-LRFD (F1-9) FL is the smaller of the yield stress in the flange minus compressive residual stresses (10 ksi for rolled shapes) or web yield stress.26) 50 ksi = 138 in.2a FL = (50 ksi − 10 ksi ) = 40 ksi Lr = ry X 1 FL 1 + 1 + X 2 FL 2 = (3.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Check lateral torsional buckling stability and allowable strength: Lb − L p ≤ M p M n = C b M p − ( M p − M r ) Lr − L p C b = 1. III (1997 UBC) 127 .

350 k-in.85(3.0 φ c R y Pn 9 φ b R y M nx For the case: Pu < 0.078 kips ) AISC-LRFD (H1-1b) AISC-LRFD (H1-1a) 128 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.3 = 20.933 k-in. for this Design Example: Pu 712 kips = = 0.2 φ c R y Pn 0.) = 36.0 28. Vol.3 (28.350 k-in.27 ≥ 0.350 − (28.855 k-in. combined axial plus bending interaction equations are as follows: For the case: Pu ≥ 0. AISC-LRFD Section H. ≥ M p = 28.108) 396"−138" = 28.2 φ c R y Pn Pu 8 M ux + ≤ 1.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame M r = FL S x = (40 ksi ) 503 in.108 k-in. ∴ M n = 28. R y M n = 1.350 − 20. M n = Cb M p − M p − M r ( ) r ( −L ) Lb − L p L p 120"−138" = 1.0 2φ c R y Pn φ b R y M nx Thus.2 φ c R y Pn Pu M ux + ≤ 1. Comparison of lateral torsional buckling moment with plastic yield moment indicates that plastic yield moment is the controlling yield behavior. III (1997 UBC) .350 k-in.

) link stiffeners at ends at brace connections.73") = 12. AISC-Seismic §15. Full depth web stiffeners are required on both sides of the link beam at the brace connections.375" The minimum thickness of the stiffeners is: 0.02 and 0. W 27 × 178 beam outside the link is okay.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Pu 8 M ux 712 kips 8 26.855 k − in.75t w = 0.75(0. whichever is larger.078 kips ) 9 0. stiffeners each side of beam (total 4) Intermediate stiffeners. For the W 27 × 178 beam: b f − 2t w = 14.443 k − in.6 V p M p or less.) intermediate stiffeners.02 radians.) ∴ o.98 ≤ 1. The stiffeners are used to prevent web buckling and to ensure ductile shear yielding of the web.85)(3. III (1997 UBC) 129 . Vol. × 5/8 in. These are shown in Figure 2-7.2tw and a thickness not less than 0. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.3a AISC-Seismic §15. 6l.0 + = + φc R y Pn 9 φb R y M nx (0. The stiffeners shall have a combined width not less than bf . The EBF beams above Level 2 require cover plates and thus utilize combined section properties in the above equations.09"−2(0.548" use 5/8" stiffeners ∴ Use 6 3/8 in. the spacing shall not exceed 30t w − d w 5 for link rotation of 0.73") = 0. AISC-Seismic §15. = 0. Where link lengths are 1.3 There are two types of stiffeners required in links: 1. and 2.08 radians and 52t w − d w 5 for link rotations of 0.63" use 2 × 6. Therefore.3b requires intermediate full depth web stiffeners (Figure 2-7) where link lengths are 5 V p M p or less.08 radians. Linear interpolation may be used between link rotations of 0.75t w or 3/8 inch. Beam stiffeners.90 (36.k. Thus. Link end stiffeners.

0.375")(0. One-sided stiffeners are required for depths less than 25 inches.0 in. stiffeners on both sides of the beam.33 in.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame 30tw − d 27.6FEXX.650" = 5. stiffener depth is 27.43 in.4. is ¼-inch to the link web and 5/16-inch to the link flange. per AISC-LRFD Table J2. Therefore use 6 3/8 in.3c The minimum size of fillet weld. III (1997 UBC) . intermediate stiffeners of depth greater than 25 inches are required to be placed on both sides of the beam.72 in. both sides of the stiffener. 5 5 AISC-Seismic §15. × 5/8 in.080 rad − 0.81 in. – 2 (1. Using E70XX electrodes and 5/16-inch fillet welds each side. 0. The width shall not be less than b f 2 − t w = 12. The web stiffener welds are required to develop a stiffener force of Ast F y = (6.19 in.) = 25. This is shown below. Item 5. use 5/16-inch fillet welds.040 radians for the beam.33") + 16.625")(50 ksi ) = 199 kips AISC-Seismic §15.44" 2 − .3b. Vol. Since the link beam is a W 27 . Web stiffener welds.43"−16.3b Since the link rotation is 0.707 ) Therefore.3b 52t w − AISC-Seismic §15. 130 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.81" = 52(0.57 in.60(70 ksi )(2 × 5 16")(. therefore use three equal spacings of 24 inches. 5 5 d 27. Under §15. The required weld length on the beam web is: 1required = 199 kips = 10.080 rad − 0. interpolation must be used to determine the maximum spacing of intermediate stiffeners. AISC-Seismic.33" = 27.020 rad Since the link length is 72 inches. the weld capacity is 0.81" = 30(0. Note: One-fourth of the above required weld is required at the flanges.73") − = 16.040 rad (32. at flanges and web. 0.4 in.73") − = 32.

6 155.6 35.21 Py 560.00 1.k.15 3.0 274.35 7. Table 2-12a.00 1.750 1.0 279.88 0.52 0.29 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. o.24 364.92 Comp.86 7.04 9.55 0.50 Cw 1.k. Combined section properties (beams plus cover plates) Level R 5 4 3 2 Link Beam W14X38 W16X89 W21X111 W21X122 W27X178 Plate b 6 6 6 6 0 t 0.0 305.9 35.88 10.81 ry 1.0 2.543 X2 0.25 13.700 98.k.8 57.56 ly 26.49 2.5 57.0 18.230 10.77 10.21 0.k.0 567.37 12.26 1.5 58.01065 0.2 28.89 2.5 6.90 52.19 d 14.0 rx 5.8 33.0 68.23 78.04 9.30 1.39 14. o.0 49.5 Zf 47.00 2.00 1.20 26.1 497.97 224.84 3.45 5.98 19.670.44 Aweb Size o.31 0.0 502.88 0. III (1997 UBC) 131 .35 7.96 1.250 0.k.20 32.k.1 Comp.87 11.499 2.45 44.5 446.28 0.9 32.0 222.41 49.0 307.91 3.274 2. 1.13 293.9 58. Link beam section properties Level R 5 4 3 2 Link Beam W14X38 W16X89 W21X111 W21X122 W27X178 e 32 48 56 56 66 a 164 156 152 152 147 h 144 144 144 144 168 Fy 50 50 50 50 50 A 11.k.69 340.68 27.45 6. Tabulated link beam design.0 273.990.0 6.200 29.54 2.34 12. o.05 6.35 7.k.57 5.k.5 175.75 21.92 7.0 555.310.53 0.4 212.80 5. o.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame 6m.27 15. Tables 2-12a through 2-12h present tabular calculations that show the results from procedures in Parts 6a through 6l applied to all beams in the frame EBF4.31 1.5 57.70 35.960.200 29.51 21.350 1.43 2. 1.000 At 16 29 36 39 52 Zx 94 201 312 340 567 Zf 80 169 255 279 446 lx 621 1517 3025 3321 6990 Sx 84 176 275 299 503 ry 1.872 2. o.6 23.60 0.k.22 0.6 293. 34.350 1. Table 2-12a.08 11.200 32.83 8.35 7.73 t w (d − 2t r ) 4.26 ly 40 172 283 314 555 J 0.5 o.00 Pu φPn 0.30 1.5 Cw 1.2 56.7 163. o.05 7.0 1. o. Web Web Limits Results 55.0 lx 385.35 o.075 1. o.00197 0.8 Ω Mp φVp Mp b b f 2t f 6.795.1R y Flange Flange Limit Results M p Vp 7.2 Zx 61.00369 0.30 bf 6.9 Pu 130.22 8. Vol.0 Sx 54.k.200 32.33 28.635.8 246.20 0.250 0.82 2.0 249. o.k.86 18.300. o. Compact flange. Comp.89 31.00533 0.26 J 0.697 2.k.k.700 98. o.615.300 X1 1.250 0.0 Sy 7.00375 Table 2-12c.950 1.4 144. Link beam section properties (continued) Level R 5 4 3 2 Link Beam W14X38 W16X89 W21X111 W21X122 W27X178 Af 7.0 19.230 10. web Level φVp R 5 4 3 2 109.1 21.16 h tw 42.10 16.8 5.81 tw 0. o.8 9.0 2.375 0.60 2. The link beam design for all levels is as shown below in tabular form following the equations given above (each row/level is a continuation of the table above).k. Comp.300 Table 2-12b.4 320.09 tf 0.

933 28.) (in.221 1.0 1.129.22 1.34 0.570 338 11.959.680 28.3 5.9 0.3 492.977 17.00375 FL Lr (ksi) (in.28 φc 0.582 16.093 36.6 57.6 133.995 15.) Mn (k-in.007 16. design forces Level Pu .274 2.) 5.00197 0. Axial compression parameters Level R 5 4 3 2 Section W14X38 W16X89 W21X111 W21X122 W27X178 Lu (ft) 10 10 10 10 10 kl r y 75.) Mn LTB (k-in.D +L Beam Overstr.670 9.10 2.16 Lu max.241 22.0 49.4 1.6 42.2 109.252.0 1.563 0.17 1.872 2.025 15.k.99 0.9 0.344 3.439 Table 2-12f.9 Mn = M p (k-in.697 2. 1. Flexural strength parameters and combined axial plus bending results (LTB=lateral torsional buckling yield mode) Level φ b R 5 4 3 2 0.0 359.18 1.895 3.707 2.219 3.994 28.4 320. o. unsupported length Shear Level Above Level R 5 4 3 2 Fi Pmax Link Beam 131.2 39.85 Pn (kips) 520 1.) 4.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Table 2-12d.0 303.503 13.078 Table 2-12g.85 0.771 9. 72. Vol.4 209.5 288.0 666.8 111.7 41.9 Value 1.2 Plink M link Comb Allow.9 83.99 0.2 566.794 2φM pa 2 156.0 9. o.3 1.38 0.10 1.9 434.30 0.85 0. Beam outside link.5 18.10 1.1 471.k.97 0.D +L M u .1 293.k.96 0.98 NA NA NA NA NA 156 3.7 340.252 Ω 1.032 2.10 Ry 1.17 1.0 1.) 1.3 1.0Eh R 5 4 3 2 131 224 294 340 364 M u .78 43.) 40 40 40 40 40 Mr (k-in.) Ry Mn (k-in.591 26. Vpa 106.5L 0.0 13.653 0.SEISMIC Vp e 2 1. III (1997 UBC) .01065 0.2 151. o.10 1.AISCLRFD LRFD H1-1a H1-1b 0.0 10.465D+ 1.00533 0.85 0.504 14.4 42.0 1.703 10.1 16.k.157 8.31 0.4 0 131.14 41.780 8.10 1.064 12.0 318.3 492.368 R y Pn (kips) 676 1.8 λc 0.995 396 20.2 31. o.558 13.563 1.703 20.350 C b Lb L p LTB (in.6 342.0 120 120 120 120 120 68 103 119 121 138 X1 1.9 M pa 2.991 0.3 40.1.00369 0.569 15.0 1.895 304 7.3 1.9 0.7 9.670.543 X2 0.10 1.3 Vu 106. Factor Factor 0.4 Table 2-12e.4 17.499 2.108 28.855 Pu φR y Pn 0.27 1.k.14 1.0 307.1 50 50 50 50 50 o.10 1.587 2.85 0.771 324 10.7 314.2 364.129 9.465D+ Overstr.388 14.0 224. Combined link stresses.9 0.7 314.5L 1. Link Link Link Result Loads Stress 42.5 420.959 18.5 288.945 5.034 9.1 12.2 36.558 0.33 Beam Pu .0 17.) 3.4 132.0 12.27 AISC.8 41.3 Pbu (kips) 217 403 542 638 712 Pbu (k-in.15 1.10 1.3 1.350 132 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 17.25 1.8 785.82 43.4 209.0 229.89 45.944.10 1.487 Fcr (ksi) 33.8 15.

6. §15.8 65.20 0.3) 118 209 292 321 353 L (ft) 18 18 18 18 19 rx (in.7 66.01 0. Vol. PE = 1. and showing calculations in tabular form (Tables 2-13a through 2-13e).23 0.06 ry (in.) 3.6 Fy (ksi) 50 50 50 50 50 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.88 5. Table 2-13a.0547 0.4 68.13 1.21 1.31 3.25 0.5 68.19 3.0587 0. Link rotations Level R 5 4 3 2 ∆S 1.0547 0.0416 6n.38 5.) 144 144 144 144 180 a (in.) 32 48 56 56 66 Rot θ (rad) 0. Brace section properties Level 5 4 3 2 1 Section W12X87 W12X152 W12X210 W12X230 W12X252 A (in.66 5.25 R yV p e / 2 Using strength design procedures outlined in AISC-LRFD Section H.25 0.98 6.34 kl r y 71. obtaining forces from a computer analysis.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Table 2-12h.07 3. M E = 1.25R yV p times the yielding link strength plus 1. III (1997 UBC) 133 .25ΩR y Pcomputer due to E h loads.78 0.53 0.n) 0.) 5.28 Story Drift ∆S 0.25 times gravity load combinations.3) 132 243 348 386 428 Sx (in.23 1.37 h (in. AISC-Seismic The braces are required to be designed for 1. Column shear forces are not a controlling factor and are not shown for the sake of brevity.28 3.) 164 156 152 152 147 e (in.98 1.2) 26 45 62 68 74 Zx (in.28 Story ∆M (i.23 1.0766 0. AISC-Seismic brace design. the design forces for braces ( P and M ) are calculated.

Vol.840 14.680 12.400.25 1.22 1.200 3.865 0.0 21.0 1.25 Ry 1.27 1.300.0 24.524 4.5 18.15 1.360 11.85 Pn (kips) 881.42 0.5 11.4 68.0 17.092.720 8.0012 0.) 40 40 40 40 40 Lr 459 423 460 572 639 Mr (k-in.8 65.5 2.474.3 1.46 φc 0. III (1997 UBC) .465D+ 0.9 0.25 1.5 2. Factor 1.869 3.974.0 105.0 M gravity 1.5L 18.906 Fcr (ksi) 34. Factor 1.0002 FL (k-in.25 1.0 180.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Table 2-13b.4 2.512 3. combined axial plus bending results Level 5 4 3 2 1 Section W12X87 W12X152 W12X210 W12X230 W12X252 Pu φPn 0.0 181.85 0.908 0. Brace axial design parameters Level R 5 4 3 2 Section W12X87 W12X72 W12X79 W12X106 W12X120 Lu (ft) 18 18 18 18 19 kl r y 71.85 0.120 Mn (k-in.225 3.253 M bu design 3.0 1.650 5.) 6.0 247.) 219 219 219 217 229 Lp (in.45 35.25 1.7 66.600.99 AISC LRFD H1-1b NA NA NA NA NA 134 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.996 Ω 1.811 8.309 7.582.1 15.231 X2 0.0 Overstr.9 Mn = M p (k-in.3 Table 2-13d.0003 0.0 24.0 1.45 0.92 0.158.9 0.9 Table 2-13e.) 6.40 0.6 λc 0.943 0.229.99 0.) 4.627. Brace bending design parameters Level φb (ksi) 0.9 1. Brace.400.0 25.56 AISC LRFD H1-1a 0.55 35.883 0.036 3. Brace design loads Level R 5 4 3 2 Section W12X87 W12X72 W12X79 W12X106 W12X120 PE 150 276 378 446 565 ME 1.5 20.25 1.0 Lb (in.33 Overstr.85 0.3 1.3 Pbu design 303 575 796 953 1.0008 0.85 0.0 1.744 4.94 0.120.465D+ 0.0 19.5 68.770 Table 2-13c.150.43 0.0 25.5L 276.9 0.90 0.25 Pgravity 1.25 1.25 1.9 5 4 3 2 0.) 130 135 139 140 142 X1 3.40 36.0006 0.168 6.903 8.08 36.25 1.3 1.25 1.045.0 Cb (kips) 1.3 1.0 12.

