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  • The ITIL Qualification Scheme1
  • 1.1 About ITIL
  • 1.2 The ITIL Qualification Scheme
  • 1.2.1 Foundation Level
  • 1.2.2 Intermediate Level
  • 1.2.3 ITIL Expert
  • 1.2.4 ITIL Master
  • 1.3 examination Institutes
  • 1.3.1 APMG
  • 1.3.2 DANSK IT
  • 1.3.3 DF Certifiering AB
  • 1.3.4 EXIN
  • 1.3.5 ISEB
  • 1.3.6 LCS
  • 1.4 Accredited Training Organizations
  • 1.5 About this Study Guide
  • 2.1 Definition of Service Management
  • 2.2 Service Management Technology
  • 2.3 Overview of the Service Lifecycle
  • 2.4 ITIL Library
  • 2.5 Introduction to Functions and processes
  • 2.6 Sample Questions
  • 3.1 Lifecycle phase
  • 3.1.1 Introduction
  • 3.1.2 Basic concepts
  • 3.1.3 Processes and other activities
  • 3.1.4 Organization
  • 3.1.5 Methods, techniques and tools
  • 3.1.6 Implementation and operation
  • 3.2 Functions and processes
  • 3.2.1 Financial Management
  • 3.2.2 Service Portfolio Management
  • 3.2.3 Demand Management
  • 3.3 Sample Questions
  • 4.1 Lifecycle phase
  • 4.1.1 Introduction
  • 4.1.2 Basic concepts
  • 4.1.3 Processes and other activities
  • 4.1.4 Organization
  • 4.1.5 Methods, techniques and tools
  • 4.1.6 Implementation and operation
  • 4.2 Functions and processes
  • 4.2.1 Service Catalogue Management
  • 4.2.2 Service Level Management
  • 4.2.3 Capacity Management
  • 4.2.4 Availability Management
  • 4.2.5 IT Service Continuity Management
  • 4.2.6 Information Security Management
  • 4.2.7 Supplier Management
  • 4.3 Sample Questions
  • 5.1 Lifecycle phase
  • 5.1.1 Introduction
  • 5.1.2 Basic concepts
  • 5.1.3 Processes and other activities
  • 5.1.4 Organization
  • 5.1.5 Methods, techniques and tools
  • 5.1.6 Implementation and operation
  • 5.2 Functions and processes
  • 5.2.1 Transition Planning and Support
  • 5.2.2 Change Management
  • 5.2.3 Service Asset and Configuration Management
  • 5.2.4 Release and Deployment Management
  • 5.2.5 Service Validation and Testing
  • 5.2.6 Evaluation
  • 5.2.7 Knowledge Management
  • 5.3 Sample Questions
  • 6.1 Lifecycle phase
  • 6.1.1 Introduction
  • 6.1.2 Basic concepts
  • 6.1.3 Processes and other activities
  • 6.1.4 Organization
  • 6.1.5 Methods, techniques and tools
  • 6.1.6 Implementation and operation
  • 6.2 Functions and processes
  • 6.2.1 Event Management
  • 6.2.2 Incident Management
  • 6.2.3 Request Fulfillment
  • 6.2.4 Problem Management
  • 6.2.5 Access Management
  • 6.2.6 Monitoring and Control
  • 6.2.7 IT Operations
  • 6.2.8 Service Desk
  • 6.3 Sample Questions
  • Continual Service Improvement (CSI)
  • 7.1 Lifecycle phase
  • 7.1.1 Introduction
  • 7.1.2 Basic concepts
  • 7.1.3 Processes and other activities
  • 7.1.4 Organization
  • 7.1.5 Methods, techniques and tools
  • 7.1.6 Implementation and operation
  • 7.2 Functions and processes
  • 7.2.1 CSI Improvement Process
  • 7.2.2 Service Reporting
  • 7.3 Sample Questions
  • 8.1 prerequisites
  • 8.2 Format
  • 8.3 exam preparations
  • 8.3.1 Preparation for the exam
  • 8.3.2 Preparation for the day of the exam
  • 8.3.3 Hints and tips during the exam
  • 8.4 Sample exam Questions
  • Answers to the Sample Questions
  • 2.6 Answers
  • 3.3 Answers
  • 4.3 Answers
  • 5.3 Answers
  • 6.3 Answers
  • 7.3 Answers
  • 8.4 Answers
  • Cross-reference to exam requirements
  • Glossary
  • Acronyms
  • References
  • Index

ITIL® V3 Foundation Exam - The Study Guide

About the ITSM Library

The publications in the ITSM Library cover best practice in IT management and are published on behalf of itSMF International. The IT Service Management Forum (itSMF) is the association for practitioners and organizations who practice ITSM. itSMF’s goal is to promote innovation and IT management. Suppliers and customers are equally represented within the itSMF. The Forum’s main focus is exchange of peer knowledge and experience. Our authors are global experts. The following publications are, or soon will be, available. Introduction, Foundations and Practitioners books • Foundations of IT Service Management based on ITIL® (V2, Arabic, Chinese, German, English, French, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Dutch, Brazilian Portuguese, and Russian; Danish and Spanish) • Foundations of IT Service Management based on ITIL® (V3, English, Dutch) • IT Service Management - An Introduction (V2, being replaced by V3, only a few languages left) • IT Service Management - An Introduction (V3, English, Dutch) • IT Services Procurement based on ISPL - An Introduction (Dutch) • Project Management based on PRINCE2™ 2005 Edition (Dutch, English, German) • Release & Control for IT Service Management, based on ITIL® A Practitioner Guide (English) • ISO/IEC 20000 - An Introduction (English, German, Japanese) • Implementing ISO/IEC 20000 Certification: The Roadmap (English) IT Service Management - best practices • IT Service Management - best practices, part 1 (Dutch) • IT Service Management - best practices, part 2 (Dutch) • IT Service Management - best practices, part 3 (Dutch) • IT Service Management - best practices, part 4 (Dutch) • IT Service Management - Global Best Practices, Volume 1 (English) Topics & Management instruments • Metrics for IT Service Management (English) • Implementing metrics for IT Service Management (English) • Six Sigma for IT Management (English) • The RfP for IT Outsourcing - A Management Guide (Dutch) • Service Agreements - A Management Guide (English) • Frameworks for IT Management (English, German, Japanese) • IT Governance based on COBIT® A Management Guide (English, German) Study guides ITIL® V3 Foundation Exam - The Study Guide (English) Pocket guides • IT Service Management - A summary based on ITIL® (V2, Dutch) • IT Service Management based on ITIL V3 - A Pocket Guide (V3, English, Dutch) • ISO/IEC 20000 - A Pocket Guide (English, German, Japanese, Italian, Spanish, formerly BS 15000 - A Pocket Guide) • IT Services Procurement based on ISPL - A Pocket Guide (English) • IT Service CMM - A Pocket Guide (English) • Six Sigma for IT Management - A Pocket Guide (English) • Frameworks for IT Management - A Pocket Guide (English, Dutch) Miscellaneous • IT Service Management from Hell!! (V2, English) • IT Service Management from Hell. Based on Not-ITIL (V3, English)

For any further enquiries about ITSM Library, please visit www.itsmfbooks.com,

ITIL® V3 Foundation Exam
The Study Guide

A publication of itSMF International

Patent and Trademark Office. All rights reserved.S. COBIT® is a registered trademark of the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA)/ IT Governance Institute (ITGI). neither author. Although this publication has been composed with much care.vanharen. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form by print. microfilm or any other means without written permission by the publisher. photo print. nor publisher can accept any liability for damage caused by possible errors and/or incompleteness in this publication. Amersfoort - NL 978 90 8753 069 3 First edition. nor editor.Colophon Title: Editors (Inform-IT): Authors: ITIL® V3 Foundation Exam . . November 2008 Publisher: Design & layout: ISBN: Edition: © itSMF-International.net CO2 Premedia bv.The Study Guide Jan van Bon (Managing editor) Arjen de Jong Axel Kolthof Mike Pieper Ruby Tjassing Annelies van der Veen Tieneke Verheijen Van Haren Publishing. www. ITIL® is a Registered Trade Mark of the Office of Government Commerce in the United Kingdom and other countries Crown copyright material published under license from the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. first impression. TRADEMARK NOTICES ITIL® and PRINCE2™ are Registered Trade Marks and Registered Community Trade Marks of the Office of Government Commerce. 2008 © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland. Zaltbommel. The PMBoK® is a registered trademark of the Project Management Institute (PMI). and are Registered in the U.

It explains the structure of the new Service Lifecycle in the context of IT service management principles. Jan van Bon Managing Editor ITSM Library . It also provides a cross-reference to the ITIL V3 Foundation exam requirements. The Exam Guide provides detailed information on the ITIL V3 Foundation Exam and how to prepare for this exam. once you have this guide with you. Passing your ITIL V3 Foundation Exam shouldn’t be difficult anymore. including the answers to the sample questions. and an extensive set of exam questions to support the best exam preparation. a practical introduction to the content of the five ITIL V3 core books. expert authors and expert reviewers. including all functions and processes. and explains what functions and processes are. It is based on the latest exam syllabus and ITIL content. underpinning its value as an exam preparation tool. As a study aid it is ideal for those new to ITIL but also for those already familiar with ITIL V2. and provides you with an excellent reference to keep up to date. and ends with a number of sample exam questions. This Exam Guide is fully licensed by UK Government. a full set of 40 sample questions of the ITIL V3 Foundation Exam is provided. highlighting the areas needed to pass the exam. Each chapter follows a standardized structure. Each of the phases in the Service Lifecycle is discussed in detail. and based on official ITIL material that was developed by a broad team of expert editors.Foreword This concise Exam Guide provides details on the ITIL V3 Qualification Scheme. it is straight to the point. At the end of the guide. It provides an essential tool for anyone taking the ITIL V3 Foundations Exam or the Version 2 to Version 3 Bridging exam.

VI .

.......2....13 Service Strategy �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 Lifecycle Phase ..............1 ..................3......................4 Organization .................................. 2 1......7 Overview of the Service Lifecycle .....................3......................1 The ITIL Qualification Scheme ................. 20 1.........................................5 2.. 15 3....5 About this Study Guide .................................................5 ISEB ............................................................................... 4 1.............................................3..................................................3 Processes and other activities .....15 3.............2................................... 3 1...............................................3 2.....................................3 ITIL Expert ..3............6 Implementation and operation ..........................2 DANSK IT ...3 DF Certifiering AB ...........................................................................1...............5 Methods.........................................................11 Sample Questions.......................1 2............................................................................................................. 5 1..1 1..............................................................................................................................................................................1................................................... 4 1.......2.............................................. 19 3........3...........5 2 2.............................................................................................5 Introduction ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������7 Definition of Service Management ......................1......... 5 Accredited Training Organizations ...4 EXIN ....................1....................................................3.......................................10 Introduction to Functions and Processes ............4 ITIL Master.......4 1..................1 APMG ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4 Examination Institutes .................................................................. techniques and tools...................... 5 1.........................................................................V 1 1...................................................................4 2.............................................................................6 LCS ........1........7 Service Management Technology ....... 4 1............................................................1 Introduction ....... 17 3......................................................3 1............ 4 1......................Contents Foreword ..............2 Basic concepts........................1.. 18 3................... 16 3.2...................................................2 The ITIL Qualification Scheme �����������������������������������������������������������������1 About ITIL .......................2 2.....................................4 1..........................1 Foundation Level ..........................................1 1.....................................8 ITIL Library .....................................................6 3 3.......................................................................................................2 Intermediate Level.......................

........................................ 54 4....................2................................ techniques and tools......... 47 4..............................3 Processes and other activities ...........2.........................................42 4............. 33 4..........................................4 Availability Management .........3 Demand Management.......1 Introduction ..........1............. 75 5...................2...........................................................................6 Information Security Management ...............2...2...................1...2...22 3... 50 4............................2..5 Methods.... 72 5.....5 Service Validation and Testing................................................................1 Functions and Processes....7 Supplier Management ..................2 Basic concepts.................................................................................. 77 5......................... 26 3...........................1.......................................................................... 22 3..............................2........................1 Financial Management ................. 86 4........................................4 Release and Deployment Management ........................62 Service Transition�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������67 Lifecycle Phase ...............................................................5 Methods....................1 5......................... 68 5.................1.................................................................................. 36 4........2 4...................................1.........................................................................1...................... 70 5.....................................................................2............ 83 5............................1..............2 Service Portfolio Management........................6 Implementation and operation ............................31 Service Design ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 33 Lifecycle Phase ...................VIII 3.....1........ 39 Functions and Processes.............................2......... 60 Sample Questions........................................................................ 42 4................33 4..........................................................................................................1.....5 IT Service Continuity Management .......................................2................. 34 4....................6 Implementation and operation ........ 37 4...............................3 Capacity Management .....................2 .....................................................................1.....................................3 Service Asset and Configuration Management ................... 57 4......4 Organization ..1........................... 29 Sample Questions...3 5 5......................... 44 4................................................. techniques and tools.....................................................2..................1........ 67 5................................2...........................................67 5..........................2...............................................................2 Service Level Management .................3 4 4..................2....................................................3 Processes and other activities ....... 73 Functions and Processes........... 80 5.....75 5........................................................................................................4 Organization ................ 68 5..........2 Change Management ........................2 3.............................2 Basic concepts...............1 Service Catalogue Management..1 Introduction ........................ 39 4........1 Transition Planning and Support......

.2 7......................................128 7..........................................................................2.............143 6... 95 6...........................................................1...................1................2..............................1 Introduction .101 6..........124 Continual Service Improvement (CSI) ��������������������������������������������������� 127 Lifecycle Phase ......................1...............8 Service Desk ..........................112 6..............................................................................122 Sample Questions..................2.........................................1............127 7...........................1 Event Management...........127 7.......................................................................1 7..............................................2.......2.......6 Monitoring and Control ..................................................1...131 7.. 91 Sample Questions.............................................6 Implementation and operation ..................................................1.............134 Functions and Processes.............3 6 6......................................1 CSI Improvement Process ....................1..................................................................103 6.............................120 6.... 89 5........................4 Problem Management ......4 Organization ............................................................3 Request Fulfillment .....................110 6......136 7...................................93 Service Operation ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 95 Lifecycle Phase ............................2.....2 Service Reporting ............................................5 Methods.2.......3 8 8..................... 96 6.......................................95 6....................................................6 Evaluation ...................................................................6 Implementation and operation ..... techniques and tools...................................................................103 6............141 ITIL Foundation Exam�������������������������������������������������������������������������� 143 Prerequisites ................. techniques and tools.........................................................................................................................2........................1 5.................................................................7 IT Operations ...133 7..........107 6....................................2 Incident Management ....1 ......................................115 6.................2..................2................1...........................1....................... 97 6...........................................136 7...................................3 Processes and other activities ........139 Sample Questions........................................2 6.........................................................................................................2 Basic concepts..............2..............101 Functions and Processes................................1 Introduction ..7 Knowledge Management .................... 96 6.....5 Access Management.1..117 6..........................................1........2....................................................................................2 Basic concepts..........................................................................................................................................................................................................130 7...................................3 Processes and other activities ........................3 7 7..................IX 5........................4 Organization .....................5 Methods............1..

.............................................4 Answers ............3 Answers ...................................................................................144 Appendices Answers to the Sample Questions ...................143 Exam Preparations .......................1 Preparation for the exam.....................................................157 3..158 6...............223 References .................................171 Acronyms .........................................6 Answers .......3 Answers ...........................................................................................................................................................3 Answers ..........................................................................144 Sample Exam Questions ....................................................3............................3.............158 8..........................3 Hints and tips during the exam................................................................157 5...............3 Answers .........................................................................................................................................................................................................157 4..........................................................................................143 8...................................................227 .3 Answers ...............................................3 8....................................................................................2 8........................................................................................................X 8................................144 8.............................................159 Cross-reference to exam requirements ..........................................................................................................................225 Index ..158 7.....163 Glossary ...............................2 Preparation for the day of the exam ...............................................3...................................157 2.......4 Format .......................143 8...................................

g. under contract to the UK Government. ITIL has now been updated twice. 1. Since then. but also an approach and philosophy shared by the people who work with it in practice. 1 This chapter is based on text from the “ITIL Service Management Practices V3 Qualification Scheme”. ITIL has provided not only a best practice based framework for IT management. ITIL was developed in the 1980s and 1990s by CCTA (Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency. Once candidates have accumulated a sufficient number of credits they can be awarded the ITIL Expert in IT Service Management.2 The ITIL Qualification Scheme The ITIL Qualification Scheme uses a system that enables an individual to gain credits for each exam they take. through publications in the ITSM Library series. the website of APMG and the Official ITIL Site. now the Office of Government Commerce. the first time in 2000-2002 (V2). e. and the second time in 2007 (V3). OGC). ITIL is supported by the IT Service Management Forum (itSMF). an internationally recognized not-for-profit organization dedicated to support the development of IT service management.chApTer 1 The ITIL Qualification Scheme 1 1. It consists of a growing number of national chapters (50+).1 shows the structure of qualifications within the ITIL V3 scheme. There are four levels within the scheme: • oundation Level F • ntermediate Level (Lifecycle Stream and Capability Stream) I • TIL Expert I • TIL Master I Figure 1. . with itSMF International as the controlling body.1 About ITIL The Information Technology Infrastructure Library™ (ITIL) offers a systematic approach to the delivery of quality IT services.

Understand the service lifecycle and explain the S objectives and business value for each phase in the lifecycle.the study guIde ITIL Master ITIL Expert Managing Across the Lifecycle SS SD ST SD CSI OSL PPO RCV SOL Lifecycle modules Capability modules ITIL v3 Foundation for Service Management Figure 1. • ervice lifecycle (Comprehension) .2. .service improvement. The purpose of the ITIL Foundation Certificate in IT Service Management is to certify that the candidate has gained knowledge of the ITIL terminology.1 The ITIL V3 qualification scheme 1.1 Foundation Level The ITIL Foundation Certificate in IT service Management is targeted at: • ndividuals who require a basic understanding of the ITIL framework and how it may I be used to enhance the quality of IT service management within an organization. Foundation level candidates will have to gain knowledge and understanding of the following topics: • ervice management as a practice (Comprehension) . structure and basic concepts and has comprehended the core principles of ITIL practices for service management. More specifically. • T professionals who are working within an organization that practices ITIL and I who need to be informed about .and contribute to .2 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .Define service and S comprehend and explain the concept of service management as a practice.

2 Intermediate Level There are two streams in the Intermediate level. or ask your accredited trainer. explain the high level objectives. you can download the syllabus “The INTERIM ITIL Foundation Certificate in IT Service Management” at the official ITIL site (http://www. scope. but broader in scope in line with the updated V3 content. examine the cross-reference at the end of this book. Service Operation and Continual Service Improvement.2. objectives and overlap of three other functions. roles and challenges for five of the core processes and state the objectives.Comprehend and account for the key K principles and models of service management and ‘the balance’ of some opposing forces within service management. Service Design.List some generic requirements for T an integrated set of service management technology. • elected functions (Awareness) - Explain the role. staffing and metrics of the Service Desk function and state the role. some of the basic concepts and roles for fifteen of the remaining processes.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . key metrics (KPI’s). • elected processes (Awareness) . and understand how service automation assists with integrating service management processes.This stream includes 4 individual certificates I loosely based on the current V2 Clustered Practitioner qualifications. basic concepts.Define some of the key terminology and explain G the key concepts of service management. to gain credits towards the Expert level.This stream includes 5 individual certificates built I around the five core OGC titles: Service Strategy. Service Transition. • ntermediate Capability Stream .Account for the role and to be aware of the responsibilities S of some of the key roles in service management and recognize a number of the remaining roles described in other learning units.itil-officialsite. . • ntermediate Lifecycle Stream . Both streams assess an individual’s ability to analyze and apply the concepts of ITIL. • elected roles (Awareness) . I This list is not exhaustive.com). objectives. organizational S structures. For more detailed information about the Foundation Exam topics. activities. Candidates are able to take units from either of the Intermediate streams.Understand how the service management S processes contribute to the service lifecycle. 1. • TIL qualification scheme (Awareness) . • echnology and architecture (Awareness) .Explain the ITIL® Qualification Scheme. • eneric concepts (Awareness) .the study guIde 3 • ey principles and models (Comprehension) .

4 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . 1. conferences.3 examination Institutes Professional qualifications based on ITIL are offered by Examination Institutes (EIs).3. 1.1 APMG APMG specialize in the accreditation and certification of organizations. certification programs and IT political advice to the Danish Government and its agencies. The core activities evolve around member networks.2.3 DF Certifiering AB DF Certifiering AB (DFC). who offer global accreditation and examination services for training providers. the Swedish Computer Society with 26.3.3 ITIL Expert To achieve the ITIL Expert in IT Service Management. candidates must successfully complete a number of Intermediate units in addition to the mandatory Foundation level and the Managing Across The Lifecycle capstone course. DFC also provide products in the field of information security and self-assessing tests for e-Citizens. An Examination Institute is an organization accredited by the APM Group (APMG) through the ITIL Qualifications Board. 1. APMG are an ITIL Examination Institute.2.000 IT professionals as members in Sweden. processes and people. This course brings together the full essence of a lifecycle approach to service management. 1. . EIs are permitted to operate an ITIL examination scheme through a network of Accredited Training Organizations (ATOs). courses. DFC’s role is to give accreditation to training providers and certify IT.3.the study guIde 1. Founded in 1958 DANSK IT is among the first IT societies in the world. is a wholly owned subsidiary to Dataföreningen i Sverige. and consolidates the knowledge gained across the qualification scheme. and Accredited Trainers with accredited materials.2 DANSK IT DANSK IT is an interest organization for IT-professionals in Denmark. 1. This higher level qualification is currently under development. The Examination Institutes are the following.4 ITIL Master This level of the qualification will assess an individual’s ability to apply and analyze the ITIL concepts in new areas.

.6 LCS Loyalist Certification Services (LCS) is a premier deliverer of ITIL certification exams in North America. including ITIL.co.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .5 ISEB The Information Systems Examination Board (ISEB) is a wholly owned subsidiary of the British Computer Society. 1. ability and performance in many areas of IT. The ATOs listed on the APMG website (http://www. For that purpose. The ISEB provides industry recognized qualifications that measure competence. The accreditation process involves an assessment of the organization’s management systems. brands and copyrighted material. assuring the quality of training provided. also published in the ITSM Library for itSMF International.4 Accredited Training Organizations It is recommended that any training you receive is through an Accredited Training Organisation (ATO). Only ATOs and their affiliates have licences to offer training courses that incorporate official OGC trademarks.3.the study guIde 5 1. This guide is only intended as an aid to help you pass your ITIL Foundation exam. 1. For this publication. 1. course materials and trainers.based on ITIL V3”. independent IT examination provider.uk) are accredited by the various Examination Institutes to provide training in ITIL.4 EXIN The Examination Institute for Information Science in the Netherlands (EXIN) is a global. please use: “Foundations of IT Service Management. EXIN establishes educational requirements and develops and organizes examinations and learning tracks in the field of IT.5 About this Study Guide This study guide is based on the ITSM Library publication: IT Service Management based on ITIL V3 . the content has been modified and updated to comply with the Foundation Examination specifications as defined in: “The INTERIM ITIL® Foundation Certificate in IT Service Management SYLLABUS”. The various Examination Institutes are in turn accredited by APMG. 1.3. These ATOs have been fully accredited by an approved Examination Institute.a Pocket Guide. it is not an introduction to the ITIL core publications. OGC’s official accreditor.3.apmgroup.

a crossreference to the official ITIL V3 exam requirements.the study guIde This study guide is set up in three parts. The third part of this guide (Chapter 8) provides more information on the ITIL V3 Foundation Exam and how to prepare for this exam. including all functions and processes. . a list with acronyms. Each chapter follows a standardized structure. and explains what functions and processes are (Chapter 2). The first part introduces the service lifecycle in the context of IT service management principles. The second part (Chapters 3 to 7) discusses each of the phases in the service lifecycle in more detail. and ends with a number of sample exam questions. a glossary and a reference list. The chapter ends with a sample ITIL V3 Foundation examination. In the appendices of this guide you will find the answers to the sample questions.6 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .

Utility is what the customer receives. Good practices can be a solid backing for organizations that want to improve their IT services. The concepts “utility” and “warranty” are described in the Section “Service Strategy”. • alue . Services enhance performance and reduce the pressure of constraints. 2. and warranty is how it is provided.1 Definition of Service Management ITIL is presented as “good practice”.2 Service Management Technology Technology plays a major role in IT service management.A means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes the S customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs or risks. management tasks can be automated. Good practice is an approach or method that has been proven in practice. Other tools support the performance of the activities themselves.Value is the core of the service concept. • ervice .chApTer 2 Introduction 2. Outcomes are possible from the performance of tasks and they are limited by a number of constraints. From the customer’s perspective. This increases the chances of the desired outcomes being realized.A set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing S value to customers in the form of services. With the help of tools. for example in monitoring tasks or software distribution tasks. These core terms in service management are explained as follows: • ervice management . for example help desk tools or service management tools. V value consists of two core components: utility and warranty. The ITIL service lifecycle is based on ITIL’s core concept of “service management” and the related concepts “service” and “value”. An integrated set of service management technology should ideally include the following functionality: • upport for all stages of the lifecycle s • upport for the design of services s • elf-help and remote control s • n integrated Configuration Management System (CMS) a .

reduce the surface area of contact users have with the I underlying systems and processes. 2. Each volume of the core ITIL books describes one of these phases. including architecture. processes. Service Design . allocation of tasks. Processes and functions are also discussed in the lifecycle phases.8 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . and C interactions. T • he way the various lifecycle components are linked to each other. Consider the following guidelines to prepare for automation: • implify the processes before automating them. Thus. • n self-service situations.2 for an explanation of the terms utility and warranty). Service Strategy . need for information. and the alignment of service and business strategies. ITIL V3 focuses on the service lifecycle. The related processes and functions are described in detail in the phase where they have the strongest association.The phase of designing and developing appropriate IT services. The service lifecycle consists of five phases.3 Overview of the Service Lifecycle ITIL V3 approaches service management from the lifecycle aspect of a service.The phase of strategic planning of service management capabilities. • o not hurry to automate tasks and interactions that are neither simple nor D routine. the design goal is to meet the current and future business requirements. Processes and functions: − Financial management − Service portfolio management − Demand management 2. Processes and functions: . policy and documents. S • larify the flow of activities. and the way service management components are linked. The five phases are: 1. T • he impact that changes in one component will have on other components and on T the entire lifecycle system. The service lifecycle is an organizational model that provides insight into: • he way service management is structured.the study guIde • echnology for discovery/deployment/licensing/diagnostics/reporting t • ashboards d Automation is considered to improve utility and warranty of services (see section 3.

and service introduction and operation. their continual theme is adjustment and change. Service Operation .ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Functions and processes: − The 7-step improvement process (CSI Improvement Process) − Service reporting Service Strategy is the axis of the service lifecycle (Figure 2. This phase initiates . The Continual Service Improvement phase stands for learning and improving. it is the phase of policymaking and setting objectives. Processes and functions: − Event management − Incident management − Request fulfillment − Problem management − Access management − Monitoring and control − IT operations − Service desk 5. Continual Service Improvement . and improving the capabilities for the transition of new and modified services to production.the study guIde 9 − Service catalogue management − Service level management − Capacity management − Availability management − IT service continuity management − Information security management − Supplier management 3.The phase of realizing the requirements from previous stages. Service Transition .The phase of achieving effectiveness and efficiency in providing and supporting services in order to ensure value for the customer and the service provider.The phase of creating and maintaining the value for the customer by design improvement.1) that drives all other phases. and embraces all other lifecycle phases. Processes and functions: − Transition planning and support − Change management − Service asset and configuration management − Release and deployment management − Service validation and testing − Evaluation − Knowledge management 4. The Service Design. Service Transition and Service Operation phases are guided by this strategy.

which are always described in detail in the book in which they find their key application.the study guIde Se rv i vice Transition Ser ate tr gy ITIL V3 rv ice Op eration Figure 2.1 The Service Lifecycle improvement programs and projects. 2.4 ITIL Library The official. • omplementary portfolio: C − introduction guide − key element guides − qualification aids − white papers − glossary Se .10 l Service Improv nua em nti en Co t n g esi D ce Servic eS ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . and prioritizes them based on the strategic objectives of the organization. functions and activities. new style ITIL Library encompasses the following components: • ore Library - the five service lifecycle publications: C − Service Strategy − Service Design − Service Transition − Service Operation − Continual Service Improvement Each book covers a phase from the service lifecycle and encompasses various processes.

The process owner will assess the results based on performance indicators and check whether the results meet the agreed standard. • he process operatives are responsible for defined activities. provide results to customers or stakeholders.the study guIde 11 2.5 Introduction to Functions and processes This section provides an overview of the basic functions and processes that are included in the five phases of the service lifecycle. the relevant performance indicators and standards will already be agreed upon. Processes and functions are defined as follows: • rocess - A structured set of activities designed to accomplish a defined objective. it would be difficult for a process owner to determine whether the process is under control. result in a goal-oriented change. Processes are measurable. . An example of a process is change management. P Processes have inputs and outputs. T and reports to the process owner.A team or group of people and the tools they use to carry out one or F more processes or activities. A procedure A describes the “how”. (Note: “function” can also mean “functionality”.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . In most cases. Functions can make use of various processes. Functions have their own practices and their own knowledge body. Without clear indicators. Processes can run through several organizational units. • unction . Procedures will vary depending on the organization.) We can study each process separately to optimize its quality: • he process owner is responsible for the process results. and responsible for specific end results. and can also describe “who” executes the activities. “functioning”. Processes are often described using procedures and work instructions: • procedure is a specified way to carry out an activity or a process. and if planned improvements are being implemented. T • he process manager is responsible for the realization and structure of the process. are continual and iterative and are always originating from a certain event. and these activities are T reported to the process manager. and utilize feedback for self-enhancing and self-corrective actions. specialized in fulfilling a specified type of work. or “job”. An example of a function is a service desk. The management of the organization can provide control on the basis of data from each process. A procedure may include stages from different processes. and the process manager can take day-to-day control of the process.

and even portfolios is created. projects. for example. departments. using technology or other resources. alerts. aimed at management or customers. divisions): • oles are sets of responsibilities. programs. brought together for the sake of control. M • nline facilities .A process is a structured set of activities designed to accomplish a defined P objective. products and partners (the four Ps) provide the main “machinery” of any organization. One person or team may have multiple roles. process. R project progress reports. • ortfolio - A portfolio is a set of projects and/or programs. in the N company restaurant. the outputs may not be as anticipated. Positions can also be more broadly defined as a logical concept that refers to the people and automated measures that carry out a clearly defined process. coordination and optimization of . When setting up an organization.the study guIde • set of work instructions defines how one or more activities in a procedure should A be executed in detail. • rogram - A program consists of a number of projects and activities that are planned P and managed together to achieve an overall set of related objectives. A person in a particular position has a clearly defined package of tasks and responsibilities which may include various roles. groupware. teleconferencing and virtual meeting facilities • otice boards - Near the coffee maker. regular meetings with specific targets. activities and authorities granted to a person R or team. but they only work well if the machine is oiled: communication is an essential element in any organization. People. It is recommended that a common understanding of processes. pagers. with people and other assets required P to achieve an objective. the roles of Configuration Manager and Change Manager may be carried out by one person. messenger facilities. The following definitions may be used: • rocess . which are not necessarily P related.Email systems. in addition to the various groups (teams. Individuals and roles have an N:N relationship (many-to-many). positions and roles are also used. chat rooms. If the people do not know about the processes or use the wrong instructions or tools.12 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . • eetings - Formal project meetings. an activity or a combination of processes or activities.Internal and external reporting. • ob positions are traditionally recognized as tasks and responsibilities that are J assigned to a specific person. • roject - A project is a temporary organization. document sharing O systems. Formal structures on communication include: • eporting . at the entrance of the building.

The tool should be able to plan changes and assess the impact of changes to minimize the likelihood of post-production problems. components and services to be held together with all relevant attributes and to allow relationships between each to be stored and maintained.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . 1 and 3 only c. Request Fulfilment Lifecycle. Problem Lifecycle. 3. Change Model etc. 4. 2.6 Sample Questions 1. Service Architecture d. All of the above . Which of the following requirements are adequate for an integrated set of Service Management technology? 1. 3 and 4 only d. NB: A service portfolio is the complete set of services that are managed by a service provider. The tool should ensure that all of the information within the Service Catalogue is accurate and up to date. Service Operation c. 1 only b. 2. Which of the following does NOT represent a stage in the Service Lifecycle? a. Service Strategy 2. The tool should contain a workflow or process control engine to allow the predefinition and control of defined processes such as an Incident Lifecycle. Continual Service Improvement b. 1. a.the study guIde 13 the portfolio in its totality. The tool should have an integrated Configuration Management System to allow the organization’s IT infrastructure assets.

2. Leads to specific results a. Which of the following characterizes a function? 1. 1 only b. It is self-contained with capabilities and resources for its performance. 3. In self service situations. 1. Which of the following are characteristics of a process 1. All of the above . 4. Clarify the flow of activities. It can be repeated and becomes manageable. 1 and 2 only c. Has customers 4. 4. Simplify the service processes before automating them. reduce the surface area of the contact users have with the underlying systems and processes. 1 only b. 2 and 3 only d. Do not be in a hurry to automate tasks and interactions that are neither simple nor routine. 1 only b. Measurable 2.the study guIde 3. allocation of tasks. All of the above 5. It is specialized to perform a certain type of work. need for information and interactions. 1.14 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . 2 and 3 only d. 1 and 3 only c. 2 and 3 only d. a. It is responsible for specific outcomes. 2. 1. 1 and 3 only c. All of the above 4. Responds to a specific Event 3. 3. Which of the following should be considered when automating Service Management? 1. a.

the axis (principle line of development. Goal The main goal of Service Strategy is to help service providers to develop the ability to think and act in a strategic manner.1 Lifecycle phase 3. Service Strategy is critical in the context of all processes along the ITIL service lifecycle.chApTer 3 Service Strategy 3. Objectives The objectives of Service Strategy are to answer questions such as: • hat services to offer to customers? W • ow to differentiate from competitors? H • ow to create value for customers? H • ow to make a case for strategic investments? H • ow to define and improve service quality? H • ow to efficiently allocate resources across a portfolio of services? H Scope Topics of Service Strategy include: • trategy generation s • he development of markets (internal and external) t • ervice assets s • ervice catalogue s • mplementation of strategy through the service lifecycle i • emand management d • inancial management f • ervice portfolio management s • rganizational development o .1. reference point) of the lifecycle is introduced.1 Introduction In this chapter. developing and implementing service management as a strategic asset. As the axis of the lifecycle. direction. movement. Service Strategy delivers guidance with designing.

fitness for purpose. The availability. • arranty . money or anything else R that might help to deliver an IT service. .Maintain consistency in decisions and actions. the positive effect is the “utility” of a service.16 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Functionality offered by a product or service to meet a U particular need. Resources are considered to be the assets of an organization. P • attern .Resources include IT Infrastructure. Utility is often summarized as “what it does”. P • osition . • esources .2 Basic concepts To formulate the strategy.Take a clearly defined stance.Capabilities develop over the years. Service providers must develop C distinctive capabilities in order to maintain services that are difficult to duplicate by the competition.fitness for use. For customers. Organizations use them to create value in the form of goods and services. P Value creation is a combination of the effects of utility and warranty. capacity. P • lan . the insurance of this positive effect is the “warranty”: • tility .” Resources and capabilities are the service assets of a service provider. Service providers must also invest substantially in education and training if they are to continue to develop their strategic assets and maintain their competitive advantage. A promise or guarantee that a product or service will W meet its agreed requirements. 1994): • erspective - Have a clear vision and focus. people. continuity and information security necessary to meet the customers’ requirements.1. • apabilities . Mintzberg’s four Ps are a good starting point (Mintzberg.the study guIde • ourcing strategies s • trategic risks s 3. Both are necessary for the creation of value for the customer.Form a precise notion of how the organization should develop itself. The value networks are defined as follows: “A value network is a web of relationships that generate both tangible and intangible value through complex and dynamic exchanges between two or more organizations.

Understand the relation between services and strategies. understand the opportunities. where possible.A service provider that provides IT services to T external customers. .ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Three different types of service providers are distinguished: • ype I: Internal service provider . and classify and visualize the services. • etired services .An internal service provider that is embedded T within a Business Unit. The objective of SPM is to achieve maximum value creation while at the same time managing the risks and costs. • ype II: Shared Services Unit . There may be several type I service providers within an organization.3 Processes and other activities This section briefly explains the processes and activities of Service Strategy.1.An integral component of service management.Services that are phased out or withdrawn. The Service Strategy processes: • inancial management . The service portfolio represents the opportunities and readiness of a service provider to serve the customers and the market space.The services that are either under consideration or in S development. the purchase of products and. It F anticipates the essential management information in financial terms that is required for the guarantee of efficient and cost-effective service delivery.An essential aspect of service management in which offer D and demand are harmonized. D understand the customers. R 3. The service portfolio can be divided into three subsets of services: • ervice catalogue . • ervice Portfolio Management (SPM) . More information about each of these processes can be found in Chapter 9 of this pocket guide.the study guIde 17 Service providers are organizations that supply services to one or more internal or external customers. S • ervice pipeline . as accurately as possible. • emand management .The services that are available to customers. The Service Strategy activities: • efining the market . to balance the demand with the resources.An internal service provider that provides shared IT T services to more than one Business Unit.Method to manage all service management S investments in terms of business value. • ype III: External service provider . The goal of demand management is to predict.

Provision and delivery of services by internal staff. 2. They assume the responsibility for leading the strategy and for guiding managers to embrace their functional responsibilities. − ype 2 Shared services - Working with internal BUs.A single contract with one service provider. et cetera.18 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . We call this the SOC principle (Separation of Concerns.4 Organization There are five recognizable phases in organizational development within the spectrum of centralization and decentralization: 1.In stage 3.Define the value network and improve T capabilities and resources (service assets) to increase the service and performance potential.An organization in stage 1 focuses on fast. informal and ad hoc provision of services. this offers the most control. The following generic forms of outsourcing can be delineated: • nternal outsourcing: I − Type 1 Internal . the informal structure of stage 1 is transformed into an hierarchical structure with a strong management team. the focus is on the improvement of cooperation with the business. prioritizing investments. 3. but is still limited in scale. • raditional outsourcing: T − Complete outsourcing of a service .Create a service portfolio that represents the T opportunities and readiness of a service provider to serve the customers and the market. but is limited in scale. . Stage 1: Network . • reparation for execution - Strategic assessment. offers lower costs than Type T 1 and more standardization.1. Sometimes it is more efficient to outsource certain services. Stage 4: Coordination . • he development of strategic assets .During stage 5. The organization is technologically oriented and is uncomfortable with formal structures. but limited in best-in-class capabilities. 4. 5.In stage 4 the focus is directed towards the use of formal systems as a means of achieving better coordination.the study guIde • he development of the offer . setting objectives. efforts are made to enhance technical efficiency and provide space for innovation in order to reduce costs and improve services. Stage 5: Collaboration . defining critical P success factors. Stage 3: Delegation . SOC): that which results from the search for competitive differentiation through the redistribution of resources and capabilities. Stage 2: Directive .In stage 2. The goal of the Service Strategy phase is to improve the core competencies. better in terms of scaling opportunities. 3.

A selection of multiple service providers. the disadvantage is the risk of the necessity of working with the competition.The process owner manages the process models that have been P developed on behalf of the users.A variation of selective outsourcing in which the service receiver combines a structure of internal or shared services with external providers. This role represents the customer. • rocess owner . • usiness representatives .A pool of service providers selected and managed through the service receiver.A single contract with one service provider who works with multiple providers. accounting and charging. in this case.The director supervises the provider on behalf D of the business. this is the most difficult structure to manage. − Co-Sourcing . • irector of service management . Works closely with the business relationship manager. − Selective outsourcing . • usiness relationship manager . 3. .The chief sourcing officer reports to the CIO and manages C the implementation of sourcing.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . • ontract manager . − Consortium .The product manager is a key role within service portfolio P management. improved capabilities and risks. It is essential to identify and manage these dependencies and influences.5 Methods. the advantage is best-inclass with more oversight.the study guIde 19 • ulti-vendor outsourcing: M − Prime .The financial manager is responsible for implementing and T managing the IT Service providers budgeting. The role is responsible for managing the services in the service provider’s organization. but increased complexity.The business relationship manager brings B coordination and focus to the customer portfolio. • roduct manager . techniques and tools Services are socio-technical systems with service assets as the operational elements. The effectiveness of Service Strategy depends on a well-managed relationship between the social and technical sub-systems.The contract manager manages the service contract from the C perspective of the service provider. the service receiver is the service integrator. Roles and responsibilities Important roles and responsibilities are: • hief sourcing officer .1. • he financial manager .They represent the customers’ interests and manage the B sourcing relationship from that perspective.

