Chapter 1 Introduction Page No. 1 1 2 2

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

General Objective and Significance of the Study Scopes and Limitations Organization of the study Literature Review

Chapter 2 2.1 2.2

2.3 2.4 2.5

2.6 2.7 2.8

Introduction Steel Angles 2.2.1 Types of Steel Angles (available) 2.2.2 Designation of the Steel Angles 2.2.3 Materials Used for Producing Steel Angles End Plates Ultimate Load Capacity of Structural Steel Members Development of Column Buckling Theory 2.5.1 Elastic Buckling 2.5.2 Inelastic Buckling Eccentrically Loaded Column Theory-Historical Development Conventional Formulas to Determine Ultimate Load Capacity of Structural Steel Angles Previous Research Methodology for Finite Element Analysis

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Chapter 3 3.1 3.2 3.3

3.4

3.5 3.6

3.7

Introduction The Finite Element Packages Finite Element Modeling of the Structure 3.3.1 Modeling of Steel Angle and End Plates 3.3.2 Material Properties Types of Buckling Analyses 3.4.1 Non-linear Buckling Analysis 3.4.2 Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis Finite Element Model Parameters Meshing 3.6.1 Meshing of the End Plate 3.6.2 Meshing of the Steel Angle Boundary Conditions 3.7.1 Restraints 3.7.2 Load

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Chapter 4

Results and Discussions

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4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

Introduction Test of Bathon et al (1993) Major Features of Present Analysis Presentation of Results Discussion on Results Conclusion

Chapter 5 5.1 5.2 5.3

General Outcomes of the Study Future Scopes and Recommendations

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References Appendix ANSYS Script Used in this Analysis

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List of tables
Page No. Table 3.1: Table 3.2: Table 4.1: SHELL181 Input Summary Various input parameters Typical representative test results for various single equalleg angles Table 4.2: The position of applied load “g” for the angle sections used in present analysis Table 4.3: Table 4.4: Table 4.5: Table 4.6: Critical stress for different l/r ratio for angle: 44 x 44 x 3 Critical stress for different l/r ratio for angle: 51x 51x 3 Critical stress for different l/r ratio for angle: 89x 89x 6 Critical stress for different l/r ratio for angle: 102x102x6 40 41 42 43 39 26 32 38

List of figures
Page No. 4

Figure 2.1:

Four-legged electrical transmission tower (pylon) with single steel angle

Figure 2.2: Figure 2.3: Figure 2.4: Figure 2.5:

Typical images of roof trusses Image of single equal leg angle members Image of single unequal leg members A single steel angle cross section of designation L A x B x C

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Figure 2.6: Figure 2.7: Figure 2.8:

An ideally pinned column Column stress as function of slenderness Enjesser’s Basic Tangent-Modulus Theory (in terms of a typical stress vs. strain curve)

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Figure 2.9:

Shanley’s Theory of Inelastic Buckling

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Figure 2.10: Critical buckling load vs. transverse deflection (w) Figure 2.11: Two possible stress distributions for columns according to Jezek’s Approach Figure 2.12: Details of end connections (a) Two –bolt configuration

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(b) Three-bolt configuration (c) Five-bolt configuration

Figure 3.1:

General sketch of a single steel angle with end plates at its both ends subjected to eccentric load

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Figure 3.2: Figure 3.3: Figure 3.4: Figure 3.5: Figure 3.6: Figure 3.7: Figure 3.8: Figure 3.9:

SHELL181 Geometry Bilenear kinematic hardening Buckling Curves Nonlinear vs. Eigenvalue Buckling Behavior “Snap Through” Buckling Newton - Raphson Method Arc-Length Methodology Arc-Length Convergence Behavior

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Figure 3.10:

Preliminary model of a single steel angle connected to end plates at its both ends (prior to meshing)

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Figure 3.11: Finite elements mesh of the steel angle with end plates at its both ends Figure 3.12: Finite elements mesh with loads and boundary conditions Figure 3.13: Typical deflected shape of the model Figure 3.14: Typical deflection versus load curve obtained from nonlinear buckling analysis of the steel angle with end plates at its both ends. Figure 4.1: :Cross-section dimensions for test performed by Bathon et al (1993) Figure 4.2: Figure 4.3: Figure 4.4: Figure 4.5: Figure 4.6: Experimental results (buckling curve) for 102x102x6 angle Critical Stress vs l /r ratio for 44x44x3 angle Critical Stress vs l /r ratio for 51x51x3 angle Critical Stress vs l /r ratio for 89x89x6 angle Critical Stress vs l /r ratio for 102x102x6 angle

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