988.1 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Factor 1.2) 26 26 26 50 50 Zx (in.22 3.0 60. Column.10 Ry 1.0 λc 0.740 Fcr (ksi) 42.4 67.15 1.76 φc 0.10 1.74 ry (in.10 Pgravity 1.0 87.0 Overstr.85 0. design loads Level R 5 4 3 2 Section W12X87 W12X87 W12X87 W12X170 W12X170 PE 0 84 238 458 683 ME 276 432 504 552 972 Ω 1.6 1.3 Fy (ksi) 50 50 50 50 50 Table 2-14b.4 71.4 71.1 times factored gravity load combinations.395 M bu design 638 949 1.5L 168.1RyVn.159.3 1.85 Pn (kips) 1.10 1.27 1.3 1.56 42.3 Pbu design 4 170 473 906 1.6 1.10 1.915 Table 2-14c.057 1.3 1.9 44.38 5.089.0 67.56 43. Vol. AISC-Seismic §15.8 The design of the columns for frame EBF4 for the requirements of AISC-Seismic is shown in Tables 2-14a through 2-14e.089.620 0.38 5.089.25 1.33 Overstr.620 0.74 5. AISC-Seismic column design. which is the shear strength of the links to ensure that the yielding mechanism is within the link beams. Column shear forces are not a controlling factor and are not shown for the sake of brevity.56 42.0 144.85 0.592 0.620 0.0 180.18 39. III (1997 UBC) 135 .07 3.85 0.5L 4.10 1.85 0. Table 2-14a.38 5.8 56. Column.0 22.1ΩRy times seismic forces plus 1.10 1. Design forces (P and P) are calculated as 1. The columns are required to resist an axial force corresponding to 1.10 1.3) 132 132 132 275 275 Sx (in.0 1.) 3.0 120. Column.465D+ 0.07 3.10 1.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame 6o.22 kl r y 71.465D+ 0.0 44. section properties Level 5 4 3 2 1 Section W12X87 W12X87 W12X87 W12X170 W12X170 A (in.10 1.07 3. Factor 1.4 71.9 46.6 2.3 1.) 5.22 1.3) 118 118 118 235 235 L (ft) 18 18 18 18 19 rx (in.9 46. axial design parameters Level R 5 4 3 2 Section W12X87 W12X87 W12X87 W12X170 W12X170 Lu (ft) 12 12 12 12 15 kl r y 46.0 M gravity 1.136 1.

0 1. Vol.0 6.83 AISC LRFD H1-1a NA NA 0.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Table 2-14d.0001 FL (k-in. Column.) 6.0 Cb (kips) 1. Column.600.25 NA NA NA 6p.521.720 6.0 1.0 9.600.18 0.0001 0.750. Final frame member sizes for EBF4 (LRFD) Level Roof 5 4 3 2 1 Beams W14x38 W16x89 W21x111 W21x122 W27x178 Links (in.) 6.521 13.869 7.58 0.0006 0. Table 2-15.869 3.) Mn (k-in.) 40 40 40 40 40 Lr 459 459 459 824 824 Mr (k-in.) (1) 6x¼ 6x¼ 6x¼ 6x¼ Not req’d Columns W12X65 W12X65 W12X65 W12X87 W12X87 Braces W12X87 W12X87 W12X87 W12X106 W12X120 Note: 1.173 X2 0.0 Lb (in. combined axial plus bending results Level 5 4 3 2 1 Section W12X87 W12X87 W12X87 W12X170 W12X170 Pu φPn 0.750. bending design parameters Level R 5 4 3 2 φb (ksi) 0.11 0.474.521.00 0.) 144 144 144 144 180 Lp (in.51 0.521 6.) 32 48 56 56 66 Beam Cover Plate (in.869 3.173 7.521 6.400 13.474 4.) 130 130 130 136 136 X1 3.67 0.0006 0.702 13.400 13.0 6.4 Table 2-14e.0 4.521.702.0 13.49 0.0 1. III (1997 UBC) . Final frame member sizes (LRFD). Top and bottom flanges outside link.9 Mn = M p (k-in.97 AISC LRFD H1-1b 0.600.9 0.720 6.) Mn (k-in.0 4.9 0.0 13. 136 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.9 0.9 0.0 1.720 6.0006 0.1 9.

These are shown for both wide-flange and tube section braces. Figures 2-7 through 2-14 are examples of typical EBF connection details. Vol.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Figure 2-6. III (1997 UBC) 137 . Figure 2-7. EBF4 Frame member sizes (LRFD) 7. EBF brace-beam connection at link using wide flange brace SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Typical EBF details.

III (1997 UBC) .Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Figure 2-8. Vol. EBF brace-column connection using wide flange brace Figure 2-9. EBF beam-brace connection at link using TS brace 138 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

Vol. Brace-beam connection with TS brace Figure 2-11.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Figure 2-10. III (1997 UBC) 139 . EBF stiffeners at links SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

Partial plan of EBF beam stability bracing 140 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. III (1997 UBC) . EBF beam stability bracing Figure 2-13. Vol.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Figure 2-12.

In the ASD example. from a performance standpoint. Vol. that is a cost worth paying. the ASD frame may not be as good a design as the LRFD frame because its link lengths are much shorter. The possibility exists of discrete postearthquake repairs in local areas if yielding of a frame occurs in an earthquake. III (1997 UBC) 141 .3Vs/Ms). As can be seen. the LRFD design in accordance with AISC-Seismic yields more conservative results. The construction of these frames is not difficult. The designer will struggle with optimization of the link design and the requirement for cover plates outside the link. Link beam cover plates (beam outside the link) Commentary EBF frames are considered a quality seismic system because of their ability to yield with a known behavior at controllable locations and to demonstrate very good hysteretic behavior during cyclical loading. were not optimized and thus did not need cover plates. and the cost is only slightly greater than the cost of special concentric braced frame systems. that the beam outside the link might require cover plates to achieve the required strength. the link lengths (to 1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame Figure 2-14. It is believed that optimization of the link is the most important element in the system and if cover plates are required outside the link. the provisions of AISC-Seismic are considered state-of-the-art and more likely to yield an EBF frame with the superior performance that is expected of EBF systems. However. However. It was found that by designing an EBF link beam that meets all of the most desirable attributes of EBF design.

and Ricles.3. Virginia. Popov. Vol. Moraga. Oakland. “Advances in Design of Eccentrically Braced Frames. Kasai and Popov. Virginia. 1989. “General Behavior of WF Steel Shear Link Beams. 1987. no.” Earthquake Spectra. 142 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.1. Vol. No. American Society of Civil Engineers. 112.” Steel Tips. AISC. California. no.” Engineering Journal. Popov. 2nd quarter.Design Example 2 ! Eccentric Braced Frame References Becker and Ishler. Vol. Based on the 1994 UBC. 5. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. “Eccentrically Braced Frames: US Practice. and Engelhardt. Structural Steel Educational Council. Reston. 2. III (1997 UBC) . Reston. California. California. “Seismic Design Practice for Eccentrically Braced Frames. 1986.” Journal of Structural Engineering. 3. American Society of Civil Engineers. Vol. 1989. December 1996.” Earthquake Spectra. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Engelhardt. Oakland. “On Design of Eccentrically Braced Frames. Kasai. Engelhardt and Popov.

With the help of member of the SAC team. including considerable full-scale testing. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. comments have been added to this Design Example indicating where the anticipated new SAC guidelines will be different than the methodology shown in this Design Example. As a result of this effort. III (1997 UBC) 143 . these came after the finalization of this Design Example. However. new SAC guidelines have been developed. was conducted by the SAC project. an intensive steel moment frame research program. the SMRF example given in this document shows only 1997 UBC and FEMA-267/267A methodology. Consequently. Vol. During the course of the development of this Volume III. Four-story steel office building with steel special moment resisting frames (SMRF) Foreword This Design Example illustrates use of the 1997 UBC provisions for design of a steel special moment resisting frame (SMRF).Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame Design Example 3A Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame Figure 3A-1.

III (1997 UBC) . FEMA-267A offers design procedures and calculation methodologies for certain SMRF connection configurations. Vol. This was followed by FEMA-267A. re-evaluation. 144 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. the SAC Joint Venture was formed by SEAOC. and the California Universities for Research in Earthquake Engneering (CUREe). Repair. Interim Guidelines: Evaluation. SAC was charged with developing interim recommendations for professional practice. including design guidelines for use in new SMRF connections. but not identical. A SMRF conection is now required to demonstrate by testing or calculation the capacity to meet both the strength and inelastic rotation performance as specified by 1997 UBC §2213. Those procedures were replaced with code language requiring qualification of SMRF connection design through prototype testing or calculation. That work. recently completed. it was determined that the 1994 UBC requirements for moment resisting joint design were inadequate and should not continue to be used in new construction. Modification and Design of Welded Steel Moment Frame Structures was published in August. To this end. The FEMA-350 criteria are similar. they represent the current state of practice for SMRF connection design.1. Interim Guidelines.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame Overview Since the 1994 Northridge earthquake. 1997. the SAC Joint Venture entered into a supplemental contract with FEMA to perform additional research and develop final design guidelines. Recommended Seismic Design Criteria for New Moment Resisting Steel Frame Structures. This Design Example follows the procedures as presented in FEMA-267A. FEMA-267. culminated with the publication of FEMA-350. 1. the Applied Technology Council (ATC). with the reduced beam section (RBS) the selected joint configuration. to those illustrated here. FEMA-350 will present design details and criteria for ten different types of connections that are prequalified for use within certain limits. the prior design procedures for steel moment resisting frames have been subject to criticism.7. Test results for the RBS joint configuration indicate that it provides the requisite inelastic rotation capacity. and is one of the more cost-effective of the current SMRF connection options. the International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) issued an emergency code amendment that eliminated the prescriptive code design procedures for special moment resisting frame (SMRF) beam-column connections. Following publication of the FEMA-267 series. To address the research needs precipitated by the SMRF connection concerns. and intensive reseach. In September 1994. Advisory No. Given the observed earthquake damage attributed to brittle connection fractures in the 1994 Northridge earthquake. As a prelude to possible future code requirements. While these procedures are subject to further refinement. published in March. 1995.

6. 5. Outline This Design Example illustrates the following parts of the design process. gypsum board.0 3.0 psf 2.0 6.0 4. Vol. III (1997 UBC) 145 . Distribution of lateral forces. Given Information The following information is given: Roof weights: Roofing Insulation Concrete fill on metal deck Ceiling Mechanical/electrical Steel framing Total Live load: Exterior wall system weight: steel studs.0 10. 2. SMRF member design.0 44.0 9.0 psf 1.0 63. Interstory drifts. SMRF beam-column connection design.0 psf 80.0 psf SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. The typical floor plan is shown on Figure 3A-2 and the moment frame elevation is provided in Figure 3A-3 at the end of this Design Example. Typical diaphragm design. 3.0 5.0 psf 20. fascia panels Floor weights: Floor covering Concrete fill on metal deck Ceiling Mechanical/electrical Steel framing Partitions (seismic DL) Total Live load: 4. 4.0 3.0 psf 20.0 psf 44. 1. Design base shear.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame The 4-story steel office structure shown in Figure 3A-1 is to have special moment resisting frames as its lateral force resisting system.0 76.

0 ASTM A572. Grade 50 E70XX §1629.2 Table 16-S Table 16-T Table 16-U Structural materials: Wide flange shapes Plates Weld electrodes ( ) Figure 3A-2. Z = 0.2 Table 16-K §1629. Table 16-J §1629.4.40 Type C 10 km N a = 1. Grade 50 f y = 50 ksi ASTM A572.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame Site seismic and geotechnical data: Occupancy category: Seismic importance factor: Soil profile type: Seismic Zone: Seismic source type: Distance to seismic source: Near source factors: Standard Occupancy Structure I = 1.4.0 N v = 1. Vol. III (1997 UBC) . Typical floor framing plan 146 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.3. Table 16-I §1629.0 Type S D (default profile) Zone 4.1.

The floor plan has no re-entrant corners exceeding 15 percent of the plan dimension. §1629. the structure has no vertical irregularities. Table 16-M Table 16-L SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Therefore. Vertical irregularities—review Table 16-L. Plan irregularities—review Table 16-M.5 Check the structure for vertical and horizontal irregularities. Design base shear. 1a. Check configuration requirements. Frame elevation at Line A Calculations and Discussion Code Reference 1. The moment frames have no discontinuities or offsets. the structure has no plan irregularities. By observation. III (1997 UBC) 147 . and the mass is similar at all levels. nor are there any diaphragm discontinuities. Vol.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame Figure 3A-3.

3 The static lateral force procedure will be used.44(1.4. Determine seismic response coefficients Ca and Cv.8 hmax = no limit Table 16-N 1c.6 The structure is a moment-resisting frame system with lateral resistance provided by steel special moment resisting frames (SMRF) (system type 3. 1d. the period is determined: (30-8) 148 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Evaluate structure period T. The seismic factors are: R = 8.1.0 ) = 0.5)3 4 = 0. §1630.64(N v ) = 0.2.035 T A = 0. (30-10). Table 16-N). §1629. §1629. in lieu of Eq. Vol.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame 1b. with assumed member sizes and estimated building weights.3 For Zone 4 and Soil Profile Type S D : C a = 0.44 C v = 0.2 Per Method A: T = Ct (hn )3 4 C t = 0.64 Table 16-Q Table 16-R 1e. Select lateral force procedure.71 sec Per Method B: Using a computer model. §1629.03(55. III (1997 UBC) .64(1.44(N a ) = 0.0 ) = 0. This is permitted for regular structures not more than 240 feet in height.8.5 Ω = 2. Classify structural system and determine seismic factors.

64(1.5 (30-7) (30-6) Equation (30-4) governs base shear.048W And for Zone 4.8(0.92 sec §1630.92 ) (30-4) The base shear need not exceed: V = 2.0)W = 0.082W (30-4) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.71) = 0. base shear shall not be less than: V = 0.4)(1. Determine design base shear. §1630.3(0.44)(1. ∴ V = 0. Vol.30 sec East-west (x ): TBx = 1.0) W = = 0.0 ) W = W = 0.16 sec For Seismic Zone 4.5(0.129W R 8.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame North-south ( y ) : TBy = 1. Consequently.2.5(0.038W R 8. the value for Method B cannot exceed 130 percent of the Method A period.11C a IW = 0.0 ) W = = 0. #2 1f. III (1997 UBC) 149 . Maximum value for TB = 1.5 (30-5) But the base shear shall not be less than: V = 0.44 )(1.11(0.3T A = 1.1 The total design base shear for a given direction is: V = Cv I 0.8ZN v I 0.2 Para.0)(1.082W RT 8.2.5Ca I 2.

3 times the Method A period.1. the code limits the period for Method B to not more than 1. 150 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. For moment frames. 1g.311 ft 2 The element story shear ratio ri is the ratio of the story shear in the most heavily loaded single element over the total story shear at a given level i .5)2 / 2 = 33. It is used only when specifically required. Vol. the value of ri should be checked at each level. Reliability/redundancy factor: ρ = 2 − 20 rmax Ab (30-3) (30-1) (30-2) Ab is the ground floor area of the structure. For this Design Example. Method A is based on empirical relationships and is not considered as accurate as Method B. In structures with setbacks or discontinuous frames. III (1997 UBC) . The value for rmax is the greatest value for ri occurring in any story in the lower two-thirds of the structure. Before determining the earthquake forces for design. Ab may be taken as the average floor area in the upper setback portion in buildings with a larger ground floor area and a smaller upper floor area. Determine earthquake load combinations. Note that per the exception in §1630.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame Note that if the period from Method A (T = 0. The load E m is the estimated maximum earthquake force that can be developed in the structure.71sec) was used.1 Section 1630. the reliability/redundancy factor must be determined. the frames are uniform at all levels and will resist approximately the same relative lateral force at each story.1 specifies earthquake loads.106W . Ab = (140 × 240) − 8(8. 70 percent of the shear may be used in the column shear summation. To avoid unconservative use of Method B. ri is taken as the maximum of the sum of the shears in any two adjacent columns in a moment frame bay. E = ρE h + E v Em = Ω o Eh The normal earthquake design load is E . These are E and E m as set forth in Equations (30-1) and (30-2). §1630. as will be shown later in this Design Example.1. divided by the story shear. The exception is that for interior columns in multi-bay frames. the base shear would be V = 0.

the moment frame with the highest total shear per bay will govern the value for rmax .12 At the interior bays: ri = 0. (30-3) Note that ρ cannot be less than 1.147 ∴ρ = 2− 20 0. Frame at Line A At the exterior bay: ri = 0.1V 0.147(33. Per the SEAOC Blue Book Commentary (§C105.1V 0.14) = 0. Using the portal method for the frame at Line A (Figure 3A-4). ΣF=50% 0.0 = 0. rmax = 1. moment frame bays must be added until this requirement is met. Assume that the frames at Lines A and H each take half the story shear.1.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame By observation.311)1 / 2 = 1.1.05 + 0.0.k. so a 5 percent increase will be assumed.14 The interior bay governs with the larger value of ri .1) 1.05(0. the four interior columns take approximately 80 percent of the frame shear.05V Figure 3A-4.05V 0. Although a different value of ρ may be used for each direction.1). ρ cannot exceed 1.7 (0. and the two exterior columns 20 percent of the frame shear. III (1997 UBC) 151 . ri is to include the effects of torsion. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.1 + 0. Vol.1. For this Design Example.7 (0.1V 0.1V 0. while the north-south direction has 12 moment frame columns. Referring to the floor framing plan (Figure 3A-2). the design base shear is equal for both north-south and east-west directions.1. If necessary. the larger rmax will be used for both directions in this Design Example to be conservative.25 o. so the north-south rmax will be greatest.25 per §1630.0 = 0.1) 1. the east-west direction has 16 moment frame columns. and that for SMRFs.

