A Study of the Impact of Values and Lifestyles (VALS) on Brand Loyalty with Special Reference to English Newspapers

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C.Anandan1, M.Prasanna Mohanraj 2 & S.Madhu3
Abstract Indian Newspaper Industry is witnessing high growth, despite the rise of the Internet and of telecommunications as viable sources of information. Earlier all the newspapers thought that the opportunity for them was within their own geographical area. But, in coming years publishers will be spending over Rs.1000 crores to invade into other’s territories. Unless the publishers recognize the preferences of readers, it would be unlikely that they would succeed in winning the hearts of the customers. This research makes an attempt to recognize the preferences and segment the readers of the English newspapers based on their psychographic profiles by using VALS. VALS is a way of viewing people on the basis of their attitudes, needs, wants, beliefs and demographics. This research also analyzes the influence of psychographic factors on brand loyalty based on Brand loyalty scale and suggests the psychographic segments to be targeted by the brands to sustain in the competitive Market environment. Different types of market dominance strategies for various market positions are also explored.

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INTRODUCTION

Indian newspaper industry is witnessing high growth. Earlier, all newspaper owners thought that opportunity was only within their own geographical area. This situation is changing and publishers are spending thousands of crores to
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invade each other’s territories. The newspaper market is bound to grow. New brands are coming into different territories. Unless the publishers recognise the preferences of readers, they would not be in a position to win the hearts of the customers.

Received January 30, 2006, Revised August 8, 2006. Director, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Institute of Textile Management, Coimbatore, e-mail: canandrec@yahoo.co.in & director@svpitm.ac.in Lecturer in Bharathidasan Institute of Management (BIM), Tiruchirapalli, e-mail: prasanna@bim.edu & prasannasai_nitt@yahoo.co.in Business Analyst in Satyam Computer Services Ltd at Chennai, e-mail: Madhu_Sathiyaseelan@satyam.com

the current VALS system creates an explicit link between personality traits and purchase behaviour. For many years. it also captures the psychological and material constraints on consumer behaviour (Cyber Media Research). The system identifies current and future opportunities by segmenting the consumer marketplace on the basis of the personality traits that drive consumer behaviour. such as. demographics have governed how communicators target campaigns. 1. . and people in a specific demographic category have a wide range of attitudes. Defining the profile of the readers by looking beyond the demographic factors will assist the newspapers to design their marketing strategies in a much better way. This study makes an attempt at recognize the preferences and the profiles of readers of English newspapers. VALS applies in all phases of the marketing process. VALS uses psychology to analyze the dynamics underlying consumer preferences and choices. VALS specifically defines consumer segments on the basis of those personality traits that affect behaviour in the marketplace. the result is a psychographic segmentation. XIMB Journal of Management When looking for a newspaper. When attitudes.1 Values And Lifestyles (VALS) VALS is a way of viewing people on the basis of their attitudes. The VALS program was created by the SRI International in 1978 in an attempt to understand people’s personality through their behaviours amid the changing values and lifestyles in 1970’s. This is how study into values and life styles becomes relevant.(see Figure -1) Schiffmen (2004) points out that VALS was redefined to maximize its ability to predict consumer behaviour in 1989. There are multiple motivations for a behaviour. needs. The problem is that even though individuals in a specific demographic category share some common characteristic. The basic tenet of VALS is that people express their personalities through their behaviours.By using psychology to analyze and predict consumer preferences and choices. VALS reflects a real-world pattern that explains the relationship between personality traits and consumer behaviour. from new-product development and entry-stage targeting to communications strategy and advertising. Using psychographics can help communicators improve the quality and accountability of their campaigns by zeroing in on the most receptive audience for their message. sex or income. motivations and beliefs are not homogeneous. motivations. communicators must send relevant messages to those who are most receptive. wants. age. VALS uses psychology to segment people according to their distinct personality traits. At a time when communication overload is common among all audiences. VALS not only distinguishes differences in motivation. beliefs and demographics. people are interested in papers which correspond to their beliefs and with which they can identify themselves. the psychographics of these group like values.98 Vilakshan. personality characteristics and belief systems are analysed mathematically or statistically to determine groups with substantially different attitudes.

