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Project Report - Tumi

Project Report - Tumi

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Published by Arpit Choudhary

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Published by: Arpit Choudhary on Sep 26, 2012
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Wireless Charging System


Submitted by
1. 2.


ID: 5212154 ID: 5135790

This is a part of the requirement of the course
TE4902 Telecommunication and electronic engineering project 2

Project Advisor: Dr. Tussanai Parthornratt

Department of Telecommunications and electronics ABAC School of Engineering Assumption University
h t t p : / / a u . e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i e t y . n e t


n e t . e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i e t y . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to express our deepest gratitude to all those who made this successful one way or the other.ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Wireless Charging System Page: 1 I. First of all. we would like to say a big thank you to our project advisor Dr. we would like to thank our friends for their support and encouragements. Tussanai P. We would also like to thank our parents for all the motivation and support they gave us every step of the way. We would also like to express our honors and respect to all the Lectures who did a great job by teaching us almost all the concepts we used in this project. h t t p : / / a u . who helped us through the project. Finally.

The basic design for the project was to use a two part device. The system will enable the cellphone to be placed on very close proximity with the transmitter to enable the charging. Power will be transferred wirelessly from the primary side to the secondary side where the charging will be enabled. with a base unit connected to AC power. The system operates at a resonance frequency of 125 kHz. e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i e t y . n e t . and a receiving end unit that is permanently attached to or integrated in the device. h t t p : / / a u . This system is based around inductive charging principles.ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Wireless Charging System Page: 2 II. ABSTRACTS This project describes the implementation of a wireless cellphone charger.

Following the work by Michael Faraday (1830). The concept of wireless power transfer can be traced back to 1820 when Andre-Marie Ampere developed his law which states that an electric current produces a magnetic field. With his circuit. The theory behind wireless power transfer is already detailed in the Maxwell’s equations. In Tesla’s experiment. We believe that many people have the same experience of lacking enough sockets for their electronic devices. from cell phones to electric cars. Wireless power is beginning to show great potential in the consumer market. which normally operate on battery power. The ability to power an electronic device without the use of wires provides a convenient solution for the users of portable devices and also gives designers the ability to develop more creative answers to problems. This technology’s benefits can be seen in the many portable devices. he was able to power wirelessly (without any physical interconnecting conductor) a light bulb. Inductive coupling is the method by which efficient and versatile wireless power can be achieved. Hertz (1888). Maxwell (1864) and Heinrich R. Thus by creating a wireless power transfer system.ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Wireless Charging System Page: 3 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION The idea of wireless power transfer originated from the inconvenience of having too many wires sharing a limited amount of power sockets. Nikola Tesla experimentally demonstrated wireless power transfer in 1891. n e t . ∇•D = ρ ∇•B = 0 h t t p : / / a u . he designed a resonant circuit that is able to couple a high frequency current into another resonant circuit of a similar structure. e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i e t y . James C. it would help clean up the clutter of wires around power sockets making the space more tidy and organized.

whereas the use of propagating electromagnetic wave (like transmission of microwave power through an antenna) is a far-field method. if a time-varying electric current can be generates. Therefore. Near-field method. the time-varying current will induces a time-varying magnetic field. and a time-varying electric flux generates a magnetic field. Tesla’s contribution lies on the design of a circuit than can generate/receive a time-varying magnetic field in free-space. the energy is more confined than far-field method. h t t p : / / a u .ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Wireless Charging System ∇× E = − ∇× H = J + ∂B ∂t ∂B ∂t Page: 4 The last two curl equations state that a time-varying magnetic flux generates an electric field. Tesla’s method is actually a near-field method. n e t . It shall be emphasized that Tesla’s method is not based on the direct transfer of energy through the use of propagating electromagnetic wave. The two methods differ by the transmission range as well as the angular coverage of the system. though has a shorter range. e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i e t y . or an AC voltage across a receiving load. This time-changing magnetic field can “somehow” be picked up and induce a time-varying electric field.

Frequencies at which the response amplitude is a relative maximum are known as the system's resonant frequencies. therefore enabling the receiver side to fully function. an alternating electromagnetic field due to an alternating current in a transmitting system of coils enables voltage to be induced in the receiving coil. Basically. This is based on Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. we used a step down transformer. which is then induced in the receiver coil. e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i e t y .ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Wireless Charging System Page: 5 CHAPTER 2: THEORY AND DESIGN Power source In order to power the primary circuit we fed 6-12Vdc into the circuit and to implement this. or resonance frequencies. Magnetic coupling In an inductive power transfer system. In physics. 1 The output current of the above circuit is about 50mA. as the current is moving in the transmitter coil a magnetic field is created. n e t . resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate at the greater amplitude at some frequencies than at others. 22VAC is fed into this power supply circuit and the output is 12VDC. At these h t t p : / / a u .