25(V ) ( E v = 0 for allowable stress design) E m = ΩE h = 2.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame For the load combinations per §1612. 2a.8(V ) Note that seismic forces may be assumed to act nonconcurrently in each principal direction of the structure. and anticipating using allowable stress design (ASD) in the frame design: E = ρE h + E v = 1. Distribute the exterior curtain wall to each level by tributary height. except as per §1633. (30-1) (30-2) 2.1. Typical floor 152 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Distribution of lateral forces. Building weights and mass distribution.0 psf) at the roof level for estimated weight of mechanical equipment. Although for this Design Example the same value of ρ is used in either direction. Vol. Figure 3A-5. Include an additional 90 kips (3. III (1997 UBC) . a different value of ρ may be used for each of the principal directions. Calculate the building weight and center of gravity at each level.

994 14. Exterior Walls: w wall = 15 psf .479 X cg = 223 . M = (W/386.3 5.616 206.5)(696 ft ) = 9.920 146 2.728 28.866 156.094 223. Ycg = 156.8 MMI (3) 26.) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 psf .0ft .0add'lmech = 66.235 X cg (ft) 100 100 100 100 Ycg (ft) 70 70 70 70 (1) M (2) 5.235 X cg (ft) 100 100 Ycg (ft) 70 70 W X cg ( ) W Ycg ( ) 209.0ft 4th.5 + 4.) 3.0 psf .0 Floor: w DL = 72.0 15. Building mass properties Roof Level Mass Properties Roof: w DL = 63.0)(696 ft ) = 7.0ft Table 3A-2.066 X cg (ft) 100 100 Ycg (ft) 70 70 W X cg ( ) W Ycg ( ) 191.066 = 70.771 22. Mass (M) and mass moment of inertia (MMI) are used in analysis for determination of fundamental period (T). Exterior Walls: w wall = 20 psf .610 134.396 10.7 Notes: 1.396 ft 2 Mark Floor Walls Totals Area (sf) 29.4) (kips-sec2/in. & 2nd Level Mass Properties w DL (psf) 72.235 = 70.448 14.235 = 100.614 9.728 28.542 2.479 2.0 20. Ycg = 144. Mass properties summary Level Roof 4th 3rd 2nd W (kips) 2. Wall Area = (13.610 2.8 5.396 Wi (kips) 2.0ft .627 2.0 Area (sf) 29.556 28.094 141 2.090 7. MMI = M/A (lx + ly) (kips-sec2-in.235 2.231 144. III (1997 UBC) 153 . 3rd.090 9. 2. Vol.542 146.235 2.0 + 3.066 = 100.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame Table 3A-1.728 Total 8.8 5.308 Wi (kips) 1. Wall Area = (6.627 X cg = 206 .308 ft 2 Mark Floor Walls Totals w DL (psf) 66.066 2.

0 28.4 kips The concentrated force Ft is applied at the roof.208 0. III (1997 UBC) . Determine design base shear.8 646.771) = 720 kips 2c.663 93.5: Fx = (30-13) (30-14) (V − Ft )Wx hx = (673.3 73.92)(720) = 46. Determine vertical distribution of force.525 305.07(0.870 63.6) + 46.07T (V ) ≤ 0.698 33.0 kips 154 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.082W = 0.235 8. Vertical distribution of shear Level Roof 4th 3rd 2nd Total wx (kips) 2. vertical distribution of force to each level is applied as follows: V = Ft + ∑ Fi where Ft = 0.6 ) ∑ Wi hi W x hx Wi hi ∑ (30-15) Table 3A-3.8 140.235 2. Vol.235 2. §1630.7 sec For this structure: T = 0.0 299.375 0.0 ΣV (kips) Note: Froof = 0.307 0. and: V = 0.0 w x hx (k-ft) 114.5 15.5 42.066 2.92 sec ∴ Ft = 0. in addition to that portion of the balance of the base shear distributed to each level per §1630.9 720.082(8. As noted above.000 Fx (kips) 299.110 1.38 (673.756 w x hx Σwx 0.0 505.4 = 299.1 720.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame 2b.0 206.771 hx (ft) 55.25(V ) Except Ft = 0 where T ≤ 0. Equation (30-4) governs.5 For the static lateral force procedure.

B2. and B4.2 )FX East-west: M t = 0. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 206. B1.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame 2d. Vol. member sizes are initially proportioned by extrapolation from the tested configurations for SMRF reduced beam section joints.2)FX Table 3A-4.3 73. Frames B1. For the structural computer model of this Design Example. A2.109 1.6 Structures with concrete fill floor decks are typically assumed to have rigid diaphragms. Frames A1 and A2 are identical.050 2.431 754 E/W M t (k-ft) 2. B3. Horizontal distribution of shear Level Roof 4th 3rd 2nd Fx (kips) 299.153 1. as discussed in Part 6 below.489 1.9 N/S M t (k-ft) 3. §1630.05(144 ft )FX = (7. an accidental torsion must be applied (in addition to any actual torsional moment) equal to that caused by displacing the center of mass 5 percent of the building dimension perpendicular to the direction of the applied lateral force. For structures with assumed rigid diaphragms. there are a total of six rigid frames: A1. For the computer model. B3. the force distribution to the frames is generated by computer analysis. The torsional seismic component is always additive to the direct seismic force. as well as for Frames B1 through B4. Seismic forces are distributed to the moment frames according to their relative rigidities. From the preliminary computer analysis. Recognizing that the building is symmetrical. B2. the frame forces are the same for Frames A1 and A2. the shear force at the ground level is determined for each frame column. and B4 are also identical. A1 and B1 are summarized in Tables 3A-5 and 3A-6.05(204 ft )FX = (10. As shown in Figure 3A-5. III (1997 UBC) 155 .010 532 Note: Mt = horizontal torsional moment Using the direct seismic forces and torsional moments noted above. Frame forces at the base of each frame type. this can be achieved by combining the direct seismic force applied at the center of mass at each level with a torsional moment at each level: North-south: M t = 0.8 140. Determine horizontal distribution of shear.

8 Line A/5.3 74. North-south direction.2 4.2 193.k.0 ) / 747 = 0. frame type A1 Column Shears (kips) Direct Seismic Torsion Force Direct + Torsion Line A/1.8 + 74.7 4.3 62. to refine the initial approximation for rmax and ρ .8 Line A/3 (kips) 69.7 4.144(33.1..2 Line 1/C (kips) 59.311)1 / 2 = 1. III (1997 UBC) . 156 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.9 2. compare the total column shears with the direct seismic base shear of 720 kips: North-south: ΣFtype A = 2(373. East-west direction. This is mostly due to the inclusion of P∆ effects in the computer analysis.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame Table 3A-5.8 2. Vol.2 Line 1/C.4 1.4 Line A/2 (kips) 75. o.8 As a check on the computer output.6 79.4 > 720 kips o. the actual column shears for Frame A1 from Table 3A-5 above will be used. As required by §1630.0 396.2 4.8 (kips) 41. P∆ effects are to be considered when the ratio of secondary (i.8 2.3 34.e.144 ∴ ρ=2− 20 0.4 1.4 Table 3A-6.0 Line A/4 (kips) 69.7 Total (kips) 186.k.25 o. Next.7(79.6 ) = 746. moment due to P∆ effects) to primary moments exceeds 10 percent.4 ) = 746.6 79.6 7.3 62.3 74. frame type B1 Column Shears (kips) Direct Seismic Torsion Force Direct + Torsion Line 1/A.2 (kips) 33.2 (kips) 41.6 44.3.6 44.3 34.9 2.8 (kips) 33.7 Line 1/B (kips) 59.4 Total (kips) 373.8 > 720 kips East-west: ΣFtype B = 4(186. rmax = 0.k.4 23. The summation of the column shears is about 3 percent greater than the design base shear input to the computer model.24 ≈ 1.0 Line A/5 (kips) 75.

however.0 ) W = W = 0.1.30) RT (30-4) (30-17) Note that §1630. The structure displacements and drift ratios are derived as shown below in Table 3A-7. including torsional effects (and including P∆ effects for ∆ M ).1 require use of the unfactored base shear V.0 ) W = W = 0. with ρ = 1 .5(1. the design base shear per Equation (30-4) is: North-south: TBy = 1.16 sec Ve / w = Cv I 0. The maximum inelastic response displacement ∆ M includes both elastic and estimated inelastic drifts resulting from the design basis ground motion. §1630. used to determine base shear under Equation (30-4). Using these modified design base shears.5(1.30 sec Vn / s = East-west: TBx = 1.10.1 and §1630.16 ) RT Cv I 0.95∆ S The maximum values for ∆ S and ∆ M are determined.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame 3.3 eliminates the upper limit on TB . The design level response displacement ∆ S is the story displacement at the center of mass. Determine ∆S and ∆M. Vol. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 3a.9. It is computed as follows: ∆ M = 0. Interstory drift.7(8.7(R )∆ S = 0. It is obtained from a static-elastic analysis using the design seismic forces derived above. For purposes of displacement determination.5)∆ S = 5. III (1997 UBC) 157 .64(1.064W = 561 kips 8.058W = 509 kips 8.64(1. Without the 1.3T A limit on TB . the accidental torsion and force distribution to each level are adjusted for input to the computer model.

0. this condition will always be met under the current performance criteria. using seismic forces corresponding to the actual period TB in base shear Equation (30-4).38 Drift Ratio (∆ M h ) 0.) (1.40)= 0.0.33 (0. Interstory displacements North-South Interstory Displacements Story 4th 3rd 2nd 1st Height h (in.8ΣM s ) of the strength of the girders framing into the joint. except for the contribution to frame drift from panel zone distortion.47 .16)= 0.0099 0.31 (0.80 ∆ M Drift (in. note that all drift ratios are less than (0.95 1.019 . A review of drift ratios tabulated in Table 3A-7 shows that all interstory drift ratios are less than 0. 3b. The code provides an exception whereby a centerline analysis may be used if the column panel zone strength can develop 80 percent (0.38 (0. Moreover. Determine the story drift limitation.020 (story height).0. III (1997 UBC) .0.020.16 (1.0156 Drift Ratio (∆ M h ) 0. Looking ahead to the SMRF member design.7.0.) 0.84 2.61 1.0059 0. Also.) 162 162 162 180 ∆ S Drift (in.16 .0) = 0.01)= 0.0140 0. including bending and shear contributions from clear beam-column spans. As will be seen from the SMRF beam-column joint design.7 .) (1. §2213.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame Table 3A-7. Vol. This 5 percent reduction in the drift limit is required for reduced beam section joint designs under FEMA-267A.) 162 162 162 180 Height h (in. Therefore.40 .1.19 1. stiffer column panel zone designs than previously permitted by the UBC.17 . the FEMA-267A provisions produce stronger.36 .20 (1. and panel zone distortion.95)(0.10 For structures with T > 0.01 . the allowable story drift is: ∆ M = 0.) 1.0) = 0.020 ) = 0.47 ∆ S Drift (in.73 .40 ∆ M Drift (in.85)= 0.0114 0. 158 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.96 2.1. panel zone distortion will generally not contribute significantly to overall frame drift. column axial deformation.73)= 0.26 2.0132 East-West Interstory Displacements Story 4th 3rd 2nd 1st Note: Interstory drift ratio = ∆M/story height.27 (0. §1630.10 imposes certain conditions on moment frame drift calculations.85 .47)= 0.0.0121 0.0073 0. These conditions are met by most general purpose structural analysis programs used in building design.

0 206.9 183.7 1. with the upper and lower limits.5C a IW px < F px ≤ 1.0 262. See Table 3A-3. the actual frame drift.5 491.0 983. §1633. Table 3A-8.8 646. with the lateral displacements at the roof derived as follows: Centerline analysis: 1.4 kips (see Part 2c) 3.9 Determine diaphragm load distribution.7 491.9 ΣFi (kips) 299. In multi-story buildings. Vol. Typical diaphragm design.4 983.8 140.5 0.4 Notes: 1.7 491. diaphragm forces F px are determined by the formula: F px = Ft + ∑ Fi ∑ wi (w px ) and 0. Note that the 0.1 720. two conditions are modeled for east-west seismic forces.5C a IW px minimum controls for this building.8 220. III (1997 UBC) 159 .3 73.536 8.0Ca Iw Px (kips) (3) 909. and the 100 percent rigid joint underestimates.771 FPx (kips) (2) 299.0 505. Most engineers feel that the centerline analysis over-estimates. The 50 percent rigid joint analysis is an accepted standard of practice for providing reasonable design solutions for frame displacements.17 inches The centerline analysis produces a displacement 17 percent greater than the 50 percent rigid joint analysis.2.37 inches 50 percent rigid joint analysis: 1. Ft = 46. 2.44 kips (see Part 1d) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. are calculated as shown in Table 3A-8 below.0 wx (kips) (1) 2.235 2.235 Σw i (kips) 2. 4a.066 4.5Ca Iw Px (kips) (3) 454. Ca = 0.235 2.301 6. Diaphragm load distribution Level Roof 4th 3rd 2nd Fi (1) (kips) 299.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame To gain a feel for the influence of beam-column joint stiffness on overall frame drift. 4.066 2.4 983.0C a IW px (33-1) The diaphragm forces at each level.

III (1997 UBC) .1).5C a I pW p and the 491.7 kip force at the floor levels is used for design.1.7 kips ( ) (30-1) The maximum diaphragm span occurs between Lines A and H. so the north-south direction will control. Determine diaphragm shear. Vol. Diaphragm shear 160 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Although the computer model assumes rigid diaphragms for load distribution to the frames. we now consider the diaphragm as a horizontal beam. This value is not factored up by ρ per §1630.1.7 / (200) = 2. w1 = E floor / (200′) = 491.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame 4b. ∴ E floor = FP = 491.46 = 246 kips 2 Figure 3A-6.1. The diaphragm design is governed by the minimum seismic force 0.46 k/ft Diaphragm shear: 200 VA = VH = 2. The reliability/redundancy factor ρ is only applied to transfer diaphragms (see Blue Book §105. Shears at each line of resistance are derived assuming the diaphragm spans as simple beams under a uniform load.

