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VSMaRT - World Class, High Quality and Cost-Efficient Transport System

VSMaRT - World Class, High Quality and Cost-Efficient Transport System

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Published by: चन्द्र विकास on Sep 26, 2012
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05/13/2014

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Concept Paper to

The Chief Minister of Goa
for

(Variegated System of Mass Rapid Transit)

Boosts Tourism, Farming and Fishery Enhances Economic Productivity Improves Quality of Life Creates New Economic Opportunities Reduces Dependency on Environment-destructive Mining Goa becomes the world’s first region to adopt the state-of-art VSMaRT intelligent transport system

Economic Impact Summary

Payable to: Government of Goa On account of EVA generated by VSMaRT of: Rs. 53,290 crores per annum
(in words INR Fifty-three Thousand, Two Hundred and Ninety Crores only)

a. from Goa VSMaRT : EVA = Rs. 17,763 crores per annum b. from Goa as an ITS hub EVA = Rs. 35,527 crores per annum

For details, see Annexure: Economic Impact

INDEX
Highlights Economic Impact Summary Background Destruction of communities Traffic Jams, Pollution & Road Accidents Community utility vs. Individual locality The situation in Goa What is VSMaRT? Introduction Review of Alternative Approaches The Current Road to Nowhere The Case of London: Piecemeal Approaches Fail to Deliver Transport Demand Management Other roads - telecommute, teleport and the aerial route A Deeper Simplicity Co-creating a Personalized Travel Experience that People Care About
TRAVEL TIME ASSURANCE ON-ROAD SAFETY AND ROAD QUALITY SERVICE ASSURANCE CLEAN ENVIRONMENT ASSURANCE FAVORED CO-TRAVELER SERVICE PORTABILITY NATURAL IN-VEHICLE ENVIRONMENT HEALTHY AND WHOLESOME FLEXIBLE PAYMENT OPTIONS FREEDOM!

Proceedings of a VSMaRT Workshop in Ohio, United States from June 1619, 2009 Detailed Description – From the Patent filing of VSMaRT Invention VSMaRT: A Method and System of Intelligent Transportation Field of the Invention Background of the Invention Brief description of the Drawings Description of the Invention

Differentiating features VSMaRT – Key Benefits Overall Benefits Vehicle Travel Related Benefits Frequently Asked Questions Annexures: I. Role of Transportation in Tourism II. Economic Impact of VSMaRT About TEN Systems References Acknowledgement

Background
Owning a motor car is perceived as a matter of prestige and progress in the Indian society today. It is true that a car offers us so much comfort and convenience for travel. It protects us from extreme heat, cold and rainy weather by being covered from all sides and by air-conditioning. It provides us the convenience of door-to-door transportation. It also offers us privacy of closed space when we are with our family and friends. It provides us safety and security. It also gives us the convenience of carrying our private goods in the car for reuse at a later time. A private car gives us the flexibility to go anywhere anytime and cancel our trip midway. It is no wonder, therefore that the aspiration to own a car is widespread across sections of society. People are even spending a disproportionate amount of their income to be able to own a car. People are also working longer to be able to afford multiple cars for various members in a household. A social need to own a car and to be seen as busy driving around from one place to another is a big reason for widespread corruption for people who cannot afford it from legitimate means. Whether it is by legitimate or illegitimate means, owning a car is a symbol of achievement in the society today. Lots of people even believe that a dream society is one where everyone owns a private car. However, the reality is that with increasing traffic congestion, vehicular pollution, parking problems and with fast increasing price of petrol and diesel, owning a car is becoming a burden for many people. Instead of being a dream as some people believe, it has become a nightmare for all. This is taking grave proportions at a time when most households are unable to provide adequate food and nutrition. According to most recent reports more than 70% of mothers and children in India are mal-nutritioned in the country that ranks as amongst the worst in the world. Here is a list of some of the disadvantages and losses incurred due to the proliferation of private cars in the urban areas today: 1. Destruction of communities: There were many fewer cars in India till two decades back. The mushrooming of private cars has also coincided with rapid expansion of urban areas and along with it rampant and haphazard construction of houses, apartments and concretized roads and open spaces. Private cars allowed people to buy houses in far flung areas at a cheaper cost even as it increased their travel distance and time. As a result, people return late in the evenings after work and then need to escape to a far destination on the weekends on the same private car. With the new car-dependent lifestyle the household expenses increased considerably. This leaves them with very little time as well as savings for community development. Further, sociologists

observe that when people pass each other on cars, there is very little interaction in the neighborhood. As a result, many community issues such as lack of greenery, water and sewage problems, road side waste and dust collection etc. are left unattended for long times. With growing exposure to pollution and oily dust in urban areas made worse by movement of cars and other motor vehicles, people’s overall health is declining with increase in respiratory problems, loss of appetite among children, clothes become dirty much faster, lots of the oily dust settles on the floors and on leaves of trees affecting their growth and health as well. On-road parking of cars as well as concretized ramps from the road upto house gates and further inside for parking of cars destroys scarce green space for roadside green cover as well as for home gardens. If this space was available, people could also make composting pits near the houses where all the organic waste from the houses could be conveniently disposed lessening the burden on the municipal solid waste. Not mixing wet and organic waste would also make sorting of waste much easier. With more roadside space free of cars could create safe and favorable surroundings for people to walk, cycle and for children to play. More greenery in the neighborhood areas will also reduce urban heating and thus reduce the dependency on air-conditioners. This will induce people to venture outdoors more often and enhance community relationships. 2. Traffic Jams, Pollution & Road Accidents: Due to inadequate or poor roads: Many people wonder why the government does not make 6 lane and 8 lane roads everywhere. With criss-cross movements, they would also want more fly-overs, underpasses. On top of that they want that the entire road surface must be in top condition for driving all the time. The stark reality is that even after spending a disproportionate amount of our national income in the urban areas and lots of it on building roads, we have much less roads to accommodate present and future demand from high vehicle ownership and goods movement. Over the past decade the cost of building roads has nearly tripled. This means that not only do we have less money for new roads or to expand the existing corridors or to build fly-overs, underpasses etc., we also need to come to the reality that unless we build long lasting roads and

repair existing roads to make them long lasting, we shall continue to suffer even worse traffic jams than what we have today. Due to poor vehicle condition: Due to poor regulation, a number of vehicles are plying on the roads that are not road worthy. Many of these vehicles are old or overloaded and thus not able to keep pace with the overall traffic and thus lead to slowdown or jams. Many such old or poorly maintained vehicles tend to break down on the roads leading to an avalanche of traffic jam behind them. This gets much worse b’coz of the poor emergency response services to tow away the vehicles especially so in remote locations. Due to poor regulation of driving licenses: In the current scenario, even bad or incompetent drivers are issued licenses and unlike in other countries their licenses are not revoked even after repeat offences. As a result of such bad driving not only accidents are caused leading to traffic jams, but their inconsistent and reckless movement also affects the traffic flow. Many a times these drivers approach from the wrong side to make a short cut leading to a long trail of traffic jam.

3. Community utility vs. Individual locality
As a result of all these factors, in the current scenario, not only the marginal utility at the community level of every new car has become highly negative, even the marginal utility at the individual level has become negative as the Figure I below shows. As a corollary, for maximum overall utility, we need a vehicle fleet of about 1000 vehicles (with a demand-responsive mix of vehicles of different seating capacity) to service a neighborhood of 40 thousand people once the equilibrium is reached in 6-8 months.
Current Scenario  Perceived  Individual Utility Community Utility = Individual Utility  Proposed Scenario 

Average  Utility 

IndividualUtility  Community Utility 

Average  Utility 

Optimal Community Fleet Size  No. of vehicles/seats  No. of vehicles/seats 

No. of vehicles/seats 

Figure I: Utility Curve at Community and at Individual levels of  Number of Vehicles in an Urban Neighborhood 

The situation in Goa
1. In many ways, the situation is all the more acute in Goa. The per capita vehicle ownership in the state has gone up to an alarming 500 per 1000 people, destroying enormous value for the state. Urban centers are choked with cars, motor bikes and scooters, many of which are parked right on the roads, further clogging both vehicle traffic and pedestrians with little space of people to walk. 2. Elderly people are specially aggrieved at the lack of mobility choices. As some of them recounted their experiences that not only do they have to forcefully drive in the obnoxious traffic conditions, the husbands have to stay back in their cars while their wife quickly go around for shopping, as there is no parking place available. 3. This is badly affecting children’s health and welfare. They have little space for cycling and as playgrounds, with safe and pollution-free access. 4. Many residents rue the lack of public transport options as buses are not only slow and infrequent; the service stops at 8pm. The pollution levels in the urban centres are alarmingly high, and gets much worse in the peak tourist season from November to February. 5. Fruits, milk and vegetables are much costlier in Goa as in spite of highly favorable climatic conditions, there is very little local produce in the state. This is strange as Goa was called as goparashtra (nation of cowherds) in earlier periods, due to the bounty of cow pastures in the region which also sustained a healthy and nutritious food eco-system. Due to these the larger Konkan region including Goa and northern areas was called as Kalyan (as it was blessed with bounties of nature). From Kalyan Gudi, the name Calangute is derived which is a popular beach and tourist attraction.

6. Besides, as tourism is a mainstay of the Goa economy, mobility and access is a key issue that needs to be urgently addressed. In the present context, there is a powerful public opinion to curb illegal mining as well as to curtail mining altogether due to its environment impact, which can also be an impediment for the sustenance and growth of the tourism sector. (Refer Annexure I) 7. There is also significantly high fuel wastage and inefficiency in the state which may have debilitating impact on Goa economy, in scenario of rising oil prices and impending scarcity. 8. Goa also has an unprecedented opportunity to become a regional and global hub for a new economic eco-system around the VSMaRT system. This includes opportunities such as: c. Light Vehicle manufacturing – 12-seater Neighborhood Electric Vehicle, Electric Rickshaw (Pedelec/Velocabs), Bicycles; Large Scale Vehicle Upgrading, Repair, Reconditioning and Recycling Center; In-vehicle Electronics, Road & Allied Infrastructure using recycled materials d. IT & IT-enabled Services – GIS, Transport System Management Software Development; Transportation-Economic Data Analytics; Traveler Information & Reservation Call Center. e. Renewable Energy - Solar & Wind Energy; Batteries, Fuel Cells

Current urban design spreads car dependency. One, there is no reliable public transport. Two, the urban areas as hostile to walking and cycling. Car ownership enjoys a variety of “hidden” subsidies. Not charging the “full cost” of private vehicle usage is a “blatantly regressive form of subsidy” in a country with over 70% mal-nutrition. Tax exemptions, cheap loans and unchecked evasion oil unnecessary purchase and use of private vehicles It is stoked by incessant and occasionally misleading advertisements – status symbol, autophilic behavior etc.

What is VSMaRT?

 VSMaRT

VSMaRT is a state-of-art intelligent transport system that goes beyond the old and practically meaningless categories of private transport or public transport to offer a personalized and ondemand transport service that people really care for. A simple way to explain VSMaRT is as an Internet for movement of people and goods. Personal Computer (Stand Alone) data – text, images, audio and video Automobile (Stand Alone) people and goods) Internet of movement of

VSMaRT (Internet for movement of

The following diagram illustrates some of the key aspects of why we need to evolve from stand alone categories of private automobiles and “public transport” modes to a new era of

personalized mobility services for movement of people that includes people-focused customized movement of goods.

ICT
Waste, Inefficiency, Misallocation

Locatio

Vehicl

Fuel
Personalised Mobility Services Consumer A

Innovative Applications

Public Roads Automobile

Public Transport

Consumer B Consumer C

VSMaRT
GAP Intelligent

Consumer D Consumer E

Energy Transportatio Private Transport
TEN Current and Proactive Regulation Climate Protection

Consumer F Consumer X

Customised Freight Services Energy Security Trade & Tariff Economic Stimulus for Recovery & Renewal

Introduction
Transportation systems worldwide are at crossroads. Users do not get the level and quality of service that they pay for by direct or indirect means in a fair and equitable way. One road leads to VSMaRT. This is based on a path breaking review of our usage and attitude, environmental constraints and a comprehensive study of enabling technologies. It metamorphoses the public-private transport categories. In turn, users have a wider choice of the travel experience that they co-create and customize to personal preferences. They avail of vastly superior travel experience at a given price point in this model than at present. In a wholesome approach to our needs of a livable society, users can choose to walk or cycle comfortable distances in a friendly environment that is sequestrated of motorized traffic. Fast moving motor vehicles run uninterrupted of slow moving traffic and

move much faster than at present with a combination of innovative traffic control measures and in-vehicle navigation sensors in the new system. Problems such as traffic congestion, vehicular pollution, road accidents, market distortions in road usage, parking, auto insurance and in vehicle fuel have reached alarming proportions in many to most urban areas across the world. They affect our lives in direct as well as indirect ways. It is evident that our current approaches to solve these problems have not worked. Interestingly, the approach to solving problems is itself, unwieldy. We need to distinguish “problem solving” from “creating” in a meaningful way. “Problem solving seeks to make things we don’t like go away…Creating seeks to make things we care about come into being. This is a vital distinction for innovation. When problem solving dominates an organizational culture, life is about survival rather than about bringing things into reality that people care about. Recent research on leadership among entrepreneurs and scientists reveals a particular creative capacity – sensing and actualizing emerging futures. Successful leaders see the world as “open, dynamic, interconnected and full of possibilities.” They are both committed and “in a state of surrender,” as cognitive scientist Francisco Varela expresses it.”(1) How do organizations in a variety of industry achieve this seemingly unbusinesslike result when in general, they are steeped in a “quick fix” culture? “For Interface, it means shifting from selling carpets to providing floorcovering services, automatically taking back worn carpet tiles or replacing entire sections if a customer wants a different color. For Dow Chemical, it means leasing “dissolving services,” then reusing the solvents. For Carrier, the world’s leading manufacturer of air-conditioning equipment, it means renting cooling services rather than selling air conditioners. For IKEA, according to its published mission statement, it means providing services to help people “make a house or apartment into a home” rather than selling furniture. All these firms believe that “higher profits will come from providing better solutions rather than selling more equipment,” in the words of