Service Transition.6 Implementation and operation Strategic goals are to be converted into plans with objectives and ultimate goals. Service Strategy provides every phase of the lifecycle with input: • trategy and design .Techniques used to retroactively analyze investments. based on the lifecycle. • ost-Program ROI . adopted and continually reviewed.1. and the contract portfolio.the study guIde Tools for the Service Strategy phase can be: • imulation . Deployment patterns in Service Operation define operational strategies for customers. The strategy must be in line with operational capabilities and constraints.Service strategies are implemented through the delivery of S the portfolio in a specific market area. Service Strategy provides Service Transition with structures and constraints like the service portfolio. Service Operation is responsible for delivering the contract portfolio and should be able to deal with demand changes.20 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . strategies are never static. all strategic changes go S through Service Transition.To reduce the risk of failing. CSI processes deliver . Service Operation. through Service Design. • re-Program ROI . and Continual Service Improvement. • trategy and CSI . Newly chartered services or services that require improvements in order to suit the demand are promoted to the Service Design phase. • nalytical modeling . P 3. architectures. Service S strategies need to be developed. They must be evaluated and adopted within the context of Service Strategy and service management.The final realization of strategy occurs in the production S phase. PMBOK® and PRINCE2® offer well tested methods A based on analytical models. Plans translate the intentions of the strategy into actions.Due to constant changes. Service Transition processes analyze. policies. evaluate and approve strategic initiatives.Six Sigma. • trategy and operations . Three techniques for quantifying the value of an investment are suggested: • usiness case - A way of identifying business objectives that are dependent on B service management. The design can be driven by service models.Techniques used to quantitatively analyze investments before P committing resources.System Dynamics is a methodology for understanding and managing S the complex problems of IT organizations. outcomes. • trategy and transition . Strategic imperatives influence quality perspectives processed in CSI. constraints or pricing.

This explains why some service C organizations are not inclined to change. follow the progression and provide the organization with feedback.Measurements focus the organization on its E strategic goals. redundancy. Risk is defined as follows: “a risk is an uncertain outcome. but often they are not very good at providing insights into the effectiveness of the services that they offer.IT organizations are complex systems.The people who make the decisions often have limited C time. warranty factors. Challenges and opportunities: • omplexity . • oordination and control . today’s decisions often end up as tomorrow’s problems.the study guIde 21 feedback for the strategy phase on. maintainability. Most IT organizations are good at monitoring data. Without continual learning processes. It is crucial to perform the right analyses and to modify them as the strategy changes. The implementation of strategy leads to changes in the service portfolio. for example: quality perspective. This makes coordination through cooperation and monitoring essential. curb and mitigate the risks within the lifecycle phases. attention and capacity. reliability.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . a positive opportunity or a negative threat. Organizations are not always in a position to anticipate the long-term consequences of decisions and actions. • reserving Value .” Risk analysis and risk management must be applied to the service pipeline and service catalogue in order to identify.Customers are not only interested in the utility and warranty that P they receive for the price they pay. • ffectiveness in measurement . They want to know the Total Cost of Utilization (TCU). This involves management of related risks. The following types of risks are recognized: • ontract risks c • esign risks d • perational risks o • arket risks m . or in other words. Therefore they delegate the roles and responsibilities to teams and individuals.

both tangible P and intangible.The actual underlying costs of IT (creation costs). taxes. It is also able to answer important organizational issues. It provides vital information that management needs to guarantee efficient and cost-effective service delivery. Determines the eventual value of the service by adding these components and comparing them against the costs (provisioning value).2 Functions and processes 3. • ervice value potential . compliance costs. financial management generates meaningful and critical data on performance.2. Financial Management ensures correct funding for the purchase and the delivery of services. If strictly implemented. facility costs.22 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . The expected demand for IT services is qualified and translated into financial . reduced costs D or increased coverage? • hich services cost most and why? W • here are our greatest inefficiencies? W Financial management ensures that the charges for IT services are transparent via the service catalogue and that the business understands them. annual maintenance costs. such as: • oes our differentiation strategy result in higher profits and revenue.the study guIde 3. Examples of these costs include: hardware and software license costs. The benefits are: • mproved decision-making i • nputs for service portfolio management i • inancial compliance and control f • perational control o • alue capture and creation v Basic concepts Two vital value concepts for service valuation are defined: • rovisioning value . Looks at the service’s individual value components to determine the true value of the service.1 Financial Management Introduction Financial management is an integrated component of service management.The value-adding component based on the customer’s S value perception or the expected additional utility and warranty that the customers can obtain compared to their own assets.

. C administration.g. rules or policy plans may be required to indicate how the costs must be spread across the services. such as hardware. − The number of cost types can vary depending on the organization's size.Allocating a cost center for a service. Activities During service valuation activities. Related functions and accounting properties are: • ervice recording . − The cost types can then be split up into cost items and settlement for each cost item may be established at a later stage. it is important to gain insight into C the types of costs that occur. so that costs can be easily allocated. the following decisions are made: • irect costs versus indirect costs . divestments and changes in the service portfolio or service alternatives. L • ariable costs . personnel costs.driven from the business. − Once the basis for cost administration (e. • ost classification .Can costs be attributed directly to a specific D service or are they shared by several services (indirect costs)? Once the depth and width of the cost components have been identified. • emand planning - Need for and use of IT services as described earlier. A service-oriented accounting function results in far more detail and understanding of the delivery and consumption of services.To ensure good cost control. software. Variable Cost Dynamics (VCD) analyzes and searches for insight into the many variables that have an impact on the service costs. D • egulatory and environmental planning (compliance) . Costs can be split up according to various aspects. cost types are determined for cost entry. • abor costs . the number of users or the V number of occurring events.Variable expenses that depend on e. R Financial management acts as a bridge between financial systems and service management systems.the study guIde 23 terms via a plan.Translation of IT O expenditures to collective financial systems as part of the collective planning cycle.Identify price breaks to encourage customers to buy a specific volume that is efficient to the customer and provider. you can use: − Tiers . as well as the production of data for the planning process. S • ost types - High-level expenses. per department. To predict variable costs. service or customer) is established.Develop a system to calculate the wage costs for a certain service. each of which delivers financial results that are necessary for continued transparency and service valuation: • perating and capital planning (general and fixed asset ledgers) . − Cost types must have a clear and recognizable description. This plan may have three primary areas.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . The VCD analysis is able to determine the expected impact of events like acquisitions.g.

the T change management process.A chargeback model for IT can enable C justification and transparency.Only include the actual costs of a service. • hargeback: to charge or not to charge? . Charging increases the customer organization’s awareness of the costs incurred to provide it with information. After having established the fixed and variable costs for each service.the study guIde − Maximum costs .24 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . • ranslation of cost account data to service value . BIA offers an additional tool to determine the costs of service failure and the relative value of a service. and project prioritization. Depending on the acknowledgement of the added value. − Average costs . • rigger based plans . Value Center. A number of these are highlighted.Can be done only if the costs T are linked to services. IT is then considered a cost center or a valuable asset for the business objectives. change management. the variable cost drivers and variation level of a service should be determined. Customers identify those outputs as value.IT’s financial cycle starts C with investment in resources that create the outputs. BIA identifies the financial and operational impact that may result from an interruption of business operations as well as the impact on assets and customers. for instance. reinitiating the cycle. Z The Business Impact Analysis (BIA) represents the basis for planning business continuity. Some concepts in financial management have a big impact on the development of service strategies. could act as a trigger for the planning process for all approved changes that have financial consequences. The costs of a service failure consist of the value of lost productivity and income for a specific period. This information can help shape and improve operational performance. • ero based funding . allowing each organization to determine which the best alternatives are for its Service Strategy: • ost Recovery.A constant funding cycle. .Critical triggers activate planning for a specific event. release and deployment management. the focus of problem management. This is because it enables improved decision-making with regard to prioritization of incident handling. Traditional models to fund IT services include: • olling plan funding .Set the costs at an average calculated over a defined period.Describe the costs of a service based on maximum variation. or Accounting Center? . suitable for a service lifecycle for R which a funding obligation is incurred at the start of a cycle and continues until changes occur or the cycle ends.

design. − Fixed or user cost . implement.A number of example F implementation steps for phased implementation: plan.An accounting method that provides insight into the costs that would be charged for a specific settlement method. applies exclusively for organizations that have made serious progress in introducing financial management. Inputs and outputs Financial Management gathers data inputs from the whole organization and helps to generate and disseminate information as an output to base critical decisions and activities on. − Direct plus . analyze. . • inancial Management implementation checklist .Less complex settlement model in which the allocated direct costs of a service are increased by a percentage of the general indirect costs for shared services.Simplest settlement model in which the costs are divided on the basis of an accepted computing factor. such as the number of users.the study guIde 25 There are several chargeback models: − Notional charging .Settling costs on the basis of carefully established consumption units.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . this method does not allow for much distinction and therefore makes the least contribution to cost awareness. measure. − Metered usage .

our priorities and our risks? W • ow should our resources and capabilities be allocated? H .the study guIde 3. managers are able to assess the quality requirements and accompanying costs. in terms of financial values. The goal of service portfolio management is to realize maximum value while managing risks and costs.2 Service Portfolio Management Introduction A service portfolio describes the services of a provider in terms of business value.2. It is a dynamic method used to govern investments in service management across the enterprise.1 Service portfolio management Basic concepts By functioning as the basis of the decision framework. the service portfolio helps to answer the following strategic questions: • hy should a client buy these services? W • hy should a client buy these services from us? W • hat are the price and charge back models? W • hat are our strong and weak points. With Service Portfolio Management (SPM).26 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Service Strategy Define • Inventories • Business Case Analyze • Value Proposition • Prioritization Approve • Service Portfolio • Authorization Charter • Communication • Resource allocation Figure 3.

Product managers play an important role in the service portfolio management. In essence.the study guIde 27 With an efficient portfolio having optimal ROI and risk levels. The service portfolio covers three subsets of services: • ervice catalogue . They are responsible for managing services as products during the entire lifecycle.RTB investments concentrate on maintaining the service production. in this phase. but also validates the data over and over again.That part of the service portfolio that is visible to customers. who coordinate and focus on the Client Portfolio. • ervice pipeline . but also determine the desired result of SPM.Making an inventory of services. tuning. These services are to be applied in the production phase via the Service Transition phase. They work closely together with the Business Relationship Managers. The phasing out of R services is a component of Service Transition and is necessary to guarantee that all agreements with customers will be kept. Product managers coordinate and focus the organization and own the service catalogue.1): • efine . The pipeline represents the growth and strategic anticipation for the future. Service investments must be subdivided into three strategic categories: − Run the Business . the cyclic nature of the SPM process signifies that this phase does not only inventory the services. prioritizing and balancing supply A and demand. the strategic goals are given a concrete form. business cases and validating the portfolio D data. each service in the portfolio should have a business case. SPM is a Governance method. Activities SPM is a dynamic and continuous process that entails the following work methods (see also Figure 3.Maximizing the portfolio value. Start with a series of top/down questions such as: What are the long-term goals of the service organization? Which services are required to realize these goals? Which capabilities and resources are necessary to attain these services? The answers to these questions form the basis of the analysis. • etired services . an organization can maximize the value realization on its constrained and limited resources and capabilities.Services that are phased out or withdrawn. start with collecting information on all existing and proposed services in order to determine the costs of the existing portfolio. .ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . • nalyze . S The service catalogue is an essential strategy tool because it can be viewed as the virtual projection of the actual and available capabilities of the service provider.Consists of all services that are either under consideration or in S development for a specific market or customer.

rationalize. New services proceed to the Services Design Phase and existing services are renewed in the service catalogue. Decisions must be in tune with the budget decisions and financial plans. Service portfolio management provides input for refreshing services in the service catalogue. This way. replace. − Transform the Business . • harter . renew and retire. re-factor. Inputs and outputs Financial management is a key input to service portfolio management. allocating resources and chartering services. C Start with a list of decisions and action items and communicate these clearly and unambiguously to the organization. There are six different outcomes: retain. .Finishing the proposed portfolio. beneficial decisions can be made regarding whether a certain service should be provisioned internally (the output). service costs can be benchmarked against other providers.TTB investments are meant to move into new market spaces. This IT financial information can be used together with service demand and internal capability information. authorizing services and resources and A making decisions for the future.28 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .GTB investments are intended to expand the scope of services.Communicating decisions. By understanding cost structures applied in the provisioning of a service.the study guIde − Grow the Business . • pprove .

Activity-based demand management: business processes are the primary source of demand for services.3 Demand Management Introduction Demand management is a vital aspect of service management. Present pattern Consumption cycle produces demand Customer assets Service assets Production cycle consumes demand Respond with capacity Figure 3.2).the study guIde 29 3. Service Operation is impossible without the existence of a demand that consumes the product. Service management must deal with the additional problem of synchronous production and consumption. in which consumption cycles stimulate the production cycles (Figure 3. analyze and record patterns. It aligns supply with demand and aims to predict the sale of products as closely as possible and. The production capacity of the resources available for a service is therefore adjusted in accordance with demand prognoses and patterns.2. Patterns of Business Activity (PBAs) have an impact on demand patterns. if possible. Basic concepts • ervice packages . It is a pull-system.A service package is a detailed description of an IT service that S can be delivered to customers. A service package consists of a Service Level Package (SLP) and one or more core services and supporting services. even regulate it. This creates a sufficient basis for capacity management. It is extremely important to study the customer’s business and thus identify.A defined level of utility and warranty for a particular S service package. • ervice Level Package (SLP) . from the perspective of the user. .2 Close relationship between demand and capacity It is not possible to produce service output and store it until demand arises. Each SLP is designed to meet the needs of a particular Pattern of Business Activity (PBA).ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .

• ine of Service (LOS) . while at the same time keeping an eye on the supporting services. A line of service is managed by a product manager and each service level package is designed to support a particular market segment. standards. These are strategic decisions .A detailed description of a core service that may be C shared by two or more service level packages. S . They are important primarily to service providers who supply multiple organizations or business units while at the same time being forced to reduce costs in order to preserve the competitiveness of their portfolio. Service providers should thoroughly analyze the prevailing conditions in their business environment. Supporting services enable that value proposition (enabling services or Basic Factors) or improve it (Enhancing services or Excitement Factors). such as the helpdesk or technical support. Some supporting services. Research has shown that customers are often dissatisfied with supporting services.A core service or supporting service that has multiple service L level packages. They represent the value that customers require and for which they are willing to pay. Transition and CSI (Continual Service Improvement) phases.the study guIde • ore Service Package (CSP) . These strategic decisions can have a major impact on the service provider’s success at the portfolio level. are generally bundled but can also be offered separately. S • ervice catalogue management - To have the appropriate services available. Activities Core services deliver the basic results to the customer. Inputs and outputs Business processes are the primary inputs for demand management. Core services represent the basis for the value-proposition to the customer. and the alternatives that are available to these customers. Bundling supporting services with core services affects Service Operations and represents challenges for the Design. even if the methods. technologies and regulations in an industry change. the needs of the customer segments or types they serve. Analyzing PBAs within demand management can deliver inputs to other service management processes such as: • ervice Design - To make the design suit the demand patterns. Service providers must focus on the effective delivery of value through core services.30 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . This is an important consideration in the strategic planning and review of the plans.they shape a long-term vision that is intended to enable the organization to create lasting value for customers. Bundling core services and supporting services are a vital aspect of a market strategy. Patterns of Business Activity (PBAs) influence the demand forecasts and patterns.

g. All of the above . new S services. 2 and 4 only d. the vulnerability of the asset to a threat 3. 3 and 4 only d. the countermeasures put in place 4. 2 and 4 only c.the study guIde 31 • ervice portfolio management - To approve investing in additional capacity. All of the above 2. Practice 3. Preferences 2. 1. • inancial management - To approve suitable incentives to influence demand. 1 only b.g. 1 and 3 only c. 1.3 Sample Questions 1. the probability of a threat 2. 1 only b. the impact if a threat occurs a. changes to services.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . pricing and charging policies) f • hysical constraints (e. A risk is measured by: 1. Business outcome a. Perceptions 4. F Inputs: • esource utilization profiles of services r • BAs P Outputs: • inancial constraints (e. The value of a service is determined by: 1. limited availability) p 3.

1. Analysing and tracking the activity patterns of a business process a. 2 and 3 only c. Define the market 2. Compliance 5. All of the above 4. What are the MAIN activities in the Service Strategy management process? 1. Develop the offerings 3. 1. 2 and 3 only d.the study guIde 3. 2 and 4 only d. 4 only b. 1 and 2 only c. 4 only b.32 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . All of the above . Service devaluation b. Differentiated offerings 2. Which of the following concepts and activities help Demand Management in managing the demand for services? 1. Develop strategic assets 4. Differentiated service levels 3. Service Portfolio Management c. Prepare for execution a. Which of the following activities is NOT an activity in the Financial Management process? a. Service Investment Analysis d. Major Incident Management 4.

chApTer 4 Service Design 4. contribute to saving time and money w • inimize or prevent risks m • ontribute to satisfying the current and future market needs c • ssess and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of IT services a • upport the development of policies and standards regarding IT services s • ontribute to the quality of IT services c The Service Design phase in the lifecycle begins with the demand for new or changed requirements from the customer.1 Lifecycle phase 4. Value for the business Good Service Design offers the following benefits: • ower Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) l • mproved quality of service delivery i • mproved consistency of the service i • impler implementation of new or modified services s • mproved synchronization of services with the needs of the business i • mproved effectiveness of performances i . The main goal of Service Design is: the design of new or changed services for introduction into a production environment. plans and projects are to succeed. processes. Objectives The Objectives of Service Design include: • ontribute to the business objectives c • here possible.ITIL’s four Ps - are a must if the design. technology and tools) and partners (suppliers.1.1 Introduction Goal Service Design deals with the design and development of services and their related processes. manufacturers and vendors) . products (services. Good preparation and an effective and efficient infusion of people.

regular assessments of service quality must be performed. It describes the service delivery in terms of value for the customer and must include all of the service information and its status. functionality.The activities include preparing the blueprints for the development and deployment of an IT infrastructure.In order to lead and manage the development process of services effectively. the applications. The design of processes . By defining what the activities in the lifecycle phases are and what the inputs and outputs are.” 4. The design of the architecture . from defining the requirements until retiring of the service.34 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . the portfolio makes clear in which phase the service takes place. This way the organization can link the quality requirements with the outputs. the data and the environment (according to the needs of the business). including all of the functional requirements. 2.the study guIde • mproved IT administration i • ore effective service management and IT processes m • ore simplified decision-making m 4. the organization can enhance its efficiency and effectiveness even further. The selected assessment system must be synchronized with the . and quality. The design of service solutions . it is possible to work more efficiently and effectively.The service portfolio is the most critical management system for supporting all of the processes. architectures.1. and in a more customer-oriented way.A structured design approach is necessary in order to produce a new service for the right costs. In any event. This approach corresponds with Deming’s Plan-Do-Check-Act Management Cycle. resources and capabilities needed and agreed. This architecture design is defined as: “the development and maintenance of IT policies. implementation and improvement of appropriate IT services and solutions throughout the organization. documents.2 Basic concepts Scope The design phase should cover five important aspects: 1. strategies. 5. The process must be iterative and incremental in order to satisfy the customers’ changing wishes and requirements. plans and processes for deployment. 3. The design of the service portfolio .A process model enables understanding and helps to articulate the distinctive features of a process. The next step is to establish norms and standards. It is important to assemble a Service Design Package (SDP) with all aspects of the (new or changed) service and its requirements through each stage of its lifecycle. The design of measurement systems and metrics . designs. By assessing the current quality of processes and the options for improvement.

Traditional development approaches are based on the principle that the requirements of the customer can be determined at the beginning of the service lifecycle and that the development costs can be kept under control by managing the changes. development. development. O maintenance. Each piece supports one of the business functions that the entire service needs.An external organization provides and B manages (part of ) another organization’s business processes in another location.A service is designed bit by bit.The development lifecycle is repeated several times. requires that all phases of the lifecycle are traversal. and/or support of the service.Computer-based services are offered to the customer A over a network. There are four elements that can be investigated: progress. The question which model should be used for the development of IT services largely depends on the service delivery model that is chosen. execution. fulfillment. • utsourcing . • o-sourcing . • pplication service provision . however. and/or support for the service.Internal resources are used for the design. • nowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO) . • he iterative approach .A combination of insourcing and outsourcing in which various C outsourcing organizations work cooperatively throughout the service lifecycle. The big advantage in this approach is its shorter delivery time. • ulti-sourcing (or partnership) .Engaging an external organization for the design. An organization can begin by specifying the requirements for the entire service. T Techniques like prototyping are used in order to understand the customer-specific requirements better. I execution. • usiness Process Outsourcing (BPO) . The development of each part. A combination of the two approaches is possible.Provides domain-based processes and K business expertise. The RADapproach is an incremental and iterative development approach: • he incremental approach .Multiple organizations make formal agreements M with the focus on strategic partnerships (creating new market opportunities). followed by an incremental design and the . Parts are developed T separately and are delivered individually. effectiveness and efficiency of the process. Rapid Application Development (RAD) approaches begin with the notion that change is inevitable and that discouraging change simply indicates passivity in regard to the market.the study guIde 35 capacity and maturity of the processes that are assessed.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . maintenance. The delivery options are: • nsourcing .

agreed and achieved. and the business processes they support.Supplier management draws attention to all of the suppliers S and contracts in order to support the delivery of services to the customer. 4.Understanding and documenting the business D and user’s requirements (functional requirements. deliver and support effective IT services. • apacity management .The goal of SLM is to ensure that the levels of S IT service delivery are documented.The goal of capacity management is to ensure that the C capacity corresponds to both the existing and future needs of the customer (recorded in a capacity plan). • T Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) . • ervice Level Management (SLM) .The goal of SCM is the development and S maintenance of a service catalogue that includes all of the accurate details and the status of all operational services and those being prepared to run operationally.3 Processes and other activities This section briefly explains the processes and activities of the Service Design. for both existing services and future services in accordance with the agreed targets. • ata and information management . Service Design processes: • ervice Catalogue Management (SCM) .The goal of the availability management process is to A ensure that the availability level of both new and changed services corresponds with the levels as agreed with the customer.1. . • upplier management .The ultimate goal of ITSCM is I to support business continuity (vital business functions.Information security management ensures I that the information security policy satisfies the organization’s overall security policy and the requirements originating from corporate governance. choose standard software solutions to satisfy needs and demands instead of designing the service themselves. More information about each of these processes can be found in Chapter 10 of this study guide.the study guIde development of the software. management and operational requirements and usability requirements). Service Design technology-related activities: • evelopment of requirements .36 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . • vailability management . • nformation security management .Data is one of the most critical matters that D must be kept under control in order to develop. VBF) by ensuring that the required IT facilities can be restored within the agreed time. Many organizations however. It must maintain in an Availability Management Information System (AMIS) which forms the basis the availability plan.

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• pplication management - Applications, along with data and infrastructure, A comprise the technical components of IT services.
4.1.4 Organization

Well performing organizations can quickly and accurately make the right decisions and execute them successfully. In order to achieve this, it is crucial that the roles and responsibilities are clearly defined. This is also an essential issue in the Service Design phase. One of the possible models that can be helpful in this regard is the RACI model. RACI is an acronym for the four most important roles: • esponsible - the person who is responsible for completing the task R • ccountable - just one person who is accountable for each task A • onsulted - people who give advice C • nformed - people who must be kept in the loop regarding the progress of the I project In establishing a RACI system, the following steps are required: • dentify activities and processes i • dentify and define functional roles i • onduct meetings and delegate the RACI-codes c • dentify gaps and potential overlaps i • istribute the chart and build in feedback d • nsure that the allocations are followed e
Role 1 R I R I Role 2 A C A A Role 3 I R I C Role 4 C A C R

Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4

Table 4.1 Structure of a RACI matrix

The most important roles of Service Design are: • he process owner is responsible for ensuring that the process is implemented as T agreed and that the established objectives will therefore be achieved. Tasks are: − documenting and recording the process − defining the KPIs and if necessary revising them − improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the process − providing input to the Service Improvement Plan − reviewing the process, the roles and responsibilities


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• he service design manager is responsible for the overall coordination and T inputting of the service designs. Tasks include: − ensure that the overall service strategies are reflected in the Service Design practice and that the designs meet the business requirements − design the functional aspects of the services − produce and maintain the design documentation − assess the effectiveness and efficiency of Service Design • he service catalogue manager is responsible for the production and maintenance T of the service catalogue. In addition, the service catalogue manager must: − ensure that the services are recorded in the service catalogue − ensure that the information that has been included is up-to-date and is consistent with the information in the service portfolio − ensure that the service catalogue is secure and that there are backups • he service level manager responsibilities include: T − have an insight into the changing demands of the customer and the market − ensure that the customers' existing and future requirements have been identified − negotiate and make agreements on the delivery of services − assist in the production and maintenance of an accurate service portfolio − nsure that the objectives that have been ratified in underlying contracts are e synchronized with the SLA • he availability manager’s responsibilities include: T − ensure that the existing services are available as agreed − assist in investigating and diagnosing all incidents and problems − contribute to the design of the IT infrastructure − proactively improve the availability of services • he security manager’s responsibilities include: T − design and maintain the information security policy − communicate with the involved parties on matters pertaining to the security policy − assist in the business impact analysis − perform risk analyses and risk management together with availability management and IT service continuity management • he IT service continuity manager’s responsibilities include: T − perform business impact analyses − implement and maintain the ITSCM process in accordance with overall requirements − ensure that ITSCM plans, risks and activities align with those of BCM − maintain and develop the continuity strategy − undertake reviews of the continuity plans

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• he capacity manager’s responsibilities include: T − ensure there is adequate IT capacity to meet required levels of service − identify capacity requirements − understand current usage − perform sizing on all proposed new services − forecast future capacity requirements • he supplier manager’s responsibilities include: T − provide assistance with SLAs, contracts and agreements for third-party suppliers − ensure value for money is obtained from all suppliers − review and maintain Supplier and contract database − monitor and report supplier performance − coordinate and support all IT supplier and contract managers Additional roles that can be found in this phase include: • T planner I • T designer/architect I
4.1.5 Methods, techniques and tools

It is extremely important to ensure that the tools to be used support the processes and not the other way around. There are various tools and techniques that can be used for supporting the service and component designs. Not only do they make the hardware and software designs possible, but they also enable the development of environment designs, process designs and data designs. Tools help ensure that Service Design processes function effectively. They enhance efficiency and provide valuable management information on the identification of possible weak points.
4.1.6 Implementation and operation

In the following section the implementation considerations for Service Design are addressed. • usiness Impact Analysis (BIA) - BIA is a valuable source of information for B establishing the customer’s needs, and the impact and risk of a service (for the business). The BIA is an essential element in the business continuity process and dictates the strategy to be followed for risk reduction and recovery after a catastrophe. • mplementation of Service Design - Process, policy and architecture for the design I of IT services, must be documented and used in order to design and implement appropriate IT services. In principle, they all should be implemented because all processes are related and often depend on each other. In this way you will get the best benefit. It is important do this in a structured way.


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• rerequisites for Success (PFS) - Prerequisites are often requirements from other P processes. For example, before Service Level Management (SLM) can design the Service Level Agreement (SLA), a Business service catalogue and a Technical service catalogue are necessary. KPIs for the Service Design process include: • ccuracy of the SLAs, OLAs and UCs. A • ercentage of specifications of the requirements of Service Design produced within P budget. • ercentage of Service Design Packages (SDPs) produced on time. P Examples of challenges that are faced during implementation include: • he need for synchronization of existing architecture, strategy and policy. T • he use of diverse technologies and applications instead of single platforms. T • nclear or changing customer requirements. U There are several risks during the Service Design phase, including: • aturity - if the maturity of one process is low, it is impossible to reach a high level M of maturity in other processes. • nclear Business requirements. U • oo little time allotted for Service Design. T Figure 4.1 shows that the output from every phase becomes an input to another phase in the lifecycle. Thus Service Strategy provides important input to Service Design, which in turn, provides input to the transition phase. The service portfolio provides information to every process in every phase of the lifecycle.

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The business/customers



Service Strategy Strategies Policies

Resource & constraints

Objectives from Requirements

Service Design Solution Designs Service Transition Transition Plans Architectures



Service Portfolio Service Catalogue

Tested solutions


Service Operation

Operational services

Continual Service Improvement

Improvement actions & plans

Figure 4.1 The most important relationships, inputs and outputs of Service Design

Many organizations integrate and maintain the service portfolio and service catalogue as a part of their Configuration Management System (CMS). an organization’s IT infrastructure grows at a steady pace. or as starting point for the re-distribution of the workload as part of capacity management. guidelines and responsibilities. • ervice catalogue .1 Service Catalogue Management Introduction The purpose of Service Catalogue Management (SCM) is the development and upkeep of a service catalogue that contains all details.2 Functions and processes 4. a service portfolio is developed (with a service catalogue as part of it). The service portfolio represents all active and inactive services in the various phases of the lifecycle. It is important to make a clear distinction between the service portfolio and the service catalogue: • ervice portfolio . and kept up-to-date.The service portfolio contains information about each service S and its status. Therefore changes in both service portfolio and service catalogue must be included in the change management process. It contains policies. the portfolio describes the entire process. To get a clearer picture. These benefits justify the investment (in time and money) involved in preparing a catalogue and making it worthwhile. it is difficult to obtain an accurate picture of the services offered by the organization and who they are offered to. as well as prices. The service catalogue divides services into components. possible interactions and mutual dependencies of all present services and those under development.The service catalogue is a subset of the service portfolio and S only consists of active and approved services (at user level) in Service Operation. By defining every service the organization can relate the incidents and Requests for Change to the services in question. The service catalogue can also be used for a Business Impact Analysis (BIA) as part of IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM). The development of the service portfolio is a component of the Service Strategy phase. . For this reason. service level agreements and delivery conditions. Basic concepts Over years.42 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . starting with the client requirements for the development. building and execution of the service. status.2.the study guIde 4. As a result.

and monitoring the CMS. consistency and monitoring of the M service portfolio. Activities The service catalogue is the only resource which contains consistent information about all services of the service provider. but also their relation to the supporting and shared services. This is the part that is not visible to the client. mutual dependency. and the relations with different departments and processes that depend on the service.the study guIde 43 The service catalogue has two aspects: • usiness service catalogue . components and CIs. The catalogue should be accessible to every authorized person. P • roviding information about the service catalogue to stakeholders. For this reason. • anaging the interaction and mutual dependency between the services and M supporting services in the service catalogue. Activities include: • efining the services. Inputs and outputs Inputs: • usiness information and organization plans b • T plans and financial plans I • usiness Impact Analysis (BIA) B • ervice portfolio s Outputs: • ervice definition s • pdates for service portfolio u • ervice catalogue s . D • roducing and maintaining an accurate service catalogue. A combination of both aspects provides a quick overview on the impact of incidents and changes. • echnical service catalogue .ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . many mature organizations combine both aspects in a service catalogue.Contains not only the details of the services supplied T to the client.Contains all details of the services that are being B supplied to the client. as part of a service portfolio. P • anaging the interaction.

document & agree requirements for new services SLRs & make SLAs Monitor service performance against SLA & produce service reports Conduct service reviews & instigate improvements within an overall SIP Assist with the Service Catalogue & maintain document templates Develop contacts & relationships.2 Service level management Basic concepts The SLM process entails planning. monitoring and reporting on Service Level Agreements (SLAs). agreeing. The SLA is a written agreement between the . service scope & underpinning agreements Contracts Support Teams Supplier Management Suppliers Figure 4.2.the study guIde 4. coordinating.2 Service Level Management Introduction The objective of the Service Level Management (SLM) process is to agree on the delivery of IT services and to make sure that the agreed level of IT service provision is attained. This also includes the ongoing review of the service This ensures that the quality of the service satisfies the agreed requirements and can be improved where possible. measure & improve customer satisfaction Service Catalogue Service Reports OLAs Review & revise SLAs. record & manage complaints & compliments Collate. Business Unit A 3 Business Process 4 SLM Business unit B The business Business Process 2 1 5 6 SLR(s) SLA(s) Service A B C G D F SLA(s) Document standards & templates Determine.44 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . supplying.

which may result in damaged confidence. An Underpinning Contract (UC) is a contract with a third party. • etermining.Regularly consult the customer to evaluate the R services and make possible improvements in the service provision. An OLA defines the goods or services to be provided from one department to the other. in order to satisfy the SLA targets. Otherwise. .2) are: • esign of SLM Frameworks . • onitoring the performance with regard to the SLA and reporting the outcome M Everything incorporated into the SLA must be measurable. in terms of “soft” criteria. the underlying agreements with internal departments (OLAs) and external suppliers (UCs) must support the SLA. • mproving client satisfaction .SLM has to design the best possible SLA. Activities The activities of service level management (Figure 4. and the responsibilities of both parties. Improvement activities should be documented and managed in a Service Improvement Plan (SIP). • eviewing and improving services .Besides the “hard” criteria it should also be noted I how the customer experiences the service rendered. documenting and agreeing on the requirements for new services D and production of Service Level Requirements (SLRs) - When the service catalogue is made and the SLA structure determined.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . The UC defines targets and responsibilities that are required to meet agreed service level targets in an SLA. Options for SLAs are: • ervice-based SLAs s • ustomer-based SLAs c • ulti-level SLAs m An Operational Level Agreement (OLA) is an agreement between an IT service provider and another part of the same organization. in support of the delivery of an agreed IT service to a customer.the study guIde 45 Service Provider and a customer containing mutual goals and responsibilities. the first SLR (a customer requirement for an aspect of a service) needs to be determined. • eview of the underlying agreements .The IT service provider is also dependent R on its own internal technical services and external partners. focus on those improvement items that yield the greatest benefit to the business. disputes may arise. so that all D services can be provided and clients can be serviced in a manner that meets mutual needs.

46 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . the catalogue supplies information that improves the understanding of the relation between services. business units and processes. With the service catalogue.SLM has to instill confidence in the D business. SLR and OLAs S • ervice quality plan S .the study guIde • eveloping contacts and relationships . SLM can start working proactively. Inputs and outputs Inputs: • nformation arising from strategic planning i • usiness Impact Analysis (BIA) B • ervice portfolio and service catalogue s Outputs: • ervice reports s • ervice Improvement Plan (SIP) S • tandard document templates s • LA.

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4.2.3 Capacity Management Introduction

Capacity management has to provide IT capacity coinciding with both the current and future needs of the customers balanced against justifiable costs. Service Strategy analyzes the wishes and requirements of customers; in the Service Design phase, capacity management is a critical success factor for defining an IT service.
Basic concepts

The Capacity Management Information System (CMIS) provides relevant information on the capacity and performance of services in order to support the capacity management process. This information system is one of the most important elements in the capacity management process.

The capacity management process consists of: • eactive activities: r − monitoring and measuring − responding and reacting to capacity related events • roactive activities: p − predicting future requirements and trends − budgeting, planning and implementing upgrades − seeking ways to improve service performance − optimizing the performance of a service Some activities must be executed repeatedly (proactively or reactively). They provide basic information and triggers for other activities and processes in capacity management. For instance: • onitoring IT usage and response times. M • nalyzing data. A • uning and implementation. T Capacity management can be a extremely technical, complex and demanding process that comprises three sub-processes (Figure 4.4): • usiness capacity management - Translates the customer’s requirements into B specifications for the service and IT infrastructure; focus on current and future requirements. • ervice capacity management - Identifies and understands the IT services (including S the sources, patterns, etc) to make them comply with the defined targets.


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Review current capacity & performance

Capacity Management Information System (CMIS) Capacity & performance reports and data

Improve current service & component capacity

Assess, agree & document new requirements & capacity


Plan new capacity

Capacity Plan

Figure 4.3 The capacity management process

• omponent Capacity Management (CCM) - Manages, controls and predicts the C performance, use and capacity of individual IT components. All of the capacity management sub-processes analyze the information stored in the CMIS.
Inputs and outputs

Inputs: • usiness information, including information from the organization plans (financial B and IT-related) • ervice and IT information s • hange information from change management. c Outputs: • apacity Management Information System (CMIS) C • apacity plan (information on the current usage of the services and components) c • nalyses of workload a

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Service Portfolio

Business requirements Capacity & performance reports Business Capacity Management

Review current capacity & performance


IT service design

Improve current service & component capacity Assess, agree & document new requirements & capacity Capacity Management Information System (CMS)

Service Capacity Management

Component Capacity Management Plan new capacity Capacity Plan Capacity Management Tools


Figure 4.4 Sub-processes of capacity management


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4.2.4 Availability Management Introduction

Availability management has to ensure that the delivered availability levels for all services comply with or exceed the agreed requirements in a cost-effective manner.










Figure 4.5 The extended incident lifecycle

Basic concepts

Figure 4.5 illustrates a number of starting points for availability management. The unavailability of services can be reduced by aiming to reduce each of the phases distinguished in the extended incident lifecycle. Services must be restored quickly when they are unavailable to users. The Mean Time to Restore Service (MTRS) is the time within which a function (service, system or component) is back up after a failure. The MTRS depends on a number of factors, such as: • onfiguration of service assets c • TRS of individual components M • ompetencies of support personnel c • vailable resources a • olicy plans p • rocedures p • edundancy r

the study guIde 51 Other metrics for measuring availability include: • ean Time Between Failures (MTBF) . • ean Time To Repair (MTTR) . maintainability or availability for a CI. which includes agreed levels of reliability. The serviceability describes the ability of a third party supplier to meet the terms of their contract. until it next fails. MTTR does not include the time required to recover or restore.The mean time from when a M system or service fails.The average time that a CI or service can M perform its agreed function without interruption. analyzing and reporting the availability of services and components − unavailability analysis − expanded lifecycle of the incident − Service Failure Analysis (SFA) . MTTR is measured from when the CI or service fails until it is repaired. High Availability solutions make use of techniques such as Fault Tolerance.The average time taken to repair a CI or service M after a failure. To realize this. This requires a design that considers the elimination of Single Points of Failure (SPOFs) and/or the provision of alternative components to provide minimal disruption to the business operation should an IT component failure occur. measuring. Activities Availability management must continually ensure that all services comply with the objectives. Due to increased dependency upon IT services. New or changed services must be designed in such a way that they comply with the objectives. resilience and fast recovery to reduce the number of incidents. The reliability of a service or component indicates how long it can perform its agreed function without interruption. The maintainability of a service or component indicates how fast it can be restored after a failure.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . availability management can perform reactive and proactive activities (Figure 4. The reliability of systems can be increased through various types of redundancy.6): • eactive activities - Executed in the operational phase of the lifecycle: R − monitoring. • ean Time Between Service Incidents (MTBSI) . and the impact of incidents. customers often require services with high availability.

analyze report & review service & component availability Investigate all service & component unavailability & instigate remedial action Proactive activities Availability Management Information System (AMIS) Availability Management Reports Availability plan Risk assessment & management Plan & design for new & changed services Availability design criteria Implement cost – justifiable countermeasures Review all new & changed services & test all availability & resilience mechanisms Availability testing schedule Figure 4.the study guIde Reactive activities Monitor. measure.52 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .6 Availability management • roactive activities - Executed in the design phase of the lifecycle: P − identifying Vital Business Functions (VBFs) − designing for availability − Component Failure Impact Analysis (CFIA) − Single Point of Failure (SPOF) analysis − Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) − modeling to test and analyze predicted availabilities − risk analysis and management − availability test schemes − planned and preventive maintenance − roduction of the Projected Service Availability (PSA) document p − continuous reviewing and improvement .