99 Morgan and Doran (2003) argue that psychographic segmentation. which have cultivated ardent followers. moving his or her work from that of an inexact art to an exact science. 1.expression Primary Motivation Ideals Achievement ACHIEVERS THINKERS EXPERIENCERS BELIVERS STRIVERS MAKERS SURVIVORS Low Resources Low Innovation . the survivors. and change the communicator into a strategist rather than a tactician. if used to design and implement a communication strategy... to the bottom part with least resources and low motivation. In-between are Thinkers (more resources) and believers (less resources) motivated by ideals . Their customers do not change brands for certain extra attributes of competitor brand or some extra services or benefits. the innovators. are always successful.2 Significance of Brand Loyalty The success of any brand largely depends on the ability to retain the customers and maintain the brand loyalty towards it. The eight segments of VALS system range from the top with most resources and high motivation. All the customer relationship management and marketing strategies are aimed at retaining the customers. can result in more effective and efficient campaigns.Framework INNOVATORS High Resources High Innovation Self. Brand loyalists are less price-sensitive and this reflects in the Figure -1: Figure showing VALS SEGMENTS VALS . achievers( more resources) and strivers( less resources) motivated by achievement and experiencers (more resources) and makers( less resources) motivated by self expression. Brands.Anandan et al. A Study on The Impact of .

In the light of this information. It occurs because the consumer perceives that the brand offers the right product features. 2004) Brand loyalty has a direct and obvious impact on corporate profitability and marketing efficiency.” Robert. To exemplify this point. and usually improves the hit rate on new product development via product and line extensions. which would enable them to make the best use of customer lifetime value. they assert that a repeat purchase behaviour “is the actual rebuying of a brand” whereas loyalty includes “antecedents” or a reason or fact occurring before the behaviour. Reynolds and Kristy (2004) describes the “ultimate committed customer” within the category of “committed buyers. image. Allen. The concept of brand loyalty may be viewed as a behaviour resulting from positive attitudes and perceived value. and Arch (1984) defines Values . Auburn University) According to Bloemer and Kasper (1995).” as the Harley-Davidson rider who wears the Harley symbol as a tattoo. Traditional approaches to brand loyalty have stressed the importance of the fact that it is less expensive to maintain existing consumers than to get new ones. In their published research. or level of quality at the right price (Bill Nissim). Karen and Kleine (1992) describe the Consumer as the latent variable that links emotions and values in consumption experiences. Pitts. The highest of these is the “committed buyer. Aaker(1991) describes the five levels of brand loyalty. with the marketing literature presenting different aspects of the concept. they rendered a distinction between repeat purchases and actual brand loyalty. improves margins and market share. brand loyalty implies that consumers bind themselves to products or services as a result of a deep-seated commitment. Emotions supplement attitude in predicting consumption behaviour. XIMB Journal of Management brand’s equity also. Strong brand loyalty leads to improvements in the acquisition and retention of profitable customers. Robert Jr.3 Values and Life Style (Vals) and Loyalty Emotions and values are related in consumption experiences. Marketers have always believed that brand loyalty would lead them to customer relationships. Consumers who are loyal to a brand are likely to spend more on it and also likely to spread the positive word of mouth to other consumers. Thus brand loyalty enables long term standing in the market place and reduces the cost of acquiring new customers as well as the minimising the cost of servicing for the existing customers. The very concept of loyalty seems to have become a dynamic one. thus becoming advocates of the brand (Ramesh Kumar. Brand loyalty also enables the marketer to sail through tough times and in estimating the demand. 1. Brand loyalty is an important asset contributing to a brand’s equity. it is clear that brand loyalty can be an important factor in the success of a company.100 Vilakshan.(National Textile Center.