“Natural Capitalism” authors Amory and Hunter Lovins and Paul Hawken.”(1) Consumers have a relatively wide choice of a variety of goods - food, clothes, housing etc. that follow an efficient market mechanism. However, a good choice does not exist for transportation services, due to severe distortions in the transportation market worldwide. For instance, even the company that sells the highest premium segment car does not provide a high quality travel experience that extends beyond the vehicle. Telematics equipped vehicles such as GM’s OnStar etc. provide limited extensions such as phone, emergency response etc. The complete travel experience for a customer includes many other services. This also requires a different approach necessary to deliver these services. Public Transport services such as high capacity buses or trains, on the other hand, do not provide door-to- door mobility, take longer time, are not always comfortable to ride and are not efficient and environment friendly as it is generally believed. Most of the companies in this space try to sell equipments or services that they can do away with - solving problems temporarily or locally – such as selling stock quotes and email services to “captive” consumers trapped in longer traffic jams or broadcasting traffic reports without guiding them on the appropriate route at that time for their journey, or electronic signboards without catering to their need to access the bus stops, which may be far or to provide vehicles with optimal seating capacity that fill up faster, have fewer stoppages and have overall lower travel time. There is little attention to what people really care about – time, safety, health, nature, social needs - and equally low regard to carefully listen to what they would be willing to give up in return – empty seats, unused car space, pollution, physical inactivity, road rage etc.. “Constraint and creativity are always connected. No artist paints on an infinite canvas. The artist understands that rather than just being limits, constraints can be freeing, especially when those constraints that have genuine meaning are recognized.” (1)

A better and finer understanding of constraints such as those imposed by the nature has led to startling results in other industries. “Growing transparency already has led to the inclusion of voices traditionally outside the inner circle. Several years ago, Greenpeace objected to the chlorides IKEA used in the printing of catalogs. Few in the industry thought there was any cost-effective alternative. But working together, Greenpeace and IKEA found a Finnish printing company that could produce catalogs without chlorides. IKEA presented its chloride-free catalog at an environmental conference in Washington and set a new industry standard. This experience showed that Greenpeace and IKEA could work together productively by focusing on tangible problems and by believing that breakthroughs were possible. Such trust can only be built over time.”(1) The lessons for the urban transport eco-system are important particularly as the constraint of nature applies in a large variety of ways – limited landspace to expand roads, landfill for automobile and electronic scraps, air quality, public health, maintain proportion of green space, etc. Sensing and actualizing the emerging future of urban transport and to innovate a system that creates travel experiences – fast, clean, safe, healthy, useful, economical etc. - that we care about come into being is the keynote of this paper. We have devised a new name for it – VSMaRT. It stands for a Variegated System of Mass Rapid Transit that offers a variegated range of choices according to the needs and aspirations of the people as well as flexibility and modularity in its design.

REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES
THE CURRENT ROAD TO NOWHERE

There is a widespread consensus that we are moving towards a blind alley. Apart from deepening social, cultural, health, psycho-spiritual and economic concerns, there are physical and behavioral limits to travel in the same direction as the road taken so far – to build more and bigger cars and buses, build more roads and fly-overs, build more mass rapid transit capacity, extend urban boundaries, build more parking space, enhance vehicle fuel efficiency or increase fuel subsidy etc. Typically the approach is to find a solution away from the problem, as cited earlier.

In various studies (2), such an approach is shown to cause a “Rebound Effect” (also called a Takeback Effect or Offsetting Behavior), which poses the behavioral limit. This refers to increased consumption that result from actions that build more capacity, increase efficiency and reduce consumer costs. With greater fuel efficiency, people tend to drive more. With more roads and parking space, more people will buy cars and existing car owners will make more trips. With extended urban boundaries, more people will buy bigger homes in suburban areas where more land is available at lower cost, is likely to have more parking space. They will buy more and bigger cars in the family and take more journeys on more roads. They will need more fuel to run these cars and in turn will need to import more fuel. To meet the spiraling demand, there will be more dependence on oil producing regions till all oil reserves are exhausted. They will begin to drain economies and stifle economic growth much sooner than we may be prepared to believe. "Oil prices are likely to rise to triple-digit territory — $100 a barrel at a minimum, and probably higher — by the end of the decade and possibly sooner."(3) “The situation is especially critical in the US. With barely 4% of the world’s population, the US consumes 26% of the world’s energy. But the US produced only 9 MBD in 2000 while consuming 19 MBD. It made up the difference by importing 10 MBD, or 53% of its needs. By 2020, the US Department of Energy forecasts domestic demand will grow to 25 MBD but production will be down to 7 MBD. The daily shortfall of 18 MBD or 72% of needs, will all need to be imported.” (4)
THE CASE OF LONDON: PIECEMEAL APPROACHES FAIL TO DELIVER

That is where this road takes us in a broader way. Efforts to solve problems are mostly reactive and piecemeal, such as the much publicized attempts in London to charge a flat day – charge for unlimited entries into a central area that rides on deep discounts of 90% to residents of this area to make it “socially acceptable“. The scheme has been described as a “blunt instrument” (5) in the way it cuts traffic congestion. In sum, even as it cuts congestion, one, it is unfair and inequitable in the way it charges. Two, it has failed on its objective to raise funds for public transport as targeted.

In the absence of a comprehensive approach to create a new system, lots of heat and controversy is generated by inflammatory and irresponsible comments such as follows that points fingers at owners of large private vehicles called SUVs: “The Government's most senior adviser on transport hit out at the owners of urban four-wheel-drive vehicles yesterday, branding them irresponsible and dangerous. Professor David Begg suggested that their drivers should pay higher car tax and congestion charges. "If people want to cause damage to the environment, create congestion and continue to threaten the safety of other road users by driving these vehicles around then they should be made to pay for it," the chairman of the Commission for Integrated Transport said. Falling prices and cheap finance deals have led to a record number of 4x4s being sold in Britain, with more than 77,000 bought in the first five months of this year, compared with 67,000 in the same period in 2003. Opposition to the bulky vehicles, which can weigh up to two tonnes, has grown in tandem with the boom, as environmentalists and road safety campaigners voice their opposition. Only last month the Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, branded parents using these "status symbols" for school trips as complete idiots.”(6) It is unwarranted on part of the “most senior adviser” to pass the buck of the government or the road service provider’s discretion to charge every car for its full cost of consumption of scarce road space and other incidental costs for air quality, road safety etc. to the user who may have just exercised his choice to buy a bigger car to feel more secure and protected for themselves and their children in the event of an uneven collision or for some other off-road use of the car that they may have envisaged in future.(7) What is achieved by threatening the user to charge more than to actually quote the right price for their usage? In effect, such patronizing behavior creates a negative spillover and backlash to meaningful and responsible measures.
TRANSPORT DEMAND MANAGEMENT

Approaches based on transportation demand management (TDM) go a long way in suggesting a better approach to solve transportation problems. Cited as the “Next Big Thing in Transportation” (8), TDM shows us the way

but does not take us there. One, it has not moved towards an approach to “create” and is as yet stuck with “problem solving”. Two, it does not comprehend all the enabling technologies which create altogether newer possibilities at once, than have been so far been incrementally imagined. “Perhaps the NEXT BIG THING in transportation is not a new mode or service, perhaps it is a new paradigm, that is, a new way of thinking about transportation problems and solutions. Perhaps it is an incremental approach that consists of management innovations that result in more efficient use of existing transportation systems. …This means that the best solutions to transport problems may consist of management innovations that encourage efficiency and improve basic mobility services (walking and cycling conditions, road system management, public transit services, delivery services, etc.), rather than a new mode or breakthrough technology. Transportation Demand Management is the general term for strategies that achieve this. In other words, TDM can be the NEXT BIG THING in transportation.”
OTHER ROADS - TELECOMMUTE, TELEPORT AND THE AERIAL ROUTE

Telecommuting seemed a likely road. It has already made a significant difference to the overall travel pattern. Yet, evidence and experts suggest that this does not take us far. It has behavioral constraints and other broader concerns including the “rebound effect”. Its net effect on managing or reducing urban transport problems is doubtful. “Today, world citizens move 23 billion km in total; by 2050 that figure grows to 105 billion.”(9) More importantly, experts argue that face-to-face interaction that requires physical travel is at the heart of the urbanization process (10), its “buzz”. Face-to-face interaction is an especially rich and efficient technology of communication in many areas of today's economy and society. Moreover, it is a form of relation, which overcomes certain key moral hazard and confidence problems at the heart of the contemporary economic and social process, and under in certain circumstances, it raises effort levels above what they would otherwise be. It allows efficient selection and matching processes to occur, so that effective partnerships can be formed.

A third road of “teleporting” and the fourth road “taking the aerial route or very high speed surface transport” (e.g., TurboHawk flying cars at www.turbohawk.com , and the High Speed Ground Transportation Association at www.hsgt.org ) are far too remote on this day and beyond the scope of this paper.
A DEEPER SIMPLICITY

What do you think leads to the flagrant incongruence of the simultaneous occurrence of traffic congestion and empty seats on vehicles in the same traffic? Could these people have a choice to travel in fewer vehicles with seats occupied to capacity, if they are on identical routes, with easily accessible start and end points of journey? In general, at different times, you may believe that the deeper cause for the urban chaos at the surface is the wide disparity in private and public transport facilities. “How to move people out of their car and make them take the public transport?” This is often a refrain at a number of transportation conferences and in the media. The deeper cause, in a systemic view, is that the classification of private transport and public transport are illusory, mere figments of our imagination. When we wake up, we will realize that what urban transport users really want is personalized access to high quality and cost effective travel experience. Once the option is made available to them, a vast majority will not care whether it is private transport or public transport. Understanding this deeper simplicity enables us to bring to reality new travel experiences that mimic what people care about. This road takes us to VSMaRT.

Co-creating a personalized travel experience that people care about
VSMaRT is based on a fresh and objective look into our usage and attitude, environmental constraints and a comprehensive study of supporting technologies. In this scenario a Mobility Service Provider offers a range of travel experiences at multiple market driven price points.

A key element of VSMaRT is the sequestration of slow moving and fast moving traffic in a new urban design that matches slow moving traffic to shorter trips and fast moving traffic to longer trips. Slow moving vehicles – walking, cycling, and solar-electric powered vehicles, etc. – which are nonpolluting is used for short trips on Streets within an assigned zone or to adjacent zones. For longer trips, the slow moving vehicles feed to a hub, where faster moving vehicles are stationed. Faster moving vehicles run on Motor Roads, uninterrupted of pedestrian crossovers with grade separation and run on motorways that are sequestrated of slow moving traffic. They are further aided by a combination of innovative traffic control measures to achieve significantly higher levels of speed, fuel efficiency as well as speed than at present. (See Figure 1). In heavy rains or inclement weather conditions, exception is made in which motor vehicles are allowed to drop people up to their residence. The key proposition of VSMaRT is that it offers “variegated” value plans of price-level of service packages – Platinum, Gold, Silver, Express etc. - that are designed to closely match the demand for such services. They mimic a market mechanism for a comprehensive travel experience as described above much closer than at present.
TRAVEL TIME ASSURANCE

A wider repertoire of services includes travel time assurance services in which customer can choose their travel time. With fewer vehicles and an optimal mix of vehicles of different sizes, the traffic flow will be lot smoother. In a new scenario, individual vehicle speeds can be set to user preferences and needs using a combination of traffic control measures, invehicle navigation assistance and an innovative management approach to vehicle driving.
ON-ROAD SAFETY AND ROAD QUALITY SERVICE ASSURANCE

This will enhance passenger safety even as it intelligently responds to users’ varied demand for travel speed. With fewer vehicles, fewer drivers will be needed. In-vehicle sensor technology can measure driving proficiency and send the records to a computer center over the communication network. Accordingly, the system can identify better drivers

and offer them the choice and incentives to drive from amongst those who travel on the same route? The system allows only safer vehicles to ply on the roads. Together, this creates a safer passenger environment on roads. Users pay for using the road for the number of miles that you ride at a rate that closely reflects your consumption of the road infrastructure and allied services. In this way, you can look forward to good roads built and maintained with this money and high availability of road space just where you need them.
CLEAN ENVIRONMENT ASSURANCE

With fewer vehicles, pollution will be lower. As every vehicle carries more people than earlier, more money will be available for vehicle upkeep and upgrade to cleaner fuels and/or vehicle technologies. This clears the path for faster absorption and hence commercialization of alternate fuel technologies and vehicles such as hybrids, fuel cells, solar-electric, biofuels etc. Users are assured clean air services for stretches where customers may choose to walk (for health reasons) or need to walk in areas where there is no motor vehicle access.
FAVORED CO-TRAVELER SERVICE

Users can also choose whether they want to travel alone or select their favored co-traveler. For this service they create a list of people. Or users can enter profiles of people; they would like to travel with. The favored copassenger list is prepared with mutual consent. The list can be edited, updated by the users.
PORTABILITY

Users may not find it feasible carry their private car to distant cities or overseas. However, with the VSMaRT service, the user can avail of personalized services in other cities as well, as it is planned to be interoperable as a worldwide grid of mobility systems.
NATURAL IN-VEHICLE ENVIRONMENT

Air-conditioning in vehicles becomes redundant except in extremely hot or cold conditions and for vulnerable users. One, the pollution –emission and dust levels are significantly lower. With windows rolled down, the draft of air in a moving vehicle creates a naturally pleasant ambience. The vehicle body materials and the in-vehicle air circulation system create a natural and pleasant travel environment.

HEALTHY AND WHOLESOME

In a wholesome approach to the user’s overall needs, they can also choose to walk comfortable distances in a pedestrian-friendly environment that is included in the overall travel experience. Amongst the physical activities that are most health promoting are walking and cycling. By characteristic, they are moderate, habitual and not seasonal. (11)
FLEXIBLE PAYMENT OPTIONS

Users have a range of payment choices including periodic post-use payment. The travel experience at a given price point in this scenario is vastly superior to what is available today at a corresponding point. This includes an option to own or rent the vehicle for exclusive personal use at a higher price point that reflects its actual cost to the system.
FREEDOM!