• isk analyses. (financial) plans and B information on the current and future requirements of IT services. • hange calendars and release schemas from change management and release and C deployment management. • ervice information from the service portfolio and service catalogue and from the S SLM process.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Outputs: • he Availability Management Information System (AMIS) t • he availability plan t • vailability and restore design criteria a • eports on the availability. Business Impact Analyses (BIA) and studies of Vital Business R Functions.the study guIde 53 Inputs and outputs Inputs: • usiness information. such as organization strategies. reliability and maintainability of services r .

networks.the study guIde 4.2. awareness and traning Review and audit Testing Change management Business Continuity Plans Implementation Invocation On-going Operation Figure 4.This phase covers the entire organization and includes the following I activities: − defining the policy − specifying the conditions and scope − allocating resources (people. Business Continuity Management (BCM) Lifecycle Initiation Key activities Policy setting Scope Initiate a project Business Continuity Strategy Requirements and strategy Business Impact Analysis Risk Assessment IT Service Continuity Strategy Develop IT Service Continuity Plans Develop IT plans. Figure 4. Activities The process consists of four phases (Figure 4.7): • nitiation .7 Lifecycle of IT service continuity management Basic concepts Once service continuity or recovery plans have been created they need to be (kept) aligned with the Business Continuity Plans (BCPs) and business priorities. resources and funds) − efining the project organization and management structure d − pproving project and quality plans a .5 IT Service Continuity Management Introduction IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) has to support business continuity by ensuring that the required IT facilities (computer systems.) can be resumed within the agreed timeframe.54 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . etc. recovery plans and procedures Organization Planning Testing strategy Education.7 shows the cyclic process of ITSCM and the role of overall Business Continuity Management (BCM).

intermediate recovery. It represents. Set this up around a senior manager in charge. morale and health.The continuity strategy must weigh the costs of risk reducing measures against the recovery measures (manual work-arounds. A standard method like Management of Risk (M_o_R) can be used to investigate and manage the risks. • mplementation . Risk analysis is an assessment of risks that may occur. − Strategy 2: IT recovery options . it is called “hard impact” . The requirements involve the performance of a Business Impact Analysis and risk estimate: − equirement 1: Business Impact Analysis (BIA) . financial losses. − trategy 1: Risk-reducing measures .the study guIde 55 • equirements and strategies . • perationalization - This phase includes: O − education. and off-site storage. If the impact can be determined in detail. Risk management identifies the response and counter-measures that can be taken. I The organization structure (leadership and decision-making processes) changes in a disaster recovery process.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .There are various risk analyses and methods. − Requirement 2: Risk estimate . This phase includes requirements and strategy. plans) b • T information I • inancial information f • hange information (from change management) c . awareness and training of personnel − review and audit − testing − change management (ensures that all changes have been studied for their potential impact) − ultimate test (invocation) Inputs and outputs Inputs: • usiness information (organization strategy.g.Determining the business requirements for ITSCM is R vital when investigating how well an organization can survive a calamity.Quantify the impact caused R by the loss of services. “Soft impact” is less easily determined. gradual recovery. good IT security controls. the impact on Public Relations. Measures may include: fault tolerant systems. for instance.Measures to reduce risks must be implemented S in combination with availability management since failure reduction has an impact on service availability. reciprocal arrangements. fast recovery and immediate recovery) to restore critical processes.e.The ITSCM plans can be created once the strategy is approved.

testing and crisis management p .the study guIde Outputs: • eviewed ITSCM policy r • usiness Impact Analysis (BIA) B • isk analyses r • lans for disaster recovery.56 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .

2.Business Needs PLAN Service Level Agreements Underpinning Contracts Operational Level Agreements Policy Statements MAINTAIN Learn Improve Plan Implement CONTROL Organize Establish Framework Allocate responsibllities EVALUATE Internal audits External audits Self assessments Security incidents IMPLEMENT Create awareness Classification and registration Personnel security Physical Security Networks. Use the four Ps of People.6 Information Security Management Introduction Information security management needs to align IT security with business security and has to ensure that information security is managed effectively in all services and service management operations. applications. Products (including technology) and Partners (including suppliers) to ensure a high security level where required. Processes. computers Management of access rights Security incident procedures Figure 4. .the study guIde 57 4. Customers .ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .8 Framework for managing IT security Basic concepts The information security management process and framework include: • nformation security policy i • nformation Security Management System (ISMS) I • omprehensive security strategy (related to the business objectives and strategy) c • ffective security structure and controls e • isk management r • onitoring processes m • ommunication strategy c • raining strategy t The ISMS represents the basis for cost-effective development of an information security program that supports the business objectives.Requirements .

maintenance and distribution of an information security policy. Evaluate. Maintain) and their separate objectives. Information security is a continuous process and an integrated part of all services and systems.8 is based on various recommendations.9 Security controls for threats and incidents . including ISO 27001. Plan. A • mplementing (and documenting) controls that support the information security I policy and manage risks. and provides information about the five elements (Control. implementation and enforcement of security policies C • ssessment of information. the international standard for information security management. Activities Information security management should include the following activities: • peration. Figure 4. Figure 4. • onitoring and management of breaches and incidents.9 describes controls that can be used in the process. M • roactive improvement of the control systems. Threat Prevention/ Reduction Incident Detection/ Repression Damage Correction/ Recovery Control Evaluation/ Reporting Evaluation/ Reporting Evaluation/ Reporting Figure 4.58 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Implement. O • ommunication. P The information security manager must understand that security is not just a step in the lifecycle and that it cannot be guaranteed by technology alone.the study guIde The framework can be based on ISO 27001.

rollback) c Inputs and outputs Inputs: • usiness information (strategy.the study guIde 59 Figure 4.limit effects (e. blocking) r • orrective measures . backup and testing) r • etective measures .g. plans) b • nformation from the SLM process i • hange information from the change management process c Outputs: • eneral information security management policy g • nformation security management system I • ecurity controls.prevent effects (e.g. leading to damage.g.g. monitoring) d • epressive measures .detect effects (e.9 shows that a risk may result in a threat that in turn causes an incident.repair effects (e. audits and reports s . access management) p • eductive measures .suppress effects (e.g.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Various measures can be taken between these phases: • reventive measures .

All activities in this process must result from the supplier strategy and the Service Strategy policy.60 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . together with details about the type of service or product. Identify requirements Select suppliers Categorize Regulate Manage Renew/End Supplier and Contract Database Figure 4. Create a Supplier and Contract Database (SCD) to achieve consistency and effectiveness in implementing policy. this database would be an integrated element of CMS or SKMS. A contract is a legally binding agreement between two or more parties. it is aimed at securing consistent quality at the right price. and any information and relationships to other configuration items. The data stored here will provide important information for activities and procedures such as: • ategorizing of suppliers c • aintenance of supplier and contract database m • valuation and building of new suppliers and contracts e • uilding new supplier relationships b • anagement of suppliers and contracts m • enewing and ending contracts r . The database should contain all details regarding suppliers and their contracts.the study guIde 4.2.7 Supplier Management Introduction Supplier management manages suppliers and the services they provide. Ideally.10 Contract lifecycle Basic concepts A supplier is a third party responsible for supplying goods or services that are required to deliver IT services.

These phases are: 1.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . execution level (execution management) and suppliers that only provide goods such as paper and cartridges. relationships at a tactical level (managed by middle management). . ability. the integrated processes of the client organization and of the supplier must function efficiently. Take various issues into account when selecting a new supplier. Evaluate and select new suppliers .The amount of time and energy that should be put into a supplier depends on the impact of this supplier and its service. availability management and information security management. the change management process must add them to the Supplier and Contract Database. Manage performance of suppliers and contracts . − Provide conformity of strategy and policy.Identify new business requirements and evaluate new suppliers as part of the Service Design process. You must manage this contract during its entire lifecycle (Figure 4. Identify business requirements: − Produce a program of requirements. 3. Categorizing suppliers and contracts . 2. and financial aspects. it is recommended that you draw up a formal contract with clearly defined. − Develop a business case.At an operational level. 4. could be good methods to clarify the impact of new contracts on various business units.10). service scope and contract reviews in comparison with original business requirements Make sure that provisions are still in tune with what the business initially desired. such as references. keep a close eye on the following two issues in order to minimize risks: − the performance of suppliers − the services. agreed upon and documented responsibilities and goals. Introduce new suppliers and contracts . A Business Impact Analysis (BIA) and risk assessment. Questions should be: − Should the supplier conform to the organization's change management process? − ow will the service desk inform the supplier if there are incidents? H − ow will CMS information be updated when CIs change? H During the lifecycle of the contract.In order to present a clear image of the impact of new suppliers and contracts. in combination with ITSCM. They provide inputs for all other aspects of the lifecycle of the contract.the study guIde 61 Activities In case of external suppliers. A subdivision could be made according to strategic relationships (managed by senior management). 5.

Renew or end contract . see how the contract is functioning and how relevant it will be in the future. whether changes are necessary and what the commercial performance of the contract is.3 Sample Questions 1. SIPs) s • esearch reports r 4.At a strategic level. it is important to assess what the consequences will be in legal and financial areas. d. If. Which of the following statements is NOT an objective of Service Design? a. c. the decision is made to end the relationship with the supplier. operation and improvement of high-quality IT services. as a result. plans) b • upplier and contract strategies s • usiness plan details b Outputs: • upplier and Contract Database (SCD) S • nformation about performance i • upplier improvement plans (Supplier Service Improvement Plans. transition. and how the client organization and service provision will be affected. To design efficient and effective processes for the design.the study guIde 6. quality and time estimates. Benchmarking could be an appropriate instrument to compare the current service provision with that of other suppliers in the industry. b. To design services to satisfy business objectives. Inputs and outputs Inputs: • usiness information (strategy.62 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . To identify and manage risks. . To plan and manage the resources to successfully establish a new or changed service into production with the predicted cost.

4 and 5 b. measure and improve customer satisfaction b.the study guIde 63 2. A Service Provider is an organization supplying services to one or more external customers. d. A Service Provider is an organization supplying services to one or more internal customers or external customers. Insourcing b. 2. Which of the following is NOT a sourcing approach? a. b. 3. 1.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Collate. 2. A Service Provider is a third party responsible for supplying goods or underpinning services that are required to deliver IT services. Measurement design a. 4. 5 and 6 d. c. Which of the following activities is an activity in the Service Level Management process? a. Status reporting c. 5 and 6 4. Design of services 4. Co-sourcing c. Deploy Service Component d. 1. Service Portfolio design 2. A Service Provider is a role that has responsibility for ensuring that all new services are designed to deliver the levels of availability required by the business and validation of the final design to meet the minimum levels of availability as agreed by the business for IT services. 2. 5 and 6 c. Resolution and Recovery . 3. Rightsourcing d. Application Service Provision 5. 2. 1. Strategy design 5. 4. 3. Which of the following statements are CORRECT? a. Which of the following are the five major aspects of Service Design? 1. 3. Technology and architectural design 3. Process design 6.

The number and severity of service breaches. C-3 and D-4 c. Supplier Manager D. and reporting on performance against targets contained in Service Level Agreements. b. 7. A-4. Which of the following is NOT a sub-process of the Capacity Management process? a. B-2. 2. Analysis of usage and performance data. Which of the following metrics is BEST used to judge the efficiency and effectiveness of the Service Level Management process? a. Service Catalogue Manager C.the study guIde 6. Business Capacity Management d. c. C-3 and D-1 8.64 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Component Capacity Management b. Capacity Manager 1. C-2 and D-4 b. Which of the following pairings between the roles and responsibilities is CORRECT? a. 4. 3. Service Capacity Management . B-3. B-2. Ensuring that all existing services deliver the levels of availability agreed with the business in Service Level Agreements. Reduction in the costs of handling printer incidents. Ensuring that all of the information within the Service Catalog is consistent with the information within the Service Portfolio. Reduction in the number of disruptions to services caused by inaccurate impact assessment. Number and percentage of major incidents. B-3. Performing contract or Service Level Agreement reviews at least annually and ensuring that all contracts are consistent with organizational requirements and standard terms and conditions wherever possible. A-1. Availability Manager B. d. C-4 and D-1 d. Configuration Capacity Management c. A-1. A-2. Consider the following roles and responsibilities: A.

Communication .the study guIde 65 9. In the RACI authority matrix the letter ‘C’ stands for: a.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Classified b. Configured c. Consulted d.

the study guIde .66 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .

testing and deployment of new and changed services. and establish the service specified in the customer and stakeholder requirements. plan and manage the new service t • nsuring the minimum impact for the services which are already in production e • mproving customer satisfaction and stimulate the proper use of the service and i mutual technology Scope ITIL defines the scope of Service Transition as follows: Service Transition includes the management and coordination of the processes. Goals The goals of Service Transition include: • upporting the change process of the business (client) s • educing variations in the performance and known errors of the new/changed r service • nsuring the service meets the requirements of the service specifications e Objectives The objectives of Service Transition include: • he necessary means to realize.1 Lifecycle phase 5. based on the customer and stakeholder requirements. A Service Transition is effective and efficient if the transition delivers what the business requested within the limitations in terms of money and other necessary resources.chApTer 5 Service Transition 5. service asset and configuration management and knowledge management support all phases of the service lifecycle.1 Introduction Service Transition consists of the management and coordination of the processes. building. systems and functions required for the building. as determined in the Service Design phase. the ITIL Service .1. systems and functions required for the packaging. testing and deployment of a release into production. Although change management. Service Transition establishes the services as specified in the Service Design phase.

3 Processes and other activities A Service Transition generally comprises the following steps: • lanning and preparation p • uilding b . Release and deployment management.the study guIde Transition book covers these. A • roactively improve service quality during a Service Transition. R • oordinate Service Transition plans with the needs of the business. P • nticipate and manage changes in plans. C • reate relations with stakeholders and maintain these. I • se common frameworks and standards. contracting.68 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . U • e-use existing processes and systems. D • lan packages for releases and deployment. S • eliver systems for knowledge transfer and decision support.1. Specifically: • he capacity of the business to respond quickly and adequately to changes in the t market • hanges in the business as a result of takeovers. etc. • ssure the quality of a new or changed services. Value to the business An effective Service Transition ensures that the new or changed services are better aligned with the customer’s business operation. responsibilities and activities. and evaluation are included in the scope of Service Transition. are well managed c • ore successful changes and releases for the business m • etter compliance of business and governing rules b • ess deviation between planned budgets and the actual costs l • etter insight into the possible risks during and after the input of a service b • igher productivity of customer staff h 5. The approach does need to be adjusted to the conditions that are appropriate for each different organization: • efine and implement guidelines and procedures for Service Transition. D • mplement all changes through Service Transition. P 5. service validation and testing. C • et up effective controls on assets. A • anage the resources proactively. M • ontinue to ensure the involvement of stakeholders at an early stage in the service C lifecycle.2 Basic concepts The following policies are important for an effective Service Transition and apply to every organization.1.

that they are evaluated. avoidance. whether it is continued.e. . • elease and deployment management . i. • nowledge management .ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . and documented. • hange management . external blame. planned. C • ignificant change of a service also means a change of the organization. • valuation . tested. transition and retire r eview and closing of Service Transition This section briefly explains the processes and activities of a Service Transition.Improves the quality of decision-making (for K management) by ensuring that reliable and safe information is available during the service lifecycle.the study guIde 69 • • • • s ervice testing and pilots p lanning and preparation of the deployment d eployment.Manages the service assets S and Configuration Items (CIs) in order to support the other service management processes. Organizational S change management should address the emotional change cycle (shock. whether it is paid for.Aimed at the building. testing and deploying R of the services specified in the Service Design.Ensures that changes are implemented in a controlled C manner. • ervice validation and testing . A S stakeholder analysis can be made to find out what the requirements and interests of the stakeholders are. Service Transition processes: • ransition planning and support .Ensures the planning and coordination of T resources in order to realize the specification of the Service Design. • takeholder management is a Crucial Success Factor in Service Transition. Service Transition activities: • ommunication is central during every Service Transition. for example. prioritized. and ensures that the client can utilize the service effectively. self-blame and acceptance). and so on. whether it is in use.2 of this study guide.Generic process that is intended to verify whether the performance is E acceptable.Tests ensure that the new or changed services are S “fit for purpose” and “fit for use”. culture and attitudes. More information about each of these processes can be found in Section 5. whether it has the right price/quality ratio. implemented. and what their final influence and power will be during the transition. • ervice Asset and Configuration Management (SACM) .

5. • ervice owner . The responsibilities of the service asset manager include: • ormulating process objectives and implementing the policy.The process owner ensures that all process activities are carried P out. f plans and procedures . SACM and knowledge management are whole service lifecycle processes but influence and support all lifecycle stages. transition and maintenance of a service. the process standards. The service transition manager is responsible for the daily management and control of the Service Transition teams and their activities. toward the client. the process standards.The service owner has the responsibility.1. and evaluation are strongly focused within the Service Transition phase. Release and deployment management.4 Organization Service Transition is actively managed by a service transition manager. Generic roles are: • rocess owner . The most important service transition roles and responsibilities are discussed in the following section. which items must be managed and i the information that must be established • aking care of communication about the process and making it known t • aking care of resources and training t • etting up the identification and the naming conventions of assets s • aking care of the evaluation of the use of tooling t • etting up interfaces with other processes s • lanning the completion of the asset database p • aking reports m • ssisting with audits and taking care of corrective actions a The responsibilities of the configuration manager include: • ormulating process objectives and implementing the policy. for the S initiation. service validation and testing.70 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .the study guIde Change management. f plans and procedures • valuating the existing asset management systems and implementing the new e systems • ndicating the scope and function of the process.

who receives RFCs. logging and prioritizing (in collaboration with the initiator) RFCs. which items must be managed and i the information that must be established • aking care of communication about the process and making it known t • aking care of resources and training t • etting up the identification and the naming conventions of CIs s • aking care of the evaluation of the use of tooling t • etting up interfaces with other processes s • valuating existing CMS systems and implementation of new systems e • lanning the filling in of CMS in the CMDBs p • aking reports m • ssisting with audits and taking corrective actions a The responsibilities of the configuration analyst include: • roposes scope of asset and configuration management p • rain staff t • ropose naming conventions p • reate asset and configuration management processes and procedures c • erform configuration audits and checks p The responsibilities of the configuration administrator/librarian include: • dminister and guard all master copies of software. rejecting r RFS based on the criteria • reparing and chairing CAB and ECAB meetings p • eciding who attends which meeting. what must be changed d there • ublishing Changes Schedules (SCs) p • aintaining change logs m .ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .the study guIde 71 • valuating the existing configuration management systems and implementing the e new systems • ndicating the scope and function of the process. assets and documented CIs a The responsibilities of the CMS/tools administrator include: • valuation of proprietary asset and configuration management tools e • onitoring of performance and capacity of asset and configuration management m systems • nsuring the integrity and performance of asset and configuration management e systems The change manager has responsibilities (some of which can be delegated) including: • eceiving.

knowledge p management and SACM • roviding guidance during the release process p • iving feedback concerning the effectiveness of a release g • ecording metrics for deployment to ensure within agreed SLAs r ITIL recognizes the following roles in the Service Transition phase of the service lifecycle.2. It can be divided into two types: .the study guIde • losing RFCs c • eviewing implemented changes r • aking reports m The Change Advisory Board (CAB) is an advisory consultation body. techniques and tools Technology plays an important part in the support of Service Transition. release notes and communication c • lanning of the deployment.72 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . The responsibilities of the release packaging and build manager include: • inal release configuration f • uilding the final release and testing it (prior to independent testing) b • eporting known faults and workarounds r • nput to the final implementation sign-off i The deployment manager is responsible for the following including: • he final service implementation t • oordination of all release documentation.5 Methods. but this falls outside the scope of this book and the ITIL Foundations exams: • onfiguration analyst c • configuration manager • MS manager C • onfiguration management team c • hange authority c • isk-evaluation manager r • ervice knowledge manager s • est support t • arly Life Support (ELS) E • uilding and test environment management b 5. The specific roles and responsibilities of the CAB will be explained in Section 5. in combination with change management.1.

Justification .Even formalizing existing procedures will lead to cultural changes in an organization.6 Implementation and operation The implementation of Service Transition in a “Greenfield” situation (from zero) is only likely when establishing a new service provider. service dashboard and reporting tools.Such as service knowledge management S systems. 4. • reating a culture which is responsive to cooperation and cultural changes. T • inding a balance between a stable operating environment and being able to respond F to changing business requirements. 2. release and deployment technology. such as: • aking into account the needs of all stakeholders.Show the benefits in business terms of effective service transition to all stakeholders. • pecific ITSM technology and tools . Introduction .Do not make any decisions about the introduction or improvement of Service Transition without an insight into the expected risks and advantages. network and application management tools. publishing tools. Also. There is input/output of knowledge and experience from and to Service Transition. collaboration tools.Factors to take into account when designing are standards and guidelines. system.the study guIde 73 • T service management systems . project and program management. E • clear definition of the roles and responsibilities. 5. 5. experiences from Service Transition supply inputs for the assessment of the designs from Service Design. resources. several challenges need to be conquered.1.Such as enterprise frameworks which offer I integration opportunities linking with the CMS or other tools. Most service providers therefore focus on the improvement of the existing Service Transition (processes and services). relationships with other supporting services. C • nsuring that the quality of services corresponds to the quality of the business. all stakeholders. tools for measuring and reporting. test (management) tools. all phases in a lifecycle will have outputs that are inputs in another phase of that lifecycle. For example: Service Operation shares practical experiences with Service Transition as to how similar services behave in production. 3. A . Take this into consideration. Like processes in a process model.Do not apply the improved or newly implemented Service Transition to current projects. Risks and advantages . Design . For the improvement of Service Transition the following five aspects are important: 1.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . budget and means. Cultural aspects . For a successful Service Transition.

the study guIde Potential risks of Service Transition are: • e-motivation of staff d • nforeseen expenses u • xcessive cost e • esistance to changes r • ack of knowledge sharing l • oor integration between processes p • ack of maturity and integration of systems and tools l .74 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .

A release should be defined.1 Transition Planning and Support Introduction Transition planning and support ensures the planning and coordination of resources in order to realize the specification of the Service Design. a considerable expansion of the functionality. monitoring the baseline and transition readiness. in which the following subjects are addressed: • aming conventions. Transition planning and support plans changes and ensures that issues and risks are managed. Activities The activities for planning are: 1.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . .These usually contain a number of smaller improvements. Basic concepts The Service Design Package (SDP) that was created in the Service Design phase contains all aspects of an IT service and its requirements through each stage of its lifecycle.2 Functions and processes 5.Important deployment of new hardware and software with.the study guIde 75 5.The preparation consists of analysis and acceptance of input from other service lifecycle phases and other inputs. 2. filing and planning RFCs. identifying. in most M cases. It includes the information about the execution of activities of the Service Transition team. Set up transition strategy . distinguishing release types n • oles and responsibilities r • elease frequency r • cceptance criteria for the various transition phases a • he criteria for leaving Early Life Support (ELS) t The following types of release can be defined: • ajor release . some M of these improvements were previously implemented as quick fixes but are now included integrally within a release. • inor release . • mergency release . Prepare Service Transition .Usually implemented as a temporary solution for a problem or E known error.2.The transition strategy defines the global approach to Service Transition and the assignment of resources.

Plan and coordinate Service Transition . Inputs and outputs Inputs: • uthorized RFCs a • ervice Design Package (SDP) S • efinition of the release package and design specifications d • cceptance criteria for the service a Outputs: • ransition strategy t • ntegral collection of Service Transition plans i . 4. Finally. Service Transition activities are monitored: the implementation of activities is compared with the way they were intended. Support .Service Transition advises and supports all stakeholders.An individual Service Transition plan describes the tasks and activities required to roll out a release in a test and production environment.the study guIde 3. The planning and support team will provide insight for the stakeholders regarding Service Transition processes and supporting systems and tools.76 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .

1 Change management Basic concepts A Request for Change (RFC) is a formal request to change one or more CIs. Change management ensures that changes are deployed in a controlled way. prioritized. planned. Changes are made for proactive or reactive reasons. with minimal disruption to IT services.2 Change Management Introduction The primary objective of change management is to enable beneficial changes to be made.the study guIde 77 5. . tested. Examples of proactive reasons are cost reduction and service improvement.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . they are evaluated. Examples of reactive reasons for change are solving service disruptions and adapting the service to a changing environment. The change management process must: • se standardized methods and procedures u • ecord all changes in the CMS r • ake account of risks for the business t Create RFC Change proposal (optional) Record the RFC Initiator requested Review RFC Update change and configuration information in CMS Change ready for evaluation Management Assess and evaluate change ready for decision Authorize Change proposal Authorize Change Change Authority authorized Plan updates Change Management scheduled Coordinate change implementation* Change implemented Management Review and close change record closed Work orders Work orders Evaluation report * Includes build and test the change Figure 5.2.e. i. implemented and documented.

Who raised the change? (Raised) 2. What are the change’s risks? (Risk) 5. A Post-Implementation Review (PIR) should be carried out to determine whether the change was successful and to identify opportunities for improvement.the study guIde A service change is the addition. An emergency change is a change that must be introduced as soon as possible. planned or supporting service (component) and its related documentation. Which relationships exist between this and other changes? (Relationship) The Change Advisory Board (CAB) is a consultative body that regularly meets to help the change manager assess. A normal change is a change that must follow the complete change process flow (see the next section ‘Activities’). No change should be approved without having a remediation plan for back out.78 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . The priority of the change is based on impact and urgency. What is the return required from the change? (Return) 4. A standard change is a pre-approved. Who are responsible for build. . it can be necessary to identify a smaller organization to make emergency decisions: the Emergency CAB (ECAB). Change management schedules the changes on the change calendar: the Change Schedule (CS). For example. prioritize and schedule the changes. The seven R’s of change management represent a good starting point for impact analysis: 1. modification or elimination of an authorized. to repair a failure as soon as possible in an IT service that has a large negative impact on the business. testing and implementation? (Responsible) 7. In case of emergency changes. Standard changes must be registered by change management. What resources does it require? (Resources) 6. What is the reason for the change? (Reason) 3. low risk and relatively common change.

Inputs and outputs Inputs: • FCs R • hange. All RFCs are registered and must be identifiable. records and reports c . release and deployment plans c • hange Schedule and Projected Service Outage (PSO.Based on the impact. unnecessary or incomplete. Evaluate and close . 6. potential benefits and costs of the change. Create and record .For every change there is a formal authorization required.Forward approved changes to the relevant product experts. the stakeholders verify whether the RFC is illogical. This may be a role. 5. and create and deploy releases.After registration. documents.1) to manage individual changes in a normal change procedure are: 1.An individual or department may submit an RFC. assets n • djusted PSO a • pdated Change Schedule u • hange decisions. Coordinate implementation . CIs. transition. document that explains C effects of planned changes/maintenance on service levels) • ssets and CIs a • valuation report e Outputs: • ejected or approved RFCs r • ew or changed services.Implemented changes are evaluated after some time (PostImplementation Review (PIR)). Review the RFC . so that they can build and test the changes. unfeasible. the change authority determines whether a change is implemented or not. 3. actions. or whether it has already been submitted earlier. risk assessment. person or group of people.the study guIde 79 Activities The specific activities (see Figure 5.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Assess and evaluate changes . it can be closed. 4. 2. If the change is successful. Authorize the change .

CMS and tools Training and Guidance Policy. Contract requirements Management and Planning Requirements Design. Deployment. name. Maintenance. A relationship is a link between two CIs that identifies a dependency or connection between them. Standards. time Management support Working relationships Resources. Contract Portfolio. Test results Audit/discovery tools Figure 5. Release. SACM defines the service and infrastructure components and maintains accurate configuration records.2.the study guIde 5. facilities. Customer Portfolio. Strategy. Service Portfolio. This provides valuable information for other processes. Contract CI Identification. assets and infrastructure is created. data and documentation Baseline and Release Id Configuration Identification RFC/ change to CI Configuration Control Status Accounting and Reporting Verification and audit Updated RFC. updated CI Status Record/Report Configuration information and Performance Action items Confidence in service and infrastructure Change and Configuration Records and Documentation Feedback Physical Cls. Relationships show how CIs work together to provide a service. . An attribute is a piece of information about a CI. By maintaining relations between CIs a logical model of the services.80 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Operations plans Control Configuration Management Plan. management resources. labelling. location et cetera.2 Service asset and configuration management Basic concepts A Configuration Item (CI) is an asset.3 Service Asset and Configuration Management Introduction Service Asset and Configuration Management (SACM) manages the service assets and Configuration Items (CIs) in order to support the other service management processes. Planning. naming. For example version number. service component or other item that is (or will be) controlled by configuration management.

for instance: service. Licence Operations Application Management Configuration item Management configuration Environment Policies. In order to manage large and complex IT services and infrastructures SACM needs to use a supporting system: the Configuration Management System (CMS). Update. Alerting Query and Analysis Reporting Modelling Business/Customer/Supplier/User .Infrastructure mapping Information Integration Layer Service Portfolio Service Catalogue Service Model Schema Mapping Meta data Management Service Change Integrated CMDB Service Release Common Process Data and Information Model Data reconciliation Data synchronization Extract.the study guIde 81 A configuration structure shows the relations and hierarchy between CIs that comprise a configuration. A Configuration Management Database (CMDB) is a database used to store configuration records of CIs. Storage Database Middleware Network Mainframe Distributed Desktop Mobile Discovery. staff. problems. Collaborate Knowledge Processing Layer Performance Management Forecasting.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . and related incidents Asset performance baselines and Test Environment Procedures. Asset Management and audit tools Enterprise Applications Access Management Human Resources Supply Chain Management Customer Relationship Management Data and Information Sources and Tools Figure 5. workchanges Infrastructure templates. forms. Strategy.Service .3 Example of a CMS . hardware. Planning Budgeting Monitoring Scorecards. Subscribe. Releases. Configuration management ensures that all CIs are provided with a baseline and that they are maintained. documentation. Service Asset Statements Design. One or more CMDBs can be part of a Configuration Management System. Transition Asset and Applications Configuration and Bills. Browse.Application .g. A baseline can be used to restore the IT infrastructure to a known configuration if a change or release fails. Presentation Layer Portal Change and Release View Schedules/plans Change Request Status Change Advisory Board Agenda and minutes Asset Management Configuration Lifecycle Technical Quality Service Desk View View View Configuration Management User assets Financial Asset Project configurations View User configuration. Retrieve. Publish. View Asset Status Reports Service. Asset and Changes. checklists arounds. Dashboards. Store. software. Processes. changes Search. Load Mining Data Integration Project Document Filestore Structured Project Software Definitive Media Library Definitive Document Library Definitive Media Library 1 Definitive Media Library 2 Physical CMDBs CMDB1 CMDB2 CMDB3 Platform Software Configuration Configuration Tools Management E. CIs are classified (the act of assigning a category to a CI) to help manage and trace them throughout their lifecycles. Transform.

Configuration identification determines: the configuration structures and selection of CIs.The lifecycle of a component is classified into different stages. A snapshot (“moment in time”) is the state of a configuration at a certain point in time (for instance when it was inventoried by a discovery tool). 4. the relevant attributes of CIs. authorized (approved) versions of all media CIs are stored and monitored. Configuration identification . 5. The stages that different types of CIs go through must be properly documented and the status of each CI must be tracked. . Configuration control . This is documented in a configuration management plan. For example: development or draft. the CI labels. 2.SACM conducts audits to ensure that there are no discrepancies between the documented baselines and the actual situation. not necessarily authorized.The management team and configuration management decide what level of configuration management is needed and how this level will be achieved. adapted.the study guIde Various libraries are defined: • secure library is a collection of software and electronic CIs (documents) of a A known type and status. Management and planning . replaced or removed without following the agreed procedure. Activities The basic SACM process activities consist of: 1. A The Definitive Media Library (DML) is a secure store where the definitive. relations between CIs. It can be recorded in the CMS to remain as a fixed historical record of the configuration. type of CIs et cetera. service requests and incidents. Inputs and outputs Updates to assets and CIs are triggered by RFCs. No CIs can be added. Verification and audit .Configuration identification focuses on establishing a CI classification system. Definitive spares are spare components and assemblies that are maintained at the same level as the comparative systems within the live environment. Status accounting and reporting .82 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . approved and withdrawn. and that release and configuration documentation is present before the release is rolled out. the naming conventions of CIs. 3. • secure store is a secure location where IT assets are stored.Configuration control ensures that the CIs are adequately controlled.

applications. software. Level 1 Define Customer/Business Requirements 1a Level 2 Define Service Requirements 2a Level 3 Design Service Solution 3a Level 4 Design Service Release 4a Level 5 Develop service solution 5a Levels of configuration and testing BL Service Release Test Criteria and Plan Service Operational Criteria/Plan Service Acceptance Criteria / Plan Service Review Criteria / Plan Validate Service Packages. et cetera .4 The service V model . knowledge. All the elements of which the service consists . A release unit is a part of the service or infrastructure that is included in the release. hardware.the infrastructure.must be taken into account. in accordance with the organization’s release guidelines.4 Release and Deployment Management Introduction Release and deployment management is aimed at building.the study guIde 83 5. Offerings and contracts 1b Service Acceptance Test 2b Service Operational Readiness Test 3b Service Release Package Test 4b Component and Assembly Test 5b Deliveries from internal and external suppliers Service Component Build and Test Baseline point Internal and external suppliers Figure 5.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . “push and pull”. documentation. Basic concepts A release is a set of new or changed CIs that are tested and will be implemented into production together. The most frequently occurring options for the rollout of releases are: “big bang” versus phased. automated or manual. A release package is a single release unit or (structured) collection of release units. In the release design different considerations apply in respect of the way in which the release is deployed.2. testing and delivering the capability to provide the services specified by Service Design.

Review and close . the service is ready for transition from ELS into production.Early Life Support (ELS) is intended to offer extra support after the deployment of a new or changed service. The left side of the V in this example starts with service specifications and ends with the detailed Service Design. deployment of the service. deployment. transfer of the service.In the review of a deployment.the study guIde The V model (Figure 5.Test management is responsible for the coordination of the test activities and the planning and control of the implementation. 7.The following activities are important during deployment: the transfer of financial assets. testing and deployment . 4. The right side of the V reflects the test activities. known errors and workarounds have been documented. Service testing and pilots . removal of superfluous assets. check whether the knowledge transfer and training were adequate. Planning and preparing the deployment . retirement of services. Early life support .This activity evaluates the extent to which each deployment team is prepared (readiness assessment) for the deployment. transfer and transition of business and organization.The building and test phase of the release consists of the management of general (common) infrastructure and services. use of release and building documentation. compilation of the release (release packaging). all fixes and changes are complete and all problems. Planning . 2. The type and number depends on the size and complexity of the environment and the changed or new service. 5. 3. 6. In the middle we find the test and validation criteria (See the section “Service validation and testing”).84 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .Before approval can be given for the building and test phase. 8. structuring and controlling the test environments. transfer of service management resources. 9. the quality criteria have been complied with. Transfer. the service and release design is compared against the specifications of the new or changed service (validation). Preparation for building (compilation). acquisition. by means of which the specifications on the lefthand side must be validated.Prior to a deployment into production different plans are formulated. Building and testing . Verify deployment - When all the deployment activities have been completed it is important to verify that all stakeholders are able to use the service as intended. and retirement . all user experiences have been documented. .4) is a convenient tool for mapping out the different configuration levels at which building and testing must take place. Activities The process activities of release and deployment management are: 1. purchasing and testing of CIs and components for the release.

service package. continuity plans a • elease policies. service management and operation standards and plans t • xit and entry criteria for each phase of the release and deployment e Outputs: • elease and deployment plans.the study guIde 85 Inputs and outputs Inputs: • pproved RFC. SLP. completed RFC. purchasing.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . an updated r service catalogue and service model • ew or changed service management documentation and service reports n • ew tested service environment n • LA. design and model. SDP. service notifications. construction model and plan r • echnology. OLAs and contracts S • ervice Transition report and service capacity plan S • omplete CI list of release package C .

additional incidents. When not properly tested.5 Service Validation and Testing Introduction Testing of services during the service transition phase ensures that the new or changed services are fit for purpose (utility) and fit for use (warranty).5 Service validation and testing Basic concepts The service model describes the structure and dynamics of a service provided by Service Operation.2. Verify test plan and test designs 4. The goal of service validation and testing is to ensure the delivery of that added value that is agreed and expected. these service assets are tested in relation to design specifications and requirements. Authorized RFC (with impact and resource assessment) Evaluated design (SDP. developed and built.86 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . The structure consists of main and supporting services and service assets. SAC) Service evaluation 1. Test Management 2. . When a new or changed service is designed. the object to be tested and test scripts which indicate the method by which each element must be tested. problems and costs will occur. Test clean up and closure Revise tests to deliver required results Figure 5. A test model consists of a test plan. coordination. Perform tests 6.the study guIde 5. Activities. The test strategy defines the entire testing approach and the allocation of required resources. flow of resources. The Service Design Package (SDP) defines entry and exit criteria for all test perspectives. Evaluate exit criteria and report 7. Plan and design tests 3. Prepare test environment 5. and interactions describe the dynamics.

• reparation of the test environment . such as a V model (see Figure 5. and reporting on the activities taking place during all test phases of the Service Transition. Fit for use addresses such aspects as availability. Inputs and outputs Inputs: • he service and Service Level Package (SLP) t • nterface definitions by the supplier i • ervice Design Package (SDP) S • elease and deployment plans r • cceptance criteria and RFCs a .The tests are executed using manual or automated testing techniques and T procedures. • esting . role playing is also possible based on perspective (target group). capacity and security of the service.Test planning and design activities take place early in the P service lifecycle and relate to resources. and that test models sufficiently take into account the risk profile of the service in question.Test plans and designs are verified to make sure V that everything (including scripts) is complete. so that the service supports the business.Make sure that the test environment is cleaned. • lean up and closure . • erification of test plan and design . testing becomes a part of the service lifecycle early in the process. and all possible interfaces.the study guIde 87 By using test models.Test management consists of planning and V managing (control). continuity. In addition to all kinds of functional and non-functional test types. • lanning and design . planning milestones and delivery and acceptance. Testers register all results.Prepare the test environment and make a P baseline of the test environment. Activities The following test activities can be distinguished: • alidation and test management . Evaluate the C test approach and determine issues that need improvement. supporting services. • valuate exit criteria and report - The actual results are compared with projected E results (exit criteria).4).ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Fit for purpose means that the service does what the client expects of it.

test incidents. test problems.the study guIde Outputs: • est report.88 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . test errors t • mprovement (for CSI) i • pdated data u • nformation and knowledge for the knowledge management system i .

whether it has the right price/quality ratio.6 Evaluation Introduction Evaluation is a generic process that is intended to verify whether the performance of “something” is acceptable. for example.6 Evaluation . whether it is paid for. and so on. Change Management Service Design Test Request For Change (RFC) Service Design Package Test Plan and Results Plan the Evaluation Evaluate Predicted Performance Predicted Performance OK? Yes Evaluate Actual Performance No Interim Evaluation Report Change Management Actual Performance OK? Yes No Interim Evaluation Report Change Management Evaluation Report Change Management Figure 5.the study guIde 89 5.2. whether it is in use.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Evaluation delivers important input for Continual Service Improvement (CSI) and future improvement of service development and change management. whether it is continued.

Planning the evaluation - When planning an evaluation. and a recommendation (to accept or refuse the change). a deviations report. the predicted performance and the performance model. Send a new interim assessment report to change management if the evaluation shows that the actual performance represents an unacceptable risk and cease the evaluation activities while awaiting a decision from change management. Service Operation reports on the actual performance of the service.Perform a risk assessment based on the customer’s specifications. Evaluating the predicted performance . the intended and unintended effects of a change are analyzed.the study guIde Basic concepts An evaluation report contains a risk profile. Perform a second risk assessment. a qualification and validation statement (if necessary). Inputs and outputs Inputs: • FCs R • he Service Design Package (SDP) t • ervice Acceptance Criteria (SACs) S • est plans and results t Output: • he evaluation report T . Cease the evaluation activities while awaiting a decision from change management. Send an evaluation report to change management if the evaluation is approved. again based on the customer’s specifications. 3. Activities The evaluation process consists of the following activities: 1. 2. The actual performance is the performance following a service change. the predicted performance and the performance model. The predicted performance of a service is the expected performance. Send an interim assessment report to change management if the evaluation shows that the predicted performance represents an unacceptable risk to the change or deviates from the acceptance criteria. Evaluating the actual performance .After implementation of the service change.90 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .

checklists Learning and Traning View Service View Dashboard Service Catalogue. Move. Transform. Subscribe. Load Mining Data Integration CMDB CMDB1 DB File Store Structured Unstructured CMDB2 Definitive Media Library Software Documantation Multi-media Application. Update. forms. Procedures.7 Knowledge Management Introduction Knowledge management improves the quality of decision-making by ensuring that reliable and safe information is available during the service lifecycle. Dashboards. Browse. Store. Retrieve. Releases Definitive Sources Configurations Performance Self Service view Services and Product Catalogue Contacts. interpretation and reflection it becomes knowledge. Collaborate Knowledge Processing Layer Performance Management Forecasting.the study guIde 91 5. Assets Status Reports Incidents Problems.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Add. CMDB data Changes. Alerting Query and Analysis Reporting Modelling Information Integration Layer Common Process. Effective sharing of knowledge requires the development and maintenance of a Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS). . Publish. By combining information with experience. Processes. context. knowledge can be used to make the right decisions which comes down to wisdom. Utilities and Warranties Service bundles/ Packages Service Reports Asset and Service Desk and Configuration Support View View Services Catagories Financial Asset Customers Users CMS information Stakeholders. Ultimately. This system should be available to all information stakeholders and suit all information requirements.2. Change processing and monitoring Search.7 The Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS) Basic concepts Knowledge management is often visualized using the DIKW structure: DataInformation-Knowledge-Wisdom. Quantitative data from metrics are transformed into qualitative information. FAQ's My assets Procurement. Install. Data and Information Model Schema Mapping Service Knowledge Management Base Meta Data Management Data reconciliation Data synchronization Extract. templates. System and Infrastructure Management Legacy Systems Event and Alert Management Enterprise Applications Access Management Human Resources Supply Chain Management Customer Relationship Management Document Store Data and Information Sources and Tools Figure 5. Planning Budgeting Monitoring Scorecards. Presentation Layer Portal IT Governence Service Portfolio Reports Continual Improvement Risks and Issues Quality Management View Policies.

