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THE

M USEUM

BRITISH

DICTIONARY OF ANCIENT EGYPT
IAN SHAW AND PAUL NICHOLSON

THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY IN CAIRO PRESS

This pocket edition first published by EgypL in 2002 by The Americ.:an Uni"crsiry in Cairo Press 113 Kasr d Aini Strect, Cairo. Egypl
www.aucpn..SS.com

© 1995 The Trustees orThl' Brilish Museum Published by armngemenl withThe British 1\'luscum Press

First published 1995 FirSL published in paperback IlJ97
All rights fl.'scrnd Designed by I larry Grecn

Dar cI Kutub no. 10-153/02
ISBN

9774247620

Primed and bound in Spain by Graros 5.A.,

Barcelona

FRONTISI'IECE

Detail (j/wedjaL-LTt's almvl' aitlse door

with deCflrafioll imilafi/lg lexliles. From lhe wooden
il/ner coJ]i" offhe (omlluwder Sepy. Middle Kingdom,
c. 2000 nC,ji'o1l1 Deirel-Herslra.
I..

2.13 Ill. (£15S315)

1',\UES

4-5

7;"0

male Ituesls (1Illtejil1lcmlfiasl oftlte

vizier Ramose ill his lomb {II Tlrebes. 1811t D)'l1{1SI)'.
c. 1.190-1336 BC.
(cR,m., III1.1RRISOV)

CONTENTS

Maps

6
Preface

8
Acknowledgements

9
EntriesA-Z

10
Chronology

310
Appendix 1

313
Appendix 2

313
Index

316
List of bibliographical
abbreviations

328
Note on the illustrations

328

Lower Egyptian nome signs
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9 PANAPOLIS UPPER EGYPT
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Red Sea

Upper Egyptian nome signs

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6

7 . consisting of the Nile Valley from Memphis to Aswan. the Sahara Desert to the west. often incorporating animals. The twenty-two names (provinces) of Upper Egypt and the twenty names of Lower Egypt arc also indkated. Each nome had its own symbol or standard. as they vied with l\llitanni and the Hittites for hegemony over the city~states of Syria~ Palestine. showing Egypt's neighbours in western Asia and the Nlediterranean region. where known. and the nome capitals. For most of the Pharaonic period Egypt was well protected by its natural geographical sunoundings1 consisting of the Sinai peninsula and the Red Sea to the east. The Egyptians themselves made a clear geographical distinction between Upper Egypt. and the Mediterranean Sea to the north.. It was only in the Late Period (c. showing the main sites mentioned in the text. In the New Kingdom the Egyptians' 'cmpin' extended well beyond these traditional borders.Cyrene • MEDITERRANEAN SEA Mersa Matruh Siwa Oasis LIBYA Bahariya Oasis'" . ABOVE Map of the Ancient Near East.' Faratra Oasis Dakhla Oasis ARABIA 5DD km FACING PAGE . are underlined. birds or fetishes sacred to the local deities. where the Nile fails Out into several tributaries in its final descent to the l\ilediterranean.Map of Egypt. 747-332 Be) that Egypt itself finally succumbed to the invading armies of Nubia. Assyria and Persia. and Lower Egypt (or the Delta).

PREFACE

When this book was first produced, no reliable general dictionary of ancient Egypt was available in English, and the task of deciding what to include here and what to leave out was not easy. Many of the headings in this dictionary are derived from discussions with students and colleagues, but responsibility for the final list is ours. The book largely results from the need to find concise and accurate definitions of key terms in Egyptology, some of which have become obscure and archaic over the years. The principal aim has been to provide a reference work accessible to anyone with an interest in ancient Egypt, as well as to the academic community. The short bibliographies which accompany most entries are given in chronological, rather than alphabetical, order so that the list moves from early sources to more recent studies. The spelling of ancient Egyptian personal names is a continual source of difficulty. Thus the kings cited here as 'Amenhotep' may be found elsewhere as 'Amenhotpe', or in the Greek form 'Amenophis'. We have chosen spellings that are as far as possible consistent with the transliteration of the original Egyptian, which has the added benefit of being consistent with those used by Stephen Qlirke and Jeffrey Spencer. in the British Museum book of ancient Egypt (London, 1992) and other BMP publications. In the headings of entries describing ancient sites, on the other hand, we have opted for the most commonly used name. Alternative forms of names are given in the text and index. We have endeavoured to make the index as comprehensive as possible in the hope that readers will find it helpful in researching topics or individuals not covered by specific headings in the text.
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The chronological table provided here is that preferred by the Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan in the British Museum. Because of the difficulties in establishing a single absolute chronology for ancient Egypt, both dates and lists of individual rulers tend to differ from one book to another, but most current chronological schemes will be found to be broadly similar to the one used here. Since Egyptologists tend to refer to 'dynasties' and 'kingdoms' in a way which can be confusing to the nonspecialist, we have tried to give absolute dates Be and AD wherever possible. The entries are supplemented by two appendices. The first of these lists the names and dates of Egyptologists mentioned in the text (some of whom have individual entries and bibliographies in the main text). The second appendix lists the recognized numbers ofTheban Tombs (designated TT) and those in the Valley of the Kings (designated KV), along with their occupants and dynasties. Throughout the dictionary there are frequent references to these tomb-numbers, as well as occasional mention of tomb-numbers at other sites, such as el-Amarna (EA), Beni Hasan (B1-1) , Elkab (EK), Giza (G) and Saqqara. Should readers require further detail on certain topics they are advised to consult both the bibliographies at the end of each entry and the following more specialized reference works: M. Lurker, The gods and symbols of ancient Egypt (London, 1974); W. Heick, E. Otto and W. Westendorf (eds), Lexikon der Agyptologie, 7 vols (Wiesbaden, 1975-1988); G. Hart, A dictionary of Egyptian gods and goddesses (London, 1986); R. and A. David, A biographical dictionary of ancient Egypt (London,

1992); J. Baines and J. Malek, Atlas ofancient Egypt (Phaidon, 1984); and W. R. Dawson, E. P. Uphill and M. L. Bierbrier, Who lvas mho in Egyptology, 3rd ed. (London, 1995). G. Posener's A dictional]! of Egyptian civilization (London, 1962), although now somewhat in need of updating and out of print in English, provides a good range of information on many general Egyptological topics.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to thank a number of individuals and institutions for their help during the course of this project. Firstly we would like to thank the staff of the Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan at the British Museum, who have not stinted in sharing their scholarship with us. We are also grateful to many friends and colleagues with whom we have discussed subjects relevant to this book, including Dr W. Z. Wendrich, who wrote part of the entry on basketry and cordage, Joann Fletcher, who provided valuable information for the entry on hair and wigs, Dr Delwen Samuel, who supplied information on ancient brewing techniques, and Margaret Serpico, who kindly provided information on oils and incense. We would also like to thank Janine Bourriau, Sarah Buckingham, Barry Kemp, Professor Harry Smith and the staff of the various expeditions to Egypt with which we are involved. We should emphasize, however, that the final responsibility for the opinions expressed remains our own. In addition, we would like to

acknowledge the support we have received from University College London and CardifIUniversity. For assistance with various aspects of the production of the typescript and photographs we would like to thank Geoff Boden, Dr Caitlin Buck and John Morgan of Cardiff University and Dr Nick Fieller of the University of Sheffield. Joanna Champness, Celia Clear, Emma Way and Julie Young of British Museum Press gave much useful help and advice concerning the production of the original book, and Carolyn Jones and Christine King on the present edition. For illustrations we are grateful to the staff of the British Museum Photographic Service; to Graham Harrison; the Egyptian Museum Cairo (in particular Dr Mohammed Saleh); the Griffith Institute, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford; the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (in particular Dr Dorothea Arnold) and the Musee du Louvre. Unless otherwise stated the line drawings are by William Schenck, to whom we are also indebted. Finally, we would like to thank Kate Trott, Ann Jones and Nia Shaw, who have helped in numerous ways.
IAN SHAW PAUL NICHOLSON

9

ABU GURAB

ABU GURAB

A
Abu Gurab (Abu Ghurob)
Sire on the west bank of the Tile between GiZ.1 and S'lqqara, originally known to travellers as the 'Pyramid of Righa" although actually dominated by the remains of a sun temple erected by the 5th-Dynasty King Nyuscrra (2445-2421 Be) whose pyramid stands a shan distance ro the south at ABUSIIL lr became cus~ tamar)' in the 5th Dynasty for the rulers to express their devotion to the Heliopolitan sungod RA by building sun temples in addition to their own pyramid complexes. Abu Gurab is the best preserved of the two surviving examples (the other being that of Userkaf at Abusir), :llthough at' least six arc known to have been built.
The central feature of the temple was a large, squat monument, the proportions of which were midway between a B£NBEN STO.'\TE Jnd a true OBELISK. Both the (obelisk' and the tapering platform on which it stood were masonry constructions rather than monolithic. Tn front of the monument" (of which only the corc of the plinth remains) is a large open court, and in the centre of this open area is a massive travertinc ALTAR comprising a disc

50

100m

1 valley building 2 causeway 3 vestibule
4 magazines

5 altar 6 and 7 slaughterhouses 8 corridor 9 'room of the seasons' 10 chapel 11 obelisk 12 model of solar bark

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PIIIIIII!Abll Climb.

General viem ofthe slI111emple ofIhe 5thDY11as(j' Ki11g Nyustrra flt Abu Curab. The m01l11(1 10 Ihe leji is tlu' base ofthe large sqUill obelisk; lhe lraverlille Ililar 10 ils right is obsCllretl by the enclosure wlIlI. 711t: GiZiI pymmitls lire t:isihle 011l1It, skJllille il1lhejilr disllInce. (r. .,: \ IC/IOISO.V)
BELOW

10

ABU ROASH

ABU SIMBEL

surrounded on each side by four carved examples of the hieroglvphic sign hetep ('offering'), giving the whole an unusual cruciform shape. The altar is nanked on the north by a slaughter area and by temple magazines. The entrance to the temple is linked with a 'valley building' by a covered e;.lUseway, like those connecting pyramids with their valley temples. On reaching the remple proper, the causeway becomes a corridor running down the east side of the courtyard and along the south side. This corridor, which contained reliefs of the SED FESTIVAL (ruyal jubilee), led to the 'room of the seasons' (containing painted reliefs depicting the seasons of the Egyptian year) and ended in a chapel decorated with scenes of the dedication of the temple. Although these arc c\"idcntly important scenes, they were carved on poor stone enhanced with a coating of lime plaster - such economies perhaps illustrate the strain on the finances of the Egyptian elite because of the need to build both pyramids and temples. To the south of the temple was a brick-built imiration of the BARK of the sun~god. The site was excavated at the turn of the century by the German scholars Ludwig Borchardt, Heinrich Schafer and Friedrich von Bissing, who sent many of the reliefs to museums in Germany, where a number of them were destroyed during the Second "Vodd War. E. WINTER, 'Zur Deutung der Sonnenheiligtiimer <Ier 5. Dynastic" IVZK1H S-f (1957),222-33. E. EDEL and S. \,VENIG, Die ]ahreJ::.eitenreliejs (illS dem SO."l1el1heiligtuJU des Kiilligs Ne-mer-re, Nlineilungen aus der iigyptischen Sammlung 8 (Berlio, 1974). \v. STEVF...'liSON SMITH, The art ami (JTc!JitecllIre of al1cie11l Egypt, 2nd cd. (Harmondsworth, 1981), 128--32, figs 12+-5. D. "'ILDUNG, Ni-UJer-RE: SOl1l1mko·uigSomlengoll (J'vlunich, 1985).

both excavated by Emile Chassinat in 1901. The boat pit contained many fragments of red quartzite statuary, including three painted h"Jds from statues of Djedefra, one of \yhich was probably from the earliest known royal SPIll"'X (Louvre 1'12626), as well as the lower section of a statue of the king accompanied by Q!Jeen Khentetka. Because of the nature of the local topography, the causeway (linking the mortuary temple with the ,·alley temple) approaches from the northeast rather than the cast. To the north of the pyramid is Wadi QIrun, site of the still unexcavated valley templc~ as wcll as a number of remains of a much later date, including part of a statue of Queen Arsinoe II, sister and wife of PTOLE.:-'IY II Philadclphus (285-246 BC). Objects bearing thc names of the 1st-Dynasty pharaohs iUM (r..1100 Be) and D"N (c.2950 BC) have also been found at' Abu Roash, indicating a strong Early Dynastic presence at the site. To the east of the pyramid complex is an Old Kingdom cemetery, which was also excavated by Chassinal'. About two kilometres to the south are the remains of a brick-built pyramid, comprising a knoll of rod and a burial chamber. This pyramid, the date of which is unknown, was still relatively well preserved when it was recorded in the early nineteenth

century by the German scholar Karl Richard Lepsius. F: BISSON DE LA ROQUE, Rapport sur lesJouilles d'Abu Roast"h, 3 vols (Cairo, 1924-5). C. DE.'iR<Xl-lf.5-NoBU:COURT (cd.), Ul1 Slide de fouillesfr(lIIfaises ell Egypte, 188{}-1980 (Paris, 1981), {+-53. M. VALLOGIA, 'Le complex funerairc de Radjedef aAbu Roash', BSFE 130 (1994),5-17.

Abu Simbel
Site of two rock.. -cut temples of RJ\MESI::5 " (1279-1213 BC), located about 250 km southeast of Aswan. The temples were discO\'ercd by the traveller Jean-Louis Burckhardt in 1813 and cleared by Giovanni DELZONI four years later. The largesl temple is dedicated to Amun-Ra, Ra-Horakhty, Ftah and the deified Rameses II. The fa,ade is dominated by four colossal seated figures of Rameses II wC<lring the d01Jhle ero,vn and lIemes headc1oth. Between the two pairs of figures is the
Thejafade oIlhe 'greG/temple' o/Ralllcses 11 al AIm SimIJel. The /our seated colossi oIthe king are eat:h 20 mhigh; the rla.magedjigure was leJi ulIrestored when the temple was /lIoved to higher grollnd as part ofthe UNESCO operatiolllO preserve itfrom the lPaters ofLItke Nasser. (/~ 7: NICHO/.SON)

Abu Roash (Abu Ra,,·ash) Site of the unfinished funerary complex of the 4th-Dynasty ruler Djedefra (2566-2558 BC), the ancient name for which was 'Djedefra is a sehedu star'. The pyramid, situated to the north of GIZt\ on the west bank of the Nile, was evidently in better condition in 1839, when it W~IS first' examined by Richard Howard Vyse and John PClTing. Sincc then, the site has suffered heavily, having been used as a quarry in the 18805, but enough stone blocks remain to show that it was intended to be partly encased in red granite. The mortuary tcmple on the east side of the pyramid and a large boat pit to the south were
11

ABU SIMBEL

ABUSIR

A 1 2 3 4 5

temple of Rameses II court for sun worship seated colossi of Rameses II large pillared hall side chambers small pillared hall

6 7 8 9 10

sanctuary Hittite marriage stele south rock-cut chapel north rock-cut chapel

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50

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The temples (}f(A) Rl1l11tSeS /I ami (B) /tis queen, Neji:r/ari, ant! the goddess Hal/lOr at Abu Simbel.

entrance to the cavernous interior of the monument, and flanking it, beneath the feet ilnd throne of the king, arc the ~INE BOWS, the traditional enemies of Egypt. The monument thus symbolized Raml.'Scs II'S domination of NUBIA, as well as his piety to the gods. The 'great temple' is precisely aligned so that twice a year (during February and October) the rising sun illuminates the sanctuary and seated statues of the gods at the rearmost point of the temple. The temple is conventional in its overall layout, with a large pillared hall immediately beyond the entrance leading to a smaller pillared hall, followed by a vestibule and sanctuary. The standard of workmanship on the wall carvings is not high, though they are vigorous and remin their p'linted colour. The temple was decorated in thc 34th year of Rameses' reign, and there is a discernible decline in artistic standard compared with the decoration of the earlier temples at ABYDOS. AI the southern end of the external terrace a stele records the marriage of Ramescs to a daughter of the IlIrrrrE king Hattusilis III, valuable cvidence of diplomatic relations at the time. A little to the north of the great temple ties a smaller rock-cut temple dedicated to Queen NEFERHRJ and the goddess ""THOR of Abshek. This fa~ade features two standing figures of 12

the king, flanking those of his queen, on each side of the entrancc. A passage leads to a sixpillared hall with SISTRUM-capital columns, followed by a vestibule, and finally the sanctuary, where a statue of the goddess Hathor protects Rameses n. In the 1960s these temples were threatened by the rising waters of Lake 1 asser resulting from the construction of the Aswan High Dam and were dismantled, moved and reassembled on higher ground, through the co-operation of archaeologists ilnd engineers working under a UNESCO initiative. \V. NL\CQuITry, /11m Simbel(London l 1965). C. DESROCIII·:S- NOBtECOURT and C. KUE.'\:TI., Le pe!illemple d'Abolf Simbel, 2 \"DIs (Cairo, 1968). T S':\\'E-SODERBERGII (cd.), Temples lind lomhs of ancief/! Nubia (London, 1987).

Abusir
Part of the necropolis of .mcienr J\lEi\IPI US, consisting of sevcral pyramids of the 5th Dynasty (2-I9+-23{5 BC), a sun temple (see ABI,.; GUR!\B), and a number of ,\IASIi\IH tombs and Late Period (747-332 BC) shart tombs. Userkaf: founder of the 5th Dynasty, built his pyramid at Saqqara and a sun temple at Abusir, a short distancc to thc north. At least four of his successors (Sahura, Neferirkara, Ranefcref and Nyuserra) therefore chose Abusir as the location for their funerary monumenLs, the ancient names of which were 'The btl of Sahura gleams" 'Neferirkara has become

a b(J" 'The fillS of Raneferef are divine' and 'The places of Nyuserra arC enduring'. The finest of the mastaba tombs at Abusir is that of the 5th-Dynasty vizier Pmhshepses, a relative of Nyuserra, which incorporates two boatshaped rooms presumably meant to hold fullsized boats, an unusual feature of a private tomb. The funerary monument of Sahura (2487-2{75 BC), the most complete of the four royal burials at Abusir, is the quintessential 5th-Dynasty pyramid complex, consisting of valley temple, causeway, mortuary temple and pyramid. The imposing portico of the mortuary temple gave access to a large courtyard with a well-preserved basalt-paved noor and a colonnade consisting of sixteen red granite palm columns (the latter now largely destroyed). The remains of the original limestone walls, with their finc painted decoration, have been transferred to the Egyptian !vluseum in Cairo and the Bodemuscum in Berlin. Beyond the colonnade were a series of store rooms surrounding the 'statue chamber', where the king's statues stood in niches, and immediately adjacent to the pyramid was the sanctuary with its alabaster altar. In the southeastern corner of the complex stood a small subsidiary pyramid. \OVhen Ludwig Borchardt excavated Sahura's complex in 1902-8, he discovered the earliest temple relief of the king smiting his enemies, as well as reliefs depicting the cat-

ABUSIR

ABYDOS

goddess BASTET in a corridor surrounding the palm-columned court. In the New Kingdom
this corridor seems to have been fe-roofed and

used as a sanctuary for a local form of the
Ijoness-goddess SEKlI~IET. The complexes of Neferirkara (2475-2455 BC) and I yuscrra (2445-2421 BC) are both unfinished and poorly preserved. The complex of Neferirkara, although clearly intended to be larger thall that of Sahura, is now best known for the large quantity of papyri frnm the mor-

tuary templc, providing valuable evidence on the ofg-Jnizarion of royal funerary cults in the
Old Kingdom. The papyri date from the reign of Isesi to that of PE.I)Y II, and mainly consist of

rotas for temple personnel, inventories of cult objects, and letters. Neferirkara's causeway

mortuary temple of Raneferef (2448-2445 uc), whose unfinished pyramid was actually transformed into a l\l:\$TAB:\ tomb. Their fmds have included a second papyrus archive, ;) group of seals, a collection of cult objects, and the most important surviving group of 5th-Dynasty royal sculpture, including an unusual painted limestone statue of Raneferef himself with a Horus-falcon embracing the back of his head, as well as wooden statuettes of bound captives. The Czech archaeologists have also uncovered the original pyramid complex and temples of Queen Khentkawes (mother of Sahura and Nererirkara), which was probably a cenotaph, since she also had a ffiasmba tomb between the C<.luseways of Khufu .md Khafra at GIZA. In 1988-9 they exc;\vated the shart-

P. POSEN~){-KRIE.GER, Les archives du temple [umfraire de Neferirkare (Les papyrus d'JlbOflsir), 2 vols (Cairo, 1976). !vI. VERNER, 'Excavations at Abusir, season 1978--9, preliminary excavation report: the pyramid or Quccn Kheotka\yes ("1\")', Z/iS \07 (1980),158-64. - , 'Remarques prelimin:J.ires: sur les nouveaux papyrus d'Abousir', ~gJ'Plen: Dauer llIu/l.J1ulldel (!"lainz, 1986), 35--43.

I

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100 200 300 400 500

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1 2 3 4 5 pyramid complex 01 Sahura mastaba of Ptahshepses pyramid of Nyuserra pyramid complex 01 Nelerirkara Kakai pyramid of Raneleref

Pltm ofthe 5th-Dyutlsty pyramid complexes tit Abusir.
was evidently lIsurped by Nyuserra, who diverted it to his O\vn mortuary temple. The poor quality of the rubble core used in these pymmids has left them in poor condition, especially since the fine blocks of outer casing have been plundered. To the northwest of the pyramid of Sahura are the remains ot" another unfinished pyramid complex, which probably belonged to Shepseska,.a (2455-2448 ec), the ephemeral successor of Net"erirkara. Since the 1970s the work of a team or Czech archaeologists, under the direction ot" Miroslav Verner, has revealed the mud-brick

tomb ot" the Persian-period 'chief physici<.ln\ Udjahorresnet, who served as chancellor to Cambyses and Darius I (see l'rRsIA). L. BORCIIARDT, Das Crabdellkma! des Kiiuigs Neuser-Re (Leipzig, 1907). - , Das Cmbrlellkmal des Kiiuigs Neftr-ir-ka-Re (Leipzig, 1909). - , Das Crabdellkllla! des Kh"lligs Sallll-Re (Leipzig, 1910-13). p. POSENEI~-KRlI~GEI{ and J-L. DE CI-:NIVAL, Hieratic papyri ill the British N[lIse!lm: 'he Jlbusir p"fiyri (London, 1968). H. RICKE, Das SO//llellheiligtlllll des Kiinigs Userk,,/, 2 vols (Cairo, 1965; Wiesbaden, 1969). P. KAPLONY, 'Das Papyrus Archiv von Ahusir', Or;ellllll;" 41 (1972), 180-244.

Abydos (anc. Abdjw) Sacrcd site located on the west bank of the Nile, 50 km south of modern Sohag. "fhe site of Abydos, centre of the cult of the god OSIRIS, nourished from the Predynastic period umil Christian time.> (c.4000 BC-AD 641). The earliest signifie;.mt remains are the tombs of named rulers of the Protodynastic and Early Dynastic periods (c.31 00-2686 BC). The earliest temple at the site is that of the canine god OsirisKhcnrimentiu (Kom el-Sulran). An extensive settlement of the Pharaonic period and numerous graves and cenotaphs of humans and animals have also been excavated. The site is still dominated by the temples of Sety 1 (1294-1279 BC) and his son Rameses II (1279-1213 BC), although an earlier chapel, constructed in the reign of Rameses I (1295-1294 BC), has survived in the form of a number or blocks of relief The cult temple or Sety I is an I.-shaped limestone building, and the iconography of its exquisite painted reliefs has been used to interpret the procedures of the religious rituals that were enacted there. In one scene Rameses u is shown reading out the names of previous kings from a papyrus roll in the presence of his father. The contents of the document are carved on the adjacent wall; this KING LIST (along with a similar list from the temple of Rameses II) has made an important contribution to studies of Egyptian chronology. Behind the temple of Sety 1 is the Osireion, <1 building constructed of huge granite blocks which has been interpreted as a kind of cenotaph of the god Osiris. The structu re is entered via a long descending gallery and decorated with excerpts from the BOOK of Gates and the Book of the Dead, as weU as cosmological and dramatic texts. Tt was once thought to be an Old Kingdom building, because of the grandiose scale of the masonry, but it has now been dated to the reigns of Sety I and ]\Ilercnptah and the style is generally presumed to have been an attempt at archaizing by New Kingdom architects. The Abydos cemeteries, including the Early Dynastic necropolis now known as Umm clC@'ab, were excavated in the late nineteenth and

13

About two thousand stelae and numerous offering tables and statues have been plundered and excavated from these funerary monuments. and a wealth of details concerning the middle-ranking officials of the Middle Kingdom and their families./I1."ate individuals to make 'pilgrimages' to Abydos so that they could participate posthumously in the festivals of Osiris.trguc that the line of powerful historical rulers buried at Abydos may now be pushed further back into what was previously considered to be 'prehistory'. The stelae have prm-idee! 01 great deal of information concerning the cult of Osiris. who have 010 'lIvo dolomite vases . large numbers of tombs and cenotaphs (or (offering chapels') were therefore constructed at the northern end of the site.··. In the 1960s Barry Kemp reanalysed the results of the excavations conducted by Petrie and Peet. A team of German excavators.j.. the best presen"cd of the 'funerary enclosures'. 11.~~L .pith gold covers. been working in the vicinity of the Early Dynastic royal cemetery since 1973.. the literary structllre of funerary autobiographies. They therefore .1l o/the temple of Se~)1 / and the Os/re/on at Abydos.MOSI~ l\!£FEKli\Rl were excavated by Charles Currelly in 1901. 30 14 .. in the .rr"!""~. a pyramid temple. revealing fragments of painted reliefs of Ahmose I.·om !he lomb oIKing Khasekheml1~Y Ilf Abydos. The southern end of the site incorporates both Middle and ew Kingdom archaeological remains.".2690 BC.··. It also appears to 113\'e become increasingly common for pri. RIGHT _______ill S ~·I-----.ABYDOS ABYDOS carly twentieth centuries by the French archaeologists Auguste Mariette and Emile Amelineau. entrance corridor chapels second hyposlyle hall first hypostyle hatl 4 portico (destroyed) Osireion 5 wells 6 pylon (destroyoO) 8 mudbrick magazines 7 king list ~N . c.\ and SA(l9!\RA). In 1991 thc excavations of David O'Connor rcvealed further support for this theory in the form of a number of Early Dynastic wooden BCM. and the British archaeologists Flinders Petrie and Eric Peet. of/aller vase 5.. have obtained evidence to suggest that there arc strong cultural links between Petrie's royal graves at Ulllm cl-Q'l'ab (traditionally dated to Dynasty I. 211d DylUlSIy.T GRAVES Kingdom PYRAJ\UD complexes near the Shunct el-Zebib. which may well hayc been the prototypes of the mortuary temples in Old 1 Umm el-Qa'ab: Early Dynastic royal tombs 2 Shunet el-Zebib and other Early Dynastic 'funerary enclosures' 3 Kom el-Sultan: temple of Osiris·Khentimentiu and surrounding settlement ! I 4 temple of Rameses II 5 temple of Sety I and Osireion 6 modem village of el-Araba el-Madluna 7 temple of Senusret III 8 Middle and New Kingdom settlement 9 pyramid of Ahmose and temple of Ahmose Nefertari 10 cenotaph otTetisheri 11 and 12 cenotaph and temple of Ahmose 13 cenotaph of Senusret III 400 800 1200 §1600 /$ (sec also GIZ. ~~ ~ 4 . In 1993 Stephen Harvey undertook new excavations in this area.7 em. the "cry beginning of thc Early Dynastic phase at Abydos) and the adjacent late Predynastic Cemetery u. and during the 12th Dynasty (1985-1795 Be) it became common for indiyiduals from elsewhere in Egypt to be buried at Abydos. Pla.. "'·I\\"~ r-- I go ABOVE PIau ~rAk)ltlas. cenotaph and terraced temple of AHA'IOSE I (1550-1525 Be) and AH.. and suggested that the Early Dynastic royal tombs wcre complemented by a row of 'funerary enclosures' to the east. (EA33567-8) IlELOW (' 70\JIIJf/l'.----II [ ~. The tomb of the 1st-D"nasty ruler Djer at Umm e1-Q/ab became identified with the tomb of Osiris from at least the late Middle Kingdom onwards.~icinity of Korn e1-Sultan..

chamberlain and chief steward. a fact which is recognized both in '"pro-scribal' Iiter- In the Old Kingdom (2686--2181 BC) there were two principal state offices apart from that of KING: the VlZIER (!jayt)' sub Ijttt)!) and the overseer of royal works (illly-r kat nesnJ).'IESSEUj\. '1\!lonumcnts of Ahmose at Abydos'. appears to have been the usc of writing as a means of political control. KEMP. textual records of the names. The cenotaph o/Sell I (If Abydos (London. D. 1900-1). The SCRIBE was therefore the most important element of the administration. "VVhenever the central administration was weakened. The authority of both the king and his vizier had also been strengthened since the 12th Dynasty./6. were clearly elements of an emerging administrative infrastructure. as in the early citystates of Nlesopotamia. The religious administration was controlled by an 'overseer of prophets of all the gods of Upper and Lower Egypt'.38 and 46]. C\LVERLEY and 1'. W. 18th Dynasty. HARVEY.e. 2 vols (Paris. 'The cenoraphs of the J\lliddlc Kingdom at Abydos'. 161-77. The lemple oIking Set/lOs I til A/~)'doS. IvlDA1K 49 (1993). arc decorated witb his funerary biography as well as an inscription known (Warminster. for instance. most of whom held little political or economic power. SIJ\'WSOI\". 3-5. 1974). \"l M. suggesting that the office . F.\-17.". J.md professions of individuals) and the archaeological remains relating to supply and demand of commodities such as grain. apparently as a result of a policy of reduction in the power of the nomarchs. The granaries surrounding the mortuary temple of Rameses II (the RAI'. A./31918) as 'the duties of the vizier" which outline. G.\ Ge) and Amenhotcp II (1427-1400 BC). Expeditio" 33/3 (1991). The 'dynasty' consisted of royal relatives. as in the first and second so-called <intermediate periods' (see CIIRONOLOGY). F BROO!'\'IE. The title vizier is first attested on inscribed stone vessels beneath the Step Pyramid at Saqqara. administration The process of social and economic control of the population was an area of life in which the Egyptians excelled. The walls of the Theban tomb of Rekhmira. a post which was actually held at various times by the vizier or the chief priest of AMUN./400 Be.ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION which perhaps depict his campaigns against the at the beginning of the 18th Dynasty. The royal domain included such posts as chancellor. K. M. the internal administration and external affairs. S. DAVID. 4 \'ols (London and Chicago. The key factor in the administration of Early Dynastic Egypt. 'Umm c1-Qt'ab: Naehuntersuchungen im friihzeitlichen Konigsfi'iedhof 5. The evidence for Egyptian administration consists of two basic elements: prosopography (i. 1985).1. . Egyptian Archaeology 4 (1994). . provincial governor or temple official. beer and wine. O'CONNOR. Fragment oIa IJ)(tlL-paiJlliJlgji-oJJ1 the tomb 0/ Nebamllil at Thebes. j\IIARIE"ITE.wllenl 0/agritultural produce. R. arc tangible remains of the increasingly elaborate system of storage and distribution that sustained those employed by the temple and state in Egypt.22-32. the various regions retained a degree of independence in their role as provinces (or J'\OMES) ruled by local governors (nomarchs). AI/tiquity 41 (1967). In the 18th Dynasty there were two viziers. but most of the surviving evidence concerns the southern vizier. Egypt'. with overseers of the trea15 By the New Kingdom (1550-1069 BC) the Egyptian administration had considerably diversified. Terrace oIfhe Creal God a{ Abydos: file ofTering chapels 0/ Dynasties /2 and /3 (New Haven and Philadelphia. Many of the surviving artefacts and documents of the EARI. who was southern vizier in the reigns ofThutmosc III (1479-142. titles . A. A. .23-62 [preliminary repons on earlier seasons published in MDAIK 35.\).. 1933).s the responsibilities of the post. The secular part of the internal administration was headed by thc northern and southern viziers.vas introduced at least as early as the 2nd Dynasty. 1869-80). northern and southern. Miltlnges Gamal eddill MokiJ/IIr II (Cairo. FRAl\JKFORT. power tended to devolve back to the names. 'The Egyptian 1st Dynasty royal cemctety'. such as ivory labels and wine~jar sealings. Abydos: dC$criptioll desfouilles exCel/tees sur l'emp!Memelll de celie vi/Ie. It was the scribal profession that was responsible for assessing individuals' agricultural produce and collecting taxes on behalf of the king. After the unification of the country in the late fourth millennium BC. Vorbcricht'. PETRIE) The "'~Jlall()mbs o/the ear/ies! dYNtlsties. shOlving geese beiJlg counled /or alax asse.Y DYNASTIC PERIOD (d 100-2686 BC).. The New Kingdom national administration was divided into three sections: the dynasty. 2 vols (London. the role of the vizier had grown more important". A guide 10 religious ritl/al at A/~)Idos I-IYKSOS ary works such as the 12th-Dynasty Satire 011 lite Trades and in the popularity of statuary representing high officials in the scribal pose. 11. perhaps because it was they who might have posed the greatest threat to the king. c. 1933-58). 'Boat graves and pyramid origins: new discoveries at Abydos. 1981). The internal administration comprised four sections: the 'royal domain" the army and navy. B. (. the religious hier'lrchy and the sccular (or civil) officials. whether through invasion or economic decline. because it was no longer possible for the king to control all aspects of government. DREYER. 11 CIIl. while the army and navy were led by a commander-in-chief with chief deputies of north and south belmv him. H. since fewer administrative documents have survived for this period in Lower Egypt.