You get the freedom to choose when to drive and when to travel as a passenger. With this freedom, if you like driving and you qualify as a good driver, you could be paid for your service to your fellow passengers and to yourself. Sometimes, you may be tired or for any other reason may not like to drive. You can just take a ride, with the comfort that the driver has been selected by the system to provide you a safe ride. While riding, you can also choose from a host of telematics services – listen to music with your headphones, watch a video on demand, talk to a friend on phone or with your co-passenger, who you have selected as your favored one and do more with your hands free. With this freedom to choose, if you do not like driving or don’t make to the selection, you can always take the ride with all the comfort and benefits as mentioned above. If you also choose to carry more people than you alone, you earn in proportion to the higher value of your driving service. The better you drive, the higher you get paid and the better your chances to be assigned a driving service on your choice. In addition, customers do not have to take their vehicles for refueling. The service provider constantly monitors vehicle performance than it can be done in private ownership. This minimizes the chances of a vehicle break down. In case, it happens or in case of an accident, the service provider promptly arranges for an alternate vehicle to reach the point of incidence,

which minimizes the inconvenience for the user. The service provider handles the insurance work.
COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF MOBILITY OPTIONS

In a conventional comparison, VSMaRT is a variegated system of Mass Rapid Transit. The key proposition of VSMaRT is that it provides the comfort and convenience that closely matches (and even betters on certain counts) that of private vehicles and at the same time matches the economy and efficiency of conventional mass rapid transit systems. It offers “variegated” value plans of price - level of service packages that are designed to closely match real user needs and expectations. For instance, door-to door travel time with the VSMaRT service is significantly lower than what exists today. This is achieved by a combination of measures based on a keen understanding of user needs.
TRANSPORTATION SURVEY FINDINGS

A survey was conducted on a random sample of 20 respondents to analyse how they perceived their travel experience in the VSMaRT system vis-à-vis their current experience. The key findings are as follows: __There is a high level of dissatisfaction with current travel experiences visà-vis an envisaged travel experience in the VSMaRT system. On a scale of 1 to 5 ( 1 being high satisfaction and 5 being very low satisafaction, the average response was 3.7. __The average reduction in travel time perceived by respondents in the VSMaRT system over the existing system is 46%. __Self-driven private vehicles was the modal choice for 50% of respondents. The average occupancy is 1.5. __A large majority of respondents would like to take a walk often or very often in the VSMaRT scenario.

__The average rating of various attributes of travel experience in the VSMaRT System is as shown in Table 3. (The rating is on a scale of 1 to 5. 1 is Very Important. 5 is Least Important.) ATTRIBUTES RATING Faster Travel – Better traffic flow – optimal traffic volume, good roads, better drivers, separation of motorised and non-motorised vehicles, very few stoppages, better incident management 1.5 Safer – better traffic flow, proficient drivers, road worthy vehicles, separation of motorized and non-motorised traffic - no pedestrian crossovers etc. 1.6 Freedom of Access – no more traffic jams 1.6 Prioritised Faster Travel for all subscription levels in case of Emergency 1.6 No unsafe/unhealthy walking or cycling amidst large motorized high speed/polluting vehicles. 1.6 Freedom of Access - for the physically disabled who cannot walk or climb stairs 1.7 Freedom of Access - for children and for elderly who cannot drive - 1.7 No long or uncertain waiting at bus/transit stops - 1.8 No waiting for taxis, no overcharges or difficulties with payment - 1.8 Healthier – Allows you to walk or cycle – comfortable and safe, zero pollution in streets and very low pollution on roads with better absorption of low polluting alternative fuel technologies by the VSMaRT system 1.8 No repair & maintenance 1.9 No exorbitant charges for taxis at night - 1.9

Freedom of Access – Road Safety - no more bad drivers, no driver distraction 1.9 Personalized services in whichever city that you go (Even where your private car cannot go with you) 1.9 Walk or Cycle short, comfortable distances in a safe and clean environment - 1.9 Cheaper – better value for your money as waste such as fuel lost in idling in traffic jams or junctions, empty seats, pollution and auto-dependency impacts on health etc. are eliminated and new services are introduced; some of which turn “bugs” into features 2.1 No parking 2.1 Freedom of Access – different vehicles for purpose and time (better and more than what you can own) 2.1 No auto-insurance 2.4 Navigation assistance for the best route at your time of travel 2.4 No refueling visits to the gas station 2.4 No waiting to pay for road tolls 2.6 No more hiring chauffers and pay them for waiting 2.6 Driving by Choice and Proficiency 2.6 Favored Co-passenger – Make your list based on mutual consent 2.8 Rear seat telematics – phone calls, play music, multi-player games, internet, video etc. 2.8
CONCLUSION

The above survey clearly indicates a strong preference of travel experience brought to reality in the VSMaRT system over current experiences. A

universal appeal for VSMaRT in my broader observation and dialogue, revolves around a wide and growing acceptance that the future lies with a seamless integration of the transportation system with communication devices and networks. This will facilitate the development of a fast and efficient feedback mechanism between demand and supply by carrying information about position, time, preference, price and payment for people, goods and vehicles. The {SCARCE} road space wasted to carry [EMPTY] seats on running vehicles - and as corollaries, the foregone opportunity to carry three more people in a 4-seater vehicle and to select a driver from amongst the passengers based on their choice and proficiency, to improve road safety and/or in turn, to improve traffic flow is the most significant wastage in urban transport. Vehicle ownership for masses is an idea that this planet is not equipped with, in the way that we define good life. Down the road on auto history, it was an unfortunate "tweak" that has carried too far, in spite of very early warnings portending its "Frankenstein" proportions, if we did not check this trend. The very limited private ownership of aircraft or of island resorts are just a few cases in example, where we did not make this mistake. In near future, following are the key drivers for a similar approach to city transport: 1. Rising cost of ownership and single/low occupancy usage - telematics add on, rising oil prices, high ownership cost of alternative fuel vehicles, emission taxes etc. 2. Technology that enables variabilisation of all costs of vehicle ownership and usage 3. Changing preferences - once the options of a branded class-seat-trip car usage experience are available, people would feel the same about "sharing" a car as they do about "sharing" a restaurant, theatre or an aircraft today - from ownership to access.

4. Growing awareness towards the environmental conservation now and for our children The accepted thresholds of traffic congestion and perceptions about its severity vary widely from region to region and in developed and developing countries. Similarly, perception varies about acceptable limits of pollution, safety and affordability. At the surface in different areas, these problems have been overwhelmingly complex to be managed and solved locally. I argue that in spite of seemingly wide differences, it is important to channelise global efforts to address the deeper causes, which are strikingly universal and simple. One, an understanding of the deeper causes creates the large-scale strategic conversations and is the key to establish global standards and practices to create a new system – that delivers better, cheaper and faster travel experience. The basic solution can further be nuanced to local preferences. Two, technology and Infrastructure needed to deploy the solution are largely available today and further development rests on economic incentives and political consultation (such as the synergistic interoperability of US and European GPS/GNSS, a final agreement on which has just been concluded on 26th June,’04). (12) It is not bounded by any scientific or technological constraint, only by our imagination and willingness.

Proceedings of a VSMaRT Workshop in Ohio, United States from June 16-19, 2009:

Rationale • The current model of creating this division between public and private transport is false and leading to waste, inefficiency and misallocation. This is also leading to the fact that our current systems are bursting at the seams. Public roads are bursting. To maintain such a huge network of public roads is going to cost much more money than we’ve allocated. Bitumen costs are increasing. We need a chart on the skyrocketing lifecycle costs of roads. Auto industry is collapsing under its own weight (forced obsolescence and early models not working).

• Affordability of cars is degraded. Costs are not coming down to meet the household allocations. Also death and injury rates are increasing. There is customer/user dissatisfaction with the kind of offerings. They are getting boxes rather than mobility services. There are the societal costs of noises, destruction of community due to increased spaces between houses/roads, etc. • Last mile problem of mass transit – getting from the last stop to your home. People don’t walk more than 0.75 miles. Last hour problem of ridesharing – sometimes people get in early, stay late and you can be flexible. Then there is the errand problem. You can do diversions on your way home from or to work to go shopping, etc. Associated with this problem is the space for buying and lugging large amounts of products. Description • Create a metro rail system using roads. You create a seamless network of arterial roads. There are pockets called home zones, which could be residential, commercial, mixed. For any heavy motor vehicle to enter there would be access control. They would be serviced by different kinds of vehicles. • The goal is to get the best of rail and road usage. While rail needs fresh capital investment, most roads don’t need much and are underutilized. Rails are useful for single origins and destinations, but not with our kind of development, where the adaptability and flexibility are required. When we want desired speeds, it’s useful to use air traffic control-like routing, which is very useful particularly for cities. Also using intelligent systems to give the speed needed to go to make a green light. • It’s a sophisticated rental car choice. All you have to do is book a seat and depending upon the value plan you select, it gives you a time window. For a premium plan, it could have a small window (e.g. 2 minutes). So there is a certain predictability of the service. • It creates a diversified, distributed mass transit network. We need some kind of new vehicles, like the people mover, which is very cost effective for the feeder. It’s a membership booking plan. You pay by point to point. You get a bill. Which in our overall scenario would be a multi-modal bill.

Assignment of who is driving is the driving proficiency. This improves the overall driving quality and thus traffic flow. • Creating a honeycomb structure, which is a series of networks of arterial roads. To connect each one to each other, you have a bridge for walkers and bicycles. Limit the amount of cars with a fee or making it only for emergency use. The use of feeder vehicles is better and for creating pedestrian and bike-only roads. Pedestrianization of main street. • It minimizes the concretization of the land, allows space for children to play freely, localization so that kids can bike to school, work district with a business center for telecommuting. The radial range should be two miles, so 6 to 8 square miles. The travel time down the roads should be about the same time (approximately a minute or two of difference) as taking your car. Short trips are trips to a station and local trips. • Parking could be done vertically if space became an issue. GM could buy up space and rent out cars on the edges. There are various levels of services and types of vehicles, depending upon the service plan you’ve selected. You could get good time estimates of how long it will take. • A lot of businesses could be in the area of the station. This is transit oriented development. With transit moving masses of people and people as customers, you want retail shops near where people are getting on and off. This system combines a lot of thinking. When you talk about transit-related development, you mean residential and commercial development within a few miles of the transit area. • When does the private car disappear? It doesn’t disappear at any time. You pay for use of public infrastructure. The price of ownership could go up two, four or ten times. Like the ownership of an aircraft or beach resort. We increase the snob ownership of cars. Car companies could come up with limited private cars for the top 1.5% of the population. There is an understanding by the transportation economists called transportation market distortion. • It naturally induces you to think about how you can make it very impersonal and system-based where all you have to do is call up a call

center where it could be like a 511 and you tell them your start point/time and destination/time. You can set preferences about kind of vehicles you like, or whether you want to travel alone, drive, take a backseat ride. Hands free time is usable time. With more people sitting in a vehicle, you split the operating cost. There is complete ticketing, so you get door-to-door connectivity. It simulates the private car experience but it is even more effective. • Fine tuning the system to allow you to pick and choose when you are making a shopping trip, and then you can choose a large vehicle. You want to check those whimsical purchasing patterns. Booking a vehicle gets you to respect time. There may be fees if you cancel, for example. If you plan ahead, there could be discounts (like airline reservations). • The auto loan is replaced by the MetroLITE credit line (which would also be a buy back of your existing vehicle). If you don’t give up your car, there will be some charging for having your car on the road. As highway administration costs become too high, that is around the corner. Road metering has been talked about in the U.S. for about a decade. Gas tax (for highway upkeep) is no longer a good proxy for road usage due to hybrid and more fuel efficient cars. Also, when you have a more efficient car, you drive more. • The delivery model is that consortiums are created. Cards are issued as a substitute for car loans. They may be one quarter the cost of a car loan. The cards are used as multi-modal transport options. There are different levels – premium, gold, economy, etc. The bank could buy back your car and you settle the amount. You pay a usage-based fee every month. It’s like a telephone or utility bill. • Every road stretch can be looked at as an asset which gives out access. You only pay for what you use. Just like households have electricity meters, water meters, etc. Telecom and IT companies have a huge interest in balancing the power of the old oil and automobile companies. These companies are impeding future progress by blocking new initiatives. • What emerges is a system best represented by thinking about rail and using roads. We wouldn’t construct much, just fitting cars with new

communications systems. Current metro stations because MetroLITE stations. We need to create new hubs around our current bus stops, etc. You will need space to park your lighter vehicles. • All public roads create a priority to the ridesharing systems. Private, single-occupancy cars pay certain rates for the privilege to drive on roads. You have much fewer seats idling either in the parking lot or on the streets. Yellow Springs might have a ring loop around the area with stops are around the community. It could have four person vehicle on off times and eight person vehicles on busy times. Keep flexibility for inbound traffic, expansion, tourists, etc. • We introduce a new set of vehicles that are small, silent and less polluting. These are good dogs for the neighborhood. We can set up a manufacturing facility for this eight-seat vehicle that could be light industry. There are 3,000 Gee Whiz vehicles in London alone (pure electric). This is only possible when you have done away with the stray dogs. Heavy vehicles are no longer welcome in this district. There is a cost associated with them because they are a hazard and they are not free to drive on the public roads. People feel much safer and secure in biking when the cars are no longer there. • Neighborhood cars that go slowly and then larger cars for long trips. There are people movers that take you the rest of the way (swipe your card). More street side malls, so you take your cart from your home to the outdoor market. • The people mover could be a mini-bus that circulates around town. They can be automated. There is just an emergency lever for people to pull if they need to. These are so easy to drive, and people could get free mileage points for driving. Buses are high capacity. Rather we would want high frequency. An eight-seater would be more useful. They could also be demand responsive. There are collision avoidance systems that could be put on the faster moving vehicles. • The two-seater car is Reva Electric Vehicle Company is the best available. Free charging stations in the UK, so the car pays itself back in

two months. The idea is to encourage and induce more and more people to take to lighter vehicles, which has its own dynamic and rub off. • Then you have the home zones that don’t allow the stray dogs. The entire area is pedestrian and biking friendly. As a result you have the charging stations (with solar panels). Also have cycling tracks that cross over to other home zones. • The notion of sharing the road had something hidden – that is someone decided not to share very nicely, the hazards are huge. Debilitating accidents are common. Also, you shouldn’t have to lock the bike all the time – there could be electronic locks at bike racks. You don’t even need a bicycle. You don’t need to own anything – you just need access with your plan. There could be a locator for bikes. • What about making a 5-mph speed limit? It would not be energy-efficient to have cars go at that speed because they’re designed to be optimal higher than that. Cars would pollute far more if they were forced to go at those speeds. What about imposing that just within the home zone. • People may then start selling there car and seeing that the bikes are fine for them, that that’s all they need. They can then buy a subscription plan which allows access to the various multi-modal vehicles. You could replace all the vehicles of YS at some time. The first people could get a better price. The auto companies could use a buy-back of certain cars, for cash down or towards a mobility service subscription. Other Examples • Kelly’s Island in Ohio and Hilton Head in North Carolina have a model of disallowing or deterring car use so that walking and biking is more prominent. Places can choose what they want to be – if they want the buzz of city life or if they want to be fast paced with cars running through. The choice must be with the people through a process which allows them to become aware of what the various possibilities are. It increases the sense of consumer options across a whole range of lifestyle issues. This model doesn’t take things away, it offers a larger palette. It is an enrichment model, enhances quality of life.