Information management .The transfer of knowledge is a challenging task that requires. Knowledge management strategy . Activities Knowledge management consists of the following activities. in the first place. Inputs and outputs Each organization has it own specific knowledge requirements. For this reason the supplier must develop and maintain an SKMS system that is available to all stakeholders and suits all information requirements. The knowledge management strategy also focuses specifically on on identifying and documenting relevant knowledge. evaluation and improvement. 2. and on the data and information that support this knowledge. methods and techniques: 1. such as learning styles. If such a strategy is already in place.Data and information management consists of the following activities: establishing data and information requirements. newsletter. Based on the outcome of this analysis. the scope of the SKMS is broader. 4. knowledge visualization. 3. a communication (improvement) plan is formulated to facilitate the knowledge transfer. establishing data and information management procedures.Supplying services to customers in different time zones and regions and with different operating hours imposes strenuous requirements on the sharing of knowledge. defining the information architecture. newspaper. However. .the study guIde The basis of the Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS) is formed by a considerable amount of data in a central database or Configuration Management System (CMS) and the CMDB: the CMDB feeds the CMS and the CMS provides input for the SKMS and so supports the decision-making process.92 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . advertisements. Information is also stored that relates to matters such as: • he experience and skills of staff t • nformation about peripheral issues such as the behavior of users and the performance i of the organization • equirements and expectations of suppliers and partners r There are a number of knowledge transfer techniques. an analysis to determine what the knowledge gap is between the department or person in possession of the knowledge and those in need of the knowledge. the service management knowledge strategy can link into it. seminars. these organizations share the requirement to manage the transfer of that knowledge and information between phases and amongst staff. However. Knowledge transfer . driving behavior.An organization needs an overall knowledge management strategy. Use of the SKMS .

5. It is essential that this information and knowledge is documented and transferred. the success rate of changes and releases for the business c. Service Transition makes the information about the consequences of these errors and any workarounds available to Service Operation. Service Transition adds value to the business by improving: a.3 Sample Questions 1. Known Change d. Emergency Change c. Which of the following is NOT a Change type? a. Standard Change . Normal Change b. Operations staff.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . are the central “collection point” for information about the day-to-day routine of the managed services. and feedback information to Service Design if a change in approach is needed. Service Transition staff also collect information and data that is returned to Service Design via CSI. the design of the IT processes d. Staff who are working in problem management are important users of this knowledge.the study guIde 93 Service delivery errors discovered during transition are recorded and analyzed. the organizational competency for Continual Service Improvement 2. such as incident management staff and first and second line staff. the management of the technology that is used to deliver and support services b.

1 only b. The right-hand side of the V model focuses on the validation activities that are performed against the specifications defined on the left-hand side. All of the above . 1 5. 2 and 3 only c. 5 b. 2 and 3 only c.94 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . 2. 3. 1 only b. Customers who sign off the agreed service requirements will also sign off the Service Acceptance Criteria and test plan. 3. a.the study guIde 3. Which of the following statements about the Service V model are CORRECT? 1. 4. Authorize the Change 4. At the data level it consists of one and only one physical Configuration Management Database. 1. 4. Which of the following statements about the Configuration Management System are CORRECT? 1. 1. 3 and 4 only d. Coordinate Change implementation 5. 4. It will hold details of all of the components of the IT infrastructure as well as the relationships between these components. It is maintained by Service Asset and Configuration Management. 3. 3. 3. 2. Assess and evaluate the Change 3. Consider the following activities from the Change Management process: 1. 2. 5. 3. 5 c. 4. 2. The left-hand side of the V model represents the specification of the service requirements down to the detailed Service Design. 5. Review Request for Change Which of the following options describes the CORRECT order of the activities? a. Review the Change 2. Using a model such as the V model builds in service validation and testing early in the Service Lifecycle. 4. 1. 2. The Service Knowledge Management System includes the Configuration Management System. a. All of the above 4. 2 and 3 only d. 4. 2. 1. 1 d.

1.chApTer 6 Service Operation 6. If the day-to-day operation of processes is not properly conducted. Service Operation is where the actual value is seen.1 Lifecycle phase 6. . assess metrics and gather data are not systematically conducted during Service Operation. controlled and managed. In addition there will be no service improvements if day-to-day activities to monitor performance. then well-designed and well-implemented processes will be of little value.1 Introduction Goal The goal of Service Operation is to deliver and support services in an efficient and effective manner and to maintain stability in service operations while at the same time allowing for changes and improvement. Service Operation is also responsible for management of the technology required to provide and support the services. Objectives The objectives of Service Operation are: coordinating and carrying out activities and processes required to provide and manage services for business users and customers within a specified agreed service level. Scope Service Operation is about fulfilling all activities required to provide and support services. These include: • he services t • he service management processes t • he technology t • he people t Value to the business All stages in the service lifecycle provide value to the business but from a customer viewpoint.

6. Usually. As part of the organization.1. Good communication can prevent problems. and. • chieving a proper balance in reactive and proactive behavior. This will improve the continuity between business requirements. Service Operation must ensure that the IT infrastructure is stable and available.96 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .2 Basic concepts Service Operation is responsible for the fulfillment of processes that optimize the service costs and quality in the service management Lifecycle. Additionally. • chieving an IT organization in which stability and response are in balance. Achieving balance in Service Operation. An over-proactive attitude can be very costly. This addresses IT’s challenge A to continually improve the quality of services while at the same time reducing or at the very least maintaining costs. and can result in distracted staff. It is very important that the Service Operation staff are involved in Service Design and Service Transition. as well as users. On A the one hand. Service Operation must recognize the business needs change and must embrace change as a normal activity.1. . internal customers and Service Operation teams. • chieving an optimal balance between cost and quality. There are some key Service Operation processes that must link together to provide an effective overall IT support structure. proactive behavior is viewed positively. Communication is essential.the study guIde 6. IT teams and departments. A proactive organization always looks for new opportunities to improve the current situation. if necessary. it is responsible for the effective functioning of components supporting the service. have to communicate effectively with each other. At the same time. technology design and operation by ensuring that operational aspects have been given thorough consideration. because it enables the organization to keep a competitive advantage in a changing environment. in Service Strategy. More information about each of these processes can be found in Section 6. Service Operation must try to achieve a balance between the following conflicting priorities: • he view of IT as a set of IT services and the view of IT as a set of technological T components (external view versus internal view).2 of this study guide. A reactive A organization does nothing until an external stimulus forces it to act. Service Operation must help ensure that the customer (business) achieves their goals.3 Processes and other activities This section briefly explains the processes and activities of Service Operation.

and fulfillment of the request.The process of allowing authorized users’ access to a service.4 Organization Service Operation has some logical functions (see also 6. • acilities and data centre management refers to management of the physical F environment of IT operations. which are usually located in computing centers or computer rooms. power management and shipping and receiving. Technical Management. Service Operation activities: • onitoring and control .Focuses on restoring failures of services as quickly as I possible for customers. equipment hosting. and to determine a resolution for those problems. It is the custodian of technical knowledge and . this can be automated to trace and escalate unforeseen circumstances. 6. dealing with all A incidents. network management. • ccess management . reporting and M undertaking action.The process of dealing with service requests from the users. Main components of facilities management are for example building management.Based on a continual cycle of monitoring. • roblem management . Technical management plays a dual role. server management and support. directory services management. IT Operations Management and Application Management: • service desk is the Single Point of Contact (SPOC) for users. For example mainframe management. The primary purpose of the service desk is to restore “normal service” to users as quickly as possible. departments or teams that provide T technical expertise and overall management of the IT infrastructure. • here are a number of operational activities which ensure that the technology T matches the service and process goals. R providing a request channel. • T operations . so that these have a minimal impact on the business.Includes all activities needed for a diagnosis of the underlying P cause of incidents. A while access of unauthorized users is prevented.Surveys all events that occur in the IT infrastructure in order E to monitor the regular performance.Fulfill the day-to-day operational activities that are needed to manage I the IT infrastructure. and middleware management. access requests and service requests. supporting and improving services. • echnical management refers to the groups. • equest fulfillment .2) that deal with service desk.the study guIde 97 Service Operation processes: • vent management . database management. This cycle is crucial to providing. • ncident management . information.1.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .

according to the performance standards defined during Service Design. using incident and request fulfillment processes • uper users s − business users who act as liaison points between business and IT . and that roles are defined to carry out the practice of Service Operation. One of the key decisions in application management is whether to buy an application that supports the required functionality. testing and improvement of applications that are part of IT services. usually data centers or computer rooms. or whether to build the application according to the organization’s requirements. for the management of physical IT environment. A Application management also plays an important role in the design. • T operations management executes the daily operational activities needed to I manage the IT infrastructure. The key to effective ITSM is ensuring that there is clear accountability. which ensures that routine operational tasks are carried out. Service desk roles The following roles are needed for the service desk: • ervice desk manager s − manages service desk activities − acts as escalation point for supervisors − takes on wider customer service role − reports to senior managers about any issue that could significantly impact the business − attends Change Advisory Board meetings − overall responsibility for processing incidents and service requests • ervice desk supervisor s − ensures that staffing and skill levels are maintained − is responsible for production of management reports − acts as escalation point for difficult calls • ervice desk analysts s − deliver first line support by accepting calls and processing the resulting incidents or service requests. IT operations management has two functions: IT operations control. • pplication management is responsible for managing applications in their lifecycle. But it is also provides the actual resources so support the ITSM lifecycle.98 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . and facilities management.the study guIde expertise related to managing the infrastructure.

control and decision-making • echnical analysts/architects t − defining and maintaining knowledge on how systems are related and ensuring that dependencies are understood • echnical operators t − performing day-to-day operational tasks.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Event management roles It is unusual to appoint an ‘event manager’ but it is important that event management procedures are coordinated. Technical and application management play an important role in event management. Incident management roles The incident manager is responsible for: • riving the effectiveness and efficiency of the incident management process d • roducing management information p • anaging the work of incident support staff (first tier and second tier) m . the service desk will escalate them to the appropriate service operation teams. but if events have been identified as incidents. Application analysts and architects are responsible for matching business requirements to technical specifications. control and decision making for the applications team or department. the teams will perform event management for the systems under their control. The service desk is not typically involved in event management. For example.the study guIde 99 Technical management roles The following roles are needed for the technical management areas: • echnical managers/team leaders t − responsible for leadership. IT Operation management roles The following roles are needed for IT Operations management: • T operations manager I • hift leader s • T operations analysts I • T operators I Application management roles Application management requires application managers and team leaders. They have overall responsibility for leadership.

culture and business environment. This problem manager is responsible for coordinating all problem management activities and is specifically responsible for: • iaison with all problem resolution groups to accomplish quick solutions to problems l within SLA targets • wnership and protection of the Known Error Database o • ormal closure of all problem records f • iaison with vendors and other parties to ensure compliance with contractual l obligations • anaging. such as the service desk.100 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . technical management and application management. Problem management roles One person (or. documenting and planning all (follow-up) activities that relate m to major problem reviews Access management roles Since access management is the execution of security and availability management. second. . geography. in larger organizations. This process and the related policy are usually defined and maintained by information security management and executed by various service operation functions. There are several ways to organize Service Operation functions. executing.the study guIde • onitoring the effectiveness of incident management and making recommendations m for improvement • anaging major incidents m • eveloping and maintaining incident management systems and processes d • ffectively managing incidents using first. and each organization will come to its own decisions based on its size. these two areas will be responsible for defining the appropriate roles. and third tier support e Request fulfillment roles Initial service request handling is done by the service desk and incident management staff. Although usually no access manager is appointed by an organization. a team) should be responsible for problem management. it is important there should be one process for managing privileges and access. Actual fulfillment will be undertaken by the appropriate service operation team(s) or departments and/or external suppliers.

techniques and tools An important requirement for Service Operation is an integrated IT service management technology (or toolset) with the following core functionality: • elf-help (e. For a successful Service Operation. but also in case of failures.6 Implementation and operation There are some general implementation guidelines for Service Operation: • anaging changes in Service Operation .In a number of cases. L • ustifying the financing. D it is necessary that risk evaluation is conducted swiftly. • etermining and managing risks in Service Operation . implementation. or the deployment of new procedures are significant tasks where project management can be used to improve control and manage costs and resources. • ervice Operation and project management - There is a tendency not to use project S management processes when they would in fact be appropriate.1. For example. This will ensure that the new services will actually work in practice and that they can be supported by Service Operation staff. security risks and new clients that need support.There are P several factors that organizations must plan before and during implementation of ITSM support tools.Service Operation staff must implement M changes without negative impact on the stability of offered IT services.5 Methods. This is especially necessary for potential changes or known errors. such as: • ack of involvement among development and project staff. capacity checks and timing of technology/implementation. • lanning and implementation of service management technologies .1. major infrastructure upgrades.the study guIde 101 6. several challenges need to be overcome. such as licenses. J .ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . in order to take appropriate action.g. projects. environmental risks. vendors.Service Operation staff O should be particularly involved in the early stages of Service Design and Transition. FAQ's on a web interface) s • orkflow or process management engine w • n integrated Configuration Management System (CMS) a • echnology for detection. implementation and licenses t • emote control r • iagnostic utilities d • eporting capabilities r • ashboards d • ntegration with business service management i 6. • perational staff in Service Design and Transition .

and the balance between the many internal and external relationships. the use of virtual teams.102 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .the study guIde • hallenges for service operation managers. for example ineffective Service Transition C may hamper the transition from design to production. There are some critical success factors: • anagement support m • efining champions d • usiness support b • iring and retaining staff h • ervice management training s • ppropriate tools a • est validity t • easuring and reporting m Risks to successful Service Operation include: • nsufficient financing and resources i • oss of momentum in implementation Service Operation l • oss of important staff l • esistance to change r • ack of management support l • uspicion of service management by both IT and the business s • hanging expectations of the customer c .

1 Event Management Introduction An event is defined as “any detectable or discernible occurrence that has significance for the management of the IT infrastructure or the delivery of IT service. − The CI generates a report if certain conditions are met. • vents that signal an unusual but not exceptional operation . • vents that indicate an abnormal operation . Basic concepts Events may be classified as: • vents that indicate a normal operation .2. Event management can be automated to trace and escalate unforeseen event circumstances. Event notification . Therefore.For example a user logging on to use an E application.It may provide an E indication that the situation requires a little more supervision. Event management can be applied to any service management aspect that must be managed and can be automated. For example utilization of a server’s memory reaches within five per cent of its highest acceptable level.Most CIs are designed in such a way that they communicate specific information about themselves in one of the following ways: − A management tool probes a device and collects specific data (this is also called "polling").the study guIde 103 6. and evaluation of the impact that a deviation might cause to the services. 2.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .” Event management is the process that monitors all events that occur through the IT infrastructure to allow for normal operation and also to detect and escalate exceptional conditions. An event occurs . Activities The main activities of the event management process are: 1.2 Functions and processes 6.Events occur all the time. .For example a user who is trying E to log on to an application with an incorrect password or a PC scan that reveals the installation of unauthorized software. but not all of them are detected or registered. it is important to understand what event types must be detected.

1 Event management .the study guIde Event Event Notification Generated Event Detected Event Filtered Informational Significance? Warning Exception Event Correlation Trigger Event Logged Auto Response Alert Incident Incident/ Problem/ Change? Problem Change Human Intervention Incident Management Problem Management Change Management Review Actions Effective? Yes No Close Event End Figure 6.104 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .

7. Response options .Organizations often use their own classification to establish the importance of an event. 5. or whether event types are counted. The significance of events (event classification) . triggers include: • xceptions at every level of CI performance established in the design specifications.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . For example changing a toner cartridge in a printer when the level is low. Each event type is able to trigger event management.an alert requires a person.the study guIde 105 3.1 reflects the flow of event management.All important events or exceptions should be checked to determine whether they have been treated correctly. A .Some events remain open until specific actions have been taken. a response is required. 10. Closing the event . Event correlation . • n exception in a business process that is monitored by event management. The mechanism that initiates that response is called a trigger.Event correlation establishes the significance of an event and determines what actions should be taken. Review actions . However. − exception 6. to perform a specific action. Event filtering . 8. E Operational Level Agreements or standard processing procedures. Among other things. A • status change that is found in a device or database record. or team. 4. it is useful to use at least the following three broad categories: − informative − alert . possibly on a specific device and possibly at a specific time.Event filtering decides whether or not the event is communicated to a management tool.A management tool or agent detects an event report and reads and interprets it. The diagram in Figure 6. Trigger . a combination of which are allowed: − event logging − automatic response − alert and human intervention − submitting a Request for Change (RFC) − opening an incident record − opening a link to a problem record 9. Event detection .The process provides a number of response options.If the event is recognized.

the study guIde Inputs and outputs Input: • vent notification e Outputs: • ncident record i • roblem record p • equest for Change R • vent record e • uto response a • lert and human intervention a .106 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .

ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . These may be failures. An incident can be defined as: “an unplanned interruption to an IT service or reduction in the quality of an IT service. faults or bugs that are reported by users (generally via a call to the service desk) or technical staff.2 Incident Management Introduction The incident management process handles all incidents.the study guIde 107 6.” From Event Mgmt From web Interface User Phone Call Email Technical Staff Incident Identification Incident Logging Incident Categorization Service Request? No Incident Prioritization Major Incident Procedure Yes To Request Fulfilment Yes Major Incident? No Initial Diagnosis Yes Management Escalation Yes Hierarchic Escalation Needed? No Functional Escalation Needed? No Investigation & Diagnosis Yes Functional Escalation 2/3 Level Resolution and Recovery Incident Closure End Figure 6.2 Incident management . Failure of a CI that has not yet affected service is also an incident. or that are automatically detected and reported by monitoring tools.2.

4. Activities The incident management process consists of the following steps (Figure 6. 2. • mpact .the study guIde Basic concepts In incident management. Escalation - When the service desk cannot resolve the incident itself.A diagnose is carried out to try to discover the full symptoms of the incident.2): 1. impact.An incident record is created.The incident is coded by type. 6. Agree on what defines a major incident and map the entire incident priority system. If incidents are more serious. the incident is investigated. the incident is escalated for further support (functional escalation). but it never becomes a problem.Every incident gets an appropriate prioritization code to determine how the incident is handled by support tools and support staff. urgency. I • rgency . Identification .The incident is detected or reported.An incident model is a way of pre-defining the steps that are I necessary to handle a process (in this case. Its impact or priority may increase. 7. Registration . . an incident always remains an incident. the following elements should be taken into account: • imescales . Categorization .108 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . • riority . the appropriate IT managers must be notified (hierarchic escalation). However.If there is no known solution. the processing of certain incident types) in an agreed way. • ajor incidents - A major incident is an incident for which the degree of impact on M the user community is extreme. • ncident models .The effect of an incident upon business processes. Usage of incident models helps to ensure that standard incidents will be handled correctly and within the agreed timeframes. based on impact and P urgency. Investigation and diagnosis . Diagnosis . status.A category for the relative importance of an incident. 5. SLA.A measure of how long it will be before the incident will have a significant U impact on business processes. et cetera. with shorter timeframes and higher urgency. People sometimes confuse a major incident with a problem. Major incidents require a separate procedure. 3. A problem is the underlying cause of one or more incidents and always remains a separate entity. Prioritization .Agree on time limits for all phases and use them as targets in Operational T Level Agreements (OLAs) and Underpinning Contracts (UCs).

many incidents are registered by event management tools more and more often. Outputs: • ncident management reports i • FC R • orkarounds w • roblem reports p • ervice level reports s • equests r . Resolution and recovery . 9.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .the study guIde 109 8. Incident closure . Inputs and outputs Inputs: • ncidents can be triggered in many ways. The most common route is via a user who I calls the service desk or completes an incident registration form in a tool or via the internet.The service desk should check that the incident is fully resolved and that the user is satisfied with the solution and the incident can be closed.Once the solution has been found. However. the issue can be resolved.

or access to a service. it is possible to agree on fixed prices for standard requests and give instant authorization for these requests. For example. a service request can be a request for a password change or the additional installation of a software application on a certain work station. Because these requests occur on a regular basis and involve little risk.110 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . • inancial authorization . • losure . the individuals or support groups. advice. whereas others must be forwarded to specialist groups or suppliers. in all other cases the cost must first be estimated.3 Request Fulfillment Introduction The term service request is used as a general description for the various requests that users submit to the IT department. a standard change. the cost F for handling a request must first be determined. Request fulfillment (implementation of requests) processes service requests from the users. A service request is a request from a user for information. This is why a process flow can be devised in advance. the service desk will close C off the request. stipulating the phases needed to handle the requests. methods and techniques: • enu selection .By means of request fulfillment. The service desk can handle simple requests. it is better that they are handled in a separate process. . users can submit their own service M request via a link to service management tools. Activities Request fulfillment consists of the following activities.Once the service request has been completed. The service request is usually handled as a standard change.2. • ulfillment . time limits and escalation paths involved. Basic concepts Many service requests recur on a regular basis.The actual fulfillment activity depends on the nature of the service F request. after which the user must give permission.the study guIde 6.Most service requests have financial implications.

the study guIde 111 Inputs and outputs Inputs: • ervice requests s • equest for Change R • ervice portfolio s • ecurity policies s Output: • fulfilled service request a .ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .

and minimize the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented. A known error is a problem that has a documented root cause and a workaround.the study guIde 6. Inputs and outputs Inputs: • roblem records p • ncident details i • onfiguration details from the configuration management database c • upplier details about the products used in the infrastructure s . eliminate repeating incidents. • roactive problem management - Activities to detect and prevent future problems/ P incidents. In addition to creating a Known Error Database (KEDB) for faster diagnosis.Analyzing and resolving the causes of incidents.4 Problem Management Introduction A problem is defined as: “the unknown cause of one or more incidents. The primary objective of problem management is to prevent problems and incidents. Proactive problem management includes the identification of trends or potential weaknesses. the creation of a problem model for the handling of future problems may be useful. but usually driven by CSI (see also Chapter 7). A workaround is a way of reducing or eliminating the impact of an incident or problem for which a full resolution is not yet available. This standard model supports the steps that need to be taken.3) consists of two important processes: • eactive problem management . the responsibilities of people involved and the necessary timescales. Activities Problem management (Figure 6.112 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . R Reactive problem management is performed by Service Operation. Basic concepts A root cause of an incident is the fault in the service component that made the incident occur.” Problem management is responsible for the control of the lifecycle of all problems.2. It is initiated by Service Operation.

ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .the study guIde Event Mgmt Incident Mgmt Proactive Problem Mgmt Supplier or Contractor 113 Service Desk Problem Detection Problem Logging Categorization Prioritization CMS Investigation & Diagnosis Workaround? Create Known Error Record Known Error Database Change Management Yes Change Needed? No Resolution Closure Major Problem? No End Major Problem Review Figure 6.3 Problem management .

such as capacity records.the study guIde • ervice catalogue and service level agreements S • etails about the infrastructure and the way it behaves. D performance measurements. et cetera.114 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . service level reports. Outputs: • roblem records p • nown Error Database K • equest for Change R • losed problem records c • anagement information m .

• dentity .ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . executing. such as a standard request generated by the human resources department. really the person they say they are? A − oes the user have a legitimate reason to use the service? D • ranting rights . editing and deleting.Refers to the information about the people who the organization I distinguishes as individuals.Rights are also called privileges. . Refers to the actual settings for a user. and denies unauthorized users access. writing.Refers to the level and scope of the functionality of services or data that a A user is allowed to use. establishes their status in the organization. Activities Access management consists of the following activities: • equesting access .2. • irectory services . for example by means of a service request with the service desk. • ervices or service groups . it is S therefore more effective to grant every user or group of users access to an entire series of services that they are allowed to use simultaneously. Access management can be initiated via a number of mechanisms. R the service (group) they are allowed to use. it only executes the policy and rules defined by Service Strategy and Service Design.Give verified users access to IT services.5 Access Management Introduction Access management grants authorized users the right to use a service. • ights . • erification . a Request for Change (RFC).Most users have access to multiple services. Typical rights include reading. Access management does G not decide who gets access to what IT services. an RFC submitted via the request fulfillment process.Refers to a specific type of tool used to manage access and D rights. Basic concepts Access management has the following basic concepts: • ccess .the study guIde 115 6. Some organizations also call it “rights management” or “identity management”.Access management must verify every access request for an IT service V from two perspectives: − re the users requesting access. execution of an authorized script or option.Access (or limitation of access) can be requested via a number R of mechanisms.

This is why access monitoring and control must be L included in the monitoring activities of all technical and application management functions as well as in all the Service Operation processes. retirement all influence their service needs. department. it must also ensure that the rights it has granted are used correctly. but it cannot make the actual decision.the study guIde • onitoring identity status - User roles may vary over time. dismissal. access R management is also responsible for withdrawing those rights.Access management does not only respond to R requests. Inputs and outputs Inputs: • equest for change R • ervice request s • equest from the Human Resources (HR) department r • equest from a manager or department fulfilling an HR role or who has made a r decision to use a service for the first time Outputs: • nstances of access granted by service. • evoking or limiting rights . • ogging and tracking access . Changes like job M changes. user.116 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . et cetera i • eporting on abuses of user authorizations r . promotion. • egistering and monitoring access .In addition to granting rights to use a service.

Refers to the observation of a situation to discover changes that occur M over time.6 Monitoring and Control Introduction The measuring and control of services is based on a continuous cycle of monitoring.2.Focuses on activities and items exist within a team I or department. support and improvement of services and also provides a basis for setting strategy. For example. the server management team monitors the CPU performance on important servers and keeps the workload under control. There are two levels of monitoring: • nternal monitoring and control . processes or functions. • eporting . reporting and initiating action. Figure 6.Refers to the management of the usefulness or behavior of a device.the study guIde 117 6. system C or service. This allows essential applications to perform within the target values set by application management. Although it is a simple model. This cycle is essential to the supply. For instance a service desk manager may monitor the number of calls to determine how many members of staff are needed to answer the telephone. production and distribution of the outputs of the R activity that is being monitored. and achieving meaningful improvement.4 reflects the basic principles of control. − The conditions leading to the action must be defined. There are three conditions: − The action must ensure that the behavior conforms to a defined standard or norm. Each team or department will also be controlling items and activities on behalf of other groups.Although each team or department is responsible E for managing its own area. • ontrol . understood and confirmed. Activities The best-known model for the description of control is the monitoring/control cycle. it has many complex applications in IT service management. Basic concepts Three terms play a leading role in monitoring and control: • onitoring . they do not act independently. . approved and suitable for these conditions. • xternal monitoring and control . designing and testing services. − The action must be defined.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .Refers to the analysis.

The Service Design process will help to identify the inputs for defining operational monitoring and control norms and mechanisms. . T There are different types of monitoring tools.4 The monitoring/control cycle The monitoring/control cycle concept can be used to manage: • he performance of activities in a process or procedure. In general. anything could be monitored.the study guIde Norm Control Compare Monitor Input Activity Output Figure 6. However. T • he performance of a device or a series of devices. the main issue here is the definition of monitoring and control objectives. The definition of monitoring and control objectives should ideally start with the definition of the Service Level Requirements documents. whereby the situation determines which type of monitoring is used: • ctive versus passive monitoring A • eactive versus proactive monitoring R • ontinuous measuring versus exception-based measuring C • erformance versus outputs P Inputs and outputs ITIL does not define the inputs/outputs for monitoring and control in detail. T • he effectiveness of the process or procedure as a whole.118 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .

ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .the study guIde 119 Monitoring without control is irrelevant and ineffective. . Therefore. there should be no monitoring. if there is no clear reason for the monitoring of a system or service. Monitoring must always be aimed at achieving the service and operational objectives.

the study guIde 6. such as console management.120 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Backup and restore: Essentially. no incidents occur in existing services.the IT organization will be busy with a range of Service Operations.7 IT Operations Introduction To focus on delivering the service as agreed with the customer. These activities focus on actually delivering the agreed service as agreed. event handling. Activities Job scheduling: IT operations execute standard routines. Service Transition must ensure that they are properly tested. An operations bridge brings together all vital observation points in the IT infrastructure so that they can be monitored and managed with minimum effort in a central location. Basic concepts The operations bridge is a central point of coordination that manages various events and routine operational activities. which includes backup and storage of data in reserved protected (and if necessary. queries or reports that technical and application management teams have handed over as part of the service or as part of daily routine maintenance tasks. and no changes have to be made in existing services . and reports on the status or performance of technological components.2. the service desk is part of the operations bridge. In some organizations. T . Even when no new customers are added and no new services have to be introduced. The operations bridge combines many activities. backup and restore is a component of good continuity planning. An organization must protect its data. and support outside office hours. A complete backup strategy must be agreed with the business and must cover the following elements: • hat data should the backup include. first line network management. and how often must it be made? W • ow many generations of data must be retained? H • he backup type and the checkpoints that are used. the service provider will first have to manage the technical infrastructure that is used to deliver the services. T • he locations used for storage and the rotation schedule. Service Design must therefore ensure that there are proper backup strategies for every service. accessible) locations.

In this case.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . A restore may be necessary in case of: • orrupt data c • ost data l • disaster recovery plan / IT service continuity situation a • istorical data required for forensic investigation h Many services provide their information in print or electronic form (output). storage). varying from an event indicating data corruption to a service request from a user or customer. Laws and regulations may play an important part in print and output. R • lanned recovery point. the maximum allowed time to resume an IT service after an P interruption. Inputs and outputs Input: • efinitions of how to deliver the IT services as defined in Service Design and d communicated in Service Transition Output: • T services delivered to the customers I . and specify user or customer obligations and activities in the relevant SLA. the IT operations staff must be qualified in backup and restore procedures. These procedures must be documented properly in the procedure manual of IT operations. that task must be set in the SLA. The service provider must ensure that the information ends up in the right place. Where necessary. you should include specific requirements or targets in OLAs or UCs. • lanned recovery time. the point to which data must be recovered after an IT service P resumes. in the right way and in the right form. Service providers are generally deemed to be responsible for maintaining the infrastructure to make the print and output available to the customer (printers. T • equired tests that are used. A restore can be initiated from several sources.the study guIde 121 • ransport methods that are used. This often involves Information security. • ow will it be checked that the backups are functional when they need to be H restored? In all cases. The archiving of important or sensitive data is particularly important.

events which are reported automatically. • irtual service desk . internet or infrastructure.the study guIde 6.122 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . It must be the only contact point. These service events come in by phone. The most important options are: • ocal service desk .Two or more service desks are located in different continents F and combined in order to offer a 24/7 service. and by the V use of support tools. This may be resolving a technical error.The number of service desks can be reduced by installing C them at one single location. Activities Besides resuming normal service to the user as quickly as possible there are specific responsibilities for a service desk.2. for example: • ogging all incident/service request details l • roviding first-line investigation and diagnosis p • esolving incidents/service request r • scalating incidents/service requests a service desk cannot resolve themselves within e agreed timescales . • pecialized service desk groups . There are many ways to organize a service desk. “Normal service” refers to what has been defined in the SLAs. but also filling a service request or answering a question. specifically the internet. whereas the associates are in fact spread out over a number of geographic or structural locations.Incidents relating to a specific IT service may be S routed straight to the specialized group.The local service desk is located at or physically close to the L users it is supporting. for IT users and it deals with all incidents. The staff often uses software tools to record and manage all events. Basic concepts The primary purpose of the service desk is to restore “normal service” to users as quickly as possible. it is possible to create the impression of a centralized service desk. • entralized service desk . The service desk is a vitally important element of the IT department of an organization.By using technology. the Single Point of Contact (SPOC). • ollow-the-sun service . access requests and service requests.8 Service Desk Introduction A service desk is a functional unit with staff involved in differing service events.

efficiency.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . it is also important to carry out “soft” metrics: the Client and User Satisfaction Surveys (for example Do clients and users find that their phone calls are properly answered? Was the service desk associate friendly and professional?). requests and other calls c • ommunication with users c • pdating the CMS u . the maturity. requests and other calls c • pdating the CMS under the direction and approval of Configuration Management u if so agreed In order to evaluate the performance of the service desk at regular time intervals. Besides following “hard” metrics in the performance of the service desk. metrics must be established. Inputs and outputs Inputs: • ncidents i • ervice requests s Outputs: • nvestigation and diagnoses i • esolved incidents/service requests r • scalating incidents/service requests that cannot be resolved e • eeping users informed of progress k • losing resolved incidents.the study guIde 123 • nforming users about the progress i • losing all resolved incidents. but specific questions about the service desk itself may also be asked. This way. Users can best complete this type of metrics. effectiveness and potentials can be established and the service desk actions improved.

2. 3. To transform Service Management into a strategic asset. Supply versus demand b. d. To ensure that the service can be used in accordance with the requirements and constraints specified within the service requirements. 2 and 3 only c. The unknown cause of one or more Incidents. 1. 4. Which of the following activities is NOT an activity in the Incident Management process? a. Monitoring the effectiveness of Incident Management and making recommendations for improvement. 2. Which of the following activities is the Incident Manager responsible for? 1. Which of the following statements is the CORRECT definition of a Known Error? a. b. Incident Identification b. 2 and 3 only d. To achieve effectiveness and efficiency in the delivery and support of services. To design services to satisfy business objectives. All of the above .124 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Incident Categorization d. Managing the work for Incident support staff (first-line and second line). Managing major incidents. c. Stability versus responsiveness d. Which of the following statements BEST describes the objective of Service Operation? a. Which of the following balances has to be dealt with by Service Operation? a. c. Incident Prioritization 5. A Problem that has a documented root cause and a Workaround.3 Sample Questions 1.the study guIde 6. Incident Verification c. Producing management information. 1 only b. Cost versus resources 4. d. a. b. Push versus pull c. 3. A Problem that has a documented root cause or a Workaround. An action taken to repair the root cause of an Incident or Problem.

2 and 3 only c. c. 2 and 3 only c. b. monitor. 1. Follow-the-Sun a. document. d. . Local Service Desk 2. To minimize the impact of Incidents that cannot be prevented. 7. Exception a. Warning 3. Which of the following is NOT the responsibility of a Service Desk? a. Major 4. c. Which of the following is an objective for Problem Management. 2 only b. 2 and 3 only d. All of the above 9.the study guIde 125 6. Virtual Service Desk 4.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . 2 only b. Resolving those Incidents it is able to resolve. b. All of the above 8. 1. Closing all resolved Know Errors. Providing first-line investigation and diagnosis. Which of the following options are typical ways of structuring and locating a Service Desk? 1. 2 and 3 only d. Which of the following are examples of Event types? 1. To restore normal Service Operation as quickly as possible and minimize the adverse impact on business operations. a. d. To define. Closing all resolved Incidents. agree. Informational 2. report and review the level of IT service provided. measure. To act as a basis for automating routine Operations Management activities. Centralized Service Desk 3.

Event Management b.126 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .the study guIde 10. Applications Management c. Technical Management . IT operations Management d. Which of the following is NOT described as a function but as a process in Service Operation? a.

it becomes an inherent part of both developing and delivering IT services.chApTer 7 Continual Service Improvement (CSI) 7. and obtaining these objectives at the lowest cost possible (efficiency). reduce the number of errors in a process. Goal The main goal of CSI is the continual improvement of the effectiveness and efficiency of IT services. This is placed within the lifecycle phase of Continual Service Improvement (CSI). This way.1. measuring and analyzing are essential in identifying the services that are profitable and those that need to improve. efficiency.1 Introduction IT departments must continually improve their services in order to remain appealing to the business. To increase the effectiveness you can. CSI should be applied throughout the entire service lifecycle. This entails both achieving and surpassing the objectives (effectiveness). for instance. allowing them to better meet business requirements. To make a process more efficient you can eliminate unnecessary activities or automate manual operations. effectiveness and t customer satisfaction of the services and the IT service management processes • o operate more cost effective IT services without sacrificing customer satisfaction t • o use suitable quality management methods for improvement activities t Scope The scope of CSI includes the following important areas: • eneral quality of the IT management g .1 Lifecycle phase 7. in all phases from Service Strategy to Service Operation. Objectives The main objectives of CSI are: • o measure and analyze service level achievements by comparing them to the t requirements in the Service Level Agreement (SLA) • o recommend improvements in all phases of the lifecycle t • o introduce activities which will increase the quality. In this phase.

Execute the planned activities.2 Basic concepts Organizational change is needed to make continual improvement a permanent part of the organizational culture. John P. who will do what and how? P • o . the American statistician Deming developed a step-by-step improvement approach: the Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle (PDCA): • lan - What needs to happen. A .128 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Kotter.1.Check whether the activities yield the desired result. C • ct - Adjust the plan in accordance to the checks.the study guIde • ontinual tuning of the IT services to the current and future needs of the business c • ontinual tuning of the IT service portfolio c • he maturity of the IT processes which enable the services t Value to the business There are several reasons to monitor and measure: • o validate previous decisions t • o set direction for activities in order to meet targets t • o justify (with facts) that a course of action is required t • o identify a point of intervention including required changes and corrective t actions CSI mainly measures and monitors the following matters: • rocess compliance - Are the new or modified processes being followed? P • uality - Do the various process activities meet their goals? Q • erformance - How efficient is the process? P • usiness value of a process - Does the process make a difference? B 7. Professor of Leadership at the Harvard Business School. discovered eight crucial steps to successful organizational change: • reate a sense of urgency c • orm a leading coalition f • reate a vision c • ommunicate the vision c • mpower others to act on the vision e • lan for and create quick wins p • onsolidate improvements and create more change c • nstitutionalize the changes i In the 1980s. D • heck .

CSI needs three types: • echnology metrics .1).Performance of service management processes.Plan. measured by component metrics. They can either be qualitative (e. .g.This area focuses on the C “check” and “act” phase. • rocess metrics .1 PDCA Cycle CSI uses the PDCA Cycle in two areas: • mplementation of CSI .the study guIde 129 These steps are followed by a consolidation phase to engrain the changes into the organization. implement (do).End service results.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . A metric measures whether a certain variable meets its set target. performance. and process compliance. The cycle is also known as the Deming Cycle (Figure 7. value.Performance and availability of components and applicaT tions. S Define Critical Success Factors (CSFs): elements essential to achieving the business mission. and evaluate I (check) and adjust (act) CSI. measure. or quantitative (e. • ontinual improvement of services and processes .g. KPIs following from these CSFs determine the quality. P • ervice metrics . with few activities in the “plan” and “do” phase. customer satisfaction surveys). monitor. costs of a printer incident). such as setting goals. Direction of rotation QUALITY P D Quality improvement A C Quality Management 1 PLAN 2 DO 3 CHECK 4 ACT TIME ITI ISO L /IE C2 00 00 Quality Assurance Figure 7.

. This is called the data-informationknowledge-wisdom model (DIKW).e. Combined with experience. transparent and responsible management of an organization.3 Processes and other activities This section briefly explains the processes and activities of Continual Service Improvement. Corporate governance provides good. KPIs and evaluations. goals and objectives together with the business. Together they are known as enterprise governance. you should set the direction.the study guIde Metrics supply quantitative data. Performance Accountability Assurance Value Creation Resource Utilization Figure 7. More information about each of these processes can be found in Chapter 13 of this study guide. CSI transforms these into qualitative information. See Figure 7. IT governance is part of enterprise governance and comprises both corporate governance and business governance. Enterprise Governance Corporate Governance i. mission. The CSI improvement process focuses on the acquirement of wisdom: being able to make the correct assessments and the correct decisions by using the data. context. reporting.2. CSFs. Business governance results in good company performances.2 The enterprise governance framework (Source: CIMA) 7.130 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .1. using the CSI model: 1. Before you start with an improvement process. Conformance Business Governance i. What is the vision? - Formulate a vision. information and knowledge in the best possible way. interpretation and reflection this becomes knowledge. Governance drives organizations and controls them.e. CSI policies capture agreements about measuring. honest.