SIIEU 2) 18th-Dynasty Theban official (n69). PlolclIloicperiod. e. the time of the New Year. Below the governors of the northern lands were local princes and garrison commanders. but if a second \vas desired. 4. 1985).]. Pltamoh 's people: sccnesJrollllifi: ill illlpcrial Egypt (London. H. judiciary and police. agriculture The fundamental importance of agriculture in Egypt is attested from early times. the provinces of Syria-Palestine) and (2) the governor of the southern lands. Aegyptiaca Term usually applied to Egyptian objects found outside the horders of Egypt itself. H. At a local level there were also 'town mayors' (haty-') and councils (kenbel) in charge of the judiciary. 3.8-9. including barley (Hordeum. ram's head mearing SUI/-disc amI . QUIRKE. H./lexikon del' Agyplischell Religiollsge.8 CIII.120-36. The New Kingdom external administration was divided into two sectors: (1) the governors of the three northern lands (i. N. the mayors of Egyptian colonies and the local chicf<. B. 1984).Ji\O\ws.ltion of the agricultural year. during the summer. Tlte administration of Egypt in lite Late Middle Killgdolll (New Malden.~ wilh lio/l's head. who was also known as the VICEROY OF KUSII (or King's Soo of Kush). Rea. the seasons being named in accordance with stages of the annual Nile cycle. sltowing the deceased ploughing and sowing. STRUDWICK. The reach of the Nile was extended by the digging of irrigation canals which could also be used for moving water at times of low flood. z/is 113 (1986). einkorn (Ii·iliCllJ1l.5 CIIl. S. then it afterlife see [o'UNERARY BELIEFS aegis Greek word ror 'shield'. mOl/OcocCl/m) and spelt (Triticum spella). 1977). 1952). according to Herodotus). BONNET. although the exact timing varied from north to south. Detail ofthe Book ulthe Dead papyrus ofKerlJU1~JI. particularly in the Eastern Mediterranean. (£A9911. KAN/\\VATI..57903) 16 . H. 1990). Depictions of sacred BARKS show that they had an aegis attached to the prow. it was these officials who controlled the national bureaucracy. The arlmillistratioll of Egypt in Ihe Old Kingdom (LondoTl. which was not released for a further month and a half In October or November the seed was broadcast by hand and then trampled in by sheep and goats (as well as pigs. and below the Viceroy of Kush were the deputies of vVawar and Kush (the two regions of Egyptian-dominated Nubia). the two great staples of Egyptian life. KEMP. and maximum depth waS usually reached by mid-August. 154-80.51-72. Scenes of government surveyors measuring agricultural land are known from the decoration of many tomb chapels such as that of l\1enna. an AI10VEJasper aegis incorporating a.2So-ISO lie. N. (". These were used to make bread and beer. As soon as the inundation began to subside the farmers blocked canals in order to retain the water. (1:"3360) RIGHT Silver tlegi.~chidlle (Berlin.""bra. with the development of land surveying as a means of re-determining land boundaries after the annual INUi'HJATlON had deposited its load of silt on the fields.e. particularly the six-rowed variety) and three types of wheat: emmer (Triliw//l (hcoC{mn). and also the measuring of areas of land for TAXATION purposes. The rich soil could support at least two crops a year. The EgyptiaJl adminislrcttioll ill the Old Kingdom: evidence ofits ecolJOllli( dei"hllt! (Warminster. osed by Egyptologists to describe a representation of a broad necklace surmounted with the head of a deity. Canals are first attested in the Early Dynastic period and it is likely that the reliefs on the macehcad of King SCORJ)[ON show the use of irrigation in the late I'RlmYNASTIC PERIOD. (Large Middle Kingdom granary buildings (and the archaeology of administration)'. Flooding began in mid-June. of the Nubians. T G. The principal crop was grain. 'The development of the CALENDAR itself was linked to careful observ.AEGIS AGRICULTURE suries and granaries below them.

as in the case of the vegetable plots outside the 'workmen's village' at EL-Al\lIARNA. goats and cattle. Y. First. the envi~ romncntal effect was probably relatively trivial compared with that of the Nile nood. found in the tomb of Ncithhotep (probably Aha's wife) in the late Predynastic cemetery at NAQ>\Di\. Numerous tomb-paintings depict grain being harvested with sickles. 3357). 1993).". The grave goods sometimes include stone vessels.3100 Be) One of the earliest 1st-Dynasty rulers of a unified Egypt. Pharaoh:. Grapes were grown for wine. H. suggesting a steady growth in contact between the two cultures. When Flinders Petrie excavated at Umm c1Q. 'An eleventh dynasty farmer's letters to his family'. cabbage. 'Foraging and farming in Seleclir)fJ."ered water wheel) in the Ptolemaic period not only made irrigation easier but also extended the area of cultivable land. and the fibres of the date palm were used in the makjng of cordage and BASKETR\'.. gathering.rchevlvgie egyptielllle VI: Scenes de la. (London and Princeton. Usually pulses rather than cereals were grown as a second crop. peas.owever. The A Group was eventually replaced by the C GROUP at some time during the OJ. Although it was once thought that the Saqqara tomb was the burial-place of Aha (and the Abydos tomb only a cenotaph). JAJ\'II~S. New research conducted in theUmm e1-Q. and although these 'fix' nitrogen and so enrich the soil. 'WILSON. 9-13. NARMER and MENI':$ (the semi-mythical founder of MEMPI liS). A Group (A Horizon) Term first used by the American archaeologist George Reisner to refer to a scmi-nomadic Nubian Neolithic culture of the mid-fourth to early third millennium Be. have been excavated at such sites as Sayala and Qustul (see BALLANA AND QUSTDL). 100-31. he discovered Tomb BI9/IS. T Shaw et al. Neo!ilhil" amlA-group sites (Stockholm. attested both in tomb-paintings and in the archaeological record. and in many tombs. the latter also sup- plying the principal fibre f<')r the making of linen textiles. 118-32. 283-8. lentils. which probably evolved gradually out of the preceding Abkan culture. Many OSTRACA have also survived from wine-jars. surviving through a diverse combination of hunting. 2nd ed. L. There is still considerable debate surrounding the possible links between Aha. although two discovcrics arc particuh\r1y relevant to this problem. His reign is attested primarily by funerary remains at ABYDOS. E.51188. an ivory label. Traces of the A Group.51191. and the herding of sheep. which contained objects bcaring the name of Aha. whose name means 'the fighter'. H. II. See also B GROUP. NORDSTROM. (EA51 193. appears to givc one of Aha's 17 .92-1]]. SAQ. while the quantities were carefully measured and recorded by scribes. American Journal (~r Semilic Lallglutges (Uul Literature 42 (1926). of tal/jar 45 . ADt\MS. oIobjeclsji-nm (UI A-Group grave. 1988). Manuel d'a. Officials often inflicted severe punishments on those who failed to meet grain quotas. threshed using oxen. garlic. people: sUlIcsjimllliji: ill imperilll EgYPI (Oxford.165-226. Most of the agricultural land belonged to the king or the temples. 1984).JAOS 83 (1963). G. 1972). including Imo Egypli(U/ imports (the tal/jaral/d paillted pot). 1978). vie agricole d l'allciel1 e/. fishing. c. \VE'ITERSTROM. a simple yoke <lnd vessels were used to move the water. radishes. typically including black-polished and 'eggshell' hand- Aha (c.51192) ethnic groups rather than ~imply two phases in the material culture of the Nubians.. Egyptial/lood llud drink (Princes Risborough. but the introduction of the SI lADUF in the New Kingdom and the sakkitt (an animal~pQ\.. In the Old and Middle Kingdoms. Nubia: con·idor to Ajl-im. then winnowed and stored. TAYLOR. ]. H.350/}-300/} /JC.. W. au moycn empire (Paris. usually in the immediate area of the Nile. (London. 1992).. Y. 17-32. cucumbers and a type of lettuce) were usually grown in small square plots. A. the cultivation of wheat and barley. Egypi and Ajl-ica.D KINGDOM.51187. OILS were extracted from sesame.V Davies (London. Vegetables (including onions. usually recording the contents.AGRICULTURE AHA had to be irrigated manually. Egypt /llld Nllbi" (London. K. amulets and copper artefacts imported from Egypt. STROUJ-IAL. 'The development of the A-Group "culture' in northern Lower Nubia'. 'Agriculture in ancient Egypt'. . the earliest of the Istand 2nd-Dynasty dite tombs at north Sl\QQ!\RA (no. W. and both kept copious records of its productivity. Egypt: the transition from hunting and gathering to honiculUlre in the Nile valley\ The ltrc!weology olAFica. SMITH. KLIMER. scholarly opinion has shifted since thc material from thc two sites was re-examined in the 1960s. Lile ill ancient Egypl (Cambridge. T. since the usc of thc term 'group' can give the misleading impression that they were two separate made pottery. 199]). BAER.t'ab (the Early Dynastic cemetery at Abydos) in 1899-1900. W. have survived throughout Lower Nubia. S. H. which not only help to date these graves but also demonstrate that the A Group were engaged in regular trade with the Egyptians of the Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods. H. 1984). there are scenes of peasants being beaten for this reasOn.91-107. particularly in the Delta region and oases.t'ab cemetery during the 1980s and 1990s (including the re-excavation of Tomb BI9/15) also suggests that Aha was preceded by a relatively long sequence of earlier rulers of a united Egypt. beans. The archaeological remains at sites such as Afyeh (ncar Aswan) suggest that they lived mainly in temporary reed-built encampments or rock shelters. ed. castor and flax (Lil1U1ll usitatissi11luw).ADA. 1991).QARA and NAQ. date and origins of wine-jars. leading to the suggestion that Aha was buried in Tomb B 19115 at Abydos and that the Saqqara tomb belonged to a Memphite high official. W. was also dated by jar-sealings to the reign of Aha. 1-1. such as that of MERERVKA in the Old Kingdom. The wcalth and quantity of imported items appears to increase in later AGroup graves. and there arc numerous scenes showing wine presses in use. excavated in the 1930s. ed. Adams has suggested that the A Group and their successors the C GROUP should be referred to as the A and C 'horizons'. Extensive A-Group cemeteries. More recently.1-19 J VANDlER. Wine and beer (see ALCOHOLIC BEVERt\GES) were often flavoured with dates.

H. since it lists the first six rulers in the following order: Narmer.432191) additions to the temples of Amun and !'''[omu at KAR~!'K and mud-brick cenotaphs for lEI·ISI-JERI nod himself at ABYDOS.NENRA TAA JI. suggests that he was about thirty-five when he died.EGENCY. 31-40. who was the son of the Thehan 17th-Dynasty ruler SEQ).AHHOTEP [ AHMOSE I names as 'Men') which has led some scholars to suggest that he and Menes were the same person. apart from a few Earliest knowlI r~}.\oIlNISTR1\TION). As the daughter of the 17th-Dynasty ruler Senakhtenra Taa I. Antiquity 41 (1967). 1992). "ON BISSING.ed mearing a nemes headclolh alfd a uracus. A history oftll/cielll 1:. . DJET. Aha) DJER.lR EL-BAI-IRI. The location of his tomb is still not definitely known. There were also numerous items of funerary equipment. The intact burial of another Ahhotep (who was perhaps the wife of KAi\IOSE) was discov18 cred at Ora Abu el-_ Taga in western TIIEln::s in 1859 by agents working for Auguste Mariette. SOUROUZIAN. DEi": and Merneith (the latter being a female ruler who may have been a regent). c. Although he is known to have reopened the Tura limestone quarries. (E. she has pacified Upper Egypt and expelled her rebels'. 30 CIII. a seal impression discovered at Umm el-Q. the wife of SEQ!'j'JENlll\ TAA II and mother of AHMOSE I (and arguably also of KAMOSE). GRJ.1nt part in these wars of liberation.~ (Berlin. The tombs of the soldiers Ahmose son oflbana and Ahmose Pennekhbet at ELKAB are decorated with autobiographical inscriptions describing the role that they played in the campaigns of Ahmosc I and his immediate successors. Inside the tomb the excavators found a gilded wooden rish£-COFFIN containing the quccn's mummy. she has looked after Egypt's troops and she has guarded them. little has survived of the construction of religious buildings during his reign. she appears to have played an import. H. Ahmosc I appears to have rewarded those local princes who had supported the Theban cause during the Second Intermediate Period (1650-1550 BC). a necklacc consisting of large golden FLIES.1590-1530 uc) New Kingdom QlJEEt' whose lifetime spanned the crucial transition from the Second Intermediate Period to the New Kingdom. nos 120-6. SALEII and H. fill 71le/Jal1ischer Grabjimd tlUS dcm Aldrll/g des NCilen Reich. \iVith rCg'Jrd to the place of Narmer in the chronological sequence. including several elaborate ceremonial weapons of Ahmose I. <lnd by the twenty-second year of his reign he may even have reached as far north as the Euphrates.Mcnes.\\. It has also been suggested thatAhhotep may ha. she has brought back the fugitives and collected together the deserters. Cairo: official catalogue (iVlainz. which had probably remained relatively unchanged since the N[iddle Kingdom (sec !\D. Recently excavated reliefs from ARn){)S apparemly depict Ahmose's C'Jmpaigns against the HYKSOS. MAO' ROTH. and various items of jewellery. or at least closely related.22-32. which dominated his reign. 'The Egyptian 1st Dynasty royal cemetery'. EgYPI of/he Pharaohs (Oxford. 1900).·e looked after the internal rule of Upper Egypt while her son was engaged in military campaigns. which was among those transferred into the DEIR EL-IJ!\IIRI cache in the 21st Dynasty. J KE~IP. On the basis of these two pieces of evidence it is therefore possible that Narmer :lnd Aha were father and son and that one of the two was also called . when the HYK$OS rulers were expelled from Lower Egypt. The coffin of Ahhotep I was found in the royal cache at DF." shabti and one oflheftw sculptures ofAhmose I to be securely ide'lll{{ied as mdl by its inscription. which was traditionally awarded for valour in battle. Ahhotep I (t.gJlpt (Oxford. 'Ahhorep I and Ahhotep II'. A. under the command of a man called '1uri who was to become the first known VICEROY OF KUSII in the reign of AME:'\lI-IOTEP I (1525-1504 uc). GARDINER. It has been suggested that this unusually active military role played by a royal wife (see QL:J£K) might actually have been necessitated by the comparatively young age at which Ahmosc I came to the throne -Ahhotep I might thus have served as regem for a few years until he reached maturity. showing that she probably wielded some power over a geographical area. establishing a new settlement at BUI-IE:'\l as his administrative centre.1550 Be. VAi'. Serapis 4 (l977-S). In his reorganization of Lhc national and local government.233-42. C.. The Egyptian Museum. 1987). but he was probably buried at . IillleS/Olle. 181h pY1lasIY.1'ab in 1985 appears to put him securely at the beginning of the 1st Dynasty. ushering in a new era of stability and indigenous Egyptian rule.'DERSLEYEN. cat. 1961). A. He also undertook at leasl two campaigns into Nubia.405-H B. He came to the throne of a reunited Egypt after he and his predecessor KAMas" had expelled the HYKsaS rulers from the Delta region. Ahmose I (Amosis) (1550-1525 BC) First ruler of the 18th Dynasty. rvi. 'Les deux Ahhotcps" SA K 8 (1980).1S accomplished the rites and cared for Egypt.199-201. Certainly the titles given to Ahhotep in the Karnak stele include nebel /11 ('mistress of the land'). A stele erected by Ahmose I (1550-1525 BC) in the temple of Amuo-Ra at KARNAK praises his mother's heroism: 'she is one who h. E 'vv. An inscription on a doorway at the Nubian fortress of IltJ1lEN links the names of Ahmosc I and his mother in such <l way as to imply a COR. In western Asia he extended Egyptian influence deep into Syria-Palestine.\L. twO model gold and silver BARKS (one placed on a bronze and wooden cart). The king is POrlrt9. The examination of his mummified body.

43-5. 'Le "bcstiairc" symbolique du liberateur Ahmosis'. Only a small number of sculptures representing Ahmose II have survived. H. L'ipouse dlt dieu Alm/es N~{erla. A. This title was the one most frequently used by Ahmose Nefertari. Amosis II) (570-526 BC) Pharaoh of the late 26th Dynasty. !-Ie is described by Herodotus as a popular ruler of humble origins. An inscription of the first year of the reign of his successor. trans.110-23. 363-4. although his tomb. A.rJ'. A histolY ojantient Egypt (Oxford. 115 (1988). he is later said to have allowed him to be strangled. DODSON.883-92. located within the temple precincts at Sais. Ancient Egypt: (l social lIistOlT. Ahmose II captured Apries and initially held him ar the palace in SAIS. Cambyses. The histories. 1993).285-6. The socket which holds the mast of the SOLAR BARK was therefore usually identified with Aker. G. sometimes linked with that of Amenhotep r. According to the Greek historian HERODOTUS. ROBINS.may actually have taken place near Terana on the Canopic branch of the Nile. but he was also occasionally portrayed simply as a tract of land with lions' heads or human heads at either side. 1992). 38 e11l. His friendly policy toward Greece included the financing of the rebuilding of the temple of Apollo at Delphi after its destruction in 548 Be. the temple of Amun at Karnak. but it is now considered to have been simply a priestly office relating to the cult of Amun (carrying with it entitlement to an agricultural estate and personnel). where the pyramidal tombs of his 17th-Dynasty pretlecessors were located. The symbolism of Aker was closely associated with the junction of the eastern and western horizons in the underworld.flmdaleur de La XVII l' dynnstie (Brussels.5S0 BC. \vhose political and religious titles. a number of his SI-IABTIS have been preserved. apparently serving as regent during the early years of Amenhotep . A. By conquering parts of Cyprlls he gained control of the Cypriot fleet.IAL. GRH\'IAL. She seems to have outlived him by a considerable period. who is said to have had such a strong inclination for drink that he delayed affairs of state in order to indulge in a drinking bout. she was described as mmt ne~'m ('king's mother') in relation to her son AMENI-IOTEP I and hemet llesm meret ('king's principal wife') in relation to her brother and husband AHMOSE I. who was originally a general in Nubia during the reign of PSAMTEK II (595~589 Be). G. (Paris. 'The tombs of the kings of the early Eighteenth Dynasty at Thebes'. B. N. an act that earned him the epithet 'Philhellene'. (see GOD'S WIrE OF AMUN) bestowed upon her. GRH. VANDERSLEYEN l Les g/lerres d'Amosis. particularly in connection with the workmen's village at DEIR EL-MEDINA. Les divine. C. where they were granted special economic and commercial privileges (sec TRADE). It was once interpreted as an 'heiress' epithet. Because the lions faced towards both sunrise and sunset. Feslsdlrijll¥ Westendolf(Giittingen. MEMPIIIS and ABYDOS have also been poorly preserved. 1\1. N. he was more politically shrewd than his predecessor. l1!omclI i11 am:ieul EgJlpt (London. GnToN. (Cambridge. More than fifty of the Theban tombs of private individuals include inscriptions mentioning her name. the god was closely associated with the journey of the SUII through the underworld each night. 1972). which according to a badly damaged stele . Ahmose 11 was proclaimed pharaoh by popular demand when Aprics W<lS blamed for the defeat of his troops at the hands of Dorian GREEK settlers. an act which was described in Ahmose I'S Stele of Donations in .1570-1505 BC) Green schist headfrom a statue ofa Late Period king. B. HERODOTUS. 1984). Ahmose II (Amasis. She was also the first royal woman to have the title hemet netje. At the end of his long and prosperous reign he was succeeded by his son I'SA1VlTEK UI (526--525 Be).294. like those of her grandmother TETTSHERI and mother AHI-JOTEI' I. presenting himself as nationalistic by limiting the activities of Greek merchants to the city of NAUKRATIS in the Delta. suggests that she was probably still alive even after the death of her son. One stele even documents the fact that Ahmose I sought her approval before erecting 2 cenotaph for TETISHERI at Abydos. . 1985). c. He came to the throne following his defeat of AI'IUES (589-570 DC) at the 'Battle of Momcmphis'. 1971).. have helped to illuminate the various new political roles adopted by women in the early 18th Dynasty (see QUEENS).OYD.. 19 Ahmose Nefertari (e. He was most often represented as a form of 'double-sphinx'. The buildings he constructed at SAIS. M. whose rule was to be abruptly ended some six months later by the invasion of the new Persian ruler. which was to acq uire greater political importance during the Late Period. which he used to assist his allies in their struggles against the Persians. Later legend also has it that he married the daughter of Apries to the PERSIAN king in order to forestall Persian designs on Egypt. II. 'The Late Period'. (£//497) Perhaps the most influential of the New Kingdom royal women. 193-202. marking out the woman whom the king must marry to legitimize his claim to the throne. 169-74. Born in the early sixteenth century Be. consisting of two lions seated back to back. There is considerable textual evidence for Ahmose Nefertari's involvement in the cult of Amun as well as her participation in the quarrying and building projects undertaken by her husband. 1984). I3UTO. A his!OI:V oj a. and his name was apparently removed from many of his monuments by Cambyses. DESROCHES-NoBLECOURT. and it was later passed on to several of her female descendants.AHMOSE II A HORIZON Ora Abu cl-Naga in western TIIEBES. zAs. Trigger ct al.'s reign.l· ipouses de la I~ dynastie (Paris. although this seems unlikely. TlIUTMOSE T. although eventually he appears to have accorded him a full royal burial. was ransacked in ancient times. Ll. 1992). 26th Dynasty. C. 2nd ed. including her own daughter Meritamun and Q!leen Ilt\TSHtI'SUT (1473~1458 Be). which they were considered to have jointly founded. 1981). de Selincourt (Harmondsworth. She became the object of a posthumous religious cult. A Horizon see A GROUP Aker Earth-god whose cult can be traced back to the Early Dynastic period. possib~)I Ahmose II. Although Ahmose II found it necessary to continue to employ Greek mercenaries.m:ie11l igYPI (Oxford.

D'Auria. When he initially succeeded to the throne. OGDEN.M had been created by this reunion. H. P. 1978). C.2000 IiC.UE. is therefore described as the Amarna period. The major religious innovation of Akhcnatcn's reign was the vigorous promotion of the worship of the ATE:'\! to the exclusion of 20 . The ensuing phase in Egyptian history. /5 em. and C. consisting of Akhenaten's reign and that of his ephemeral successor Smenkhkara. cd. Lacovara. Akh --' line notioll religieuse dallS I'hgYPle phl/mol/il/lle (Uppsala. he was known as Amenhotep IV. NAi\'!E and SHADOW. Born in the early fourteenth century Be. m: Wrr. Once Ihe a. /91h Dynl/sty. The akh was believed to be the fnrm in which the blessed dead inhabited the underworld. This newly founded settlement was evidently intended to replace both THEBES and MEMPHIS as the religious and secular focus of the country. pI/iI/led //Jood. (£A/0470) M.ROQ. the word akh was written with the sign of the so-called crested IBIS (Gerot1licus eremi/a). c. it was regarded as enduring and unchanging for eternity. he set the tonc for a new era by establishing a temple at KARNAK dedicated not to AMUN but to the god ATEN. Heick. 'Some notes on the name and the iconography of the god 'kr'. 114--15. shoming hom rtpresenting the god Aker. in the first year of his reign. P. VA 2 (1986). INotes sur Aker" BJ&IO 30 (1930). Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) (1352-1336 BC) The infamous 'heretic' pharaoh. probably some years before the death of his father (although there is still considerable debate as to whether there was any COREGENCY between the two). 1975).e I. HORNUNG.38-49. during whose reign the art and religion of Egypt were marked by rapid change. However. and also the result of the successful reunion of the ba with its kl/. F BISSON DE I~". J. 1951). shomillg a hieroglyph representing the ere. Middle Kingdom. 'Aker') Lexikol1 tier A"gypJolog. Otto and W. Westendorf (Wiesbadcn. 127-35. In his firth regnal year Amenhotep 'v made two crucial and iconoclastic decisions: he changed his name from Amenhotep ('Amun is content') to Akhenaten ('glory of the sundisc') and he began to construct a new capital city called Akhetaten ('horizon of the Aten') at the site now known as EL-AMARJ'IA in Middle Egypt. 575--<'l0. I/. De/ail ofthe coJJill ofSeni.Hed akh-bird.1Id magic. pl/inted pl/pyrus. S. ENGLUND. ALLEN. Roehrig (Boston. the other four being the KA. R. 'Funerary texts and their meaning" JlIlummies (l. Although the physical form of the (lith was usually portrayed as a' SI-IAllTI-like mummiform figure. cd. Le role elle seIlS du lio" (Leiden. HA. W. akh One of the five principal elements which the Egyptians considered necessary to make up a complete personality. 1988).AKH AKHENATEN ABOVE Deillilfrom lire Book oflhe Deat! olAui. the literal meaning of which was 'the (sun) disc'. E. he was the son of AMENHOTE" "' (1390-1352 BC) and Queen TIl'. E. c. J. (£A3084/) G./250 BC.

Ie has also been asserted. gilded allll painted car/o1ll1llge and SI//CCO. 'Review of Redford.AKHENATEN AKHETATEN attribute the introduction of monotheism to Akhenaten mistakenly.MARTIN} The TOJ'altomb at ei-Amanw} 2 vols (London. 1. Ipu. AI. 2nd (m/liry A/). After a sole reign of only about eighteen years} Akhenatcn was succeeded first by an ephemcral figure called Smenkhkara (which may even have been a pseudonym for Nefcrtiti) and soon afterwards by Tutankhaten. The royal tomb which Akhcnaten had begun to build for him- self in a secluded wadi to thc east of e1Amarna appears never to have been completed and there is little evidence to suggest that anyone other than Mekeraten (one of Akhenaten}s daughters) was actually buried there. often proferring WAS SCEP1'RES and ANKII signs./3-'0 Be. 1974-89). which was depicted as a disc with anns outstretched downwards. effectively signalling the end of the supremacy of the Aten.especially that of Amun . Khent-Mim) Town-site on thc east bank of the Nile opposite modern Sohag.} Al. This mummy was once identified as that of Akhenaren (a view still accepted by some Egyptologists) but most scholars now hypothesize that it may have been Smenkhkara. G. (CAIRO J£55938) the rest of the Egyptian gods. REDFORD} Al.:lwulfeu the heretic kil/g'. D. that Akhenatcn neglected forcign policy and allowed the Egyptian 'empire' in western Asia. B..to be severely eroded. I98{).3100-332 BC). In 1907 Theodore Davis discovered the body of a young male member of the royal family in Tomb 55 in the VALLEY OF THE K. his wife NEFERTITI and the royal princesses) worshipping and making offerings to the Aten. which has led many scholars to 21 . GA186 (1985).1l'1GS} apparently reinterred with a sct of funerary equipment mainly belonging to Queen Tiy. (£0429586) ABOVE Colossal sla/ue ofAkhenllleufro111 Karnak.Dlu:n. king (Princeton. D. from the Roman-period cemetery III Aklzmim. which were severcly plundered during the 1880s. and it is also possible that the iconography of the period was deliberately underplaying the view of the king as warrior. including even the state god AJ\'IUN.5111. 3. 81-3. sandstone. T . There is. D. It should also be borne in mind that the view of foreign policy in other reigns during the New Kingdom tends to be automatically distorted in that it derives principally from Egyptian temple reliefs and papyri rather than from genuine diplomatic documents such as the Amarna Letters. \\lithin a few years the city at eI-Amarna had been abandoned in favour of the traditional administrative centre at Memphis} and the new king had changed his name to Tmankhamun. Akhetaten see (TELL) EL-AMARNA Akhmim (ane. much of the Coffin of/he TPoma" Tamin wearing dllil)' dress. B. primarily on the basis of the evidence of the A~lI\RNA LETTERS (diplomatic correspondence between the Amarna pharaohs and their vassals in SYRIA-I'ALESTIi\'E). Akhenalen: kiuK of Egypt (London. Thc carlicst surviving remains are Old and Middle Kingdom rock-tombs. which was the capital of the ninth NOME of Upper Egypt during the Pharaonic period (c. RAy. C. 1988). The reliefs and stelae in the temples and tombs of Akhenaten's reign repeatedly show thc royal family (Akhenaten. The names of other deities .were excised from temple walls in an apparent attempt to cstablish the Aten as a single Supreme deity. 18th Dynasty. c.96111. however} a certain amount of evidence for Asiatic campaigning during his reign. II.. II. symbolizing power and life respcctively. J. The final mystery of the 'Amarna period' is the disappearance of the bodies of Akhenaten and his immediate family. who may have been a younger son of Amenhotep III or a son of Akhenaten.:heuateuthe heret.