beliefs. Marketers use VALS to understand why consumers make the choices they do. People have different norms. such as repeated purchase of particular product or brand or participating in a loyalty program (SRI consulting Business Intelligence). Clawson. According to Holbrook and Morris (1986) emotions and values are intertwined in consumption. PROFILE OF THE NEWSPAPERS 2. namely. Vizag. Bangalore.is a way of viewing people on the basis of their attitudes. Vijayawada. the better they can design messages that resonate with the target. The more marketers know about the target. Kochi. to deliver something that satisfies the customer and to give the customer an incentive to be loyal. became a daily in 1889 and from then on has been steadily growing to the current circulation of over 9 lakh copies and a readership of over 3 million . It has also published many books. By using VALS. Mangalore and Tiruchirapalli which are connected with high speed data lines for news transmission across the country. Madurai. Thiruvanathapuram.short for values and lifestyles . The Hindu. New Delhi. 2. The Times of India and The New Indian express have been taken. For this research study. . and demographics. the leading National level English newspapers operating in South India. Coimbatore.1 The Hindu The Hindu started in 1878 as a weekly. VALS . Values may prove to be one of the most powerful explanations of. 101 as an abstract and complex construct that can provide underlying continuity to behaviour. Front line (Fortnightly magazine) and sport star (Sports magazine).It has achieved third largest English newspaper in the readership.. despite the rise of the Internet and of telecommunications as viable sources of information. and influences on. The Hindu also publishes Business Line (Business Newspaper). About the Newspaper Industry Newspaper has always been one of the most important providers of news and entertainment.. Consequently. The value expressed in a consumption experience is the result of the emotions that accompany the consumption experience. product classification. and beliefs. product attributes. It is printed in twelve centres namely.Anandan et al. and Vinson (1978) express the importance of values in predicting the consumer behaviour that values can surpass the contributions of other major constructs including attitudes. Chennai (Madras). values. Both public television and radio of United States track customer loyalty using the VALS Psychographic segmentation system developed by SRI Consulting (Susan Myrland) 1. Hyderabad. it is important for newspapers to be able to tie customers to them. marketers can understand the motivations that stimulate consumer behaviour. A Study on The Impact of . consumer behaviour. Values drive loyalty because they meet the deep-rooted emotional needs of consumers. degree of deliberating. and life style. wants. needs.4.

it is the largest newspaper in the country with a strong national presence. Accordingly the objectives of the study were as follows: • To study the profile of the customers of the newspaper (English) market based on psychographic lifestyles by using VALS. To develop the brand loyalty scale of customers and to measure the loyalty. Malayalam Vaarika in Malayalam and Tamilan Express in Tamil. NEED FOR THE STUDY & STUDY OBJECTIVES • • 4. It is published from Mumbai. Dinamani in Tamil and Kannada Prabha in Kannada. Bangalore. and also magazines. Kerala. Segmentation based on traditional variables may not be sufficient in the competitive market therefore in order to facilitate the segmentation of the Newspaper market (English) we need to find out the different profiles of the customers based on values and lifestyles and finally we need to explicit the influence of psychographic factors on brand loyalty. Delhi. Sandhya Times and Times FM. Karnataka. otherwise they could not win the hearts of the customers. Navbharat Times. published by Express Publications (Madurai) ltd. 000 In this study descriptive research design was followed in this research because the information collected was intended to be used to describe the customers profile based on the Values and life styles and to explore the relationship between their lifestyle and brand loyalty. Publishers in India are ready to spend over Rs 1. and also Orissa. and is expected to grow to around US$ 2.102 Vilakshan. It has a major presence in the four southern states of Tamil Nadu. Cinema Express in Tamil. 2005). The group also publishes newspaper. Andhra Pradesh. the basic need is to recognize the preferences and the profiles of readers.4billion in 2008. The group also publishes Economic Times. (Business World. it is estimated that the news paper industry in India is around US$1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The New Indian Express.7 billion in 2003. 2. Filmfare. The Times of India is rated amongst the world’s six best newspapers and attracts a daily circulation level of more than a million copies. To find out the relationship between Psychographic profile of the customer and brand loyalty.2 The Times of India The Times of India was launched in Bombay in 1838. There are a lot of new brands coming into different territories. Owned by Bennett. Femina. It is India’s most widely circulated English daily and the group’s premier mega-brand. Lucknow and Patna. 3. is printed in fourteen centres. Ltd. Coleman & Co. Therefore. XIMB Journal of Management 2. 4. .3 The New Indian Express crore to invade each other’s territories. Ahmedabad.1 Research Design According to a Price water house Coopers (PwC) survey for the year 2003.