Collector force diagram at Line 1.7 = 1. the allowable deck shear per the manufacturer’s ICBO Evaluation Report is: Vallow = 1. the maximum chord force at Lines 1.8. III (1997 UBC) .2 is approximately: q1. Vol. [Lines 1 and 6 have indentations in the floor plan (Figure 3A-2).Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame Using the alternate basic load combination of Equation (12-13) for allowable stress design. side laps.23 k-ft (2)(200') Figure 3A-7 shows the collector force diaphragm for Line 1. Figure 3A-7. and the greatest value used for design.4 (V ) = 246 = 1. Assuming the diaphragm acts as a simple beam between Lines A and H (and this is the usual assumption).25 k-ft o. these lines are chosen to resist the chord force.2 and 5.2 = 491.4(140') Using 3¼-inch light weight concrete over 3"× 20 gauge deck. Determine collector and chord forces. the factored diaphragm design shear at Line A is (E/1.0 k 8(123) Because the beam framing is continuous on Lines 1.46(200)2 = 100. For east-west seismic loads.4): qA = 1. 4c.25 k-ft 1.2.8 for northsouth seismic is: CF = 2.75 > 1.2 and 5. with 4 welds per sheet at end laps and button punch at 12 in. the factored shear flow at Line 1.] The chord force must be compared to the collector force at these lines.k.2 161 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

6.2.23(8. Vol.0 kips Factored collector force: Tu = 1. steel moment frame designs have typically been drift controlled.4 (12-17) 5.1 kips Per §1633. III (1997 UBC) . including Exception 2.5 kips Fb = Fc = 1. As = 2.0(E M ) = 1. including the strong column-weak beam and panel zone requirements.7 pertaining to joint design have been modified by the recommendations of FEMA-267A.2 (30-2) §1612.2 ∴ Use 4-#7. to meet the intent of §2213. These provisions.2. The required slab chord reinforcing is calculated as: Required As = Tu φf y = 110.3) = 92. seismic collectors must be designed for the special seismic load combinations of §1612. In this Part.7 kips The factored chord forces for north-south seismic loads govern the design at Line 1. Note that the value for E M does not include the ρ factor.0 ) = 110. The rationale for selection of the member sizes is also presented in Part 6. are discussed with the RBS joint design in Part 6 of this Design Example. with a W 30 × 108 beam and W 14 × 283 column chosen for this Design Example. representative beam and column members of Frame A1 are designed under the provisions of §2213.9(60) = 2. However.1) = 84.1(100.3 kips The seismic drag tie or chord can be implemented using supplemental slab reinforcing. and then checked for the SMRF design requirements.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame The maximum collector force is: Fa = Fd = 1.5) − 123 = 30.8(30. E M = Ω o (FP ) = 2. Certain provisions of §2213. SMRF member design. From past experience. 162 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.4.23(75.1(E ) = 1. Frame members were chosen with sufficient stiffness to meet the drift limits.0 0.7. With the strength design method for concrete per §1612.4 in.1.7. the factored collector and chord forces are: Factored chord force: Tu = 1.0(84.5) = 10.0 in. the design process begins by selecting beam-column combinations extrapolated from tested RBS joint assemblies.

III (1997 UBC) 163 . The moments and shears at the face of the column at Line 5 are: M DL = 1.3 kips VE = ρVseis = 1.1 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.1. M E = ρM seis = 1. Vol.25(3. This is shown in Figure 3A-8 below.3 kips Vseis = ± 22.590 ) = ± 4.3) = ± 27.25(22.4 kips V LL = 13.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame 5a.042 kip-in.590 kip-in. rd The typical beam selected to illustrate beam design is a third-floor beam in Frame A1. Typical beam at third floor of Frame A1. Design typical beam at 3 floor.487 kip-in. From a review of the computer output prepared separately for this Design Example. Figure 3A-8. M LL = 924 kip-in. V DL = 16. the moments and shears at the right end of the beam are greatest. M seis = ± 3.9 kips §1630.

4 + 27. although generally it is more advantageous to use the alternate basic load combinations of §1612.7. For W 30 × 108 : and = 6.7513.2.33 ft on center 164 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.3 (flange and web compactness criteria to mitigate premature formation of local buckling): bf 2t f ≤ 52 50 = 7.9 = 36.) D + L : M D +L = 1.5 tw 50 o.4 1.247 kip-in.4 (12-11) (12-9) (12-8) E 4. III (1997 UBC) .545 Check the beam bracing requirements of §2213.7.2 ft Place minimum bracing at one-third points: L = 96 28.4 1. 1. Grade 50 beam. o.3. V D +L = 16.487 : M D +E = 1.35 d 29.042 + = 4.487 D + 0.k. with no one-third increase.3 kips 1.9 < 7.3.9 VD + L + E = 16.8: Maximum brace spacing = 96ry = 96 (2.15) 12 = 17.3 = 29.4 + 0.4 + 13.042 + 0.4 VD + E = 16.5 t w 0.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame The basic load combinations of §1612.139 kip-in.0 3 = 9.7 < 90.4 Try W 30 × 108 .966 kip-in. Vol.k. ASTM A572. Check flange and web width-thickness ratios per §2213.3 + = 41.4 27.7 kips D+ E 4. (These were selected to illustrate their usage.042 + 924 = 1.75924 + = 4.83 = = 54.75 L + : M D + L + E = 1.3 kips 1.1 (ASD) are used. 1.35 bf 2t f and d 640 ≤ = 90.

970) = 4.3 kips ∴ Use W 30 × 108 beam Note: The W 30 × 108 beam is much larger than required by allowable stress considerations. the maximum column forces generated by the frame analysis (not shown) are: M DL = 236 kip-in.7 tw 0.k.60 F y = 30.83 − 2(0.970 kip-in. Design typical column at 2 nd story. Check allowable shear capacity: For W 30 × 108 : ∴ Fv = 0.8 > 9.8 kips 165 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.83) = 325 kips > 41. Vol. The reason for this is that this shape has been part of the beamcolumn assemblies tested with RBS configurations. III (1997 UBC) .25(3. V DL = 3.970 kip-in.9 < = 53. The column to be designed is the second-story column of Frame A1 shown in Figure 3A-9.1 kips V LL = 2.545 50 = 0.545)(29.0(0.4 F y h 29.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame Check allowable moment capacity: From AISC-ASD (p. o. > 4.0 ksi o.963 kip-in. ( ) ( ) Allowable Va = 20. M E = 1.247 kip-in.0 ksi Allowable M a = 299(30.7 kips Vseis = 56. M LL = 201 kip-in. For the second-story column at Line 5.33 ∴ Fb = 0. M seis = 3.0 ) = 8.4(50 ) = 20. 2-10) for W 30 × 108 : Lu = 9. 5b.76 ) 380 = = 51.k.

8) = 71 kips PDL = 113 kips PLL = 75 kips Pseis = 28 kips PE = 1.7 = 5.1 + 2.3.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame V E = 1.1: D + L: M D + L = 236 + 201 = 437 kip-in. Vol. PD + L = 113 + 75 = 188 kips VD + L = 3. Figure 3A-9. Typical second story column at Frame A1 Using the basic load combinations of §1612. and are taken at the top flange of the second-floor beam. III (1997 UBC) .8 kips (12-8) 166 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.25(56.25(28) = 35 kips The maximum strong axis moments occur at the bottom of the column.

4 1.963 E D + 0.4 (12-9) 0.0 = 3. Vol.5.4 1.75201 + 1. III (1997 UBC) 167 .1. Grade 50 column.8(28) = 244 kips compression 0.5 − (2.85PDL − ΩPseis : Ptens = 0.7 + 1.4 Under the requirements of §2213.9(113) − = 76.85(113) − 2.75 L + = 3.0 = 43 kips VD + L + E = 3. ASTM A572.4 (12-10) 4.4 PD + E = 113 + VD + E 35 = 138 kips 1.4 71. columns must have the strength to resist the following axial load combinations (neglecting flexure): PDL + 0.25 ft SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.4 35 PD + L + E = 113 + 0.5 2 ) = 12.4 1.963 E : M D + E = 236 + = 3.046 kip-in. Try W 14 × 283 .9 D − E 35 : PD − E = 0.781 kip-in.75 2.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame D+ 4.8 kips 1.4 71.7(75) + 2.7 kips compression 1.8(28) = −18 kips compression (12-11) The intent of these supplemental load combinations is to ensure that the columns have adequate axial strength to preclude buckling when subjected to the maximum seismic force that can be developed in the structure.75 75 + = 188 kips 1.7 PLL + ΩPseis : Pcomp = 113 + 0. 1. Unbraced column height (taken from top of framing at bottom to mid-depth of beam at top): h = 13.1 + = 53. : M D + L + E = 236 + 0.1 + 0.

4 Fa Fb 83.26 ksi < 0. From AISC-ASD manual (p.4 a b Check column shear capacity: Allowable Va = 0.17 r y ∴ Fa = 26.0 12(12.8 kips o.250 = 0.5 Therefore.085 + 459(33. drift ratios are met per §1630.74)(1.k.3 = 4. Vol.79 r x 12(12.781 : a + bx = + = 0.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame Under §2213. and: Maximum f a = 188 / 83. D+ f f E 138 3.0 o.3(26.k.3.4 F y .0 ksi ∴ k = 1.0 ksi Check combined stresses for the critical load combinations.25) kl = 21.4 > 12.5) 459(33.25) kl = 35. III (1997 UBC) . (12-11) 168 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.046 E f a f bx D + 0.063 + 0.085 < 0. complies with the drift ratios.5 ∴ Fb = 0. 3-21) for W 14 × 283 .0 ) o. AISC-ASD Equation H1-3 is used for combined stresses.29) = 432 kips > 53.6 = 6.26 = = 0.3 = 2.k.0 ) = 0. Grade 50: Lc = 14.4(50) = 20.66 Fy = 33.313 < 1.286 < 1.8.75 L + : F + F = 0. The example column is ( ) continuous.15 Fa 26.4(50)(16.5 ksi Maximum f a 2. 1. and f a ≤ 0. (12-9) ( ) 3.0 1. the factor k can be taken as unity if the column is continuous.5.

Compression: Psc = 1.3 is to meet the requirement of AISC-ASD.0 for F y = 50 ksi bf 2t f = 3. As discussed in FEMA-267 (Sections 7. the design provisions of FEMA-267A may be applied to member sizes extrapolated or interpolated from tested configurations.k. Use of calculations alone. Joint design calculations are based on comparisons with tested assemblies. Where such calculations are determined to be acceptable.89 < 7.7 Pallow = 1. SMRF joint designs may be acceptable without testing of a particular beam-column combination only with the following qualifications: 1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.3)(26. The column width-thickness ratio limit of §2213. 4.k. Vol. SMRF beam-column connection design. III (1997 UBC) 169 . The beam-column assemblies selected for this Design Example have been tested with the RBS configuration. o.7 (83. Chapter N. is not recommended.753 kips > 244 kips Tension: Pst = F y A = 50(83.5) = 3. The joint configuration considered closely mirror the tested detail.3) = 4.0 o. 2.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame Next. 6. Plastic Design.3 and 7.7. bf 2t f ≤ 7. For W 14 × 283 : ∴ Use W 14 × 283 column Note: The W 14 × 283 column is much larger than required by allowable stress considerations.5). check required axial strength per §2213.k.165 kips o. 3. Columns meeting this criterion are expected to achieve full plastic capacity prior to local flange buckling.5. without testing to form a basis for reasonable extrapolation. A qualified third party peer review is performed. Section N7. Calculated member sizes are extrapolated from tested combinations.

edu:8080/design/conndbase/index.berkeley. Max. the following beam-column joint assemblies were successfully tested at the University of Texas: Table 3A-9. The parameters for extrapolation or interpolation of beam-column test results are difficult to determine. The California Division of the State Architect (DSA). Using the DSA criteria for extrapolation with the lightest column section (DB5) of the tested sizes noted above.2. Vol. updates may be found at SAC’s web site: http://quiver. ∴ Use W 14 × 176 to W 14 × 283 170 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Using the circular cut reduced beam section.html.. III (1997 UBC) .03 radians. DSA recommends that members sizes taken from tested configurations be extrapolated.17 in. Tested RBS beam-column joint assemblies Specimen DB2 DB3 DB4 DB5 Column W14x426 W14x426 W14x426 W14x257 Beam W36x150 W36x170 W36x194 W30x148 Each of these specimens achieved plastic chord rotation capacity exceeding 0.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame This Design Example utilizes tests conducted at the University of Texas Ferguson Laboratory [Engelhardt et al. has established guidelines for extrapolation of joint tests. the recommended acceptance criterion per FEMA-267A (Section 7.4). Testing of additional RBS joint combinations was performed as part of the SAC Phase II program.22 in. 1996].eerc. Until further testing is completed. Min. weight = 167 lbs. the following possible beam-column size combinations are possible: W 14 × 257 column: Max. weight = 296 lbs. by weight or flange thickness. Min. in the commentary to its Interpretation of Regulations 27-8 (DSA IR 27-8). t f = 1. no more than 15 percent upward or no more than 35 percent downward. it should be done only with a basic understanding of the behavior of the tested assembly. When extrapolating. Results of these tests will be published by SAC when available. t f = 2.

After evaluating several combinations for weak beam/strong column and panel zone strength criteria. material strengths are taken as: SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. steel fabricators have elected to use heavier columns in lieu of doubler plates for economy. 6a. weight = 96 lbs. Column splices in SMRFs must comply with §2213. Max.5.1).2. t f = 0. weight = 170 lbs.9 (Fy) in recognition of improved joint performance for configurations locating the plastic hinge away from the face of the column. As shown in Figure 3A-10. tests have shown that the weld of the doubler plate to the column fillet (k) region may be detrimental to joint performance. The W 14 × 283 column was chosen to eliminate the requirement for doubler plates.1. For this Design Example. it is suggested that column splices be made with complete penetration welds located near midheight.77 in.5.36 in.2. t f = 1. When determining the strength of a frame element. The reduced beam section (RBS) joint configuration used in this Design Example is shown in Figure 3A-10. the W 14 × 283 columns are to be full-height. beam-column pairs are selected from the ranges noted above. Table 7. Material strength properties are stipulated in FEMA §7. the combination of a W 30 × 108 beam and W 14 × 283 column is selected for use in this Design Example.4. When given the option. Note: Where referenced.1-1. Also. Full-height columns without splices were found to be the least-cost option.g. III (1997 UBC) 171 . one length. the overall frame drifts per the computer analysis are within the code limits (as shown in Part 3b above).2. ∴ Use W 30 × 108 to W 30 × 173 For compatibility with this test configuration. the FEMA-267/267A sections are noted with a preceding “FEMA” in the remainder of this Design Example (e. Min.2. FEMA-267A modified the allowable through-thickness stress to 0. Vol. The W 30 × 108 beam was selected after confirming that with this combination. FEMA §7. Note that this combines the lightest beam with the heaviest column in the available range.5.2.2 defaults back to §2213. Determine member and material strengths.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame W 30 × 148 beam: Max. However. FEMA §7. Min.

the circular curved configuration is chosen due to its combination of tested performance and economy of fabrication.75d . while Englehardt [1998] recommends 0. Both FEMA-267A and Englehardt recommend l c ≅ 0.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame W 30 × 108 beam. The distance c from the face of the column (see Figure 3A-10) to the beginning of the circular cut.6b f is selected. Of the various RBS options. Establish plastic hinge configuration and location. are based on prior RBS tests. A572 Grade 50: F y = 50 ksi F ym = 58 ksi Fu = 65 ksi Through-thickness FTT = 0. FEMA-267A recommends that c = d b / 4 . The RBS design achieves that goal in providing a well-defined. and the length of the cut l c .75b f . The fundamental design intent espoused in FEMA-267 is to move the plastic hinge away from the column face. 172 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. A572 Grade 50: F y = 50 ksi F ym = 57 ksi Fu = 65 ksi Through-thickness FTT = 45 ksi 6b. It is desirable to minimize c to reduce the amplification of M f at the face of the column. relatively predictable plastic hinge region. III (1997 UBC) . Shape Group 4.9(50 ) = 45 ksi W 14 × 283 column. As the member sizes for this Design Example are extrapolated from testing by Englehardt. Shape Group 2.5b f ≤ c ≤ 0. Vol. c ≅ 0.

45(10. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.37 in.25)2 + 24 2 ∴R = = = 33. 2 Use 2 ¼-in.1.5) = = 2.1 in. lc = 0.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame Figure 3A-10.25) The plastic hinge may be assumed to occur at the center of the curved cut per FEMA §7. cut 2 4n 2 + l c 4(2. 0.0 + (24 / 2) = 26.0 in.5b f = 0.88 in.0 in.45 2 0. This will limit the projection of moments at the face of the column to within 90 percent to 100 percent of the plastic capacity of the full beam section. With a 45 percent reduction in the flange area: bf n = 0.25 in.5.5) = 7. The depth of the cut n should be made such that 40 percent to 50 percent of the flange is removed.74 / 2) + 6.75(10. ∴ Use lc = 24. III (1997 UBC) 173 . ∴ Use c = 6.5) = 5.75b f = 0. radius 8n 8(2. Vol.3. RBS (“dog bone”) geometry W 30 × 108 : 0.37 in.83) = 22. so that: lh = (16.5(10.36 in.75d = 0.75(29.