The use of the term alabaster is further complicated by the fact that the material often described by Egyptologists as 'gypsum'. emmer. KLEMM. NARCE 116 (1981-2). KUlILMANN. as well as statuary and altars. the term is also used to refer to the material culture of northern Mesopotamia. GM 119 (1990). E. I (Cairo. 4/. c. Bahy/olI. Both red and white wine (irep) were regularly drunk and there are many tomb-paintings showing grapes being harvested and pressed. The brew was not necessarily very alcoholic. the western part of the coast.ld also have speeded up the fermentation.\KHFJ\ and the Kynopolis area of Middle Meriramun. J. J. the main Pharaonic source being 1-11\'1'NUB. NEWBERRY. alcoholic beverages Beer (hCllket). it occurs principally in the area of Middle Egypt.P. 26-30. Allcle1lt Iraq. and R. BROVARSKI.:ur Archiiologie /l1ul Cescllichte des Raumes von Achmim (Mainz. The Delta. linen and silk fabrics which have formed part of the basis for a chronological framework for the study of textiles between the Hellenistic and Islamic periods (c. Often the inscription lists the king)s regnal year. They began gradually to infiltrate SUMER during its Early Dynastic period (<". HARRELL.S em. 1986). Research by Delwen Samuel has challenged rhis traditional view by suggesting that bread was not used. However barley. In effect this served the same purpose as modern wine labels and as a result the locations of certain vincyards arc known. but had a high nutritional value. It has been suggested that stale bread may have been used as a substitute. G.c. Akkadian quickly became established as the lingua franca of the ancient Near East. The city originally included a number oftempIes dedicatcd to MIN. about 18 km southeast of the New Kingdom city at el-Amarna. and was therefore an important part of the Egyptian diet (see FOOD). 37-42. P. GM 122 (1991). (elf/RO.\ LETTERS (diplomatic corre. inscn'bed mitlt tlte (arlollche ofTltulmose lJl and details ofits capacity (14. 'The inscribed tombs of Ekhmim'. owing to the widespread plundering of the site in the fourteenth century AD. 6 vols (Sydney. 165-88. KANAW:\T1 1 Rock tombs ofe1-Hama. may be legitimately described as 'alabaster'. 22-59. a 22 . when the south of the country was still dominated by non-Semitic Sumerian speakers. 1980-). By extension. notably those in the tomb nf Nakht at Thebes (Tr52).. the variety of wine. The Akkadians adopted the Sumerians' CUNE1FORI\lt writing system in order to write down their own language. 1985). (Harmondsworth. J. (London.mish: the cemclery oj'Aklmliw. including dates) honey and spices. E. Mi/twges Camal Eddill Mothlar. has no close relatives. the god of fertility. LAAA 4 (1912). and remained so over a long period.MDAIK35 (1979). They were placed on a screen over a vat or jar. The sugar from dates or honeyed bread wou. 1983). or by brewers if it was for use in rations of state employees. its vineyard 1 its owner and the person responsible for production.5 hill or6. have uncovered colossal statues of RA. The cemeteries of the Christian period (AD 395-641). McNALLY. 410. Raux. in the third millennium Be.lagc.pondence between Egypt and the Levant in the mid-fourteenth century Be) are written in the Babylonian langl. A. and water was poured over them until they dissolved and drained into the \'at. on the other hand. 'Akhmim in the Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period'. D. 1992). Such infiltration can be seen from the Semitic names of scribes at the southern site of Abu Salabikh who wrote in Sumerian. so that for example most of the AMARN. S.101-20 K. The tombs were first excavated by Percy Newbcrry in 1912 and morc recently fe-examined by Naguib Kanawati. The Sumerian language. This would be prepared in the household. the Oases of KJ IARGA and D. Recent excavations by Egyptian archaeologists. The juice was collected in vats for fermentation) and when part-fermented was decantcd into amphorae and left to mature. travertille. K. which were excavated in the late nineteenth century. II.3 100-2686 BC). however.IIESES II (1279-1213 BC) and and Hebrew. have yielded many examples of wool. NO. sometimes for several years. These vessels are frequently inscribcd on the shoulder or have stamps impressed on the mud sealings. 146--60. 57-70. Often a variety of flavourings were added to the brew.AKKADIAN ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES funerary equipment subsequently being dispersed among various collections. which is a late form of Akkadian. alabaster. It thcn might bc filtered again and have spices or honey added before finally being transported in amphorae.67/itres). whereupon the resulting mixture was left in a warm place to ferment. Egyptian alabaster The terms 'alabaster' Or 'Egyptian alabaster' have often been used by Egyptologists to refer Akkadian Term used to denote a group of Semitic languages that first appeared in northern MESOPOTAMIA. REPRODUCED COURT£')Y OF l1/£CR/FfTI1IINSTlTUTE) to a type of white or translucent stone used in Egyptian statuary and architecture./450 BC. but few stone buildings have survived from the Dynastic period. At around this time a large number of Late Period burials were unearthed. arc evident in beer residues. describing it as barely inferior to wine. 2334-2279 BC). Akkadian is divided into Old Akkadian used in the third millennium and Assyrian and Babylonian in the second and first millennia and is related to Arabic Stone vesse/from the tomb ofTutankhamull. form of calcium sulphate quarried principally at Umm el-Sawwan in the Fayum region. From the Early Dynastic period on wards travertine was increasingly used for the production of funerary vessels. In the first century BC Diodorus Siculus praised the quality of Egyptian beer. 3rd cd. N. or a mixture of both. 'l\1isuse of the term "alabaster" in Egyptology'. P KUIILMANN 1 'Dcr Felstempel des Ejc bei Akhmim'. particularly that of the dynasty founded by Sargon the Great (Sharrukin. it is likely that many people were bilingual even before the unification of Sumer with Akkad. Malerialeu :. 'Survival of a city: excavations at Akhmim'.. The Egyptian process for making beer began with the preparation of partially baked cakes of barIcy bread.300 BC-AD 700). formed an important part of the Egyptian diet. 'Calcit-Alabaster oder Travertin? Bcmcrkungen zu Sinn und Unsinn petrographischen Bezeichnungen in der Agyptologie'. the most common of the alcoholic beverages. 2nd ed. which is a form of limestone (calcium carbonate) more accuf<\te1y described as travertine. OATES.

19-26. Although certain monuments. Born in Macedonia in 352 BC. such as that of Djeserkarascncb (lT38). having founded the city of ALEXANDRIA. who was empowered to collect taxes from the newly appointed local governors. that he \vas not the son of Philip II of Nlacedonia but the result of a liaison between his mother Olympias and NECTANrno " (360--343 BC). a female guest says. 'From prehistory to history: beer in Egypt'. and fYrOLE!\J1Y. the last native Egyptian pharaoh. J. are decorated with scenes showing guests exhibiting signs of nausea during banquets. Adams (Oxford./Ale. renewal rather than invasion that Alexander immediately made sacrifices to the gods at Memphis and visited srWA OASIS in the Libyan Desert. thus appar- Silver min bearing the head o.({uder the Crea. 2. WILSON. where the oracle of MvIUN-RA officially recognized him as the god's son. later. e.l. Egyptian/hod aud drink (Aylesbury. and there were a number of fruit wines made from dates. The best-known mythical instance of drunkenness was the intoxication of SEKJ-IMET the lioness-goddess in The DestructioN of iVlaukintl. Ritual vase jor 'IIVine of LomeI' Egypt/or the deceased lady Noth'met' 18th l~)lllas~J!.ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES ALEXANDER THE GREAT ABOVE Copy oI a mine-making scene in Ihe Theball tomb ofKhaeml1JtlSel (1'726/).3971E) ently restoring the true pharaonic line. Nem Kingdom. Life ill fl. Alexander had already conquered much of western Asia and the Levant before his arrival in Egypt. commander of the Egyptian army. somewhat implausibly. son of Lagos. Wines might also be imported from SYRIA-PALESTINE and. 'Give me eighteen cups of winc. Thefollomers 0/ Horus. bear depictions of Alexander firmly establishing him as Alexander the Great (352-323 BC) Tn 332 nC the second Persian occupation of Egypt ended with the arrival of the armies of Alexander the Great. H.lIfieml. leaving the country in the control or two Greek officials:Kleomenes of Naukratis. In a later attempt to bolster his claims to the royal succession. 1992). in the Alexander Romallce.. while the Greek historian Herodotus recorded that the festival of BASTET the cat-goddess was renowned for its drunkenness. (c".7 WI. cd. In 331 BC.104--5. 1992). Alcohol was often taken in excess. It was in keeping with this sense of 23 . (&-159774) Egypt seem to have been especially fill'oured. Alexander left Egypt to continue his conquest of the Achaemenid empire (see PERSIA). \vhich appears to have been closer to a triumphal procession than an invasion. H. and a number of private tombs. Such drunkenness was regarded as indicative of the abundance of the feast and therefore to be encouraged. GREECE. 1988).330 Be. STROUIIAL.127-8. it was suggested. my inside is like straw'. I).225. E.\. figs and pomegranates. 79 Oil. one of his generals. GELLER. for I wish to drink until drunkenness. such as the inner chapel of the temple of Amun at LUXOR. In the depiction of a banquet in the tomb of Paheri at ELKAB. F Friedman and B.'gypt (Cambridge.

'lqore.5 km off the coast. near the Mosque of Nebi Daniel. In 323 Ile. Raqote) Greco-Roman city situated on <1 narrow peninsula at the western end of the l'vlcditerranean coast of Egypt. L.332 LlC-Al) 395) Alexandria was a thriving cosmopolitan city. was probably the earliest known lighthouse. (Bristol.ranrlria. In the late first century AD the Roman orator Dio of Prusa even went so far as to describe Egypt as a mere appendage to Alexandria. (EASS2S3) The most famous ancient buildings at Alexandria were the Library and Museum. 2 vols (Cambridge. in 305 DC. HA~H. he must have had little opportunity to make any personal impact on the Egyptian political and economic structure. BVRN. hOWC\'CT. (GRAI/AM l/ARRISON) I. baths. His tomb was probably in the Soma (royal mausoleum). 2nd cd. [n Egypt Ptolemy al first functioned as a general alongside the viceroy Klcomencs. but unfortunately . N. The major monuments of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods were the SERAPHiM (a temple dedicated to the god SERA PIS.m settlement called R. and its identity was so strong that it was known as Alexandretl tid Aegypfum: Alexandria 'beside' Egypt rather than within it. it eventually dissolved into a number of separate kingdoms ruled by his generals and their descendants. Commander and SltIfesmall. 1s1-2/1d centuries AD. as if it were a separate country in its own right. which are supposed to have been burned down. Alexandria (anc. shoming n combination oj CreeR find EgJlptiall sculpwrllltJ'llilx.loND..·irtually nothing has survived.5 CIII. the CaesariuITI.ALEXANDRIA ALEXANDRIA pharaoh. 24. During the Ptolemaic and Roman periods (c. The Alexandrian 'pharos'. which may incorporate a few stray blocks from the ancient lighthouse.jrom Alexandria. along with an irreplaceable collection of papyri . Alexander is said to have entrusted the design of the city to the architect Dcinokrates and the official KJeomenes. It was Ptolemy I (305-285 DC) who was said to have placed the body of Alexander the Great in a golden coffin at Alexandria. a gymnasium complex and a possible schoolroom. 3rd cd. A. C. Excavations at Kom el-Dikka. a Roman stadium and Kom el-Shugafa (a labyrinth of rock-cut tombs dating to the first two centuries AD). Apart from the fortress of Qait Bey on the Pharos peninsula. It was founded by Alexander the Great on the site of an earlier Egypti. but eventually he became the first Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt after the death of Alexander II'.EfT Schist headjrom a stafUe oia youllg mall. archaeological traces of which have so far been found only in the form of the pre-Ptolemaic seawalls to the north and west of the island of Pharos. and it' appears that) for a decade or so nfter his departure. 1989). which may have housed part of the library collection). Ale. traditionally located under the Mosque of 'ebi Daniel in central Alexandria. The archacologiClI exploration of the city has 24 . II. constructed in the early Ptolemaic period on the islet of Pharos about 1. there are few surviving Islamic monuments at Alexandria. have revealed the remains of the central city during the Roman period. ABOVE VielP ofthe ll1ulergroll1ul chambers of Kom el-Shugaja. but so far it has not been found. including a small theatre. \V \V. G.IsI ceulll1)' DC. 1948). including substantial numbers of Greeks and Jews. but the principal buJdings were not completed until the reign of Ptolemy II Philaclelphlls (285-246 BC). Alexander the Creat amI the A/liddle East. in the third cemury AD. TARN. he died of a fever and although attempts were made on behalf of his half~brother Philip Arrhidaeus (323-317 IIC) and his son Alexander IV (317310 DC) to hold the newly aeqoired empire together. With its gridded street plan.Alexal1der fhe Creat: King. 1973). by 320 BC it had replaced Memphis as the capital of Egypt and by the mid-first century Be it had a population of about half a million. the country suffered from a lack of strong leadership. Alexander the Creat. (Harmondsworth. it was essentially a Greek rather than an Egyptian city.

yell as cemeteries.. 19J9.rm/ar ten/ra/ parI of/he allur are "rrf/Ilgedjuur herep ((JjJ~riug. .. . \\ hich lies directly below .·alled sctt. j (.-\IJ 297."I'I~ -". A milssiye limeStone altar dedicated to Ra-HorakhtYl still ill Silu On the upper terracc of the temple of Hatshcpsur at DeiI' c1-Bahri .ALTAR AMARA been complicated by the f:lCt that antiquities from all over Egypt wcre gathered together in Alcxi.. . 3 \'ols (Oxford. a/Amara rve~·I.~~ - ~: E. trans. a granite column which was actually erected by the Roman emperor Dioclctian in e.. some contemporary wiLh the tOwn and others dating 10 the t"'t.E. occupying an area or ahoUl 60.~. as . K. . J.]EA 80 (1994).. 1922). C"-'FOR·\.000 sq. haying been brought there from '1lICT\IOSE Ill's temple to RaAwOl at lIEI.-.l colonial establishment t()lll1dcll by the Eg~ pli:U1s in the Ramessidc period ((. P/au Q/I/U: silt. 111.-I/e. as well as courty. F·\IR\l.JEQLtER..'" the depleted remains or the enclosure mtll arc srill "isible al the site.En as the scat uf the Deput)' or Kush (Upper Nnbia). Ucko et a!. a chief priest of Thoth. Cairo) . Tlte gret/l/rarerlinc ullar III/Itc SJlIllemplc of King 1\~)IUSC. The GrcatTcmple of theA. 101-2. Amara T'hc rcmains of two Nubian tO\\"llS (Amara \Vcst and E~tsr) arc located about 180 kill south of Wadi llalfa on either side nfthe Nile. Bo\\ \I. 'Autc!'. . Egypi ajier tht' plwrf/o"s (London.::! .:. was furnished with a flight of ten sleps on its western side. Aft. but parts of the road leading from the firer pon ro the sea-harbour _. One oCthe most striking sun"j"ing monuments is Pompey's Pilbu. .1 .143).]\/1. 5PE:"cER.\"as erected bvThutmose tit (H7~-H25 Re) in the 'iVliddle Kingdom COLIrt'.lsed.wllt/ria.nJ til Aim Cumb.J s(!!IIJ. ('l'ricr. 1986). In the New J. In +00-.. (.1295-1069 uc). The tra\'ertinc ('Egyptian alabaster') altar in the sun temple of 'ruserra (2++5-2421 Be) at Abu Gurab is one of the most imprcssi.\ll1scum. B. _.. <It Tuna e1-Gcbel..#' : . -If the modern city cenrre. :J.Amal"ll lI'1:sl (London. J'd.7f:'.ralldria: (/ hislOIy tlllll gllic!t (London. W. P.• •: . . Kiln"". JI. (London. 236-49. 811'.l"dJ-/~)I:::'(/litillisdl{..·ing examples. . ° 4. H.mtinc empires.\l\.ralldrea ad Aeg)'pllllll.'\~. '"IIU: 1.-10 19 (1922). . 187-94. cd. . FRASFI{.. Ryle (London.t .:. The site included a stone-built temple of the time of Little cxcaration has laken place in the ancient town itself. cach carred in the form of a Itelep ('offering') sign.~.\) altar In the temples of ancient Egypt. 1972).7£..1l11o. ~ .. 2~. E... The . consisting of a stone or brick-huilt hlock with r.CU... Pia/eli/air . 1997). .. 1\1" Amara East Iherc was once a town and temple dating to the J\ leroitie (sec \tEROI-:) period ({. . Both Cleopatra's Needle (now 011 the Embankment in London) and the Central Park obelisk in New York once stood in t. Such an altar was erected in front of thc early PlOlcmaic 10mb of I'l::TOSIRIS. L. stairs and altars in the cult or the. 'Notes :ll1d ncws'.\"as. the alLar (kltal) was used to carr~t offerings intended to propitiatc deitics or the dece.\.: .ten at el-Amarna is and the 'horned altar'.. 19+8). P.\ period (c. 1922). when most of:\ubi:1 was effectin. Grimm ct . A.'II/clIIl'1I1 (lnd urbanislIl. I ~72). II. ed.. 'Rct. lll](ln.t rds full of hundreds of stone offering tahles.i. c10sc to the site of Ihe SerapeulTI. M.511 \\\.j \ wcre examined in 1874.I01'OUS.16).651-6."7!-.! Wil"11 ramps or sets of' steps."" . (Ber!f.lOO ItC. BRFJ.!cmcnt" of Am:\ra \Vest. Ale.1I11CSeS IJ.. . 3+ (1938. P..20+-33. °l.~ -. A.·c sUITi.~. but onl.rj"gYPICII. appears to ha\'c taken O\'er from the town of SOI. W<1S introduced from Syria-Palestine. G.. I ~8~). trans. 1983). 1 governor's residence 2 temple 3 resideRtial areas 4 extra-mural settJement 50 100m G.he Clcsarium.~~~ \:~~~ ~.lised corncrs. 1. In the Icmple of. Das /'fi'lIIi. . known to hil\'c included" large central altar approached by a ramp.11 22 (19. From the Late Period (7-17-332 tIC:) onwards.:aJ/imed library. 109-27. FORSTER.\1) 350). See also OFFERL'G T\B1. at '" \R" \K a pink granitc altar in the form of a /'c/l'p sign (now in the Eg~ plian . Relicf scenes can"cd On the ii·ont of this altar show I\\'0 kneeling figures of the king prescnting offerings t~ Amlln-Ra.. KourrAJ. L. 'Fonifilxi towns in Nubi:\'.:hcrches :lrchilectoniqucs dans les thermes et Ie thearrc dc Kom cl-Dikb:1 Alexandric'. R. Egypt began ro be more influcm:ed b~ IIellcnistic and Syrian forms of worship Amara \Vest.:ingdom (1550-1069 11(:) Illany large-scale s!'Onc temple altars were prmoide<.12+.\/CIIULSO. perhaps initially set lip as a base for gold-mining and trading expeditions furthcr to the somh.\ \IL. It consists of a huge monolithic circular slab surrounded b~ four other pieces of trayertine. Iten at c!-Amarna'. \~. Around 11ll' (. KEtlll'.I~· regarded as IXIJ"t or Egypr.~ '1 . 'Preliminary excavation reporrs 011 Amara \·Vcst".hluslf:ldes. Eng.. 2...mdria either LO adorn new temples or in preparation for their transportation to other parts of the Roman and Byzi. 0:-.

such as the priest Panchsy and chief of pulice Mahu. However. DI~ G. Over the last hundred years the site has been examined by a succession of excavators. because of the peculiarities of the site's historical background. has now vanished under the modern cultivation. a rcctangular walled settlement located in relative isolation.Nluch of the western side of the city. It was founded in about 1350 Be and abandoned about twenty years later. . BORCIIARDT and I I. T E. 1923-51). 3 vols (London. more than a kilometre to the east of the main city (the 'workmen's village') and an arc:. terraced buildings in the centre of the city (known as the 'clerks' hOllses'). palaces and magazines . N. Abruptly abandoned follo"·iog Akhenatcn's death. were red. clAmarna is the best-preserved example of an Egyptian settlement of the New Kingdom. after an occupation of only about twenty-five to thirty years. i903-8). 1894). these were built for the high officials of the city. The nom! tomb at e!-Al1Ial'/w. the small Aten temple and the newly identified Amarnaperiod temple of Kom c1-Nana. DtWIES. sc'"cral kilometres to the cast of the cliffs. was a set of official buildings . Howard Carter and Leonard Woolley. is usually described as 'organic'. the main components of which are described in contemporary inscriptions at the site. RiCKE. palaces and large areas of mud-brick private housing. ·/CII eI-AIIIIIl"lla (London. Akhctatcn) Sitc of a ci"·. T !\t(ARTIN. The rock tombs olEI AlI1anltl. south suburb and north city) are characterized by a much more haphazard layout than the carefully planned ccntral city. including Flinders Petrie.(anc.'iro. with the spaces between the earliest large houses gradually being filled up with smaller clusters of houses. including the workmen's village. the cit)" of Akhetaten is unlikcly to have bcen typical of Egyptian cities. W. the manner in which they developed. a large number of structures have been preserved in the desert to the cast. the city itself stretches for about 7 km along the eastern bank of the Nile. PEET ct aI. located about 280 km south of C. including houses.iscovered in the late 1880s. There arc also two groups of rock-tombs (largely unfinished) at the northern and sOllthern ends of the semicircular bay of clifflO.principally temples. The nucleus of the city.called the 'Island of Atcn Distinguished in Jubilees'. along with the wells. including temples. The site as a whole is contained within a semicircular bay of cliffs approximately 10 km long and a maximum of 5 km wide. G. to the east of the city..' plan of the entire site.1 of drystone temporary accommodation situated about halfway betwcen the latter and the cliff. Die I ViHmlui'ust>T ill Tell el-Alllllmll (Berlin. the dearth of subsequent settlement has ensured remarkable preservation of the city plan. grain-silos. rrell) el. nevertheless it presents an invaluable opportunity to study the patterning of urban life in Egypt during the fourteenth century Be. Since the latc 1970s an expedition from the Egypt Exploration Societ)' has produced the first dctailed surve. bakeries and refuse dumps that comprise the basic framework of production and consumption throughout the community. (TELL) EL- Amarna. (TELL) EL- AMARNA. The three main residential zones of thc city (the so-called north suburb. 1974-89). E PETRIE. as well as excavating and re-examining a number of parts of the city. (the 'stone village'). "rhere are also three small areas of planned settlement at cl-Amarna: a block of 26 modern cultivation Korn el-Nana: / \ Amama-period ~ temple and late Roman settlement modem el-Amariya modem cultivation rnaru-Aten I \] 2km palace hwt Aten (small Aten temple) south suburb river temple PIlm of/he (i~)1 oIAkhe/lI/eu lI/ e/~A1l1l1mll. The city oj'Akhellatell. 1980). 6 vois (London. M. . The total population of the main city at e1-Amarna has been estimated at between twenty thousand ilnd fifty thousand .AMARNA. Unfortunately. L. 2 I"ols (London. founded by the pharaoh Akhenaten (1352-1336 BC). harbours and the main palace of the king. The plundered and vandalized remains of the royal tombs of Akhcnatcn and his family.

King of Eg}lpJ (London.A"dcul Egypt: flllll/()1IU'Qfa t:ivili:::. 1/. pllil/ted plll. (w·. Their importance was nor immediately recognized.tIIion (London. with the majority dating to the time of t\KIIENt\TE:\' (1352-1336 Be). and the Egyptian . MORJ\'\. e. Al1ciel1/ Egypt: 1I11aIOll~)1 oIa civili. \~'. apart from Queen SOIlEKNEFEI{U. beginning around year thirty of M1Ej\1I0TI~P III (1390-1352 Be) and extending no later than the first year of TUTA~Kllf\\IU:"i'S reign (1336-1327 Be). Aldu:lIlltell. diplomatic \Li\RRIAGE and the yalues of particular com- HIMel from el-Amarlla.223-5. He was the first ruler of the 12th Dynasty. The state of the empire under Akhenaten is poignantl)· documented in thc increasingly desperate pIcas for assistance from Syro-Palestinian cities under siege. ALDRED. 1/.Hed. the LOll'TC. and many passed into private hands. took the name of SEl\'USI{ET. 1989). but they span a fiftecn-to---thirty-year period (depending upon interpretations of coregencies at this time). They provide a fascinating picture modities such as GLASS. 196-1). his vlew was confirmed by A. c.discovered in 1887 by a village woman digging ancient mud-brick for use as fertilizer (Arabic -'ebllkli).fi-ti-vis the Egyptian court.DE relations.~hralla of_Milllnni 10 Amenlwlep III. (£455617) B.\p. 27 .\I0SE II Amenemhat (!\mmenemes) rour of the 12th-Dynasty pharaohs held the 'birth name' Amenemhat ('AmLin is at the head'). 1989). but Wallis Budge of the British Museum believed the tablets to be genuine and purchased a number of thcm.(ilioll (London. A11 but thirty-two of the documents in the archive are items of diplomatic correspondence between Egypt and either the great powers in wcstern Asia.29793) Fragmmt ofpainted pm:emelll from II building called the flilaru-Atell (/1 el-Amamll. which was the lingua francn of the time. KDII'. 9 ClII. although there are very few letters from the Egyptian ruler. while the various forms of address employed in the letters indicate the standing of the writers vi. but he is prohably already attested at the end of the 11 th Dynasty. Their exact chronology is still deb.). BC.\11' (cd. E C\"'lPIJELL.. A"IIlr1lll reports I-\") (London./er. when. The tablets are held by the British Nluseum. 93 (111..D and the newly introduced IRO'. Amasis see 1\1 !. 'luseum in Cairo. Most arc written in a dialect of the \KKADIAN language. I-I. 1811i Dyllf/'I)'. such as Babylonia :md Assyria. the Bodemllscum AJ\IARNA./350 HC.261-317. the letters also shed light on TR. B.AMARNA LETTERS AMASIS of the relationship between Egypt and these states. Sayce. inscribed wilh a cmfeijorm /t'llerfrom ·nl. J. There are 382 known tablets. elf/Y. Alllellelllllll/ I Selietepibra (1985-1955 IlC) was the son of a priest called Senus ret and a woman called Nofrer. Amarna Letters Important cache of documents from EJ. KJ:. 183-94E. IIlTTITES and Hurrians (Mrli\NNI) nre also represented. The chronology oflhe Amanltl Lellers (Baltimore. B. This discovery led to further illicit diggings and the appearance of a number of clay CU~ElFORj\1 tablets on the antiquities m~rkct. c. As well as giying insights into the political conditions of the timc. or the vassal states of SYRIA and I'ALESTI?'-lE.:. 1984-95). 18th DYlltlsO'. GOI. in Berlin./35.]. most of which derive from the 'Place of the Letters of Pharaoh" a building identified as the official 'records office' in the central city at clAmarna. Tlu'AI111lnm ulIers(London. J. although the languages of the ASSYRIANS. 1992). L. while the rest. shoming dud's flying oul ofa papyrus thickel. KE. 1988).4.

:}.t.\s regent for rhe firsr part of his reign. with the miliL.158-81.·here the mud-brick pyramid has bcen strippcd of its limestone outer casing.I. The pyramid complex of Amcncmhat II at IH11SIIUR includcd a mortuary temple and c'llIse. . who had alread~ been effecti. where Lhcy cOllsequently enjoyed personal religious cults until the I<lte Ramesside period."cry young when he came to the throne. Since he himself appears to hare been assassinated as a result of a 11. Lcmples to SOBEk and KE'\F. some distance away from the tomb itself HmYc.-I.-e pacif.>(JJ(1". It still has an excellenL G\RTO' '\01-: face-mask :lnd had been rc\\'r~ppcd by rhe priests who mm'cd it in the 21st Dynast)'. he 12th Dynast~.-cly.1:\ OF Till'. 1992).\RI.ming 'Amun is con Lent'. He was probably srill .md.1\"C been roretold by a prophet in the Old Kingdom. IlIIell!lo/<.. POSE'EK. \.ISII'I" reintroduced rhe Old Kingdom pyramid-style royal tomb. His reibm e. llis burial-place remains unidentified.\IL'lsnUTIO. . thus Creating the first of a string of 12th-Dynasty fortresses which probably gave the Egyptians a slTanglcholci over economic COntacts with Upper Nubia and the counrries furlher smuh in Africa. Granite !reat! lJ/AlIJcnl'1IIIw/ JJJ.\DI rcspecti. lie moved the royal residence to rhe ncwl~ established LO\\ n of A. _-lmeuellfllfll JJ NubJ. and he was sut:ccedcd hy his son Senusret I (1965-1920 Be). EmulaLing the military successes of his father. AmenemhaL's funerary complex at I·. . . which was included in the ROnL TITL I. who had 'llrcadj consolidated Egyptian control over I'\ ubi a with the esmblishmcnt of scyeral rurthcr forlresses. thus shifting the locus of the country north"ards. inscribed with his name. on the other h. having been reburied in a cache at IJUR EI. where he completed a largescalc irrigation project inaugurated by his father. G.Hlc items or 'tribute' represented in this hoard suggests Lbat contacts with wcstern Asia and the 1\1editel'ranean world were nourishing. his mOl her being Q!lecn J\ilerirraI-Iatshepsut.h-Iff XIII: th'l/lIslie (Paris.cd.·ay.\.·c1y in t:harge of foreign policy. excayatcd by de ~Irorgan in 189-1-5.mtine and reintroducing conscription into the army. ensuring that provilll:ial power was in the hands of his supporters.-1\11':1111'\1\.1.-I l1is/llry oIlIlIt·im/. or in an unrecognized 10mb in the \.GSIIIP was simply being adopted. 'I'he sun·iving reliefs and texLs give the impression that he prided himself on his physical prowess. The discovery or statuary of Amcnemhnt's daughters and officials at a number of si[Cs in Syria-Palestine . but the .. 'llthough it is equally possible Ihal a new heroic image of the KI1'. !\. and two pyramid complexes. His sllnj.-Il\IlKI. c. perhaps representing the beginning of the decline of the .-I.'gYPJ (Oxford. /.('rul"tl (lS08-l7lJl) Be) was the son ofAmcncmhat III and the last male rulcr of .. JJ. me.\IJ. ahout S km to the south or Lhose a' Dahshur.\39. lie founded a new fOrLrcss aL Semna in the region of" the second Nile caLaracL. I./iml1!JlIbm/is. The political and SOci'll repercussions of this traumatic end to his reign wcre reflected in two new literary works: TIlt: Tall' of Siuul1e and TI1(' Instructioll oI • l1//l'lIl'1//hal J (the laner heing the source of the .. his mortuar~ l:hapcl was later obliterated by the temple of II \TSIIEI'SL"I'. so it" is likely that his mother scrved .: relatively peaceful.C\ hy allowing his successor to rule alongside him for the last fe\\· years of his reign. His second complex.\mcny is supposed to h.-IHIIRI. 79011.18201lc. bearing a lHllrpillg imaipJifJl/ n/IIII: 221111 DY"ffSO'.'1 (1922-1878 Be) succeedcd 10 the thronc after a two-year coregency with his r~lrher Scnusret I. bUl his reign was otherwise short and comparati"cly Amenhotep (i\menophis) 'Birth name' (or nomen).'11 risc of the L~~IYllm region. Amenemhat II'S reign was thercftm.dlO repeats births'). They arc joimly credited wilh the foundation uf the royal tomb-workers' village at IJI':I I{ 1':1.-er. phase of the dynasty. alongside his 17th-Dynasty ancestors.lsLern lJesert. ''''(is (perhaps the uninscribcd Tomb . has sun'i"ed. He may also have inLroduced the practice of CORE(jEi\. in lhe \·jcinity af Er. •-IIIft:/It:/Idwl /I I\I!{/(fl. in which the emergence of a ruler called .p<'l"lIrrt (H27-140lJ Be) W<1S rhe seventh ruler of the 181"h [)ynasty and coregcnt <lnd succeSSor to his father.. and it· is to his reign that lhc TOI1 'Lreasure' dates: the ".IWt'11holl'p J Dje~·lTk{frtl (lS25~1504.Ind ir is not clear whet her he was buried at Ora Ahu el<'\aga (see THEBES).p /I A"/'!f<.AMENEMIIAT AMENHOTEP as I he vizier of \ \I'SrUIlOTEI' 1\ (1992-1lJSS Be). it is Ihe onl~ royal mummy th~t has Ilot heen unwrapped in modern times.Middle Kingdom. has sur.-ing monuments in the area include two coloss:ll graniLe statues of himself at Biahmu. he undertook 28 . was composed parLly in order to legitimize his accession.cntful.i.11063) nomic resources of Nubia and Syria-Palestinc as well as the mineral deposits of the Sinai and E. GKI\I \1.i/h. He was born at j\II':I\IPlIIS. (1:. TIILT\10SI': III (1479-1-+25 IIC).:. \RY of four 18th-Dynasty rulers. although "ork in the 1990s suggests otherwise). included lhe multi-roomed mortuary lemple known 10 Classical authors as the 'Labyrinth' . It is possible that the literary work known as The Dis(l)lIrs(' o/lVejerty. thus helping LO ensure a smooth transi~ tion from one ruler to the next....Hicty of rr. but the black granite pyramidion.\1 conspirat:y.rttJurf fJ poliJiqlll' dff/ls I'Egyplt' . established a Lemple at the Nubian town of S:fi and appoimed Turi as nCEKOY OF "-USI J.-11II"""1III1al JJJ Ninwalra (1855-1808 Be) was the son of Seousret III anti the sixth ruler of the 12th Dynasty. Cusae and Eleph. appointing ne\\ g-oycrnors <"It ASYUI.LSI IT.ied l'\ubia. ..'lr~ achievements of his predecessors allowing him to exploiL the eco- unc. Ilis Horus name.Issassination slOr~).lstern (---'ayum.FEK·I:\RI.-idcntly representee! dIe most prosperous. this precaution proved 10 be fully justified. l-Ie is particularly associated with the cconomic and politic. His hody. 1969).mcncmhatitjmwy.. lie also reorganized the . anti the sct:onu pharaoh or the 18th DynasLy. although his 10mb is mentioned in an official inspection list of the sixteenth year orRamcses I\'S reign (el111 Be)_ He is known to have been the first pharaoh lO build'l separate mortuary temple (or 'mansion of millions of years') :It DEIR I:J.'alley temple has nOL ~et been dist:m-cred.Vchcl11-l11cSU( ('he . Lulc 12/h PJIIUlSO'. I [is pyramid complcx was possibly the southcm mOlll1l11ent :It l\1azghuna.:'\LTI·:-r at Kiman Pares (J\ledinel c1-Fayum) and \\EDI'I-:T \\ \.Be) was the son of \I1\10SE I and ·\II\lOSE XI·.\1.ike his Either und grandfather. \\"<IS no doubt chosen to celebrate the innuguration of the nc\\' dynasty. he led an expedition along the \Vadi Hammamat to the Red Sea. He completed his fathcr's tcmpks at !\'ledinet i\llaadi and probably also builr the unusual temple at Qlsr eISagh'l in the nonhc. ill II \\\ \R \.1150 indi~ caLes Lhat Egyptian inllucnce in the Leyant waS continuing to grow. lie appc~lrs to ha. he was buried in a pyramid complex at Dahshur.