The opinion on loyalty was taken from the pilot study.2 Sampling Technique Fixed quota sampling has been adopted for the three newspapers as stated earlier.98 280 . The formula for estimating the sample size (n0 ) is given below: Z 2 p (1 − p ) n0 = e2 Where Z is the level of confidence desired. Sample size was determined using the “sample size determination for a proportion method”.28 )(339776 ) = 279 .. The Total sample size of 300 customers is divided into three equal quotas as follows: Brands Times of India The Hindu The New Indian Express Sample size 100 100 100 4.28 + (339776 − 1) The actual sample size is estimated as 280..76 is applied in the equation to estimate the sample size. the sample size has been fixed on the higher side as 300. with the permitted error of 0.96 (95% confidence level). A pilot study was conducted with 60 respondents (they are not included in the main study) and the data were used for determining the sample size. Samples have been collected from the cities of Trichy and Bangalore. Here. N referred to the Population. p is the true proportion of success (brand loyal customers) and e is the error permitted. Hence. Since there are three newspapers and it is decided to use ‘fixed quota sampling’ (so that enough responses will be obtained from the intended target audience). e = 0.4 Statistical tools n0 N n= n0 + (N − 1) The sample size was estimated at 95% confidence level.Anandan et al. Z = 1. Factor analysis was conducted using 36 VALS items from SRI to uncover the dimensions underlying the perception of life-style indices. For adjusting the sample size for the population by applying the correction factor.3 Determining the Sample Size figure of newspapers in study area has been taken as the Population. the actual sample size (n) is calculated as below: n0 = n= (1. The ‘p’ was defined as the proportion of the respondent who were brand loyalists.05 and p=0.05. The responses were sought with regard to brand loyalty in terms of number of purchase.962 ) 0. .76) = 280 . 4. the circulation The data obtained for the study was analyzed by using “Factor analysis” for identification of Psychographic segments. 103 4.76(1 − 0.28 0. Exponential cluster analysis is also used with factor analysis for profiling the customers. A Study on The Impact of .052 (280 .

Factor 4: Experiencers consisted of three items reflecting how this life-style group liked excitement.2.1 The Hindu The following table depicts the various VALS segments of The Hindu Readers. The Hindu. FINDINGS 5.104 Vilakshan. Because they have such abundant resources. Segments Percentage of readers in the segments 40% 35% 20% 5% Innovators Strivers Achievers Survivors Innovators are the major part of The Hindu customers followed by Strivers. culture and history. Factor 8: Makers consisted of two items classifying the people in this group as those who are interested in making the things in their own way. Thus 36 variables (VALS statements) were then loaded on the five factors. they exhibit all three primary motivations in varying degrees. each having Eigen value greater than unity. They are . Factor 2: Strivers contained four items describing people of this group as trendy.1 VALS Segments Factor analysis using varimax rotation resulted in finding eight derived factors. fashionable and fun loving. In the rotated factor matrix. Factor 3: Achievers contained three items characterising themselves as change-leaders and people with high self-esteem. income are modest but sufficient to meet their needs. they concern very much about the opinion and approval of others. Factor 5: Survivors comprised three items classifying people in this group as those who are limited and with less resources and living narrowly focused lives. Their education.50 (ignoring the signs) are grouped under their respective derived factors. XIMB Journal of Management 5. They favour stylish products. (Rotated Factor matrix shown in annexure I) Factor 1: Innovators consisted of four items reflecting how this lifestyle group enjoying the finer things receptive to new products and technology and they are frequent readers of wide publication. based on their lifestyles. sophisticated. take-charge people with high self-esteem. Factor 6: Believers consisted of three items depicting people in this group as conservative and conventional. The Times of India and The New Indian Express. thrill. those variables which had factor loading of above 0. 5. Innovators are successful. 5. As they are motivated. Their primary concern was safety. Factor 7: Thinkers consisted only one item classifying people in this group as those who are interested in art.2 Customers Profile Newspapers of English Exponential cluster analysis is used for profiling the customers of three English Newspapers. namely. new things and challenges.

