PRESENTED BY Bhavna vadher Shefali Rathi Preeti funde Jyoti gupta Sagar sahu Santosh 95 96 97 98 99 100 .

ROLL-ON/ROLL-OFF abbreviation: Ro-Ro system of loading and discharging a vessel whereby the cargo is driven on and off by means of a ramp  ships are designed to carry wheeled cargo such as automobiles. trailers or railway carriages  in contrast to lo-lo (lift on-lift off) vessels which use a crane to load and unload cargo  .


RO/RO ADVANTAGES • • • • • • Reduces Vessel Turnaround Time Allows Intermodal Movement of Cargo Reduced Damage/Loss Reduced need for Covered Storage Excellent for Unit Equipment Moves Sophisticated Port Facilities Not Needed .

RO/RO DISADVANTAGES: • • • • • • Inefficient Use of Space Dependent on Range of Tides Requires Experienced Drivers Vertical Clearance Limitations Specialized Lashing Gear Required Requires Large Staging Area .

It was introduced in the 1960s by an American marine engineering pioneer Jerome Goldman.LASH ( LIGHTER ABROAD A SHIP )  Lighter Aboard Ships (LASH) is a type of ship which can carry other ships.  . especially lighter barges.

FEATURES OF LASH A lash vessel streamlines the process of cargo lading and unloading  transportation of the lighter barges  most advanced vessels at the time of their introduction  .

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