::. c.'\.\11-:'"0'1'1-:1' ttl (1. apart from quelling an uprising i.). edt: 13 (1938). [n abOUI 1390 lie he ll1o\'Cd from A thribis to the royal courl at 'fhcbcs. /8th Dyullsty. The time of Amcnhotep III is marked by the apparent opulence of the royal court and the high standard of artistic and architectural achie\'cl1lel1ts. 23'1-57.l. I-I. as well as the commissioning of such royal Stalues as the COl.13. II. \1ERENfYli\ll.'\l. his mOlher bcing IVlutcrnwiya.U:.~O'. A. and the original heir to the throne. eo.. WINI.lecn T1Y) and a young hoy. W~IS subsequently promoted to the offices of 'scribe of recruits' and 'director of <111 I he king's works'. \ and \1).he LOmb of Amcnhotep II (sec above). 1992). paving the way for thc IIiTITn:s' expansion into the Leyant during the last reigns of the 18th Dynasty. I-h. Amenhotep son of Hapu ~also known as Buyrose to a position of influence during the reih'll nf \.4mama. CERNY. Ihe third pylon at k. In this capacity he would have been in charge of the entire process of temple construction.. J(OZI.J..llown of Athribis (TEI.. where he appointed Uscrs. de l'ancicnne EgYPlC'. \Vhcn it was excayatcd hy Victor Lorer in 1898 it was found to cont'lin not only Amenhotcp II'S mummy (still in his s. Egypt 5da::.. BR\'AN. bur the evidence for these links is tenuous. 1. The high artistic skill of the time is exhibited in the tombs of such high officials as "\\IOSE (rr55) and Khacmhct (·n·S7).WES.IIRo]£N861) 29 .IIOTEI' SOl\" OF I LWU.I}/I'/II( til 1. which might be loosely translated as 'chief royal architect'. . was 'rhullnose. I-Ie built a number of shrines and temples in the region of TILEB[. 'A restoration of the relief..uct as ~'ICEROY OF KUSII and ordered variolls projects of temple construction and deconllion at Amada and .1. He seems to have taken little interest in military affairs and.5 an. although this remains controversial. This policy was not altogether su<. Little has SUTyi\'cd of his mOrlU. who died young. Amenophis HI'S tomh (1\:\"22) . but he was buried in Tomb h:y35 Sielefrom (I !Iol/se/mld .\It\O=') and his palace at \IALh-AI'!\ on the Theban west· bank.:essors.:N as his personal god. from the mortuary temple ofi\menhofcp 1'. 11-15. from the extraction of the stone to the sculpting of rclief"i..AI\:. 3rd cd. Edwards er aI. the mOrtuary temple (the sile of which is marked by the COI. SEn II. \N C. /81h DJlI1{/. three women (one ufwhummay be Q!. the vlzier H.ATRIII).OCX.28/11. Grey granite scribe statue ofA1J1l'1lhOIl'p SOil 0/ I/apu as {/ young 1ll1I1l.\'Il:~.>O IJe. j.1rcophagus) but the hodies of eight other pharaohs (T'hutmosc 1\.. (Bloomington and Clcvehmd.n Nubia in his fifth regnal year.It was decorated \yith scenes from the hook of Allldullt and when exc1Yated by Iloward C~rter it still contained about fifty small fragments of Llle lid of the red granite sarcophagus in the burial chamber. Al1Ienhotep III Neh11lfffllrr/ (1390-1352 Be) was the son and successor of Thutmosc 1\' (1400-1390 lie).OFF and B.OSSI OF 1\IE]\l-"'O~.\\sl1'\(i: 'Excavations at lhe p'llace of' Amcnhotcp 111 ~lt Thebes" B. in c.dge Ancient History.H30-1350 ne) Born in the DcJt. R \ \I ESI::.'\. Some of the art of his reign shows the naturalistic. exh... shomillg Amw/IO/ep III mith hi. . His eldest son." 1\". ilnd Princess BaketateI1. TL~II\. cat.\IIJltIA ] 3 O"brch 1926). Amenhotep son of Hapu (c. 30.~ priu(ipa/miji' 11)/ beside It Itlble 0/ ~l1erillgs lIIula tlu' nqls of/hi' All'lI.\IE.8-14. where he is one of the guests portrayed in a banquet scene in the relief decoration of the tomb of his contemporary.. and it secms likely that he chosc the IHI. (c. (".190-1352 "C.ived in the form of the .:cessful and during hjs long reign it is possible that some of the vassal stares of Syria-Palestine beg'1I1 to brcak away from Egypt. earning him the modern epithet 'the magnificent'.\I.Fum tlte 1f:lltli Pylon of Karnak temple. E.l\I'lOSE (r1"55).RS. 'Les rois sporri(<.sl of thc main V'llley of the Kinhrs. B.R~·\ L1~·I~rE. but no militar~ <lcriviry seems to have been considered necessary in Nubia. Amenhotep III. c.'\. about 40 kill north of Cairo. on the orders of Pinudjcm (one of the chief priests of Amun at Thebes in the 21 st Dynasty).\IED:UILD and TOD. Saptah.AMENI-IOTEP AMENHOTEP SON OF HAPU three campaigns into SYRIA. 1t has been suggested th~1t his body may hayc heen onc of those reburied among a cache of royal mummies in t. informal anitudes characteristic or thc Amarna period. (Cambridge.'.\. whom he may have appointed as coregent towards the end of his reign. . His principal ~lrehitect.'\. A.7J::/14 (1917). 'Egypt: internal affairs from Tuthmosis I to the de:.·as located in the \·alley to the Wc. in order to preserve them from the depredations of tomb~ robbers. It has been suggested that Amenhotep IU may also havc been the father of Smenkhkara..I430 ne. thus anticipating (and presllmably cultivating) the eventual religious rc\·olutioll of his SOil. S. E.\R. although unfinished.IiJlg slln: AIIICIlIrO/('P III and his world. included a complcte version of the book of Amduat (sec FUNERAR\ TEXTS). 1973). was responsible for the construction of the processional colonnade at LUXOR temple.l.-63799) in the Valley of the Kings. whilst still honouring the other gods. U52-1J36 Be). Amenhotep 1\ (M":IIEKATI·:'i.. L.\. H. although this identification has been disputed by some authorities.\IL. 3l3-·H6. 'Le cultr d'Amenophis ler chez les ollvriers dc b nceropolc thebaine" HI FAG 27 (1927).lth of Amenophis III" Cawbr.h-11 \.'1-. Some of his foreign correspondence has sur. he was content to maintain rhe order established by his prede<. The body in queslion is that of a man who suffered from ill health and obcsit~ tow~lrds the end of his life..\L·\BSII.1365 /lC. 11. These mummies were all brought to Amenhotep II'S tomb. including structures ilt ""'t"Ah:.. AllleJllwtep I/' see i\KIIE~. VAN DE \o\'. The decoration of lhis tomb.159-203.lry temple at Thebes.OSSI OF \IE.

colour and Sh~lPC were prescribed for particular amulets in FU:'1ER.. P. Amulets frequently depicted .. the bull and the lion may have been intended to provide strength and ferocity respectively. In the precincts of the temple of Anum . VARlLI. Although one text expresses his desire to reach the age of a hundred and ten..K. and the materials were selected for their supposed magical properties.m·1'\t\STIC PERIOD amulet Term used to describe the small prophylactic charms favoured bv the Egyptians and other ancient peoples.ur Danlellung des Toteugeridl1s i11l Allell Agypteu (Munich.5500. 1968) D.\I:\:H. only the heart amulet became essen- Ammut Creature in the netherworld. the god of the underworld.. The second category can include funerary deities such as A:. (IU??O/.l/s. C. but rarely (strangel~r enough) figures of OSIRIS.\RY TEXTS from as early as the 5th Dynasty (see PYRMvll1J TEXTS).) onwards.pliollS cOl1cenulIIll'arrhilecle A11/t!1IllOlepjilsde HIlPOIl (C1iro. M. 1976). "eltef or s:\ (all words deriving ii'om verbs meaning 'to protect'). C. The names ascribed to different shapes of amulet are known from a number of textual sources. cult temple but by the fact that it was the only pri\'3tc monument situated among the royal mortuary temples on rhe west bank at Thebes (see I\lEI)INET HABU). The (wdt'1ft J::'gyptiall !look vIlhe Dead. for his healing powers.. chapels were dedicated to the worship nf both Imhotcp and Amenhotep .\"G. SO\lS OF I JORCS..tlongsidc the king in several of the reliefs showing the ritual C011sccf<1tion of the temple. 1936). The scenes show her waiting beside the scales in the Hall of the Two Truths.) onwards. where the hearts of the dead were weighed against the feather of . \VII. although recognizable types of amulets . Le lell/ple till saibe rOJ!al Ameuholepfils tit' Hilpof/ (Cairo.one limestone block statue bears inscriptions on all four sides.'l\'e been intended to imbue the wearer with particular qualities. BR"A~. Amratian see PRF.). 4S--Jl. A broad distinction can be made betwcen those amulets that were worn in daily life. and in the thirry-first year of Amcnhorcp Ill'S reign he began to build his own cult temple on rhe west bank at Thebes. aJSOCialed TlJith Chapler J25. The range of funerary amulets increased greatly from the Saite period (664--525 Hr.). (London. Egyptiall . The BOOK OF TI-II': DEAD includes several formulae with illustrative .ltucS of himself His career has been largely reconstructed from the texts carved on these statues . Amulets could be made from stone. Specific combinations of material. in order to protect thc be.OFFand B. S"]':BER. 19i7). more commonly.E. FAULKNEIt.o. SllfliTJ) of those whose evil deeds made them unfit to proceed into the afterlife. on the 'rheban west bank.fthe viguel/(.ET. romisling o. from the New Kingdom (1550-1069 Hr. Tn the Ptolemaic tcmple of Hathor at DeiI' elMedina and the temple of Hatshepsut at Deir c1-Bahri. like the 3rd-Dynasty architect I\IHOTEP (c. 1992). Amcnhotep was deified posthumously in recognition of his wisdom and.ed..acred objects and animals. and those made expressly to adorn the mummified body of the decea.vcre being made from the Badarian period (c.. it is likely that he died in his eighties.) onward" the)' portrayed gods and goddesses. A. the foreparts of a lion (or panther) and the rear of a hippopotamus. C. whose principal epithets were 'devourcr of the dead' and 'gre'lt of death'. IlISrr.J000 Hr. ROOlClJON and A. parts of the human body were used as amulet shapes.\'UBlS.! Dead off/uncje. pail/led papY. He also built (wo tombs for himself. SER.AMMUT AMULET He is known to hayc supervised the construction of the huge temple at SOLEI] in Lower Nubia. and a sur\"iving 215tDynasty copy of a royal decree relating to his mortu:uy temple suggcsts that his cult continucd to be celcbrated at least three centuries after his death. usually depicted with the head of a crocodile.LE. UlIlerslfdul1Igeu ::. 1985). 19th DyUflsO/. It was Ammur who consumed the hearts 30 tial.. VARIJ. thus. metal. A. Evcntually. and. Amcnhotep's importance during his own lifetime is indicated not only by the unusual size of hi.on of Hapu.::Jiug sun: Aml'nhotep III anti his 1I'0riti (Bloomington and Cbcland. //11111/llt is slwJ1JU beside the scales on mhieh the hell/'I Ofthe deceased is meighed. Howevcr. FAIENCE. R. She is portrayed in vignettes illustrating Chapter 125 of the Book of the Dead (see F "'ERARY TEXTS). Egypt'sda:::. DetailjiwlIlhe BOOk' oI111i.lte and powerful local deities but also 'household' deities such as IlES and Tt\WERET.·he term medja ('well-being') was also used. He was buried in a rock-tomb al the southern end of the Q!trnet Murai.2650 11(.. KOZI. they may h.lk he was permitted w set up several S(. During thc First Intermediate Period (2181-2055 Hr.DU:. where he is depicted . 29-3{. not just st.willls: deification ill plUll"{follir Egypt (New York.Irer magically from the dangers and crises that might threaten him or her. ed. notably the Papyrus rVlacGregor. for instance. c. glass or. from the LATE PERIOD./280 IJC. perhaps serving as replaccments tor actual lost or damaged anatomical clements.It Karn. The Egyptians called these items mel'ct. Andrew. As well as affording protection. although .

Amun's rise to pre-eminence was a direct result of the ascendancy of the Theban pharaohs from Mentuhotep " (2055-2004 Be) onwards. Amun-Ra One of the most important gods in the Egyptian pantheon. the WAS SCEPTRE. 7-135.iOO. 5. (". W. 1. /.AMULET AMUN. /4622. carnelilll1/eg. If".23/23.Hiake's head.\IID TEXTS. since politics and religion were very closely connected in ancient Egypt.edjtll-eye (sec 1I0R[. Among amulctic forms were the -rYET ('knot of Isis').9 em. A.ll/fence slair(({se.8327.AlIIll/elS(London. II. red jasper tyet or '1.:. al base 1. 5. PETRIE. but the earliest temples dedicated solely to Amun appear to have been in the Theban region. parriculnr amulets were placed at specific points within the wrappings of a mummy.5 ell/. II. J. II.S).'1101 ofIsis'. 3 c11I. A. from t"e lel/lpleoI Ul"arljO at Kama. 6. Amulets of'l1/cient Egypt (London. L. He is first mentioned (along with his wife Amaunet) in the 5th-Dynasty PYRA. /I. 2.8 011. the tlkhel ('1I0RIZON') and the "./ on. G. Old Kingdom /0 P/ole1ltair period.'\NKH ('life') and the DJEIJ PILI.1011. whose temple at K:\R.5 em. M.ws~)I.690-664I1c.8309. and by the time of the Prolemies he was regarded as the Egyptian equivalent of Zeus. and Late Period funerary papyri sometimes end with representations of the aPPropriate position of each amulet on the body. REISNER. 31 .6 t:m. F. fl. c. Allltl/els.3 cm.. glass heart. /.2300-100 /Ie. /I. 2 I'Dls (Cairo. /-I. In the jubilee chapel of Senusret J (1965-1920 Be) at Karnak he is described as 'the king of the gods'. 2(639) IlllelJllltite vignettes tholt endow prescribed amulets with magic. m!Iosefiglm: is ({[rved belmee" I"/! paUlS.3/23.ieuce papyrus. Cre)1 grllnite silltlle ofAmllJJ illt!IejiJrm ofa ram pmtecting King Talwrljo. where he was worshipped as a local deity at least as carll' as the 11th Dynasty. . L.:" powers. C. (10/2299/.. 2St" DJ'. \907-58).:'\:\K is the best survi\"ing religious complex of the New Kingdom.5 flJl./ A em. Sec also SC. AMUN-RA Many amulets represented abstract concepts in the form of hieroglyphs. as in the case of U1e . His name probably means 'the hidden one' (although it may also be connected with the Selection ofamule/s: ji/iena halld. obsidiall pair oflingers."'OKEWS. I~. Amun.\K1\1J and CO\\'ROID. 19H}.8332. 199{). 8.061/1. L 3. 59.8088.fi. IwelJItilite "eadrest.!\K ('stability'). camelillll. !t{[I!11111liu carpenlers s'I1wre.1/779) plummet.

As well as being part of a divine triad at Thebes (with I\IUT and KIIOi\:S). Otto and 'vv. Egyptiall art find /he wl/s {~rOsin~~ alfd A/lllm (London. Part or the success of Amun's influence on Egyptian religion for mosl' or the Dynastic period lay in his combination with other powerful deities.. J Anat One of a number of deities introduced inro Egypt from Syria-Palest. In the 'Third [ntermediate Period her cliit was celebrated in the temple of l\t{ut at ·L'\NIS. a group of eight primeval deities who were worshipped in the region of Hcrmopolis lVlagna. a role sometimes shared with ASTi\RTE.regh·e (Cairo. At times she is also portrayed as the wire or SET\ [ (another god with Asiatic links).1250 l1e.'igYPlologic [. S·II\I)l':I. ~~J!risdl-palti's/i!!l~~(ht'GM/heile" ill AgJlPIe11 (Leiden 1 1967). Another aspect Amlin was an 1["lIYI'llt\I. 1969). 1nlhl' upper register C/i'Ollllcji 10 right) Ihe dei/ie.. Although Egyptian texts often used the names of the goddesses Anal' and Astarte virtually interchangeably. If. theTheban manifestation of the sun-god. There arc about 150 surviving examples. 1111: vio/ellt goddess Allat illihe Ras SIU/Illm le.\I'ELRUD. AI/II/1l I/Ild die (ldlf lhgcilfer (Leipzig. -19 Ofl.\1in all/ong tI grollp of rIfles/ali Asia/it: deities i.rls (Oslo. it PR[TCHARD. closely relalcd to the fertility god Mli'\ and described as Amun Kamute[ (literaJly 'bull of his mother').JAI'ATA). S[ 1:\IIAQ. and she was said to have given bin-h to a wild bull by Baal. A. he was also Amun KClllatcf~ a member of the UGDOA]). A. Although she held the beneficent epithets 'mother of all the gods' and 'mistress of the sk yl.I\\ANN. Ono. 19/h DY!las/y.) included the name An~lt:-her in his titulary. The myths surrounding Anat were concerned primarily with her savage exploits.1800 Be) anti one or the IIYKSOS P)IIl{/S~)I.ANAT ANCESTOR BUSTS ancient Libyan word for water. she was primarily a goddess of war and was often depicted with shield.ng divinc aid. trans. J. shown below. Palt!slillillujigurilles ill rela/ioll/o l. The cult of Anat is first attested in Egypt in the late j\'Iiddle Kingdom (c. the sun-god. axe and lance. Heick. 19(8).IC (arm. 1995).. the indllsiul/ vf. and the Egyptians regarded her as protectress of the king in battle. who had been the dominant l"igure in the Old Kingdom pantheon. who presided over the expanding Egyptian empire in Africa and the Levant".. but a few smaller examples were made of wood and clay. Kushitc kings such as I'[Y. about half of which derive Ii'om rhe houscs and funerary chapels of the tombworkers at the village of DEIR EL-. Le temple d'. like the busts. Alcock (Lontlon. 1929). (/~. S. c. .1191) kings or the 16th Dynasty «(. Tt is implied. Lilllcs/o/le {{/lGD'/or Imsl O//VllllclIlolle/. since the Nubians believed that the true home of Amull was the sacred site of Gebel Barkal i. SETI 11":. /ill/cs/ollc. Westendorf (\Viesbaden.\II1f111 f2J'k III Iile lower register Qeh (flld his.J 1198) 32 . The cult of the ancestors} eilch of which was known as (/k" il:a en R(/.1560 Br. W.o and "1":\[ IARQP therefore associated themselves with the cult of Amun and thus sought to renew and reinvigorate his centres of worship. K. R.' associaiio/l milll Ihe Eastern DesaI."crlllill goddesses kl/ol1Jlllhruligh li/emllire (New HI\"CIl. II.I. 19th c. It was Amun-Ra.76-80. or Stele (~(lhl' rhie/royal cr(~/i. could evidently be petitioned by relatives secki. when rhe strong sexual aspect of her cult was being stressed. ZA \"IWI'~ De f~)'lIIl/ell {/fill Allum vall Paj!J!rllJ Leidell 13.m (Leiden 1 1948). being one or the few exceptions). 'Anlllll" Lexikoll der . E. through such J. 'exccllcnr spirit of Ra'.. i\tlost were of limestone Or sandstone. that Amun's true identity and appearance could never be revealed. their cults were in practice distinct. P. 1943).f{lJlli(y arc show" mors/lIlJpillg Ihe goddess Anal..\U:DIl'\A.1250 IX. cd.~ presl"!ltlb~)' exp/ailled /~}I hi. such as KA. which.n northern Sudan (sec :-. BARGULT. t'gyjJlirlI/ sola}" l"ell~!Jioll in the Nem Kingdom: Rfl Anlllll aud the a/sis o/polytheislII. 1962). The rise oC the Kushite pharaohs of the 25th Dynasty led to a renaissance in the worship of Amun. ASSi\\l\NN. (h·. As with many other goddesses. ancestor busts Term used to refer to small painted anlhropoid busts serving as a focus tor ancestor WOrship in the New Kingdom.led. whiJe private monuments sometimes depicted her alongside j\IIN.ine. was an important aspcct of popular religion among the villagers. epithets as 'mysterious of form'. They were rarely inscribed (the bust of J\1utel1lonct. E. 197J). Anum Kematcf (meaning 'he who has completed his moment') was a creator-god able to resurrect himscICby taking the form of a snake shedding his skin. her cult waS sometimes syncretized with that of [1'\TlI0R. Qpleshel alld Res/u:/are depi(.Alllol/-l"e d KlIl"1lt1k: essfli d'e. 72011. sometimes with a ram's head.· JHi/l.. but the predominance or red paint (the typical male skin-colour in Egyplian art) suggests rhat most of them represent men. The Syrian g'ods RESIlEF and Baal were both regarded at various times as Anat's consorts. Eventually the Thebal1 priesthood of Amun-Ra used the prestige of the cull' of Amun in order to legitimize their rivalry with the pharaohs at the end of t"he New Kingdom (sec I WRIIIOR). K.91-6. ({mun) and he was usually represented as a human figure wearing a double-plumed crown. These 'excellent spirits' wcre also represented on about fiftylive surviving painted stelae.Fv1!l Deir el-}\!fedilltl.237-4R j.

and as a sig'n of . Pigs were regarded as animals of SETII. and better suited to grazing on poor land. although milny were moved to the Delta during the suml11er months. goats. but they never seem to have become C01111110n. morl'as: IIIe villagers o/Deir ellVledilUl. or or Cupy (!(a mal/-painlillg ill 1111: lomb f}IHf~l'. hens deriving fro111 rhe African Jungle Fowl may have been introduced in the )Jew Kingdom. the area between the first and second Nile cat. H.80-4. thinner short-horned varieties werc gradually introduced from the Old Kingdom on\vards.. R. geese and pigeons were the principal domesticated fin"l.cd as carly as the Prcclynastic period at Lower Egyptian sites such as j\IERIMDA lW. IIigh Dam in 1971 it was submerged by Lake Nasser.lte fifth ()r early sixth celltury AI). PlJaraoh:.Miam is portrayed in tbe Theball tomb of Turankhamull \ viceroy. The site was partially excavated during the 19305. The J IOI{SI':. stayed with the herd and moved them to new pastures as necessary. On mosl of these vases his name had been erased and replaced with that of his successor SE1\\I.lS not used until IaLc in the Pharaonic period.al IUlI/b.\I1 SALAMA (r.I' oIlhe/irsl (()ll1t1Sl)' I (London. Part the wooden tlooring waS preserved in the burial chJmber.I\ at the same site. and fi:)r this reason enjoyed somewhat ambiguous st<ltuS. did not become common until the New Kingdom. The Egyptians described both sheep and goats as 'small cattle'. 2 vols (GILickst~tdl. HlI~i ("1"1"40). thus implying lhal all three animals were regarded as being of roughly the same type.. \Vealthy landowners boast of eTlOrmous herds of cattle.J'Jl{/S~J'. Creal IOlllbs o/Ihe/irsl (()llIaS~)l1 (Cairo. fRII::D.4900-4300 DC). Lesko (Tthaca. 95-117 Anedjib (Adjib. or or Anhur xee ONURIS Aniba (ane. 1949).III·:T. there was still an clement of experimentation domestication of more in the process unusual breeds.1330 IJC'.·l1e Old Kingdom. IcadiJ1g to suggestions that there may have been some kind of dynastic feud.2925 lle) Ruler of the late 1st Dynasty who is thought to have been buried in "!<nnb ~ at AllYIJOS. In the 18th Dynasty humped Zebu callie were introduced . although the nesm-bil title (without a name) had already been introduced in the reign of his predecessor DEN.~. According to the Greek historian Herodotus. ISllf o. Anedjib was the first to have rhe IIcbl. During the 18th Dynasty (1550-12 1 IIC) flniba became )5 the administrative centre of \~rawat.\II]. vV.itle and the lIcs/1J-bil ('I-Te of the sedge and bee') name in his ROY.J' ("1\\'0 Ladies') t. and similar 'intcl"lul tUl1luli' have been identified in thc recent rc-e. Even ill . c. From the Prcdynastic period to the Old Kingdom. shuwi"g Prilltl' rdA1i(/lll r-. Andjycb. asses and poulITy. the usc of domesticated camels is not attested until the ninth century Hr:. B. and the depiction of the force-feeding of hyenas in the 6th-Dynasty tomb of . wool.\L TITULAin'.s occupation in the Second Intermediate Period. f()undcd as an Egyptian IOI~lress in the 1\1idclle Kingdom (2055-1650 B<:).1 mud-brick stepped structure inside t"he 1\1 \ST>\IM-like superstructure which is considered to be a possible precursor of step pyramids. the smallest of the Early Dynastic royal tombs in the cemetery Umm el-Q. The "I! ih /I R" slc/ac: 1)11 a/h'eS/UJ" Tl)orship ill (llu·jell! Egypt (Leiden. sheep. like cattlc. The reception of tribute from the Nubian Prince of . and although there is some possible pictorial evidence from the hne New Kingdom. ED. animal husbandry The keeping and breeding of" animals is aU·cst.. were more common lhan sheep. A number of Stone vessels carved with references to his SED FESTIVAL (ro~'al jubilee) were excavated at Abydos. This tomb cont.H. thc god of chaos. El\IERY.ye<llth they werc also a source of raxab1c revenuc.lm"ba) (/nd (}llter dli4. 43-71. Enczib) ((. 1983). (. The no. lr was the meat of oxen which was the most prized for offerings at temples ilnd tombs.~!J.l'jll (Londun. 1935-7)."IS draught animals. 'AspcCI"S or domestic life <lnd religion'. /IUS D II'//:s) I!l'qall(/~/. judging· from such evidence as scenes of" the force-feeding cranes in the 5th-Dynasty tomb of Sopduhotcp at Saqqara. Miam) Site of a settlement and ce111Ctl:ry in Lower Nubia. For most of the Dynastic period the most common domesticated animals were cattlc. Arrhaif r.~. cattlc were mainly of rhc long-horned type. L. but. Donkeys were extensively used as pack nnimals and. J. fiJI' threshing. Cau:le were important for their Illeat and miJk hut were also kept as draught animals.ANEDJIB ANIMAL HUSBANDRY J.lined .sO.l'ab. /Jo/11ing !JtjiJrc TIII(IIl/.:halll/lll. Allilw. and a number of branding tools have survived. and was then used primarily fi:n military purposes.1V1.lracl.\' I /)}. Sheep and goats were kepI for me. Goats. and which frequently figures in reliefs there. Identification 01" hcrds was facilitated by marking them.\'IAN. hide and probably milk. introduced around the time of the IIYK. as in pans of Africa today. althoug'h wool was ncyer as important as linen in terms of textile manufacture. The C1\. 'AnLhropoid busts lJ: nOt from DeiI' cl Mcdint:h alone'.xcavations of the 1st-Dynasty royal tombs at Abydos. KElTll-I3ENNI'Tr. VV. cd. those who kept ("hem formed a kind of undcrclass who could 33 . in their tomb inscriptions. but after the completion of the Aswan Cattle were tended by herdsmen whu.\'11':RERUh. eventually becoming the norm. W. Tomb 303~ at S:\(lQARA has also been dated to his reign by means of seal impressions which also mention the name of an official called Nebitb who was presumably buried thert. STEINDORFF. 19(0). but the earliest published skcleLll evidence dates to the l. 1(61). BES J (]lJSl). G. ]994). however. I': PETRII':. pigs.:Rk. (co!'\ nr N'. and uther animals. . DEi\'1ARI~E. L1 the winter the herds grazed in the Nile valley. Ducks.