community. family. community and the nation. Strivers are active consumers because shopping is both a The New Indian Express is enjoying the rapport with the segments of Believers and Makers. they favour stylish products that emulate the purchases of people with greater material wealth. 2004) The New Indian express is having rich heritage of journalism and providing the news in a conservative and traditional . organised in large part around home. the Business Newspaper coming from The Hindu publishing house. which is having the readership of 2. It is evident that most of the customers prefer the Hindu because of its image. Image is important to Innovators.2 The Times of India Segments Percentage of readers in the segments 45% 30% 15% 5% 5% social activity and an opportunity to demonstrate to peers their ability to buy. and their purchases reflect cultivated tastes for upscale. Innovators are very active consumers. The New Indian Express. But. followed by Achievers and Survivors in that order. Because they are motivated by achievement. Times of India is having strong youth image and also pioneer in making page 3 culture. 20.. conventional people with concrete beliefs based on traditional. Many Believers express moral codes that are deeply rooted and literally interpreted.. 105 change leaders and are the most receptive to new ideas and technologies. They have made the Business line. niche products and services. established codes: family.Anandan et al. the Times of India and the Hindu do not have the markable presence in these segments.2. A Study on The Impact of . religion. They are conservative.2. 5. as one of the largest business newspapers in India(Source: Agencyfaqs) Strivers hold the second major part of the Hindu customers. So they have extended their preferences across the various categories of publications such as magazines and books. It has a track record of attracting the youth through ‘infotainment’ (Source: Agencyfaqs) 5. 000 compared to above-mentioned two dailies (Saha. They follow established routines. and social or religious organizations to which they belong. Believers are motivated by ideals. They will read different categories of publications. Strivers are trendy and fun loving.3 The New Indian Express Segments Percentage of readers in the segments 25% 20% 35% 15% 5% Strivers Innovators Believers Makers Achievers Strivers Innovators Experiencers Achievers Thinkers Strivers are the major bases of customers of the Times of India followed by Innovators.

8. purchase) expressed over time by some decision-making unit with respect to one or more alternative brands and is a function of psychological (decisionmaking) processes. non random). based on observing consistent purchases of a brand over a period of time and the upstream approach.. 5. Believers and Thinkers are the segments showing hard-core loyalty (100%) towards their newspapers. Based on above definition. the following formula was developed which links attitude toward the favourite brand and purchase behaviour. Amine (1998) suggests two different approaches for measuring brand loyalty: the downstream one. So Indian Express is holding very strong base among the believers who need the traditional and conservative newspaper. 4.. Highly reliable and credible source Unbiased News presentation I am enhancing my language / fluency by reading this paper Wide coverage of political and sports news. Jacoby and Chestnut. This method has taken both attitudinal and behavioural component together 5. 3. 5.3 Measurement of Brand Loyalty 2. 7.e.106 Vilakshan. Strivers and Achievers are .e. which focuses on the motives that are behind repeat purchase of a brand. behavioural response (i. Loyalty scale Least loyal customers Less loyal customers Loyal customers Strong loyal customers Loyalty scores 20 – 39% 40-59% 60-79% 80-100% The customers are showing the loyalty towards newspapers across all the values and life styles segments. XIMB Journal of Management manner. Innovators. (1978) define Brand Loyalty as biased (i.1 Loyalty Scores of VALS Segments Brand loyalty scale is developed based on Brand loyalty score calculated from the above formula. Brand loyalty Proportion of S attitude towards purchase of = favourite brand X favourite brandover 40 the last ten occasions The following attitude statements are evaluated on five point likert scale reflecting the Readers attitude toward their favourite newspaper are: 1. The segment of Makers is less loyal relative to other segments.3. More entertaining and colourful pictures High print quality and easy to read I love this newspaper I will recommend this paper to my friends/relatives The behavioural component of brand loyalty can be found by calculating the proportion of buying the Newspaper. 6. Experiencers.