• Bob (Transportation Planner with Dayton Metropolitan Planning Authority) : Chautauqua, NY is an enclosed walkable community. There is a parking lot on the edge of the gate. When they enter, they cannot take their vehicles. Once you’re there it becomes only walking and bicycling. There are small grocery stores, pharmacies, youth center, etc. • Community in Germany is car-free. Most cars on the outside are private rather than shared. It wasn’t a green field but it was easier than putting in good roads within the community. • You are looking for a system that can reclaim public roads and re-write the rules so that private vehicles have no inherent right to use public roads. There are all sorts of examples where this is happening incrementally. The new transport director in New York is taking cars out of certain areas of the city. They have before and after pictures where before it was a tangled mass of cars and now people are reading books in the middle of the street. It’s now a concrete park. She is getting push back primarily for commercial ventures. There are examples of where people are taking back the public roadway. There is the complete streets movement in the U.S., which means whenever you look at a public thoroughfare; it should be safe and accessible for all transit options. That’s gaining currency in the U.S. right now. Finding the place that has the political mechanism will be the challenge. Philosophy/Benefits • Rather than waiting for people to believe that ride-sharing has become a necessity, offer attractive travel options, broadening the palette of offerings beyond private vehicle and public transit. Rather than creating ride-sharing options, we need to create attractive alternative transportation options. • There is a fundamental disconnect in today’s transport systems. There is nothing called private transport, because there are no private roads. The whole business of allowing private cars unbridled access to public roads doesn’t hold certain tests of objectivity. By that argument, there is nothing called public transport that’s about pulling people out of cars and into buses. It’s not the public that transports; it is always about personalized

transport systems. The debate needs to be shifted to how we can provide personalized mobility/transportation services industry. • One fallacy premise is to replace the car with the bus (misleading and counterproductive). You’re asking people to do something they don’t like and unless they are forced, they won’t. If they have attractive, personalized transport options…if you make sure the one kilometer walk is not intruded, not severance. You don’t want to defer people from walking because they might get hit by traffic. • A biker or pedestrian would like a route that is safe, uninterrupted and pleasant. Today when we walk or bike its right next to traffic so it’s not pleasant. It should induce them to walk an extra mile. It would be that there are more people that are taking that route. Peer-to-peer rub-offs. It becomes a social phenomenon. Instead of working at the gym, we would do a nature walk. This would be a health benefit. This would radically bring down healthcare costs. • We are sharing the planet. The need for sharing the car is that it has four or more seats. If there were single seat private cars, there wouldn’t be a problem. • The model can adapt itself to be density agnostic. It could be in the range of a few thousand. Presumably you could have an upscale community with 500 people. It would have things for every purpose and taste. You could create new communities to fit your taste. We wouldn’t shift the physical infrastructure. The first thing is to use your current infrastructure and create a landscape that is meaning. • Creating a chart of good growth and bad growth model for transportation. Annual models versus biannual. Cost of car is 40% less and benefits in terms of utilization and occupancy is 10 times (so 16 times). More acceleration versus more efficiency. • There are ideological prop ups in terms of my freedom includes free, uninterrupted, unbridled access to roads, which makes cars more like stray dogs in terms of system regulation. This creates problems because you can’t manage it because you don’t know where it’s coming from. Cars are

like second hand smoking in that they are a hazard. They can bark, defecate on your property, bite you, etc. • Horses are for courses. Automobile doesn’t do well in neighborhood trips. Rather than a source of freedom, it is a source of deprivation. You don’t have that luxury to drop your car anywhere and walk back home. The stray dog keeps following you and you don’t want it. • Auto has been a wonderful innovation. But it turned bad because it got carried away. It was a good dog at some point of time. We didn’t take care and it is coming back to haunt us. The car also deprives you of an exchange with people that you have while walking. Car to car exchanges can be less pleasant. Even if you just see other people’s faces, you can see how they are and care for them. It deprives the intergenerational exchange as well. • It will allow lots of people to cross the chasm and induce people who have been thinking a while about giving up their car to do so. When you’re doing regular biking, it needs to be clean, because you’re breathing deep. Enthusiasm is one part and you have to be practical during a longer period. A big factor that deters people to biking and walking is the street experience. Bike paths are sometimes not very attractive. I would rather have more space. The bike paths are choked for space. I would prefer some lateral space. If you took roads originally made for vehicles, you would create more width. • Re-retailing, creating these horizontal malls, is one place where jobs could be created. It requires lots of fine tuning of the street configurations. It also suppresses the cost of living as it creates more disposable income. • Pre-automobile village life with the advantages of connecting to another village within a half an hour. You get the pace of life and agrarianism and localization of pre-auto village life. Without as many capital expenses, incomes don’t need to be as high and people could recreate locally more. You don’t have the isolation of pre-automobile village life. Sections of urban areas would be more village-like and involve more interaction among the people. You can set the pace of the place. The place must reflect the aspirations. Different locations could set different speeds. As soon as we

do that, we need to distribute these services so that you don’t have things on the outskirts; you have it in the neighborhoods. • All configurations are possible and the community determines it. How decentralized or centralized is decided. The biggest problem when having too many people in a place is too many cars, parking, etc. Many people walking creates a certain vibrancy. You can have village life which has a lot of empty streets possibly. There is a sense of distress and need to do things quickly. • There is an implication for small, local communities that we can now envision in a way we couldn’t before. The only thing we do now concretely for small, local communities is gardening. In India there are 44 stores per 10,000 people and in the U.S. it’s 3. We used to have small, local businesses and now we go to strip malls and Wal-Mart. In history, looking at people living at low energy level you have India, Indonesia, etc. This allows us to go into the topic of localization at the level of commerce and household small production manufacturing and maintenance skill. Villagelevel commerce can be envisioned much more easily. Prosumer – we shouldn’t just be consumers. It’s more like do-it yourself. • If you go back 100 years you had street cars that had freight trailers for delivery. There were freight streetcars that ran at night. In the north of Norway, they run buses that are half a bus and half a truck. People sit in the front and in the back are huge palettes. 100 years ago the progressive transportation was streetcars. • The reason why there is congestion is not that people make bad decisions, it’s because they don’t pay for congestion they cause. If they have to pay for it, then they would be able to choose the routes for themselves. Whether to make, when to make, where to make and how to make the drive and the route choice. • It mimics everything a private car does and tries to do it better. It leapfrogs over the Bus Rapid Transit System. The system doesn’t mimic people wanting to have a mess and leave the mess. There is a price to retaining your car and the whimsical value. We should pay for what we use. You want to make judicious costs. It costs you more every time you book a trip

because you have to pay for road maintenance. It is inclusive of all whims and fancies. Keeping a private car will be much more expensive – it will pay its true costs (congestion, parking, roads, insurance, etc.). It shouldn’t be fixed costs and then marginal costs are just $0.15 so you overuse it. • We take a full cost, full benefits objective. Comfort, convenience, accessibility (all other needs) has to be taken care of. For the car to work for you, you need the freedom to drive or to take a backseat ride. You need the freedom and value added of choosing co-riders. The freedom that comes from being hands-free and having access to internet, music, etc. The driver has voluntarily opted for doing this and gets rewards. Driver proficiency helps create a ritual around it and creates game play. • Land use will change in the system because prices have full cost. When transportation becomes more expensive at marginal costs things change. Land use is a bigger problem than transportation. Real estate crisis is a land use crisis. Exurbs will collapse – they only make sense when gas is cheap. Suburbs will be ghettos and cities will be revitalized. • Benefits/Features of the MetroLITE system: 1. Advance Travel Information – No Waiting 2. Better Vehicle 3. Better Roads 4. Better Driver 5. Green Corridor 6. Fewer Signals – Foot/Cycling over bridges 7. No Congestion 8. Right of Way 9. Turn-by-Turn Navigation Assistance 10. Real-time Incident Management 11. Reserved Parking 12. Smartcard Payment 13. Option to Ride or Drive (earn Mileage Points) 14. Passenger Telematics

VSMaRT: A Method and System of Intelligent Transportation
(Patent Pending)
Pub. No.: WO/2006/011158 International Application No.: International Filing Date: PCT/IN2005/000206

Publication Date:

02.02.2006

16.06.2005

Chapter 2 Demand Filed: 17.04.2006 IPC: Applicant: Inventor: Agent: G08G 1/123 (2006.01) VIKASH, Chandra [IN/IN]; (IN). VIKASH, Chandra; (IN). DESHPANDE, Anand et al.; 8 Madhuvanti, Plot No. 210, (Right) Bhusari Colony, Paud Road, Pune 411 038 (IN). 655/MUM/2004 16.06.2004 IN A METHOD AND SYSTEM OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION A Method and System of Intelligent Transportation providing faster, safer, cleaner, better returns on travel expenditure, comfortable and convenient means of transportation; and offering “price-levels and choice of service” bundles based fast and frequent feedback of user demand. It combines with unique features such as choice to drive or to ride or to drive / ride alone or with desired / favored group of cotravelers with each choice coupled with incentives and rewards.

Priority Data: Title:

Abstract:

They can suggest their preferred models of vehicles, and their expected travel time etc. that is accommodated within the service level agreements for the subscription level. The system is enabled with navigation assistance, novel approach to incident management, efficient and economical fuelling and vehicle repair and maintenance system, vehicles driven by proficient drivers, traffic management approach to match traffic volume to carriage capacity of road network, etc. The System involves classification of road network for different types and means of commuting, and classification and design of vehicles for effective and efficient operation in the system. Designated States: AE, AG, AL, AM, AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KM, KP, KR, KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, MZ, NA, NG, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, PH, PL, PT, RO, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SM, SY, TJ, TM, TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, US, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, ZW. African Regional Intellectual Property Org. (ARIPO) (BW, GH, GM, KE, LS, MW, MZ, NA, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW) Eurasian Patent Organization (EAPO) (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM) European Patent Office (EPO) (AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IS, IT, LT, LU, MC, NL, PL, PT, RO, SE, SI, SK, TR) African Intellectual Property Organization (OAPI) (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, GN, GQ, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG).

Detailed Description of VSMaRT Invention :
Field of the Invention The present invention is in the field of transportation and pertains more particularly to a method and system of transportation thus providing effective and efficient traffic management, and giving a consumer complete travel experience according to their choice along with other related services. Background of the Invention Customers today have a choice for a product / service in respect of food, clothes, housing, etc. at its micro level. Customers, however, do not have a similar choice in the field of transportation and travel services, for e.g., a choice for a vehicle, with a choice for an infrastructure and with a choice for an environment. Even the company that sells the highest premium segment car, for e.g., does not provide a high quality travel experience that extends beyond the vehicle. Ideally, in the field of transportation, three aspects are to be looked into i.e. vehicles, infrastructure and environment, to properly cater to the consumers' need of choice. The consumer would ideally want to choose within options in different areas such as, for e.g., walking / cycling / motorbikes / scooters / automobile; vehicle - rentals / lease - chauffer or self-driven; rickshaw / taxicab / bus/ train, etc., along with other mobility options such as carpooling, car sharing, ridesharing, etc. In respect of goods transportation, options include enabling the consumer to carry the goods with him or in carts, small and large lorries, trailers, wagon trains, etc. In the field of transportation of people and or goods over short and long distances, there are significant wastes. In a systemic view, these wastes in the known system of transportation, originates from in-congruencies in the following areas, such as: 1. Traffic volume and carriage capacity of the road section; 2. Traffic flow expectation and vehicle driving quality;

3. Vehicle seating capacity and vehicle occupancy; 4. Vehicle location and passenger / goods location; 5. Vehicle optimal speed range — fuel efficiency, safety, depreciation - and vehicle speed in traffic conditions; 6. Vehicle model / features and consumer preferences; 7. Usage scenarios depicted in advertisements and actual usage scenarios; 8. Vehicle obsolescence - psychological, technological and economic; 9. Recyclability and modularity of a vehicle, sub-assemblies and components for reuse; 10. Vehicle characteristics — weight, optimal speed range, tyre characteristics, ground clearance - and road surface; 11. Vehicle and infrastructure design and accessibility requirements for elderly, children and for disabled; 12. Travel time expectation and vehicle speed; 13. Repair and maintenance complexity of vehicle (compounded by increase electronic / software components) and Information available to private vehicle owners; 14. Supply and demand of road network; 15. Supply and demand of parking stations; 16. Supply and demand of vehicle fuels - Petrol, Diesel, CNG, LNG, Biofuel, Hydrogen Fuel Cell, Electric, Solar, Compressed Air, Hybrid etc.; 17. Fueling point - location, time, appropriate fuel type and vehicle location and information available to private vehicle owners; 18. Vehicular pollution and environment's absorption capacity;

19. Traffic signal times and traffic flow; 20. Price points for available service and consumer's willingness to pay; It should be noted that the undesirability of these wastes is from a consumer point of view even as some of these in-congruencies are exploited by vested interests for value appropriation. Examples are: 1. Lack of appropriate infrastructure and environment for walking and cycling in densely inhabited areas for short trips. This encourages escalating use of automobile for these trips which are not suitable for the purpose Le. as density of automobile use in the area increases more people feel unsafe to walk or cycle and switch to automobiles; 2. Safety perception in case of uneven collision with a heavier vehicle leads to escalation in size and weight of automobiles; 3. Lack of transparency in prices for proprietary replacement parts, optional fittings, and whether a specific component or sub-assembly needs to be replaced; 4. Lack of transparency in fuel brands which claim mileage and vehicle-life enhancing benefits and the appropriate fuel-type for a vehicle; Existing approaches focus on one hand on packing more strength and features on the vehicle: a. Greater safety and security for the occupant - more metal protection around the vehicle, airbags, emergency response etc.; b. Communication for navigation assistance, concierge to find a location or reach there by a less congested route etc.; c. Online information - stock quotes, weather updates etc. while traveling and while they are stuck in traffic jams. Alternatively, known methods either focus on the infrastructure alone such as creating more roads, flyovers or my framing more stringent traffic rules.