"ation probably derived j. belt and penis sheath'. The desert links of the antelope and gazelle also led to their association wirh the god SETII. C.ANKH ANUBIS only marry the daughters of other swineherds.kl/l'/11 sceptre like those held by SJ811iIs. and. BRU'.r\ workmen's village ha\"c rC"caled surprisingly extensive evidence of pig rearing. /I. D. Amulets u!al1(ienl Egypt (London.\OJ"T) for minor queens and princesses.' amulel. although she was morc commonly depicted as a woman.!fazel/a and Adrlax lla. chief steward of Amenhotep "' (1390-1352 Be). the other principal god of the dead. Bm:ss~EcK. Orto and \i\f.ill llllfil.All/iqllil)' 67/256 (1993). 199-1-). c. -126-7. correspondingly. it relates instead to the colour of putrefying corpses and the fenile black soil of the Nile valley (which was closely associated with the concept of rebirth). Anubis was also linked with the IMIUT fetish. the antelope was occasionally shown as the prey of the god IIOKUS in later times. Amenhotcp.86. Late Period. indicating that pork must have formed an importanl part of the diet of at least some classes of society. B. 199-1). Domestic plallts tlwl fluiwals: the Egyptiall origim (Warminster.l1 skin hanging at the top of a pole. R. Exca. the ankle strap) and a penis sheath.]. Egypt. E. Dic Hallstiere ill Altiigyptcl1 (Munich. known . BREWER. it is not clC'lf whether this was the case in more ancient times. K.u i\/Iemphis. The sign was eventually adopted by the COlrnc church as their unique form of cross. is not characteristic of jackals. perhaps implying mar the herders of pigs were not held in any particularly low esteem relative to other farmers. Ai'\I)RE\\ S. and paintings in the 18thDynasty tomb of . 'Chickens in Africa: the importance of Qasr Ibrim'.1 orf the evil that such desert animals represented. 5/ (III. and her headdress during the Pharaonic period consisted of a combination of antelope horns and the Upper Egyptian r. bur it is not clear whether the dog in question . Lexil:ol/ ria >igypl(j/ogie I. II. He is usually represented in the form of a seated black dog 01'. The llukh sib'il seems to haye been one of -the few hjeroglyphs that was comprehensible e'-en to the illiterate. ankh Hieroglyphic sign denoting 'lifc'. JANSSEN. Ptolemaic period.IS offered the ankh sign by the gods. and similar c\'idcnce has emerged from cxca"ations at Memphis.IS sometimes used in place of a umeus (sec \\.J7991) Ankh.:t'plwl/ls bme!aphus. pigs are ncycrtheless included in lists of temple assets. IGazelle" Lexikoll da /igyplologie II. the jackal-goel was said to h~lVC wrapped the body of the deceased Osiris.\TEi'"). S/iK 3 (1975).1 1"111. Otto and \V_ Westendorf (Wiesbaden. The pictogram has been yariously interpreted as a sandal strap (the loop at the top forming Limt'Slone stllluelle offll1l1bis. \AI.. 'Ankh sign.\1>::\'" (Tr69) at Thebes show that it \\'.1 T-shape surmoumed by a loop. B:\I:'\ES. 5'1'''1::111':1. G.ROWl\. L.ations during the 1980s at the site of the EL-..lblishing his particular association with the mummification process. 1975). thercfore it is commonly found as a maker's mark on ponery ycsscls.l'he cult of Anubis himself was eventually assimilated with that of Osiris. 1-2-1.' the hands at the end of the rays descending from the sun disc (see . ed. (HiN 12) from the desire to ward off the possibility of corpses being dismembered and consumed by such dogs. (E.'I' of Elephantine was originally worshipped in the form of an antelope. The connection between jacbls and the god of mummifit.1"EK-TR \UT. JANSSEN and J. Although pork was neyer L1sed in temple offerings. Temple reliefs frequently included scenes in which the king \\. apparently consisting of a decapitated anim. However. N. E. O. E. In the Amarna period it was depicted being offered to Akhenaten and Neferriti b. REDFORD and S. 'Anrilopc'. antelope Desert-dwelling horned bm-id. 5"['ROUIl:\I. Satet was responsible for the water of the first Nile cataract at Aswan.\' .1 man with a dog's head.w:ho!d allimals (Aylesbury.W/1law/alo).:ET could also be represented by another type of antelope. E.700-500 JJ(. 1992).:).109-18. I leIck. The black colouring of Anubis. states that he donated a thousand pigs to a statue of his master . D. so that the goddess "\'LiJ. images of which were included among royal funerary 3-l . 584-90.\M1\R\. which sen-cd as the symhul of the 16th Upper Egyptian nome (province). According: to myth.. MAcDo~ALI) and D. C. 1953). thus cst. VV. closely associated with embalming and mummification.''I'/'. Westendorf (Wiesbadcn. Elephantine and 1ell elDab'a.IS the tTUXaIlSIlItt.. 319-23. One of rhe earliest forms of amulet took the form of a g'lzelle head. possibly in order 1"0 w:m. thus symbolizing the divine conferntl of eternal life. the gazelle. J. Ldi. The seated Anubis dog usually worc a ceremonial tic or collar around his neck and held a flail or s. 23.11''. Anubis (lnpw) Canine god nf the dead. EDII'''"OS.was a jackal. Heick. 1977). which takes the form of .]i/l"II[(.often identified by the Egyptian word sab . 1989). Three species of antclope arc known from ancient Egypt (~lIt.alllwlI.'lIJ EgypJ (Clmbridge. REDFORD.'. e. however.. The goddess S. R. and a scene from the 6th-DynaslY tomb of Kagcmni at Saqqara shows a swineherd giving milk to a piglet from his own tongue. djed alld WilS-SL'eplrl. The gazelle may also ha"e symbolized grace and elegance.300-100 /lC. and a connection seems to have been made by the ancient Egyptians between water and antelopes. cd. J.

-djeser ('lord of the sacred land') and kltwly-se!l-uetjer ('foremost of the divine booth'). A temple was dedicated to her on the island of Sehel. Anukis) Goddess of the first Nile cataract region around ASWAN.. In the lion temple at lVlusawwarat e1-Sufra there were long inscriptions consisting of prayers to the god. c. foremost . H. both he and Osiris arc regularly described as khenl. inexplicably written in Egyptian HIEROGLYPHS rather th.olls (London.ll 37 (1951). ("'/22920) Apedemak lVleroitic leonine and anthropomorphic lionheaded god.er I-IIERI\TIC copy of the same text (known as the Carnarvon Tablet).lTI of the necropolis is reflected in two of his most common epithets: ueb-ta. The f~}lks()s: a lIellJ illvestigal1·ol1 (New Haven. followed by a pillared court (narrower than the front fa~ade). 153-8.157-75. she was regarded as a daughter of the sun-god RA. A more reliable version of the Theban military campaign against Aauserra Apcpi is provided by two fragmentary stelae dating to the reign of the Theban king KAMOSE.1S the anthropomorphic ARENSNVPIIIS and the creator-god Sebiumcker.300 BC-AD 300) derived from Egyptian practices. S'I:O\IJI::LJ\lANN. consists of a PYLO)\. Khentimentiu was originally the name of an earlier canine deity at :\BYDOS whom Anubis superseded. even forming a divine triad with ISIS and lIORUS as his consort and child. Her cult is recorded as early as the Old Kingdom.Meroitic kingdom. who is g'enerally represented as a woman holding a papyrus sceptre and wearing a tall plumed crown. and she was also worshipped in Nubia.ve group stalueUe nIan u/lluul1ed ruler knee/iug be/ore aJ/ Ap. 'Ein Beitrag zum Brief des Hl'ksos Apopbis'. and a lat.. although there 35 . CROWFOOT and F W. where lions were still relatively common until the nineteenth century I\D (few references to the god have survived in Lower Nubi<l). which occurs in MANETHO.EES.among whom waS the war-god Apedemak.menlill ('foremost of the westerners'). like many goddesses. Westendorf (Wiesbaden. GR1FFITJ-I. MD""IK 36 (1965).1/ offering. K.. L. This consisted of an image of a jackal above a set of nine bound CAI'TIVES. AI!lIsaIPmaral e.. when. T. .VII'HIS. 'The Hyksos rule in Egypt'. JE. Orro) 'Anuket'. A quasi-historical literary work known as the Quarrel of Apophis and Seqenenra describes the Wilr between a Hyksos king called Apepi and his Theban rival. ].-\I:I"-:\R. in the vicinity of which the 'embalming hOllse' of the Apis BrollZt: vVI.m the j\1[eroitic script. 'Kulttopographische und mythologische Beitragc. were also 'lion temples' at MEROE and probably Basa . Y. 1/1~~ IUlllds held o//t . 1975). In a similar vein. E. 1911).Ilstnp/. founded by Natakamani and his queen Amanitere. But there were also i1 few important Nubian deities. zAs 58 (1923). \v. 26th Dy17asO'. 'Der Gall von Kynopolis und seine Gottcit'. was adopted by at least one of the I-lYKSQS pharaohs who ruled a substantial area of Egypt in the Second Intermediate Period (1650-1550 BC). 79-101 .slul/{l o/lV!eroe: lHeroitit . both located in the desert to the east of the sixth Nile cataract in Sudan. The walls are decorated with reliefs in which Apedemak is depicted alongside Egyptian deities such as I-lAn-lOR and Amun. His principal sanctuary was therefore located near the temple of Ptah at iVIE. lion of the south.325-7. 'Anubis "Herr von Sepal) und der 18. SEQENENRJ\ TAl' II. Apis Sacred bull who served as the BA (physical manifestation) or 'herald' of the god PTAII. 53-71.fijaJ1)e1JlaJl~)Ill()/.s Ilamed Oil/he bul/\ pedestal.ANUKET APEPI equipment in the New Kingdom.I'Sufra 112 (Berlin. beginning with a letter sent" by Apepi complaining that he is being kept awake by the sound of hippopotami in Upper Egypt. Inscriptions in the temple at Bubastis (TELL BASTA) preserve the name of Aqcnenra Apepi. 62-9. SA\'E~S6DERHERGI-I. whose principal cult-centres were at the sites ofi\!lusawwarat el-Sufra and Naqa. cd. An image of Anubis also figured prominently in the seal with which the entrances to the tombs in the VALLEY OF TilE K1NGS were stamped..ZAS71 (1935). possibly indicating that he was the tlltelary god of the southern half of the . oberagyptiscbe Gall'. Otto and W. The lion temple at Naqa. showing that Anubis would protect the [Qmb against evildoers. II mas dediwted by Pe. Z. a short distance to the south of Aswan. describing him as (splendid god at the head of Nubia. Heick. Anubis' role as the guardi. 1971). R. J. E. (London and Princeton. Anuket (Anquet.Agyp/ologie I. 333---!. 1984).600 lIe. Le. mho .J 011. the former showing his control over the cemetery itself and the latter indicating his association with the embalming tent or the burial chamber. Perhaps the most yivid of Anubis' titles was tepv-djl/-ef ('he who is upon his mountain'). but in the New Kingdom she became part of the triad of Elephantine along with KJ INUM and SATET.rikvlI der. J1. V. 2nd cd. \V. such . strong of arm'. W. o(bIlII12. MID 6 (1958). usually situated in the wcst. 54-61 [temple of Apedcmak at Naqa]. AMU>J in particular being as pre-eminent in Ivleroe as he had been in Pharaonic Egypt. ADf\!\IS. 15()--5. 1975).IVlany aspects of religion and ritual in the Meroitie period (. F I-IIt\TZE el i\l. TIll: . which indic<1ted their dominance over the necropolis. 1966). which presents the visual image of a god continually keeping a watch on the necropolis from his vantage point in the high desert. J1pcde/l/aJ:: lirl/l god olA1eroe (Warminster. Apepi (Apophis) The name Apepi (or Apophis).s bull. Both Anubis and the i'llfiliI fetish were known as 'sons of the liesa/-cow'. NuNa: condor to Ajl-ic(f. VAN SETERS.

GS as the eternal adversary of the sun-god R:\. ISS2).. 'The c. According to the Greek historian Herodotus. Luxor.::reis olus den Zeitt'11 der Pro\emiier nach den hieroglyphischen und demotischen vVcihinschriften des Serolpeul11s von Memphis'. lVIAuNI:"-'E. i111D. lJelailFo/lllhe Book (~(Ih(' Dead ~/I-JII/I£:!l".. There arc about twenry surviving temple reliefs showing the king striking a ball before a goddess (<11' Deir 58 -61. The 'calves of lhe Apis' were also buried ceremonially. 333-4.1953)) J. The so-called Buuk o/Apuphis was" collection of spells and rites intended to thwart the snake--god. J. claims lhat it originated in the 2nd Dynasty. remain undiscovered. E. The cult of the Apis probably dates back to the beginning of Egyptian history.]E 59 (1973). I-I. He was 36 .\·Iefes dll Serapeltlll de . N1. Apries (l-Iaaibra/Wahibra) (589-570 Be) f"ourth king of the S. but their cHacombs.. ]9(0). I. showillg Ihe sllll-god il/ Ihe form 0/(/ ((II . the Apis bull.·il eye ofApopis'. somewhere in the vicinity of Hcliopolis. although Nlanetho) the Ptolemaic historian.3-13. at least ("rom the Lat·e Period) he was thought to provide ORI\CU:S.riko/l da (i~!fyjllis(hell Refig/owgesrhirhle (J3erlin.J sel of galleries rurther to the north in Saqqara which were excavated in 1970 by Bryan Emery.qI/11b(jli((ff~)' decapitalillg _Ilp{)phi. who symbolized Lhe forces or chaos .p.1280 1Jc. Although III':RO[)OTUS claims that the wife or Apries was called Niretis. B. M. Other frag'mcntary examples of the Book oj'//pophis date at least as early as the reign or Ramcses III (118+-1153 Br. which dates to the hHe fourth century Be. Apophis Apophis (IIYI'SOS rubs) sec .'\lTfo: 26th Dynasty and son ofps. the Apis bull had his Own 'window or appearances' (see P:\!. . Because of the divine nature of his birth. the image of a vulture on its back. both being divine manircstarions of a god who were crowned at the time of their installation. STIHCKER. the bull was represented on private coffins. was black with a white c1ia~ montl on the forehead. he . Les . I-lades.Mt'lI/phis {{II/Husee dll Louvre (Paris. Unlike many other sacred animals the Apis bull was always 11 sin- gle individual animal.APIS APRIES bulls has been unearthed. the various spells were connected with elaborate cursing rituals.. fl\RT.).~. being described as the syncretic deily Osiris~Apis or Osorapis. VERCOUTTER. 'Preliminary report on the excavations at -:'\forth Saqq~ra ] 969-70'. the Apis bull became identified with OSIRIS. Although in some circulllstances Apophis was equated \vith the god SET' I (and both had Asiatic connections). J. Tn the early Ptolemai(. there arC nO contemporary references naming her. B. the mothers of the Apis bulls were venerated as manifestations of the goddess ISIS. double hairs on its tail. Prom the 2211(\ Dynasty onwards. the Persian ruler Cambyses (525-522 IJc) mocked the cult and caused the death of the Apis bull of the time. and the text was probably originally composed during the New Kingdolll. At the death or each of the Apis bulls. the} were accorded similar burials to their olTspring.11'1·:1'1 Snake-god of the underworld. in the 'Iseul11' (or 'mothers of Apis' cHacomb). (H 19901. combining the traits of the Greek gods Zeus.mel eyiJ. there was national mourning.\[~IETTE. IIf-f9.. 1961J). After his death. which were in lise li'om at least as early as the New Kingdom. VERCOUTTER. According to Herodotus. (London. G. slnnS) e1-Bahri. It was the serpent Apophis who posed the principal threat to the bark of the sun-god as it passed through the underworld. there arc also vignettes showing Selh comriburing to Ihe defeat of Apophis. F BORGllOUTS.".]E~ 57 (1971). as if accompanying the deceased westwards 10 the tomb or eastwards (presumably towards a new life) and serving as a protector of the dead.MYS) and. The evil 'eye of Apophis' was an importanf mythological and ritualistic Illotif-: which could be thwarted only by Seth or by the eye of the sun-god.\IEIH.. 191h DYllasly. Likc the EXECRATION TE'\TS. jl-3. apparently in simulation of the removal of Apophjs' eye. Dionysos and Asklepios with dUlse of Osorapis. De grote ::. Nl'alle. Like the king. and a scarab-shaped mark under its tonguc. allhoug·h il has been suggested lhal this story may simply have been an attempt to discredit the Persians) since it appears to be contradicted by a textual record of an Apis burial actually conducted by Cambyses. BI{UGSCIl. VV. J3()'\'\il~T.lTEI( II (595-589I3C).>/!K 16 (] 9jR).EY OF TilE KP. 1952).e Serajlh/II! tie /vTclllphis (Paris. Dendcra and Philae)..md the embalmed corpse \\·as taken along the sacred way from 1\ilemphis to Saqqara. . G. The bull was closely linked with the pharaoh. POSL'\ER. zAs' 22 (IS8f). 'Une epitaphc royalc incdire du Serapeum'. t'he best" surviving reXl being Papyrus Bremncr-Rhind. Apophis is usually represented on New Kingdom funerary papyri and on the walls of the royal tombs in the VALl. selected lor his particular markings. Egypl/allll~l'fh. conceived from a bolt of lightning.\pr:Uj\l. ror burial in a granite sarcophagus in the underground c<ltacombs known as the SER. A. I-lelins. .s the Biblical Hophra.10. period the cult of SERAI'IS was introduced.cesf{/Ilg (LeidCIl. like the early Pharaonic Apis galleries. 110-.. c. Edfu. 'Der Apis-J. E.

show that there waS a considerable military infrastructure...:ribcs the exploits of a man called Lucius.-. It was shortly after <l defeat by cbuchadnczzar JJ of 1:\i\BYJ.'\). H. The development of military organization ilnd hicmrchy is indicatcd in the latc Middle Kingdom by the emergence of such specific titles as 'soldier of the city corps' and 'chief of Ihe leaders of dog patrols'. R. ..LS ((. 'The stela of Apric~ at Nlitrahina\ ASAE27 (1927).'Ilontll) Upper Egyptian site on the west bank of the Nile.67 WI. J\1yers al~o excavated an _\-GKOUI' cemetery at the site.'D :lnd 0.--\ISER. 9 km southwcst orLuxor. usually reprcsented as a human figufe wearing a feathered crown.0. constructing additions to the temples at Athribis ('mLi. \·isiting Rome and Athens.lye recruitcd their own private armies. born at l\ladaura in Africa and educated in Carthage.ID 123-after 161) Classical writer. "K.J.·/ 74 (1988). 19(9).OU'. although the origins of borh the god :lnd his name probably la) much further somh in Africa. \IJ\RIF. whose cult is first attested .7).f:. 1(37). IHll.\ 0. as well as the burial-place of the 'Mother of Buchis' cows. who traycllcd widely.OG\·.. who is said to h:lYC been redeemed by the 'mysteries' of the goddess ISIS.ms interpreted his name as iIJl-lteml'S-11lfer Cthe good companion').:\1-:.Trr~.IC'. fr desl.:umenlcd site of its date to have bcen exca~ \'.ETrERs). ing with the former in the syncretic form Shuf\rensnuphis. To the north of the main site are the remains of the Bllcheum. with campaigns against Cyprus.mdpllm: oftht' LlIte Period. 3 \·ols (London. GUl\N. or Arman! (ane.KI-:R. 'A quantirati\"C analysis of" the predynastic burials in Arman!" ccmerery 1-100-1 . 193-1).which W:lS largely destroyed in the late nineteenth century. Egypliall. 1950) archaeology see IlI'I.'1IIplt.1350 Be-I\!) 305).O'J that he was deposed by the l(lrmcr general Ahmosc II in 570 Ile.O'\d. which originally stood about 75 kl11 to the south Aswan (now IT-erected in the J\1ctropolitan l\.Memphis II) (London. Lucius (C. H.8-9.llISCUI11.APULEIUS. LEI'SIL. although a small royal bodyguard probably alread: existcd. Apllieills' \\Titings hm"e thus prm'ided insights into the cults of Isis and OSIRIS in the Roman period. GR nT_C. 'Arcnsnuphis: seine :'\ame und seine r-lcrkonfl'.. 11Inll-..69-77.A~ :Jrmy (ahhough Herodotlls suggests that he was caprurcd and bter stTanglcd). I/) 288. DY1/lISlie (Louyain. The inscriptions in the funerary chapel of Weni at i\bydos (. \\'\SJlI:R(). exc:!\". m~1I1ncd by Apuleius. -n. Olher testual sources. Only one sun iving statuc has been identificd as Apries by his namc and tilles (otlthough se\~cral others h'l\·c been assigned to him on stylistic grounds). including A1etfil/wrpllO. B. The excav:lted features Armanl indllde extensive cemeteries and many areas of Predynaslic set:tlement. The palace ~r Apries (.111"/1/(1111. He was associated with the Egyptian gods SIlL: and O. During the First Intcrmediate Period (2181-2055 Be) increasing numbers of nomarchs seem to h.td Ankhncsnefcribra adopted as ~itiqret's successor as Gon's \rTFI·: OF . of the Egyptian temple of Dendur. R.dating from the 11 th Dyn:lsty [Q the Roman period (f. REIS.1-0 BC-\D 200) . and only a fc\y figures of private individu. E.\10:-. 1951). ranging from quarrying.S. \TRIB). His foreign policy concentrated primarily on the defence of the northeastern frontier..1 campaign in Palestine undertaken by an army of 'tens of thousands of conscripts'.ER. and it seems likely that the early 12th-Dynasty campaigns in :\ubia inyolycd combinations of these local corps rathcr than a single national force./I) (Brook1m. RdJ:: 25 (1973). DI~ MI~L:U:~AER[. He was the author of sc\·eral literary works. is probably the bestdOl. His Jbsorption into the Egyptian pantheon is alsu indicated b: the f~lCt that he is depicted in the relier. Tht' BlIdll:ulI1. Jlaor!olus fJi:a til' 26xft. M. 211-:17.0/1 lPhich lire J?(JIlUI11 t!lIIperor Diodetia11 is depicted ill till' art oImf/rshippillg a 11111111111i}ied Buchis bul/. howe\·er.lted in the first few decades of the twentieth century.\RI\. F.E.: king Arkamani (218-200 Be) and the Egyptian ruler IYI"OI. The Predynastic nccropolis at Armant. whom the king had requisitioned from I he v<Hious nOl1larchs (prm'ineial governors). I'E·J·RIE. The Egypti. His body is S<lid to hayc been carried to Sais and buried there with full royal honours by Ahmose II.. Ct'mClt'ril'J oI_lrl11a1/11 (London. (r 1/696) 37 .:J'SO'. . EGnyrUI. merg- Salltlsft)11l' stt'It.\Ieroitil. mining and trading \'enlllres w purely military C<. Ardull'ologill Gcographim 6 (19.I. the only L. Roman period.1'. PETRIE andj. 13. army There was no permanent national army in Egypt during the Old Kingdom (2686-2181 Be).'J ol_lmul11t: (J pn..limil1f11:)' Jllrn:y (London. There \.:IOSI-.nrle in 567 Be. :\IDII'IIiS and S. which-most unusually-was jointly built :lnd decorated by lhe . \\hen he attempted lO regain his throne by force with the help of a 1J.I"cs or TIll: Colden /1.lls bear his cartouchcs. such as the 'Semna dispatches' (see I. :19-55.\nYI.Z0~1. Groups of young men were e\·idently conscripted specifically for particular cxpedit ions. \r1'\TER.20.. H.-IOO. By the time of Senllsrel lit (187+-1855 Be).um \ all seem to havc contribured to thc creation of" a large national army. " .'. 11.Iiwl1llre Bl/rheum 0/. . . ::"ew York). TIll' go/d/'ll flSJ (Ilarmondsworth.. In the fourth year of his reign he h.tnel1l FORTRESSES and garrisons in .\SI5.1'. 13.\H II· Philopator (221-205 Be).. l-[arensnllphis) Meroitic god. BoTII\lI~R. -Zur inncren Chronologie der l\aqadakulrur'. the reduction in the powcr of the prm·inces and the construction of perm.2:100 Be) describe ..:.I~I and W11..lInpaigns. ROSEI. Archaic period sa L\RLY In '·\STIC PERIO]) Arensnuphis (Arsnuphis. There is also a stonebllilt temple of the war-god \I0YI'L . !-. W. 19-10).: dedicatcd to Arensnuphis in the tcmple of the goddcss Isis at 1'1111."as e\Tn a I-.\IS. Palestine and 1'1 [OI::'11CI1\.\IYERs. 'vV·\I. LUCIUS ARMY an acth'c builder. the necropolis of the sacred BUCI liS IlUI..'\RIJ. . 23.ll: the Upper :\ubian site or 1\1US<l\vwarat c1-Sufra during the reign of Arnakamani (235-218 Be). 1%9). 700 Hr. V.ltin novell"O have slIn·ived in its emirety.CRIS..lted by Robert t\lond and Oliycr J\ Iycrs or during the early 1930s. He fled [he COlin tn· and probabh· died in b.

Egyptiall /luI/jim! alld weapons (Avlesburv.fl o/Ha/shep.ARMY ART Egyptian craftsmen.25-30. 1963). 1'. for instance.. animals allli human jigureJ. it consisted of a northern and southern corps. generally groupcd into 2S0-strong companies_ From the beginning of the Pharaonic period. See also C. 511. YIG_-\EL.~ ill lite . II. The art ofl1Jtlrfilre ill Biblical lands (London. were regarded as essentialh· the same. for instance.:n)A\'. T'hey portrayed each individual element of the subject from the most represent'lti. howc\'cr. and it is significant that men with military backgrounds.3500 ne. In the Saitc period (664-525 IIC) the Egyptians hccame particularly dependent on GREEK and PIIOE~I­ CIAt'\ mercenaries. the king and the people . The smallest tactical unit of the army was the 4platoon' of fifty soldiers.·c angle: the human torso and eye \yere clearly both best viewed from lhe front. 29.\IYnn:s.\IUI. title alld orga1fi::.el~r. A. Arsaphes see HERYSIIEF art Just as the works of lhe Impressionists or lhe Cubists can be properly understood only in terms of the particular lime and place in which they were made.~ (life-force or essence) of the deceased to takc up residence there. A. perhaps with reference to the deity of the "mlF.135502) Egyptian art was concerned abm-e all with ensuring the continuity of the uni. were concerned primarily with the continuance of life . each commanded by a 'chief deputy'.the works of art were intended not merely to imitate or reflect reality but to replace and perpetuatc it. often as branded who were able to gain their freedom by enrolling in the Egyptian army.'IOUTII' was performed by Egyptian funerary priests both on the mummy of the deceased and on his or her statuary. SI'.·ince) from which the conscripts were drawn. c. (1J. inc/udillg a dauting wQmtlu/goddess mith raised arms. Y.atirlJ/ in/he Egyptial/ Nem Kingdom (Berlin.\RDS. Ear()/i"laqada /I period. Egyptian art was essentially functional. ~nt\1'\o. were increasingly used as scouts during desert campaigns. \rVhereas in the modern western world a reasonably clear distinction is usually made between art and craft. l". from faience A. Nothing expresses the nature of Egyptian art mOre succinctly than the fact that the same religious ritual of 'the OI'EJ\ING OF TilE ro.·crse. O·I. such as !lOREi'IIIEIl (1323-1295 Be) and ItJIMESES I (1295-129+ Be). dcpicting military confrontations show that the Egyptian troops had begun to incorporate marc and more foreigncrs. Soldier. whereas the arms. which had previollsly been dominated by a 1110rc scribal and priestly elite.iellt £g)/ptialls (N~w Haven. influence and manipulate the real world. It was in the 18th Dynasty (155Cl--1295 BC). but all of these works had the same purpose: to represent.wl. who helped to man a fleet of Greco-Phoenician-style war-galleys. that the military profession came into its own.·isions were each named after a god.2 e111. J. 1982). the relief.'\\\". 196+). Tn the time of the PLOlemies a similar rite was performed each day in lhe temple of the god Horus at EDFU. SIIJPS A!':D IlO:\TS. each comprising . Libya or Nubia. NICI/OISON) SLAVES scribes and other bureaucrats. The level of aesthetic achiel"emcnt may have "aried considerably. there were usually four or five large divisions. J. the gods.\RIOT.. From lhe Ramesside period onwards. in that funerary paintings and sculptures. Aspects nft/u' ". The ritual involved touching the face of the statue 01' mummy with a set of special implements in order to bring it to life and allow the K. fimu e1-Amm.mt and enduring than the real day-to-day world. The New Kingdom army was often led by one of the king-'s sons. mercenaries were used in Egyptian armies: the 1\1l. (£.the artists therefore depicted things not as they saw them but as idealized symbols intended to be more signific. \Vhen campaigns were launched into western Asia.ili/rll)' dOWlIIcnlJ oft/u: a1/(.por/tllll evident/! Cflllctl'lling miljlmy 1!(/lIipIIICJII is daived }i'OIll I'I:/it/s SlId! as Ihi~'frOIll !-/ats!Jepslt! \ temple al DeiI' e1-Bahri.. (pt". Militla:)1 milk. so the style and purposes of Egyptian art make Iirtle rca I sense witham a detailed underslanding of ancient Egyptian culture. leg and face were 38 . R. These di.1bout five thousand professional soldiers and conscripts. 1991). its objective was LO bring LO life cvery divine figure 011 the decorated walls. began to rise to the throne. as if the whole temple were a living organism.-\L1NGER. such as AmlUl Or Ptah. the products of ancient Prft(jmastit pQllery liessel bearing red paiuted decoration comprising boats. SCIIUUIAN.ETS to royal funerary reliefs. by the end of the 12th Dynastv. enabling Egypt to maintain some control oyer maritime lrade with the Levant.

were discovered in the so-called ~main deposit' of the temple at Hierakonpolis. this simation rarelv scems to h~l\'c resulted in inhibited or u~jnspired art.1 J29-1/26 /Ie. their signatures . was almost the reverse . A painting Fragment oImall-pllil1Jillg/rom the lOmb of Kyuelm aJ Dei. Horus stands protectively behind the king. particularly in Upper Egypt and Nubia. the final stages of the Predynastic period a range of unusual ceremonial artefacts . hieroglyphs representing animals that might prove dangerous . They depicted the fundamentals of their lives. At the end of the Old Kingdom the provin~ cial governors' tombs became more richly decorated and the royal tombs grew corrcspond39 . In addition. c. often causes Egyptian depictions of human figures to appear distorted and internally inconsistent to modem eyes.·ine counterpart of the mortal ruler.werc sometimes shown mutilmed. placed ~llongsidc the deceased in simple pit-burials.h J)YllllS~)I. the whole symbolizing the unified state o\.began to play an important role in the emerging religious ritu. Even when the figures on the walls of Egypti. The Egyptian writing system was based on the precise visual and phonetic meanings of pictures.m tombs and temples arc acting our myths.and.·otiye offerings.it was essential for the subject of the art to be identified by name in order that the sculpture or painting could servc its religious purpose.·ory. along with the rem. 20. while others foreshadow the styles and preoccupations of the Dynastic period. This concern with separate components. Surprisingly perhaps. on the other hand.\Ii\CES. whose exaggerated sexual characteristics suggest that they probahly related to early fertility cults (see sExt.. howe\"er.:hy. On the simplest level the statue is a portrait of a powerful individual. which was found in [he valley temple of his funerary complex. II. they were e. on the other hand.ART ART best seen from the side. This suggests that there were prob-ably many other works of art executed on organic materials.' sculpture and painted reliefs of the royal fam~ ily and [he provincial C1ite. In some rombs. in the last resort. or with a knife sticking into them. The situation in ancient Egypt.·ems of the year in which they were offered to the god. animals and boalS. NOli.. is the only surviving instance of the transfcrntl of the Predynastic ponery paintings on to the plastered wall of a tomb. The best Egyptian art achieves a synthesis of the real and the ideal. and in the same way the works of art werc intended to be 'read' like an elaboriltc code. the di. shomillg the deified ruler A11Ie1Iho!l'p I.RAB and IlELlOI'OLlS) and the shrines oflocal deities. Although the archaeological circumSTances of the discovery are poorly recorded. 'fhe art of the Predynastie period (. a p~tint­ cd linen shroud. the burial chamber of the 10mb of Thutmose III (1+79-H25 Be. 10. thus enabling the body of the king to take the place of the writing of his own name. 10 the same way. 137993) in the late Predynastic Tomb 100 at Hierakonpolis (the first Egyptian example of ~l decorated [Ql11b chamber). pail/ted plaster. 1n most recent western art the artists themselves tend to be as well known as their works: their individual styles . (f. himself the living god. I'AI. It is nor elear whether any of the sccnes are depictions of real historical e\"cnts or simply generalized representations of myth and ritual.ETTES and ivory-handled flint knives . dispelling their power so that they could serve only as symbols. are only rarely mentioned. all alabaster statue of the 6th-Dynasty ruler I'EPY I (2321-2287 Be) has the rear of the throne carved to imitate a SEREKII with Horus perched on the top. at the expense of the overall effect.'T'he distinction between myth. As early as the eighth millennium Be the first inhabitants of the Nile valley began to make engraved drawings on the cliffs. all strongly reminiscent of the scenes on contemporary painted pottery. which havc rarely suryived from such early periods. The earliest Egyptian art is quite different from that of the pyramids and temples of Ihe Pharaonic period. working in teams and according to strict guidelines. His head and neck are physically embraced by lhe wings of a hawk representing IIORL:S.'e figures of people and animals include many female statuettes made of pottery amI i. His throne is decorated on either side with a complex design consisting of the hieroglyph meaning ~union' tied up with the tendrils of the plams representing Upper and Lower Egypt. The essential elements of the art of the Old Kingdom (2686-2181 BC) were the funera. the artists. indeed the most recent studies of tomb-paintings at T'hcbcs have begun to producc c"idcnce for the distinctive styles and approaches of particular groups of craftsmen. from wild game <lnd hunting scenes in the earlier times to river-boats and herds of cattle in the early Neolithic period. Some of the painted scenes on pottery vessels still reflect the pre~istoric rock-carvings. Egyptian artists themselves wcre regularly regarded as anonymous craftsmen. although their works might be highly regarded. One of the most imprt"Ssive statues of the Old Kingdom is the diorite statue of a seated figurer of f\:IIAFRA.. viewed from [he front. but it is also made up of symhols that relate to the general role of the pharaoh.-idently deposited as . The small yoti. such as linen and leather. "v3{) has the shape of a eWllluclIE. however.er which he rules. rituals and hisrorical events they afC still carved and paimed with the stiffness and formulaic appearance of 11IEROGLYPl [So In an extreme example of this connection between writing and art.. IVlany of the more elaborate maceheads and palettes.such as snakes .tins of the earliest sun temples (sec ABC Gt. preserved in a late Predynastic lOmb at GEUELEIi'\ (now in the J\1useo Egizio.mark out a body of work as their own. consisting of groups of people.:ALrrr). ritual and history in Egyptian art is it problem [hat persists throughout the Pharaonic period. builder of the second pymmid at Giza. bears depictions of human figures and a boat. such as those of the kings named SCORJ)IO.5500-3100 Be) has survived mainly in rhe form of small can"ed stone and ivory grave goods and painted pot- tery vessels. el-Jl1letlil1l1.tl and social hieran. and their can·ed decoration appears to summarize the importimt e.\ and '\lAR\IER. Turin).

