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Electrical Presentation 1 Pps2

Electrical Presentation 1 Pps2

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12/11/2012

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Electrical

Module 1

Basic Electrical Circuit
I Current

V Source of EMF

R Resistance

Basic Terms
• Current • Voltage • Resistance

Ohm’s Law

I

V R

Capacitors A C =ε d .

Magnetic Field .

Coil .

Inductors. Capacitors & ac • Ac circuits have continuously changing values of voltage and current • Inductors and capacitors continuously oppose these changes • Opposition to current is called reactance • Measured in ohms X L = 2ΠfL 1 XC = 2ΠfC .

Reactance Voltages & Currents VX L = I X L × X L VX C = I X C × X C .

Terminology AC Current (I) Resistance R XL XC Reactance Impedance .

Resistors Current (I) R + Potential Source (V) Series Circuit R R R R R Potential Source (V) + R Parallel Circuit With all 6 Resistances the same value (R) Current would be 6 times more that of 1 resistance (R) R R R R R Current (I) With all 6 Resistances the same value (R) Current would be 6 times less that of 1 resistance (R) .

Capacitor in a DC circuit Current (I) = 0 + Potential Source (V) C - Capacitors will not pass DC Current .

Capacitive Transients VC VC or IC Capacitor Dis-Charging VC Capacitor Charging IC Time .

Inductor in a DC circuit Current (I) = unlimited + Potential Source (V) L Inductors are a Short circuit to DC Current .

Inductor Transients IL VL or IL VL Time .

Sine curves and phasors V1 V 1 .

Phasor Diagram V2 V2 V1 θ V1 V2 Leads V1 by θ .

Resistive Circuit V I I V .

Series & Parallel Inductors Current (I) V L L L AC Potential Gen Source (V) Series Circuit L L L AC Potential Gen Source (V) L L L L L L Current (I) V Parallel Circuit With all 6 Inductances the same value (L) Current would be 6 times more that of 1 Inductance (L) With all 6 Inductances the same value (L) Current would be 6 times less that of 1 Inductance (L) In both circuits the Current will lag the Voltage by 1/4 cycle .

Inductive Phasors V I 90º I V .

Series & Parallel Capacitors Current (I) Current (I) V AC Potential Gen Source (V) Series Circuit C AC Potential Gen Source (V) C C C C C C C C V C C C Parallel Circuit With all 6 Capacitances (C) the same value With all 6 Capacitances (C) the same value Current would be 6 times more Current would be 6 times less that of 1 Capacitance that of 1 Capacitance In both circuits the Current will lead the Voltage by 1/4 cycle .

Capacitive Phasors V I I 90º V .

Phasors for a typical circuit ≈25° I V .

Resistor and Inductor in Series .

Impedance Triangle Z θ R=20Ω XL=10Ω What is the impedance of the circuit? What is the phase angle? .

Acrostic V comes before (leads) I in an Inductor CI V I L I comes before (leads) V in a Capacitor .

Power Power Supplied P=V x I I V Voltage reaquired to force current through resistor V=I x R ~ R Power transformed to heat P= I 2 x R .

Power wave in a resistive circuit .

Power in a capacitive circuit .

Power in an inductive circuit .

Power in a real circuit .

Power Triangle Watts Apparent Power XL Reactive Power Vars θ Active Power Volts-Amperes .

Direction of magnetic field .

Motor Action .

Electromagnetic Induction .

Transformer .

Motor .

Motor .

Series Motor .

Basic Generator .

Generation of Sinusoidal Voltage .

Spinning Magnet .

Three phase Generation .

Field and Stator Windings C o f Stato r & Ro to r L Dire ction of Rota tion of Roto r Vo ltag e E be ing in du ced in s tato r con du ctors F Roto r Con du ctors Roto r Flux .

3 Phase Connections .

Grounded Star .

Magnetic Circuit Losses • Hysteresis • Eddy currents .

Saturation Curve .

For you to do .

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