The service manager is responsible for: • chieving company strategy and goals a • enchmarking b • inancial management f • ustomer management c • endor management v • ull lifecycle management f • nventory management.the study guIde 131 2. How do we keep the momentum going? . i The service manager must know a great deal about market analysis.Reports on results and service level developments. service owner. How do we get there? . . and check whether the processes are complied with. formulate complex programs. implementation.1.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . 7. • ervice reporting . Continual Service Improvement processes: • he CSI improvement process (or 7-step improvement process) - Describes how T you should measure and report. be able to anticipate new market needs. Did we get there? - Measure whether the objectives have been achieved. Where do we want to be? . Where are we now? .Record the current situation and set the baseline. and temporary project roles such as project managers and project team members.Engrain the changes in order to maintain them.Determine measurable targets.Determines the value of the services with regard to the S agreed service levels. 6. 5. 4. 3. evaluation and ongoing management of new and existing products and services.Draw up a detailed Service Improvement Plan (SIP). Service manager The service manager manages the development. guide personnel and sell services. process owner and analysts.4 Organization CSI comprises permanent production roles such as service manager. S Continual Service Improvement activities: • ervice measurement .

have a flair for improvement opportunities throughout the company and be able to counsel staff. improvement will not occur. The CSI manager is responsible for: • evelopment of the CSI domain d • wareness and communication of CSI throughout the organization a • llocating CSI roles a • dentifying and prioritizing improvement opportunities to senior management i together with the service owner • dentifying monitoring requirements together with the service level manager i • nsuring that the proper monitoring tools are installed e • reating SIPs together with the service level manager c • apturing baseline data to measure improvement against it c • efining and reporting upon CSFs. investigating and reporting of trends and initiates service improvement activities. build good relationships with the business and IT management. It does not matter where the underlying technological components. e The CSI manager must be able to lead projects throughout the organization.132 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . In addition. The CSI manager is responsible for CSI in the organization. As a result this new role is essential for a successful improvement program. analysis. The main responsibilities are: • wning and representing the service o • nderstanding which components make up the service u • easuring the performance and availability m • ttending Change Advisory Board (CAB) meetings if these changes are relevant to a the service they represent • orking with the CSI manager to identify and prioritize improvements w • articipating in internal and external service reviews p • aintaining the service entry in the service catalogue m • articipating in the negotiation of SLAs and OLAs p . the CSI manager also make sure that sufficient CSI supporting resources are available.the study guIde CSI manager Without a clear and unambiguous responsibility. process or functions are located. KPIs and activity metrics d • sing supporting frameworks and models u • aking knowledge management an integral part of the daily routine m • valuating analyzed data. The CSI manager manages the measuring. The service owner is the central point of contact for a specific service. Service owner It is crucial to appoint one person responsible for each service: this is the service owner.

1. Swim lanes are strong tools for communication with business managers. design lead. such as an SLA or a maturity standard.Includes four different perspectives on organizational B performance: customer. and identifies trends.designs a communication strategy for CSI.Evaluates whether the improvements produce the desired I effects.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .5 Methods. Other roles Other roles that are important to CSI: • ervice knowledge manager . must have good communication skills because reporting is an essential element of communication.Visualizes the relationships between R processes and organizations or departments with “swim lanes”. • ap analysis . and this is the way most managers look at a process. See also chapter 4 “Service Design”. internal processes.the study guIde 133 Process owner Having an owner is just as crucial to a process as a service owner is to a service. The process owner ensures that the organization follows a process.designs and maintains a knowledge management S strategy and implements this. • ummler-Brache swim-lane diagram . • ommunication responsibility . Weaknesses. The service owner must be a senior manager with enough credibility. • ssessment .Determines where the organization is now and the size of the gap G with where it wants to be. . as they describe a process from an organizational viewpoint. The process owner performs the essential role of process champion. • WOT-analysis - Looks at the Strengths. often R cooperates with SLM roles (see Service Design).evaluates and analyzes data. advocate. C 7. • eporting analyst . techniques and tools There are various methods and techniques to check whether planned improvements actually produce measurable improvements: • mplementation review . influence and authority in the organization departments which are part of the process.Compares the performance of a process or organization against a A performance standard. • enchmark - A special type of assessment: organizations compare (parts of ) their B processes with the performance of the same types of processes that are commonly recognized as “best practice”. • alanced Scorecard . learning and growth and financial. Opportunities and Threats of S an organization or component. coach and protector.

including the senior management a • lear criteria for the prioritization of improvement projects c • echnology to support improvement activities t Introduction of CSI comes with the following challenges and risks: • oo little knowledge of the IT impact on the business and its important processes t • eglecting the information from reports n • nsufficient resources. one method or technique is not enough: try to find the best mix for your organization.6 Implementation and operation Before you implement CSI you must establish: • oles for trend analysis. monitor and report on the ITSM processes. Costs may be related to labor. process and products) l . CSI needs different types of software to support.134 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Benefits of CSI may be: • horter time to market s • ustomer bonding c • ower maintenance costs l Critical success factors for CSI include: • doption by the whole organization.the study guIde In most cases. budget and time i • rying to change everything at once t • esistance against (cultural) changes r • oor supplier management p • ack of sufficient testing of all improvement aspects (people. training and tools. reporting and decision-making r • testing and reporting system with the appropriate technology a • ervices are evaluated internally before the IT organization discusses the test results s with the business The business case must clarify whether it is useful to start with CSI. test.1. The requirements for enhancing tools need to be established and documented in the answer to the question: ‘Where do we want to be?’ 7. On the basis of a set baseline an organization can compare the benefits and costs of the present situation with the benefits and costs of the improvement.

As with all other changes in the Lifecycle.the study guIde 135 CSI uses a lot of data from the entire service lifecycle and virtually all its processes. . The CMDB should be updated as well. monitoring and reporting on IT service levels. and deployment process. CSI thus gains insight into the improvement opportunities of an organization. is the most important process for CSI. It agrees with the business what the IT organization needs to measure and what the results should be. from the Design phase of the Lifecycle. CSI must therefore submit a Request for Change (RFC) with change management and conduct a Post Implementation Review (PIR) after implementation.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . release. SLM maintains and improves the quality of IT services by constantly agreeing. CSI changes must go through the change. Service level management.

What should you measure? I. Figure 7. CSI model 1. however.1 CSI Improvement Process Introduction The CSI improvement process or 7-step improvement process describes how to measure and report on service improvement. Determine vision CSI Improvement Proces 7. never become a goal unto itself. Check III.3 shows how the CSI model and the CSI improvement process mesh together. .2.the study guIde 7. It should. Data collection (measure) Figure 7. Plan 2. It is step 3 of the CSI improvement process as discussed below. Where do we want to be? 5. Keep momentum going II. which should result in a Service Improvement Plan (SIP). Present and use the information V. Determine current situation 6. This process is closely aligned to the PDCA Cycle and the CSI model. Implement corrective action VI.136 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Data analysis IV. Always keep in mind why you measure.3 Connections between CSI Model and the CSI Improvement process Basic concepts Measuring is critical in CSI.2 Functions and processes 7. Data processing 3. What can you measure? 4.

mission. Process data . 7.The stakeholder is informed whether the goals have been achieved (still Phase V).the study guIde 137 Before an organization can produce meaningful measurements. What should you measure? . . Each management level should be addressed in the measuring process: strategic goals and objectives. Present and use information .The processing of data is to determine the right presentation format appropriate to each audience. tactical process maturity and operational metrics and KPIs. Gather data (measure) . 3. If there is little data available.This must follow from the vision (Phase I of the CSI model) and precede the assessment of the current situation (Phase II of the CSI model). establish a new baseline and start the cycle from the top. first determine a baseline of relevant data. Analyze data . and information from Step 6 at the tactical level will provide data to Step 3 of a cycle at the strategic level. What can you measure? - This step follows from Phase III of the CSI model: where do we want to be? By researching what the organization can measure.Create improvements. 6.In order to verify whether the organization has reached its goal (Phase V of the CSI model). it must perform measurements following from its vision. which returns in Phase I of the CSI model: determine the vision. This way. goals and objectives. by answering the question “where are we now?”. 5. it will discover new business requirements and new IT options. Activities CSI measures and processes measurements in a continual improvement process in seven steps: 1.Discrepancies. 2. 4.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . it needs to set its baseline. a knowledge spiral develops: the information from Step 6 (Present and use the information) in an operational cycle is input for Step 3 (Data collection) in a tactical cycle. Implement corrective action . By using a gap analysis CSI can find areas for improvement and plan these (Phase IV of the CSI model). trends and possible explanations are prepared for presentation to the business (Phase V of the CSI model). The cycle is preceded and closed by identification of vision and goals.

. tactical and operational decisions. which creates the following output: • onitoring plan and procedures m • ollected data concerning the ability by IT to meet business expectations c • greement on the reliability and applicability of data a Step 4 processes this into reports and logically grouped data ready for analysis as an output for Step 5. serving as input for Step 2. This results into an SIP. These two lists provide input for Step 3. mission. Step 7 assesses which opportunities provide the best possible outcome and implements those opportunities. A list of what can be measured is the output of Step 2. Measure whether desired improvements have delivered what you expected and use it as new input for Step 1.138 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . must translate knowledge into wisdom which is required to make strategic. goals and objectives of the organization and its units v • overnance requirements g • udget b • alanced scorecard b • esults from SIP coming from step 7 r The output of Step 1 is a list of what should be measured. The inputs for Step 7 are improvement opportunities suggested from Step 6. according to the DIKW model. Step 6.the study guIde Inputs and outputs The inputs for the CSI improvement process going into Step 1 consist of: • ervice Level Requirements S • ervice catalogue s • ision. which is the output of step 7. Output from step 5 is information turned into knowledge.

Education and Communication Figure 7. so you can distinguish between.4 shows how the service reporting process converts knowledge into the wisdom which is needed to make strategic. The aim is to convincingly support with facts any added value IT will have for the business. It should be established together with the business and Service Design. tactical and operational decisions.4 Service reporting Basic concepts A reporting framework is a policy that is formulated according to the rules by which you report. data can be translated automatically (if possible) into meaningful reports.2 Service Reporting Introduction The service reporting process reports on the results achieved and the developments in service levels. production and sales departments. per business unit. contents and frequency of the reports. It should agree with the business on the layout.2. Figure 7. for example.the study guIde 139 7.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . The reporting framework should at least contain: • arget groups and their view of the services delivered t • greement as to what should be measured and what to report a • efining all terms and upper and lower limits d • asis for all calculations b • eport planning r • ccess to reports and media used a • eetings to discuss the reports m . The Business Define Reporting Policies and Rules Collate Business Views Service Reporting Publish Translate and Apply IT Liaison. Once this has been determined.

Is management going to read it. • rocess and apply data . therefore.First. indicating how processes support the company goals.Publish information for the different stakeholders at all P levels of the organization. these reports should be set up from a business and end-to-end perspective. by determining the goal and target group of the report and consider how the report is going to be used. Inputs and outputs The inputs for the reporting process are the data gathered in step 3 of the CSI improvement process. • ublish the information .Directors want more detailed reports which summarize the development measured in time. profitability and cost savings. focusing on events that may impact the business performance. Use marketing and communication techniques to reach the different target groups such as the business and IT management. Activities The service reporting process distinguishes the following activities: • ather data .Consider by data group if it is valuable for the T target group. Look at this from an end-to-end perspective.the study guIde In order to provide useful reports to a customer. It is important to determine what the outputs should look like well before the inputs arrives. Evaluate continually whether the existing reporting provides clear and unambiguous information about the performance of the IT department and adjust your reporting. IT departments frequently gather large amounts of data. and warning of risks. organization image. determine the goal and target group of the report and consider G how the report is going to be used. • une the reporting to the business . Start. Describe how the IT department is going to combat those threats. which are not all equally interesting to the business. can managers and department heads consult it online or are you going to present the results at a meeting? What will be done with it next? Consider your audience.140 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . A customer is not interested in details about the functioning of the technical infrastructure through which services are provided. The organizational level of the target group will also influence its interest for different sorts of output: 1. . 2. if this is no longer the case.Create a hierarchical overview of the performance over the P past period. with lots of attention to the risks. Also describe what went well and how IT provides value to the business. but only in the service itself. Strategic thinkers . Directors .Strategic thinkers want short reports.

To design processes for the design. including subsequent changes and corrective actions. Which of the following is NOT an activity in the Deming PDCA cycle? a.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .3 Sample Questions 1. that a course of action is required. team and process performance. . insight and superior decision making. 7. 4. Team leaders and staff . 2. distribution of resources and improvement initiatives.the study guIde 141 3. focus should be to fix individual metrics. Align 2. Managers and supervisors . 4. To justify - monitoring and measuring to justify. What are the reasons to monitor and measure? 1. Measurements and reports must indicate how the process results are contributing to this. operations and improvement of IT Services. with factual evidence of proof. transition. To identify goals and objectives in order to properly identify what should be measured. To intervene . To provide operations visibility. To direct . a. Which of the following is an objective for the 7-Step Improvement process? a. c. All of the above 3. acknowledge their skills and consider which training potential is available in order to involve them in the processes. To validate . Do b. d.Managers and supervisors deal with observing the goals. 1 only b.monitoring and measuring to set direction for activities in order to meet set targets. 3.monitoring and measuring to identify a point of intervention. Check c. Plan a. To minimize the impact of Incidents that cannot be prevented. 1 and 2 only c. b. 2 and 4 only d. 1.monitoring and measuring to validate previous decisions.Team leaders and staff will look to emphasize the individual contribution to the company result.

the study guIde .142 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .

3. there is no limit to the number of times a candidate may retake the exam.3 exam preparations To enhance your chances for success in the examinations for the ITIL Foundation Certificate there are a couple of precautions you can take. Candidates sitting the examination in a language other than their native language have a maximum of 75 minutes and are allowed the use of a dictionary. • lan to spend enough time for private study and revision of course materials. candidates are recommended to attend an accredited training course. 26 out of the 40 questions (65%) must be answered correctly. The duration of the examination is 60 minutes. It is not allowed to use books during the examination. However. Learning the basics of IT service P management is more fun and more effective if done in a group of professionals sharing experiences and with an experienced tutor with a depth of understanding and practical working experience. . • iscuss what you learned in the training course and from the books with colleagues D and friends. 8.2 Format The ITIL V3 Foundation exam consists of 40 multiple choice questions. the first one being to take the examination seriously. Candidates who fail may retake the examination.1 prerequisites There are no formal criteria or prerequisites for candidates wishing to take the ITIL Foundation exam.1 Preparation for the exam • articipate in an accredited training course. Sharing experiences about best practice helps you to understand IT service management principles. Candidates attending a training course are recommended to choose one of the accredited course providers (See chapter 1). The examination can be online or paper based. ITIL P documentation and this training guide. 8. To pass the examination.chApTer 8 ITIL Foundation Exam 8. 8.

ID card).3. D you can do it! 8. almost certainly. you do not have to represent your C company. • o not complicate the question by trying to find counter-examples for the answer D you think is best.3. • hoose clothes that make you feel comfortable.3 Hints and tips during the exam • arefully read all the questions. The questions are not meant to be tricky and. Aim to arrive fifteen minutes early to P have a quiet start of the examination. • o not forget to bring a valid personal ID paper (passport. Your first hunch is often the best. If you are not sure. you are representing yourself. S • n answering the multiple-choice questions. in exceptional circumstances. .144 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . • efore the end of the examination sessions. Candidates sitting the examination in a language other than their native language have a maximum of 75 minutes and are allowed the use of a dictionary. check whether you have answered all the B questions. for example. most answers will turn out not to be the whole truth. with a coffee or tea. Do not try to H study the course material until deep into the night. You have 60 minutes to complete this paper.4 Sample exam Questions The following set of sample questions provides a good example of the kind of questions one may expect to find in the real examinations. D 8.2 Preparation for the day of the exam • lan your journey to the examination center. • o not spend too much time on any one question D • o not panic. try your best choice. There are no trick questions. the examination is not very difficult. • ave a good night sleep and start the examination session well rested. C • tart answering the easy questions first. With the right kind of preparation.the study guIde 8. All 40 questions should be attempted. first try to think of an answer yourself I before choosing one of the options.

make sense of them. and determine the appropriate control action. To provide a single point of contact to the users. an organization can only have one centralized Service Desk. Service Analytics is a means to ensure proper funding for the delivery and consumption for services. d. To restore normal Service Operation as quickly as possible. c. To prevent Problems and resulting incidents from happening.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Service Analytics is useful to restore normal Service Operation as quickly as possible in case of an incident. b. Which of the following statements BEST describes the role of the Service Desk as the single point of contact? a. c. .the study guIde 145 You must get 26 or more answers correct to pass. But they are of course allowed to contact anybody within the IT organization with their incidents and Service Requests. c. Service Analytics is a means for automating simple and routine tasks and interactions. Service Requests and Service Level Requirements form users and customers must pass through the Service Desk. 2. 3. The Service Desk is on offer for the users in an organization. All requests. As a user I have one single point of contact for all incidents and Service Requests but other users in the organization may have other point of contact. 1 Which of the following statements BEST describes one of the purposes of Service Analytics? a. Service Analytics is useful to model existing components and services to the higher-level business services. The goal of Problem Management is: a. b. d. To provide a channel for users to request standard services. More sample papers can be requested from your course provider. such as incidents. To detect events. b. d.

To produce and maintain an appropriate and up-to-date Capacity Plan which reflects the current and future needs of the business. Every person involved in a process is a Process Owner. 3. Which of the following metrics types is NOT a typical type of metrics? a. Baseline metrics d. Which of the following statements about the Process Owner role are CORRECT? 1. The Process Owner and Process Manager roles are always undertaken by the same person. Which of the following is NOT an activity in the Change Management process? a. 2. Process Ownership is always a role as well as a function in any organization. Change Design d. 2 and 3 only c. Process metrics . Plan updates c. Service metrics c. Technology metrics b. 3. 2. 2.the study guIde 4. To support efficient and effective business and Service Management processes by providing accurate information about assets. 4. 2 only b. Assess and evaluate change 6. The Process Owner is responsible for ensuring that the process is meeting the aims of the process definition. Review the Request for Change b. 4. To ensure that proactive measures to improve the levels of service delivered and implemented. To provide and improve the relationship and communication with the business and customers. a. All of the above 7. 1. 2 and 3 only d. 1 and 3 only c. a. Which of the following are goals and objectives for the Service Level Management process? 1. 3 and 4 only d. 1 only b.146 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . All of the above 5.

Service operational readiness test c. Service Management is a set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to the Service Provider in the form of goods and products. To maintain stability. Service Management is a set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services. 3 and 4 only c.the study guIde 147 8. Which of the following is the CORRECT definition of Service Management? a. 4. a. . b. 3. To design processes for the operation of IT services. Only the Operational Level Agreement is an underpinning agreement between an IT Service Provider and another part of the same organization that assists with the provision of services. b. Which of the following validation activities BEST corresponds to the definition of customer and business requirements (level 1) in the Service V-model? a. Only the Underpinning Contract support the IT Service Provider’s delivery of IT services to customers.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Only the Underpinning Contract defines targets and responsibilities that are required to meet agreed Service Level Targets in a Service Level Agreement. Only the Service Level Agreement defined the goods or services to be provided and the responsibilities of both parties. d. 10. All the above 11. 2. Service Release Package test d. Which of the following statements BEST describes the difference between an Operational Level Agreement and an Underpinning Contract? a. Service Management is a set of specialized organizational resources for providing value to customers in the form of services. To allow for changes and improvement. To achieve effectiveness and efficiency in the delivery and support of services. d. Component and assembly test 9. Service Management is a set of specialized organizational resources for providing value to customers in the form of goods and products. Validate Service Package. Which of the following goals are the primary goals for Service Operations? 1. 3 only b. 1. c. 3 and 4 only d. c. offerings and contracts b.

The Continual Service Improvement Manager 2. C-2 and D-1 13. Which of the following roles may be involved in the Continual Service Improvement process? 1. 4. A-4.the study guIde 12. 3 and 4 only d. The Service Manager 4. The customer 3. A-3. A Technology-assisted B Technology-facilitated C Technology-mediated D Technology-generated (self-service) 1. 1 and 3 only c. C-3 and D-4 c. Service Desk d. Both the Service Provider and the customer have access to the same technology. Technical Management b. hich of the following pairings between roles and responsibilities is CORRECT? W a. A-1. 2. A-3. The Service Provider and the customer are not in physical proximity. Only the Service Provider has access to the technology. The Service Provider is represented entirely by technology. B-3. The Process Owners a.148 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . 1 only b. 1. Applications Management 14. B-2. 3. All of the above . B-4. Service Portfolio Management c. B-1. Which of the following is NOT described as a function but as a process in the ITIL Service Management Practices framework? a. C-2 and D-1 d. Consider the following types of technological support of Service Management and the corresponding descriptions. C-2 and D-4 b.

d. Who is going to REVIEW the change when it has been implemented? 17. c. c. Prioritization is determined by the urgency of the Incident and the level of impact the Incident is causing. The BEST way to define the services in the Service Portfolio is to base the definitions on: a. Which of the following statements is the CORRECT description of the ‘Act’ stage in the Deming Cycle for quality improvement? a. 16. d. b. Prioritization is determined by the resources available. At this stage a project to close identified gaps is developed and implemented. Which of the following questions is NOT one of the 7 Rs that must be answered for all changes as part of the impact assessment? a. What is the RELATIONSHIP between this change and other changes? d. Who RAISED the change? c. What RESOURCES are required to deliver the change? b.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . the urgency of the Incident and the level of impact the Incident is causing. The resources needed to deliver the service. The capabilities needed to deliver the service. At this stage it is determined to keep the status quo. c. . At this stage goals and measures are established. 18. The business outcome of the service. b. Prioritization is determined by the resources available and the urgency of the Incident.the study guIde 149 15. close the gap or add necessary resources. The composition of the service. d. b. Which of the following statements BEST describes prioritization in the Incident Management process? a. At this stage the implemented improvements are compared to the measures of success. Prioritization is determined by the resources available and the level of impact the Incident is causing.

2 and 3 only d. c. Process roles 4. To encourage Service Providers to stop and think why something is to be done before thinking how. How does the customer use our services? 4. 1. To continually align and re-align IT Services to the changing business needs by identifying and implementing improvements to IT services that support business processes. What do we provide? a. All of the above . 1 and 3 only c. Process activities 2. Who depends on our services? 3. Who is our customer? 2. Which of the following questions helps identifying what a customer values? 1. Process metrics a. 1 only b. Process policy 3. 1 and 3 only c. b. 2 and 3 only d. o design service that satisfy business objectives. The goal of Continual Service Improvement is BEST described as: a. To continually identify and implement improvements to IT components that support the general technological developments. 1. 1 only b. d.the study guIde 19.150 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . All of the above 20. T 21. Which of the following are generic elements of a process? 1.

b. Ensuring that any auto response are defined. Participating in the instrumentation of the service. d. c. Maintenance of a stable technical infrastructure 24. 1 only b. 2. The ‘R’ in RACI stands for ‘Responsible’. Which of the following is NOT an activity that IT Operations Management is responsible for? a. 3. Monitoring Events. 1 and 2 only c. The RACI chart shows the activities down the left-hand side and the functional roles across the top. All of the above 23. . Which of the following roles does Technical and Application Management normally NOT play in the Event Management process? a. a. 2 and 3 only d.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Testing the services to ensure that Events are properly generated. Output management d. Console management b. 1.the study guIde 151 22. More than one person can be accountable for each task. Management of facilities c. 4. Assume that IT Operations is separated from Technical and Application Management. The ‘I’ in RACI stands for ‘Initiator’. Which of the following statements are CORRECT regarding the RACI authority matrix? 1.

152 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Status Accounting and Reporting is an activity in the Service Asset and Configuration Management Process. The Service Knowledge Management System includes the Configuration Management System and databases as well as other tools and databases. All of the above . a. To ensure that underpinning contracts and agreements with suppliers are aligned to business needs and managed though their lifecycle. 3. Configuration Management delivers a logical model of the services. 2. 1 and 2 only c. Which of the following statements are CORRECT about Service Asset and Configuration Management? 1. 1 only b. 3. 4. 1 and 2 only c. 2. To ensure that the information security risks are appropriately managed and enterprise information resources are used responsibly. assets and the infrastructure. 1 only b. To manage relationships with suppliers. 2 and 3 only d. 4. a. To maintain a supplier policy and a supporting Supplier and Contract Database. Which of the following statements BEST describes the goals of Supplier Management? 1. All of the above 26. 1. 2 and 3 only d. Information about each Configuration items is recorded in a configuration record in the Configuration Management System. 1.the study guIde 25.

2. the ability to respond to change without impacting on other services c. All the above 28. Tagging all service assets with the name of the service to which they add service potential. A fundamental conflict exits between IT as a set of technology components on one side and: a. d. d. More effective Service Management processes. a. b. 3. During the design stage. for each time a new service is added to the Service Portfolio. c. 30. . major change to a service or D removal of a service. Reduced total costs of ownership. uring the design stage. proactive behaviour on the other side 29. 1 only b. b. 1 and 2 only c. c. for each change to a service or removal of a service.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Improve quality and consistency of service. hen a new or changed service is passed from Service Design to Service W Transition. Establishment of the right mix of service to offer to customers. for each new service. Increased success rate of changes and releases for the business. 2 and 3 only d. A key role for Service Operations is to achieve a balance between conflicting sets of priorities. During the strategy stage. Which of the following benefits is NOT primarily the result of good Service Design practises? a. 4 Creation of diagnostic scripts for diagnosis of incidents. Which of the following activities BEST help an organization managing and developing Service Management as a strategic asset? 1 Identification of critical services across the Service Portfolio for a given customer of market space. 1. a strong focus on delivering quality d.the study guIde 153 27. When should a Service Design Package be produced? a. the view in which the organization focuses only on business requirements and the service delivered b.

1. Participating in negotiating Service Level Agreements. 2. 7-Implement corrective action. 7- Implement corrective action.154 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Representing the service in Change Advisory Board meetings. 6- Present information. 4- Process data. 4- Analyse data. 1. 7- implement corrective action.the study guIde 31. 3.Define what you should measure. b. 3. 4- Analyse data. 6- Present information. 5- Analyse data. 5- Analyse data. Good practise c. 1 only b. Which of the following activities is the Service Owner of a specific service responsible for? 1. c. 2.Gather data. 1. 6- Present information.Define what you can measure. 3.Define what you can measure. 5- Process data. Request . Phased c. Which of the following methods is NOT a development approach? a. 4. Academic research 32.Define what you should measure. 34.Define what you should measure. 2. Liaising with the appropriate Process Owners. a. Defining the process strategy. Pull d. 1. 3-Gather data. 7- Implement corrective action. Which of the following is the CORRECT order of the activities in the 7-Step Improvement Process (first activity first)? a. An international standard b. 2 and 4 only d. 2. All of the above 33. 4- Process data. A qualification scheme d. Big-bang b. ITIL is BEST characterized as: a.Gather data.Define what you can measure. 2. 1 and 2 only c.Define what you can measure. 6- Present information.Define what you should measure. 5- Process data. d. 1. 3-Gather data.

The metrics a. The current baseline 4. products c. 1 only b. 1 and 2 only c. All of the above 37. 2 and 3 only d. The complete set of services that are managed by a Service Provider. plans b. Which is the best description of a Service Catalogue? a. All of the above 36. Define 3. Good Service Design is dependent on effective and efficient use of the four Ps - people. A database or structured document with information about all live IT services. processes. b. 1 only b. including those available for deployment. d. Analyse 2. 1 and 2 only c. Approve 4. partners and: a. 1. The vision of the organization 2. practices d. 2 and 3 only d. we need to know: 1. The mission of the business 3. Charter a. An agreement between and IT Service Provider and the IT customer(s). policies 38. . A document defining all aspects of an IT Service and its requirements through each stage of its lifecycle.the study guIde 155 35. Which of the following activities forms part of the Service Portfolio Management process? 1. 1. To answer the question: ‘Where do we want to be?’ In the Continual Service Improvement model. c.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .

1. 1 and 2 only c. 1 only b. Service Design 4.156 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Service Operation a. 1 and 2 only c. Utility can be described as what the customer gets.the study guIde 39. Service Transition 3. The Service Portfolio is the single integrated source of information on the status. 2. 2. 4. 3. 1. 2 and 3 only d. All of the above 40. Warranty can be defined as ‘fitness for use’. Service Strategy 2. Which of the following statements are CORRECT about utility and warranty? 1. interfaces and dependencies of each service used by activities within the following stages in the Service Lifecycle: 1. Warranty reduces the variation in performance a. 1 only b. Utility increases the average performance. All of the above . and 3 only d.

4.Option (2) ‘practice’ is not by itself a determinant for value proposition. 2.Option (b) is an activity from the Service Asset and Configuration Management process.‘Service devaluation’ is not an activity in the Financial Management process. 4. option (c) is an example of a metric to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of the Change Management process.Option (2) and (4) are requirements for the processes and roles and not the tool.Risk analysis involves the identification and assessment of the level of the risks calculated from the assessed values of assets (4) and the assessed levels of threats to (1). 3. c . b . d . Two other lifecycle stages not mentioned in the question are ‘Service Design’ and ‘Service Transition’.6 Answers 1.Option 4 (it can be repeated and becomes manageable) is a characteristic of a process. 3. and option (d) is a responsibility for the Availability Manager. d . c .All these guidelines should be considered when applying automation. whereas ‘Service valuation’ is. those assets.Options (a). and option (d) is an example of a Continual Service Improvement metric.Answers to the Sample Questions 2. b .3 Answers 1. and vulnerabilities of (2). b - Option (a) is an example of an Incident Management metric. Option (c) is the definition of a Supplier. c . 4. 5.Strategy design is part of the Service Strategy stage of the lifecycle. 2. whereas countermeasures (3) are put in place based on the identified risks. 5.All the four options are process characteristics. c - This is one of the objectives of Service Transition. 3.3 Answers 1. c . 3. option (c) is an activity from the Release and Deployment Management process and option (d) is an activity form the Incident Management process. a . 2. 5. c - Major Incident Management is not a method drawn on by Demand Management. d .Rightsourcing is a popular way of saying that you need to make the right mix of the sourcing approaches. a . c .Option (a) is incorrect because a Service Provider can provide services internally (called a type I or II Service Provider). c . . 6. (b) and (d) are all stages of the lifecycle. 4.All of the activities are part of the Service Strategy management process.

a 7. b - There is nothing in ITIL called Configuration Capacity Management. 4. 9.the study guIde 7. d .All the options are basic reasons to monitor and measure. Do. In reality. and (d) is an objective for Problem Management.3 Answers 1.The full list of the activities in the Change Management process can be found in Section 5. 6. 8. 3. c .Known Change is not a specific term in ITIL.158 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . which together constitute a federated Configuration Management Database. Check and Act. ‘Accountable’.At the data level. b . 6. d - All of the options can be used to structure and locate a Service Desk.Options (a) and (d) are dealt with by Capacity Management in Service Design and option (b) refers to two alternative ways of deployment in Service Transition. b - Option (a) is an objective for Service Level Management. option (c) is a benefit of Service Design and option (d) is a benefit of Continual Service Improvement. option (b) does not reflect that the definition of a Know Error requires both a root cause and a Workaround. 5. 10. option (b) is an objective of Service Transition and option (d) is an objective of Service Strategy. d . an organization may need to implement a structure that combines a number of these options to fully meet the business needs. 5.Option (a) is the definition of a resolution.Incident verification is not an activity in the Incident Management process.Option (a) is a benefit of Service Operation option. c - RACI is an acronym for ‘Responsible’.All the activities are part of the responsibilities of the Incident Manager. Option (c) is an objective for Incident Management and option (d) is an objective for Event Management. 2. 3. c .2.3 Answers 1. 7. d . d 8. 2. ‘Consulted’ and ‘Informed’. c - Option (a) is an objective for Financial management.The activities in PDCA are Plan. d - Closing all resolved Know Errors is a responsibility of Problem Management. c . 4. d .All statements are correct. the Configuration Management System may take data from several physical Configuration Management Databases.3 Answers 1. Option (b) is an objective for Service Design. 2. c - Option (a) is an objective of Service Design. 5. and option (c) is the definition of a Problem. 3. . c - ‘Major’ is not a type of Event but a ‘type’ of Incident.2. b . 9. d . d .

the Process Owner and Process Manager (i. c - Option (a) is an objective for Event Management. Constraints to resources are the reason to do the prioritization. 8. c . c 13. c . 10.Service Portfolio Management is described as a process. but is not necessarily the same person. is a goal for Service Design. option (c) corresponds to level 4 (define Service Release) and option (d) corresponds to level 5 (develop Service Solutions) 9. Option (d) is incorrect because single point of contact is also a means to ensure that all users requests are logged and tracked by a dedicated function. 15. b - Option 2 is an objective for Capacity Management and option 4 is an objective for Service Asset and Configuration Management. c - Baselines are markers or starting points for later comparisons of measurements. whereas Technical Management.There is no activity in the Change Management process for managing individual changes called ‘Change Design’. a - Option (b). a Service Level Manager or similar. Incident Manager) can be the same person. 14. design of processes. 11. b . and Process Ownership is always a role but is not necessarily implemented as a function in the organization. 12. 3.Option (b) is a goal for Request Fulfillment. d - The review and close of the change is not part of the impact assessment.e. 4. c . (c) and (d) are true for both types of agreement. d - Not only all the internal roles in the Service provider organizations but also the customers should be involved in Continual Service Improvement.Only the person responsible for the process as a whole is the Process Owner. a - Option (b) corresponds to level 3 (define Service Solution). (b) is an objective for Incident Management and (d) is an objective for Financial Management. Option (b) is incorrect because different users can contact different Service Desks as long as each user has only one single contact point.Service Management is a set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services. 2. Service desk and Applications Management are described as functions in the Service Operation volume. (c) is a goal for Incident Management and (d) is a goal for Event Management. 6. 16. a .the study guIde 159 8. 5.Single point of contact is seen from user’s perspective. 7.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . . Option (a) is incorrect because customers requests such as Service Level Requirements normally go to a Business Relationship Manager. c .4 Answers 1.The resources available are not determining the prioritization of the incident. a . a .Option 2.

2 and 3 are all part of the activities involved in developing Service Management as a strategy asset within the Service Strategy Management process. input. d - Where IT Operations is separated from Technical and Application Management.All of the statements are true. not IT Operations Management is responsible for planning. processes and technology. c - Knowledge of the Service Provider’s current services does not help identifying what a customer values. 30. changed and removed services. b . 20. d . . c - Even though it is important to manage information security risks for data and services managed by third parties (option 3). A Service Design package is normally only produced for major changes.Technical Management. 28. and option (d) is an objective for Service Design. 21. ‘I’ stands for ‘Informed’. triggers. this is a responsibility for the Information Security Management Process. a - The other options are counterparts of stability. Option 4 improves the Service Management processes but not necessarily as a strategic asset. 22. architecture and constraints.Option (b) is the goal for Service Strategy. option (c) focuses on technological developments instead of the business needs and the supporting IT Services. 25. d - The Service Design Package should be produced during the design stage for new. implementing and maintaining a stable technical infrastructure.An increased rate of success of changes and releases is first and foremost a result of good Service Transition practices.160 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . about Service Asset and Configuration Management. IT Operations is commonly delegated the Event monitoring and first-line response activities. Option (b) is a description of the ‘Check’ stage and option (d) is a description of the ‘Do’ stage. (b) more effective processes are a result of processes designed with optimal quality and cost effectiveness and (d) improved quality and consistency of services are the result of services designed within the corporate strategy. d . respectively. 27. 24. d . 26. 19. c - Options 1. b - an outcome-based definition of services ensures that the organization plans and execute all aspects of Service management entirely from the perspective of what is valuable to the customer.All of the stated elements forms part of process as well as procedures. 23.More than one person can be responsible for each task but only one person can be accountable for each task. a .the study guIde 17. output. etc. work instructions. costs and relative behavior. c - Option (a) is a description of the ‘Plan’ stage. capabilities. 29. c . The (a) total cost of ownership is reduced as a result of well-designed services. 18.

which are the prerequisites for defining the metrics. a 34. but the last ‘P’ in the four ‘Ps’ tenet stands for products. 37. 38. 40. 32. (a) ISO/IEC 20000 provides a formal standard for organizations seeking to have their Service Management Capabilities audited and certified. whereas the Service Owner is responsible for the three other activities. Option (a) is where the new or changed service is deployed to all user areas in one operation. (c) the IT Service Management certifications and diplomas owned by OGC and management by AMPG form an example of a qualifications scheme and (d) there are good examples of academic research supporting and/or criticizing ITIL itself is not academic research.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . . (b) is where the service is deployed to a part of the user base initially and this operation is repeated for subsequent parts of the user base. goals. and (c) is where the software is available in a central location but users are free to download the software at a time of their choosing. 35.The Service Portfolio acts as the connection point or the ‘spine’ of all five stages in the Service Lifecycle. c . We therefore only need to know the vision.Defining the process strategy is a responsibility of the Process Owner. c - The answer to the question ‘Where do we want to be?’ Involves measurable targets. d . 39.the study guIde 161 31. d . d - All of the statements are true for utility and warranty.All of the activities are part of the Service Portfolio Management process. objectives and baseline to answer the question. b - Good Service Design is dependent on all four answers. b - ITIL is an example of good practice. d . 33. c - The other are definitions of (a) a Service Design Package.A development method called ‘Request’ does not exist in ITIL. (b) a Service Portfolio and (d) a Service Level Agreement. 36. mission.

162 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .the study guIde . Define and distinguish between Functions. The column to the right represents the section number in this guide were you can find the corresponding content.1. 2. CSI 2.2. Customers. CSI 2. 2.5 Reference .2.4) List the characteristics of processes (Measurable. SD 2. Version 3.3.1 SD 1. scope.3.1 4. 3. SD.1) 2.6.1. SO. SD 3.2.1 2.3 2. Specifically. candidates must be able to: 01-1 01-2 01-3 01-4 01-5 01-6 Describe the concept of Good Practice (SS. Unit ITILFND01 Requirements (with reference to ITIL core books) Service Management as a practice The purpose of this unit is to help the candidate to define Service and to comprehend and explain the concept of Service Management as a practice.1 2.1. SO 2.1) Define and explain the concept of Service Management (SS. candidates must be able to: 02-1 02-2 02-3 02-4 Briefly explain the Service Lifecycle (SS 1.1 2.2) The recommended study period for this unit is 1 hour ITILFND02 The Service Lifecycle The purpose of this unit is to help the candidate to understand the Service Lifecycle and explain the objectives and business value for each phase in the lifecycle. SD 3. ST.4. Specifically.3 Explain the process model (SD 3. and Responds to a specific event) (SS 2. The requirements listed are taken from the syllabus: “The INTERIM ITIL Foundation Certificate in IT Service Management”.2. SD.3.2. ST 1. 2. SD. Roles and Processes (SS 2. CSI 1. components and interfaces of the ITIL Library (SS.2.4 3.163 Cross-reference to exam requirements The following table shows a cross-reference to the official ITIL V3 exam requirements.3.2) Define and explain the concept of a Service (SS.3. Specific results.2.3. ST 2.6. ST.3.5 4. SD.2. 2.1 2.2. SO.3. CSI 1. SD.3) Account for the main goals and objectives of Service Design (SD 2. CSI 2.6. ST. ST. SO.4. ST. CSI 1.3.1. SO 1.3) Describe the structure.1. 2. SO 1.3) Account for the main goals and objectives of Service Strategy (SS 1.3. SO. CSI 2.