Another prevailing approach is to circumvent the problem by focusing on mass rapid transit solutions such as underground metro or high capacity bus as a panacea. Even though they are useful on the high-density corridors, their capital cost is high for wider deployment, looking at various factors such as the cost of land acquisition, digging underground in built-up areas in an entire Region and the traffic disruption they cause during their long construction phase. In such a case, they fail to provide door-to-door mobility and to entice commuters away from their private vehicle. Many urban areas have poly-nucleated development with high dispersion of inhabited areas. Overall, though this approach is a useful complement, it distracts attention from the larger problem of the need for a comprehensive approach. The above approaches fail to take a systemic view of vehicle-infrastructureenvironment elements and the need for an integrated solution for traffic management coupled with consumer choice and satisfaction. In light of the limitations in the prior art it has occurred to the inventor that a systemic solution for providing better transportation, traffic management and consumer travel choice is needed. Object of the Invention One of the objects of this invention is to provide efficient transportation services and complete travel experience to a consumer according to their choice, preferences and affordability. Another object of this invention is to manage the traffic in such a fashion, which causes less traffic congestion, assures consumers of the travel time, road-safety, etc. Another object of this invention is to facilitate and enhance the mobility of the consumers or their goods but simultaneously better and efficiently utilizing the available energy resource for such mobility. Brief description of the Drawings Fig. 1 is a diagram illustrating classification of Land according to the embodiment of the present invention.

  13  2  1  3    4    5        12  You want to reach here      7  11  16  20  6  9  14  10  15    25  29  19  24  28  8     18  23  27  17    22  21      26 

You are presently here     33  30    31  34     35  32 
Expressway Network

36      37 

Home Zone 

Fig. 2 is a diagram illustrating the laying and classification of the road network according to an embodiment of the present invention.

 

 

Fig. 3 is a diagram illustrating the Expressway-Over-Bridge constructed at the Expressway - Street Intersection in accordance with the present invention.

Fig. 4 is a diagram illustrating the structure of an Expressway Station according to the embodiment of the present invention.

Fig. 5 is a diagram illustrating the Light & Slow Vehicles ("LSVs") Port constructed according to embodiment of the present invention. A Flow Chart illustrating the operation of the System in accordance with the embodiment of the present invention.

Description of the Invention
The present invention provides method and system for providing seamless, door-to- door mobility services for people and for goods for short and long distances at market- mimicking price points. The inventor provides a unique method and system of intelligent transportation to provide efficient transportation service; complete travel experience to a consumer according to their choice and preferences; manage the traffic in such a fashion, which causes less traffic congestion, assures consumers of the travel time, road-safety, etc. The method and System of the present invention are described in enabling detail below. Classification of the Land Area: Layout of the Region and Home Zone/s: The layout of the Regions and Home Zone(s) in accordance with the present invention can be explained and illustrated with reference to Fig. 1.

According to the present invention, the entire given land 100 under implementation is classified as a Region 105. According to the present invention a Region 105 could be, for example and without limitations, any urban area, rural area, province, country or even a continent. As per the preferred embodiment of the present invention, a given Region 105 should be an area identified on the basis of parameters such as, for e.g. but without limiting, the area within which a significantly large majority of surface trips begin and terminate. According to the embodiment of the present invention, in a given Region 105, certain geometrically shaped Home Zones 110 are formed. As per the preferred embodiment of the present invention, however, and for the purposes of implementing the present invention effectively, Home Zones 110 should be the areas in the given Region 105 identified on the basis of parameters such as, for e.g. but without limiting, the places where majority of trips begin and terminate. Further, according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the Home Zones 110 should be formed in a hexagonal shape (honeycomb). According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, Home Zones 110 are inhabited areas in a given Region 105 and each Home Zone 110 is normally made up of 4 to 8 sq. kilometers. A Home Zone 110 can also be made up of an area either more than 4-8 sq. kilometers or less than 4-8 sq. kilometers and hence the said distances specified herein should not be seen as a limitation. The area of the Home Zone 110 may also vary depending upon the preferences of the implementers on criteria such as, for e.g., population density in that area and its identity as a single community, etc. and hence the said distances specified herein should not be seen as a limitation. Layout and Classification of the Road Network: The layout of the Road Network in accordance with the present invention can be explained and illustrated with certain appropriate figures. Expressways: The layout of the Expressways 115 in accordance with the present invention can be explained and illustrated with reference to Fig.

2. According to the embodiment of the present invention, the Home Zones 110 formed in accordance with the present invention are bound or connected by interconnected Expressways 115 in any appropriate manner. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the Home Zones 110 are bound or connected by Expressways 115 on various sides. For the purposes of the preferred embodiment of the present invention in respect of how Home Zones 110 are bound by Expressways 115, please refer to the illustrated Fig.2. According to the present invention, Expressways 115 are multi-lane carriageways with exclusive access to Fast and Heavy Vehicles ("HFVs"), for e.g. but not limiting to, cars, vans, buses and trains, and which are further described below in the embodiment of the present invention. According to the present invention, Railways - elevated, surface or underground - are also classified as Expressways 115 in this definition. According to the embodiment of the present invention, an Expressway 115 gives access only to motorized HFVs. As per the preferred embodiment of the present invention, proper known means for obstructing trespassers, animals, etc. should be along the side-line of the Expressways 115 to avoid these problems. Known means such as construction of walls or fences along the side-line of the Expressways 115 could be used. According to the present invention, the speed limit on the Expressways 115 could be determined after taking into consideration factors including the type of vehicles used on the Expressways 115, safety, etc. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the speed limit on the Expressways 115 could be around 90 kilometers / per hour. The specified speed limit is only an indicative figure and should not be seen as a limitation. Streets: The layout of the Streets in accordance with the present invention can be explained and illustrated with reference to Fig. 2. According to the embodiment of the present invention, a Home Zone 110 so formed in accordance with the present invention comprises of roads and pathways called as Streets 120 laid in any desired manner. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the Home Zone 110 comprises of interconnected Streets 120 laid in a way to create a mesh of Streets 120 in the said Home Zone 110. For the purposes of the preferred

embodiment of present invention in respect of laying Streets 120 in a Home Zone HO5 please refer to the illustrated Fig.2. According to the embodiment of the present invention, Streets 120 are multi-lane carriageways for Light and Slow Vehicles ("LSVs") and includes dedicated lanes for pedestrians called as Pathways. LSVs include, for e.g. but without limitation, could be pedestrians, bicycles, very low to zero pollution scooter, motorcycles, manual or electric rickshaws, golf-carts, etc., and which are further described below in the embodiment of the present invention. According to the present invention, the speed limit on the Streets 120 could be determined after taking into consideration factors including the vehicles used on the Streets 120, the objects of the invention including using fast, safe and non polluting vehicles on the Streets 120, etc. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, however, the speed limit on the Streets 120 could be around 30 kilometers / per hour. The specified speed limit is only an indicative figure and should not be seen as a limitation. They optimize space with option for multiple rules — right side motorized, free overtaking. Lanes can be reserved for a particular class of vehicles e.g. bicycle lane and their width can be customized. Exceptions to allow HFVs to ply over the Streets 120 can be made possible only in the case of emergencies such as inclement weather conditions with prior intimation through means for street alarm system, for e.g., blinking light indicators, sounds, etc. Road Network Infrastructure Details: The Road Network Infrastructure details in accordance with the present invention can be explained and illustrated with appropriate figures. Expressway-Street Intersection: The layout and the details of the Expressway - Street Intersection in accordance with the present invention can be explained and illustrated with reference to Fig. 3. According to the embodiment of the present invention all Expressways 115 in a given Region 105 are interconnected. One or more Expressways 115

may also intersect with Streets 120. At such intersection known means in the industry can be provided to facilitate consumers plying on the Streets 120 to cross the Expressways 115. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, an Expressway Over- Bridge ("EOBs") 130 is provided for facilitating the consumers including people and bicycles to crossover the Expressways 115 at such intersection with the aid of staircase, escalators or elevators for upward or downward movements. The EOBs 130 could also be adapted, with necessary modifications, to facilitate the consumers to cross the Expressways 115 under the Expressways 115. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, whether the EOBs 130 are to be provided over the Expressways 115 or under the Expressways 115 are determined taking into consideration factors including the topography or the geography of the surrounding area. Although the EOBs 130 can be powered by traditionally known energy sources, however, according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the EOBs 130 are powered by non-conventional energy sources such as solar sheds, batteries, fuel cells, etc. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, at such intersection, in case EOBs 130 is so provided according to the present invention facilitate the consumer to cross the Expressways 115 over the Expressway 115, the EOBs 130 are to be elevated to a height sufficient enough to allow the tallest vehicle that could pass through the Expressway 115. Known technological ways and means could also be adapted to increase or decrease the elevation level of the EOBs 130 at such intersections. According to the present invention, by providing EOBs 130 at such intersections, a grade separated intersection of Streets 120 and Expressways 115 is provided. Street-Street Intersection: According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, all Streets 120 in a Home Zone 110 are interconnected. Combined with the EOBs 130 all Streets 120 are seamlessly connected for pedestrians and for bicyclists. Expressway Stations:

The layout and the details of the Expressway Station 135 in accordance with the present invention can be explained and illustrated with reference to Fig. 4. According to the embodiment of the present invention, as stated earlier, all Expressways 115 in a given Region 105 are interconnected and may intersection each other. According to the embodiment of the present invention, Expressway Stations 135, which are described more in detail below in the embodiment of the present invention, are typically constructed at such intersections. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, Expressway Stations 135 are generally constructed at an elevated level in such a way that it allows incoming HFVs to pass through. According to the embodiment of the present invention, Streets 120 may also terminate at the Expressways 115. However, according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention Streets 120 terminate at Expressway Stations 135. Further, although Expressway Stations 135 can be constructed at such intersections according to the implementers choice, however, according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, Expressway Stations 135 are typically located at every of 5 -8 kms. The specified distance herein i.e. 5-8 kms. is only an indicative figure and should not be seen as a limitation. Further, Railway stations in the Region 105 are also classified as Expressway Stations 135. According to the present invention, Expressway Station 135 is a multistoried building comprising of multi-level parking, vehicle fueling and servicing facility for HFVs. The Expressway Stations 135 also further comprise of facilities for other commercial establishments such as, but not limiting to, office space, retail space, hotels, business centers and transit warehouses, etc. According to the embodiment of the present invention, the multi-level parking facility may provide for known methods for facilitating parking of HFVs. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, however, the multi-level parking facility can be provided to comprise one or more Multi-Level Parking Structures ("MLPS") 160. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, each such MLPS 160 can be so designated to stock a specific dimension of HFVs. For the purposes of the preferred embodiment of present invention in respect of MLPS 160, please refer to the illustrated Fig. 4. Further, according to the preferred

embodiment of the present invention, such MLPSs 160 can be provided with means for upward and downward movement, including elevators, of the HFVs in a direction that suits the implementer's choice. Although there are known methods that could be implemented for aiding parking of the HFVs in the multi-level parking facility, parking of the HFVs is preferred, according to the embodiment of the present invention, to be provided for with the aid of a ramp. According to the present invention, at each story of the Expressway Station 135, provision or means for charging the HFVs are provided. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, such provisions or means for charging can be provided in such a manner that each HFVs are connected to a power grid to receive or to send electrical power as required. According to the present invention, the parking facility provided at the Expressway Stations 135 also comprise multiple fueling points for various fuel sources and types, and carriers fuels such as gasoline, hydrogen fuel cell, electric, bio-fuels, etc. According to the present invention, the Expressway Stations 135 are also equipped with designated areas for fueling / servicing for any type of HFVs. Light and Slow Vehicle ("LSV") Ports: The layout and the details of the LSV Port in accordance with the present invention can be explained and illustrated with reference to Fig. 5. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, and as discussed earlier in the embodiment, all Streets 120 in a Home Zone 110 are interconnected. According to the present invention, at intersections including Street- Street intersections, or Street-Expressway intersection or even at an Expressway Station 135, typically, a port called as an LSV Port 165 is constructed. Such LSV Port 165 may be at a ground level (compared to the surrounding area) or at an elevated level, depending upon the implementer's choice. Although according to the present invention LSV Port 165 are typically located at every street corner or at intersections, according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, an LSV Port 165 should be located such that at least one LSV Port 165 is located within walking distance from any inhabited area.