filters). distinct. electromagnetic resonance. nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i e t y . L. The power transfer efficiency can be maximized by adjusting parameters such as R. When damping is small.ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Wireless Charging System Page: 6 frequencies. called damping. there are some losses from cycle to cycle. n e t . Resonance phenomena occur with all types of vibrations or waves: there is mechanical resonance. because the system stores vibrational energy. the resonant frequency is approximately equal to the natural frequency of the system. musical instruments). Resonance occurs when a system is able to store and easily transfer energy between two or more different storage modes (such as kinetic energy and potential energy in the case of a pendulum).g. Some systems have multiple. resonant frequencies. which is a frequency of unforced vibrations. h t t p : / / a u . or pick out specific frequencies from a complex vibration containing many frequencies (e. Resonance was recognized by Galileo Galilei with his investigations of pendulums and musical strings beginning in 1602. Resonant systems can be used to generate vibrations of a specific frequency (e. It is also essential that the both circuits are tuned to the same frequency. electron spin resonance (ESR) and resonance of quantum wave functions.g. C of coils and RL value in the tuned circuit. However. even small periodic driving forces can produce large amplitude oscillations. acoustic resonance.

that are frequently used near or even in water.ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Wireless Charging System Page: 7 Inductive charging Inductive charging is used for charging mid-sized items such as cell phones. When the device requires a charge. inductive charging is one kind of short-distance wireless energy transfer. e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i e t y . rather than having to connect a power cable. which stores the energy in the batteries. n e t . Implementations using lower frequencies or older drive technologies charge more slowly and generate heat for most portable electronics. Inductive charging makes charging mobile devices more convenient. the device can be placed on a charge plate. In inductive charging. the technology is nonetheless commonly used in some electric toothbrushes and wet/dry electric shavers. Disadvantages: One disadvantage of inductive charging is its lower efficiency and increased ohmic (resistive) heating in comparison to direct contact. Inductive charging also requires drive electronics and coils that increase manufacturing complexity and cost Page: 8 Primary side h t t p : / / a u . when compared with conductive charging. Because there is a small gap between the two coils. such as toothbrushes and shavers. A charging station sends energy through inductive coupling to an electrical device. partly for the advantage that the battery contacts can be completely sealed to prevent exposure to water. MP3 players and PDAs. for instance. Inductive charging uses the electromagnetic field to transfer energy between two objects. The ability to fully enclose the charging connection also makes the approach attractive where water impermeability is required. inductive charging is used for implanted medical devices that require periodic or even constant external power. and for electric hygiene devices. an adapter equipped with contact points is attached to the device's back plate. because there are no exposed conductors. which is plugged into a socket Advantages: Inductive charging carries a far lower risk of electrical shock. it is placed on a conductive charging pad.

e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i e t y . and we have numbered the four diodes so we can identify them individually. but one end or the other will always be close to ground. and this rectifier circuit is similarly known as a bridge rectifier. The diamond configuration of the four diodes is the same as the resistor configuration in a Wheatstone bridge. n e t . you'll find that the connections to the diodes are the same. To understand how the bridge rectifier can pass current to a load in only one direction. If you compare this circuit with the dual-polarity full-wave rectifier above. This is not usually a problem in modern circuits. During the positive half-cycle. any set of components in this configuration is identified as some sort of bridge. consider the figure below. Figure 2: The Primary Side Circuit Secondary Side The induced signal in the receiver coil is rectified through the rectifier circuit. Here we have placed a simple resistor as the load. The only change is that we have removed the center tap on the Secondary winding. the transformer pushes electrons from its bottom end. The four-diode rectifier circuit shown to the right serves very nicely to provide full-wave rectification of the ac output of a single transformer winding.ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Wireless Charging System The signal is fed into the primary circuit where oscillation is created therefore resulting in the sine wave being generated. Therefore. through a forward-biased diode. through D3 which is forward biased. and used the negative output as our ground reference instead. In fact. shown in red. This means that the transformer secondary is never directly grounded. the top end of the transformer winding is positive with respect to the bottom half. and through the load resistor in the direction shown by the h t t p : / / a u .

In automobile alternators and central power station generator plants. so they do not conduct any current. Electronic voltage regulators are found in devices such as computer power supplies where they stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements. D1 and D4 are forward biased. It may use an electromechanical mechanism. e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i e t y . At the same time. the diodes keep switching the transformer connections to the resistor so that current always flows in only one direction through the resistor. voltage regulators may be installed at Page: 10 a substation or along distribution lines so that all customers receive steady voltage independent of how much power is drawn from the line. and from there to the top of the transformer winding. In this manner. electrons move through D1. A voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative feedback control loops. n e t . Now.ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Wireless Charging System Page: 9 red arrows. the resistor. A voltage regulator is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. This forms a complete circuit. and D2 and D3 are reverse biased. D1 and D4 are reverse biased. We can replace the resistor with any other circuit. In an electric power distribution system. so current can indeed flow. CHAPTER 3: FABRICATION AND CONSTRUCTION h t t p : / / a u . or electronic components. voltage regulators control the output of the plant. the top end of the transformer winding is negative. it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages. During the negative half-cycle. and D4 in the direction shown by the blue arrows. Electrons then continue through the forward-biased D2. Figure 3: Bridge Rectifier After rectification we have to regulate the voltage. including more power supply circuitry (such as the filter). and still see the same behavior from the bridge rectifier. Depending on the design. As with the positive half-cycle. Therefore. electrons move through the resistor from left to right.