1) Service Portfolio (SS 4. candidates must be able to define and explain the following key concepts: 03-1 03-2 03-3 03-4 03-5 03-6 03-7 03-8 03-9 03-10 03-11 03-12 03-13 03-14 03-15 03-16 Utility and Warranty (SS 2.5) The recommended study period for this unit is minimum 1 hour ITILFND03 Generic concepts and definitions The purpose of this unit is to help the candidate to define some of the key terminology and explain the key concepts of Service Management.1) Risk (SS Account for the main goals and objectives of Continual Service Improvement (CSI 2.6.1 4.5 7.1.4) Contract (SD 4.1.4) The role of IT Governance across the Service Lifecycle (CSI Service Design Package (SD 3. CSI 3. SD 3.2.164 02-5 02-6 02-7 02-8 02-9 02-10 02-11 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .4.the study guIde 4. 2.6 Briefly explain what value Continual Service Improvement provides to the business (CSI 2.1.2) Service Catalogue (Business Service Catalogue and Technical Service Catalogue) (SS 4.1 4.3) Account for the main goals and objectives of Service Transition (ST 2.1) Operational Level Agreement (OLA) (SD 4.2. ST 3.7 .2 6. Specifically.4. A) Availability (SD 4.1. CSI 4.3.3) Service Model (SS 7.2. 4.1 7.2 4.2) 3.7.4) Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS) (ST Business Case (SS 3.5 Supplier (SD 4.1.6. ST 5.2 4.2.2 3.1 Briefly explain what value Service Transition provides to the business (ST 2.2.4. 3.2. SO 4.4.1) Briefly explain what value Service Operation provides to the business (SO 2.7 5.1 Briefly explain what value Service Design provides to the business (SD 2.5.6 3.1) Service Provider (the candidate is not expected to know the three types of Service Providers) (SS 3.1.2 4.2) Service Level Agreement (SLA) (SD 5.2) Resources and Capabilities (SS 3.1 6.3) Account for the main goals and objectives of Service Operations (SO 2.4.7.

candidates must be able to: Service Strategy 04-1 04-2 04-3 Explain how Service Assets are the basis for Value Creation (SS 3.2.2) Impact. Products and Partners for Service Management (SD 2.4 6.4) Workaround (SO 4. Urgency and Priority (SO The recommended study period for this unit is minimum 1 hour.3) Service Change (ST 4.4) Event (SO 4.2 6.the study guIde 5.1) Alert (SO 4.6) Known Error (SO 4.2) The role of communication in Service Operation (SO 3.3 5.4 5. ITILFND04 Key Principles and Models The purpose of this unit is to help the candidate to comprehend and account for the key principles and models of Service Management and to balance some of the opposing forces within Service Management.3.2) Configuration Management System (ST 4.1) Seven R’s of Change Management (ST Service Request (SO 4.1) Incident (SO Problem (SO 4.3 5.1) Describe basics of Value Creation through Services (SS 3.1 . Change types (Normal. 6. SO 6. 4.3 5.4. Processes. 4.4 6.2) ® fOundatIOn exam .4.2.2 3.4. 4.2 5. This unit will probably be covered as part of the training in the other units. 6.2. Standard and Emergency) (ST 4.2.1) Definitive Media Library (DML) (ST Known Error Data Base (KEDB) (SO 4.2 165 03-17 03-18 03-19 03-20 03-21 03-22 03-23 03-24 03-25 03-26 03-27 03-28 03-29 03-30 03-31 03-32 03-33 Configuration Item (CI) (ST 4.2. 3.2 Specifically.4.7.2 Release Unit (ST 4.2) Service Design Understand the importance of People.2.4 6.3

2 Continual Service Improvement 04-8 04-9 04-10 Discuss the Plan.5.7.5) Explain the Continual Service Improvement Model (CSI 2. Check and Act (PDCA) Model to control and manage quality (CSI 3.2 04-6 04-7 5.4. Do.2.1 7.1. .2.2) 7.2): • • • • I T Services versus Technology components S tability versus Responsiveness Q uality of Service versus Cost of Service R eactive versus Proactive 4.1. process metrics. 4.the study guIde 4.5.4) Understand the role of measurement for Continual Service Improvement and explain the following key elements: • • • B usiness value (CSI 3.1.2 7.1.166 04-4 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .1.1 & Table 7.7) Service Operation Summarize the following conflicting balances in Service Operation (SO 3.3 7.1) T ypes of metrics (technology metrics. service metrics) (CSI 4. definition of Service R equirements and design of Services T echnology and architectural design P rocess design M easurement design 04-5 Distinguish between different Service Sourcing approaches and options (SD 3.6): • • • • • • S ervice Portfolio Design I dentification of Business Requirements.2 The recommended study period for this unit is minimum 1 hour and 30 minutes. Service Transition Explain the Service V model (ST 4. 5.2) B aselines (CSI Discuss the five major aspects of Service Design (SD 3.4 6.1.1 7.

to explain the high level objectives.9) I T Service Continuity Management (SD S upplier Management (SD scope. key metrics (KPI’s).5 5.3. activities.2.2.3 5.7.3) P repare for execution (SS 4.6.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .2. scope. 6. B2.2.8.6) .4.4. basic concepts and roles for: Service Transition Explain the high level objectives. basic concepts.1. basic concepts.1. 4. 6.1. some of the basic concepts and roles for fifteen of the remaining processes. Specifically. 3. 6.1. 6.6) S ervice Catalogue Management (SD 4.1.4. 4.3.8) State the objectives.5) A vailability Management (SD 4. scope.4 5. 4.1. 6.2) 3. 4. roles and challenges for five of the core processes and to state the objectives.4 Service Design 05-3 Explain the high level objectives. F inancial Management (SS 5.6 4.3) S ervice Asset and Configuration Management (SACM) (ST 4.3) R elease and Deployment Management (ST 4.1 4.1) D emand Management (SS 5. key metrics (KPI’s).7) I nformation Security Management (ISM) (SD 4.3 3. 4. 5.6. process activities.4.4.11) C apacity Management (SD 4. 5.1.1 4. 6. roles and challenges for: • 05-6 • • C hange Management (ST 4.2) D evelop strategic assets (SS 6.3 05-2 State the objectives and basic concepts and roles for: • • • S ervice Portfolio Management (SPM) (SS 5.2.1) D evelop the offerings (SS 4. 4.4 4. 6.2. basic concepts.1.4.4.the study guIde 167 ITILFND05 Processes The purpose of this unit is to help the candidate understand how the Service Management processes contribute to the Service Lifecycle.4.6.1. metrics.3.2. 4.4.3. CSI 3.2.4. process activities. 4. key metrics. process activities.2.4 5. scope.4.7. 6. 4. State the objectives. basic concepts and roles for: Service Operation 05-7 Explain the high level objectives. basic concepts.1.2.4 4.2 3.9) 6.1.1. 6. 6. 6.2.4 6.4. candidates must be able to: Service Strategy 05-1 Outline the four main activities in the Service Strategy process: • • • • D efine the market (SS 4. roles and challenges for: • I ncident Management (SO 4. roles and challenges for: • 05-4 • • • • • • 05-5 S ervice Level Management (SLM) (SD 4.4

1.1. 6.3. objectives and overlap of three other functions.1. organizational structures. 6.5 3.4 6.4) 2.5 7. 4.1.5. process activities. 6.1.2) T he IT Operations Management function (IT Operations Control and Facilities Management) (SO 6.1.1. ITILFND07 Roles The purpose of this unit is to help the candidate to account for the role and to be aware of the responsibilities of some of the key roles in Service Management and to recognize a number of the remaining roles described in other Learning Units. CSI 6. Specifically.4 T he Application Management function (SO 6.8) A ccess Management (SO 4. basic concepts.4 6. 4.168 05-8 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .1. objectives. (SD 6. candidates must be able to: 06-1 Explain the role. 7.1 6.3.1. 4. Specifically. 6. 4.1.1 6. basic concepts and roles for: • • • • E vent Management (SO 4. The recommended study period for this unit is minimum 1 hour and 30 minutes. CSI 6.1.the study guIde 6.4.4. organizational structures.1.7.2) State the role.5.2) 6.5.4 .4 6.1.4 T he Technical Management function (SO 6.5) S ervice owner (ST candidates must be able to: 07-1 Account for the role and the responsibilities of the: • • 07-2 P rocess owner (SD 6.1 State the objectives. 6.3.4 Recognize the RACI model and explain its role in determining organizational structure. 6. CSI 3. ST 6.1. roles and metrics for: • T he 7 step improvement process (CSI 3. staffing and metrics of: • 06-2 • • • T he Service Desk function (SO 6. ITILFND06 Functions The purpose of this unit is to help the candidate to explain the role. 6.4 objectives and organizational overlap of: 6. Continual Service Improvement 05-9 Explain the high level objectives.7) P roblem Management (SO 4.4.3) The recommended study period for this unit is minimum 8 hours.2) The recommended study period for this unit is minimum 1 hour.6.5) R equest Fulfillment (SO 4.2.6. 4. 6. staffing and metrics of the Service Desk function and to state the role. objectives.

1) The recommended study period for this unit is minimum 30 minutes. Specifically.2 ITILFND10 Mock exam The purpose of this unit is to help the candidate to pass the ITIL Foundation exam. ST 7.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .the study guIde 169 ITILFND08 08-1 08-2 Technology and Architecture The purpose of this unit is to help the candidate to: List some generic requirements for an integrated set of Service Management Technology (SD 7. The recommended study period for this unit is minimum 30 minutes. distinguish between the purposes of the two intermediate streams.2 2. mention the included certificates and diplomas. 8.4 . The recommended study period for this unit is minimum 2 hours inclusive revision. candidates must: 10-1 Sit minimum one ITIL Foundation mock exam. 1. SO 7.1) Understand how Service Automation assists with integrating Service Management processes (SS 8. 2.2 ITILFND09 09-1 ITIL Qualification scheme The purpose of this unit is to help the candidate to: Explain the ITIL Qualification scheme.1. and understand the different options for further training (Non examinable).

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(Service Operation) Monitoring of a Configuration Item or an IT Service that uses automated regular checks to discover the current status. See Passive Monitoring. Activities are usually defined as part of Processes or Plans. Officially authorized to carry out a Role. This glossary is based on the official ITIL V3 Glossary. or other Assets. version 01 of 30 May 2007. accurate. comparing these with budgeted costs. Access Management Account Manager Accounting Accredited Active Monitoring Activity Agreed Service Time (Service Design) A synonym for Service Hours. commonly used in formal calculations of Availability. An Agreement is not legally binding. See Downtime. Access Management is sometimes referred to as Rights Management or Identity Management. or to one of the Core ITIL publications. Alert . Acceptance is usually preceded by Evaluation or Testing and is often required before proceeding to the next stage of a Project or Process. Alerts are often created and managed by System Management tools and are managed by the Event Management Process. Plan. or other Deliverable is complete. See Service Level Agreement. Operational Level Agreement. this is indicated at the beginning of the definition. Most commonly used when dealing with External Customers. See Service Acceptance Criteria. Agreement A Document that describes a formal understanding between two or more parties. and managing variance from the Budget. Integrity and Availability of Assets by ensuring that only authorized Users are able to access or modify the Assets. (Service Operation) The Process responsible for allowing Users to make use of IT Services. Reliable and meets its specified Requirements. For example an Accredited body may be authorized to provide training or to conduct Audits. data. something has changed. and are documented in Procedures. (Service Strategy) A Role that is very similar to Business Relationship Manager.Glossary Where a term is relevant to a particular phase in the Lifecycle of an IT Service. (Service Operation) A warning that a threshold has been reached. unless it forms part of a Contract. Process. A set of actions designed to achieve a particular result. (Service Strategy) The Process responsible for identifying actual Costs of delivering IT Services. or a Failure has occurred. but includes more commercial aspects. Acceptance Formal agreement that an IT Service. Access Management helps to protect the Confidentiality.

See Application Management. and Financial Capital. People. See Component CI. Disks. See Audit. See Modeling. or that Efficiency and Effectiveness targets are being met. Architecture Assembly Assessment Asset .the study guIde Analytical Modeling (Service Strategy) (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) A technique that uses mathematical Models to predict the behavior of a Configuration Item or IT Service. Users access the Applications by network connections to the Service Provider. Analytical Models are commonly used in Capacity Management and Availability Management. that Records are accurate. Inspection and analysis to check whether a Standard or set of Guidelines is being followed. (Service Transition) A Configuration Item that is made up from a number of other CIs. or a major Change to an existing Application. Application Application Management Application Portfolio (Service Design) A database or structured Document used to manage Applications throughout their Lifecycle. For example a Server CI may contain CIs for CPUs. Applications. an IT Service CI may contain many Hardware. Application Sizing helps to ensure that the IT Service can meet its agreed Service Level Targets for Capacity and Performance. Each Application may be part of more than one IT Service. or as part of the Configuration Management System. Software and other CIs. Information. Assets can be one of the following types: Management. (Service Strategy) Any Resource or Capability. Memory etc. (Service Design) The Activity responsible for understanding the Resource Requirements needed to support a new Application. Application Service Provider (ASP) Application Sizing (Service Design) An External Service Provider that provides IT Services using Applications running at the Service Provider’s premises. Software that provides Functions that are required by an IT Service. The Application Portfolio contains key Attributes of all Applications. Infrastructure. Knowledge. including the Relationships of Components to each other and to the environment they are in. Application Portfolio.172 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . The Application Portfolio is sometimes implemented as part of the Service Portfolio. (Service Design) (Service Operation) The Function responsible for managing Applications throughout their Lifecycle. (Service Design) The structure of a System or IT Service. Assets of a Service Provider include anything that could contribute to the delivery of a Service. Organization.. Build. Architecture also includes the Standards and Guidelines which guide the design and evolution of the System. Process. An Application runs on one or more Servers or Clients.

Availability Management is responsible for ensuring that all IT Infrastructure. location. See Certification. See Service Knowledge Management System. Synonym for RACI. Assessment. See Relationship. Asset Management is part of an overall Service Asset and Configuration Management Process. The Asset Register is maintained by Asset Management. Synonym for Remediation. Version number. Asset Register Attribute Audit Authority Matrix Automatic Call Distribution (ACD) Availability Availability Management Availability Management Information System (AMIS) Availability Plan Back-out Backup . analyzing. that Records are accurate. and Cost. An Audit may be carried out by internal or external groups. (Service Transition) A list of Assets. (Service Design) Ability of a Configuration Item or IT Service to perform its agreed Function when required. or that Efficiency and Effectiveness targets are being met. Processes. (Service Design) A Plan to ensure that existing and future Availability Requirements for IT Services can be provided Cost Effectively. (Service Operation) Use of Information Technology to direct an incoming telephone call to the most appropriate person in the shortest possible time. (Service Design) A virtual repository of all Availability Management data. ACD is sometimes called Automated Call Distribution. which includes their ownership and value. Availability is determined by Reliability. Serviceability. measuring and improving all aspects of the Availability of IT Services. Performance. Availability is usually calculated as a percentage. Roles etc are appropriate for the agreed Service Level Targets for Availability. Maintainability. (Service Design) (Service Operation) Copying data to protect against loss of Integrity or Availability of the original.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Planning. Tools. Attributes of CIs are recorded in the Configuration Management Database (CMDB). (Service Design) The Process responsible for defining. (Service Transition) A piece of information about a Configuration Item. It is Best Practice to calculate Availability using measurements of the Business output of the IT Service. Examples are name. Formal inspection and verification to check whether a Standard or set of Guidelines is being followed. usually stored in multiple physical locations. See Asset Register. and Security.the study guIde 173 Asset Management (Service Transition) Asset Management is the Process responsible for tracking and reporting the value and ownership of financial Assets throughout their Lifecycle. This calculation is often based on Agreed Service Time and Downtime.

com for more information. The UK National Standards body. over a specified period of time. and comparing the results to measure progress or improvement. Baseline Benchmark Benchmarking Best Practice Brainstorming British Standards Institution (BSI) Budget . Performance against the KPIs is used to demonstrate how well the Strategy is being achieved. ITIL is an example of Best Practice. Robert Kaplan (Harvard Business School) and David Norton.the study guIde Balanced Scorecard (Continual Service Improvement) A management tool developed by Drs. • See Benchmarking. A list of all the money an Organization or Business Unit plans to receive. to establish the current state for managing improvements. See ISO. See http://www. For example: • An ITSM Baseline can be used as a starting point to measure the effect of a Service Improvement Plan • A Performance Baseline can be used to measure changes in Performance over the lifetime of an IT Service • A Configuration Management Baseline can be used to enable the IT Infrastructure to be restored to a known Configuration if a Change or Release fails (Continual Service Improvement) The recorded state of something at a specific point in time. a Process. a benchmark can be used in: • Continual Service Improvement. Ideas are not reviewed during the Brainstorming session.bsi-global. • Capacity Management. (Service Design) A technique that helps a team to generate ideas. Proven Activities or Processes that have been successfully used by multiple Organizations. A Benchmark can be created for a Configuration. to document Performance characteristics during normal operations. Brainstorming is often used by Problem Management to identify possible causes. each of which has a small number of KPIs. or any other set of data. (Continual Service Improvement) Comparing a Benchmark with a Baseline or with Best Practice. (Continual Service Improvement) A Benchmark used as a reference point. A Balanced Scorecard has 4 major areas. For example. Baseline. and plans to pay out. Planning. See Budgeting. responsible for creating and maintaining British Standards. The same 4 areas are considered at different levels of detail throughout the Organization. but at a later stage.174 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . A Balanced Scorecard enables a Strategy to be broken down into Key Performance Indicators. The term Benchmarking is also used to mean creating a series of Benchmarks over time.

(Service Design) The Business Process responsible for managing Risks that could seriously impact the Business. The IT Service Provider may be part of the same Business as their Customer (Internal Service Provider). benefits. communications etc. The Plan will also identify the triggers for Invocation. Consists of a periodic negotiation cycle to set future Budgets (usually annual) and the day-to-day monitoring and adjusting of current Budgets. The term Build is also used to refer to a Release that is authorized for distribution. For example if the Business is a car manufacturer then the Business Customer is someone who buys a car. (Service Strategy) Justification for a significant item of expenditure. Scope and Requirements for IT Service Continuity Management. options. (Service Design) In the context of ITSM. (Service Transition) The Activity of assembling a number of Configuration Items to create part of an IT Service.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . IT Service Continuity Plans form a significant part of Business Continuity Plans. or part of another Business (External Service Provider). See Cost Benefit Analysis. the term Business includes public sector and not-for-profit organizations. (Service Transition) A controlled Environment where Applications. Risks. (Service Strategy) An overall corporate entity or Organization formed of a number of Business Units. Build Build Environment Business Business Capacity Management (BCM) Business Case Business Continuity Management (BCM) Business Continuity Plan (BCP) Business Customer . people to be involved. BCM safeguards the interests of key stakeholders. For example Server Build or laptop Build.the study guIde 175 Budgeting The Activity of predicting and controlling the spending of money. See Service Capacity Management. and possible problems. (Service Strategy) A recipient of a product or a Service from the Business. BCM sets the Objectives. Includes information about Costs. See Configuration Baseline. In the context of ITSM. Business Capacity Management is the Activity responsible for understanding future Business Requirements for use in the Capacity Plan. The BCM Process involves reducing Risks to an acceptable level and planning for the recovery of Business Processes should a disruption to the Business occur. as well as companies. An IT Service Provider provides IT Services to a Customer within a Business. brand and value creating activities. (Service Design) A Plan defining the steps required to Restore Business Processes following a disruption. issues. reputation. IT Services and other Builds are assembled prior to being moved into a Test or Live Environment.

other Business Processes. (Continual Service Improvement) An understanding of the Service Provider and IT Services from the point of view of the Business. and are often supported by IT Services. These requirements include Recovery Time Objectives. These dependencies may include Suppliers. The term Business Service is also used to mean a Service that is delivered to Business Customers by Business Units. a retailer may have a purchasing Process which helps to deliver Services to their Business Customers. and an understanding of the Business from the point of view of the Service Provider. BRM usually includes: • Managing personal Relationships with Business managers • Providing input to Service Portfolio Management • Ensuring that the IT Service Provider is satisfying the Business needs of the Customers This Process has strong links with Service Level Management. See Account Manager. (Service Strategy) The day-to-day execution. Successful delivery of Business Services often depends on one or more IT Services. Recovery Point Objectives and minimum Service Level Targets for each IT Service. as opposed to an Infrastructure Service which is used internally by the IT Service Provider and is not usually visible to the Business. Business Objective Business Operations Business Perspective Business Process Business Relationship (Service Strategy) The Process or Function responsible for maintaining a Management Relationship with the Business. Many Business Processes rely on IT Services.the study guIde Business Impact Analysis (BIA) (Service Strategy) BIA is the Activity in Business Continuity Management that identifies Vital Business Functions and their dependencies. or of the Business as a whole. (Service Strategy) The Objective of a Business Process.176 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . A Business Process contributes to the delivery of a product or Service to a Business Customer. or goods to the Customers of a retail store. IT Services etc. provide guidance for the IT Strategy. This term also means the management of Business Services delivered to Business Customers. Business Objectives support the Business Vision. Business Service Management (BSM) . For example. A Process that is owned and carried out by the Business. For example delivery of financial services to Customers of a bank. people. This Role is often combined with the Service Level Manager Role. Business Service An IT Service that directly supports a Business Process. (Service Strategy) (Service Design) An approach to the management of IT Services that considers the Business Processes supported and the Business value provided. monitoring and management of Business Processes. BIA defines the recovery requirements for IT Services. Business Relationship (Service Strategy) A Role responsible for maintaining the Relationship with one Manager (BRM) or more Customers.

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Business Unit

(Service Strategy) A segment of the Business which has its own Plans, Metrics, income and Costs. Each Business Unit owns Assets and uses these to create value for Customers in the form of goods and Services. (Service Operation) A telephone call to the Service Desk from a User. A Call could result in an Incident or a Service Request being logged. (Service Operation) An Organization or Business Unit which handles large numbers of incoming and outgoing telephone calls. See Service Desk. (Service Operation) A Category that is used to distinguish incoming requests to a Service Desk. Common Call Types are Incident, Service Request and Complaint. (Service Strategy) The ability of an Organization, person, Process, Application, Configuration Item or IT Service to carry out an Activity. Capabilities are intangible Assets of an Organization. See Resource. (Continual Service Improvement) The Capability Maturity Model for Software (also known as the CMM and SW-CMM) is a model used to identify Best Practices to help increase Process Maturity. CMM was developed at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) of Carnegie Mellon University. In 2000, the SW-CMM was upgraded to CMMI® (Capability Maturity Model Integration). The SEI no longer maintains the SW-CMM model, its associated appraisal methods, or training materials. (Continual Service Improvement) Capability Maturity Model® Integration (CMMI) is a process improvement approach developed by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) of Carnegie Melon University. CMMI provides organizations with the essential elements of effective processes. It can be used to guide process improvement across a project, a division, or an entire organization. CMMI helps integrate traditionally separate organizational functions, set process improvement goals and priorities, provide guidance for quality processes, and provide a point of reference for appraising current processes. See http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/ for more information. See CMM, Continuous Improvement, Maturity. (Service Design) The maximum Throughput that a Configuration Item or IT Service can deliver whilst meeting agreed Service Level Targets. For some types of CI, Capacity may be the size or volume, for example a disk drive. (Service Design) The Process responsible for ensuring that the Capacity of IT Services and the IT Infrastructure is able to deliver agreed Service Level Targets in a Cost Effective and timely manner. Capacity Management considers all Resources required to deliver the IT Service, and plans for short, medium and long term Business Requirements.

Call Call Centre

Call Type Capability

Capability Maturity Model (CMM)

Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)


Capacity Management


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Capacity Management Information System (CMIS) Capacity Plan

(Service Design) A virtual repository of all Capacity Management data, usually stored in multiple physical locations. See Service Knowledge Management System. (Service Design) A Capacity Plan is used to manage the Resources required to deliver IT Services. The Plan contains scenarios for different predictions of Business demand, and costed options to deliver the agreed Service Level Targets. (Service Design) The Activity within Capacity Management responsible for creating a Capacity Plan. (Service Strategy) The Cost of purchasing something that will become a financial Asset, for example computer equipment and buildings. The value of the Asset is Depreciated over multiple accounting periods. (Service Strategy) An Asset that is of interest to Financial Management because it is above an agreed financial value. (Service Strategy) Identifying major Cost as capital, even though no Asset is purchased. This is done to spread the impact of the Cost over multiple accounting periods. The most common example of this is software development, or purchase of a software license. A named group of things that have something in common. Categories are used to group similar things together. For example Cost Types are used to group similar types of Cost. Incident Categories are used to group similar types of Incident, CI Types are used to group similar types of Configuration Item. Issuing a certificate to confirm Compliance to a Standard. Certification includes a formal Audit by an independent and Accredited body. The term Certification is also used to mean awarding a certificate to verify that a person has achieved a qualification. (Service Transition) The addition, modification or removal of anything that could have an effect on IT Services. The Scope should include all IT Services, Configuration Items, Processes, Documentation etc. (Service Transition) A group of people that advises the Change Manager in the Assessment, prioritization and scheduling of Changes. This board is usually made up of representatives from all areas within the IT Service Provider, the Business, and Third Parties such as Suppliers. (Service Operation) A technique used to predict the impact of proposed Changes. Change Cases use specific scenarios to clarify the scope of proposed Changes and to help with Cost Benefit Analysis. See Use Case.

Capacity Planning Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) Capital Item Capitalization




Change Advisory Board (CAB)

Change Case

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Change History

(Service Transition) Information about all changes made to a Configuration Item during its life. Change History consists of all those Change Records that apply to the CI.

Change Management (Service Transition) The Process responsible for controlling the Lifecycle of all Changes. The primary objective of Change Management is to enable beneficial Changes to be made, with minimum disruption to IT Services. Change Model (Service Transition) A repeatable way of dealing with a particular Category of Change. A Change Model defines specific pre-defined steps that will be followed for a Change of this Category. Change Models may be very simple, with no requirement for approval (e.g. Password Reset) or may be very complex with many steps that require approval (e.g. major software Release). See Standard Change, Change Advisory Board. (Service Transition) A Record containing the details of a Change. Each Change Record documents the Lifecycle of a single Change. A Change Record is created for every Request for Change that is received, even those that are subsequently rejected. Change Records should reference the Configuration Items that are affected by the Change. Change Records are stored in the Configuration Management System. Synonym for Request for Change. (Service Transition) A Document that lists all approved Changes and their planned implementation dates. A Change Schedule is sometimes called a Forward Schedule of Change, even though it also contains information about Changes that have already been implemented. (Service Transition) A regular, agreed time when Changes or Releases may be implemented with minimal impact on Services. Change Windows are usually documented in SLAs. (Service Strategy) Requiring payment for IT Services. Charging for IT Services is optional, and many Organizations choose to treat their IT Service Provider as a Cost Centre. (Service Operation) A technique used to help identify possible causes of Problems. All available data about the Problem is collected and sorted by date and time to provide a detailed timeline. This can make it possible to identify which Events may have been triggered by others. (Service Transition) A Category that is used to Classify CIs. The CI Type identifies the required Attributes and Relationships for a Configuration Record. Common CI Types include: hardware, Document, User etc. The act of assigning a Category to something. Classification is used to ensure consistent management and reporting. CIs, Incidents, Problems, Changes etc. are usually classified.

Change Record

Change Request Change Schedule

Change Window


Chronological Analysis

CI Type



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A generic term that means a Customer, the Business or a Business Customer. For example Client Manager may be used as a synonym for Account Manager. The term client is also used to mean: • A computer that is used directly by a User, for example a PC, Handheld Computer, or Workstation. • The part of a Client-Server Application that the User directly interfaces with. For example an email Client. (Service Operation) The final Status in the Lifecycle of an Incident, Problem, Change etc. When the Status is Closed, no further action is taken. (Service Operation) The act of changing the Status of an Incident, Problem, Change etc. to Closed. (Continual Service Improvement) Control Objectives for Information and related Technology (COBIT) provides guidance and Best Practice for the management of IT Processes. COBIT is published by the IT Governance Institute. See http://www.isaca.org/ for more information. A Guideline published by a public body or a Standards Organization, such as ISO or BSI. Many Standards consist of a Code of Practice and a Specification. The Code of Practice describes recommended Best Practice. Synonym for Gradual Recovery. (Service Design) Application software or Middleware that can be purchased from a Third Party. Ensuring that a Standard or set of Guidelines is followed, or that proper, consistent accounting or other practices are being employed. A general term that is used to mean one part of something more complex. For example, a computer System may be a component of an IT Service, an Application may be a Component of a Release Unit. Components that need to be managed should be Configuration Items.

Closed Closure COBIT

Code of Practice

Cold Standby Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) Compliance Component

Component Capacity (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) The Process responsible for Management (CCM) understanding the Capacity, Utilization, and Performance of Configuration Items. Data is collected, recorded and analyzed for use in the Capacity Plan. See Service Capacity Management. Component CI Component Failure Impact Analysis (CFIA) (Service Transition) A Configuration Item that is part of an Assembly. For example, a CPU or Memory CI may be part of a Server CI. (Service Design) A technique that helps to identify the impact of CI failure on IT Services. A matrix is created with IT Services on one edge and CIs on the other. This enables the identification of critical CIs (that could cause the failure of multiple IT Services) and of fragile IT Services (that have multiple Single Points of Failure).

modifying or removing a CI is properly managed. Configuration is also used to describe the parameter settings for one or more CIs. (Service Transition) A generic term. including their Relationships. so that the corresponding Configuration Records can be found. (Service Transition) Any Component that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT Service. for example by submitting a Request for Change or Service Request. Releases and Changes. Configuration Management is part of an overall Service Asset and Configuration Management Process. Concurrency Confidentiality Configuration A measure of the number of Users engaged in the same Operation at the same time. hardware. and each CMDB stores Attributes of CIs. people. It is most commonly used to refer to Systems where an Application displays detailed screens relating to incoming or outgoing telephone calls. (Service Design) A security principle that requires that data should only be accessed by authorized people. and Relationships with other CIs. and loading this information into the CMDB. (Service Transition) The Activity responsible for collecting information about Configuration Items and their Relationships. CIs typically include IT Services. (Service Transition) The Process responsible for maintaining information about Configuration Items required to deliver an IT Service. Information about each CI is recorded in a Configuration Record within the Configuration Management System and is maintained throughout its Lifecycle by Configuration Management. Configuration Identification is also responsible for labeling the CIs themselves. or a recognizable part of an IT Service. (Service Transition) A database used to store Configuration Records throughout their Lifecycle. buildings. Configuration Baseline Configuration Control Configuration Identification Configuration Item (CI) Configuration Management Configuration Management Database (CMDB) .the study guIde 181 Computer Telephony (Service Operation) CTI is a general term covering any kind of integration Integration (CTI) between computers and telephone Systems. (Service Transition) A Baseline of a Configuration that has been formally agreed and is managed through the Change Management process. Interactive Voice Response. A Configuration Baseline is used as a basis for future Builds.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . The Configuration Management System maintains one or more CMDBs. CIs are under the control of Change Management. This information is managed throughout the Lifecycle of the CI. See Automatic Call Distribution. used to describe a group of Configuration Items that work together to deliver an IT Service. and formal documentation such as Process documentation and SLAs. (Service Transition) The Activity responsible for ensuring that adding. software.

or ensuring that a Process is followed. (Service Strategy) A database or structured Document used to manage Service Contracts or Agreements between an IT Service Provider and their Customers. RAID. See Service Portfolio. See Configuration Management Database. The Performance of the IT Service Provider is continually measured and improvements are made to Processes. Procedures. and may contain data about employees. System or IT Service. A control is sometimes called a Countermeasure or safeguard. The CMS is maintained by Configuration Management and is used by all IT Service Management Processes. and presenting data about all Configuration Items and their Relationships. Suppliers. Customers and Users. and Cost Effectiveness. Service Catalogue.the study guIde Configuration (Service Transition) A set of tools and databases that are used to manage an IT Management System Service Provider’s Configuration data. updating. locations. Changes and Releases. Configuration Records are stored in a Configuration Management Database. A legally binding Agreement between two or more parties. Each Configuration Record documents the Lifecycle of a single CI. door-locks etc. (Continual Service Improvement) A stage in the Lifecycle of an IT Service and the title of one of the Core ITIL publications. ensuring that a Business Objective is achieved.182 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . IT Services and IT Infrastructure in order to increase Efficiency. The CMS also includes information about (CMS) Incidents. Continual Service Improvement is responsible for managing improvements to IT Service Management Processes and IT Services. The CMS includes tools for collecting. (Service Design) An approach or design to achieve 100% Availability. Business Units. Note that individual Configuration Items may be down even though the IT Service is Available. Control also means to manage the utilization or behavior of a Configuration Item. Service Knowledge Management System. Roles. managing. Example Controls include Policies. (Service Design) An approach or design to eliminate planned Downtime of an IT Service. A Continuously Available IT Service has no planned or unplanned Downtime. (Service Transition) The hierarchy and other Relationships between all the Configuration Items that comprise a Configuration. storing. Problems. Known Errors. A means of managing a Risk. Each IT Service delivered to a Customer should have a Contract or other Agreement which is listed in the Contract Portfolio. Continuous Availability Continuous Operation Contract Contract Portfolio Control . Configuration Record Configuration Structure Continual Service Improvement (CSI) (Service Transition) A Record containing the details of a Configuration Item. See Plan-Do-Check-Act. Effectiveness.

. sometimes used as a synonym for Financial Management Cost Effectiveness Cost Element Cost Management . and Depreciation. There can be several different Control Perspectives on the same IT Service. See Service Package. Return on Investment. Transport. A Cost Effective Process is one which achieves its Objectives at minimum Cost. See Business Case. Control Processes Core Service Core Service Package (Service Strategy) A detailed description of a Core Service that may be shared by (CSP) two or more Service Level Packages. Processes. or a Lifecycle view for an Application Project team. An IT Service Provider can be run as a Cost Centre or a Profit Centre. Net Present Value. Core Service Package. The ISO/IEC 20000 Process group that includes Change Management and Configuration Management. allowing different individuals or teams to focus on what is important and relevant to their specific Role. staff benefits. Assets etc.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Functions. Process or activity. (Service Strategy) An IT Service that delivers basic Outcomes desired by one or more Customers. Process etc. (Service Strategy) The middle level of category to which Costs are assigned in Budgeting and Accounting. Value for Money. training. Internal Rate of Return. The highest level category is Cost Type. See Supporting Service. (Service Strategy) An approach to the management of IT Services. Cost The amount of money spent on a specific Activity. Example Control Perspectives include Reactive and Proactive management within IT Operations. Meals etc. For example a Cost Type of “people” could have cost elements of payroll. Cost Centre (Service Strategy) A Business Unit or Project to which Costs are assigned. For example the Cost Element “expenses” could include Cost Units of Hotels. Return on Investment. Value on Investment. A measure of the balance between the Effectiveness and Cost of a Service. Costs consist of real cost (money). overtime etc. Cost Benefit Analysis An Activity that analyses and compares the Costs and the benefits involved in one or more alternative courses of action. See KPI. expenses.the study guIde 183 Control Objectives for Information and related Technology (COBIT) Control perspective See COBIT. or Business Unit. (Service Strategy) A general term that is used to refer to Budgeting and Accounting. notional cost such as people’s time. Cost Elements can be further broken down to give Cost Units. A Cost Centre does not charge for Services provided. IT Service.

Cost Units are usually things that can be easily counted (e. accommodation. (Service Strategy) A database or structured Document used to record all Customers of the IT Service Provider. A Crisis Management team is responsible for Strategic issues such as managing media relations and shareholder confidence. See Cost Element. people. beliefs. for example “this is a Customer focused Organization”. but is now privately owned. software. See Cost Type. or IT Service is to succeed. ideas. including expectations about how people should behave. Cost Units are included within Cost Elements. Course corrections are made as a result of Monitoring progress. Project. staff numbers. “percentage reduction in Changes causing Incidents” etc. and decides when to invoke Business Continuity Plans.g. Electricity consumed). external and Transfer. Service Portfolio. Something that must happen if a Process. The term Customers is also sometimes informally used to mean Users. KPIs are used to measure the achievement of each CSF. The Customer Portfolio is the Business Relationship Manager’s view of the Customers who receive Services from the IT Service Provider. For example hardware. For example a CSF of “protect IT Services when making Changes” could be measured by KPIs such as “percentage reduction of unsuccessful Changes”.g. The Customer of an IT Service Provider is the person or group who defines and agrees the Service Level Targets. The term Countermeasure is most often used when referring to measures that increase Resilience. A set of values that is shared by a group of people.cramm.the study guIde Cost Type (Service Strategy) The highest level of category to which Costs are assigned in Budgeting and Accounting. and practices. Fault Tolerance or Reliability of an IT Service. Transport. Plan. CPU usage. to ensure that it will meet its Objectives. (Service Strategy) The lowest level of category to which Costs are assigned. A methodology and tool for analyzing and managing Risks. Further information is available from http://www.com/ The Process responsible for managing the wider implications of Business Continuity. Changes made to a Plan or Activity that has already started. Cost Type. Cost Unit Countermeasure Course Corrections CRAMM Crisis Management Critical Success Factor (CSF) Culture Customer Customer Portfolio . Can be used to refer to any type of Control.184 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . For example a Cost Element of “expenses” could include Cost Units of Hotels. Meals etc. CRAMM was developed by the UK Government. See Vision. See Contract Portfolio. Someone who buys goods or Services. software licenses) or things easily measured (e.

DIKW shows how each of these builds on the others. Detection results in the Incident becoming known to the Service Provider. Something that must be provided to meet a commitment in a Service Level Agreement or a Contract. Data-to-Information. (Service Design) An Activity or Process that identifies Requirements and then defines a solution that is able to meet these Requirements. (Service Strategy) A measure of the reduction in value of an Asset over its life. Process. to-Knowledge-toand wisdom. See Service Design. consumption or other reduction in the useful economic value. Event Management or Incident Diagnosis.the study guIde 185 Dashboard (Service Operation) A graphical representation of overall IT Service Performance and Availability. Deliverable Demand Management Deming Cycle Dependency Deployment Depreciation Design Detection . Synonym for Plan Do Check Act. At a Tactical level it can involve use of Differential Charging to encourage Customers to use IT Services at less busy times. information. At a Strategic level Demand Management can involve analysis of Patterns of Business Activity and User Profiles. etc to the Live Environment. (Service Operation) A stage in the Incident Lifecycle. or can be the result of a User logging an Incident. This is based on wearing out. All software in the DML is under the control of Change and Release Management and is recorded in the Configuration Management System. and can also be included in management reports and web pages. Dashboard images may be updated in real-time. (Service Transition) The Activity responsible for movement of new or changed hardware.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Deployment is part of the Release and Deployment Management Process.A way of understanding the relationships between data. Dashboards can be used to support Service Level Management. The DML may also contain associated CIs such as licenses and documentation. The direct or indirect reliance of one Process or Activity upon another. Only software from the DML is acceptable for use in a Release. The DML is a single logical storage area even if there are multiple locations. Deliverable is also used in a more informal way to mean a planned output of any Process. knowledge. See Capacity Management. documentation. Detection can be automatic. See Rollout. Wisdom (DIKW) Definitive Media Library (DML) (Service Transition) One or more locations in which the definitive and approved versions of all software Configuration Items are securely stored. Activities that understand and influence Customer demand for Services and the provision of Capacity to meet these demands. software.

Objectives or Requirements. and corresponding User access Rights. Information in readable form. Service Level Agreement. The Availability of an IT Service is often calculated from Agreed Service Time and Downtime. Directory Service Do Nothing Document Downtime Driver Early Life Support . Resolve and assign Incidents. A Document may be paper or electronic. and provide additional Resources for Incident and Problem Management. and to help them Classify. See Development. For example a Policy statement. (Service Operation) A structured set of questions used by Service Desk staff to ensure they ask the correct questions.186 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . The purpose of Diagnosis is to identify a Workaround for an Incident or the Root Cause of a Problem. For example cost of providing non-shared servers or software licenses.the study guIde Development (Service Design) The Process responsible for creating or modifying an IT Service or Application. Service Levels and Monitoring Thresholds. diagram of computer room layout. (Service Transition) Support provided for a new or Changed IT Service for a period of time after it is Released. (Service Operation) An Application that manages information about IT Infrastructure available on a network. Incident Record. Diagnostic Scripts may also be made available to Users to help them diagnose and resolve their own Incidents. See Indirect Cost. Project etc. (Service Design) (Service Operation) The time when a Configuration Item or IT Service is not Available during its Agreed Service Time. Direct Cost (Service Strategy) A cost of providing an IT Service which can be allocated in full to a specific Customer. (Service Operation) A stage in the Incident and Problem Lifecycles. Cost Centre. See Record. During Early Life Support the IT Service Provider may review the KPIs. The Service Provider formally agrees with the Customer that Recovery of this IT Service will not be performed. Also used to mean the Role or group that carries out Development work. Development Environments are not typically subjected to the same degree of control as Test Environments or Live Environments. Development Environment Diagnosis Diagnostic Script Differential Charging A technique used to support Demand Management by charging different amounts for the same IT Service Function at different times. Something that influences Strategy. For example new legislation or the actions of competitors. (Service Design) A Recovery Option. (Service Design) An Environment used to create or modify IT Services or Applications.

(Service Strategy) The reduction in Cost that is allocated to an IT Service by using an existing Asset for an additional purpose. The Change Management Process will normally have a specific Procedure for handling Emergency Changes. (Service Transition) A subset of the IT Infrastructure that is used for a particular purpose. money. See Economies of Scale. See Economies of Scope. A mistake made by a person or a faulty Process that impacts a CI or IT Service is also an Error. See KPI. Service or Activity. (Continual Service Improvement) A measure of whether the Objectives of a Process. Build Environment. An Efficient Process achieves its Objectives with the minimum amount of time. Environment is also used as a generic term to mean the external conditions that influence or affect something. (Service Transition) A Change that must be introduced as soon as possible. For Example: Live Environment. power system etc. people or other resources. See Emergency Change Advisory Board (ECAB). It is possible for multiple Environments to share a Configuration Item. Also used in the term Physical Environment to mean the accommodation. and depends on the nature of the Emergency Change. See KPI. An Effective Process or Activity is one that achieves its agreed Objectives. (Service Operation) A design flaw or malfunction that causes a Failure of one or more Configuration Items or IT Services.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Service or Activity have been achieved. Test Environment. For example to resolve a Major Incident or implement a Security patch. for example Test and Live Environments may use different partitions on a single mainframe computer. (Continual Service Improvement) A measure of whether the right amount of resources have been used to deliver a Process. Membership of the ECAB may be decided at the time a meeting is called.the study guIde 187 Economies of scale (Service Strategy) The reduction in average Cost that is possible from increasing the usage of an IT Service or Asset. Economies of scope Effectiveness Efficiency Emergency Change Emergency Change Advisory Board (ECAB) Environment Error . (Service Transition) A sub-set of the Change Advisory Board who make decisions about high impact Emergency Changes. For example delivering a new IT Service from existing IT Infrastructure. air conditioning.