According to the present invention, LSV Port 165 are equipped with energy sources for facilitating energy to the LSVs. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, however, LSV Port 165 are covered with plastic solar sheets, which are wired to charge LSVs5 as required. According to the present invention LSVs Ports 165 also provide for parking LSVs. According to the embodiment of the present invention, any known means for providing parking can be provided. However, the preferred method for providing parking at the LSV Port 165, according to the embodiment of the present invention, is by providing racks of dimensions suitable for accommodating LSVs including bicycles, golf-carts, etc. Classification of the Vehicles: According to the embodiment of the present invention, vehicles to be used in the present invention are classified under two categories i.e. Light and Slow Vehicles ("LSVs") and Heavy and Fast Vehicles ("HFVs"). Light and Slow Vehicles: According to the embodiment of the present invention, LSVs are very low to zero emission vehicles, which ply on Streets 120. LSVs are further characterized as manual driven / automated guided vehicles- pedestrians, bicycles, very low to zero-pollution scooter, motorcycles, manual or electric rickshaws, golf-carts, etc. According to the present invention, LSVs have low acceleration and a low peak speed. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, LSVs should have a low peak speed of about, but without limiting to, 30 km / hr. According to the present invention, LSVs typically use combination of human solar and electric power to directly power the vehicles or solar sheds, which charge batteries, which in turn power such vehicles. Heavy and Fast Vehicles: According to the embodiment of the present invention, HFVs are motorized heavy and fast vehicles, preferably having low to zero emission levels, such as cars, buses, etc running typically on Fuel Cell, CNG, or HSD. HFVs ply on the Expressways 115 and are suited for long distance travel. According to the present invention, HFVs, generally, move from one

Expressway Station 135 to another, with zero or very few stops. According to the present invention, HFVs can have varied capacities. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, however, HFVs should be of a size and shape with a view to optimize road space. Further, according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, HFVs are typically having capacities between 4 to 40. Controlling Systems: According to the present invention, in a given Region 105, a central information hub called as a Central Information Center ("CIC") is established for providing and handling issues comprising of registration, issue and service of consumer membership / user cards; facilitate enquiry, information, booking and reservation for a near trip or a far trip; central display of all vehicles including HFVs and LSVs in the Region 105 and or Home Zone 110, data processing for the purposes of determining a driver proficiency rating (DPR), route determination and dispatch, transfer of HFVs amongst Expressway Stations 135 based on demand, traffic signal control, traffic violation and incident management; handling the traffic in the given Region 105 or Home Zone 110 and incidental matters and information thereto, etc. According to the present invention, the CIC can be also be assigned such other responsibilities as per the implementer's choice. According to the present invention, the CIC will possess, contain, store and process all information / data relevant for the transportation services provided by the Service Provider, which is the subject matter of the present invention, and would further utilize it to provide efficient transportation services, coupled with complete travel experience to a User according to their choice, preferences and affordability, who also face less traffic congestion, and are assured of their travel time, road-safety, etc.. The system facilitates and enhances the mobility of the consumers or their goods but simultaneously better and efficiently utilizing the available energy resource for such mobility. According to the present invention, the functions or the services rendered / delivered by the CIC can also be performed or delivered with the aid of various channels including establishing one or more local counters at various public and desired locations.

According to the preferred embodiment, however, the functions to be performed, and the services to be delivered, by the CIC, can be bifurcated or handled by separate centers performing respective functions as may be assigned. The preferred details are as under: Regional Transportation Information Center: According to the present invention, for a given Region 105, a Regional Transportation Information Center ("R-TIC") is established for providing and handling issues comprising of registration, issue and service of consumer membership cards; facilitate enquiry, information, booking and reservation for a near trip or a far trip, etc. According to the present invention, communication between the R-TIC and the consumer can be effected through any communication mediums. Further, according to the present invention, the functions or the services rendered by the R-TIC can also be performed or delivered with the aid of various channels including establishing local counters at various public and desired locations.

Traffic Signal are set on a Fixed Time Plan and the Plan is stored in the In-Vehicle Unit. Signal times are in proportion to the carriage capacity in that direction.

Trip Booking Driving Proficiency Rating Turn-by-Turn Navigation Assistance Target Speed Assistance – in sync with traffic signal for Green Corridor and ROW Real-Time Incident Management Favorite Co-traveler Selection

Regional Traffic Control Station:

According to the present invention, for a given Region 105, a Regional Traffic Control Station ("R-TCS") is established for the purposes of handling the traffic in the given Region 105 and incidental matters and information thereto. According to the present invention, R-TCS performs such functions and looks into issues including central display of all HFVs in the Region 105, data processing for the purposes of determining the Driver Proficiency Rating ("DPR"), route determination and dispatch, transfer of HFVs amongst Expressway Stations 135 based on demand, traffic signal control, traffic violation and incident management, etc. For determining DPR the parameters include close adherence to the navigation plan, lane, target speed, direction, etc. Any deviations are recorded and the report generated is sent to the R-TIC at the end of the trip. The payment to the User-Driver varies with the DPR. There may be more than one user possessing the DPR, who are willing to drive. Users bid for the driving assignment and the User with the highest DPR gets the assignment. In situations, where no User qualifies, a staff driver is assigned for the trip. According to the present invention, the R-TCS can also be assigned such other responsibilities as the implementer may choose to. Home Zone Traffic Control Station: According to the present invention, for a given Home Zone 110, a Home Zone Traffic Control Station ("V-TCS") is established for the purposes of handling the traffic in the given Home Zone 110 and incidental matter and information thereto. According to the present invention, V-TCS performs such functions and looks into issues including handling central display of all LSVs in the Home Zone 110, transfer of LSVs amongst LSV Port 165 based on demand, traffic signal control, traffic violation and incident management, etc. According to the present invention, the V-TCS can also be assigned such other responsibilities as the implementer may choose to. System Operation: The operation of the system can be illustrated with the aid of a flow chart. Payment Modes and Plans:

According to the present invention, a User can avail of the transportation service, which is the subject matter of present invention, of the Service Provider by various modes comprising of subscription mode, per-trip mode, validity mode, etc. Similarly, according to the present invention, a User can be given an option to pay for the services based on the criteria including the nature of the trip i.e. near trip or a far trip, etc. Similarly, according to the present invention, a User can be provided with various plans for availing of the services of the Service Provider for e.g. Value Plan, Platinum Plan, Gold Plan, Silver Plan, Economy Plan, etc. Additionally, the User can further be given plans for availing the services of the Service Provider based on the Vehicles that they may choose to use for e.g. a high subscription rate for a HFVs, etc. According to the present invention, a

VSMaRT

User is also given the option for post-paid mode of payment or pre-paid mode of payment, for the purposes of availing the service. Additionally, according to the present invention, a pre-paid card can also be made available for a visitor User who seeks to avail of the service. Communication with Central Information Center: According to the embodiment of the present invention, a User communicates with the CIC of the Service Provider with communication means such as telephone, Internet, kiosks, etc. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, a communication device is to be made available inside the given Vehicle (including LSVs or HFVs or otherwise) for better communication between the User with the CIC and avail of the phenomenal navigational / transportation services provided by the Service Provider. Additionally, according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, communication devices can and should also made

available at appropriate public places (closed or open) and or at desired places according to the implementer's choice, for the User. Additionally, according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, a User, who may be an illiterate person, also has an option of communicating with the CIC and availing the services of the Service Provider by visiting a local counter of the CIC opened by the service provider for those purposes.

VSMaRT

According to the present invention, the CIC possesses, contains, stores and processes all information / data relevant for the transportation services provided by the Service Provider, which is the subject matter of the present invention, and would further utilize it for providing efficient transportation services, coupled with complete travel experience to a User according to their choice, preferences and affordability; manage the traffic in such a fashion, which causes less traffic congestion, assures User of the travel time, road-safety, etc.; facilitates and enhances the mobility of the User or their goods but simultaneously better and efficiently utilizing the available energy resource for such mobility. According to the present invention, a routine or a frequent User can also set default settings of the information relevant for availing the services. According to the present invention, thus, a routine or a frequent User can customize his travel information for a specific customizable itinerary. Near Trip and Far Trip:

According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, a travel Le. starting point to the destination point, of a User is categorized into two i.e. Near Trip ("NT") and Far Trip ("FT"). According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, a NT is a trip, which is typically less than 5 kms. The specified distance herein i.e. 5 km. is only an indicative figure and should not be seen as a limitation. In certain situations, depending upon the Service Provider's choice, the distance to classify a trip as an NT can be more than 5 kms. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, a NT is typically made only on Streets 120 with the aid of LSVs. However, in certain situations, for e.g., emergency, transportation of goods, etc., a NT can be made with the aid of HFVs. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, a Far Trip ("FT") is a trip, which typically exceeds 5 kms. The specified distance herein Le. 5 km. is only an indicative figure and should not be seen as a limitation. In certain situations, depending upon the Service Provider's choice, the distance to classify a trip as a FT can be more than 5 kms. According to the present invention, a FT is typically a trip between two Expressway stations 135 with no stops at a High Value Plan to very few stops at a Lower Value Plans. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, a FT is broken down into a NT from the origin point to the assigned Expressway Station 135; a FT between the assigned Expressway Stations 135 and another NT to the end point. According to the present invention, such breaking down of a FT into two NTs and a single FT makes the User pay on the actual use basis. According to the present invention, in case a User intends to halt in between his journey, he may specify the same accordingly. The User may specify various information of his choice including a hotel or restaurant when he intends to halt or while breaking his journey may opt to walk for a specified distance for pleasure purposes or for health purposes before resuming his further journey, etc. According the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the operation of the System can be illustrated with the aid of the folio wings steps along with the illustrative flow chart. Step 0:

The User registers himself with a Service Provider. He chooses from amongst a variety of subscription plans like Platinum, Gold, Silver or Economy, etc., at multiple price points. Service levels such as maximum travel time; vehicle models, telematic services etc., are defined for each subscription plan. Within a specific plan a User can also make preferences about seating arrangement, drive or ride option, list of favored co-travelers, list of telematic services etc., and the mode of payment. A User can update its subscription plan, preferences with prior notice. A User can make payments by a pre-paid or post paid mode. In post-paid modes, monthly bills are dispatched to the User. Options to pay by cheque, cash, or electronic payments are also available. Visitors in the Region 105 are issued short duration, pre-paid Member Smart cards. The balance upon completion of their stay is refunded in person or delivered to the visitor address. All Users have to produce authentic photo-identity proof at the time of registration, which are subsequently verified by the Service Provider. Upon completion of registration process, a User receives a Member Smart card, which stores detail about their identity. The User subscription details are stored at the CIC. Step 1; A User communicates to the CIC for information, buying tickets or making reservations with the aid of any communication means such as phone, computer, kiosks, etc. The User may also avail of the services of the Service Provider manually by visiting any of the local counters opened by the Service Provider for such purposes. They may also set a default option for a routine travel, in which case they need to communicate in case of change in their travel plan. Step 2: A User specifies his nearest starting point from the available choices and the destination details for e.g. the area, street address, landmark etc. Step 3:

A User receives a confirmation of their request and information like boarding location, vehicle number, and seat number about their booking for each segment of their journey. A User can take note of the information or print this e-ticket. At local counters, a User receives a paper ticket. A User has to carry his Member Smart Card for their identification. Other Features: According to the present invention, a User along with providing transportation services is also provided with other advantages and services including travel time assurance, road-safety, etc. Travel Time Assurance: According to the present invention, the User can be provided with various services and methods, to assure the User of the travel time, the services comprising, for e.g., compensated the User for loss of the time, etc. According to the present invention, with fewer vehicles and an optimal mix of vehicles of different sizes, the traffic flow is predictable in this system. According to the present invention, a User can set as default settings, according to his preferences and needs, and using a combination of traffic control measures, information including individual vehicle speeds, etc. On-Road Safety and Security: According to the present invention, a User is provided better vehicle and passenger safety and security. With fewer vehicles, fewer drivers are needed. Additionally, according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the CIC collects, preserves and processes data pertaining to driving information of a User. The said information is utilized by the Service Provider for assigning a rating for a User-Driver called as a Driver Proficiency Rating ("DPR"). Accordingly, the present invention, as preferred, identifies better drivers and offers them the choice and incentives to drive from amongst those who travel on the same route. According to the present invention, as preferred, the higher DPR, higher compensation is to be paid to such User-Driver. Additionally, according to the present invention, the Service Provider can also monitor Vehicles for their roadworthiness. According to the preferred embodiment of the present

invention, with the aid of the CIC, the Service Provider is enabled location and remote management of vehicle in case of emergency. Road Quality Service Assurance: According to the present invention, Users pay for using the road (Expressways 115, Streets 120, or otherwise) for the number of miles that they ride at a rate that closely reflects their consumption of the road infrastructure and allied services. In this way, according to the present invention, good quality roads, their upkeep and maintenance, and availability of road space based on demand, is made available to the User. Clean Environment Assurance: According to the present invention, with fewer vehicles on roads, pollution is reduced. As every vehicle carries more people than earlier, the present invention provides for vehicle upkeep and upgrade to cleaner fuels and / or vehicle technologies. This facilitates faster absorption and commercialization of alternate fuel technologies and vehicles such as hybrids, fuel cells, solar-electric, bio-fuels etc. Hence, through the present invention, Users are thus assured of clean air services for stretches where User may choose to walk (for health reasons) or need to walk in areas where there is no motor vehicle access. Favoured Co-Traveler Service: According to the present invention, Users can choose whether they want to travel alone or select their favored co-traveler. For these purposes, they can create a list of people or Users can enter profiles of people; they want to travel with. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the favored co-passenger list is approved with mutual consent. According to the present invention, the favoured co- passenger list can be edited, updated by the Users. Portability: According to the present invention, User can also avail of personalized services in other Region 105 where this system is implemented. Environment Friendly:

By implementing this present invention, air-conditioning in vehicles becomes redundant except in extremely hot or cold conditions and for vulnerable Users. This is due to various reasons including the pollution emission and dust levels significantly decrease. Healthy and Wholesome: By implementing this present invention, in a wholesome approach to the User's overall needs, they can choose to walk or bicycle comfortable distances in a pedestrian- friendly environment that is included in the overall travel experience. Freedom: Choice to Ride or to Drive, No Refueling, Repair or Maintenance: According to the present invention, Users are given freedom to choose when to drive and when to travel as a passenger. According to the present invention, with this freedom, if they like driving and qualify as a good driver i.e. their Driving Proficiency Rating is above a threshold level, they can earn for their service to the system. Alternatively, according to the present invention, they can just take a ride, with the comfort that the driver has been selected by the system to provide a safe ride. According to the present invention, Users do not have to take vehicles for refueling. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the Service Provider can constantly monitor the vehicle including the fuelling, performances, etc. This minimizes the chances of a vehicle break down. Further, according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the Service Provider in situations like for e.g. break downs, accident, etc. promptly arranges for an alternate vehicle to reach the point of incidence, hospital, etc. as the case may be. According to the present invention, the Service Provider also provides for handling of insurance issues. Differentiating features: 1. A method and system of intelligent transportation comprising of: Classification of a given land area; Laying and classifying road network in the given land area; Classification of vehicles; A central information hub being means for aiding transport management and related services; and A

means for locating vehicles and their communication with the central information hub. 2. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein the given land is classified into Regions based on parameters including the area within which significantly large majority of surface trips begin and terminate. 3. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein the said Region is further divided into Home Zones based on parameters including the area within which majority of surface trips begin and terminate. 4. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein the said Home Zone has a honeycomb-like (hexagonal) shape. 5. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein the said Home Zone is formed based on the population density in a given area. 6. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein the said Home Zone is formed based on identity as a single community. 7. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein the said Home Zone is formed based on a specified area and is spread over an area of 4 to 8 kilometers. 8. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein the road network comprises of a combination of streets and expressways. 9. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein the said Home Zones are bound by expressways. 10. A method and system of intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein the said expressways are multi-lane carriageways with exclusive access to Fast and Heavy Vehicles. 11. A method and system of intelligent transportation as per claim (1), wherein means for obstructions are constructed along the sidelines of the expressways.