107 The loyalty scale for the three newspapers Times of India Least loyal Less loyal Loyal Strong loyal 15% 5% 30% 50% The Hindu —10% 45% 45% The New Indian Express 10% 5% 60% 25% showing strong loyalty (81%-89%) towards their newspapers. Strivers are the major bases of customers of The Times of India. Times of India is having strong youth image and also pioneer in making Page 3 culture. they look for durability. market challenger. The characteristics of VALS segment are found to be similar with the findings of study related to loyalty. This framework suggests four types of market dominance strategies.. and value in the products they buy. ..Anandan et al. The New Indian Express is having the highest percentage The strategic framework is developed for the newspaper marketers. 7. Market leaders have to defend their Market share by retaining the existing customers. glossy and entertaining newspaper. These strategies are primarily answering two following questions: Which VALS segment to be targeted for each of the above categories? What are the strategies to target these segments? These questions are answered below.II 6. The table showing the Loyalty scores of VALS segments is shown in Annexure. practical consumers. and market nicher for a marketer to consider. Believers are conservative. SUGGESTIONS This study comes out with psychographic profile of customers of the three leading newspapers. This study found that brand image of these Newspapers goes hand-inhand with Psychographic profile of their customers. market follower. functionality. Market leader should have strong customer base of Thinkers and Believers. modern. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY of (60%) of loyal customers as it is having 35% of Believers in its customer’s base. So Times of India is utilising their Psychographic profile of strong Strivers base to project their brand image of suave. They are concerned about the opinions and approval of others. namely. Strivers are trendy and fun loving. 7. It has substantial market share and often-extensive distribution arrangements with retailers. This study also found that all Believers are strong loyal customers. It typically is the industry leader in developing innovative new business models and new products. They are generally loyal customers.1 Market Leader Starategies The market leader is dominant in its industry. A Study on The Impact of . market leader.

colorful pictures. Many of them seek to be stylish. Innovators are holding second major customer base of this newspaper. Times London and The Guardian. They tend to base their decisions on firmly held principles. more vulnerable competitors. It can start to target the Innovators as they extend their support and preference to other category of publications. The Hindu may start to target these segments. Believers will prefer newspapers with rich content in regional news. Rising disposable income among youth will influence the rise of strivers.000 copies and a readership of over 3 million. career fair etc.108 Vilakshan. The Times of India is the pioneer in creating the page 3 culture by targeting the strivers. Strivers hold the second major part of “The Hindu” readers. if they are really satisfied with content. From the findings it is found that Times of India is relatively having less loyal customer base compared to other two newspapers . Newspapers can target these segment by having the exclusive supplements for covering the regional news. And they are concerned about the opinions and approval of others. they have to target Believers and Thinkers to increase the loyalty base. as they are alert to opportunities to broaden their knowledge. It typically targets the industry leader. They follow the established routine.2 Market Challenger Starategies A market challenger is a firm in a strong. mature and satisfied customers who look for durability and value in the products they buy. The Times of India has been certified by the Audit Bureau of Circulations as having become the world’s largest selling English broadsheet newspaper ahead of giants like USA Today and Wall Street Journal. So. but it could also target smaller.As a Market leader. Now The Hindu is conducting the educational fair. XIMB Journal of Management A Market leader in Newspaper have to enhance its presence among Thinkers for following reasons: Thinkers are conservative. The Hindu may come out with the sections or supplements dealt with entertainment. The Hindu will get the Advertisements from the advertisers whose target audience are youth. Believers are conventional and loyal customers who prefer established brand in any product category. Even they refer the brand to their friends/relatives. But they don’t have significant presence of Believers and thinkers. and stories about the latest trends in fashions. 7. So they are very hard targets for competitors. which will make the brand travel towards cult status. They are fashion victims(Source: Scarborough Research ). Newspapers with rich content in national and international news will be welcomed thinkers. With more than 2. The Hindu has been steadily growing to the current circulation of over 900. Strivers are the vulnerable segment to be targeted by Market followers. but not dominant position that is following an aggressive strategy of trying to gain market share. Strivers are impulsive and easily bored. Thinkers and Believers are the segments who will be cult followers of the Brand.4 million copies sold every day. Similarly it may conduct the fashion shows or sponsoring the fashion .