Internal Customer. (Availability Management) Detailed stages in the Lifecycle of an Incident. Repair. and often lead to Incidents being logged. (Service Operation) The Process responsible for managing Events throughout their Lifecycle. Recovery. Functional Escalation and Hierarchic Escalation. The stages are Detection. Examples include SLA targets being missed or about to be missed. Estimation The use of experience to provide an approximate value for a Metric or Cost. There are two types of Escalation. Restoration. Diagnosis. Events typically require IT Operations personnel to take actions. Configuration Item or Monitoring tool. eSCM-SP Providers (eSCM-SP) was developed by Carnegie Mellon University. eSourcing Capability Model for Client Organizations (eSCM-CL) eSourcing Capability (Service Strategy) A framework to help IT Service Providers develop their IT Model for Service Service Management Capabilities from a Service Sourcing perspective. (Service Operation) A change of state which has significance for the management of a Configuration Item or IT Service. (Service Strategy) A framework to help Organizations guide their analysis and decisions on Service Sourcing Models and Strategies. See External Service Provider. Event Management is one of the main Activities of IT Operations. Problem Management and the management of Customer complaints. (Service Transition) The Process responsible for assessing a new or Changed IT Service to ensure that Risks have been managed and to help determine whether to proceed with the Change. Estimation is also used in Capacity and Availability Management as the cheapest and least accurate Modeling method. Evaluation is also used to mean comparing an actual Outcome with the intended Outcome. A Customer who works for a different Business to the IT Service Provider. A Document containing details of one or more KPIs or other important targets that have exceeded defined Thresholds. Evaluation Event Event Management Exception Report Expanded Incident Lifecycle External Customer . The Expanded Incident Lifecycle is used to help understand all contributions to the Impact of Incidents and to Plan how these could be controlled or reduced. eSCM-CL was developed by Carnegie Mellon University.188 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . See eSCM-SP. and a Performance Metric indicating a potential Capacity problem.the study guIde Escalation (Service Operation) An Activity that obtains additional Resources when these are needed to meet Service Level Targets or Customer expectations. See eSCM-CL. but is most commonly associated with Incident Management. Escalation may be needed within any IT Service Management Process. The term Event is also used to mean an Alert or notification created by any IT Service. or comparing one alternative with another.

(Service Strategy) An IT Service Provider which is part of a different Organization to their Customer. FMEA involves analyzing what would happen after Failure of each Configuration Item. (Service Strategy) The Function and Processes responsible for managing an IT Service Provider’s Budgeting. (Service Design) A Recovery Option which is also known as Hot Standby. Each level contains more specialist skills. External Service Provider External Sourcing Facilities Management Failure Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Fast Recovery Fault Fault Tolerance Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) Financial Management First-line Support Fishbone Diagram . Synonym for Outsourcing. typically less than 24 hours. Accounting and Charging Requirements. Fault Tree Analysis represents a chain of Events using Boolean notation in a diagram. (Service Design) The ability of an IT Service or Configuration Item to continue to Operate correctly after Failure of a Component part. See Escalation.the study guIde 189 External Metric A Metric that is used to measure the delivery of IT Service to a Customer. External Metrics are usually defined in SLAs and reported to Customers. FMEA is often used in Information Security Management and in IT Service Continuity Planning. Synonym for Ishikawa Diagram. A Failure often causes an Incident. all the way up to the effect on the Business. See Resilience. for example power and cooling. See Internal Metric. building Access Management. Facilities Management includes all aspects of managing the physical Environment. or to deliver the required output. Synonym for Error. or has more time or other Resources. An IT Service Provider may have both Internal Customers and External Customers. Processes. and environmental Monitoring. See Type III Service Provider. (Service Operation) Loss of ability to Operate to Specification. and software configured ready to run the IT Services. (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) A technique that can be used to determine the chain of Events that leads to a Problem. Immediate Recovery may take up to 24 hours if there is a need to Restore data from Backups. An approach to assessing the potential Impact of Failures. Countermeasure. The term Failure may be used when referring to IT Services. Activities. (Service Operation) The Function responsible for managing the physical Environment where the IT Infrastructure is located. Fast Recovery typically uses a dedicated Fixed Facility with computer Systems. (Service Operation) The first level in a hierarchy of Support Groups involved in the resolution of Incidents.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Configuration Items etc. Provision is made to Recover the IT Service in a short period of time.

“The computer is Functioning” Fixed Cost Fixed Facility Follow the Sun Fulfilment Function Functional Escalation (Service Operation) Transferring an Incident. For example by providing a new IT Service. Compliance to a guideline is not normally enforced. Provision is made to Recover the IT Service in a period of time greater than 72 hours. Team. See Standard. Problems and Service Requests are passed between groups in different time zones. (Service Design) A permanent building. Problem or Change to a technical team with a higher level of expertise to assist in an Escalation. (Service Operation) A methodology for using Service Desks and Support Groups around the world to provide seamless 24 * 7 Service. A team or group of people and the tools they use to carry out one or more Processes or Activities. For example the Service Desk. Control and maintenance. that recommends what should be done.190 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Incidents. A Document describing Best Practice. implementation. For example one Function of an Email Service may be to store and forward outgoing mails. Gradual Recovery typically uses a Portable or Fixed Facility that has environmental support and network cabling. The term Function also has two other meanings • An intended purpose of a Configuration Item. Person. or meeting a Service Request. or IT Service. Gap Analysis (Continual Service Improvement) An Activity which compares two sets of data and identifies the differences. See Variable Cost. Ensuring that Policies and Strategy are actually implemented. and taking actions to resolve any issues identified. Governance includes defining Roles and responsibilities. and that required Processes are correctly followed. but no computer Systems. measuring and reporting. See Benchmarking. Gap Analysis is commonly used to compare a set of Requirements with actual delivery. Portable Facility. (Service Strategy) A Cost that does not vary with IT Service usage. Being Fit for Purpose requires suitable Design. IT Service etc. one Function of a Business Process may be to dispatch goods to Customers. available for use when needed by an IT Service Continuity Plan. (Service Design) A Recovery Option which is also known as Cold Standby. • To perform the intended purpose correctly. Process. The hardware and software are installed as part of the IT Service Continuity Plan. Governance Gradual Recovery Guideline . For example the cost of Server hardware. Performing Activities to meet a need or Requirement. Calls. Configuration Item. See Recovery Option.the study guIde Fit for Purpose An informal term used to describe a Process. that is capable of meeting its Objectives or Service Levels.

(Service Design) A Recovery Option which is also known as Hot Standby. A Help Desk is usually more technically focused than a Service Desk and does not provide a Single Point of Contact for all interaction. Provision is made to Recover the IT Service with no loss of Service. (Service Operation) (Service Transition) A measure of the effect of an Incident. The Identity is used to grant Rights to that User. or Role. Impact and Urgency are used to assign Priority. The term Help Desk is often used as a synonym for Service Desk. Immediate Recovery typically uses mirroring. (Service Operation) A unique name that is used to identify a User. (Service Operation) A Record containing the details of an Incident. For example Failure of one disk from a mirror set. Hot Standby Identity Immediate Recovery Impact Incident Incident Management Incident Record Indirect Cost . The primary Objective of Incident Management is to return the IT Service to Users as quickly as possible. (Service Operation) An unplanned interruption to an IT Service or a reduction in the Quality of an IT Service.the study guIde 191 Help Desk (Service Operation) A point of contact for Users to log Incidents. High Availability solutions are Designed to achieve an agreed level of Availability and make use of techniques such as Fault Tolerance. Problem or Change on Business Processes. Hierarchic Escalation (Service Operation) Informing or involving more senior levels of management to assist in an Escalation. Failure of a Configuration Item that has not yet impacted Service is also an Incident. (Service Operation) The Process responsible for managing the Lifecycle of all Incidents. High Availability (Service Design) An approach or Design that minimizes or hides the effects of Configuration Item Failure on the Users of an IT Service. See Direct Cost. Resilience and fast Recovery to reduce the number of Incidents. load balancing and split site technologies. person. Each Incident record documents the Lifecycle of a single Incident. Also known as Overhead. For example Cost of providing shared Servers or software licenses. Synonym for Fast Recovery or Immediate Recovery.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . (Service Strategy) A Cost of providing an IT Service which cannot be allocated in full to a specific Customer. Impact is often based on how Service Levels will be affected. Example identities might be the username SmithJ or the Role “Change manager”. and the Impact of Incidents. person or Role.

192 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . including software and hardware Failure. A Customer who works for the same Business as the IT Service Provider. (Service Design) A security principle that ensures data and Configuration Items are only modified by authorized personnel and Activities. See External Metric. Integrity and Management (ISM) Availability of an Organization’s Assets.. External Customer. Integrity considers all possible causes of modification. Insourcing Integrity Synonym for Internal Sourcing. such as key presses and spoken commands.the study guIde Information Security (Service Design) The Process that ensures the Confidentiality. Interactive Voice Response (IVR) Intermediate Recovery Internal Customer Internal Metric . to identify the correct destination for incoming Calls. but is required by the IT Service Provider so they can provide other IT Services. (Service Operation) A form of Automatic Call Distribution that accepts User input. naming services. Effectiveness or Cost Effectiveness of the IT Service Provider’s internal Processes. and includes handling of paper. See Internal Service Provider. data and IT Services. Information Security (Service Design) The framework of Policy. Information Technology (IT) The use of technology for the storage. or communication services. information. Information Security (Service Design) The Policy that governs the Organization’s approach to Policy Information Security Management. Standards. For example Directory Services. Processes. Guidelines Management System and tools that ensures an Organization can achieve its Information Security (ISMS) Management Objectives. communication or processing of information. etc. building access. phone calls etc. telecommunications. and human intervention. video. The information may include Business data. The hardware and software will need to be configured. as part of the IT Service Continuity Plan. images. and data will need to be restored. Infrastructure Service An IT Service that is not directly used by the Business. Intermediate Recovery typically uses a shared Portable or Fixed Facility that has computer Systems and network Components. Information Security Management usually forms part of an Organizational approach to Security Management which has a wider scope than the IT Service Provider. voice. environmental Events. A Metric that is used within the IT Service Provider to Monitor the Efficiency. (Service Design) A Recovery Option which is also known as Warm Standby. The technology typically includes computers. Internal Metrics are not normally reported to the Customer of the IT Service. Provision is made to Recover the IT Service in a period of time between 24 and 72 hours. Applications and other software. for the entire Organization. Information Technology is often used to support Business Processes through IT Services.

Internal Service Provider Internal Sourcing International The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is the world’s largest Organization for developer of Standards. Standard. Most ISPs also provide other IT Services such as web hosting. See Type I Service Provider. Type II Service Provider. (Service Strategy) An IT Service Provider which is part of the same Organization as their Customer. A larger IRR indicates a better investment. See ISO. (Continual Service Improvement) ISO Code of Practice for Information Security Management. ISO/IEC 20000 is aligned with ITIL Best Practice.iso. ISO 9000 ISO 9001 ISO/IEC 17799 ISO/IEC 20000 . An international Standard for Quality Management Systems.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . (Service Operation) (Continual Service Improvement) A technique that helps a team to identify all the possible causes of a Problem. (Service Strategy) Using an Internal Service Provider to manage IT Services.the study guIde 193 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) (Service Strategy) A technique used to help make decisions about Capital Expenditure. ISO is a non-governmental organization which is a Standardization (ISO) network of the national standards institutes of 156 countries. Return on Investment. Type I Service Provider. An IT Service Provider may have both Internal Customers and External Customers.iso. See Net Present Value. Further information about ISO is available from http://www. See Standard.org/ International Standards Organization Internet Service Provider (ISP) Invocation Ishikawa Diagram See International Organization for Standardization (ISO) An External Service Provider that provides access to the Internet. See Service Sourcing. Type II Service Provider. ISO Specification and Code of Practice for IT Service Management. A generic term that refers to a number of international Standards and Guidelines for Quality Management Systems. Insource. See ISO 9000.org/ for more information. IRR calculates a figure that allows two or more alternative investments to be compared. the output of this technique is a diagram that looks like a fishbone. Originally devised by Kaoru Ishikawa. (Service Design) Initiation of the steps defined in a plan. See http://www. For example initiating the IT Service Continuity Plan for one or more IT Services.

IT Service Continuity (Service Design) A Plan defining the steps required to Recover one or more IT Plan Services. networks.the study guIde ISO/IEC 27001 (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) ISO Specification for Information Security Management. The Plan will also identify the triggers for Invocation. Control or support IT Services. including Console Management. All of the hardware. The corresponding Code of Practice is ISO/ IEC 17799. An IT Service is made up from a combination of people. ITSCM ensures that the IT Service Provider can always provide Management minimum agreed Service Levels. ITSCM should be designed to support Business Continuity Management. deliver. Processes and technology and should be defined in a Service Level Agreement. that are required to Develop. (Service Operation) The Function responsible for Monitoring and Control of the IT Services and IT Infrastructure. (Continual Service Improvement) Senior Management within a Service Provider. communications etc. See Standard. See Service Management. and Print and Output Management. IT Operations is also used as a synonym for Service Operation. A Service provided to one or more Customers by an IT Service Provider. (Service Operation) The Function within an IT Service Provider which performs the daily Activities needed to manage IT Services and the supporting IT Infrastructure. by reducing the Risk to an acceptable level and (ITSCM) Planning for the Recovery of IT Services. Process and Information Technology. The IT Service Continuity Plan should be part of a Business Continuity Plan. IT Service Management is performed by IT Service Providers through an appropriate mix of people. IT Service The implementation and management of Quality IT Services that meet the needs Management (ITSM) of the Business. See Operations Bridge. IT Operations Management includes IT Operations Control and Facilities Management. Monitor. software. Test. facilities etc. . people to be involved. Most commonly used in UK Government departments. Job Scheduling. charged with developing and delivering IT services. The term IT Infrastructure includes all of the Information Technology but not the associated people. An IT Service is based on the use of Information Technology and supports the Customer’s Business Processes. IT Directorate IT Infrastructure IT Operations IT Operations Control IT Operations Management IT Service IT Service Continuity (Service Design) The Process responsible for managing Risks that could seriously impact IT Services. Backup and Restore.194 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . (Service Operation) Activities carried out by IT Operations Control. Processes and documentation.

itsmf. month or year. The itSMF and its membership contribute to the development of ITIL and associated IT Service Management Standards. IT Service or Activity. Excitement Factors. Effectiveness. when and extent. One Job Description can include multiple Roles.the study guIde 195 IT Service Management Forum (itSMF) The IT Service Management Forum is an independent Organization dedicated to promoting a professional approach to IT Service Management. week. The most probable cause is tested. ITIL is owned by the OGC and consists of a series of publications giving guidance on the provision of Quality IT Services. where. An IT Steering Group includes senior representatives from the Business and the IT Service Provider. (Service Transition) A logical database containing the data used by the Service Knowledge Management System. See http://www.uk/ for more information.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . IT Service Provider IT Steering Group (ISG) ITIL Job Description Job Scheduling Kano Model Kepner & Tregoe Analysis Key Performance Indicator (KPI) Knowledge Base .co.com/ for more information. (Service Strategy) A Model developed by Noriaki Kano that is used to help understand Customer preferences.itil. for example the Roles of Configuration Manager and Change Manager may be carried out by one person. See http://www. and is often automated using software tools that run batch or online tasks at specific times of the day. Many Metrics may be measured. The itSMF is a not-for-profit membership Organization with representation in many countries around the world (itSMF Chapters). and Cost Effectiveness are all managed. See Critical Success Factor. (Continual Service Improvement) A Metric that is used to help manage a Process. Possible causes are identified. (Service Operation) (Continual Service Improvement) A structured approach to Problem solving. A Document which defines the Roles. responsibilities. skills and knowledge required by a particular person. The Problem is analyzed in terms of what. but only the most important of these are defined as KPIs and used to actively manage and report on the Process. (Service Strategy) A Service Provider that provides IT Services to Internal Customers or External Customers. The Kano Model considers Attributes of an IT Service grouped into areas such as Basic Factors. (Service Operation) Planning and managing the execution of software tasks that are required as part of an IT Service. IT Service or Activity. A formal group that is responsible for ensuring that Business and IT Service Provider Strategies and Plans are closely aligned. Performance Factors etc. The true cause is verified. and on the Processes and facilities needed to support them. KPIs should be selected to ensure that Efficiency. A set of Best Practice guidance for IT Service Management. Job Scheduling is carried out by IT Operations Management.

Each Known Error Record documents the Lifecycle of a Known Error. (Service Transition) A controlled Environment containing Live Configuration Items used to deliver IT Services to Customers. Optimize. • The Expanded Incident Lifecycle includes Detect. Live Live Environment Maintainability (Service Transition) Refers to an IT Service or Configuration Item that is being used to deliver Service to a Customer. storing and sharing knowledge and information within an Organization. In Test. (Service Operation) A database containing all Known Error Records. Known Error Known Error Database (KEDB) Known Error Record (Service Operation) A Record containing the details of a Known Error. Live.the study guIde Knowledge Management (Service Transition) The Process responsible for gathering. Repair. Build. Known Errors may also be identified by Development or Suppliers. The Lifecycle defines the Categories for Status and the Status transitions that are permitted. Configuration Item. Problem. A line of Service is managed by a Product Manager and each Service Level Package is designed to support a particular market segment. Incident. The primary purpose of Knowledge Management is to improve Efficiency by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge. . Deploy. Respond. Root Cause and Workaround. • The lifecycle of a Server may include: Ordered. Restore. Diagnose. Design. (Service Design) A measure of how quickly and Effectively a Configuration Item or IT Service can be restored to normal working after a Failure.196 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Change etc. In some implementations a Known Error is documented using additional fields in a Problem Record. Disposed etc. Known Errors are created and managed throughout their Lifecycle by Problem Management. The Known Error Database is part of the Service Knowledge Management System. (Service Operation) A Problem that has a documented Root Cause and a Workaround. For example: • The Lifecycle of an Application includes Requirements. See Data-to-Information-to-Knowledge-to-Wisdom. Maintainability is also used in the context of Software or IT Service Development to mean ability to be Changed or Repaired easily. Maintainability is often measured and reported as MTRS. analyzing. Lifecycle The various stages in the life of an IT Service. including the Status. Received. This database is created by Problem Management and used by Incident and Problem Management. Service Knowledge Management System. Recover. Operate. Line of Service (LOS) (Service Strategy) A Core Service or Supporting Service that has multiple Service Level Packages.

Manual Workaround A Workaround that requires manual intervention. Efficiency and Effectiveness of a Process. This is a temporary measure and is usually combined with another Recovery Option. The term Managed Services is also used as a synonym for Outsourced IT Services. MTBSI is the mean time from when a System or IT Service fails. MTBSI is Service Incidents (MTBSI) equal to MTBF + MTRS. until it next fails. Marginal Cost does not include investment already made. or “first time fix rate”. Manual Workaround is also used as the name of a Recovery Option in which The Business Process Operates without the use of IT Services. Function.m-o-r. until it next fails.the study guIde 197 Major Incident Managed Services (Service Operation) The highest Category of Impact for an Incident. MoR includes all the Activities (MoR) required to identify and Control the exposure to Risk which may have an impact on the achievement of an Organization’s Business Objectives. . A Major Incident results in significant disruption to the Business. See http://www. and are supported by a framework for continual improvement. Processes and Functions that ensures an Organization can achieve its Objectives. This is measured from when the CI or IT Service starts working. The most mature Processes and Functions are formally aligned to Business Objectives and Strategy. for example the cost of developing new software and delivering training. Market Space Maturity Maturity Level Mean Time Between (Service Design) A Metric for measuring and reporting Reliability.org/ for more details. (Service Strategy) A perspective on IT Services which emphasizes the fact that they are managed. A named level in a Maturity model such as the Carnegie Mellon Capability Maturity Model Integration. Management Information Management of Risk The OGC methodology for managing Risks. (Service Strategy) All opportunities that an IT Service Provider could exploit to meet business needs of Customers. MTBF is the Failures (MTBF) average time that a Configuration Item or IT Service can perform its agreed Function without interruption. Mean Time Between (Service Design) A Metric used for measuring and reporting Reliability. Management System The framework of Policy. Marginal Cost (Service Strategy) The Cost of continuing to provide the IT Service. (Continual Service Improvement) A measure of the Reliability. Organization etc.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Management Information often includes the values of KPIs such as “Percentage of Changes leading to Incidents”. Information that is used to support decision making by managers. The Market Space identifies the possible IT Services that an IT Service Provider may wish to consider delivering. Management Information is often generated automatically by tools supporting the various IT Service Management Processes.

This can be the provision of an IT Service. MTRS is measured from when the CI or IT Service fails until it is fully Restored and delivering its normal functionality. that is used to help understand or predict future behavior. Return on Investment. A technique that is used to predict the future behavior of a System. Positive NPV indicates that an investment is worthwhile. IT Service or Activity. Process. It states what is to be achieved. A representation of a System. (Service Design) Software that connects two or more software Components or Applications.198 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Mean Time to Repair. NPV compares cash inflows to cash outflows.the study guIde Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) The average time taken to repair a Configuration Item or IT Service after a Failure. The average time taken to Restore a Configuration Item or IT Service after a Failure. See Off the Shelf. (Service Operation) Monitoring the output of a Task. See Internal Rate of Return. comparing this output to a predefined norm. Process. Off-shore. Mean Time to Restore Service (MTRS) Metric Middleware Mission Statement Model Modeling Monitor Control Loop Monitoring Near-Shore Net Present Value (NPV) . See On-shore. See KPI. Middleware is usually purchased from a Supplier. IT Service or Process to detect Events and to ensure that the current status is known. IT Service or Configuration Item. Process. and taking appropriate action based on this comparison. IT Service. See Maintainability. (Service Strategy) A technique used to help make decisions about Capital Expenditure. Configuration Item etc. Modeling is commonly used in Financial Management. MTTR is sometimes incorrectly used to mean Mean Time to Restore Service. (Service Operation) Repeated observation of a Configuration Item. (Service Strategy) Provision of Services from a country near the country where the Customer is based. but not how this should be done. MTTR does not include the time required to Recover or Restore. Capacity Management and Availability Management. IT Service. Configuration Item etc. The Mission Statement of an Organization is a short but complete description of the overall purpose and intentions of that Organization. or of supporting Functions such as Service Desk. MTTR is measured from when the CI or IT Service fails until it is Repaired. (Continual Service Improvement) Something that is measured and reported to help manage a Process. rather than developed within the IT Service Provider.

Objectives are usually expressed as measurable targets. For example. accepting money at a point of sale. license the re-use of Crown copyright material. Synonym for Commercial Off the Shelf. The lowest of three levels of Planning and delivery (Strategic. often in a different continent. This can be the provision of an IT Service. The term Operational is also a synonym for Live. The term Objective is also informally used to mean a Requirement.the study guIde 199 Notional Charging (Service Strategy) An approach to Charging for IT Services. Charges to Customers are calculated and Customers are informed of the charge. or other Configuration Item. Near-shore. (Service Strategy) Provision of Services from a location within the country where the Customer is based. A Process or Configuration Item is said to Operate if it is delivering the Required outputs. See Outcome. (Service Operation) Day-to-day management of an IT Service. but no money is actually transferred. OGC owns the ITIL brand (copyright and trademark). Objective Off the Shelf Office of Government Commerce (OGC) Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) Off-shore On-shore Operate Operation Operational . to Operate a computer is to do the day-to-day Operations needed for it to perform as expected. See On-shore. or of supporting Functions such as Service Desk.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . maintain the Government’s Information Asset Register and provide advice and guidance on official publishing and Crown copyright. See Off-shore. an Activity or an Organization as a whole. Operate also means to perform one or more Operations. Notional Charging is sometimes introduced to ensure that Customers are aware of the Costs they incur. Near-shore. System. manage the Information Fair Trader Scheme. OPSI license the Crown Copyright material used in the ITIL publications. To perform as expected. Operational). It also provides support for complex public sector projects. They are a UK Government department who provide online access to UK legislation. The defined purpose or aim of a Process. Tactical. (Service Strategy) Provision of Services from a location outside the country where the Customer is based. OGC is a UK Government department that supports the delivery of the government’s procurement agenda through its work in collaborative procurement and in raising levels of procurement skills and capability with departments. or reading data from a disk drive. For example loading a magnetic tape. Operational Activities include the day-to-day or short term Planning or delivery of a Business Process or IT Service Management Process. or as a stage during the introduction of real Charging. Operation is also used to mean any pre-defined Activity or Transaction.

A company. See Capital Expenditure. hardware maintenance and electricity (also known as “current expenditure” or “revenue expenditure”). Plan and request Changes. delivering an IT Service etc. Type III Service Provider. Opportunity Cost represents the revenue that would have been generated by using the Resources in a different way. See Service Level Agreement. (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) An Agreement between an IT Service Provider and another part of the same Organization. Opportunity cost analysis is used as part of a decision making processes. Often repeating payments. The result of carrying out an Activity. (Service Strategy) Using an External Service Provider to manage IT Services. Examples of Organizations that are not companies include International Standards Organization or itSMF. The OLA defines the goods or Services to be provided and the responsibilities of both parties. (Service Strategy) A Cost that is used in deciding between investment choices. Application etc.200 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . For example the Opportunity Cost of purchasing a new Server may include not carrying out a Service Improvement activity that the money could have been spent on. following a Process. Resources and Budgets. For example staff costs. An OLA supports the IT Service Provider’s delivery of IT Services to Customers. Synonym for IT Operations Control. The term Outcome is used to refer to intended results. See Service Sourcing. in order to obtain the maximum Efficiency and Effectiveness from a Process. The term Organization is sometimes used to refer to any entity which has People. as well as to actual results. Review. but is not treated as an actual Cost in any financial statement.the study guIde Operational Cost Cost resulting from running the IT Services. legal entity or other institution. Configuration Item. Synonym for IT Operations Management. Synonym for Operational Cost. See Objective. For example a Project or Business Unit. (Service Operation) A physical location where IT Services and IT Infrastructure are monitored and managed. Operational Expenditure (OPEX) Operational Level Agreement (OLA) Operations Bridge Operations Control Operations Management Opportunity Cost Optimize Organization Outcome Outsourcing . For example there could be an OLA • between the IT Service Provider and a procurement department to obtain hardware in agreed times • between the Service Desk and a Support Group to provide Incident Resolution in agreed times.

See Active Monitoring. A formula is used to calculate Pain Value based on the number of Users affected. Evaluation. people development. the duration of the Downtime. For example. Threshold detection. and implementing Changes related to Performance and Capacity. Pareto Analysis is also used in Problem Management to priorities possible Problem causes for investigation. The Pareto Principle says that 80% of the value of any Activity is created with 20% of the effort. See User Profile. and actively manages. These include Monitoring. a Release or a Process to the Live Environment. Performance analysis and Tuning. (Continual Service Improvement) The Process responsible for day-to-day Capacity Management Activities. technology enablement. leadership and strategy. its utilization is 50% Performance Performance Anatomy Performance Management A measure of what is achieved or delivered by a System. A Pilot is used to reduce Risk and to gain User feedback and Acceptance. Process. The IT Service Provider should have a Partnership with the Business. or IT Service. if a CPU is busy for 1800 seconds in a one hour period.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . See Value Network. performance management and innovation. an IT Service or a Process that relies on an Alert or notification to discover the current status. Pilot . Patterns of Business Activity are used to help the IT Service Provider understand and plan for different levels of Business Activity. (Service Operation) A technique used to priorities Activities. (Service Operation) Monitoring of a Configuration Item. person. (Service Strategy) An approach to Organizational Culture that integrates. A relationship between two Organizations which involves working closely together for common goals or mutual benefit. team.the study guIde 201 Overhead Pain Value Analysis Synonym for Indirect cost (Service Operation) A technique used to help identify the Business Impact of one or more Problems. the Impact on each User. Pareto Principle Partnership Passive Monitoring Pattern of Business Activity (PBA) Percentage utilization (Service Design) The amount of time that a Component is busy over a given period of time. and with Third Parties who are critical to the delivery of IT Services. and the cost to the Business (if known). See Test. (Service Strategy) A Workload profile of one or more Business Activities. (Service Transition) A limited Deployment of an IT Service.

See Best Practice. and identifies opportunities for improvement. (Service Design) A prefabricated building. For example a Plan to implement a new IT Service or Process. Standards and Guidelines. (Service Design) Agreed time when an IT Service will not be available. or a way in which work must be done. compare with Objectives and produce reports ACT: Plan and implement Changes to improve the Processes. (Service Strategy) The Activity for establishing how much Customers will be Charged. DO: Implement the Plan and manage the Processes. or a large vehicle. See Change Window. Capacity Planning. PMBOK stands for Project Management Body of Knowledge. Activities.pmi.org/ for more information. Functions.202 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Formally documented management expectations and intentions. An Activity that needs to be completed. Prerequisite for Success (PFS) Pricing . or a condition that needs to be met. to enable successful implementation of a Plan or Process.the study guIde Plan A detailed proposal which describes the Activities and Resources needed to achieve an Objective. Processes. Practice A way of working. See Recovery Option. Standards. A Project management Standard maintained and published by the Project Management Institute. A PFS is often an output from one Process that is a required input to another Process. See http://www. An Activity responsible for creating one or more Plans. upgrades and testing. Fixed Facility. A PIR Review (PIR) determines if the Change or Project was successful. (Continual Service Improvement) A four stage cycle for Process management. Plan-Do-Check-Act is also called the Deming Cycle. Plan-Do-Check-Act Planned Downtime Planning PMBOK Policy Portable Facility Post Implementation A Review that takes place after a Change or a Project has been implemented. PLAN: Design or revise Processes that support the IT Services. CHECK: Measure the Processes and IT Services. Practices can include Activities. Roles. provided by a Third Party and moved to a site when needed by an IT Service Continuity Plan. and to ensure consistent and appropriate development and implementation of Processes. ISO/ IEC 20000 requires a Plan for the management of each IT Service Management Process. For example. Planned Downtime is often used for maintenance. See PRINCE2. Downtime. IT Infrastructure etc. attributed to Edward Deming. Policies are used to direct decisions.

The Activity of planning and regulating a Process. A Process takes one or more defined inputs and turns them into defined outputs. The primary Objectives of Problem Management are to prevent Incidents from happening. tools and management Controls required to reliably deliver the outputs. A Document containing steps that specify how to achieve an Activity. (Service Operation) The Process responsible for managing the Lifecycle of all Problems. See PMBOK.ogc. See http:// www. The Objective of Proactive Problem Management is to identify Problems that might otherwise be missed. Each Problem Record documents the Lifecycle of a single Problem. Problem or Change. Standards. The cause is not usually known at the time a Problem Record is created. Proactive Problem Management (Service Operation) Part of the Problem Management Process. For example the SLA may state that Priority2 Incidents must be resolved within 12 hours.gov. with the Objective of performing the Process in an Effective. and Work Instructions if they are needed. (Service Operation) A Record containing the details of a Problem. and consistent manner.uk/prince2/ for more information. and uses data collected by other IT Service Management Processes to identify trends or significant Problems.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . (Service Transition) (Service Operation) A Category used to identify the relative importance of an Incident. (Service Operation) A cause of one or more Incidents. Priority Proactive Monitoring (Service Operation) Monitoring that looks for patterns of Events to predict possible future Failures. and to minimize the Impact of Incidents that cannot be prevented. A Process may include any of the Roles. See Reactive Monitoring. Problem Problem Management Problem Record Procedure Process Process Control .the study guIde 203 PRINCE2 The standard UK government methodology for Project management. Guidelines. A Process may define Policies. and the Problem Management Process is responsible for further investigation. Priority is based on Impact and Urgency. Procedures are defined as part of Processes. and is used to identify required times for actions to be taken. Proactive Problem Management analyses Incident Records. See Work Instruction. Activities. Efficient. responsibilities. A structured set of Activities designed to accomplish a specific Objective.

execution. to support an Application or IT Service. . for example regional Change Managers or IT Service Continuity Managers for each data centre. monitor and report on the Process. (Service Transition) A Document that identifies the effect of planned Changes. with people and other Assets required to achieve an Objective or other Outcome. recovering Costs. or example Document containing example data that will be replaced with the real values when these are available. maintenance Activities and Test Plans on agreed Service Levels. Projects are usually managed using a formal methodology such as PRINCE2. Each Project has a Lifecycle that typically includes initiation. The Process Manager’s responsibilities include Planning and coordination of all Activities required to carry out. but the two Roles may be separate in larger Organizations. There may be several Process Managers for one Process. Planning.the study guIde Process Manager A Role responsible for Operational management of a Process. Change Management and continual improvement of the Process and its Metrics. or running at a loss. An IT Service Provider can be run as a Cost Centre or a Profit Centre. Closure etc. but the two Roles may be separate in larger Organizations. Design.204 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . See Validation. See PRINCE2 Process Owner Production Environment Profit Centre pro-forma Program Project Projected Service Outage (PSO) PRojects IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE2) Qualification (Service Transition) An Activity that ensures that IT Infrastructure is appropriate. A template. and correctly configured. The Process Owner’s responsibilities include sponsorship. A Role responsible for ensuring that a Process is Fit for Purpose. This Role is often assigned to the same person who carries out the Process Manager Role. A number of Projects and Activities that are planned and managed together to achieve an overall set of related Objectives and other Outcomes. A Profit Centre can be created with the objective of making a profit. A temporary Organization. (Service Strategy) A Business Unit which charges for Services provided. The Process Manager Role is often assigned to the person who carries out the Process Owner Role. Synonym for Live Environment.

For example. an Incident Record. a hardware Component can be considered to be of high Quality if it performs as expected and delivers the required Reliability. an Audit report. Service. See Proactive Monitoring. Recovery of an IT Service often includes recovering data to a known consistent state. or Process to provide the intended value. Commonly used Strategies are Do Nothing. For example. See ISO 9000. or logging an Incident when an Error occurs. For example submitting a batch job when the previous job completes. Recovery Options may make use of dedicated facilities. (Service Transition) The Process responsible for ensuring that the Quality of a product. Accountable. (Service Design) A Strategy for responding to an interruption to Service. Intermediate Recovery. Fast Recovery. See Quality Management System. or Third Party facilities shared by multiple Businesses. or the minutes of a meeting. (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) A Model used to help define Roles and Responsibilities. (Service Operation) Monitoring that takes action in response to an Event. (Service Design) (Service Operation) Returning a Configuration Item or an IT Service to a working state. further steps may be needed before the IT Service can be made available to the Users (Restoration). See Pareto Principle. Quality Assurance (QA) Quality Management (Continual Service Improvement) The set of Processes responsible for ensuring System (QMS) that all work carried out by an Organization is of a suitable Quality to reliably meet Business Objectives or Service Levels. See Stakeholder. Computer Room space or use of a mainframe. (Service Design) A Recovery Option. After Recovery.the study guIde 205 Quality The ability of a product.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Reciprocal Arrangement. Immediate Recovery. Service or Process will provide its intended Value. Records are evidence of the fact that an Activity took place and may be paper or electronic. Quick Win (Continual Service Improvement) An improvement Activity which is expected to provide a Return on Investment in a short period of time with relatively small Cost and effort. An agreement between two Organizations to share resources in an emergency. For example. and to improve them if necessary. RACI stands for Responsible. A Document containing the results or other output from a Process or Activity. Process Quality also requires an ability to monitor Effectiveness and Efficiency. Gradual Recovery. Consulted and Informed. Manual Workaround. RACI Reactive Monitoring Reciprocal Arrangement Record Recovery Recovery Option .

The contents of each Release are managed. The ISO/IEC 20000 Process group that includes Business Relationship Management and Supplier Management. For example Microsoft Office 2003 SR2. Release Management (Service Transition) The Process responsible for Planning. In Business Relationship Management it is the interaction between the IT Service Provider and the Business. agreed and documented. Release Process is also used as a synonym for Release Management Process. and Deployed as a single entity. or no longer needed. The term Redundant also has a generic meaning of obsolete. (Service Operation) The maximum time allowed for recovery of an IT Service following an interruption.206 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . and used as Requirements for Service Design and IT Service Continuity Plans. Release Process The name used by ISO/IEC 20000 for the Process group that includes Release Management. Recovery Time Objective (RTO) Redundancy Relationship Relationship Processes Release Release and Deployment Management Release Identification (Service Transition) A naming convention used to uniquely identify a Release. scheduling and controlling the movement of Releases to Test and Live Environments. agreed and documented. Recovery Time Objectives for each IT Service should be negotiated. . software. (Service Transition) The Process responsible for both Release Management and Deployment. For example a Recovery Point Objective of one day may be supported by daily Backups. Recovery Point Objectives for each IT Service should be negotiated.the study guIde Recovery Point Objective (RPO) (Service Operation) The maximum amount of data that may be lost when Service is Restored after an interruption. Recovery Point Objective is expressed as a length of time before the Failure. A connection or interaction between two people or things. The Release Identification typically includes a reference to the Configuration Item and a version number. documentation. Tested. and up to 24 hours of data may be lost. The Service Level to be provided may be less than normal Service Level Targets. This group does not include any other Processes. Release Management is part of the Release and Deployment Management Process. The primary Objective of Release Management is to ensure that the integrity of the Live Environment is protected and that the correct Components are released. In Configuration Management it is a link between two Configuration Items that identifies a dependency or connection between them. See Business Impact Analysis. Processes or other Components required to implement one or more approved Changes to IT Services. Synonym for Fault Tolerance. (Service Transition) A collection of hardware. IT Services have many links to all the CIs that contribute to them. For example Applications may be linked to the Servers they run on.