12. A method and system of intelligent transportation as per claim 1, wherein the speed limit for a particular on the expressways is determined after taking into consideration factors including the type of vehicles used on the expressways, safety. 13. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein the said Home Zones comprise of interconnected Streets. 14. A method and system of intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein the said Streets are multi-lane carriageways with exclusive access to certain vehicles and include dedicated lanes for pedestrians. 15. A method and system of intelligent transportation as per claim (1), wherein the speed limit on the Streets is controlled taking into consideration specified factors. 16. A method and system of intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein the said Streets optimize space with option for multiple rules including lanes being reserved for a particular class of vehicle. 17. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein the all expressways are interconnected. 18. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein at such intersection of street and expressway, ExpresswayOver-Bridge is provided as means for crossing the expressway. That provides for a grade-separated intersection with expressway. 19. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein Expressway Station is built at sites, amongst where expressways intersect such that one Expressway is located at every of 5 -8 kms. 20. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (19) wherein at Expressway Stations are constructed at an elevated level in a way that it allows incoming Heavy and Fast vehicles to pass through. 21. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (19) wherein such Expressway Stations are located at a suitable distance as per the implementer's choice;

22. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (19) wherein such Expressway Station facilitates multitasking activities including multi-level parking, vehicle fueling, servicing facility, and or other commercial establishments including offices, retailers, hotels, warehouses, and or business centers. 23. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (22) wherein the said multi-level parking structures are designated to stock a specific dimension of vehicle. 24. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (22) wherein the said multi-level parking structures are provided with means for upward and downward movement of the vehicles in a direction that suits the implementer's choice. 25. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (22) wherein the said multi-level parking structures are provided with a ramp for aiding entry and exit in the parking facility. 26. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (19) wherein at such Expressway Stations means for supplying energy sources for the vehicles are provided in such a manner that vehicles are connected to power source to receive or to send power. 27. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (19) wherein at such Expressway Stations multiple fueling points for various fuel sources and types are provided. 28. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein the road network intersect at a given point including streetstreet intersection, or street-expressway intersection or even at an expressway station where a street may terminate. 29. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (28) wherein at such intersections, a street port is built or at an intermediate point such that one street port is available within walking distance from any inhabited area. 30. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (29) wherein the said port is equipped with various energy sources for the vehicles.

31. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (29) wherein the said port is covered with photovoltaic panels, which are connected to provide charging to the vehicles. 32. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (29) wherein the said port provides means for parking vehicles. 33. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (32) wherein the parking in the port is provided with the aid of racks of dimensions suitable for accommodating vehicles. 34. A method an System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein the classification of the vehicles are made as Light and Slow Vehicles ("LSVs") and Heavy and Fast Vehicles ("HFVs"). 35. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (34) wherein Light and Slow Vehicles ("LSVs") are very low to zero emission vehicles and only ply on streets and have low acceleration and a low peak speed of about 30 kms / hr. 36. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (34) wherein Heavy and Fast Vehicles ("HFVs") are motorized heavy and fast vehicles running on various energy sources. 37. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (34) wherein Heavy and Fast Vehicles ("HFVs") are motorized heavy and fast vehicles running on a various energy sources and having a low to zero emission levels and are used mostly to ply on expressways, except certain situations. 38. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (34) wherein Heavy and Fast Vehicles ("HFVs") have varied sitting capacities. 39. A method and system of intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (34), wherein the Light and Slow Vehicles ("LSVs") are used for near or short trips and the Heavy and Fast Vehicles ("HFVs") are used for far or long trips.

40. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein the central information hub is a Central Information Center aiding transportation management and related services. 41. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (40) wherein the Central Information Center provides and handles transportation management comprising of providing and handling various issues such as registration, issue and service of user membership cards, facilitate enquiry, information, booking and reservation for a near trip or a far trip; central display of vehicles in the area, data processing for the purposes of determining the driver rating, route determination and dispatch, transfer of vehicles amongst various routes based on demand, traffic signal control, traffic violation and incident management; handling the traffic in the given area and incidental matters and information thereto. 42. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (40) wherein the Central Information Center possesses, contains, stores and or processes all information and or data relevant for transportation management and related services. 43. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (40) wherein the Central Information Center possesses, contains, stores and or processes all information and or data relevant for transportation management and related services and utilizes it for providing efficient transportation services, coupled with complete travel experience to a user according to their choice, preferences and affordability, manage the traffic in such a fashion, which causes less traffic congestion, assures consumers of the travel time, road-safety, etc, facilitates and enhances the mobility of the consumers or their goods but simultaneously better and efficiently utilizing the available energy resource for such mobility. 44. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (43) wherein the Central Information Center provides and handles transportation management by itself or through its local counters. 45. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein the means of positioning and communication with the central hub is made available inside a given vehicle.

46. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein means of communication for a user is also made available at appropriate public places and or at desired places according to the implementer's choice. 47. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein a user can customize his travel information for a specific customizable itinerary. 48. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein a user pays for the transportation service based on various payment modes, value plans, vehicles, post-paid periodic billing, pre-paid, debit account and or by any combination thereof. 49. A method and System of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein a travel route of a user is classified into categories comprising of a Far Trip and a Near Trip. 50. A method and Systems of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein a far trip is typically a trip between two expressway stations with no stops to very few stops. 51. A method and Systems of Intelligent transportation as claimed in claim (1) wherein a near trip is within a Home Zone, to adjoining Home Zones or from an origin point inside a Home Zone to an assigned expressway station. 52. A method of transportation comprising the following steps: a. Communication of choices of travel by a user to the said central hub by communication means such as type of vehicle etc.; b. Specifying the origin and/or destination ( in certain cases the origin may be automatically communicated; c. Specifying the time limit within which the user intends to reach his destination; d. Specifying whether the user intends to drive the said vehicle or needs a professional driver or opts for self drive; e. Specifying whether the user intends to travel alone or otherwise choose his co-travelers from the available list of specific categories of travelers, or preferred co-traveler's list, which can be further altered by adding, removing co-travelers.; f. Specifying passenger telematics like music,

Internet, etc.; g. Receiving a confirmatory message containing information like boarding location, vehicle number, and seat number. 53. A method of transportation as claimed in claim (52) wherein a user may is also assisted manually with the aid of local counters opened for those purposes. 54. A method of transportation as claimed in claim (52) wherein the selection of a road network is done by the service provider according to the other specified choices. 55. A method of transportation as claimed in claim (52) wherein a user is given a driving proficiency rating. 56. A method of transportation as claimed in claim (52) wherein a user is can drive the said vehicle if he possesses a satisfactory driving proficiency rating and the same is higher than other co-travelers who have made the option to drive. 57. A method of transportation as claimed in claim (52) wherein a user is paid by the service provider if the user drives a vehicle along with the cotravelers in proportion to their driving proficiency rating. 58. A method of transportation as claimed in claim (52) wherein a visitor opting for a prepaid card is refunded the balance amount on the completion of his stay.

VSMaRT – Key Benefits Overall Benefits
A – Safety and non – severance due to Speed Limits and restraint on heavy vehicle movement B – Significantly improved accessibility for daily activities and to transit stations for longer trips C – No Noise Pollution or Vehicular emission, No dust and other toxic emissions D – Better ambient greenery and water bodies moderate temperatures to comfortable levels E – Greater social interaction with walkers and cyclists passing by at low speeds F – Seamless movement for walking and cycling across neighborhoods. G – Neighborhood roads can be made of alternate, re-cycled materials well suited for carrying lighter vehicles. This is a far more cost effective option in face of steep rise in bitumen and overall road construction costs. H – Road width requirement is minimized, which allows for greater green cover, children play areas, public parks and for ground water recharging. I – Quality of roads is better due to use of suitable materials as well as low wear and tear as only light vehicles are allowed. J – Use of suitable materials can also minimize localized heat generation as well as allow better passage for rain water K – Flexible solar sheet covers on the length and width of neighborhood roads provide shade and cooling for passerby as well as are used for charging electric vehicles.

Vehicle Travel Related Benefits
1. Advance Travel Information – No Waiting 2. Better Vehicle 3. Better Roads 4. Better Driver 5. Green Corridor 6. Fewer Signals – Foot/Cycling over bridges 7. No Congestion 8. Right of Way 9. Turn-by-Turn Navigation Assistance 10. Real-time Incident Management 11. Reserved Parking 12. Smartcard Payment 13. Option to Ride or Drive (earn Mileage Points)
14. Passenger Telematics

VSMaRT – Frequently Asked Questions
Q1: Why should I use VSMaRT? A1: VSMaRT is better than any other travel options available today on performance and costs. It saves travel time by providing better mobility and accessibility options, better traffic speeds by matching road capacity to vehicle volumes thorough pricing, minimizing empty seats, better traffic signaling and road capacity improvement. It provides cost savings through

savings in fuel consumption, better vehicle utilization, higher occupancy management and better vehicle fleet selection. It has positive impact on health by significantly reducing vehicular pollution, other toxic releases and dusts; mitigating road distress for vehicle drivers, passengers as well as bicyclists and pedestrians and by creating suitable conditions that induce more people to walk or bicycle convenient distances more often leading to direct health benefits. It provides greater flexibility and convenience in bookings, advanced travel information and billing and payment options. Q2: How to access VSMaRT? A2: You can make travel reservations in advance through multiple touch point options – call center, website, and mobile or on the spot at any VSMaRT station or self-service / attended kiosks to access VSMaRT system. As per the booking, you receive the travel plan with specific details on vehicle, seat, location, arrival and departure time and ticket fares as applicable for your trips. For short trips this will include walking over or a pick-up Neighborhood Vehicle (NV), which are non polluting, noise free, low speed, low floor vehicles well suited for the requirement. For longer trips in the city region, the NV takes you to the nearest VSMaRT Station as per your travel plan in time for the estimated time of arrival and departure. Similarly, on the final leg, the NV takes you to your final destination. You can also choose to walk or hire a bicycle for your short trips using the same VSMaRT card. For outstation trips to other regions, VSMaRT similarly provides access for seamless point – to – point travel. Q3: Will it take longer than the current options available of taking an Auto, Taxi or Private Vehicles? A3: VSMaRT will be faster in most cases especially for > 5 km trips. The average speed in VSMaRT scenario for a > 5 km trip will be 40 KM/Hr. even after factoring in slower speeds with the NV’s and modal transfers. This compares with average speeds of 10 – 20 km/hr in present options in most of the cases. Further, the self governed speed limit for motor vehicles

provides safer conditions for motor vehicle users as well as for bicyclists and pedestrians. This adds to the health benefits from significantly lower pollution and stress, which together well compensates for a few minutes of extra travel for shorter trips using NV’s. Q4: How close would be my NV access points? A4: < 200 meters Q5: How close would be my VSMaRT Station? A5: Always Less than 3 km. Q6: What will be the frequency for NV’s? A6: Between 2 to 6 minutes. Q7: How do you commute to adjacent Neighborhood areas? A7: By crossing over the Road-over-bridge. You can find a connecting Light Vehicle on the other side. Cyclists can take their bicycles across the bridge. Q8: How do I use my private vehicle in the VSMaRT scenario? A8: You have to park your private vehicles in the nearest VSMaRT station and pay the parking charges as applicable. If you need to bring your motor vehicle inside the neighborhood area you pay entry and stay charges as levied in the area. Medical emergencies as well as extreme weather conditions qualify for exemptions. For movement on VSMaRT road networks, all the rules for trip booking and road user charging apply. Q9: How is billing and payments done in the VSMaRT scenario? A9: For VSMaRT only users, they receive a consolidated bill for their tripwise fare as well as for any other services availed. For private vehicle owners, they are billed for various services such as parking, road-user charging, entry and stay charges and optional fuel payments through the VSMaRT card as well as VSMaRT vehicle usage if any. The consolidated

bill also debits payments from fellow passengers using the VSMaRT system. Q10: How do infrastructure? you acquire land for building the VSMaRT