Achievers . Strengthen the loyalty of existing customer base by delivering the core benefits to their segments. The niche should be large enough to be profitable. They can be targeted easily to boost the initial sales. but not dominant position that is content to stay at that position. It can utilise its editorial section to address the societies’ need for justice. Market followers may follow two options 1. It is hoped that by focusing ones marketing efforts on one or two narrow market segments and tailoring your marketing mix to these specialized markets. impulsive and rebellious. .The other two newspapers do not have significant presence in these segments. So they may not be loyal to any brand.O) in promoting the civic awareness campaigns. They will prefer the newspaper. They should strengthen the segment of Thinkers and Believers as they are insulate to competitors promotions. Survivors can also be targeted for initial launch. such as. politically conservative and respect the authority. Expanding the customer base by targeting the Brand Switchers.4 Market Nicher Strategies In this niche strategy the firm concentrates on a select few target markets. which will support their political ideology. It is also called a focus strategy.3 Market Followers Starategies A market follower is a firm in a strong. They may target the Experiencers. Experiencers are impulsive and rebellious. The rationale is that by developing strategies that are parallel to those of the market leader. you can better meet the needs of that target market. The New Indian express is having exclusive VALS segments such as Believers. if the Newspaper goes for low-price and consumer promotion tools. Makers and Achievers are the faithful segments for Market Niches. So the New Indian express may utilise and tap the potential among these segments. Makers. strivers and strugglers who are brand switchers to expand the Market share. they will gain much of the market from the leader while being exposed to very little risk. It can tie-up with Non-Governmental Organisations Experiencers are the vulnerable segment for New entrant in the Newspaper Market.Anandan et al. Believers will show their hard-core loyalty as long as the New Indian express will stay on their traditional image 7. Achievers are value consensus.. Newspaper with political alignment may target the Achievers. Experiencers are young. They are variety seekers (Source: Doug Box) (N. They are politically uncommitted and uninformed. antismoking movement etc. but small enough to be ignored by the major industry players. anti-pollution. At the same time.. it should not deviate from its core content of educational journalism so that it can retain its Major segment of Innovators.G. A Study on The Impact of . 109 shows to get the firm place in the minds of Strivers. 7. They seek variety and excitement.5 Strategies For New Entrant 2. 7.

493-504. Number 2.Anandan. Basic Business Statistics – concepts and application. 6. Business world.co. “Emotion in the Consumption Experience: Toward A New This study has been an attempt at examining various VALS segments and their impact on brand loyalty particularly in the context of major English newspapers. H. www. Booming Publishing Industry”. Advertising Express.15.: USA.M. Vinson (1978). http:// www. March 28.pp 65. “ The Indian Daily Heritage Brands”.edu/~forsysa/NTC. Brand Loyalty: The psychology of preference. Chris T. (1986)..69 Clawson. Prentice Hall International inc.P.agencyfaqs.P (1995) “The complex relationship between consumer satisfaction and brand loyalty”. Volume 16. Kasper H. David A. They should address the needs of Thinkers and Believers to strengthen their loyalty base. 1996. c o m / papers_review. Mark l. pp 365-371 Bill Nissim. “ Consumers’ true brand loyalty: the central role of commitment”.simplyselling. http:// http:// w w w . Karen A.Ravi. Values and Lifestyles: Is VALS used to identify who are your clients. General Newspapers may utilize the Innovators’ willingness to read all categories of publications. www.” in Contributions to Consumer Research V. ed. K. the relationship between lifestyles and preference for Regional Vs English Newspaper can also be studied.htm Holbrook. C. Abdelmajid Amine(1998). Chicago.com/values. Morris B. Newspapers should address the needs of Strivers .” Journal of Consumer Research. 305 – 319 . REFERENCES Aaker. women magazine and Sports magazine etc. Vol. http:// www. “Human Values: A Historical and Interdisciplinary Analysis.in/vals. pp 45-56 Building Global Textile and Apparel Brand Image Strategies: A Cross-National Model:Introduction. b r a n d c h a n n e l . Managing Brand Equity. CONCLUSION & DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Agencyfaqs. January 2006.Prasanna Mohan Raj. Association for Consumer Research.com/news/ interviews/data/260. M. 2001 C. Journal of Strategic Marketing.J. Last updated: September 07. Keith Hunt. Maxwell Macmillan International.110 Vilakshan. “A Comparison of Attitudes and Emotions as Predictors of Behaviour at Diverse Levels of Behavioural Experience. to get youth and energetic image.M.D.htm Doug Box . 18 (March). Innovators may extend their loyalty to other category of their favorite publication like Business Newspaper. Routledge. XIMB Journal of Management All the Newspaper brands should concentrate on developing their image and evolving in to changing needs of the custome rs. Journal of Economic Psychology. Berenson. (1991). Further research in the area can possibly include extension to different Brands and studying relationship between geodemographic factors and VALS factors. and Donald E.2005. Similarly.cybermediaresearch. 8. pp.html Allen.auburn.asp?sp_id=680 Bloemer J. Cyber mediaresearch. Machleit and Susan Schultz Kleine (1992). New York. Certain suggestions have also been made for these newspapers strengthen their loyalty base. David M. and Levin.