'C thc classic ill1~lges of the Old and J\liddle Kingdoms. The history of the Middle Kingdom is very Illuch characterized by . deserves special mention. 1.we symbolizcd a lost sense of stability and ccrtaint~ amid the political turmoiL The green basalt smtue of the 11. \ and GEBEI.:f. the rapidly changing artistic styles of the first millennium Be demonstrate. Iwlding Iwo slal/dtlrrls. under attack from all sides. fhe tre. (1352-1 :l36 Il<:). in 1\ Liddle E. fl'Om foreign princesses 10 exotic spices. EI.llly intimate scenes. ing religious buildings . sa1fd. the fruits of conqucst and international commerce. howcvcr.Il·\IIRI have done mueh to establish Ihc city of Thebes as the ccntre of thc !'Jew KingcJom cmpirc. rclief and statuary of this period "'ere all characterized by ~lJ1 obsessi\'c emphasis on the god HE' and the royal family.-I\IO'. There were. which roughly curresponded to the reign of .IITE' /II (526-525 Be) and in the cnsuing period of Persian rule._\IIL' and 11·\\\ \K. suggesting an Egyptian priesthood thaI was descending into obscurantism and uncertainty. Although such Greco-Roman relief') were incrc.trious provincial sites (principally funerary art ar Beni Hasan.\Iemphis.n-ations during the IlJ70s and 19805 at I he New Kingdom necropolis of 1\ lcmphis (particuhtrl~ the tombs of the milifar~ commander 1I0RI·. After the conquest of Egypt by '\1. After the npulsion of the Ilyksos.. 'I"lu Sculplor ftas ftad (lIJf)1 pUl'lial suut'ss ill mn.-I. a process which can be traced both in the de. was actu:llIy the northern cit~ of l\lemphis.1\'411 officer LjdjaholTcsnet uemonstrates th'lt the nativc Egyptian officials were as adaptable as their works of art. During this compar:niycly unstable and dccentr'llizcd period.I-:Y OF '1'1 II': "1~GS and the temples oC f\:J\R:'JAk. a new capihll established in the "icinity of c1-Lisht. /I (570-526 Be) and I'S. thc nature or Pharaonic art was ~H.M iddlc Kingdom (2055-1650 Ile) is exemplified both by the fragmcnrs of relief li'om the royal pyramid complexes at D\IISIILR..-\IEI1I:\:\.:tivc funerary decoration and equipment father than being inl1ucnccd by the artisls al the royal COllrt. l/ .lsillgly poorly formulated and executed.\OR. If. c. Some of the largest survi. the pn)yinciJI workshops at siles such rlS EI.nour of . as they were in the Old Kingdom and the late lVt idd Ie Kingdom. commodities and ideas. which they governed from rheir strongholds in the Delta.\I I.jhnl1 Ktll'1ltlk. howc..lapted to create a compromise between the needs of the native Egyptians ~lIld the preferences of the new Ptolemaic (and later Roman) rulers. prom the rvliddlc Ages on. "'ere beginning to appear mass-produced and repetitive.\1IIEB. 191ft DYllusly.. Egypt became tirlllly established as a major power in Ihe Near East.I)\B' \) hayc rC"calcd j\ 1ino~1I1­ style paintings suggesting close contacts with the people of Crele..'\l the samc time. attempted to l'e\'i. 'I'he painting. the traditional scenes of the deceased recei"ing oflcrings or hunting and IIshing in the marshes are joined by largescale depictions of wrestling and warfare (perhaps copied from Old Kingdolll royal prototypes).1':'\ \ "'DEI{ '1'1 IE GREAT (332-323 Be).\"III·:'\J/HEi\.:iug U rlij]imll bal/d (~rpebhfJ' slone across Ifte dft'sl.\IUSI·. there afC ncve. OEm EL-HERSII.wc begun to redress the balance in (.:nsate l()l' lhe apparent aesthctic decline.'e1opment of funerary cquipment (from coffins to ceramics) and in the qualit~ and locations of provincial gm'ernors' tombs.·ards.-cr.-ing fi'om the temples ami cities or this phase show that they simply reused and copied traditional Egyptian sculptures ~1I1d reliefs in order to strcngthen lhcir claims lO the throne. which must h. but the rclie. Et.ART ART ingly smaller. from the F\Yl \I mummy painrings (wooden funerary portraits painted in a mixturc of W.\\I·:IR and \SYCT) and the styles of the royal workshops at It. there were new cultural c1cments absorbed into Egypt from the j\ [editerr. Ihal Egyplian art could assimilate new possibilities while retaining' its essential character and integrity..the temple of Isis at 1'1 II 1. Specific e'cellts produced waves of public reaction and interest: the influence of Howard C.ycrc represented with unusual Eu.EIN hegan to create distil1(. when he servcd under Darius I (522--+86 lie) (see Ill·:RSlt\). ne~lr modern Cairo.\.~/(JlIe {ollglomcrall'.I.gypt. I. This decline in the pmyer of the pharaohs resulted in the so-called First Intermediate Period (2181-2055 IlC).lSII"I~ '·:I.lsurer l\1aya and the "izier !\pcr-c1) and epigraphic work in the remains thc magnificent tcmple of Ptah h.mwy. .. The tombs in the \. In the latter.\ and by the spaciolls tombs of the go\"crnors buried at IIE'I II \S \. The scat of power.-I.lIle~1I1 world. E:xc. After the end of the New Kingclom.I t"ension between the artistic styles of the v. 'l'he Egyptians of the Late. it bears a det~lilcd description of his activities both in rhe reib'llS of the native Egyptian kings. .. Egyptian art was gradually rediscovcred by Arab and European travellers.\1. 1\\I':D1'\JE'I' Ilt\BL and m:m 1':1. with rhe king <Ind his family sometimes being or shown in unusu.were constructed during this period of over seven hundrcd years.U. after l:cnturies in thc shadows. when no single ruler was strong enough to dominate the whole country.\. Both the king and his subjccts . and cxcayations at the Ilyksos capital of A"aris (TELl. By the late nLiddle Kingdom the distincti"e prm-incia1 styles had been eclipsed hy the art of the royal Residence.\I.:rthclcss indications of a skilful patterning or tcxt and iconography which helps to compe.-16"" (r 19~7) The art of imperial Eg~'pr ranged from the funcrary temples of Queen IIATSltEt·SLT (1473-1458 Be) and R \\ItC'ES /I (1279-1213 Ile) to the more intimalC details of the artisans' painted tombs at J)Em EI. ah{)\'e all. After thc sixtcenth century there werc European revi"als of Egyptian artistic and architectural styles. where the royal Residence was located. flowed irresistibly into the :'J"ile "~llley.1'/111 ~/Ramcscs II. The works of art sun-i. In the late seventeenth cCl1lury Be Asiatic rulers (the IIYI. incre~lsing links with the f\lediterrancan world. The aTl of the . howe"cr.IX and pigment kno"'n as enL'<1Ustit:) to rhe civic architccture of cities such as Alcxandri.\ period. Thc scale and opulence of" the temples and tombs of this period could nor fail to reflect such an influx of people.SUS) gained control of a considerable area of Egypt.:ial and bodily features.1.: Period (7-+7-332 Be). 'L'lle style of art thaI.\ E and that of Horus at Edfu . Slallle (d·KlwcllfllJllscl./2-10 m:. emcrged during the socalled '\1\1 \I{'\J.t and Antinoopolis. and a new canon of proportions serYed to exaggerate these physical extremes.lrter's discovcry of the tomb ofTutankhamun on the art and design of 40 .

l[UC of R-\\IE$E.l\sia as Ell" . Thc Egyptians' generally contemptuous view of the Asiatics is exemplified by the Im/flItlion plr Ki//g Allerikara dating to the First. They embarked on a period of imperial expansion between the carly second and early first mjllennia 1If:. he was actively welcomed at Aswan and Thebes. e. (I-hrmondsworth. Prilltiples oj"T:gYPliall arl. pllil/led plll. having been stung by the Egyptians' repcated incitcment of trouble among the Assyrian vassal-towns in the Le\·'l11t.\F. T. recapturing j\ lemphis and finally sackingThcbes and looting its temples.1 Nubia.lll Delta kingdoms. H.\CES. TO\\''\S.\lI·:S. LAl'. thcy soon withdrew.ASHMUNEIN. however.. STE\ ENSO:\ St-I1Tl1. but comparable levels of interest were also proYokcd by the fe-erection of the Vatican obelisk at St Peter's in 1586. el.\'\. The Egyptians' principal export to western Asia appears to h.wc been gold. sih'cr and certain semj-precious stones that were nol available in Egypt. and although Egyptian paintings and sculptures generally portrayed FragmcllI o/mall-pahlling. from the inrroduction of glass to the usc of thc CL. T. howcycr.llive Egyptian reviyal whilc avoiding (.iYl'TOI.e II: 18/h DYl1fH/Y.' (Iff a lid archifalllrc of l/. the real rclalionship must h.\llDS.\SSYKI. J. At Icast as early as the Predynastic period. The arri'-01I in London of rhe 'Younger 1\ lemnon' (rne upper section of a colossal St. and thcn marched on \lemphis which he lOok. V.l. TO.'Ie" H I. Anawlia and thc Levant. H. A. 1980). Ashmunein. EL- ASSYRIANS Europe in the 19205 is well known. le.\U I of Sais 10 rule thc country (or Lo\\cr Egypt at le. PS!\\ITEK I (66+-610 Be). IIIR. C. For discussion of Egyptian architecture sec P\I.0I1don. obtained from mines in thc Eastcrn Desert 'Ul(. purporledly as an Assyrian vassal. comprising 1\Ilcsopotamia. 19SI).lnt but E. TE..\IER. thc two laucr powcrs C\·cIHually conqucring not only the Lcv. particularly when -II . 1968). I:. although 'Thnutam<lni managed to escape to Nubia. centred on the. Proceeding north. Ro. 1990). Proportio/l alld slyle in ancienl J:. most notably from 883 to 612 Be. 1985). (". F.1/l:iml Egypl. Gradually. ROBlNS."i II) in 1818 and the opening of the Egyptian Court at Crystal Palace in IS5-t \\"cre also important C\'Cl1ts in terms of the western reaction to Egyptian art'. 1994). In 671 UC. He cominucd his ("alher's uelicate policy of cncouraging n. but actually as an independent ruler. the Asiatic territories broke away from EgYPI and new powers arose such as thc 111"1"TITES.we been a more complex amalgam of diplomatic and economic links. This period of revitalization endcd with the invasion of the I'ERSI. . the)' invaded Egypt. G. VI. j:\. Cultural illlas f1IA1esopolalJlia {Iud . G. Rtines (Oxford.ES. 2nd cd. the successor of 'nlharqo. Arabi. G. In 669 Be the new Assyrian ruler. 'rhc 18th-Dynasty pharaohs extended the Egyprian 'empire' (perhaps better described as 'sphere of inOuence') in western .\IBS.OGY) ga\'C risc to Egyptianizing decorariyc art.ETrEKs).lit' {Iudellf Near Eas/ (Oxford.. during the reign of Esarhaddon (681-669 Be).'gypliall jJailllillg (London. DA\ II':S.mi. JA.gYPliall arl (London. copper./J III. with his nominal overlords. Ashurlxmipal retaliatcd in 66-4-/3 Be. launched a ncw campaign into Egypt. trans..LDI~ED. and the fertility of the Nile \"alley made Egypt constantly attracti\"c to settlers fi"om the less prosperous lands of western Asi.l.tntl PEKSII\"S.llling to the inOux of many ftJrcign m:lt"erials. 1974). Assyrians People inhabiting the north-eastern arca or \U:SOI'OT\.Be) 10 reg-.011flicl.]79910) the Asiatic as a tribute-bearcr or bound captivc. K. 1n 664 Be 'HmutJm.' The 'miserable Asiatics' comprised not merch· the nomadic BEDOlil"l (Shasu) hut also . son ofNekau I.gypt itself ~ I. slaying l'\ekau I in the process. western Geographical area [Q the east of the SI:'\"AI peninsula and the Red SC. smlplure (fllfl pailJlillg illillree Ihoust/llt/years (London. was placed in chargc of the country.'EIFOK\l script in diplomatic corrcspondcnce (see \\1 \K' \ J. Ica\"ing only :'\'EK. Egl'Plial/ s{UlplUre (T . Thc relationship betwecn the two regions was not always an amicable one.S .lin power tcmporarily./imllille lomb 0/ So!Jcklwlep (II Thebes.\I!\GNA Asia.\tI'I. the miscrable Asiatic. he is wretched because of the place he is in. culminating in the execution of the rulcrs of the \'arious sm. 1083).\·II·:s and \~i.I-IOO HC. 1--1.. Ashurbanipal. allowing the 25th-Dynasty Kushitc pharaoh Taharqo (690-66-1.~!{YPf: architcl:IUrt'.lst) on Assyria's behalf. Egypt was alrcady trading with lhese areas in order to obtain such raw materials as wood . goods and ideas.\ 1. Thc Assyrian policy of appointing local vassal kings seems to havc minimized their impact on thc society and economy of thc Egyptians. Similarly.\lIA.IS the Euphrates. [nrcrmcdiatc Period: "Lo.Set! 11EIt.gypliall al'l (London.he mnre settled peoples of Syria-Palestine.: city or Assur ovcrlooking the Tig-ris. On this occasion.\N king Cambyscs in 525 BC. l:.l.\IOPOLlS . the f\apolconic campaigns in Egypt and the publication of the work of his s:tyants (see H. silO/ping flsialir em'(~}'s bringi1lg gfjis 10 'lImlllm:. P' K.\. SClt~FER. 71/1. succeeded to the throne of Kush and immediately bid claim to Egypt.GE and . short of water) bare of wood) its pnths arc 111:1ny and painful because of mountains.

1460 Be:). 1968). the belief that mortals could be rcbo.ASTARTE ASTRONOMY AND ASTROLOGY compared with the effects of the Persian.1+1-5 A rclit:/blnd. OATES. and a sighting tool made from the central rib of a palm leaf. thus aligning the foundations of the pyramids and sun temples with the cardinal points. R.~yrian amql allad.13 iii. cd. 1'his method relied on sightings of the Grear Bear and Orion (sce SMI) constellations.thern Iraq (London. first attested on a granite block of the reign of the 2ndDynasty king Khasckhemwy ((.llcndrical systcm based on deC~lIlS was flawed by its failure to take into account the fact that the Egyptian year was always about six hours shan. 19-41 [the early development of Assyria].. Astarte 'War-goddess of Syrian origin. Syrisc:h-paliis/inisd/c Cot/liei/ell ill Agltp/en (Leiden.2686 BC). include cosmological texts describing the period of scventy days spent in the underworld by each dCGIn. J. Ptolemaic and Roman regimes.. Although the tcxts and rclicfli in temples of later periods continued to describc the enactment of this proccdure (as in the temple of [-'orus at EDFU).1 ISO Be) in the Valley of the Kings. N. tombs and coffins with depictions of the heavens. LECI. OriCllIa!ia 43 (1974)..1290 RC).:/i·(}/J/ lilt' palace o/As!lIIrbauipa/ (c. . (LA6705) 42 . adding up to a slippage of ten days every fony ycars. s!1011Jing lire As. 'Assurbanipal and Egypt: a soorcc study'. the mythical consort of Sopdet l was the personification of another decan. probably introduced into Egypt· in the 18th Dynasty (1550-1295 BC). so she was also considered to stretch herself protectively over mummies and the houses of the gods. astronomy and astrology The Egyptians often decorated thc ceilings of their temples. It is therefore unlikely that the J\lliddlc Kingdom 'star clocks' wcre ever regarded as a practical means of measuring time. 295-326. A. L. The 'astronomical ceilings' in the Osireion of Set)' I at AI3YDOS ((. Indeed. The brightest of thesc was the dog star Sirius (known to the Egyptians as the goddess SOPDET).\IMUT in western Thehes (rr353.wlI!lica/iolls oIthe 24 hours oI/he day. The earliest dctailed texts relating to astronomy are the 'diagonal calendars' or 'star clocks' painted on wooden coffin lids of the early Middle Kingdom and also of the Late Period.gypt (Oxford. rhe decans were later depictcd on the ceilings of tombs and temples) stan-jng with the tomb of S!'::\IE./.i\NT.. . D.rn in the form of the circumpolar stars led to the depiction of large numbers of stars on the ceilings of the corridors and chambers of pymmids. it appears to have become a mcrc ceremony and in practice the temples were simply aligncd in relation to the river. 19(7). A his/oJ)' oIaf/ciell/l. and the tomb of RAMESES IV (K\'2) (1:. 'Astarte acheval d'apres Ics representations cgypticnnes'. In the Old Kingdom. GRIt\L\I.JAOS 94 (1974). (n:.{/lte mooden adlill (~rSl)lel. II. Each specific dCGlIl rase above the horizon at dawn for an annual period of tcn days. J.Jf24928) religious entities were regarded as microcosms of the universe itself Just as rhe sky-goddess l'{UT was thought to spread ber star-studded body OVCr the earth. I.I J/l.f/"011! Abd e1-Qllrna. She was adopted infO the Egyptian pantheon as a daughter of RA (or sometimes of P'l!\! I) and one of the consorts of SETIl. listing the thirty-six groups of stars ('dec<ms') into which the night sky was divid- In/erior oI/he lid n. slw/J}ing NU1. Thebes. usually portraved as a naked woman on horseback wearing a headdress consisting of the alt/crown or bull horns. 2nd cenllll:JI A{).116-28. like '\Nt\T (another Syrian goddess worshipped in Egypt) she was considered to protect the pharaoh's chariot in battle. Ncvertheless.6-/-S !J(. A stele of Amenhotep 11 ncar the Great Sphinx at Giza.. the constellation of Orion. Sflulies ill/he IIneiem histOly o/uu. using an {instrument of knowing' (merkhet). 1992). whose 'hcliacal rising' on about 19 July coincided with the annual Nile inundation and therefore appears to have been regarded as an astronomical event of some importance. J Sl'f\L1NGI~R. one of the utterances in the PYRAMlD TEXTS was a request for Nut to spread herself over the deceased so that he might be 'placed among the imperishable stars' and have eternal life.flaliked I~y sigm· of/fte zodiac (flld per. c. 2. usually achieving an error of less than half a degree. RO/1/un period. The god SAil. 'Esarhaddon and Egypt: ~m analysis of the first invasiun of Egypt'.!ing (Ill Egyptiall tom1/. and she was p'lrticularly linked with equestrian and chariotry skills. Syria J7 (1960). since most funerary and The astronomical knowledge of the Egyptian priests and architects at this time is indicated by early examples of the ceremony ofpedj shes ('stretching the cord'). 1-67. . STADELI\lf\NI\. [rom the reign of the 5th-Dynasty pharaoh Vnas (2375-2345 Be) onwards. These calendars consisted of thirty-six columns. The c. IOI-lO. which was similar in function to an aSITolabe. recording her delight in rhe young king's riding skills} is probably the earliest surviving Egyptian textual reference to Astartc.

P'\RKER. £gYPfOlflgi((l1 sllldies ill hOllor "fR. L'orieltfflfiOIl flsfl'OlIollliquetiam I'mu. now at the northern tip of Lake Nasser.]EA 5{ (1968). BEIXUCII. portraying them as deities sailing across the heavens in barks. ZABA. N t or Stele oISellllSret Iff Fom Elep!uUltiue. Philosophical TraJl. temples and granite quarries of Aswan proper on the 43 . In the tombs of Ramescs \"I. Aswan (ane. 37 CIII. (I'. OltO and W.'als and mythological events.231-5. Heick. c. represented on the ceiling of the chapel of Osiris on the roof of the temple of Hathor at DE~DERA. 3 . ~1crcL1ry (Scbcgu. RELO\\" At Asmall till: Qpbbel el-HaJ1JlI (the D011!l' oflhe ltVillds) is lIt'IlUl/~)"he islamic lomb seen 011 lOp ()/II/I~'i hill on Ihe me. 53-69. allowing the passage of time LO be measured in terms of the transits of stars through the sky. R. 121h Dynasty. The ceilings of many roy. Swenet. It consists of three basic components: the town. Dy the first century AI) the Babylonian zodiac. 'Two demotic horoscopes'. 'An astrologer's handbook in demotic Egyptian'. The concept of the horoscope (the belief that the stars could innucncc human destiny) does not seem to have reached Egypt until the Ptolemaic period. (To /852) RIGJlT PllIn ofthe ASJVan region. 1969). 1986). VII and IX (K\'9./87+-/855I1c. Westendorf (Wiesbaden. a set of twenty-foul' seated figures representing sLars were transccrcd by grids of horizontal and \-crtieallines. but is wide6' med 10 refer 10 tire ({re({ of Old Kingdom lombs {/It illio Ihe hil/side. dating to the second half the twelfth century He. bull of the sky) and Venus ('the onc who crosses' or 'god of the morning').wcliol1S oj'the RI~J'/ll SociNy oj' LOlldoll276 (197{).\'t b(fll~'.'ols (Pro\'idenee. . 1953). K:d and Kv6 respectively). Z. 0. 'Stern'. 51-65. Lesko (Hano\'er and London. PARKER. had been adopted. A. Lexikou der /fgypfologie \'I. cd. 11-14. describing Ihe built/iug oIlljiJrfress allhe sile.I'ioll de /'axe till IIlOude (Prague.. II.'c had no connection with astrolog~. W.tl tombs in the Valley of the Kings were decorated with depictions of the heavens. 1986).ASTRONOMY AND ASTROLOGY ASWAN From at least as early as the Middle Kingdom the Egyptians recognized five of the planets. E. a god associated with SETH). "fhe sun-iving lists of lucky and unlucky days appear to ha. lVlars (Horus of the horizon or Horus the red). Egyptill1l astronomical texts. NEUGI':BAUER and R. tV/Cf/O/SO\) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 modern Aswan Qubbet el-Hawa rock tombs rock tombs island of Elephantine temple of Satis Nilometer temple of Khnum Roman temple ptolemaic temple unfinished obelisk northern Quarries island of Sehel 13 temple 14 famine stele 15 Rrst Aswan Dam 16 southern quarries 17 island of Aqilqiyya (current site of Philae temple) 18 island of Philae 19 temple on the island of Biga 20 island of el-Hesa 21 High Oam 22 New Kalabsha G. deri"ing instead from the intricacies of religious festi. I-I.. R. ella prc(:e. HUGIIES. L. T. 'rhcse 'stars that know no rest' were Jupiter (Horus who limits the two lands). The elffmllCCS fO seural o/Ihese ((III be sef11111idmay up llu' slopt'. situated immediately to the north or the first Nile cataract.:iClIlIC Egyptc. Saturn (Horus. Syene) Site in Upper Egypt.l'. Parka. IAnciclU Egyptian astronomy'. cd. H.

1SS/uUl (\Vieshadcn. Ojaw"'. .llion was therefore 1:llInched. it was under Amenhotcp l\ that the cult of the Atcn rc:. J Ie called this new u)undation Akhetaren ('the horizon of the disc') and located it in a virgin site in !\1iddle Egypr Ihat was untainted by the \\"{)rship of olher gods (sec EI. temples and '\ILO. inscriptions. T. WEIU/\J. located roughly midway he[wccn Cairo and Asw.EOI~)l. \Vhcn work bcgan on the new Aswan High Dam in 1960.~()ml' of /hnll exlt'lll/iug 10 Ihe oj]erillg. Two major tcmples to Ihe Aten wcre huill at el-Arnarna.\. dating from the 9th Dynasty [0 the Ramesside period (c.ls continued 1"0 be occupied lip to modern limes.!\menhotep to Akhcnatcn.2160-1069 Ilc).1S \l.~. The tombs of the governors of Aswan 1 at ~Ihhct cl-Hawa.\(i. Aswan High Dam An ext. E. G. is probably closer to the mark. whil:h was ro create a new capiml cir-y with its 0\\ n tcmples dedicated 1"0 the cult of the ALen.[T. they were huilt largely of mudbrick.""[\ IS bull (lhe physical m. the rock-cuI tombs of ~Ibbcl cl-Hawa on the western hank. RI·:IS'E. Erik Hornung's view of the cult of the Atcn as a (orm of henothcisl1l./i"ollf Silll (Ox/ord. TIIOI\1PSON.t\l.u..:tcd (and height. which date mainly to the Old and Middle KingdoJ1ls (26R6-1650 Be). 1987). 1967-). a di\-ision of his army and a pleasure boat.J8) ill /hi' .\IETI·:R of Elephamine. (/~ 'f: \/CIfOU'OX) and Smenkhkar. The LOmb of the AJ.IOI'OJ.. A. PER'IGOTrI...wII/hall grnup o.lS (the traditional centre of the worship of the sun-god I{ \). parl()' due 10 dift'C/J il1ll1(~ slom' {md par/~)I {H a resull (~rlllr /"L'lIclirm agaim//hr so-called herc.. 'Vithin a short time the cult of Am un appears to have been seyerely cunailed and eventually proscribed. unlike major Theban tcmples./Amal"llll. Temples alld /ombs of ""rielll Nubia (Lundun. Tlli' iuscripliow ofSill/ aud Du Rife" (London.1S the firsf proponent of monotheism.HIEi"\1I0TEP III (1390-1352 lie).md Kt\LABSIIA) to higher ground-h~the completion of the clam in 1971. exdusiyc deity. . nom arch orSillt'.1I1 dam was constnu. 4Thc tomb ofT-lepzefa. Around the fifth year of his reign. Hc also incorporated referenccs to the Aten in the names he ga\T ro his p~lli1ce at . Dil' f't:lsi>f1gni·her da Qllbbe/ d-j-Jal1Jt1 bci . the crem ion of Lake lasscr. although demenls of his titles which already concerned the sungod (rathcr than Anum) were left unchanged.. BIH:SCI \~I :md S.. GRlFFrlll. A. Although Akhenaten is sometimes regarded .1racteristic iconography of the disc with rays in the form of outstrctched arms had alrcild~ appeared in the time of Amenhotep [I (1427-1400 Ilc).. the Pcr-Aten. Howeycr. during whose reign there is evidence of the presence of priests of Atcn at IIEI. Despite IlUlllerous textual references to lhc importance of the Pharaonic fown of Asyu[ and its Icmple of the jackal-god \\ EI'\\i\\\ 1':"1". The Aten was panicularl) favoured by Amenhotep "' (1]90-1352 lie). A UNESCO-co-ordinated oper. I Morelli "ccowli e iserilli (Pisa.--\'\IJ\Rf\. Aten Deity rcpresented in the form of the disc or orb of the sun. two small Greco-Roman temples there are few surviving remains of Asw:m itself since the . Earlier pharaohs had been <lssociated with the Aten. who was portrayed in his temple at Tombos in ubia WC.1Jl. as in the case of Thc popularity of the Aten slowly gTC\\ throughout Lhe f\'ew Kingdom and the ch.uca h. was initiated. Asyut (anc.t\I~. and TIIEBES.l tcmple. contain important biographical reliefs alllI E 1. Rl'por/ Oil /hi' anliquilies (~rLt!1J)er Nllbill (Cairn. onc uf which was called the Hwt-benbcn Cmansion of rhe UE:-"BEI' ').ry of ANlma/i'lI. 18R9).E.\lAU':.md the town. 19(7).R. . Apart from 12th-Dynasty nomarch Djefahapy contains uniquely dctailcd legal texts of endowmcnt and was later re-uscd as a cult cenrre of WEP\\. II. in which one god W<lS effectively elevated above many others.\\\. when the first Asw. the cxcm-ated remains arc restricted primarily to rhl' rock-tombs of the local elite.. 'fhe island of Elephantine has been cxclYated by a German learn since the 1970s.l (IJJR-1336 Be).. one of the largest resernlirs in the world.:hed its pcak.). not only to record the Nubi'1I1 monuments threatened by this much more extensive nooding but also to dislll<ll1lle ~md move cerl<lin monumcnts (including 1'1I11. an island in the centre of the river.1934). The biographical texts on the walls of the Firsl LnlCrmedi:ltc Period and l\Jliddle Kingdom rod:-lOmbs provide historical information on lhe struggle between the rulers of IIF. TIIUTMOSF.\). mlu1Jl' raJ's clld ill hlllld.mifeslatioll of Ra) at el-Amarna. I-Tis acknowledgemenl of thc cults of the sungod included the prm·ision of a burial place for a \Ii'. their results show the steady expansion of the settlement from a small E'lr1y Dynastic yillagc and temple to the much larger town of the Roman period.T:A 5 (1919). EllEI. T S \\ E-S6nt"WERGII (cd. A ji//lli~)1 ar(hh1t!.Rl\KI.. although this tomh remains undis(. and the Atcn began to be promoted ~lS the sale.ensive artificial reservoir was created in Lower Nubia..ened in three phases) between 1902 and 1933. his relationship to the cnlt of the Aten and the rest of the EgYPI ian pantheon must he regarded firmly in lhe l:ontext of his time. necessitating a ClmP'1ib111 to surrey Nubian sites before they were submcrged.( piled il/fro11/ of _'Nlenll/ell.lll'twlt'll ("-1i) tllld Nejer/i/i (rig/II) J1)Qrship Ihc A/m (/fJP leli). the l:ulr of which was parlil:uhtrly promoted during the reigns of Amenhotep IV 11\t':IIE:'\. 1978). and .ASWAN lIIGH DM.O\-ered and was perhaps ne\-cr completed.\TE:'\ (1352-1336 Be) ..I."". The king changed his name and ritles from . The close links bCl"wcen thc disc and the sUIl-god have led to some uncerlainty as to whet hcr the Atcn was treated as a divine being in its own rig-hI..' AT EN e.. On his accession as sole ruler. E. This included at least threc sanctuaries. \\as built on the pcrimct'cr of the templc of Amlin at K!\RNAK. the Aten becamc the 'sole' god.1stcrn bank of the Nile.) kopolis) Capital of the thirtcenth pper Egyptian nome (prm·incc). ismail: il /£'/Ilpio /olcll/ai((j di hi. Therc is also a certain amount of evidence to suggesl that Akhenatcn may evcn have equilted the Aten with his own father} . From/he lomb oITu/ll (F. 79-98. although. Amcnhotep 1\ took the next logical step. Thi!jigltre~' lIrt! ht!lIi'i~J' damllged.lring the sun-disc and followed by the hieroglyphic sign for (goo'. perhaps with the intcntion of 1<1[er ++ . r\BU SIJ\WEJ. I (150-1-1+92 IIC).