3 174 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Figure 3A-11. (7.5.2 as: Z RBS = Z x − br t f d − t f [ ( )] FEMA-267A.3.37 / 12 ) = 23. Vol.76 )(29.0 ft. 6c. ∴ L' = 28 − 2(26.5. Eqn.25) = 4.83 − 0. This configuration also satisfies the intent of §2213.2-1) where b r is the total width of material cut from the beam flange. Determine probable plastic moment and shear at the reduced beam section.9. III (1997 UBC) .5 in. Plastic hinges The circular curved cut provides for a gradual transition in beam flange area.7.6 ft The length between the plastic hinges L ' (see Figure 3A-11) is used to determine forces at the critical sections for joint analysis.76)] = 247 in. br = 2(2.3.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame and: L = 28. and Z RBS = 346 − [4. The plastic section modulus at the center of the reduced beam section is calculated per FEMA §7.5(0.

(7. the beam shear from the frame analysis for dead and live loads at the hinge is used. β = 1 . Therefore: M pr = 247(1. Eqn. the special seismic load combinations of §1612.5. the probable plastic moment at the reduced beam section Mpr is calculated as: M pr = Z RBS β(FY ) FEMA-267A.2(16.2 . for ASTM A572 steel.5(V L ) + 1. Calculate strength demands at the critical sections of beam-column joint. and the column panel zone shear strength. As illustrated in FEMA §7. The first section is at the interface of the beam section and the face of the column flange.7 ) = 131 kips 6d. Beam equilibrium under the probable plastic moment Mpr VE = and: 2 M pr L' = 2(14.4 ) + 0.2. The second critical section occurs at the column centerline. For simplicity. the through-thickness stress on the column flange (at the area joined to the beam flange).5.0(V E ) ∴ V P = 1. III (1997 UBC) 175 .3) + 1.2.5. The strength demand at this section is used to check the capacity of the beam flange weld to the column.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame Next.2.820 kip-in. the shear at the plastic hinge is derived by statics.4 are used: L’ Mpr VE VE Mpr Figure 3A-12.2)(50 ) = 14.820 ) = 104.2(V D ) + 0.2-2) The factor β accounts for both variations in the beam steel average yield stress and strain hardening at the plastic hinge.3.7 kips 12(23. To be consistent with this strength design procedure.5(13.3. There are two critical sections for the joint evaluation. Vol. considering both the plastic moment at the hinge and gravity loads. Per FEMA §7. The moment demand at this location is SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0(104.6) V P = 1.

5).e.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame used to check the strong column-weak beam requirement per FEMA §7.5. dead.274 kip-in. 3. Column face b. (Note: In SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. 4.1.5.37 ) = 18. a. Vol. Column centerline Figure 3A-13.5.178 kip-in. 2. III (1997 UBC) 176 .820 + 131(6 + 12) = 17.5 (UBC §2213. FEMA §7.820 + 131 (26. Evaluate the RBS joint strength capacity.5. At the reduced section. Code required drift limits must be met considering effects of the RBS. Critical sections at beam-column joint The moment at the face of the column is: M f = M pr + V P (x ) = 14. the beam must have the capacity to meet all code required forces (i. The through-thickness stress on the face of the column at the beam flange must be within the allowable values listed in FEMA §7. The beam-to-column flange weld must have adequate strength.3. The moment at the centerline of the column is: M cl = M pr + VP (lh ) = 14.4 6e.2 of FEMA-267A lists four criteria for the evaluation of RBS joint capacity: 1.2.2.7. live & seismic per §1612). Section 7.

thereby increasing calculated frame displacements about 5 percent proportionally. At the reduced section. is M a = 203(33. > 4. In the tested configuration. As discussed in FEMA §7. Vol.8. the elastic section modulus S c of the beam is calculated from the information in Table 3A-10. the web connection should be consistent with the tested assemblies—this weld is shown in Figure 3A-17. 2 3 14. the structure drift ratios are found to be within the reduced code limits.) Check reduced section for code design forces. As shown in Part 3b. Note: In FEMA-350. the requirement to check this parameter has been eliminated.92 The allowable moment M a .1. Thus. Under FEMA §7. the reduced W 30 × 108 section is adequate for the moments derived for the load combinations of §1612. Check beam-to-column welded connection.76)(14.5)(0. with Fb = 33.3. In FEMA-350. the allowable drift limits are reduced 5 percent for comparison to calculated frame lateral deflections from the computer analysis.78) ] = 203in.0 ksi (see Part 5a). reference to specific test data is not required. the RBS will reduce overall frame stiffness approximately 5 percent.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame subsequent studies conducted by the SAC project. the beam webs have complete-penetration welds to the column flange. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. III (1997 UBC) 177 . the section modulus S RBS is: S RBS = [4.2. Using the cross-sectional area of the beam flange and web weldments at the face of the column (Figure 3A-14).92 − 0.700 kip-in. To account for this increase. RBS and other connections have been prequalified for application within ranges of member and frame sizes.3. and the connection is designed to produce near-yield conditions at the beam flange to column joint.0 ) = 6. Check frame stiffness for code drift limits.470 − 2(4. typical rolled column shapes were found insensitive to through thickness stress.5. The W 30 × 108 beam and W 14 × 283 column are extrapolated from specimen sizes tested in an RBS configuration at the University of Texas.247 kip-in. As long as framing falls within prequalified limits.

07 A(y)2 0 1.7 ksi < 50 ksi o.854 + 869 = 5.178 / 376 = 45. The plastic shear demand is calculated in Part 6b above. The maximum weld stress is calculated using Mf (see Figure 3A-11).76(10.54 15.73)=14.48)=7. Built-up section properties Mk 1 2 3 4 5 Sum Area (in.07 15.54 14.28 0.48)=7.682 1.23 = 376 in. Vol.96 0.48)=3.48)=3.4) 869 0 0 0 0 869 The calculated section properties are: I c = 4.4 ∴ S c = 5. The moment demand on the weld at the face of the column: f weld = 17.545(26. the weld strength is taken at the beam yield stress of 50 ksi. for complete penetration welds. III (1997 UBC) .k.76(10. 178 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.3 As given in FEMA §7.31(10.28 Y (in. With the beam web welded to the column.854 Io (in.2.31(10.682 745 745 4. the plastic shear demand should be checked against the beam shear strength.58 0.2.1.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame Figure 3A-14.723 15.723 in.) 0.96 0.2) 0. Built-up section at column face Table 3A-10.00 14.

2. the through-thickness stresses at the interface of the beam flange with the column face is determined as f t −t = M f Sc where M f and S c are as determined above. 6f.8. For beam web connections using shear tabs. the shear tab shown in Figure 3A-17 is present only for steel erection. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.k. The bolts must be slipcritical.5.178 / 376 = 45. FEMA §7..7. Part 6g. RBS joints have been successfully tested with calculated stresses as high as 58 ksi [Englehardt. Vol. whereas the UBC sums moments at the column centerline. The success of these tests is attributed to locating the plastic hinge away from the column face and into the beam span.55 (50.0)(0.83) = 447 kips > V p = 131 kips o.k.5 the beam moments are derived from M pr (see Part 6c above). Per FEMA §7. The column moments ΣM c are taken at the top and bottom of the column panel zone as shown in Figure 3A-15.3.5. the shear tab and bolts are to be designed to resist the plastic beam shear Vp.5. III (1997 UBC) 179 . et al. Under FEMA §7.2 Although the through-thickness stress is at the upper limit of the recommended allowable stress. Check the through-thickness stress at the column. 1996]. ∴ f t −t = 17.5.2. ICBO issued an emergency code change to the 1994 UBC. in September 1994.5.7 ksi ≈ 0. However. which deleted the prior requirement for supplemental welds from the shear tab to the beam web.3.2.9(50) = 45.0 ksi o. FEMA §7.Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame VS = 0.545)(29. An example beam-column shear tab connection design is given in Design Example 1A. The strong column/weak beam requirement given in FEMA §7. Verify the strong column-weak beam condition.2 In this Design Example. and the shear tab may require a complete penetration weld to the column.5 is similar to §2213.

5)(12) − 29. and: ( ) ≥ 1.1 + 29.4 kips [2(66.83] 180 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.820 + 26.0 FEMA Eqn.1) + 29.83 / 2 ) 14 = 217.4 kips Summing moments at the bottom of the lower column: VC = 2 M pr + lh V p − V f (hb + d P / 2) [ (hb + d P + ht ) ( )] ht = hb = ∴ VC = (13. Joint forces and moments ΣZ C F yc − f a ΣM C where: M Ct = VC ht .Design Example 3A ! Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame Figure 3A-15.5.83 = 66.4(66. (7.2. III (1997 UBC) .1 in. From the computer analysis (not shown): V f = 16. 2 2 2[ .4(131)] − 16. Vol.5-1) M Cb = VC + V f hb ( ) ΣM C = M Ct + M Cb V f is the incremental seismic shear to the column at the 3rd floor.

Design Example 3A

!

Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame

The column moments, taken at the top and bottom of the panel zone are: M Ct = 217.4(66.1) = 14,370 kip-in. M Cb = (217.4 + 16.4 )(66.1) = 15,454 kip-in. ∴ M C = 14,370 + 15,454 = 29,834 kip-in. From Part 5b above, the maximum column axial stress is f a = 2.26 ksi . For the W 14 × 283 column, Z x = 542 in.3 : ΣZ C Fyc − f a ΣM C

(

) = 2[542(50 − 2.260)] = 1.74 > 1.0

29,824

o.k.

FEMA Eqn. (7.5.2.5-1)

Therefore, the columns are stronger than the beam moments 2 M pr , and the strong column-weak beam criteria is satisfied.

6g.

Check column panel zone strength.

Column panel zone strength is evaluated per FEMA §7.5.2.6. FEMA-267A modifies the panel zone provisions of UBC §2213.7.2. The provision (in the 1994 UBC) allowing panel zone strength to be proportioned for “…. gravity loads plus 1.85 times the prescribed seismic forces …” has been eliminated. This modification produces stiffer/stronger panel zones than previously permitted under the UBC. Heavier columns are often preferable to use of doubler plates. Thus, panel zone strength may well dictate the selection of column sizes. (Note: In FEMA-350, this criteria has changed again to produce balanced yielding between the beam and panel zone, such that yielding initiates in the panel zone simultaneously—or slightly after—yielding in the RBS. This is compatible with, but not identical to, the FEMA-267 procedures.) Per FEMA §7.5.2.6, the panel zone (Figure 3A-16) is to be capable of resisting the shear required to develop 0.8ΣM f of the girders framing into the joint (where Mf

(

)

is the moment at the face of the column). The panel zone shear strength is derived as follows:

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Design Example 3A

!

Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame

Figure 3A-16. Panel zone forces

H = 2(66.1) + 29.83 = 162 in. d p = 29.83 − 0.76 / 2 = 29.45 in. M f = 17,178 kip-in. (see Part 6d) VC = 2 0.8 M f H

**[ ( )] = 2(0.8)(17,178) = 170 kips
**

162 dp = 2(0.8)(17,178) = 933 kips 29.45

Ff =

2(0.8)ΣM f

**VZ = F f − VC = 933 − 170 = 763 kips The panel zone shear strength is determined from §2213.7.2.1.
**

2 3bc t cf V = 0.55 F y d c t 1 + db dct

(13-1)

182

SEAOC Seismic Design Manual, Vol. III (1997 UBC)

Design Example 3A

!

Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame

where: bc = db = dc = t cf = t= width of the column flange depth of the beam column depth thickness of the column flange total thickness of the panel zone, including doubler plates

For the W 14 × 283 column, the panel zone shear strength is: 3 (16.11)(2.07 )2 V = 0.55(50 )(16.74)(1.29 ) 1 + = 785 > 763 kips (29.83)(16.74 )(1.29 ) o.k. (13-1)

The W 14 × 283 column panel zone strength is just adequate when matched with the W 30 × 108 beam without doubler plates. Again, this configuration is selected in lieu of a lighter column with doubler plates as the most economical design. Note that if the design does include doubler plates, then compliance with §2213.7.2.3 is required. The minimum panel zone thickness t z is also checked per §2213.7.2.2: t z ≥ (d z + w z ) / 90 where: d z = panel zone depth between continuity plates wz = panel zone width between column flanges t z = 1.29" for W 14 × 283 t z = 1.29" ≥ [(29.73 − 0.76) + (16.74 − 2.07 )/ 90] = 0.48 in. o.k. (13-2)

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Design Example 3A

!

Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame

6h.

Check column continuity plates.

Subject to further research, FEMA-267 §7.8.3 recommends that continuity plates always be provided. The plate thickness should match the beam flange thickness. Complete penetration welds from the continuity plate to the column flanges are recommended, and fillet welds to the column web are acceptable. (Note: In FEMA-350, this criteria has been relaxed, permitting omission of continuity plates for columns with heavy flanges.) The minimum continuity plate area is validated for conformance with §2213.7.4 using AISC-ASD Section K1.8, Equation K1-9. UBC §2213.7.4 stipulates that for this equation the value for Pbf is to be taken as: 1.8bt f F y .

(

)

For W 30 × 108 : Pbf = 1.8(0.76)(10.48)(50) = 717 kips AISC-ASD Eq. (K1-9) yields: Ast = Pbf − F yc t wc (t b + 5k ) F yst = 717 − 50(1.29 )[0.76 + 5(2.75)] = −4.38 50 §2213.7.4

As the area calculated is negative, stiffeners are not required per Equation K1-9 of AISC-ASD, and continuity plates with a thickness matching the beam flange are adequate. With complete penetration welds to the column flanges, the continuity plate corners should be clipped to avoid the column k-area. This leaves a fillet weld length to the column web of: lw = d c − 2(k ) = 16.74 − 2(2.75) = 11.2 in. The fillet weld to the column web is designed for the tensile strength of the continuity plate. Using a 3 4 "× 7" plate on each side of the web (top and bottom), the weld size is determined. Plate strength: Pst = 0.75 (7.0 ) 50.0 = 263 kips

184

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Design Example 3A

!

Steel Special Moment Resisting Frame

Weld size (16ths): n= Pst ( 263) = = 7.4 2lw (1.7 )(0.928) 2(11.2 )(1.7 )(0.928)

where weld strength per 1/16th inch with E70XX electrodes is 0.3(70 ksi) (1/16) (.707) = 0.928 kip-in. per AISC-ASD Table J2.5.

∴ Use a ½" fillet top and bottom of continuity plate to column web.

6i.

Evaluate beam-to-column joint restraint.

§2213.7.7

To preclude SMRF column members from out-of-plane or lateral torsional buckling, §2213.7.7 specifies requirements for beam-column joint restraint. The W 14 × 283 frame column has a perpendicular beam framing into it at each level, providing both column lateral support and joint restraint. The column flanges need to be laterally supported only at the beam top flange if the column remains elastic. By satisfying one of the four conditions listed in §2213.7.7.1, a column may be considered elastic for purposes of determining lateral bracing. Check condition #1: Strong column-weak beam strength ratio > 1.25 From a review of Part 6f above: (strength ratio) = 1.74 > 1.25 o.k.

The column flanges therefore need lateral bracing only at the beam top flange. The bracing force is taken at 1 percent of the beam flange capacity, perpendicular to the plane of the frame. By observation, the bolted connection from the beam framing perpendicular to the column is adequate.

6j.

Provide beam lateral bracing at RBS flange cut.

FEMA §7.5.3.5

Lateral bracing is next considered for the beam flanges adjacent to the RBS cut. As stated in FEMA §7.5.3.5, lateral braces for the top and bottom beam flanges are to be placed within d/2 of the reduced section. (Note: This requirement is dropped in FEMA-350 when a composite concrete slab is present. ) Lateral support of the top flange is ordinarily provided by shear studs to the concrete fill over metal deck. Either diagonal angle bracing or perpendicular beams can provide bottom flange lateral bracing. Generally, bracing elements may be designed for about 2 percent of the compressive capacity of the member being braced. Figure 3A-17 shows an example for angle bracing of the bottom flange.

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6k.

Detailing considerations.