A10: VSMaRT system is designed to be space efficient so minimum land acquisition is required as compared to mass transit systems. As VSMaRT applies universally to all the Land owners in the city, a transfer of development rights can be done in a very fair and judicious manner which creates a WIN-WIN situation for all the land owners in the region. This mitigates grievances of sections of residents or traders when land acquisition is done in a piece-meal manner without providing adequate compensation to take care of social or competitive disadvantages. Q11: What happens to two wheelers who are currently in operation? A11: Two wheelers are initially used in the VSMaRT System as short trip and as feeder vehicles moving in the neighborhood areas, within the stipulated speed limit of 30-35 KM. Two wheelers driver do not need to wear helmets and also have the option of using VSMaRT light vehicles when they do not have access to their personal vehicles. For long trips, two wheeler drivers have option of using their own vehicles and parking them at VSMaRT stations and taking the high speed vehicles. Optionally, two wheeler drivers can take their vehicles on the VSMaRT high speed roads, in which case they have wear helmets and follow the VSMaRT traffic guidelines. Q12: What is the likely Automotive Industry’s response to the VSMaRT proposal? A12: VSMaRT is Win-Win for the Automobile industry both in terms of helping them to reduce product development and production costs, managing sales and marketing costs as well as create new earning opportunities in a variety of ways. As per the VSMaRT proposal, Automobiles companies would be advised to supply/lease vehicles through

fleet operators where they earn mostly or in parts through “seat mile” rentals/fare earned by the fleet operator over the lifetime of the vehicle. The savings for automobile manufacturers come from more standardization of vehicle models and accordingly less product design errors. Further savings in sales and marketing costs come from avoiding the need to hold inventory and other operating expenses of dealer showrooms, which are typically in high real estate cost areas, as well as, avoiding advertisement expenses, as the car sales are no longer targeted to individual buyers. Further savings come from greater opportunity to create modular designs facilitating easier upgrade of vehicles as well as replacement parts due to wear and tear or damage as well as repair, re-conditioning, re-use and recycling of vehicle parts. New earning opportunities come from value added services such as passenger telematics as a result of high occupancy of vehicle which creates a captive market for passenger telematics, which is not affected by various restrictions on providing telematics services to drivers alone in order to avoid driver distraction. Other value added services comes from location based services like navigation assistance, concierge, emergency response, etc. The overall revenue from every unit vehicle is boosted by greater efficiencies in vehicle utilization, higher occupancy, time savings from better traffic flow and parking availability. ; better fuel economy and savings from health cost due to significantly lower pollution dust, and toxic releases as well as better quality roads and upkeep which prevents travel sickness and back injury. In a ballpark estimate the automobile companies stand to earn upto 5 times more profit for every unit vehicles and more profit overall even, if they sell one third of their current volume. Q14. How will VSMaRT benefit the eco-system of the telecom companies, device manufacturers and VAS companies.

Answer for device manufacturers. For device manufacturers VSMaRT opens up a new opportunity to provide in vehicles mobile devices, typically these mobile devices have GPS inertial navigation censors, a processor unit, memory, payment card readers, keypad and display units based on in vehicle device standards. The potential for the market as a mandatory fitting in entire vehicle fleets is huge - starting with more than one million units in 5 years. Similarly for network operators the machine to machine communication of location transactions and other data creates a significant opportunity, which, rides on tremendous saving opportunities on overall travel expenses of an average of 100 to 200 USD per user per month, adding up, for 10 million VSMaRT user targeted, which translates 18 billion USD. For Value added service providers. The opportunities for VAS developers ranges from creating application for navigation assistance, driving proficiency measurement, remote vehicle diagnostic and prognostic, remote fuel level and tier pressure readings to infotainment and other telematic application for passenger.

Annexure I : Role of Transportation in Tourism
• • Mobility and accessibility are a key element of the tourist experience Based on a panel data set of bilateral tourism flows among 28 countries over the decade 1990–2000, researchers find that, on top of tourism infrastructure and other classical determinants, transport infrastructure is a significant determinant of tourism inflows into a destination. Disaggregated continent-wise analysis reveals that the sensitiveness of tourism flows to transport infrastructure does vary, depending on origins and destinations. They also find evidence of repeated tourism around the world, the more so from high-income origins and to high-income destinations.

Source: The role of transport infrastructure in international tourism development: A gravity model approach by Jameel Khadarooa and Boopen Seetanah Annexure II : Economic Impact in Goa VSMaRT Study.xls

About TEN Systems
Set up in the year 2006 after about 6 years of ground work since the year 2000, when I first conceived the idea of an integrated transport and landuse system called as VSMaRT. In this journey, this venture has crossed several milestones towards implementation.
Milestones: 2000: Invited as a Global Growth Company at World Economic Forum conference in New Delhi 2002: Collaborated with IIT Bombay Prof. Subhash Babu in Mechanical Engg. Deptt. . Sponsored M.Tech. project on simulation of eco-friendly and user-friendly movement of people and goods in residential and other densely populated areas using a hub and spoke mechanism. 2003: Paper presented at Map India Conference titled Variegated System of Mass Rapid Transit: An innovation that changes the "Familiar World" of Urban Transport online here. 2003: Joined Mastek Software Ltd. To set up a practice for Intelligent Transport System as youngest unit head. Worked on the London Congestion Charging System and design of a comprehensive transport-land use system for other areas based on stakeholder’s feedback 2004: Joined Tata Consultancy Services as Business Leader for Intelligent Transport Systems for global market. Worked on various opportunities in the area of ITS especially road user charging. 2004: Presented paper at Intelligent Transport Systems World Congress in Nagoya, Japan titled VSMART: A. ROAD AHEAD FOR URBAN TRANSPORT online here. 2006: Set up TEN Systems & Services Pvt. Ltd. to commercialise the Vsmart model in India as a pioneering initiative to build a world class, high quality and cost effective Integrated Transport & Land-Use System in Indian cities as a National Lifeline Grid. The first opportunity we pursued was a tender for Transport Planning framework for 35 of the million plus population cities in India. In this tender, our proposal based on a Real Time Travel Diary Study for transport data collection was adjudged by the best approach by all the 3 panelists. We however lost out on the financial bid, after several inconsistencies in the tender (such as reversal by the tender committee on its

declaration to invite fresh financial bid based on the best technical approach) as well as awarding the contract at a very low price, which was eventually rubbished. 2006: Pilot project initiative in Palam Vihar, Gurgaon with great support from the Resident Welfare Association. We organized a public consultation workshop for user feedback and suggestions to design an appropriate transport system. In the first phase, we planned to start a feeder service from various pockets in a 3-4 sq.km. residential area to the nearest Metro Rail station in Dwarka Sector 9. We also set up a high density cycle stand that would be replicated in the area for younger people to cycle to the pickup point. The Urban Development ministry had committed Rs. 25 Lacs for this pilot project. However, it could not take off at that time due to a variety of factors, primarily the high cost and low efficiency of Electric Vehicles and an archaic and regressive policy that charges toll for intermediate public transport of Rs. 25/- per trip, but exempts private vehicles. As a result many private vehicles were being used as taxis to evade this toll, but had a problem carrying multiple occupants for the fear of being caught at the toll plaza. 2006-07: Worked as Adviser to the Chairman for Marketing of Electric Vehicles with Reva Electric Car Co. Designed EV-based system for various apartment complexes, University campuses and Commonwealth Games in New Delhi in 2010. Worked on a project for promotion of Electric bikes and scooters in India and to strengthen the Electric Vehicle Association of India. 2007: Developed the 124 Fuelsaver system for energy security through better fuel pricing based on activity costing and to facilitate greater energy efficiency and substitution with renewable energy sources to meet our current and future needs. Proposed a solution for implementation to Petroleum Conservation Research Agency. This was once again set back due to irregularities in the Petroleum Ministry and Heavy Industries Ministry that favored a continuation of perverse and regressive subsidy for diesel based private vehicles including luxury vehicles. Article published in Down to Earth environment magazine published by Center for Science & Environment here. 2008: Worked with Erehwon Innovation Consulting on a project on Incusive Growth that further expanded the horizons for the implementation of the Vsmart model as a National Lifeline Grid in urban and in rural areas. 2009-10: Developed a branding and communication strategy with Vertebrand brand consulting company in Bangalore as Head of Innovation & Communication. Paper selected for Inelligent Transport System at Stockholm in Sweden titled ‘Public roads as service markets: paving the way for Civilization 2.0’ online here. Worked with Logica –

European IT co. in Intelligent Transport System to develop products for pay-as-youdrive insurance and for emission monitoring with the Global Innovation Practice. 2011: Presentations and public consultation in various states across India : Karnataka, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi and recently at Ghaziabad in Uttar Pradesh 2012: Restarting of TEN Systems based on a fresh assessment that with disproportionately higher number of private vehicles that is creating tremendous value destruction b’coz of a Tragedy of Commons. Pilot project planned for Vaishali, Ghaziabad.
REFERENCES

(1) Senge, Peter M. and Carstedt, Goran, “Innovating Our Way to the Next Industrial Revolution”, MIT Sloan Management Review, Winter 2001 Vol.42 No.2, pp. 36, pp.32, pp. 35, pp. 37 (2) “Rebound Effects - Implications for Transport Planning”. Available at http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm64.htm (3) The Coming Energy Crunch - A $2 gallon of gas is just the beginning. Available at http://www.nypress.com/17/22/news&columns/AaronNaparstek.cfm?page=4&last=1 (4) Freeman, Robert, “Will The End of Oil Mean The End of America?” Available at http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0301-12.htm (5) Dalton, Alastair, “Executive admits road charging will prove a headache “ Available at http://news.scotsman.com/topics.cfm?tid=477&id=723432004 (6) Judd, Terri, “Urban 4x4 drivers should pay more tax, says transport chief”, June 28,2004. Available at http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/transport/story.jsp?story=535763 (7) Moon, Aaron, “Why we love all-wheel driving”, June 30, ’04. Available at
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(8) Litman, Todd, “The Next Big Thing in Transportation”, Available at http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm51.htm (9) Andreas Schafer, David G. Victor, MIT, Robert W. Johnson, Jr. “The future mobility of the world population”. Available at http://www.skyaid.org/Skycar/future_mobility_of_the_world.htm (10) Storper, Michael and Venables, Anthony J., “Buzz: The Economic Force Of The City” Available at http://www.druid.dk/conferences/summer2002/Papers/STORPER.pdf (11) Roberts, Ian, Owen, Harry, Lumb, Peter, MacDougall, Collin, “Pedalling Health – Health benefits of a Modal Transport Shift”. Available at www.cycling.bham.ac.uk/pdf/cyhealth.pdf (12) “EU and US sign final agreement on Galileo and GPS”. Available at http://www.itsinternational.com/news/article.cfm?recordID=6191 (13) Concept Paper presented at Intelligent Transport System World Congress in Japan in 2004 : http://www.scribd.com/doc/78632814/3273-vsmart-chandra-vikash (14) Proceedings of 4-day workshop in Yellow Springs, Ohio, United States for implementation of VSMaRT model http://www.scribd.com/doc/91787982/Workshop-Report-on-V-SMaRT-Vsmart-in-OhioUnited-States (15) Presentation on Vsmart model as a MetroLITE solution http://www.slideshare.net/cvikash/metrolite-guided-tour-20-based-on-vsmart-model (16) Media report on urban renewal and redevelopment in Bangalore in October 2007 http://www.businessgyan.com/node/3231 (17) Media Report on MetroLITE pilot in Palam Vihar, Gurgaon in March 2006 http://www.scribd.com/doc/91789273/Article-in-Hindustan-Times-Walk-or-Pedal-to-Your-Office-LikeEuropeans

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From

the

European

Commission

Strategy

Paper

2009

http://ec.europa.eu/transport/strategies/doc/2009_future_of_transport/20090617_en_communication_future_of_transport.pdf

(19) Pay-as-you-drive scheme could be alternative to car tax, say MPs By Caroline Grant , 24th July 2009 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/motoring/article-1201848/Pay-drive-scheme-alternative-car-tax-sayMPs.html;jsessionid=D2AFDDFAFF7CCDF71227E63E14E41959#
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In this journey to conceptualise the VSMaRT system, I have built on the work of noted scholars from a variety of disciplines beside management. I can quote the works of Peter Senge, Todd Littman, Randall Pozdena, Susan Shaheen, Peter Drucker, Jeremy Rifkins, Amory Lovins amongst those on whose shoulders this work stands. It would not have been possible without the support of my colleagues Jayant Krishna, Jyoti Srivastava, Sandeep Jain and Arun Mokashi, Vivek Singh who have at various times lent their support to make this work possible and to enrich it with their insights. Sudhakar Ram and Gopinath at Mastek supported this work at a critical juncture. I am greatly indebted to my start-up team at India Dynamics – Yatin Shirur, Vinod Kumar, Gaurav Srivastava, Zafeer Alam, N. Srinivas, Chandra Abhishek, G. Ramachandran - whose motivation and enthusiasm nurtured these ideas at their very inceptions. Sing Mong Kee, Dr. Kennedy Chew and Peter Knwee at Stratech Systems in Singapore have lent valuable advice and feedback for this work. Jack Opiola at Hyder Consulting convinced me that the future laid with satellitebased systems, despite my apprehensions as I shared with him. Phil Jeanes at PA Consulting and John Dowson at IBM have been particularly helpful in this work in various ways and I look forward to a fruitful association in future. A. Subhash Babu at IIT Bombay valuable resource support at IIT Bombay and inspiration allowed me to carry on this work in trying circumstances. My parents, my wife Alka and my sister Vinita have been constant support and help. By taking a disproportionate part of the duties of parenting, Alka gave me the privileg of time and the peace of mind needed for thinking deep and far. My lovely daughter Akarshita is a great source of delight every evening I return home, dissipating my worries and stress of work. She as all children in the world, who deserve why we should think not just

for today but also for day after tomorrow, is a prime motivation for this work and all the struggle that it involves to make the world a better place for our children than what we inherited as.
Proposed by:
Chandra Vikash B.Tech. IIT Kharagpur, MBA IIM Calcutta CEO – TEN Systems & Services Pvt. Ltd. President – Samuchit evam Santulit Vikas Sansthan B-507, Riviera Towers, Lokhandwala Township, Kandivali (East) Mumbai, Maharashtra, INDIA - 400101 M: +91 9967665705 email: chandra.vikash@gmail.com

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