IS.wmcd at rhe nort hern and southern ends of the b'ly of ditls to the Cast of the city.'.'. . in thai his hand seems to have represented the fl:male principle.. Tn the reliefs at el-Amarna and other sites./11. rising up from 1\liN. and in later times he protected the deceased during the journey through lhe underworld.. C. VEK'\"L'S.xC. ISIS.132 Be-I\) 395). which has sc.IS the Great Temple. which is insc. i. ~Ilthollgh it origin~llIy bore the cartouche of Amenhotcp III. LVlany of the rock-rombs of the elite at dAmama.:rocodile. Rm\"E. his qucen 'I':FERTITI and all those associated with this 'hcresy' wcre defaced in the aftermath of the Amarna period..EIl.:rihed with the name of Ramescs II (1279~1213 Be).ATUM rebuilding them in Slone. although in 1924. A.llllCS and faces of Akhcnaten.1-32.leen TlY (Akhenaten's lTIOlher) and later succeeded TU'li\i'KII. often lea\'ing onl) the plaster foundations of the Ceremonial buildings. 1<::11 Atrih was occupied at Icast as early as the 4th Dynasly (2fJI3-2494 Be).· h is clear. PI:\i\"I\:Ol-'l'"l 'T . Alrhough nOlhing remains of the rel11ple in 5. Arum was regarded as a protecti\'c deity.. the IClJi'. _IHU!lItIICU. e\'en among the inhabitants of the city at c1Amarna itself Tn lhe 'workmen's yillage" on the eastern edge of the cit~. The principal god worshipped in t"he Athribis rcgion was Ilorus Khenry-khety. Silt. Athrihis) 'l<)\vn site in the central Delta region neilr rhe modern town of Bcnha. 11 has been greatly reduced over the years through 10c:11 farmers' large-scalc rCIllO\'al of scbllkh (ancient mud-brick re-used as fenilizer).'EPllTllrs.l\'cn and c. There h.1\'e been found. a large cache of je\\eller~ dating to the Latc Period (747-332 Be) \\"as discO\'ered. which were l:.I\·ators as the Small Aten Temple) was a smaller building but of similar design. 'Short rcport on the eXL'J\"~ltions of the Institute of Archaeology Liverpool. allx (lilies el Ii I'ltisloirc d'l/IIl! ril/e till DC/lrt ~~YPli(. There was rigid official adherence to the cult of Ihe Aten alllong thL: elite at cl-Amarna. both were strewn with offering tables. 157-8+. according to olher sourccs.l\".. BI/o.I srrong priesthood such as that of Amun. D.ill den Brink (Amsterdam. herdic hug (Princeton. primarily as rubble filling the pylons of new temples dedicated to the traditional official cults. the waters of chaos. the 10mb of Queen Takhut «". 'The sun-disc in Akhcnatcn's program: its worship and its antcccdems.J -IRei:. This sculpture is +5 . P. was an open.I/m' (C. This hymn.. II'. 177-203.POI//l1: phartlol/.ins orthe First TntermcdialL: Period. 'Polish archaeolog-ieal activities ~It Tell Atrib in 19R5'. Sometimes he was portrayed in the essentially primordial form of a snake.10 62 (196+). On Akhenatcn's death there was a re\'ersion to the worship of Amun. According to survi\'ing texts. \L\IE'iII<JTEI' SOi\ OF IlAI'L. to form the gud Ra-Atul11. RE. described by its CXC~lVaLOrs . but" no remains earlier than the 12th DvnaSl)' (1985-1795 Be) have been found. cd.s early as the reign of IIORE\II wn (1323-1295 Be). A Polish archaeologic. Thus the two offspring of Atum. Atum came into heing hef()re he.. 207-1~. spirting them into being.\EI. Alhrif.'iug of Egyp/ (London. .OFOlm.\'I:\T blocks from the templcs of the Aten were then re-used. "fhe Per-Aten. K.i /a geugraph..' 17 (1982). 111 aIl\' of wh0111 built shrines dedicated to the ne"\\' roral family and the Aten in the g. It was Atum who lifted the dead king from his pyramid to the heavens in order to transform hirn into a st~lr-gud. ami the firsl coun of the small temple contained a massive mud-brick altar.lnle the parents of (jEn (elrth) and :\L'T (sky). The sLOnc 'I:\I. to form the I'RIW'~\"l\L _\IOL:2\ltJ. ALDItED..\II\IOSE It (570-526 Be).l1l:1I which some scholars believc to ha\'e been composed by Akhenaten himselr.. in the course of such plundering.L'i been some debate as to whether Atum's act of procrcation constilllt.590 Be) and a large settlement and ccmctery of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods (. 'superintendent of the royal horses'. 237---18.'l1 lilt. the n. thc bull.III traces of the cull of the Aten. unroofed structure covcring an . that traditional religious cults continued to be obser\"ed. C.irol 1978).)l·L: portrayed as a divinc couple on coff.s: Il'xles £'1 do(Umculs n:lalif. +7-61. the title 'god's hand' was adopted by Theban priestesses supposedly married to the god \\11. .l.lrdens of th~ir \'ll1as. . about 40 km norrh of Cairo.. MVSl. Atum Creator-god and solar deity of 11I':UOI-'OLlS.lrlh were separated..11 expedition under the direction of Pascal VermIs eXC. howe"er. signifying his CREATI01\ and summarion of all that exists.\ lion now in the collection of the British l\luseul11. bCc. The hymn also stresses Akhenaten's role as intermcdi:uy between the Aten and the populace. it would probably have incurporated the statue of.cd masturb:uion or copulation. and att'e111pts were made to rel11o\'e ..'.IS \\'ell as small pri\'ate chapels prob~lbly dedicated to anceSI-or worship and showing no traccS of the official religion. Similarly. The HwtAten (literally 'mansion of the Arcn' but usually described by the c. numerous amulets of traditional gods h./WItlft.. The animals particularly sacred to him were the lion. HlVt-Hervib. 'The sun-disc in Akhcnmcn's prog-ram: its worship and its antccedents l I'. 52. which emerged frol11 irs ball of dung just as XJ'U1\1 appeared from the primeyal mound. . Tell (:me. which was the appc~1fance th~lt he was expcet- Athribis see TEl.EL·\ION and [he lizard 1 while he was also believed to be manifested in the S<>\R \H. Atum W~IS said to ha\'C produced Shu and Tefnut by copulaling with his hand or. The tcxts indicatc that therc was once also an important tcmple of Amenhmcp III (I3YO-U52 lie) al rhe site. Tht' ardlllf:tdogy (d·/lte Nile Del/a: problems ifllll priuri/ii's. According to the Hcliopoliran theology. and the grandparents of OSIRIS. IITIII\I Atrib. E. 1\1. His name means 'the al1'.\ \IL \1 on lhe throne.I c.1J. represented sometimes as a f~llcon-he:lded man and sometimes aS. The major monuments at the sitc were a temple dating to thc time of . where he was gradually syncretized \\ ilJl lhe sun-god R\. l\. Atum's creation of the universe WilS conceptualized in terllls of <l family of ninc gods known as the Hcliopolitan E:\"~EAtJ. 198-1-). the I~)IIIIJI 10 11u: . B. The citv at c1-AJ11:1rna was abandoned and. (air) and TEF'LT (moisture). which may have been one of rhe fir~a monumcnts to be erected in the ne\\' city. \'. similar in appcarance to ~l pair of lions of the reign of Amcllholcp III from SOI. ~\lost of these prayers appear to be CXlracts from a longer composition.lrca of about 800 X 300 m at the northern end of the ceJ1lral city.-IE 38 (1938). it begom to be demolished. SETII and . have prayers to the Aten inscribed on the jambs of their dool"\\ays. 21-3~.'lt Athribis (TeHAtTib)'. by which means he perhaps hoped to avoid the creation of . has been compared with the Biblical Psalm IlH. He is usually depicted as an anthropomorphic deity orten wearing the double crown.xc. Roth Atum and his hand were therc!i. perhaps hecause this was the home-town Of"dlC innucntial chief architect.es grandes compositiuns rcligicuscs du :\i u lI"c1 Empire CI Ia rd'urmc d'!\m"rn. 19~~). J-IIICE 13 (1976).. although the distinct parallels between lhe n\o arc usually interpreted simpl~ as indications of the common literary heritage of Egypt and ISK. perhaps co"crtl~. The most complete surviving version of this hymn was inscribed in the wmb of A'. parriculariy :lssociateu with the rituals of kingship.'cral antecedents in e'lrlicr 18th-Dynasty hymns ro the sun-god.IWIEC ~lIld T I IERIIIU I.1/ tf /". perhaps . 1988). who waS probably the brother of' Qj.lted p~~~f the post-Pharaonic town during the I~~~and 19905.

46 . 5(}-2. AI.IJREIJ. 1908). palmed plas/er Oil 1. E. BRl. Like YUYA. and had begun La construct one of the largest tombs at EI. It has even been suggested that the unusual office of 'god's father' could be held only by the king's f~lther-in-law. EI. ~King Ay.\. who had no family links with the Thutmosid royal family (except possibly through his wife MUlnedjmet). it has therefore been argued that he may well have been Tiy's brother. lsi. --lIlt-3rt! (full/ries BC.AUTOBIOGRAPHIES AY De/ail (~(lhl!jjl//cr(IIY slele oI lire deceased (011 flit' jil. Abandoning his unfinished tomb at c1Amarna. DE GAfUS D. 74 (111.5(}-3.:al-hl!adl'{1 Anubis.IIA. 1 E\\/JEKR\.l'. 30th DYUlfsly or fm'6' Ptolemaic period.}NES 1-1 (1955). who prcdece. the father of Queen TIY. In his earlier career he was an important official during the reign of :\KI-IENATE'\I (1352-1336 Be). 1992). Idell illlo image. E. 1988). The real break was to come with the reign of his successor.\Rt'A. he came from AKJlMI~1 and held the tirles 'superintendent of the royal horses' and 'god's f~lthcr'.-A:\I.. E. K.. 2(}-8. Ay usurped a second tomb in a western branch of the Vt\LLEY OF TilE KI~GS (1-::\ 23).gypi (London.-n:\n~(\ Ay (1327-1323 Be) Late 18th-Dynasty ruler who came ro the throne after the short reign of TUTi\KK. C. autobiographies see I.ITER 'TURE Avaris . DERClIi\I~. 1969)./iwll Ihe righl. C.JEA 18 (1932). Bredeck (New York.\ lES. right) mo/'slJippillg lite sill/-god ill three SepaJ'{flc. Ay is depicted as the loyal heir administering the final rilllals to the royal mummy. which had probably been intended lilt TUlankhamun (and was perhaps originally Ihe tomb of Prince Thurmose./ollomed by the /imlTflry deifies Osiris. 16-2-1.. P. P. 'Clearance of the tomb of King Ay (\\'\'23)'. HOR:'\L~G. SETIIE. wearing fhe dOl/ble t'fo1/Ju) tlnd K/lI:pri (with {{ Jell/'ll/! beetle ollltis hcadj. ~.1sed his father Amenhotep '"). "AWOl als Ichneumon'.}ARCE21 (198-1).:T. which might have made Ay the father of M. showing that he rose to the position of VIZIER and rOy. -13-7. The last decoration in Ay's el-Amarna tomb secms to hayc taken place in thc ninth year of Akhenatcn's reign. Nephll~J's (llld lite Pedi(f/lleJl1/c1J11esll"(fJl~l'. the generalIIOREJ\lIIEB. T. MDAIK 14 (1956). 'doer of right'. the successor of Tumnkhamun'. ILc demiurge et la balance" Religions (11 Egyp/( hellrfl1islique el romaine: {QIIQque de Slrtisbourg (paris. bccausc of Ay's close connections with his predecessors. The scenes in the romb portray him with his first wif'C Tty rather thail nkhesenpaaten.llOm/lIg jad. as well as acquiring the unusual epithet. Akhcnarcn's uncle and perhaps uncle or great-unde of Tutankhamun. AkhclIlIlell: killg ofl:. On the wall of the burial chamber of the illustrious smallcr tomb in which Tutankhamun was actually buried. 298-30 l. (E /8-162) cd to adopt when [he cosmos finaJly collapsed. there is good evidence to show that he was closely involved in the events of the Amarna period. ". 'King Ay and the dose of the Amarna period'."NER-TRAl. A fter the reigns of Akhenatcn and Smenkhkara both Tutankhamun and Ay began to reform the religious heresies of the Amarna period but.'fJOtI. E. his reign of f(IUr or five years is usually rcgarded as a continuation of the same grip on the throne. 'Arum :1ls Bogenschiitzc'. II. 0.·\:n::'\').31-----4. returning everything to its original primenl state. z. 39-fJ-I. one of the daughters of Akh' atcn. One unique feature of this tomb is the presence of a scene of hunting in the marshes.\.].I'ERTI"'!.!nnm: Nfl-Homldl/y. which was usually found in nobles' tombs rather than the burial place of a pharaoh. containing the longer of the two surviving yersions of the f~)'mll 10 Ill/! AUII (sec .11 chancclJor. whom he is thought to ha\·c m. A//Im (third. The rock lombs ofe1-flmllnm \'1 (London.Fnll/ Tlu'bes. trans. The progress of his career between then and the end of Akhenaten's reign is known from a number of inscribed funerary items.lrric in order [Q consolidate his claim to the throne.28-35. S(]L\DE:.\·iUN (1336-1327 Be). SEI-:u:.IS 63 (1928)..168-80. \Vhatcycr the truth behind these theories.\"eI' TELl.

EL=--- B ba The Egyptians considered that each indiyidual person was made up of five distinct parts: the physical body.\ llK:\l{. E.=. the site of which is located about 80 km south or modern Baghdad. but in the battle of Carchemish. 179-8-1. E. AJJ. 19Jh D)'U(lS~ll.. the K:\.'\K.r-BRIN~\I. In order for the physical bodies of the deceased to sun·i\·e in the afterlife.pper Egypt betwcen .lARCE 29 (1992).M emphitc :\PIS bull was the!Ja of OSIRJS.Hle" BII/~). 711£' c.\ILtr-mar and Q1U.lolI.\· Begl"dfi~s 'ba' rmhond der Ubalielenlllg del' Fni'h:::. KAISER.11 . Balin302.. and since the physical body could not do this it was the duty of the btl. The country cO\'ered those areas described as SC~IER and .9901) Ir was necessary for the deceased to journey from the tomb to rejoin his ka if he was to become transformed into an M':H. J. !Vlnst of the cemeteries in the Badarian region have yielded distinctive pottery vessels (particubrly red-polished ware with blackenccl tops). BRUNTON. L. the 19thDynasty tom b of the provincial governor Amenhotep Huy and a necropolis of sacred 47 . "VoJ. 67-80."cr.38-49. Babylonia . 1970). (". G. D.\IE and the The 1m has similarities with our concept of 'personality' I in that it comSIIAJ)Q\\. as well as at least one early Predynastic settlement at Hammami:l. c.5500--!000 lie). 19-18).J) (Baltimore.:. 1968). 'Funerary rexts and their meaning\ . E.1285 IJC. \V.61-87. OF TilE I>I':AI) recommended that a golden btl-bird should be placed on the chest of the mummy in order to facilitate this reunion. S. Name gh'cn Bahariya Oasis Fenile depression in the northeastern Libyan Desert 200 km west of the Nile. and like them its language (Babylonian) \Y. (London. including numerous Prcdynastic cemeteries (notahly !\losragedda. to Lhe extenl that iL too was considered to h. 2nd ed. Gm:oICKE.\. Egypt'. 1927-30). G. J. \\"as first investigated by Guy Brunton and Gertrude CatonThompson between 1922 and 1931. A/1DAIK-lI (1985). 1988). R. 1992).\'C{f7. V. ·+30-69. 'Archaeological cultural resources and modern land-usc actiyities: some observations made during a recent survey in the Badari region. consisting oftire t:iguelle associated mirlr Chapter J7.. P.1\'e physical needs for such pleasures as food.::A:. Howe\'er. BRUNTOX and G. A'lrl1mllr (London.:I. defeated the Egyptian army. A10sllIgetlda 1I1J(1 Jhe 7ilSilll1 mfJun: (London. B. and Spell 89 of the BOOt.R:. ~lI1d there were numerous runerary spells to assist this process of transformation..I'll/dy (~r(he ba (()1Icepl in al/denl Egyptian (exls (Chicago. mhich shoms (I ba-bird 011 a shrine-shaped pli11lh. The archaeological remains date primarily from the early New Kingdom to the Roman period (c. -. Versl/ch riller Del/Jung de. Howc.1550 Be-I\D 395). Badari. Z. HOI. drink .. H. 1992).ARTIN.\IES. J. Its capital was the city of Babylon. FIGULLA and 'vV. In the late se\'cnrh century BC. 1953). Bredeck (New York. I-I. paiuJed papyrus. elA rca of . Q!'ulIlld Badari. The BIUlllri'l1/ ciz:i/islIliol1l1llll prelll~~Jorir remllillS lIelir Bodor. 1928). however.\IIA De/ai/from the Book ofthe Dead of HUlleJer.-=A~D. the armies of Ncbuchadnezzar wcre driven back fi'om the borders of the Delta by an Egyptian army including GIU::B':.:. Grro~. and C. Roehrig (Boston.:aJiOl1S aJ Bakl.wEY. Btl was therefore also the term used for what might be described as the physical manifestations of ccrr:lin gods. BRU~""'O~ ct a1. D'Auria. the ba. In 601 DC. Lacovara. The Egyptians regarded migratory birds as incarnations of to the southern part of from the time of Hammurabi (1792-1750 IIC) until the Christian era.lou (Londnn. DeiI' ihsa and the cemctcry of cl-Badari itself). O. It is possible that this accidental association with the stork led to the depiction of the btl as a bird with a human head and Often also with human arms.pJ. Thc e)Badari region.MulI/lllil's alld magic. it was also belie\'ed that the ba could ndopt any form it wished. The finds from c1-Badari form the original basis for the Badarian period (r. slate palettes. they had to be reunited with the ba e\'ery night. the earliest phase or the Upper Egyptian PREDYi\:>\STIC PEHIOD. led by his son Nebuchadnezzar fl. similarly the four sons of IIOHUS were his ba. P. 1937). the expansion of Babylonian power into Srria-P~11estine clashed with Egyptian interests there.IS written in the CU'I'EIFORAI script. 'rhe I"eporl about Ihe displlle (~ra 11/(//1 milh his ba (P. mercenaries.!\D during the third millennium BC. G. 1986). D. 1914). Ncar the modern town of Bawit are the tombs of several 26th-Dynasty Egyptian governors of the oasis. so that the . thus effectiyely ending Nekau [['S hold on Syria.\II'SON. Eg}.TIIO. The Saitc pharaoh Nekau II (610-595 BC) opposed the Babylonian advance. L. Cauaau (llJ(llsmcl i1l allci!'uJ limes (Princeton.lnd sexual acti\·ity. as well as terraCot'ta and ivory anthropomorphic figures. I10RXU:'\G.. idea il1JO image. 1'011/ Thebes.-. LeJJers alJ(l dOfl{mellJS ofJhe Old Bak}!lolliol1 period (London and Philadelphia. RO)FORD. The Egyptian nameS of the Jabiru stork and the ram both had the same phonetic value as ba. therefore the hieroglyphic signs for these creatures were used to refer to it in writing. 1\1. ed. strerching for 30 km along the cast bank of the Nile.E~. KOLDF. 'I'he contents of the Predynastic cemeteries at el-Badari haye been subjected to a number of sFatistical analyses attempting to clarify the c1r-0nology and social history of the Badanan penod. Far [rom corresponding to the modern western concept of a ~spirir' (as it is somelimes [mnslated). 1-1. 1968). 'Zur Siidausdchnung der "orgeschichtlichcn Deltakulturen und zur friihen Entwicklung Oberagyptens'. trans. flying freely between tomb and underworld. and could be extended w god!\ as well as inanimate objects. In the reign of MIMOSE 11 (570-526 lie) an alliance was established between Egypt and Babylonia but by then the Egyptians were threatened by the growth of PER5H. prised all those non-physical attributes which made onc human being unique. The btl-bird was also incorpormed into the decoration of private collins from the 21st Dynasty onwards.\l1-:501'0T. the btl was closely linked to the physical body. the concept of the btl also referred to power. 3 vols (London.K. (London.~~ --=B. the X\.eitlllld des AI"~n Reirhes (Freiburg.\N:\. the /10. the armies of N abopolassar. stone vases and flint tools..

S/UI(C:. dating' to the 26th Dynasty and Greco-Roman period. Oriental Institutc Nubia Expedition III (Chicago.Y. FfI.TURE/PERIOD £.r(lli. B. G.A OASIS Ballana and Oustul Pair of Nubi. Baltrill ulIJis. L. \V('nig (New York. 19]8). where a Roman g-Jrrison. 1986). Balat see IJMd II. \V.!luI (/I't: t!le II/ost typh'{// vessel janus of/he BullalUl pl. there were also S111. "'11m \'. GIDDY. -\.111 bark shrines along the routes of ritual processions. cd. E:l.' A~I) <!.S and processions.'IJlwteplll:\· mol/lei: 181h DYllllSly. 7/82/.-lIm Simbelulld SlIlltm}imllier I: 71Jt' A-Cmup royal cemetery ut Qmllll: feme/a]' L. 2 "ols (C"1iro. 107-11.\"(/11lpll~S oIfhe lall/holcd goblcts . bark shrine Since the principal artery of communication in ancient Egypt was the Nile.\IAK SACRIFICE in the form of the bodies of retainers buried alongside the prcChrislim rulers of Lower Nubia. either resting on a plinth before the /UUjS.~ji-ica ill AIII/quily· Ihl' arts (~r allCil'1l1 Nubia {{lid the Sill/all I.fi"Ol1l &.lIlcLuary of the temple.~/i·ica.. If.Jf:A 55 (1969).lstul and Ballana and their !\ leroitic :tntecedents'. E. Oriental Institute Nubia Expedition 1\ (Chicago.I-\\IS.' been the accepled \"chiclc in which Egyptian gods wcre transported from one shrine to another.BALAT BALLANA CUl.IERyand L.~(YPli{//1 O/lSl'. Ihe IUlJ11f!Oj" Amt.lrc the remains of a Roman triumphal arch and t\\'o temples. (u66560.lstul hy an expedition from the Chicago Orientallnst"itute.. The drift sand and low scrub co\'ering the rumuu at Par/ oIa gnmill! rl'prl'5ClIlalioll ofa $0(1"1'{1 Iwrl·. "rhe Balian" culture and the comin~ of Christianity'. or inside a bark shrin~'l1 (he temples ofh. which lasted frolll the decline of the . iud/ldil/g C.. 40+-1J./1). . . one for each member of a divine TRI:\D (group of duel' deities). S. At the POllelT. B.\1) 350-700).2 Oil. o(liI/h' 1'e.J'al Cl'1I1eleril-s. L. 1978). Also ncar Bawir .{~/i·a (Iliff Klltlrgll dlll'hlg p!Ull"{/{Juh"11II/CS (Warminster.IIRY. TII(' i:arifillsl'Il'I1ICIIIS (~rlhl' . 197-1-). As well as the principal shrines in the temples.. . one dating to the reign of Apries (589-570 Be) and the other to the time of ·ILl'. c. Dakh/a. nearly two hundred of which ha\"c been excavated. as in the remple of Horus at EDFtJ. southern lip of the oasis is c1-Hayz./360 Be. birds '1'1 rOTl [ associated with the worship of and IIORUS. "rhere were often three such shrines in ~l row. and thc cabin was replaced h~ a 'AOS containing rhe cult image of the deil~.m elite m:cropolcis on either side of the ~ile some 15 km south of ·\IlL SL\IBEL and now submerged beneath Lake :'\asser. or <way stations'.. P.13 III. lip {f tllrecdimewifllla/ mrilil/j!uI IIJ/ltl'/III1'J)I{l. (un) +8 .I.Y-Group rel1laim {rom r0.liro. was decorated with the head of a rilm at either end. An:\ \IS.rcUHlIio11S hel1J)l'CII AIm SimbelulIll Ihl' SlUluuji-Qll/ier 1\: NuuIN/lliau. except that their prow~ ilnd sterns wcre :Idorned with thc '\HiIS of the god in question. usually described as 'resting places'. Xubia: (/lrridol" to . Ihe Ballana culture/period see BAI. These barks were llsually kept in the inner s.USTUL bark. 67980. 19-1-2-50). and the boat was the most oh\·ious form of transport.c-\OR. 2. B. 'VIl. 1987).\n \-GROLl' cemetery of elite tull1ulus gr~n-es dating to the early third millennium He was excavated at Q. Bal1ana is the type-site of the BaHana period (or 'X-Group phase'. . The roya/loJ11bso! Bollana aud Q!. 2nd cel. \V. The barks thcmseh-es were sC<llc models of genuine boars. and arc often depicted in lhe acL of being carried aloft on poles b~ priests.<.7/822) Ballana have helped to prescnT the gnl\ es from the \yidespread plundering that affectcd the earlier elite Kushite ccmeteries of \II~ROE and '\I'\T\. \R:'\.l" /2.ji-oll/ Ilif SOl/flltal]' oIAml/lIlI/A"url/aA-.\K and I. 5111-6111 {('II/urics .C Bal/(fr~)I{/.t.\ "DER TilE GRUT (332-323 Ilc).. TRIGGER. a basilica and a small scrtlcmel'll dating to the Roman and Christian periods (c30 BC-·II) M 1) hal·e been neal·ated. contained evidence of IIU. .. . F \K.I·mlplllre lilah.Lo'''. Thus thc bark of i\1\IU'\I. for instancc.. during FFsrl\··\I.'l'iod. 117~2H. (London and Princcton.SI" fbrilll.. c. 'The royal rombs at Q!. 1984). Tl1l' o{{ses oIEgypl1i (Cairo. . Many of the distinctive tUll1ulus burials.\Ieroitic empire to the arrival of Christianity. it "~\:-i perhaps ine\·imble that the 'bark' should ha\<.:alio/lS belmeell. These divine barks wcre similar in shape to Nile boats. ]991).

panIy because.39. Although such Orb'"3nie materials as basketry. Rope was made from tall strong grasses (e. Jmd'.Ire stiJluscd in modern times.Iskcrry can often be supplemcnled and bencr understood through the ethnoarchaeological study of modern basket-makers.hya bi- New Kingdom cemetery t I 100 I 200 I 300 N ka-temple of Pepy I location of 19th-Dynasty hoard I 400 I 500 tomb of HO~i I tomb of Hori II • ( / . e.\ lcsolithic period onwards \\"Cre coiling. Baskets were made from the leaves of the dom palm (If)'phal'IUI Ihebaim)./le Piof: .·esscls.2613 Be-I[) 395). E. these model barks wcre placed on orJ1:lt"c river-going barks to make their journey to the Thcban wcst himk and to Luxor l'cmple rcspccti\c1y. "irtually all haskets are made from date-palm kayes. rushes UUlltll. G..II.) . .~D1. Westendorf (Wiesbaden. Heick. K. 'Le log'cmcllf Ct transport des OiUqUCS sacrces er des statues des diet\. 1-76. which may h:1\·c been intended to (. Tell (ane.619-25. bration of the 'feast of the he'1Utiful meeting" a diyine union.\STl·:T.I.1S the 1st Dynasty at ·\In DOS anti S. The Egypti:1I1s' uses of baskets ranged from smalJ disposable bags to large decorated storage baskets fi)r clothes.1(S are made fi'om the coarse fibres at the bases of the lc. The modern Zagazig cat cemetery cat c)'metery Protodynastlc -£l tomb ka-temple edge of modern ---/ cultivation 60fTeti modern Zagazig -Old Kingdom cemetery basketry and cordage A class of artefacts that have li-cqucnrly been O\'erlooked by archacologists in the past.. \1'.-e5. Similarly the bark of II. "-rhc rcsults of Edouard Na\"illc's cxc. In modern Egypt. G LEGH. a number of other Illethods and styles emerged. In the Prolemaic and Roman periods. thereforc the c"idcncc prm'ided by sur\"iying am:icnt b. fOUCt\lfr.. ""I1Q I~~ aFait! ofbash'I/]'? J guidl'lo raording !Jaskl'IIY aut! ((mltlgl~fiJr tlrdu{l'ologisls /lnd IIlIlhropologists (Leidcn. while rope and Jl1.\I'."al and the Opet FcstiY. FUI/dt/tio/l EI/gl. the date palm (Plwl'fIi.~SKETRY AND CORDAGE BASTA. particularly the Yalley Festi..\TIIOR traycllcd from her temple at DI'. of 1Jorus at EMu for the cele- pinnala and IlJIpaa/a (Jllindrittl) or from the rind of the papyrus stem (L)'petlls papYJ"w"). 1991).nil'lIlI del" Agyplologie I. 1-1-3-69.. A more specialized funerary f(JrI11 of ritual boat.\: dans quelqucs temples cgypticns'. rhe ~1l1cient Egyprian equivalent of the \\ ardrobe or linen closet. pt/r 1'. incre"lsingly from the Late Period on\\-ards. HI f-IO 1J (1917).as documenred by the Greek historian Herodotus in the fifth centul'Y Be. with origins strelching back at Icast <1S carlv . !...'idence confirming many of the del ails of this description. It flourished from the -Ith Dynast'· 10 the end of lhe Roman period «(."·\ to tha.lin monument at the site is the red granitc tcmple of the cat-goddess B.uions in 1887-Y IHO\'ided arch"lcologieal e.. The basket-making techniques employed from the . TELL In the case of the festi"als of Amun at Thebes. DeslI/os/(/I. The best suni"ing example is that of Khufu at G!Z \. 'I{ II \I{". whereas the materials lIsed to make baskets ~1l1d rope were readily available in the Nilc valley. including plaiting and stake-and-st r.. perhaps beG1USe disC<lrded baskets would often h. \yhereas stone <Incl ceramics arc difficult to destroy complctell'.r dat"/yldera).-en in the . 'Un tcmplc flurr~ll1t: Ie \'aisseau d'or cPAmon-Ra'. \\·hich \\as discO\'ercd in a pit beside the pyramid and has no\\" been rcconSITucteu ill . matting (both for (loor cm-erings and roofing) and rope clearly played a significant role in the daily lives of the al1l:icm Eg~ ptians. i/f{. only a small percenrage has slIrYi. cd.' cf 1IIt'II/()ircs pu/JIi/. \VE.l rid conditions of most Egyptian sircs..oRlnl. about 80 km to the northeasl of Cairo.'i 25 (]I)21-2). Bubaslis) Sire of. A. KrrCl IE" 'Rarkc'.l rem pie and town in the eastern Nile Delta.'\1!O/IlfIllCllf. . (f /63-16.temple of Mihos I temple of Bastet 1000m Tmo (oiled basA'cls tllIIl a r('tlal/gulal" papYfllS-jihre baskel. The wide varicty of uscs is partly due to the scarcity of wood in Egypl.-hich ".g.'" spl!(il!s) wcrc used lor making baskets and mats. blll the tn.918. \V Z./. Basta. Otto and \V.IITy rhe deceased through the netherworld.m d basketry.. J\ bny of these techniqucs . Per-Baslel. is the SOl. the~ are nor presened in the same quantities as pottery and stone .l\"<./Ilic dl'S JuscriPfiol/S ef Belle. From the Ptolemaic period onwards.1\ e been burned. 1975). I nd.l· LI:"I"c. weaying. to a lesser extent.-ed in the archaeological record.. t\\ining and.\m'\R!\.