As noted in FEMA-267A, the reduced beam section SMRF design entails a few unique considerations:

"

At the cut edge of the reduced section, the beam flange should be ground parallel to the flange to a mirror finish (surface roughness < 1000 per ANSI B46.1). Shear studs should be omitted over the length of the cut in the beam top flange, to minimize any slab influence on beam hinging. A 1-inch-wide gap should be placed all around the column so as to the slab to reduce the slab interaction with the column connection. (Note: FEMA-350 has relaxed this requirement.)

" "

6l.

Welding specifications.

To ensure that the SMRF joint welded connections are of the highest possible quality, the design engineer must prepare and issue project-specific welding specifications as part of the construction documents. The guidelines presented in FEMA-267, Section 8.2 provide a comprehensive discussion of welding specifications. For an itemized list of welding requirements, see California Division of the State Architect (DSA), Interpretation of Regulations #27-8, Section K – Welding. A few of these requirements are noted below:

"

The steel fabricator is to prepare and submit a project Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) per AWS D1.1, Chapter 5 for review by the inspector and Engineer of Record. Weld filler materials are to have a rated toughness, recommended at 20ft-lbs. absorbed energy at –20o F per Charpy V-notch test. Pre-heat and interpass temperatures are to be strictly observed per AWS D1.1, Chapter 4.2, and verified by the project inspector. Weld dams are prohibited, and back-up bars (if used) should be removed, the weld back-gouged, and a reinforced with a fillet weld. All complete penetration welds shall be examined with ultrasonic testing/inspection for their full length.

" " " "

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6m.

Tests and inspections.

Quality control is presented in Chapter 9 of FEMA-267. Guidelines are presented for inspector qualifications, as well as suggested scope of duties for the inspector, engineer and contractor. The extent of testing is discussed, with a recommendation that the contract documents clearly identify the required testing. An example Quality Assurance Program is given in FEMA §9.2.7. It is recommended that the structural engineer incorporate similar requirements into the project specifications.

Figure 3A-17. Reduced beam section joint detail

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References

AISC, 1997, 1999. Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings. American Institute of Steel Construction, April 1997 with Supplement No. 1, February 1999, DSA IR 27-8, 1998. Interpretation of Regulations 27-8. California Division of the State Architect, Sacramento, California. Englehardt, M., 1998. Design Recommendations for Radius Cut Reduced Beam Section Moment Connections. University of Texas, Austin. Englehardt, M., et al., 1996. “The Dogbone Connection, Part II,” Modern Steel Construction. American Institute of Steel Construction. FEMA-267, 1995. Interim Guidelines: Evaluation, Repair, Modification, and Design of Welded Steel Moment Frame Structures. SAC Joint Venture, funded by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. FEMA-267A, 1997. Interim Guidelines Advisory No. 1, Supplement to FEMA-267, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. FEMA-267B, 1999. Interim Guidelines Advisory No. 2, Supplement to FEMA-267, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. Steel Tips, 1999. “Design of Reduced Beam Section (RBS/Moment Frame Connections,” Steel Tips. Structural Steel Educational Council, Moraga, California.

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Design Example 3B

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Steel Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame

Design Example 3B Steel Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame

Figure 3B-1. Four story steel office building with steel ordinary moment resisting frames (OMRF)

Foreword

Steel ordinary moment resisting frames (OMRF) differ from special moment resisting frames (SMRF) in several important ways. The most significant differences lie in the details of the beam-column joints and in the consideration of strong column-weak beam effects in member selection. Because of these and other factors, the SMRF structure has a higher R-factor (8.5) and no height limit, while OMRF structures have a low R-factor (4.5) and are limited to 160 feet in height. In general, SMRF structures are expected to perform much better in earthquakes than OMRF structures. This Design Example uses the same 4-story structure used in Design Example 3A to illustrate design of a steel OMRF. The choice of this structure was based on both convenience and the fact that the differences between OMRFs and SMRFs could be easily shown.

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It should be noted, however, that SEAOC does not recommend use of steel OMRFs in buildings over two stories. In fact, SEAOC recommends use of SMRFs in all steel moment frame structures of any height, particularly mid-rise and taller structures, in high seismic regions. Typical uses of OMRF systems in high seismic regions include structures such as one-story open front retail buildings, two-story residential structures with open lower levels, penthouses and small buildings.

Overview

Steel ordinary moment resisting frames are required to meet the provisions of §2213.6. The OMRF requirements are essentially the same as stipulated in prior UBC editions, and were not addressed in the emergency code amendment for SMRF design issued in the 1996 Supplement to the 1994 UBC. However, both the SEAOC Blue Book and FEMA-267 recommend against the use of OMRFs in areas of high seismicity. The OMRF provisions are retained in the code for use in light on- or two-story buildings, and structures in low seismic hazard zones. The UBC requires OMRFs to be designed for about twice the lateral seismic force that would be required for a SMRF in the same structure. As such, the plastic rotation demand for OMRF connections should be roughly half that of the SMRF. The connection ductility requirements for OMRFs are therefore less stringent than for SMRFs. Notwithstanding code provisions, OMRF connections should receive similar attention to joint detailing as for SMRFs. In particular, lessons learned from the Northridge earthquake concerning weld procedures and filler materials should also be applied to OMRFs. As suggested in FEMA-267 (see p.7-2), OMRFs in areas of high seismicity may be acceptable if the connections are designed to remain elastic for the design level earthquake, while the beam and column members are designed per UBC OMRF requirements. This can be achieved by applying an R factor of 1 in deriving design base shear and confirming that the connection stresses do not exceed yield. This enhanced OMRF design approach is also illustrated in this Design Example. This Design Example uses the 4-story steel office structure from Design Example 3A to illustrate OMRF design. The same building weights, frame elevations and site seismicity are used as for Design Example 3A. Although this Design Example is for a 4-story structure, the design procedure is applicable to all OMRFs, including such uses as one-story, single bent frames at garage door openings. It is recommended that the reader first review Design Example 3A before reading this Design Example. Refer to Example 3A for plans and elevations of the structure.

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Steel Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame

Outline

This Design Example illustrates the following parts of the design process:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Design base shear. Distribution of lateral forces. Interstory drift. OMRF member design. OMRF beam-column joint design.

Calculations and Discussion

Code Reference

1. 1a.

Design base shear.

Classify structural system and determine seismic factors.

§1629.6

The structure is a building frame system with lateral resistance provided by steel ordinary moment resisting frames (system type 3.4.a of Table 16-N). The seismic factors are: R = 4.5 Ω = 2.8 hmax = 160 ft Table 16-N

1b.

Determine seismic response coefficients Ca and Cv.

§1629.4.3

For Zone 4 and Soil Profile Type S D : C a = 0.44(N a ) = 0.44(1.0 ) = 0.44 C v = 0.64(N v ) = 0.64(1.0 ) = 0.64 Table 16-Q Table 16-R

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1c.

Evaluate structure period T.

§1630.2.2

Per Method A: T = Ct (hn )3 4 C t = 0.035 T A = 0.03(55.5)3 4 = 0.71 sec Per Method B: From Design Example 3A, assuming we retain the same beam and column sizes: North-south:

(30-8)

(y ) : TBy

East-west:

= 1.30 sec

§1630.2.2

(x ) : TBx

= 1.16 sec

Para. #2

For Seismic Zone 4, the value for Method B cannot exceed 130 percent of the Method A period. Consequently, Maximum value for TB = 1.3T A = 1.3(0.71) = 0.92 sec

1d.

Determine design base shear.

The total design base shear for a given direction is: V = Cv I 0.64(1.0 ) W = W = 0.155W RT 4.5(0.92 ) (30-4)

The base shear need not exceed: V = 2.5C a I 2.5(0.44)(1.0 ) W = W = 0.244W R 4.5 (30-5)

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But the base shear shall not be less than: V = 0.11C a IW = 0.11(0.44)(1.0)W = 0.048W And for Zone 4, base shear shall not be less than: V = 0.8ZN v I 0.8(0.4)(1.0)(1.0) W = = 0.071W R 4.5 (30-7) (30-6)

Equation (30-4) governs base shear. ∴ V = 0.155W (30-4)

1e.

Determine earthquake load combinations.

§1630.1

Reliability/redundancy factor: ρ = 2 −

20 rmax Ab

(30-3)

From Design Example 3A, use ρ = 1.25 . For the load combinations §1612, and anticipating using allowable stress design (ASD) for the frame design: E = ρEh + Ev = 1.25(V ) ( E v = 0 for allowable stress design) E m = ΩE h = 2.8(V ) Note that seismic forces may be assumed to act nonconcurrently in each principal direction of the structure, except as per §1633.1. (30-2) (30-1)

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2. 2a.

Distribution of lateral forces.

Building weights and mass distribution (from Design Example 3A).

**Table 3B-1. Mass properties summary
**

Level Roof 4th 3rd 2nd Total W (kips) 2,066 2,235 2,235 2,235 8,771 X cg (ft) 100 100 100 100 Ycg (ft) 70 70 70 70 M (k-sec 2 / in.) 5.3 5.8 5.8 5.8 22.7 MMI (k-sec 2-in.) 26,556 28,728 28,728 28,728

2b.

Determine design base shear.

As noted above, Equation (30-4) governs, and: V = 0.155W = 0.155(8,771) = 1,360 kips (30-4)

2c.

Determine vertical distribution of force.

For the static lateral force procedure, vertical distribution of force to each level is applied as follows: V = Ft + ∑ Fi where: Ft = 0.07T (V ) ≤ 0.25(V ) Except Ft = 0 where: T ≤ 0.7 sec (30-13)

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For this example structure: T = 0.92 sec ∴ Ft = 0.07 (0.92)(1,360 ) = 87.6 kips The concentrated force Ft is applied at the roof, in addition to that portion of the balance of the base shear distributed to each level per §1630.5: Fx =

(V − Ft )Wx hx = (1,360 − 87.6) Wx hx ∑W h ∑Wi hi i i

(30-15)

**Table 3B-2. Vertical distribution of shear
**

Level Roof 4th 3rd 2nd wx (kips) 2,066 2,235 2,235 2,235 hx (ft) 55.5 42.0 28.5 15.0 w x hx (k-ft) 114,663 93,870 63,698 33,525 w x hx Σwx 0.375 0.307 0.208 0.110 1.000 Fx (kips) 564.8 390.6 265.1 139.5 1,360.0 ΣV (kips) 564.8 955.4 1,220.5 1,360.0

Total 8,771 305,756 Note: Froof = 0.375 (1,272.4) + 87.6 = 564.8 kips

2d.

Determine horizontal distribution of shear.

As in Design Example 3A, the direct seismic force, Fx , applied at the center of mass is combined with an accidental torsional moment, M t , using a 5 percent eccentricity, at each level. This is shown in Table 3B-3. North-south: M t = 0.05(204′)Fx = (10.2)Fx East-west: M t = 0.05(144′)Fx = (7.2 )Fx

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**Table 3B-3. Horizontal distribution of shear
**

Level

Fx (kips) 564.8 390.6 265.1 139.5

N-S M t (k-ft) 5,761 3,984 2,704 1,423

E-W M t (k-ft) 4,067 2,812 1,909 1,004

Roof 4th 3rd 2nd

Note: Mt = horizontal torsional moment

With the direct seismic forces and torsional moments given in Table 3B-3 above, the force distribution to the frames is generated by computer analysis (not shown). For this Design Example, the beam and column sizes from Design Example 3A are used in the computer model. From the computer analysis, the shear force at the ground level is determined for each frame column. Frame forces at the base of frame types A1 and B1 are summarized in Tables 3B-4 and 3B-5.

**Table 3B-4. North-south direction, frame type A1
**

Column Shears (kips) Direct Seismic Torsion Force Direct + Torsion Line A/1.2 (kips) 79.4 4.9 84.3 Line A/2 (kips) 143.1 8.8 151.9 Line A/3 (kips) 132.6 8.2 140.8 Line A/4 (kips) 132.6 8.2 140.8 Line A/5 (kips) 143.1 8.8 151.9 Line A/5.8 (kips) 79.4 4.9 84.3 Total (kips) 710.2 43.8 754.0

**Table 3B-5. East-west direction, frame type B1
**

Column Shears (kips) Direct Seismic Torsion Force Direct + Torsion Line 1/A.2 (kips) 63.1 2.4 65.5 Line 1/B (kips) 113.1 4.3 117.4 Line 1/C (kips) 113.1 4.3 117.4 Line 1/C.8 (kips) 63.1 2.4 65.5 Total (kips) 352.4 13.4 365.8

3. 3a.

Interstory drift.

Determine ∆S and ∆M.

§1630.9

The design level response displacement ∆S is obtained from a static-elastic analysis using the design seismic forces derived above. For purposes of displacement determination, however, §1630.10.3 eliminates the upper limit on TB, used to determine design base shear under Equation (30-4). The maximum inelastic response displacement ∆ M includes both elastic and estimated inelastic drifts resulting from the design basis ground motion. It is computed as follows:

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∆ M = 0.7(R )∆ S = 0.7(4.5)∆ S = 3.15∆ S The maximum values for ∆ S and ∆ M are determined, including torsional effects (and including P∆ effects for ∆ M ). Without the 1.3T A limit on TB , the design base shear per Equation (30-4) is: North-south: TBy = 1.30 sec Vn − s = East-west: TBx = 1.16 sec Ve − w = Cv I 0.64(1.0 ) W= W = 0.123W = 1,079 kips RT 4.5(1.16 ) Cv I 0.64(1.0) W = W = 0.109W = 956 kips RT 4.5(1.30 )

(30-17)

(30-4)

§1630.1.1

Note that §1630.1.1 stipulates use of the unfactored base shear (V ) , with ρ = 1 . Using these modified design base shears, the accidental torsion and force distribution to each level are adjusted for input to the computer model. The structure displacements and drift ratios are derived below in Table 3B-6.

**Table 3B-6. Interstory displacements
**

North-South Interstory Displacements Story 4th 3rd 2nd 1st Height h (in.) 162 162 162 180 Height h (in.) 162 162 162 180 ∆ S drift (in.) (2.41 -2.06)= 0.35 (2.06 -1.52)= 0.54 (1.52 -0.82)= 0.70 (0.82 -0.0) = 0.82 ∆ S drift (in.) (2.24 -1.92)= 0.32 (1.92 -1.41)= 0.51 (1.41 -0.77)= 0.64 (0.77 -0.0) = 0.77 ∆ M drift (in.) 1.10 1.70 2.21 2.58 ∆ M drift (in.) 1.01 1.61 2.01 2.43 Drift Ratio (∆ M h ) 0.0068 0.0105 0.0136 0.0143 Drift Ratio (∆ M h ) 0.0062 0.0099 0.0124 0.0135

East-West Interstory Displacements Story 4th 3rd 2nd 1st

Note: Interstory drift ratio = ∆M/story height

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using the actual period TB in base shear Equation (30-4). The next step will be to check member stress levels. III (1997 UBC) . rd The typical beam designed is the third floor beam shown in Figure 3B-2. A review of the drift ratios tabulated above in Table 3B-6 shows that all interstory drift ratios are less than 0.10 For structures with T > 0. Design typical beam at 3 floor.7 seconds. 4a. §2213. The maximum drift ratio of 0. Vol. 4. and is a little more than 70 percent of the 0. Typical beam at third floor of Frame A1 198 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Figure 3B-2.6. However.2. the maximum allowable drift is: ∆ M = 0.6 Using the W 30 × 108 beam and W 14 × 283 column from Design Example 3A (see Figure 3A-3 for frame on Line A) for preliminary sizes.Design Example 3B ! Steel Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame 3b.020 allowable.020 (story height) per §1630. As expected. the beam and column sizes could be reduced to make the displacements closer to the code limit. OMRF member design. which mitigates possible deformation compatibility issues in other elements such as cladding and non-frame (P∆ ) column design. the OMRF frame members are designed per §2213.10.020. The same beam and column sizes previously selected will be retained. the maximum ∆ M displacements for the OMRF are very close to the values for the SMRF from Design Example 3A. §1630.0143 occurs at the first story in the north-south direction. Determine the story drift limitation. At this point in the design process. using more conservative ∆ M drift ratios produces stiffer frame designs.

