Non Woven Fabric

By Hammad Mohsin Department of Textiles, UMT Pakistan

Courtesy : Dr. Jimmy Lam Institute of Textiles & Clothing

Non-woven
Introduction Web formation methods Bonding Systems Discussion

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2 . All yarn preparation steps are eliminated. Non-woven fabric can deliver the same quantity of sheeting within 2 months from order. To produce 500. Conventional fabric production: Fibre Fibre Yarn Fabric Fabric (knitting or weaving) Non-woven production It eliminates the yarn production process and makes the fabric directly from fibres. 3 months of weaving on 50 looms and 1 month for finishing and inspection.000 meters of woven sheeting requires 2 months of yarn preparation. and the fabric production itself is faster than conventional methods.Introduction Fabrics can be made from fibres as well as from yarns. Introduction (2) The great advantages in non-woven fabrics is the speed with which the final fabric is produced.

requiring less labour than even most modern knitting or weaving systems. but the process is more automated.Introduction (3) Not only are production rate are higher for nonwovens. Production Rate Fabric production method Weaving Knitting Nonwoven Rate of fabric production 1 m/min 2 m/min 100 m/min 3 . The nonwoven process is also efficient in its use of energy.

Making Non-woven products There are normally two steps for making non-woven products. 2. their aesthetic properties (handle. 4 . Woven and knitted fabrics will not be replaced by nonwovens in the near futrue. appearance) are such that they are not in direct competition with conventional fabrics in the outerwear market.Applications Nonwoven fabrics can be engineered to give a wide variety of properties. Currently. medical and hospital uses. drape. disposable products and filters. the main areas of growth in nonwovens are in geotextiles. Nevertheless. They are: 1. and Bonding systems. Web formation.

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Web formation A nonwoven fabric is basically a web of fibres held together in some way. or from portions of polymer film. Web formation from Staple Fibres 6 . The web may be made of staple fibres or filaments.

Web from staple fibres Carding for parallel-laid web (1) Carding is a time-honoured way of making web from staple fibres. they may be too thin for some nonwoven end-uses. a number of webs can be layered. In a carded web the fibres are aligned more or less parallel to each other and to the direction in which the card produces the web. Carded webs are usually thin. Such web is stronger when pulled lengthwise than crosswise because there is more friction between the fibre in lengthwise direction. Photos Parallel-laid web from carded fibres 7 . To increase the final thickness.

cross laid web is used. Photos Cross Laid-web The properties of cross-laid webs do not vary with direction as much as do those of straight-laid web 8 . To achieve this.Webs from staple fibres Cross-laid web (2) To increase the strength of web in both lengthwise and crosswise directions. the fibres which make up the web will be orientated equally in both lengthwise and crosswise directions.

with no Directionality in its properties 9 . Dry-laid (air-laid card) webs account for three-quarters of non-woven produced Photos Random Webs The Rando-Webber gives a randomly orientated web. This randomizing process produces a remarkably uniform web from staple fibres.Web from staple fibres Random web (3) The Rando-Webber creates such a randomly orientated web by blowing the fibres about in a stream of air and then sucking them onto the surface of a perforated drum to form a layer.

Other Web formation methods Apart from carding methods (drylaid). webs from short staple fibres are created by 1. The pulped fibres are mixed with water and then scooped into uniform layers on wire screens or on rotating. water proof paper. Wet-laying Paper-making from web Wet laying is used in paper-making. 10 . pulped acrylic fibres are made into a wetlaid web from a salt solution. As the water evaporates. 2. Electrostatic web formation. synthetic. 3. the salt chemically bonds the fibres into a strong. Short. Wet laying. perforated drums. and Spraying.

and are then allowed to fall on a moving belt to form a randomly orientated but uniform web. Spraying method Short thermoplastic fibres can be SPRAYED onto a belt to produce a random web. The are subsequently fused by the application of heat and pressure.Web formed by electrostatic laying In electrostatic laying. 11 . fine fibres are given a static electric charge between the plates of a condenser.

The thermoplastic filaments are welded to each other to form a strong fabric suitable for curtains. Sometimes. this allows greater extensibility of the fabric in use. Freshly extruded filaments are allowed to drop in curls and spiral onto a moving belt. the filaments are textured before web formation. The belt may contain patterns outlined in pins to form lacelike patterns. Such webs are much stronger than web made from staple fibres.Webs from filament Webs from filament It is possible to tangle filaments together to form a web. tablecloths. 12 .

light. 13 . It is pliable. jets of water. This creates sufficient fibre movement to entangle the fibres. excellent for curtains. drip-dry. precisely controlled. warm and soft. they form a small vortex at each point of contact. table cloths and other lace-type application. resistant to damage during washing.New web formation method Spun-laced webs is a new method of entangling fibres to create lace-like nonwoven fabrics uses fine. The resultant fabric does not need any further reinforcing by heat or adhesive. When the jets pass through the web of fibres.

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