The base unit also consumes low power when it is not charging a device. EXPERIMENTS AND EQUIPMENT h t t p : / / a u . specified range of voltage inputs. The adapter charges the device for a large. Output Wiring and Connector – The output of the charger to the devices DC input port. and prevents current spikes. The turns ratio is chosen to provide the appropriate voltage. Rectification – This block converts the induced AC power into DC power. e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i e t y . The difference in cost was made up by finding deals by sorting through vendors for the cheapest prices. The function of this device is to recognize and charge the cell phone when it is within a finite distance of the base unit. This provides the field necessary to power the charging system. Receiving Inductor – This block contains an inductor that captures energy from the EM field of the base inductor. This block also contains additional components necessary to filter the output. We try to make this charging process to be compatible with several rechargeable devices when connected through the adapter. n e t . The unit operates safely both when it is charging a device and while is it idle. This was strange Page: by because we modified our circuitry from the model for better operation11 adding more parts and replaced other with parts that were rated higher. CHAPTER 4: TESTS. Firstly. we were under the cost of our estimate. creating the primary half of a transformer. The wiring will be unobtrusive and sturdy. Voltage Regulation– This block converts the rectified DC power into a constant DC voltage. effectively completing the transformer.ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Wireless Charging System Figure 4: Block Diagram Block Descriptions: Transmitting Inductor – This block passes the high frequency AC power through an inductor.

e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i e t y . n e t .ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Wireless Charging System Main Description Component Quantity h t t p : / / a u .

ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Wireless Charging System Transmitter BJT Mosfet Driver Resistors (1 variable) Square Wave Generator Astable Capacitors 2N2222 IRFZ44N 1 1 6 NE555 1 2 5 1 7 3 4 3 Receiver Voltage Regulator Resistors Capacitors Diode Rectifier Capacitors (1 variable) Fast switching diode (schottky) Inductive wire 4 Copper Wire 20. n e t . 22. e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i e t y . 24 gauge 5 meters Coil/loop Antennas Frequency Changer Switches Capacitors AC-to-DC power converter Switches NMOS FET (IRFZ44N) Power plug 3 1 2 1 Page: 12 Diagrams: h t t p : / / a u .

e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i e t y . n e t Remark: There is no circuit at secondary side yet. We just measured only the coil. . So that is why the output from the first coil is in sine wave. The voltage that we got is about___ volts and we can measure the maximum distance at _____ cm. h t t p : / / a u . In fact. Figure 7: The output waveform from the transmitter inductance. but after we put the capacitance in parallel with the transmitter coil.ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Wireless Charging System Figure 5: The output from 555times (about 12V) square wave Figure 6: The circuit from Primary side that we were trying to get the output wave form. Page: 13 Figure 8: the figure shown the output waveform of Copper wire (20 Gauge). The LED indicated that the primary circuit is working properly. the input is square wave.

Remark: The output of Copper wire (24 Gauge) tend to give fluctuated waveform so we assumed that we are going to consider/experiment only both copper wire which are 20 and 22 gauges. Using this size of wire tend to be the best one because we can get the power at the rate we want. e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i e t y .ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Wireless Charging System Figure 9: the figure shown the output waveform of Copper wire (22 Gauge). n e t . The voltage that we got is about___ volts and we can measure the maximum distance at _____ cm. Remark: There is no circuit at secondary side yet. Page: 14 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSION h t t p : / / a u . We just measured only the coil.

a good impedance matching is recommended.com/dc-mag/Issue-1/issue%201-pg-4. we can make a multilayer coil which can be made planar for easy integration with device platform.html h t t p : / / a u . http://low-powerdesign. The low power transfer efficiency is due to the low current output at the voltage regulator. http://www. RECOMMEDATIONS For the future work. A good way to increase the current is to add a current amplifier after the voltage regulator so that the power is sufficient to charge the device. the transmission does transfer power the receiver side that an LED can be lighted up. In order to charge more different devices.com/id/Wireless-Power-Transmission-OverShort-Distances-U/ 2.instructables. References 1. http://www. To reduce the size of the coil.wikipedia.discovercircuits.org/ 3.com/article_TI-Qi.ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Wireless Charging System The wireless transmission unit is not able to function as our design that we expect to see the unit can charge a battery. However. n e t . e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i e t y .htm 4. there are many ways to improve the wireless power transmission. http://www.

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