042 + 924 = 1.4 Try W 30 × 108 .4 V D +E = 16. ASTM A572.75 L + = 6.4 + 52.2 kips V E = ρVseis = 1.475 E D + 0.7 kips Using the basic load combinations of §1612.4 + 0.275 kip-in. the moments and shears at the right end of the beam are greatest. M LL = 924 kip-in.1 8.3. D + L : M D +L = 1.4 + 13. M E = ρM seis = 1.042 + = 7.75924 + 1. V D +L = 16.7513.7 kips D+ E 8. V DL = 16. Grade 50 beam. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.042 + 0. with no one-third increase.2) = ±52. at the face of the column at Line 5 are: M DL = 1.966 kip-in.096 kip-in.475 kip-in.4 1.25(6. Vol.6 kips 1.780 kip-in.25(42.780) = ±8.1. : M D + L + E = 1. 1.4 kips V LL = 13. The moments and shears.0 kips 1.4 52.Design Example 3B ! Steel Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame From a review of the computer output (not shown). Note that the seismic moment and shear are about twice that for the SMRF example.3 + = 54.4 1. III (1997 UBC) 199 .4 (12-11) (12-9) (12-8) §1630. M seis = 6.1 (ASD).7 = 54.3 kips Vseis = 42.475 : M D +E = 1.7 V D + L+ E = 16.3 = 29.042 kip-in.

19 And: d 29. Vol. p.k.8 > 9.545 o. III (1997 UBC) . The maximum unbraced length is: L = 28.9 < 9.0 ks Allowable M a = 299(30.k.33 ft Check allowable moment capacity.19 o.970 kip-in. ( ) 200 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. o. Table B5.83 = = 54. provide beam bracing at one-third points.1 (Note: AISCASD is adopted.7 < 90.5 tw 50 For W 30 × 108 : bf 2t f = 6.0) = 8. From AISC-ASD. 2-10.0 3 = 9. for W 30 × 108 : Lu = 9. with amendments. Check allowable shear capacity.096 kip-in.60 Fy = 30.33 ∴ Fb = 0. in Division III of the code): bf 2t f and: d 640 ≤ = 90.k.5 t w 0. > 7.Design Example 3B ! Steel Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame Check flange width-thickness ratios per AISC-ASD. As in Design Example 3A. ≤ 65 50 = 9.

25(107 ) = 134 kips PDL = 113 kips PLL = 75 kips Pseis = 53 kips PE = 1. ( ) 4b. Design typical column at 2 nd story.9 < = 53.0(0. For the 2nd story column at Line 5.83 − 2(0.1 kips V LL = 2.7 kips Vseis = 107 kips V E = 1.6 kips ∴ Use W 30 × 108 beam o.501) = 9.25(53) = 66 kips The maximum strong axis moments occur at the bottom of the column.376 kip-in.83) = 325 kips > 54.545 50 ∴ Fv = 0.k.4(50 ) = 20. V DL = 3.501 kip-in.76 ) 380 = = 51.7 tw 0. M E = 1. the maximum column forces generated by the OMRF frame analysis (not shown) are: M DL = 236 kip-in. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.0 ksi Allowable Va = 20.4 F y = 0.545)(29. The column to be designed is the second-story column of Frame A1 shown in Figure 3B-3. M LL = 201 kip-in.25(7. III (1997 UBC) 201 . Vol.Design Example 3B ! Steel Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame For W 30 × 108 : h 29. and are taken at the top flange of the beam. M seis = 7.

Design Example 3B ! Steel Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame Figure 3B-3.1: D + L : M D + L = 236 + 201 = 437 kip-in.1 + 2.4 202 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.8 kips D+ 9.5 kips compression 1.933 kip-in.4 (12-9) (12-8) 134 = 99 kips 1. Vol. Typical second-story column of Frame A1 Using the basic load combinations of §1612.3.9(113) − = 54.4 1.9 D − 66 = 160 kips 1.4 1.1 + 0.4 (12-10) 66 E : PD − E = 0. PD + L = 113 + 75 = 188 kips VD + L = 3.7 = 5.376 E : M D + E = 236 + = 6. 1.4 PD + E = 113 + VD + E = 3. III (1997 UBC) .

4 1.0(12 )(12.46 ksi 1.7(75) + 2.5. : M D + L + E = 236 + 0.092 < 0.1 + 0.7 PLL + ΩPseis : Pcomp = 113 + 0.5 ksi Maximum f a 2.376 E D + 0.4 134 = 77 kips VD + L + E = 3.3 = 4.7 + 1.4 66 PD + L + E = 113 + 0.25 ft Maximum f a = 205 / 83.4 Under the requirements of §2213.0 ksi ( ) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.66 Fy = 33. Grade 50 column: Unbraced column height: h = 13.17 r y ∴ Fa = 26. Grade 50: Lc = 14. From AISC-ASD manual (p.46 = = 0. ASTM A572. 3-21) for W 14 × 283 .85PDL − ΩPseis : Ptens = 0.752.85(113) − 2.8(53) = 314 kips compression 0.5 Therefore. columns must have the strength to resist the following axial load combinations (neglecting flexure): PDL + 0.7575 + = 205 kips 1.410 kip-in.5 − (2.Design Example 3B ! Steel Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame 9.15 Fa 26.5 2 ) = 12.4 > 12.75201 + 1.3 = 2.5 ∴ Fb = 0.25) kλ = 35. Vol.1.75 L + = 5. III (1997 UBC) 203 .8(53) = −52 kips tension (12-11) Try W 14 × 283 . AISC-ASD Equation H1-3 is used for combined stresses.

0). o.7 Pallow = 1.449 < 1. the W 30 × 108 beam and W 14 × 283 column taken from the SMRF of Design Example 3A have the capacity to meet the load combinations for an OMRF per §1612.458 = 0.092 + 459(33.74 )(1. §2213. (12-11) 5. Section 2213.1). Allowable Va = 0. with an R of unity (1.492W = 4. (12-9) 5. Therefore.530 < 1. the north-south base shear is taken as: Vn / s = Cv I 0.0 ) W = W = 0. check required axial strength per §2213.165 kips >> −52 kips ∴Use W 14 × 283 column o.75 L + : F + F = 0.7. III (1997 UBC) .073 + 0.k. or be designed for gravity loads plus Ω times the calculated seismic forces. Compression: Psc = 1.5) 459(33.0 1.4 Fa Fb 83. o.5.6 requires that OMRF beam-to-column connections are to either meet the SMRF connection criteria (see §2213.3) = 4.410 E f a f bx D + 0.k.k.30 ) RT 204 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.3.0(1. OMRF beam-column joint design.k.1).4 a b Check column shear capacity.30) to determine the base shear for joint design. it is appropriate to use the full calculated period (TBx = 1.7(83.3)(26. o.315 kips 1.0 1. Vol. Using an R factor of 1 is marginally more stringent than multiplying the seismic forces by Ω o .0 ) o.Design Example 3B ! Steel Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame Check combined stresses for the critical load combinations. With R = 1 .4(50)(16.5) = 3.0 ) = 0.29 ) = 432 kips > 99 kips Next.k. OMRF joints may be considered acceptable if designed to remain elastic.6 As shown above.3(26.933 : a + bx = + = 0. As discussed in FEMA-267 (Section 7. D+ E f f 160 6.64(1.753 kips > 314 kips Tension: Pst = F y A = 50(83.

Special Seismic Load Combinations.2 D + 0. 0.807 = 1.492 VE ' = Vseis = 3. is used with a resistance factor φ of one.17(42.155)W = 0.5(924) + 1.0 E M M D + L + E = 1. Vol.Design Example 3B ! Steel Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame For an OMRF (with Ω = 2. there is a 13 percent increase with R = 1 as recommended in FEMA-267.205 kip-in.155 0. The beam end moment and shear are scaled up to the unreduced seismic force level by the ratio of the base shears. the beam-column joint stresses are checked to remain elastic.17(6.5(13. as follows: 0.2(1.315 / 3.492 M E' = M seis = 3. Determine beam forces with R=1.8 ).3) + 1. For this.8(0.13 Thus.2 ) = 138 kips 0.4) + 0. §1612.807 kips The ratio of base shears is: FEMA/UBC = 4.2(16. III (1997 UBC) 205 . the UBC base shear for connection design is: Vn / s = 2.4.493 kip-in.493) = 23.780 ) = 21. 5a.5 L + 1.042) + 0.434W = 3.155 The special seismic load combination from §1612.0(21. VD + L + E = 1.4 is: 1.0(138) = 164 kips (12-17) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Using the unreduced seismic base shear.

54 14. the elastic section modulus S c of the beam is calculated from information in Table 3B-7. Table 3B-7.31(10.76(10.Design Example 3B ! Steel Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame 5b. the beam webs are to have complete-penetration welds to the column flange.2) 0. (Note that this weld is shown in Figure 12-4).) 0.48)=7.682 1.545(26.48)=7.28 0. Check beam-to-column weld.854 Io (in.58 0.96 0.00 14. Built-up section at column face.682 745 745 4. Built-up section properties Mk 1 2 3 4 5 Sum Area (in.31(10. Using the cross-sectional area of the beam flange and web weldments at the face of the column.48)=3. III (1997 UBC) .4) 869 0 0 0 0 869 206 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.54 15. As was done in Design Example 3A. Vol.07 15.48)=3. Figure 3B-4.28 Y (in.07 A(y)2 0 1. Note also that the flanges are reinforced with 5/16" fillet welds.76(10.96 0.73)=14.

g.5)(15.98 = 578 in.0 ) = 375 kips SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. with fillet welds to the beam flange as required to develop the tensile capacity of the plate. With complete penetration welds at the cover plates to the column.205 / 575 = 40. Cover plate capacity: TPl = 0.234 15.1 for complete penetration welds. the weld strength is taken as the beam yield stress of 50 ksi.2.723 + 2(7. or make the beam larger.k.k.205 / 578 = 40. At this point. The maximum weld stress is calculated using the maximum moment (M D + L+ E ) at the face of the column: f weld = 23.3 : ( ) f weld = 23. a W 33 × 152 is required to obtain an adequate connection section modulus S c = 575 in. we can choose to either add cover plates.723 15.75(10 )(50.4 ksi < 50 ksi o.0(50 ) = 50 ksi n.4 ∴ S c = 5. The cover plates should be about half the beam depth in length.3 S c = 9.3)2 = 9. Vol. With similar weld patterns.723 in. the increased moment of inertia and section modulus are: I c = 5. The W 30 × 108 connection (weld) stresses to the column are not within the elastic limit.23 = 376 in. III (1997 UBC) 207 . The minimum size for ¾" plate is a 5/16" fillet weld.2.234 in.205 / 376 = 61.Design Example 3B ! Steel Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame The calculated section properties are: I c = 4. we would need 10"× 3 / 4" plates at the top and bottom flanges. If we choose to instead add cover plates.854 + 869 = 5.3 and: f weld = 23.7 ksi > φF y = 1.3 Per FEMA §7.1 ksi < 50 ksi o.

The column panel zone shear strength should be reviewed for capacity to resist the maximum beam moment from the unreduced seismic force. Moreover. and expanded welding procedures as for the SMRF. The resulting frame design produces a structure that may respond to the design level ground motion without damage (i.313)(21. thereby reducing overall building drift and decreasing the potential for damage to nonstructural components.9 kip-in..Design Example 3B ! Steel Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame 5/16" fillet capacity: q = 1. OMRF designs will likely produce nominally heavier members. Vol. plastic deformations). Although the UBC does not explicitly require any further OMRF connection analysis. III (1997 UBC) .k. The allowable beam shear of 325 kips from Part 4a above exceeds the unreduced seismic shear demand of 164 kips. 208 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Additional considerations. The OMRF joint should also include continuity plates.9 = 47" Use a 20-inch long plate. the beam web is to have a complete penetration weld to the column face. As noted above. The strong column-weak beam analysis would be similar to that of the SMRF Design Example 3A. Part 6g for a beam-to-column shear plate connection design. which will provide for a total weld length of: 2(20) + 10 = 50" > 47" o.707 )(0. Part 6f.0) = 7. For beam-to-column connections with bolted shear plates in lieu of welded webs. 5c. the connection plate and bolts must be designed for this maximum shear force. The objective of maintaining connection stresses within the elastic range is shown to be reasonable even for the unreduced seismic demand.e. it is good practice to check the strong column-weak beam criteria and the column panel zone shear strength. Required weld length: lw = 375/ 7. See Design Example 3A.7(0. OMRFs designed to comply with the foregoing parameters can be expected to provide a high level of seismic performance.

The purpose of this Design Example is twofold: 1. as shown in Figure 4-1. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Demonstrate the design of a solid reinforced concrete walls for flexure and shear. Vol. III (1997 UBC) 209 . Eight-story reinforced concrete parking garage (partial view) Overview The structure in this Design Example is an 8-story parking garage with loadbearing reinforced concrete walls (shear walls) as its lateral force resisting system.Design Example 4 ! Reinforced Concrete Wall Design Example 4 Reinforced Concrete Wall Figure 4-1. including bar cut-offs and lap splices. Demonstrate the design and detailing of wall boundary zones. This Design Example focuses on the design and detailing of one of the 30'-6" long walls running in the transverse building direction. 2.

Design Example 4 ! Reinforced Concrete Wall The Design Example assumes that design lateral forces have already been determined for the structure. 6.0 Importance factor. Lap splices and curtailment of vertical bars. 5.000 psi Steel yield strength. Vol. III (1997 UBC) . 7. Live loads have already been reduced according to §1607. Outline This Design Example illustrates the following parts of the design process: 1. Moment strength of wall. 4. Design for shear. Given Information The following information is given: Seismic zone = 4 Soil profile type = S D Near field = 5 km from seismic source type A Reliability/redundancy factor. Load combinations for design. 2.0 Concrete strength. 210 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. ρ = 1. Boundary zone detailing. This analysis has provided the lateral displacements corresponding to the design lateral forces.5. I = 1. The wall carries axial forces PD (resulting from dead load including self-weight of the wall) and PL (resulting from live load) as shown in Table 4-1. Preliminary sizing of wall. 3. and that the forces have been distributed to the walls of the structure by a hand or computer analysis. The shear V E and moment M E resulting from the design lateral earthquake forces are also shown in Table 4-1. Sliding shear (shear friction). f y = 60 ksi Figure 4-2 shows the typical floor plan of the structure. f ' c = 5. Figure 4-3 shows the wall elevation and shear and moment diagrams.

shear. Wall elevation. Vol. and moment diagram SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. III (1997 UBC) 211 . Floor plan Figure 4-3.Design Example 4 ! Reinforced Concrete Wall Figure 4-2.

corresponding to the design lateral forces. Load combinations for the seismic design of concrete are given in §1612. Exception 2 of §1612. and in the definition of “Design Load Combinations” in §1921.5 (UBC Table 16-N) for a bearing wall system with concrete shear walls. which is illustrated in Part 7 of this Design Example.Design Example 4 ! Reinforced Concrete Wall Table 4-1.5.2. the horizontal displacement at the top of the wall. Load combinations for design.3. the load combinations for Equations (12-5) and (12-6) for the seismic design of concrete can be written: 212 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Such a frame is not used in this Design Example. (This is indicated in §1909. Vol.2. is 2. In an actual structure.) Equations (12-5) and (12-6) of UBC Chapter 16 are the seismic design load combinations to be used for concrete. the effect of foundation flexibility and its consequences on structural deformations and strains should be considered.1.1 states “Factored load combinations of this section multiplied by 1. This displacement is needed for the detailing of boundary zones according to the UBC strain calculation procedure of §1921.32 inches. III (1997 UBC) . it is assumed that the foundation system is rigid and the wall can be considered to have a fixed base. Concrete wall structures can also be designed using an R factor of 5.6. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference 1.6. The fixed-base assumption is made here primarily to simplify the example. The design and analysis of the structure is based on an R factor of 4.1 for concrete and masonry where load combinations include seismic forces. Design loads and lateral forces Level R 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 PD (k) 216 436 643 851 1060 1270 1470 1730 PL (k) 41 81 122 162 203 244 284 325 VE (k) 96 262 438 625 821 1030 1270 1470 0 ME (k-ft) 0 960 3760 8530 15400 24400 35600 49600 75500 For this Design Example. if an independent space frame is provided to support gravity loads. Using the fixed base assumption and effective section properties.1.2.” Thus.

and E v is defined as an addition to the dead load effect.1 factor is eliminated in the SEAOC Blue Book and in the 2000 International Building Code. D .1. for the reasons given in Blue Book §101. the SEAOC recommended load combinations for the seismic design of reinforced concrete omit the 1.7.5Ca ID Substituting this into the seismic load combinations for concrete gives: (30-1) (1. §1630.1E The factors f1 and f 2 are defined in §1612. as indicated in Blue Book §101.2.55C a I )D ± 1.1( f1 L + f 2 S ) 0. and can be written: (1.3 are also not used for concrete design.2.7. Substituting into Equation (30-1): E = ρEh ± 0.1ρE h f2S ) SEAOC-recommended revisions to load combinations. The additional 1.1ρE h + 1.1 are not used for concrete.1.9 D ± ρE h f2S ) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.1( f1 L + (0. Equations (12-1) through (12-4) of §1612. and as presented in the section below on SEAOC-recommended revisions to load combinations. As shown in Blue Book Section C403.1 The term E in the load combinations includes horizontal and vertical components according to Equation (30-1): E = ρE h + E v Equation (30-1) represents a vector sum. III (1997 UBC) 213 .1.99 D ± 1.1E + 1.55C a I )D + 1.1 multiplier. The allowable stress design load combinations of §1612. Blue Book §101.Design Example 4 ! Reinforced Concrete Wall 1.2.99 − 0. Load combinations for nonseismic loads for reinforced concrete are given in §1909.5C a I )D + ρE h + ( f1 L + 0.2.2 + 0.1.1.32 D + 1.7.2. Horizontal and vertical components of earthquake force E. Vol.32 + 0.1 SEAOC recommends revisions to the load combinations of §1612.