.W. 20. and Arch G.com/catalyst Robert . 1752 Jacoby. Consumer Behaviour.797 0.” in The Role of Affect in Consumer Behaviour.Research Study http://www. S. W (1978). “Psychographic Segmentation”. New York. Kristy E (2004).559 0. Wilson. Susan Myrland .html SRI consulting Business Intelligence: http:// www.696 0. eds. Lexington. 2004.com/news/stories/2004/ 10/01/9993. Catalyst: Is Brand Loyalty a myth. and Arch G. Lexington.. 11th edition.sric-bi.. and Chestnut. Robert A.657 0. A Study on The Impact of .” in Personal Values and Consumer Psychology. p 14-16 Robert F.mediamanage. Woodside (1984). www. November 25. . Pitts. Levy. New Delhi: Pearson education. MA: Lexington Books. 07447612. Robert Jr. MA: Lexington Books.759 0. P.net/ Customer_Loyalty.com/VALS/th inkers. News:IRS Round 2 reports: TOI’s readership declines marginally. and William R. R. Academy of Marketing Science Review. 55-67 Ramesh Kumar.. “Personal Values and Market Segmentation: Applying the Value Construct.asp?sp_id=1126 Saha. Peterson. b r a n d c h a n n e l . “ A Model for Consumer Devotion: Affective Commitment with Proactive Sustaining Behaviours”. Hoyer.831 0.80 Morgan. Vol. Communication World. www. Carol M. Hogeboom. c o m / papers_review.html.shtml ANNEXURE – I Rotated Factor Matrix (loading criteria > 0. Robert E.554 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 .5) VALS Statements I like to take the challenge of doing something that I have never none before I like to try new things I like to learn things even if they never be any use I like to do the new and different things I like to dress latest fashion I want to be considered as fashionable I follow the latest trends & fashions I dress more fashionably than most people F1 0.Anandan et al. Woodside. Active Lifestyle Brands: Popular apparel brands reach pinnacle and ride wave of success http:// w w w .agencyfaqs. Schiffmen. John Wiley and Sons p. J. 111 Model of Consumer Behaviour. Building Customer Loyalty in Community Networks.746 0. Jr. Issue 1 Pitts. L (2004)..blonnet. “Brand Loyalty: Measurement and Management”. Wayne D. Doran J (Jan2003).. Reynolds. New Delhi.

7 Strong loyal 33. metal I make things to use Just as my religion says the world was created by god The Indian government should encourage prayers in schools There is too much sex in television I like to learn about art.803 0.6 27.2 33.798 0.2 4.653 ANNEXURE II Joint Matrix Showing Brand Loyalty Scale For VALS Segments Segments Innovators Strivers Achievers Experiencers Survivors Believers Thinkers Makers Least loyal 11.535 0.3 Less Loyal 13.793 0.411 0.696 0.5 54.763 0.500 0.478 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 0.600 0.112 Vilakshan.770 0.812 0.3 100 25 100 66. XIMB Journal of Management VALS Statements I like being in charge of a group I consider myself as an intellectual I must admit that I like to show off I am always looking for thrill I like lot of excitement in life I crave for excitement I am interested in only few things I make things of wood.744 0.5 16.4 50 50 100 - .7 — Loyal 55.666 0. culture and history I like to look through hard ware or automotive stores I am interested in working with engines F1 F2 F3 0.5 25 33.

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