(Service Operation) The replacement or correction of a failed Configuration Item. Synonym for Change Window. including IT Operations Procedures and User training. (Service Transition) A formal proposal for a Change to be made. (Service Transition) Recovery to a known state after a failed Change or Release. Documentation etc. (Service Transition) Components of an IT Service that are normally Released together. See Statement of Requirements. Function etc. a Project Requirement or the required Deliverables for a Process. will deliver its required outputs. Licenses. An RFC includes details of the proposed Change. For example. and may be recorded on paper or electronically.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . In ISO/IEC 20000. Usually measured as MTBF or MTBSI. . The term Reliability can also be used to state how likely it is that a Process. A different Release Unit may be the complete Payroll Application. For example a Service Level Requirement. or to implement a Workaround. See Fault Tolerance. or the Change itself. an armored cable will resist failure when put under stress. (Service Design) The ability of a Configuration Item or IT Service to resist Failure or to Recover quickly following a Failure. (Service Design) A formal statement of what is needed. (Service Operation) Action taken to repair the Root Cause of an Incident or Problem. including Hardware. (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) A measure of how long a Configuration Item or IT Service can perform its agreed Function without interruption. See Availability. Software. A Release Record has Relationships with all Configuration Items that are affected by the Release. (Service Operation) The Process responsible for managing the Lifecycle of all Service Requests.the study guIde 207 Release Record (Service Transition) A Record in the CMDB that defines the content of a Release. A Release Unit typically includes sufficient Components to perform a useful Function. Release Unit Release Window Reliability Remediation Repair Request for Change (RFC) Request Fulfilment Requirement Resilience Resolution Resolution Processes The ISO/IEC 20000 Process group that includes Incident Management and Problem Management. Resolution Processes is the Process group that includes Incident and Problem Management. The term RFC is often misused to mean a Change Record. For example one Release Unit could be a Desktop PC.

and to identify opportunities for improvement. and in Incident Management as a measure of the time taken to answer the phone. See Net Present Value. Project etc. the Vulnerability of the Asset to that Threat. or affect the ability to achieve Objectives. Problem. or other Configuration Item. (Service Transition) Permanent removal of an IT Service. Reviews are typically carried out at predefined points in the Lifecycle. or to authorize a Change. Used in Capacity Management as a measure of IT Infrastructure Performance. A possible Event that could cause harm or loss. A measurement of the time taken to respond to something. from the Live Environment. A Risk is measured by the probability of a Threat. For example. people. A measure of the time taken to complete an Operation or Transaction. See Capability. Retired is a stage in the Lifecycle of many Configuration Items. or to start Diagnosis.208 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . and restore the ability to invoke IT Service Continuity Plans again. For example the Right to modify particular data. then this phase will bring the primary data centre back into operation. (Service Strategy) (Continual Service Improvement) A measurement of the expected benefit of an investment. An evaluation of a Change. The purpose of a Review is to ensure that all Deliverables have been provided. Service Asset. See Restore. or the speed with which an IT Service Provider responds to an Incident or Request for Change etc. and especially after Closure. (Service Design) The phase of an IT Service Continuity Plan during which full normal operations are resumed.the study guIde Resource (Service Strategy) A generic term that includes IT Infrastructure. (Service Operation) Entitlements. or permissions. (Service Operation) Taking action to return an IT Service to the Users after Repair and Recovery from an Incident. This could be Response Time of a Transaction. Resources are considered to be Assets of an Organization. See Post Implementation Review. Response Time Responsiveness Restoration of Service Restore Retire Return on Investment (ROI) Return to Normal Review Rights Risk . and the Impact it would have if it occurred. In the simplest sense it is the net profit of an investment divided by the net worth of the assets invested. Process. Value on Investment. This is the primary Objective of Incident Management. granted to a User or Role. money or anything else that might help to deliver an IT Service. if an alternate data centre has been in use.

identifying Threats to those Assets. RCA typically concentrates on IT Infrastructure failures. Each level contains more specialist skills. The boundary. to perform its agreed Function when the Workload or Scope changes. (Service Operation) An Activity that identifies the Root Cause of an Incident or Problem. for example the Roles of Configuration Manager and Change Manager may be carried out by a single person. (Service Operation) The second level in a hierarchy of Support Groups involved in the resolution of Incidents and investigation of Problems. Most often used to refer to complex or phased Deployments or Deployments to multiple locations. the Scope of an ISO/IEC 20000 Certificate may include all IT Services delivered out of a named data centre. A means of delivering value to Customers by facilitating Outcomes Customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific Costs and Risks. (Service Operation) A computer that is connected to a network and provides software Functions that are used by other computers. and evaluating how Vulnerable each Asset is to those Threats. or extent. For example the Scope of Change Management may include all Live IT Services and related Configuration Items. One person or team may have multiple Roles. Contract etc. Process. to which a Process. Analyzing the value of Assets to the business. Synonym for Operational Costs The ability of an IT Service. This approach separates “what” is to be done from “how” it is to be done. See Service Failure Analysis. Configuration Item etc. (Service Transition) Synonym for Deployment. (Service Operation) The underlying or original cause of an Incident or Problem. or has more time or other Resources. assessing and controlling Risks. Risk Assessment can be quantitative (based on numerical data) or qualitative. Risk Management Role Rollout Root Cause Root Cause Analysis (RCA) Running Costs Scalability Scope Second-line Support Security Security Management Security Policy Separation of Concerns (SoC) Server Service . applies. A set of responsibilities. See Risk Assessment. Activities and authorities granted to a person or team.the study guIde 209 Risk Assessment The initial steps of Risk Management. A Role is defined in a Process. Procedure.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . The Process responsible for identifying. See Information Security Management Synonym for Information Security Management Synonym for Information Security Policy (Service Strategy) An approach to Designing a solution or IT Service that divides the problem into pieces that can be solved independently. Certification.

recorded. The Service Catalogue is the only part of the Service Portfolio published to Customers. and analyzed for use in the Capacity Plan. Synonym for IT Service Continuity Management. ordering and request Processes. See Acceptance. Service Design includes a number of Processes and Functions and is the title of one of the Core ITIL publications. (Service Transition) The Process responsible for both Configuration Management and Asset Management. The Resources used by each IT Service and the pattern of usage over time are collected. A Customer oriented Culture. Service Catalogue Service Continuity Management Service Contract Service Culture Service Design . contact points. See Design.the study guIde Service Acceptance Criteria (SAC) (Service Transition) A set of criteria used to ensure that an IT Service meets its functionality and Quality Requirements and that the IT Service Provider is ready to Operate the new IT Service when it has been Deployed. The term Service Contract is also used to mean any Agreement to deliver IT Services. See Business Capacity Management. Service Analytics Models the dependencies between Configuration Items. The major Objectives of a Service Culture are Customer satisfaction and helping the Customer to achieve their Business Objectives. Any Capability or Resource of a Service Provider.210 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . See Contract Portfolio. including those available for Deployment. Component Capacity Management. Service Analytics Service Asset Service Asset and Configuration Management (SACM) Service Capacity Management (SCM) (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) The Activity responsible for understanding the Performance and Capacity of IT Services. The Service Catalogue includes information about deliverables. (Service Strategy) A technique used in the Assessment of the Business Impact of Incidents. whether this is a legal Contract or an SLA. and the dependencies of IT Services on Configuration Items. (Service Strategy) A Contract to deliver one or more IT Services. prices. See Contract Portfolio. (Service Design) A database or structured Document with information about all Live IT Services. See Asset. and is used to support the sale and delivery of IT Services. (Service Design) A stage in the Lifecycle of an IT Service.

SLM is responsible for ensuring that all IT Service Management Processes. Service Knowledge (Service Transition) A set of tools and databases that are used to manage Management System knowledge and information. Service Level Agreement (SLA) Service Level Management (SLM) . For example. The SKMS includes the Configuration Management (SKMS) System. rather than an ongoing process of analysis. (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) An Agreement between an IT Service Provider and a Customer. (Service Design) An Activity that identifies underlying causes of one or more IT Service interruptions. or IT Service Retirement. (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) The Process responsible for negotiating Service Level Agreements. A single SLA may cover multiple IT Services or multiple Customers. A typical Service Desk manages Incidents and Service Requests.the study guIde 211 Service Design Package Service Desk (Service Design) Document(s) defining all aspects of an IT Service and its Requirements through each stage of its Lifecycle. SFA is a time constrained.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Service Failure Analysis (SFA) Service Hours Service Improvement (Continual Service Improvement) A formal Plan to implement improvements to a Plan (SIP) Process or IT Service. documents Service Level Targets. and Underpinning Contracts. See Root Cause Analysis. A Service Design Package is produced for each new IT Service. and ensuring that these are met. Service Hours should be defined in a Service Level Agreement. major Change. SLM monitors and reports on Service Levels. Operational Level Agreements. SFA identifies opportunities to improve the IT Service Provider’s Processes and tools. updates. and presents all information that an IT Service Provider needs to manage the full Lifecycle of IT Services. and also handles communication with the Users. and specifies the responsibilities of the IT Service Provider and the Customer. The term Service Level is sometimes used informally to mean Service Level Target. (Service Operation) The Single Point of Contact between the Service Provider and the Users. Service Level Measured and reported achievement against one or more Service Level Targets. The SLA describes the IT Service. and holds regular Customer reviews. as well as other tools and databases. The SKMS stores. project-like activity. “Monday-Friday 08:00 to 17:00 except public holidays”. are appropriate for the agreed Service Level Targets. (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) An agreed time period when a particular IT Service should be Available. See Operational Level Agreement. manages. and not just the IT Infrastructure.

and Systems necessary to manage the full Lifecycle of IT Services. The Service Pipeline provides a Business view of possible future IT Services and is part of the Service Portfolio which is not normally published to Customers. but are not yet available to Customers. SLRs are based on Business Objectives and are used to negotiate agreed Service Level Targets. and are needed to ensure that the IT Service design is Fit for Purpose. The Service Management Lifecycle approach considers the Strategy. Design. (Service Operation) A stage in the Lifecycle of an IT Service. See Line of Service.212 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . A Service Package includes a Service Level Package and one or more Core Services and Supporting Services. an Account Manager or a senior manager with responsibility for IT Services overall. Service Level Targets should be SMART. Processes. (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) A commitment that is documented in a Service Level Agreement. Service Operation Service Owner Service Package Service Pipeline . Service Level Requirement (SLR) Service Level Target Service Maintenance (Service Operation) The expected time that a Configuration Item will be Objective unavailable due to planned maintenance Activity. Most commonly used to refer to a Business Relationship Manager. a Process Manager. Service Operation includes a number of Processes and Functions and is the title of one of the Core ITIL publications. Operation and Continuous Improvement of IT Services. Service Manager A manager who is responsible for managing the end-to-end Lifecycle of one or more IT Services. Service Management Service Management is a set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services.the study guIde Service Level Package (SLP) (Service Strategy) A defined level of Utility and Warranty for a particular Service Package. (Continual Service Improvement) A Role which is accountable for the delivery of a specific IT Service. (Service Strategy) A detailed description of an IT Service that is available to be delivered to Customers. Service Level Targets are based on Service Level Requirements. (Service Strategy) A database or structured Document listing all IT Services that are under consideration or Development. The term Service Manager is also used to mean any manager within the IT Service Provider. (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) A Customer Requirement for an aspect of an IT Service. and are usually based on KPIs. Transition. See Operation. Service Management An approach to IT Service Management that emphasizes the importance of Lifecycle coordination and Control across the various Functions. Each SLP is designed to meet the needs of a particular Pattern of Business Activity.

Service Portfolio Management (SPM) Service Potential Service Provider Service Provider Interface (SPI) Service Provisioning Optimization (SPO) Service Reporting Service Request Service Sourcing . Analysis of Service Provider Interfaces helps to coordinate end-to-end management of IT Services. Service Sourcing includes: • Internal Sourcing - Internal or Shared Services using Type I or Type II Service Providers. content and frequency of reports with Customers. Contract Portfolio. The Service Portfolio is used to manage the entire Lifecycle of all Services. Service Portfolio Management considers Services in terms of the Business value that they provide. Service Sourcing also means the execution of this Strategy. Service Reporting should agree the format. Type II Service Provider. Service Provider is often used as an abbreviation for IT Service Provider. (Service Operation) A request from a User for information.the study guIde 213 Service Portfolio (Service Strategy) The complete set of Services that are managed by a Service Provider. Type III Service Provider. Consortium or Selective Outsourcing using Type III Service Providers. • Multivendor Sourcing - Prime. (Service Strategy) Analyzing the finances and constraints of an IT Service to decide if alternative approaches to Service delivery might reduce Costs or improve Quality. (Service Strategy) An interface between the IT Service Provider and a User. and Retired Services. • Traditional Sourcing - Full Service Outsourcing using a Type III Service Provider. and includes three Categories: Service Pipeline (proposed or in Development).ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . (Continual Service Improvement) The Process responsible for producing and delivering reports of achievement and trends against Service Levels. For example to reset a password. See Service Portfolio Management. or to provide standard IT Services for a new User. Service Requests are usually handled by a Service Desk. See Request Fulfilment. Customer. or for a Standard Change or for Access to an IT Service. See Type I Service Provider. and do not require an RFC to be submitted. or advice. (Service Strategy) The total possible value of the overall Capabilities and Resources of the IT Service Provider. (Service Strategy) The Strategy and approach for deciding whether to provide a Service internally or to Outsource it to an External Service Provider. Business Process. (Service Strategy) An Organization supplying Services to one or more Internal Customers or External Customers. Service Catalogue (Live or available for Deployment). (Service Strategy) The Process responsible for managing the Service Portfolio. or a Supplier.

a Single Point of Contact for an IT Service Provider is usually called a Service Desk. See Transition. (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) The ability of a Third Party Supplier to meet the terms of their Contract. (Service Transition) A stage in the Lifecycle of an IT Service. The Business value of an IT Service is created by the combination of Service Utility (what the Service does) and Service Warranty (how well it does it). Service Transition includes a number of Processes and Functions and is the title of one of the Core ITIL publications.214 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Service Valuation is used to help the Business and the IT Service Provider agree on the value of the IT Service. This may be a formal Agreement such as a Service Level Agreement or Contract.the study guIde Service Strategy Service Transition (Service Strategy) The title of one of the Core ITIL publications. Service Validation and Testing ensures that the IT Service matches its Design Specification and will meet the needs of the Business. (Service Strategy) Assurance that an IT Service will meet agreed Requirements. The Business value of an IT Service is created by the combination of Service Utility (what the Service does) and Service Warranty (how well it does it). or may be a marketing message or brand image. Maintainability or Availability for a Configuration Item. See Utility. (Service Transition) The Process responsible for Validation and Testing of a new or Changed IT Service. Service Utility Service Validation and Testing Service Valuation Service Warranty Serviceability Shift Simulation modeling (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) A technique that creates a detailed Model to predict the behavior of a Configuration Item or IT Service. (Service Strategy) The Functionality of an IT Service from the Customer’s perspective. See Warranty. Simulation Models can be very accurate but are expensive and time consuming to create. For example. . This Contract will include agreed levels of Reliability. Single Point of Contact (Service Operation) Providing a single consistent way to communicate with an Organization or Business Unit. A simulation model is sometimes called a Performance Benchmark. (Service Strategy) A measurement of the total Cost of delivering an IT Service. with artificial Workloads or Transactions. (Service Operation) A group or team of people who carry out a specific Role for a fixed period of time. For example there could be four shifts of IT Operations Control personnel to support an IT Service that is used 24 hours a day. A Simulation Model is often created by using the actual Configuration Items that are being modeled. Service Strategy establishes an overall Strategy for IT Services and for IT Service Management. and the total value to the Business of that IT Service. They are used in Capacity Management when accurate results are important.

or nearly missed during each of the previous 12 months. Resources. Stakeholders may be interested in the Activities. employees. Relevant and Timely. Project. A formal definition of Requirements. or Deliverables. A SLAM Chart is typically color coded to show whether each agreed Service Level Target has been met. The term Standard is also used to refer to a Code of Practice or Specification published by a Standards Organization such as ISO or BSI.the study guIde 215 Single Point of Failure (SPOF) (Service Design) Any Configuration Item that can cause an Incident when it fails. Also used as a synonym for Benchmark. RFCs are not required to implement a Standard Change. shareholders. Achievable. SLAM Chart SMART Snapshot Source Specification Stakeholder Standard Standard Change . A mandatory Requirement. See RACI. See Failure. IT Service etc. etc.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Examples include ISO/IEC 20000 (an international Standard). Partners. such as a Service Request. See Guideline. relatively common and follows a Procedure or Work Instruction. missed. as well as a Component of the IT Infrastructure. See Service Sourcing. For example password reset or provision of standard equipment to a new employee. (Service Transition) A pre-approved Change that is low Risk. and they are logged and tracked using a different mechanism. See Baseline. Stakeholders may include Customers. The Specification defines the Standard against which an Organization can be Audited. See Change Model. and may be internal or external. and for which a Countermeasure has not been implemented. (Service Transition) The current state of a Configuration as captured by a discovery tool. or a step in a Process or Activity. All people who have an interest in an Organization. targets. owners. (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) An acronym for helping to remember that targets in Service Level Agreements and Project Plans should be Specific. an internal security Standard for Unix configuration. A SPOF may be a person. or a government Standard for how financial Records should be maintained. Many public Standards consist of a Code of Practice and a Specification. A Specification may be used to define technical or Operational Requirements. (Continual Service Improvement) A Service Level Agreement Monitoring Chart is used to help monitor and report achievements against Service Level Targets. Measurable.

See Underpinning Contract. and should be part of the Service Knowledge Management System. and assists in communication with the Service Desk or other parts of the IT Service Provider. but are available to support IT Service Continuity Plans. See Value Network. or a new or changed IT Service.216 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . (Service Design) A database or structured Document used to manage Supplier Contracts throughout their Lifecycle. (Service Design) The Process responsible for ensuring that all Contracts with Suppliers support the needs of the Business. (Service Operation) A User who helps other Users. For example a Standby data centre may be maintained to support Hot Standby. (Service Strategy) (Service Design) A Third Party responsible for supplying goods or Services that are required to deliver IT services. and Outsourcing Organizations. Super Users typically provide support for minor Incidents and training. (Service Strategy) A Strategic Plan designed to achieve defined Objectives. Operational). (Service Strategy) The Activities in a Value Chain carried out by Suppliers. Strategic Activities include Objective setting and long term Planning to achieve the overall Vision. Strategy Super User Supplier Supplier and Contract Database (SCD) Supplier Management Supply Chain . Tactical. Problem etc. each adding value to the product or Service. It shows the current stage in the Lifecycle of the associated Configuration Item. (Service Design) Used to refer to Resources that are not required to deliver the Live IT Services. The name of a required field in many types of Record. The SCD contains key Attributes of all Contracts with Suppliers. network and telecom providers.the study guIde Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) Standby (Service Operation) Procedures used by IT Operations Management. (Service Transition) The Activity responsible for recording and reporting the Lifecycle of each Configuration Item. See Terms of Reference. and that all Suppliers meet their contractual commitments. Incident. A Supply Chain typically involves multiple Suppliers. Statement of requirements (SOR) Status Status Accounting Storage Management (Service Operation) The Process responsible for managing the storage and maintenance of data throughout its Lifecycle. Warm Standby or Cold Standby arrangements. Strategic (Service Strategy) The highest of three levels of Planning and delivery (Strategic. Supply Chain. (Service Design) A Document containing all Requirements for a product purchase. Examples of suppliers include commodity hardware and software vendors.

Opportunities and Threats.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Tactical Activities include the medium term Plans required to achieve specific Objectives. Weaknesses. EC3 etc. • A Database Management System or Operating System that includes many software modules that are designed to perform a set of related Functions. For example a Directory Service or a Backup Service. The term Tag is also used to refer to the Activity of assigning Tags to things. Tactical The middle of three levels of Planning and delivery (Strategic. Operational). software and Applications. (Service Design) (Service Operation) The times or hours when support is available to the Users. (Service Strategy) A short code used to identify a Category. Support Hours Supporting Service SWOT Analysis System System Management The part of IT Service Management that focuses on the management of IT Infrastructure rather than Process. • A management System. but the Support Hours may be 07:00 to 19:00. Problem investigation and Availability Management. Technical support staff meet to monitor the behavior and Performance of an IT Service and make recommendations for improvement. EC2. For example. Tactical. Processes and Procedures required. Typically this is the hours when the Service Desk is available. typically over a period of weeks to months. For example: • A computer System including hardware. See Technical Management. For example tags EC1. See Service Package. (Continual Service Improvement) A technique that reviews and analyses the internal strengths and weaknesses of an Organization and the external opportunities and threats which it faces SWOT stands for Strengths. Support Groups provide the Technical Support needed by all of the IT Service Management Processes.the study guIde 217 Support Group (Service Operation) A group of people with technical skills. Support Hours should be defined in a Service Level Agreement. and may be different from Service Hours. might be used to identify different Customer outcomes when analyzing and comparing Strategies. Service Hours may be 24 hours a day. For example a Quality Management System. (Continual Service Improvement) A technique used in Service Improvement. (Service Operation) The Function responsible for providing technical skills in support of IT Services and management of the IT Infrastructure. Tag Technical Management Technical Observation (TO) . (Service Strategy) A Service that enables or enhances a Core Service. Technical Management defines the Roles of Support Groups. A number of related things that work together to achieve an overall Objective. including multiple Processes that are planned and managed together. as well as the tools.

(Service Design) A measure of the number of Transactions. (Service Operation) The third level in a hierarchy of Support Groups involved in the resolution of Incidents and investigation of Problems. Deliverables. a hardware maintenance company. or other Operations. Terms of Reference (TOR) Test Test Environment Third Party Third-line Support Threat Threshold Throughput Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) . (Service Transition) An Activity that verifies that a Configuration Item. Processes etc. but is required to ensure successful delivery of that IT Service. or Business who is not part of the Service Level Agreement for an IT Service. Synonym for Technical Management. meets its Specification or agreed Requirements.218 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . For example “Priority1 Incident not solved within 4 hours”. or 200 disk I/Os per second. Scope. etc. not just the initial Cost or purchase price. See Total Cost of Utilization. The value of a Metric which should cause an Alert to be generated. TCO assesses the full Lifecycle Cost of owning a Configuration Item. Any potential cause of an Incident can be considered to be a Threat. or a facilities department. “more than 5 soft disk errors in an hour”. For example a fire is a Threat that could exploit the Vulnerability of flammable floor coverings. Resources and schedule for a Project or Activity. (Service Design) A Document specifying the Requirements. See Service Validation and Testing. Requirements for Third Parties are typically specified in Underpinning Contracts or Operational Level Agreements. A person.the study guIde Technical Service Technical Support Tension Metrics Synonym for Infrastructure Service. Anything that might exploit a Vulnerability. IT Service. (Service Strategy) A methodology used to help make investment decisions. or “more than 10 failed changes in a month”. in which improvements to one Metric have a negative effect on another. (Continual Service Improvement) A set of related Metrics. performed in a fixed time. IT Services. For example a software Supplier. (Service Transition) A controlled Environment used to Test Configuration Items. or management action to be taken. Each level contains more specialist skills. Acceptance. This term is commonly used in Information Security Management and IT Service Continuity Management. Builds. or has more time or other Resources. For example 5000 emails sent per hour. Process. but also applies to other areas such as Problem and Availability Management. Tension Metrics are designed to ensure that an appropriate balance is achieved. group.

Release and Deployment Management. (Service Transition) The Process responsible for Planning all Service Transition Processes and co-coordinating the resources that they require. A single Transaction may involve numerous additions. (Service Design) A Contract between an IT Service Provider and a Third Party. corresponding to a movement of an IT Service or other Configuration Item from one Lifecycle status to the next. It is also used as a management tool for identifying deficiencies in IT Service Management Processes. Transaction A discrete Function performed by an IT Service. (Service Transition) A change in state. These Service Transition Processes are Change Management. which also includes Performance Monitoring and implementation of the required Changes. There may be several Type I Service Providers within an Organization. and in Capacity Management as a Modeling tool to predict future behavior. Either all of these complete successfully or none of them is carried out. (Service Strategy) An Internal Service Provider that is embedded within a Business Unit. (Service Strategy) An Internal Service Provider that provides shared IT Services to more than one Business Unit.the study guIde 219 Total Cost of Utilization (TCU) (Service Strategy) A methodology used to help make investment and Service Sourcing decisions. The Third Party provides goods or Services that support delivery of an IT Service to a Customer. Transition Transition Planning and Support Trend Analysis Tuning Type I Service Provider Type II Service Provider Type III Service Provider Underpinning Contract (UC) . (Service Strategy) A Service Provider that provides IT Services to External Customers. Service Validation and Testing. and Knowledge Management. Evaluation. The Activity responsible for Planning Changes to make the most efficient use of Resources. TCU assesses the full Lifecycle Cost to the Customer of using an IT Service. (Continual Service Improvement) A methodology for managing continual Total Quality Management (TQM) Improvement by using a Quality Management System.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . deletions and modifications of data. The Underpinning Contract defines targets and responsibilities that are required to meet agreed Service Level Targets in an SLA. (Continual Service Improvement) Analysis of data to identify time related patterns. TQM establishes a Culture involving all people in the Organization in a Process of continual monitoring and improvement. Service Asset and Configuration Management. See Total Cost of Ownership. For example transferring money from one bank account to another. Tuning is part of Performance Management. Trend Analysis is used in Problem Management to identify common Failures or fragile Configuration Items.

See Cost Benefit Analysis. Acceptance. Validation ensures that Business Requirements are met even though these may have changed since the original Design. See Service Utility. Plan. goods or Services.220 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Value for Money is often based on a comparison with the Cost of alternatives. An informal measure of Cost Effectiveness. (Service Strategy) A sequence of Processes that creates a product or Service that is of value to a Customer. Users are distinct from Customers. Each User Profile includes one or more Patterns of Business Activity. Each step of the sequence builds on the previous steps and contributes to the overall product or Service. or of a single Transaction. For example a high Impact Incident may have low Urgency. and to Design Tests. See Value Network. (Service Design) A technique used to define required functionality and Objectives. Value is generated through exchange of knowledge. (Service Transition) An Activity that ensures a new or changed IT Service. (Service Strategy) Functionality offered by a Product or Service to meet a particular need. See Verification. if the Impact will not affect the Business until the end of the financial year. Process. information. See Change Case. For example the Cost of a single desktop PC. Problem or Change has a significant Impact on the Business. (Service Design) The ease with which an Application. or IT Service can be used.the study guIde Unit Cost (Service Strategy) The Cost to the IT Service Provider of providing a single Component of an IT Service. or other Deliverable meets the needs of the Business. Use Cases define realistic scenarios that describe interactions between Users and an IT Service or other System. Service Validation and Testing. as some Customers do not use the IT Service directly. Qualification. Impact and Urgency are used to assign Priority. (Service Strategy) A complex set of Relationships between two or more groups or organizations. See Value Chain. product. (Service Transition) (Service Design) A measure of how long it will be until an Incident. Partnership. Utility is often summarized as “what it does”. Usability Requirements are often included in a Statement of Requirements. Urgency Usability Use Case User User Profile (UP) Utility Validation Value Chain Value for Money Value Network . (Service Strategy) A pattern of User demand for IT Services. A person who uses the IT Service on a day-to-day basis.

or a flammable carpet. See Variable Cost Dynamics. Plan. A weakness that could be exploited by a Threat. (Service Strategy) A Cost that depends on how much the IT Service is used. For example. Commonly used in Financial Management. accurate.the study guIde 221 Value on Investment (VOI) Variable Cost (Continual Service Improvement) A measurement of the expected benefit of an investment. A missing Control is also considered to be a Vulnerability. Synonym for Intermediate Recovery. For example an open firewall port. Vital Business Functions are an important consideration of Business Continuity Management. A Vision is created by senior management and is used to help influence Culture and Strategic Planning. Audit is a periodic. Acceptance. The difference between a planned value and the actual measured value. Reliable and matches its Design Specification. formal check. See Return on Investment. or something else that cannot be fixed in advance. but could apply in any area where Plans are in place. how many products are produced. or other Deliverable is complete. Versions typically use a naming convention that enables the sequence or date of each Baseline to be identified. verifying the serial number of a desktop PC when a User logs an Incident. For example Payroll Application Version 3 contains updated functionality from Version 2. a password that is never changed. See Validation. Verification includes routine checks that are part of other Processes. Service Validation and Testing. (Service Transition) A Version is used to identify a specific Baseline of a Configuration Item. (Service Transition) An Activity that ensures a new or changed IT Service. (Service Design) A Function of a Business Process which is critical to the success of the Business. IT Service Continuity Management and Availability Management.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . VOI considers both financial and intangible benefits. Variable Cost Dynamics Variance Verification Verification and Audit Version Vision Vital Business Function (VBF) Vulnerability Warm Standby . Capacity Management and Service Level Management. the number and type of Users. Process. A description of what the Organization intends to become in the future. (Service Transition) The Activities responsible for ensuring that information in the CMDB is accurate and that all Configuration Items have been identified and recorded in the CMDB. (Service Strategy) A technique used to understand how overall Costs are impacted by the many complex variable elements that contribute to the provision of IT Services.

The Resources required to deliver an identifiable part of an IT Service.222 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . Workarounds for Incidents that do not have associated Problem Records are documented in the Incident Record. For example by restarting a failed Configuration Item. groups of Users. The term Workload is sometimes used as a synonym for Throughput. Workarounds for Problems are documented in Known Error Records. Performance and Utilization of Configuration Items and IT Services. Problems.the study guIde Warranty (Service Strategy) A promise or guarantee that a product or Service will meet its agreed Requirements. (Service Operation) Reducing or eliminating the Impact of an Incident or Problem for which a full Resolution is not yet available. This is used to assist in analyzing and managing the Capacity. Service Warranty. or Functions within the IT Service. Workloads may be Categorized by Users. A Work Instruction contains much more detail than a Procedure and is only created if very detailed instructions are needed. It is commonly used as a Status for Incidents. Changes etc. See Service Validation and Testing. Work in Progress (WIP) Work Instruction Workaround Workload . A Document containing detailed instructions that specify exactly what steps to follow to carry out an Activity. A Status that means Activities have started but are not yet complete.

Acronyms AMIS APMG BCM BCP BCS BIA BPO BU CAB CCM CFIA CI CMDB CMIS CMS CS CSF CSI CSP DIKW DML ECAB ELS FTA HR ISMS ITIL ITSCM itSMF KEDB KPI KPO LCS Availability Management Information System APM Group Business Continuity Management Business Continuity Plan British Computer Society Business Impact Analysis Business Process Outsourcing Business Unit Change Advisory Board Component Capacity Management Component Failure Impact Analysis Configuration Item Configuration Management Database Capacity Management Information System Configuration Management System Change Schedule Critical Success Factor Continual Service Improvement Core Service Package Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Definitive Media Library Emergency Change Advisory Board Early Life Support Fault Tree Analysis Human Resources Information Security Management System Information Technology Infrastructure Library IT Service Continuity Management IT Service Management Forum Known Error Database Key Performance Indicator Knowledge Process Outsourcing Loyalist Certification Services .

224 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .the study guIde LOS M_o_R MTBF MTBSI MTTR MTRS OGC OLA PBA PDCA PFS PIR PRINCE2 PSA PSO RAD RFC SAC SACM SCD SCM SDP SFA SIP SKMS SLA SLM SLP SLR SoC SPM SPOC SPOF TCU TSO UC VBF VCD Line of Service Management of Risk Mean Time Between Failures Mean Time Between Service Incidents Mean Time To Repair Mean Time to Restore Service Office of Government Commerce Operational Level Agreement Pattern of Business Activity Plan Do Check Act Prerequisites for Success Post-Implementation Review PRojects IN Controlled Environments Projected Service Availability Projected Service Outage Rapid Application Development Request for Change Service Acceptance Criteria Service Asset and Configuration Management Supplier and Contract Database Service Catalogue Management Service Design Package Service Failure Analysis Service Improvement Plan Service Knowledge Management System Service Level Agreement Service Level Management Service Level Package Service Level Requirement Separation of Concerns Service Portfolio Management Single Point of Contact Single Point of Failure Total Cost of Utilization The Stationary Office Underpinning Contract Vital Business Function Variable Cost Dynamics .

OGC. APM Group The Official ITIL Site. IT Service Management. Service Transition (2007). Service Operation (2007). Zaltbommel: Van Haren Publishing ITIL.) (2007).com The INTERIM ITIL Foundation Certificate in IT Service Management SYLLABUS. Bon. van.1. London: TSO. (Ed. OGC.itil-officialsite. ITIL. ITIL.References APM Group Website. http://www. ITIL Service Management Practices V3 Qualification Scheme (2007). London: TSO. J. OGC. London: TSO. van. http://www. Service Strategy (2007). ITIL. (Ed.A Pocket Guide. APM Group London ..) (2007). Continual Service Improvement (2007). Version 3. London: TSO. Foundations of IT Service Management.uk Bon. OGC. OGC. ITIL.apmgroup. Service Design (2007). J.co. Based on ITIL V3. Zaltbommel: Van Haren Publishing for itSMF. Based on ITIL V3. London: TSO.

226 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .the study guIde .

77 Change manager 71 Change Schedule (CS) 78 Charter 28 Chief sourcing officer 19 CMS management team 72 CMS manager 72 CMS/tools administrator 71 Communication responsibility 133 Communication structures 12 Component Capacity Management (CCM) 48 Configuration administrator/librarian 71 Configuration analyst 71 Configuration Item (CI) 80 . 137 Benchmark 133 Business capacity management 47 Business case 20. 115 Access management roles 100 Accredited Training Organizations (ATOs) 4 Achieving balance in Service Operation 96 Activity-based demand management 29 Actual performance 90 Analytical modeling 20 Analyze 27 APM Group (APMG) 4 Application management 37. 98 Application management roles 99 Approve 28 Architecture 34 Assessment 133 Attribute 80 Automation 8 Availability management 36. 39. 134 Business Continuity Management (BCM) 54 Business Continuity Plan (BCP) 54 Business Impact Analysis (BIA) 24. 50 Availability manager 38 B Backup and restore 120 Balanced Scorecard 133 Baseline 134. 55 Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) 35 Business relationship manager 19 Business representatives 19 Business service catalogue 43 Business value of a process 128 C Capabilities 16 Capacity management 36. 78 Change authority 72 Change management 69.Index A Access management 97. 47 Capacity Management Information System (CMIS) 47 Capacity manager 39 Centralization 18 Centralized service desk 122 Change 78 Change Advisory Board (CAB) 72.

228 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . 57 Function 11 G Gap analysis 133 Good practice 7 I Impact 108 Implementation review 133 Incident management 97. 22 Financial manager 19 Fitness for purpose 16 Fitness for use 16 Follow-the-sun 122 Foundation exam 143 Foundation exam format 143 Foundation exam preparation 143 Foundation Level 1 Four Ps 33. 107 Incident management roles 99 Incident manager 99 Incidents 108 Incremental approach 35 . 29 Deming 128 Deployment manager 72 Development approaches 35 Development of requirements 36 DF Certifiering AB (DFC) 4 Direct 128 Director of service management 19 E Early Life Support (ELS) 72 Effectiveness 127 Efficiency 127 Emergency CAB (ECAB) 78 Emergency change 78 Emergency release 75 Evaluation 69. 103 Event management roles 99 Examination Institute for Information Science in the Netherlands (EXIN) 5 Examination Institutes (EIs) 4 Extended incident lifecycle 50 External monitoring and control 117 F Facilities and data centre management 97 Financial management 17. 72 Configuration structure 81 Continual Service Improvement (CSI) 127 Contract manager 19 Core Service Package (CSP) 30 Core services 30 Co-sourcing 35 Critical Success Factors (CSFs) 129 CSI improvement process 136 CSI manager 132 CSI model 130 Customer-based SLAs 45 D DANSK IT 4 Data and information management 36 Data-information-knowledge-wisdom model (DIKW) 130 Decentralization 18 Define 27 Defining the market 17 Definitive Media Library (DML) 82 Definitive spares 82 Demand management 17. 89 Evaluation report 90 Event 103 Event management 97.the study guIde Configuration Management Database (CMDB) 81 Configuration manager 70.

120 IT operations management 98 IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) 36. 117 Multi-level SLAs 45 Multi-sourcing 35 N Normal change 78 O Office of Government Commerce (OGC) 1 Operational Level Agreement (OLA) 45 Operations bridge 120 Organizational change management 69 Outsourcing 18. 35 P Pattern 16 PDCA cycle 128 Performance 128 Permanent production roles 131 Perspective 16 Plan 16 .ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . 54 IT service continuity manager 38 IT service management 7 IT Service Management Forum (itSMF) 1 J Job scheduling 120 Justify 128 K Knowledge management 69.the study guIde 229 Information security management 36. 4 ITIL Qualification Scheme 1 IT Operation management roles 99 IT operations 97. 57 Information Security Management System (ISMS) 57 Information Systems Examination Board (ISEB) 5 Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) 1 Insourcing 35 Integrated set of service management technology 7 Intermediate Capability Stream 3 Intermediate level 1. 4 ITIL Foundation Certificate 2 ITIL Library 10 ITIL Master 1. 3 Intermediate Lifecycle Stream 3 Internal monitoring and control 117 Intervene 128 ITIL Expert 1. 91 Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO) 35 Knowledge spiral 137 Known error 112 Known Error Database (KEDB) 112 L Line of Service (LOS) 30 Local service desk 122 Logical model 80 Loyalist Certification Services (LCS) 5 M Maintainability 51 Major release 75 Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) 51 Mean Time Between Service Incidents (MTBSI) 51 Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) 51 Mean Time to Restore Service (MTRS) 50 Measuring 136 Metric 129 Minor release 75 Mintzberg’s four Ps 16 Monitoring and control 97.

122 Service desk analysts 98 Service desk manager 98 Service desk supervisor 98 . 19. 83 Release design 83 Release package 83 Release packaging and build manager 72 Release unit 83 Reliability 51 Reporting analyst 133 Request for Change (RFC) 77 Request fulfillment 97. 42 Service Catalogue Management (SCM) 36. 131. 83 Release and deployment management 69. 70. 133 Product manager 19 Program 12 Project 12 Provisioning value 22 Q Quality 128 R RACI model 37 Rapid Application Development (RAD) 35 Reactive activities 51 Reactive problem management 112 Redundancy 51 Relationship 80 Release 75. 42 Service catalogue manager 38 Service change 78 Service delivery model 35 Service Design 33 Service design manager 38 Service Design Package (SDP) 75. 112 Problem management roles 100 Problem manager 100 Procedure 11 Process 11. 110 Request fulfillment roles 100 Resources 16 Retired services 17. 22. 86 Service desk 97. 12 Process compliance 128 Process manager 11 Process metrics 129 Process operatives 11 Process owner 11. 27 Risk-evaluation manager 72 Root cause 112 Rummler-Brache swim-lane diagram 133 S Sample questions 144 Secure library 82 Secure store 82 Security manager 38 Service 7 Serviceability 51 Service Asset and Configuration Management (SACM) 69. 37. 80 Service asset manager 70 Service-based SLAs 45 Service capacity management 47 Service catalogue 17.the study guIde Portfolio 12 Position 16 Post-Implementation Review (PIR) 78 Post-Program ROI 20 Predicted performance 90 Preparation for execution 18 Pre-Program ROI 20 Prerequisites for Success (PFS) 40 Priority 108 Priority of the change 78 Proactive activities 52 Proactive problem management 112 Problem 112 Problem management 97.230 ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam .

86 Service value potential 22 Seven Rs of change management 78 Seven-step improvement process 136 Simulation 20 Single Point of Contact (SPOC) 97 Single Points of Failure (SPOFs) 51 Snapshot 82 SOC principle 18 Stakeholder analysis 69 Standard change 78 Super users 98 Supplier 60 Supplier and Contract Database (SCD) 60 Supplier management 36. 131. 26 Service reporting 131. 60 Supplier manager 39 SWOT-analysis 133 T Technical management 97 Technical service catalogue 43 Technology metrics 129 Test model 86 Test strategy 86 Test support 72 The CSI improvement process 131 The development of strategic assets 18 The development of the offer 18 Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) 33 Transition planning and support 69.the study guIde 231 Service Improvement Plan (SIP) 136 Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS) 91 Service knowledge manager 72. 139 Service request 110 Service solutions 34 Service Strategy 15 Service Transition 67 Service transition manager 70 Service validation and testing 69. 42 Service Portfolio Management (SPM) 17. 27 Service portfolio 17. 44 Service level manager 38 Service Level Package (SLP) 29 Service Lifecycle 8 Service management technology 7 Service manager 131 Service measurement 131 Service metrics 129 Service model 86 Service Operation 95 Service owner 70. 132 Service package 29 Service pipeline 17. 133 Service Level Agreement (SLA) 44 Service Level Management (SLM) 36. 27. 34.ItIl ® fOundatIOn exam . 75 Type I Internal service provider 17 Type II Shared Services Unit 17 Type III External service provider 17 U Underpinning Contract (UC) 45 Urgency 108 Utility 16 V Validate 128 Value 7 Value creation 16 Value networks 16 Variable Cost Dynamics (VCD) 23 Virtual service desk 122 V model 84 W Warranty 16 Workaround 112 Work instructions 12 .

the new V3 Foundations book looks at Best Practices. processes and functions for Service Strategy. and has sales and distribution agents . focusing on the Lifecycle approach. with 13 language options to give you the widest possible global perspective on this important subject. Service Operation. isbn: 978 908753057 0 (english edition) price €39.95 excl tax A concise summary for ITIL®V3. Van Haren Publishing (VHP) is a leading international publisher. Service Transition and Continual Service Improvement.95 excl tax IT Service Management Based on ITIL®V3: A Pocket Guide isbn: 978 908753102 7 (english edition) price €14. VHP publishes in 14 languages.The Official Books from itSMF ITIL Books Foundations of IT Service Management Based on ITIL®V3 Now updated to encompass all of the implications of the V3 refresh of ITIL. providing a quick and portable reference tool to this leading set of best practices for IT Service Management. Service Design.95 excl tax Foundations of IT Service Management Based on ITIL® The bestselling ITIL® V2 edition of this popular guide is available as usual. specializing in best practice titles for IT management and business management. and covering the ITIL Service Lifecycle. isbn: 978 907721258 5 (english edition) price €39.

ISO/IEC 20000 The Official Books from itSMF ISO/IEC 20000: An Introduction isbn: 978 908753081 5 (english edition) price €49. . ISBN: 978 908753082 2 Price €39.95 excl tax Promoting awareness of the certification for organizations within the IT Service Management environment. the scoping.95 excl tax ISO/IEC 20000: A Pocket Guide isbn: 978 907721279 0 (english edition) price €14. Implementing ISO/IEC 20000 Certification: The Roadmap Practical advice. the certification procedure and management of the certification. to assist readers through the requirements of the standard.95 excl tax A quick and accessible guide to the fundamental requirements for corporate certification. the project approach.

Other leading ITSM Books from itSMF Metrics for IT Service Management A general guide to the use of metrics as a mechanism to control and steer IT service organizations.95 excl tax Frameworks for IT Management An unparalleled guide to the myriad of IT management instruments currently available to IT and business managers.1: A Management Guide isbn: 978 90 8753116 4 (english edition) price €20. isbn: 978 907721290 5 (english edition) price €39. isbn: 978 907721230 1 (english edition) price €39.75 excl tax Detailed information on the overall process model as well as the theory behind it. whilst aiming to merge both Six Sigma and ITIL® into a single unified approach to continuous improvement. Six Sigma for IT Management: A Pocket Guide is also available.95 excl tax Six Sigma for IT Management The first book to provide a coherent view and guidance for using the Six Sigma approach successfully in IT Service Management. with consideration of the design and implementation of metrics in service organizations using industry standard frameworks. .95 excl tax IT Governance based on CobiT 4. isbn: 978 907721269 1 price €39. Frameworks for IT Management: A Pocket Guide is also available.

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