484)]D + E h + L = 1.2 and therefore the value of N a need not exceed 1. For Soil Profile Type S D .500 k .1. per §1612. the factor N a is given as 1. the lower bound axial load governs the design for moment strength. the governing load combinations for this Design Example are: [1.2 + 0. S = 0 .470 k .Design Example 4 ! Reinforced Concrete Wall Load combinations used in this Design Example. C a = 0. it is assumed that the local building department has indicated approval of the SEAOC recommended revisions to the UBC load combinations. III (1997 UBC) .9 PD = 0. as shown in Figure 4-8).4.2 (5km from Seismic Source Type A). The second of the above combinations gives the lower bound axial load.1) = 0.0 and ρ = 1. Seismic Zone 4. the dead and live loads cause axial load only. and since there is no snow load.484 .0 . the structure meets all of the conditions of §1629. However.2.44 N a . f1 = 1. Since the given structure is a parking garage. The governing axial load at the base of the wall is thus: Pu = 0.730 k ) = 1.560 k The governing moment and shear at the base of the wall is: M u = M E = 75. according to Table 16-Q. the factor C a is calculated as 0.ft Vu = V E = 1.1. and the earthquake forces produce shear and moment only. as is the case in this Design Example. Vol.44(1. For a wall with axial loads below the balance point.0 . see Seismic Design Manual Volume II. For this Design Example. Thus. axial loads in concrete walls are well below the balance point. From Table 16-S. With I = 1.ft 214 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. For the example wall. For examples using the UBC load combinations instead of the SEAOC recommendations.5(0. (Typically.9 D ± E h Actions at base of wall.44 D + E h + L 0.9 (1.

the clear height at the first story is 17 feet.6.470. to between 3 f ' c and 5 f ' c . Shear stress and reinforcement ratio rules of thumb.6. regardless of whether boundary zone confinement is required.8" < 20" o. Walls with higher levels of shear stress are permitted by the UBC.0 in.Design Example 4 ! Reinforced Concrete Wall 2. 2b. the maximum factored shear force equals 1470 k. Limiting the average shear stress to between 3 f ' c and 5 f ' c helps prevent sliding shear failure of the walls. Conservatively using a 3 f ' c criterion. The SEAOC Blue Book Commentary (C407. Preliminary sizing of wall. Vol.k. where l u is the clear height between floors that brace the wall out-of-plane. applicable to walls that require boundary confinement.6.6.5. Minimum thickness = l u 16 = 17 (12) 16 = 12. For the example wall.6.” For the example wall.1) For structures with tall story heights. Minimum wall thickness to prevent wall buckling. corresponding to factored lateral forces.1.000 psi ( ) Say b = 20 in.6(1. 366′ 3 5. III (1997 UBC) 215 . for a wall length of 30'-6". the designer should check that the wall thickness exceeds l u 16 . the wall thickness equals: 1.000# = 19. 2a. page 178) recommends “that the wall boundary thickness limit of l u 16 be applied at all potential plastic hinge locations. paragraph 1. This is based on §1921. §1921. The dimensions and required number of walls in a building can be selected by limiting the average shear stress in the walls. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

three bars are used as shown in Figure 4-4. Based on brief calculations and the preliminary sizing considerations discussed here. as indicated in the CRSI rebar detailing chart [CRSI. A closer spacing of vertical bars might typically be used in the boundary regions of the wall. according to §1921.46 in.6 Paragraph 2.58 in. This offers the best conditions for lap splicing of reinforcement.4.2.Design Example 4 ! Reinforced Concrete Wall 2c. Layout of vertical reinforcement at wall base The reinforcement layout considers the following issues: " Vertical bars are spaced longitudinally at 9 inches on center.0056 > 0. at the center portion of the wall’s length: ρv = As bs = 1. For the proposed layout. This means that at the ends of the 20-inch-thick wall. the wall section and reinforcement layout shown in Figure 4-4 is proposed for the base of the wall: Figure 4.1 specifies a minimum reinforcement ratio of 0. Layout of vertical reinforcement. 1996]. " Section 1921. The maximum center-to-center spacing of vertical bars is 12 inches in boundary regions of walls where confinement is needed. This spacing exceeds 6db of the largest bars used #11: 6db = 6(1.2 (9"× 20") = 0.0025 o.k.6. 216 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. III (1997 UBC) .0025 for both vertical and horizontal reinforcement of shear walls.41) = 8. Vol.6.4.6. but such a spacing could require longer lap splice lengths.

All three calculation approaches are demonstrated below. The assumption of all reinforcement yielding results in a slightly greater moment strength compared to the strain assumption of §1910. As recommended in the SEAOC Blue Book Commentary (§C407.2. Alternatively the reinforcement strain can be assumed to be directly proportional to distance from the neutral axis.Design Example 4 ! Reinforced Concrete Wall 3. Vol. for cyclic loading all vertical reinforcement along the wall can be assumed to yield in either tension or compression. Moment strength of wall.5.4). SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. which is derived from monotonic loading. but the difference is not significant. Wall moment strength can be computed by hand calculations. as discussed in §1910. The assumption of all reinforcement yielding is typically closer to the actual strain distribution in a wall section under cyclic displacements than is the strain assumption of §1910. The two possible assumed strain distributions are illustrated in Figure 4-5 below. 3a. or a computer program such as PCACOL.5) the vertical reinforcement in the web of the wall and axial load contributions to the moment strength of wall sections should not be neglected.2. This assumption is used in the spreadsheet calculations demonstrated here and is also used by the PCACOL computer program. which can lead to poor earthquake performance because it makes shear failure more likely to occur. This assumption simplifies the hand calculation of moment capacity and is used in the hand calculations shown below. Assumed reinforcement strain. This design practice is no longer accepted by the code. The 1991 and earlier editions of the UBC required wall boundaries to carry all moment and gravity forces. As indicated in the SEAOC Blue Book Commentary (§C407. spreadsheet calculations. III (1997 UBC) 217 . All of the calculation methods are based on an assumed strain distribution and an iterative calculation procedure.4.2. This practice results in higher moment strengths in walls.

4. cyclic loading CS2 TS2 TS1 -fy Steel stress. which corresponds to C c . and a reiteration of Steps 1 through 4 if necessary. Calculation of the steel reinforcement tension and compression forces. monotonic loading Figure 4-5. Cc = (Pn + ΣTs − ΣCs ) . 218 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.Design Example 4 ! Reinforced Concrete Wall c Pn Mn CS1 CC fy Steel stress. An initial estimate of c . Calculation of the stress block length a . it is necessary to determine the neutral axis depth. c = 0. Steel stress and neutral axis depth In calculating moment strength. Calculation of c equal to a β1 . 2. as shown in Figure 4-5. A typical calculation of moment strength is based on the following steps: 1. 3.15lw can be used as an initial estimate. III (1997 UBC) . 5. c . Vol. Balancing the forces to calculate the concrete compressive force.

§1909.10(5.000 =Mn (kip-in.68 Asfy kips -281 -1122 2562 1122 281 1910 -4472 0 x in.7 42.7 4. The force reduction factor.000 373. First iteration for c and Mn Force CS1 CS2 TS3 TS2 TS1 Pn Cc Reinforcement Bars 3-#11 12-#11 54-#8 12-#11 3-#11 As in.2 Table 4-2.0ksi )(20′′)(366′′) = 3.2 4.10 f ' c Ag = 0.5 183 332 363 183 26.000 -126.815 Pn = Pu φ = 1.000 102. Free body diagram for moment strength The iterative calculation of neutral axis depth and moment strength is shown in Tables 4-2 and 4-3 below.68 18.2.560 3.3. Vol.2(1. 0.9 − 0.) SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. as follows.700 469.7 18. 3 34.3 Asfy*x kip-in. III (1997 UBC) 219 .560 kips (see Part 1) φ = 0. -842 -38.815 = 1.910 kips 0 x PN 2 4 8 ft CS1 CS2 TS3 TS2 TS1 CC Figure 4-6. φ .000 350.Design Example 4 ! Reinforced Concrete Wall 3b. is calculated as a function of axial load according to §1909.000 1. Hand calculation.2.130.660 kips Pu = 1.660 ) = 0. The calculation of moment strength is based on the free-body diagram shown in Figure 4-6.560 0.

930 349. Assume all other reinforcement yields. a = C c .7 Asfy*x kip-in.68 18. assume c = 60 in.500 k .530 -123. Therefore.2 4.8 Therefore.6 c = 65.ft > M u 75.85 f ' c b Calculate c = a β1 This results in M n = 93.5 187 332 363 183 25. ( ) a = 51.497=Mn (kip-ft) First iteration. assume c = 65 in.200 k . 52-#8 bars plus 15-#11 bars yield in tension. 3 34. Therefore. a = C c .ft ) = 77.500 k . C c = 4. (Assume all reinforcement yields in either tension or compression.6 0.5 c = 64.369 1.1 18.470 kips Calculate a corresponding to C c .121.ft o.85 f ' c b Calculate c = a β1 = 52. Solve for C c to balance forces.709 460.815(93.3 solution converged 220 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.80 Second iteration. Second iteration for c and Mn Force CS1 CS2 TS3 TS2 TS1 Pn Cc Reinforcement Bars 3-#11 12-#11 52-#8 12-#11 3-#11 As in. centroid of 52-#8 bars is at x = 187 in.7 4. C c = 4.ft φM n = 0. III (1997 UBC) . 15-#11 bars yield in compression.918 372. Vol. 54-#8 bars (all web vertical bars) plus 15-#11 bars yield in tension.375 kips Calculate a corresponding to C c .500 k . ( ) a = 52. Neglect force in 2-#8 located at x = 67 inches.7 41.68 Asfy kips -281 -1122 2465 1122 281 1910 -4375 0 x in. 15-#11 bars yield in compression.) 93.504 101.k.) Solve for C c to balance forces.961=Mn (kip-in.Design Example 4 ! Reinforced Concrete Wall Table 4-3. -842 -38.

III (1997 UBC) 221 . nearly identical to that calculated by hand in the previous section. The input variables are at the top of the spreadsheet. A more generally applicable spreadsheet to calculate wall flexural strength can also be created.150 k-ft. on the spreadsheet until the tension and compression forces on the section are balanced. Calculation using a general spreadsheet. c . Calculation by PCACOL. Vol. The printed screen output of the PCACOL run is shown in Figure 4-8. This spreadsheet is set up so that each individual layer of reinforcement is represented by a spreadsheet row. of the selected section equal to 76. as indicated by the added notes on the section. The computer program PCACOL can also be used to design wall sections for flexure and axial load. The spreadsheet gives a design moment capacity. Such a spreadsheet is shown in Figure 4-7. The user adjusts the input value of the neutral axis depth. φM n . The example wall section was run on PCACOL and the moment strength obtained was the same as that calculated by the hand and spreadsheet methods. The approach used above to calculate flexural strength can be done on a spreadsheet or by hand. 3d.Design Example 4 ! Reinforced Concrete Wall 3c. SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.

General spreadsheet to calculate flexural strength 222 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Vol.Design Example 4 ! Reinforced Concrete Wall Figure 4-7. III (1997 UBC) .

the effective depth may be considered equal to 0. Bar cut-offs.7 of the SEAOC Blue Book clarifies this requirement and recommends that the requirement be applied to concrete walls. Section 402.” For a wall. §1912. below. Applying the bar cut-off requirement to the example wall. Lap splices and curtailment of vertical bars.8l w . SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. The selection of vertical reinforcement sizes and cut-offs is shown in the wall elevation of Figure 4-10.Design Example 4 ! Reinforced Concrete Wall Figure 4-8.4. 4a.10. whichever is greater. III (1997 UBC) 223 . according to §1911. Vol. the moment strength is reduced in two steps over the height of the wall: above Level 5 and above Level 7. The dimensions of the wall section and the number of vertical bars are unchanged at these transitions—only the size of the reinforcement is reduced.10.3 Section 1912. Analysis of wall section by PCACOL 4.10.3 addresses the development of flexural reinforcement and states “Reinforcement shall extend beyond the point at which it is no longer required to resist flexure for a distance equal to the effective depth of the member or 12d b . A summary of flexural reinforcement and moment strength over the wall height is given in Table 4-4.

k.5) = (75.8l w bar extension Moment demand at h = 51.5' = 34.3' = 51.8(30. Vol.8' = 75.8(30. hw Moment demand at h = 29. < 40.3 – 29.8l w bar extension Moment demand M u at the base of the wall Overall wall height. = (75.8)/95. < 59.9' = 51.9PD 1560 k 766 k 392 k Design Moment Strength.500 k-ft = 95. III (1997 UBC) . This also addresses higher mode effects according to the recommendations of Paulay and Priestley [1992].k. Boundary and vertical web reinforcement Location Level 1 – Level 5 Level 5 – Level 7 Level 7 – Level 9 Vertical Bars Each Boundary 15-#11 15-#10 15-#8 Web Vertical Bars 54-#8 54-#7 54-#6 Axial Load Pu=0.5' based on linear moment diagram = 73'-2" + 2'-9" lap splice = 75.2' – 0.5') = 54. For simplicity.2' = 29. Height of reinforcement cut-off above base Height after subtracting 0.200 o.8' based on linear moment diagram = 51'-0" + 3'-2" lap splice = 54.9 – 0.5)/95.500)(95. ΦMn 76.400 o. the moment diagram is assumed to be linear over the building height. The calculations for bar cut-off locations are illustrated in Figure 4-9.400 k-ft The moment strengths for each reinforcement arrangement were calculated using the spreadsheet procedure described in Part 3c.Design Example 4 ! Reinforced Concrete Wall Table 4-4. 224 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual.3 Similarly. above.700 k-ft.3 – 51.500)(95.200 k-ft 59. the moment strength above Level 7 is checked by the following calculation: Height of reinforcement cut-off above base Height after subtracting 0.900 k-ft.200 k-ft 40.3 = 75. The moment strength above Level 5 is checked by the calculation below.

3. Paulay and Priestley [1992] note that splices in plastic hinge zones tend to progressively unzip and that attempting to mitigate the problem by making lap splices longer than required is unlikely to ensure satisfactory performance. Even well-confined lap splices (§C402.Design Example 4 ! Reinforced Concrete Wall Amount of vertical reinforcement Moment demand assuming linear variation Figure 4-9. The lap splices of the vertical reinforcement are shown in the wall elevation of Figure 4-11. As indicated in 1999 Blue Book Sections C402. lap splices of flexural reinforcement should be avoided in plastic hinge regions of walls.2 of ACI 318 [1999]. Calculation of required moment strength at bar cut-off locations 4b. because this is the anticipated plastic hinge region.3 (and in the commentary to Section 21. applicable to flexural members of frames). 1996]. Although not specifically required by the code. III (1997 UBC) . 225 SEAOC Seismic Design Manual. Lap splices are not used over the first two stories of the wall. Splices of reinforcement. Lap splice lengths are taken from the CRSI rebar detailing chart [CRSI. Vol. lap splices in plastic hinge regions are likely to slip unless they are surrounded by confining ties.7) that do not slip ar