By the first millennium Be. in contrast to the aggressive image of the lioness-headed SEKlI. and il seems to have been a mark of poor social status not to sha\"c.w·s. as well as temples dedicated to the gods t\TUJ\\ and lvlihos. carved on stone vessels of the 2nd-Dynasty Tuier Hetepsekhemwy (. TELL BAT Bastet Cat-goddess and local deity of the town of Bubastis (TELL BAS'I:>\). and full beards . c.:iJlem. 'To the north of the city aTC a series of vaulted mud-brick cat cemeteries and adjacent ateliers. La deesse Bastel (Cairo. occasionally. 'Varia Aegyptiaca: II. ! . H-\B. (DI2.t in the :'\Tew Kingdom'. frequcntly holding both the {[nkh si6'11 and a sceptre (as well as. are depicted with moustaches. A 19th-Dynasty hoard of gold and sil\'cr \'cssels and jewellery was dis- Bawit see BAII. howcver. batter Architectural term denoting the sloping face of a wall in which the foundation courses are wider than the LIpper courses1 thus adding St:lbility.i) kittcns.. 50 Broll:::J."O/1/ Bllba.' slalueUe oflhe cal-goddess Bmlrl holding lin aegis ill her left htlnd tlnd tI sislrum in her righl. perhaps the earliest depiction being the pair of heads at the top of the :-/AO. such as Prince Rahotep. OSOOKO" 1 (924--889 BC).lARGE 1 (1962). Bub"slis (/881-1889) (London. appears to ha\·e built a hypostyle han in the temple of Bastet. a 71U!lWI necklace). (le. B~ the beginning of the Dynastic period. Sl}-1. 1968).IOll) site also includes the ka-temples of the 6thDvnasty pharaohs Teti (2HS~2323 BC) and Pepy 1 (2321-2287 BC) and a pair of 'jubilee chapels' built by Amenemhat 111 (1855-1808 BC) and Amenhotep B1 (1390-1352 BC) respectively.945-7IS BC). II.1. 'The city of Basta: an interim report'. 1. 'The cult and nome of the goddess Bat'.. but in later periods copper or bronze razors were used. E. E. She was regarded not only as the daughter of the sungod but also <1S the more protective aspect of the mother-goddess. ParI oj'a granite /empl/! gatcmay }. like other lioness-goddesses. None the less. Despite the low statu!! apparently attached to facial hair in life. BMMA 17/1 (1958).l6. 1''lle cal ill tlncient Egypt (London.l.1re widely shown on mummy masks of the First Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom. The iconography of Bat was almost completely absorbed inw the cult of the more important cow-goddess llATHOR by the Middle Kingdom. C.111 expedition abroad. 28-39. except when in mourning or about to depart on . FISClIER.. for instance.2890 BC) at Saqqara. she would have been linked with the five epagomenal days in the Egyptian CALEND:\R. B3. . where it was associated with I'A~ BEDDIXG and sectional construction.87+-8S0 }je. 26 (111. z. usually represented by a cow's head with curling horns. Bastet was represented as a woman with the head of a lioness. In her earliest known form.E. perhaps because.]ARCE 2 (1963). it covered at the site in 1906 (now in the Egyptian Museum. officials and rulers of I-he Old Kingdom. i\tiloU:K. EL-KoRDY.BASTA. J. LMe Period or PJQ!wwir period. The city reached its peak when its rulers eslablished the 22nd Dynasty (c.'\IIS (. Her name was commonly inscribed on blue glazed ceremonial 'New Year' flasks. that full beards were favoured in the formative stages of Egyptian history. 1957). she was widely portrayed as a cilt-headed woman. showing Osurkon /llIud KlIrol11a. allu:rfieJ Ihere are.\·I[R palette (d 100 Be).u:III.four small /. Although the capital during this period was probably still T!\. C. 1891). L. This functional and decorative technique was regularly employed for the walls of MAST:\BA tombs as well as the enclosure walls of Egyptian temples. NAVll. It is clear from certain PredYllastic figurines.\tET. 7-24. c. Scon. Bubasris must have taken on greater significance as the home city of the new kings of Egypt.md to some extent MEMPHIS).661--30 /le.>\RIY-\ OASIS beard Facial hair in Egypt has an uneven history. often carrying a SISTRU~1 (<1 form of rattle) and somctimes accompanied by a small group of festival of Bastet is described by HerodotBs. Cairo). as well as decorating existing walls with a number of new relief" and constructing a small temple to Atum outside the main precincts.7511I. 1993). NARGE 128 (198~). The earliest shaving implements appear to have been sharp stonl: blades. The work of the village barber is known from Egyptian literal ure as well as from tomb scenes such as that of Userher (·rrS6) at Thebes. whose name means 'she of the bast [ointment jar]'. as well as from the figures depicted on (he ~·\R\I"ER palette. Bat Goddess of the se\·enth Upper Egyptian nome. The . Tell Basla (Cairo. later spreading throughout the rest of the population. G. H. II.1-7. Osorkon 11 (874-850 BC) added a new court to the main temple in celebration of his SED FESTIVAL. however. VA '\ Sla~E!' III. such as that of a 12th-Dynasty individual named Ankhef. 'The cal of Bastet'. shaving had become fashionable among the nobility.

Kw->. bees were the leal'S of the sun-god RA. whose closely plaited beards were (like lapis lazuli'. Bee-keepers are represented on a relief of Nyuserra (2H5-242I BC) from his sun temple at ABU (jURAB.e.:. and battles against them are recorded as carly as the time of Un as (2375-2345 Be).\T army across the wastes of Sinai in their successful invasion of Egypt in 525 BC. are also kno"'n to ha"e dispat<:hed military expeditions ag-ainst them.'\L:RA. When RA. and the Egyptians were no exception. as under Sety I (1294--1279 Be). as early as the 5th Dynasty. 198-1).83-4. The plan of the original temple at Bchhcit elHagar has proved difficult to reconstruct owing to damage caused by quarrying and seismic activity. Organized smtes have alwi.. 'Scenes apicoles dans I'ancicnne Egypte'. 19/1). E. working along the desert fringes. They knew the bedouin as Shasu. GI\'EO:\". since thcy were always on the move and ready to Oee into the desert where a com'cntional army was not able to folIo\\'. Such beards were usuaJly wider toward the bottom (i. R. they had to be dri"cn fi'om the weUs along the Egyptian desert rOllte across Sinai. S. Egypt's borders. During the reign of the 12th-Dynasty pharaoh Amenemhal I or (1985-1955 lie) thcy threatened the TCRQCOISE mines at Scrabit cl-Khadim in the SI1\AI. The military might of the New Kingdom did not deter the bedouin. Occasionally. The religious significance of the bee also extended to an association with the goddess l\'EI'J'II .W/W'1I111 book o/II/Ir. with near-fatal consequences. although defeated.\:\"E. LECI . The site is dominated by the remains of a large granite temple of ISIS) the importance of which is indicated by the fact that onc of its relief blocks was later incorporated into the temple of Isis in Rome. this was not a long-term solution to the problem. Iseum) 'lcmple town situated in the northern central area of the Nile Delta. Their knowledgc of the desert and their ability to move easily across difficult terrain made them valuable military scouts. it was the bedouin who guided Cambyscs and his PERSI:\:. 1992). the pharaoh lI"ould express his status as a living god by wearing a 'false beard' secured by cord.. STROUHAL. \Vas nl!sm-bil: 'He of the scdge and the bee'. but the earliest evidence for the domesticated camel in the Nile valley dates LO the ninth century BC. 1968).0 /1(:) at Beil el-Hidi. Lifi: ill 1l11c. 1986). although their skills were not generally plied on behalf or the Egyptians.].ell1 Egypt (Cambridge.:. 51 .'·IESES II (1279-1213 Be) captured two bedouin before his battle with the IU'ITITES at ct"UESII they are said ro have misled him into believing that" his enemy was still distant.e. J. and that honc. The pyrtl1l1id builden ofa11riel1l Egypt (London. beer set' l\LeOIlOUC BE\rRo\GES and Begrawiya see MEROE FOOD Behbeit el-Hagar (anc. however. and although they were eventually expelled they continued to be a source of difficulty. Similarly. This record indicates that apiculture. CR. The bedouin's way of life made them almost impossible to eradicate. LeJ bMouim 51105011 des t!ommcuts (.\RA. tuftlike beards. although hives made of mud and other material were probably also used. E. and his successors. Beekeeping is also shown in the 18th-Dynasty tomb of Rekhmira ('1''1'100). 1992). or hel]lm-sh ('sand dwellers'). where their descendants still live today. 'L'abeille et Ie miel dans l'Egyptc pharaoniquc" Traite de biologic de I'llbcille (WIlS III direction dc RbllJl Clwm:il1) " (Paris. The British . whose temple at" Sais was known as perlJil Crhc housc of the bee'). was well organized by the middle of the Old Kingdom. MEDICINE). [11 the First intermediate Period they im'aded parts of the Delta.. Accordingly. who depicted them on the causeway of his funerary complex at SAQQ.BEDOUIN BEER \Vas considered to be a divine attribute of the gods. as in the case of the triad Statues of :\lEi'\l. thus employing its nar-ural anti-bacterial properties (see G. The 26thDynas~' tomb of Pabasa (rr279) at Thcbe'S clearly shows bees kept in pottefY hives. in the moulding of wax images for metal casting by the lost-wax method) as well as in the 'nrnishing' of pigments. 155-57. as on the gold mask of Tumnkhamun. T'hey were undoubtedly of great importance in prm'iding honey. QUIRKE and A.71-2. from the I st Dynast)' on wards. Deceased non-royal individuals arc often shown with short.1Ys felt threatened by nomadic peoples. showing the king tramp/iug bt'douiu. they remained a sufficient threat for defences to be built around the site in the time of ""c'lE\II-IT 11J (1855-1808 BC). bee According to one Egyptian myth. which was used both as the principal sweetener in the Egyptian diet and as a base for medicinal unguent'. Honey from wild bees was gathered by professional collectors. Painted cast (jIll painted r"'iii in the templi' of RameseJ JI (c. which is conventionally translated as 'king of Upper and Lower Egypt' (see K]i\"GSIIIP and ROrAI. ~'. 0.\\'10. the warrior pharaohs Thutmose III and Amenhotep II. The llrchlleology ofbeekeepillg (London. the end furthest away from the chin). 84--93. As before.. which flourished in the 30th Dynasty (380-343 BC) and the Ptolemaic periud (332-30 Be). at the end the second millennium Be. The ancient bedouin of the Arabian peninsula arc thought to havc been responsible for domesticating the single-humped Arabian CAM I':!."/II Eg)'pt (London. SPE~CER. and Thurmose II (1492-1479 Be) \\'as obliged to campaign against them well beyond./2. R. already attcstcd as early as the Neolithic period. ·nTULr\R"). One of the king's names. The Egyptians also collected beeswax for use in metallurgy (i..3+---13. bedouin Nomadic pastoralist's of northern and central Arabia and Egypt's Eastern Desert.' was probably being distributed over large distances. It was usuaUy after their death that kings "'ere por- trayed wearing the divine Osirid form of beard with upturned end. known as biZ)lJ1). 51-60. As well as trading honey it is likely that many communities throughout Egypt kept their own bee colonies. Per-hebyt.gJlpliem (Leiden.JNES9 (1950)." 'T.

\1.\rc somc small lOmbs elating back to the 6th DYI1ast~ (2345-2181 Be).\ Lmglcs (a British n~l\'al officer) compiled a phm un "hieh they marked the original positions of the items of statuary. G.I'JlflSO'. r'·_·W-\]{l>-IVIf. RICK". -to-2. The reliefs were copied by the German Egyptologist Glinrhcr Roeder in 1907. which W~IS to become one of the first miljor Egyptian antiquities in t.llabsha. It sen'ed as the earliest prototype for the OllEI. \IR. \I0L '\'11 and perhaps also thc petrified semen of the sun-god R. The gn'l/t Bt:/::'fJlli (T . A number of the II thand 12th-Dynasty tombs arc decor::lted with wal1-p<1intin~s of funerary rituals and d:lil~ life. LSII). Moss. \BSII. In 1816 he heg. H. battle scenes and rows of wrestlers. includin~ painted coffins and models. The reliefs include depictiolls of the siege of a Syrian city. B.IS that symbolized the 1'1H\lE\. 11.\S\\t\ '\! f IIUII IJA. the SIJEOS \KTE\lIDOS. and hoth Icrms secm to deri\T from the . 1984). B.)67). (London) in 1821 but also through the pubLished accounts of his disco\·cries. where his attempts to seH a new type of water wheel proved unsuccessful. Tht' ohelisJ. L. Although his mcthods were somcwhat unorthouox (and occasionally unnecessarily dcstrueti\'c).. 1991).ttion of . The equipmcnt frorn these undet.fi"fJIlllhe 10/llb (llKllIlllllfhole!' III Belli Hasal/. 1957).olltlon. dating princi- pol"" to the II th and 12th DYLlilSlics benben stone Sacrcd stone at J IEI. Belzoni was horn in Padua and ::It first pursued a career as i1 circus strong man. StHlllg mllll fgyptlllagist (London. There is also an extensive Ceml. F W"'... TOjlo/!.red large quantities of Eg~vtian antiquities for European collectors nnd museu illS.. forms an important corpus with regard to the funerary beliefs of the 1\lidtllc Kingdom. c. leading him 10 pursue ::l1110re lucrative trade in thc exc. BI:I.193H).walor. ranging from the lOmb of King sE·n I at western Thebes to thc Greco-Roman cily of Berenice on thc Red Sea CO::lsl. ~9-57.l colossal st.)0 tJ{:. but dicd of dysentery at Benin in December 1823. and its cult appears to date back at \cast as f~lr as the 1st Dynasty. lhe gilded C~lp-stonc placed at the \Try top of cach pyramid or obelisk was known ::lS a IH:lf!J('llcl. 38lJ-+04.>:'I"I':. not only through his exhibition ill the Egyptian Hall ill Piccadilly Beit el-Wali Rock-cut temple on the west bank of the Nile in Lower ~ubji1..raphim! bi"li()gmp/~l' 1\ (Oxford. Soon ~lfrcr\\'ards. 0. llF ' \L-IURD . Copy (~((f stt:/Ie. inilially helping him with the transportation of the 'young J\lemnon'. The sire was nor comprehensively studied until the work of a joint expedition of the Uniycrsity of Chicago and the Swiss Institute in Cairo during thl' 19605.ZCl\J. Giovanni (I 77H-1 823) lt~llian .. s/wlPing men pirkil/gjigs 1l..Hh'cnturer.l\. I Jc did much to encouragc European enthusiasm for Egyptian antiquities.lst bank of the ::\ile some 23 km north of el~l\linya. Va Fe!stempel'l:()1f Brit cI-ll'iJli (Cliro. who procu.: de Rehbeif £'1I/aguf"{/ (llamburg:.llIlt. There arc thirty-nine rockem rombs at Beni Ilasan.\UD. (the Egyptian phoenix). the temples ~H Beir c1-\Vali •mel ncnrby .. 1820). L. the C<lpturc of OJ Nubian vllbg·c ilnd the bringing of Nubian tribute into the presellce of the king. the British Consul-Gencral in Egypt. he W::lS neyertheless an important pioneer in Egyptology. 5. archaeological st~lfl(hrds." wcre numerous. travelling throughout Europe. The scm of a barber.\) ES..meicnt mOnU111enLs. ·'he lJeit cl-lVali /emple 1!(Rl/lIIcsses II (Chicago.·.. Oricll/alia 39 (1970). 11.. 'F./9.:orated tombs.. 196H).ttion and IT. tombs amI t'x(a1.. R. ROt:m:K. At the sOllthern end of the site is a New Kingdom rock-<:ut Icmple.ll gO\'crnors of the 'oryx' nome (province). . 'Bnbn: mytholog'ieal lind linguistir.I'\I.19).~ A. judged by modern or 52 . .Huc of Rameses ll.[ery of l\liddle Kingdom shaft tombs cxcav~Hcd by John Garstang in the C. Hi\BACI II.~. c.l-Atl1m (sec ATUd). BeniHasan Necropolis located on thc e. G.5 km fo the norrh. painted plaster C. Narra/in' oftht' operalil/lIS 1/11d facut di. J R. he and James .). In the Great Temple al '\IlL' SL\IBEI. for instance.'ord J1lehi'1l meaning 'to rise'.:s o/EgYPI (Cairo.lrly 1900s. S.. In recognition of these connections.he collection thc I3ritish Muscu111.\I).l'r(/lJfid.. b(/Imons sit in thc Il't't' ('aling Ihcji-uit.'m.l11sport.\ wcre moyed to New K. although casts were made hy Robert llay jJl the 1820s.lll-""nd E.:t·:KS. Efllh' 12th f). C.. PORTER and R. including depictions of Asiatic rradcrs.. BAINES. explorer and exc. tell/pIt'S.. he went to Egypt... he embarked on an expedition to find the source of the Niger. The original stone at Hcliopolis was believed to have been the poinl al which rhe rays of the rising sun lirst feH.lI1 to work for Henry Salt. LF7. which was dedicated to Amun-Ril and founded in the reign of K \ \IESES II (1279-1213 BC).Ists of which arc displayed in the collection of the British !\[useum (sec illustrations accompanying the entries on HEDOLl\ and \ ICEROY OF .llcl.. Lc fell/pI.'fi/iolls ill Egypt (//1(/ Nubia (London. in order lO SolVC them from the rising "~llers of Lake Nasser (see . Belzoni. There arc strong links between the beu!Jelf and the (2125-1795 Ile) although there . 10.IS . Ilis discovcric. ::lnd possibly e\-en the 1'\ R \.tar present till temple de Bchbcit 10 (I9~9). Arter more uun eight years of e:\ploration along the Nile yalley. In 181 .: notes'. pan of.\'(()j·ail's withilltlft: p.IOI'OI .\1. G..\J. c1-H"g:lr'.BEIT EL-WALI BENl HAS. se\'cral of Ihcm belonging to the pro\Cinci.

(I:AIO-l7/) TEXTS The be"u-bird appears in the I'YRA. L.5)'. '. ed. HART. the OBI'J. Rolf Krauss suggests [hat the bird Symbolized the planet Venus from at least the beginning of the New Kingdom. 1030-9. in which C. KR. 16-17.:\uss. Its name prohably derived from the Egyptian verb mebcJ/ ('to rise') and it was the prototype for the Greek phoenix.I' ill the 'Bes Chambers' a! SfllJfJa{"a. G.1280 Be.I'~ll. although some scholars hare suggested lhal he is simply wearing a lion-skin cape rather than possessing these physici. although a number of the other aspects of the phoenix legend are quite distinct. hmycycr. Was usually accompanied by a depiction of the beut/-bird.n all analysis of the desire to be transformed (like th~ hel/ll-bird' ill Papyrus Anastasi I. the 'spell for bcing transform cd into a helw-bird'. 1972).266-7.l characteristics.VIllJ as a yellow wagtail serving as a manifestation of (he Hcliopolitan sun-god Atum. 1990). BOURRIAU . 1. t'gYPli((/IIl~J'fhs(London. S. e.-L. as thc benbcfl in the mansion of the /Jellll in Hcliopolis' Later. He is often shown with the cars amI mane of <1 lion. Otto <lnd W.)III{/. KAKosr.rikoll der/i"g. E. 'lvI-mjtt hnw (pAnastasi 14. in Utterance 600. Chapter 83 of the Book of the Dead. benu-bird The sacred I-leliopolitan bird. NEW1WRRY ct aI.veil be an erymological connection between the two birds' names. the desire for transformation might refer to the changing phases of Vellus.l'P/ologie Ir. 1893-1900). Pharaohs (lnd mortals (Cambridge. the llJ\ (physical manifestation) of both Ra and OSIRIS. ~tnd ccnainJy there arc distinct similarities in their respective links with the sun and rcbinh. VAI\.DE:'\" BROEK. i1/ Ihe bOt/Dill register Nakhl I~~ "homn adoring !/ie bCllu-bird. Bfu! Hassall.lse 53 . it is sometimes represented wearing the aIel' crown (sec CROWNS). Westendorf (Wiesh<lden. J. Heick. E. 1-1. D.\\ and itA.JSJ-. 711t: II~)'/h (~(/ht: phuenix a((()rdillg If) d{/ssic(// (/1/(1 erl"'~l! chris/iull Iradilioll (Leiden. R. BSEG 12 (1988).and the cult of the sun-gods ATU.I'.BENU-BIRD BES P. . BICKEL and J. Atum is said to have 'riscn up. 9-24. Because of its connections with Osiris.85-109. Le. (/~'A20865) reh4jigllrcs (~rBes alfd a llaked lIJOII1{lI/ or goddc. 1988). 28 OIl.. W.!\tlissions cpigraphiqucs du fonds de l'EgyptOlogie de Genevc all SpcosAnemidos'. (R!:'!'ROnUCIW COUR1'ESl'OF 1'1-11:' BELO\\' Pain!ed c/UFFITIIINSTl1'UTE) Detail of/lte Book (~rllte Dead of/lte saib{' Naklt/. in thc 13001( or TilE DEAD. Bes Dwarf god with grotesque mask-like facial features and a protruding tOnguc. He is commonly portrayed with a plumed headdress and carrying musical instruments. 1982).JE. knives or Pain/ed lIJoodelijigllre {~rBcs Oil alolll. the belill-bird was represcnted as a kind of grey heron (Ardell I:i/l('fa) with a long straight beak and a two-feathercd crest.rJ 79 (1993). CIIAPI'AZ.i·jlol1JeI: NClIJ Kingdom. 4 vols (London. closely associated with the BE!\"BEN STO~E. Ear~)l1911i D. R. 'Phonix'. There may .

but this is probably only an indication that the two compositions belong to a common literar) heritnge or perhaps even derive from a common Near Eastern original. including the liondemons known from the Middle Kingdom town of Kahun (see EL-LAIIUN and !\'iASKS) and the shaft tombs behind the RAMESSEUM. The emergence of iVfoses and the events of the Exodus arc thought to have taken place in the early Ramesside period. \vhich is usually assumed to have taken place during the Egyptian New Kingdom (1550-1069 nc. REDFORD. 2nd cd. Another major problem is posed by the possibility that those events that \vere of great significance to the people of Tsrael cannot be assumed to have had the same importance for the ancient" Egyptians. J.rover~ sy_ There are a number of critical problems with the attempt to correlate Biblical narratives with the Pharaonic teXt"l1al and archaeological record. Biblical connections 'I'he links between ancient Egypt and the events described in the Old Testament arc generally problemat. although even then there is the danger of encountering anachronisms introduced at the time that the texts were written down. Nubia: corridor IV Africo. both of which contain many literary and historical details that Sllg~ gest at least a knowledge of ancienr Egypt on the part of the writers. Given that most of the events described in the Bible had taken placc many centuries prior to the time that they were wrir~ ten down. 1970). H.2800-2300 BC). settlement patterns and cemetery locations between the A and C Groups and. is said to have requested military aid from the Egyptian Prince Tefnakht of SAIS. and was sometimes portrayed in the form of the demon Aha strangling two serpents with his bare hands. 1988). 1(84). as well as on some of the walls of the workmen's villages at EL-AM:\Rl\:A and OEIR EL-MEDIN:\. It is therefore possible that the assemblages usually designated "B Group' might actually have resulted from the relative impoverishment of Lower Nubia or the depredations of early Egyptian imperialism. Akhenaten's Hyml/ 10 lhe Alen has been shown to ha\'(: strong similarities with Psalm 104. therefore there is no guarantee of any independent Egyptian record having been made (let alone having survived among the small fraction of preserved texts). Despite his apparent ferocity. and it has been suggested that pilgrims probably spent the night there in the hope of experiencing healing DREA. sacked Jerusalem and the tcmple of Solomon in 925 BC Hosea. Attempts have Occasionally been made to equate . at least as Reisner envisaged it. much Ewourcd as a protector of the family. BOURRIAU.KATA.nd II/orlals (Cambridge. by cont.92-111. he was a beneficent deity. A great deal of research has therefore tended to concentrate on attempting to date the Biblical stories by means of chance historical clues incorporated in the narratives. [-lis image is therefore found on all of the MAMMISI (birrh~hollses) associated with Late Period temples. cd. Davies (London.2686-2494 Be). 132-5. 18-52. S. such as Asenet Cbelonging to the goddess Neith').w ruel iOI1 of /Imel/ell/ipel SOil of Krwakhi and the Biblical book of Proverbs. 'The origin of' the Bes image'. 8ES 2 (1980). or indeed his cult of the Aten. leading up to the beginning of the cGROUP phase. particularly in terms of the politici:ll events involving conl1ict \vith the ASSYRIANS and PERSIM. while several of the personal names of characters appear to be authentically Egyptian Late Period forms. J\ilud-plaster figures of Bes and a naked goddess lined their walls. which arc of a similar date. The same reason is usually givcn for the very close parallels that have been observed between a Late Period wisdom text known as the [. V. No texts from his reign make any mention of lVloses or the children of Israel. Egypi filld Ihe Bible (Philadelphia. Kush 14 (1966). although certain details tie in much more with the political situation of the Saitc period (664-525 Be)..he local Nubian population might even have temporarily abandoned the region.. First. H. The 22nd-Dynasty ruler Sheshonq [ (945-924 BC). the chronological gap between the two might actually have been no more than three centuries roughly contemporary with the Egyptian 3rd and 4th Dynasties (c. although the name ISR1\I~L first Occurs on the so-calIco Israel Stele of the time of his successor. J\iloNTET. eventually rChirning in the form of the C Group. 39-56. \v. G. (The Nubian B-group'. there are more verifi~ able references to Egypt in the Bible. as well as being carved On such everyday objects as cosmetic items. SMITH. Bcs was considered to be capable of warding of[ snakes from the house. S. EgyPI {Iud /lFiw. MERENI'TAI-I.IIENATEl\-. it is usually also difficult to assign events to particular historical periods with any precision. 54 . Because of the vagueness of the Biblical chronological fi'amcwork. A stll{(J! (~(Ihe Bib/jml story of Joseph (Ceuesis 37-50) (Leidcn. E ROi\'IANo.ic and beset. 1910).MS. Most interest has focused on the stories of Joseph and J\lfoses. The sexual aspect of the god seems to have becomc particularly prominent during the Ptolemaic period.:. when (incubation' or Bes chambers were built' at Si\CLQI\Rl\. and associated with sexuality and childbirth. J. second. that remotely resemble the Biblical account of l\1oses. 110-13. the BibliGll Shishak. with RA.69-124. but there are no other aspects of this pharaoh's life.ji. it is extremely difficult to know when they arc factual historical acCounts and when they are purely allegorical or rhetorical in nature. perhaps indicating rooms connected with women and childbirth. on the grounds that the latter introduced a peculiarly Egyptian form of monotheism. equivalent to the Late Bronze Age in the Levant). From the Third Intermediate Period (1069-747 Be) onwards.B GROUP BIBLICAL CONNECTIONS the SA hieroglyph representing protection.'S. in his attempt to fend off the Assyrians in the late eighth century nCo P. there appears to have been great continuity in material culture. (London and Princeton. The name Bes is used to describe a number of similar deities and demons. REISNER. In the Roman period he was perhaps adopted as a military god since he was often portrayed in the costume of a legionary brandishing a sword.Moses with the pharaoh l\J. although it has been suggested by some scholars that the writers of Proverbs may even have been influenced by a text of the IllSlrlIoio1f (~r AlIlclIcl/Iipel itself. 'The development of the A~Group "culture" in northern Lower Nubia'. Along with TAWERET he was one of the most popular deities represented in amulets. It has been suggested that there might have been an enforced reversion to pastoralism or t. the ruler of Samaria. D. Y ADM!S. B. 19(8). However. these literary and linguistic connections with Egypt are of little help in terms of dating the story. SMITIJ.S II (1279-1213 BC) being considered the most likely to have been the pharaoh featuring in the narrative. B Group (B Horizon) Nmv-discredited cultural term invented by George Reisner to describe the final stages of the Neolithic A GROllI' in NLlIl'A (c. 1991). W. Arclweu/flgiwl survey (~(NlIbi(l: repor. Two principal reasons have emerged for rejecting the existence of the B Group. perhaps in connection with the renewal of their sexual pow~ ers. 'The episode in the story ofJoseph involving his attempted seduction by Potiphar's wife is closely paralleled in an Egyptian story known as the 7h1e oIllIe Two Brothers.\1ES1·.r/907-8 [(Cairo. D. PlwrllollJ a. His image was painted on a frieze in a room of Amcnhotep w's palace at tVIAI.

Die E1/tmicklul1g und Bedeutung des kuboideu StatuelllJlPUS (Hildeshicm. 1980). E. over half of which were derived directly from the earlier PYRAA'IID TEXTS or COFFIN Tfxrs. In practice thc greatest cxtent of the Egyptian empire . from which the modern name Aswan derivcs. while a version of Chapter 6 was inscribed on SIIAOTI figures so that they might perfnrm eorvee work on behalf of the deceased. E. Chapter 125. such as: '0 Far Strider who came block statue Type of sculpture introduced in the Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 BC).382-429. HOR1\'UNG. W.[ period (Tel Aviv. Egypt's independence during periods of relativc weakness. A. ALDRED. R. 1985). A history ofthe Bejatribes ofthe Sudtw. Andrews (London. shows the last judgement of the deceased before OSIR'S and the forty-two 'judges' representing aspects of MAAT ('divine order'). which became particularly popular during the Late Period (747-332 BC).achicved during the reign of One of the practical advantages of the block statue. c. although cerrain small extracts were inscribed on AA·tULETS. SCHULZ. 1971). GROLL (ed. The border with Lower Nubia was traditionally marked by the town of Elephantine (. The texts could be written in the HiEROGLYPHIC. IIIERATIC or DEMOTIC scripts. where archaeology discloses only onc culture.vo hundred spells (or 'chapters'). These geographical barriers were sufficient to protect the known as the 'spell for nol letting the deceased's heart create opposition against him in the realm of the dead' and was commonly inscribed on HEART scanlbs. for example. The lash. boats see SI-UPS AND Book of the Dead BOATS birth-house see MAMMIS.o. and. The Book of the Dead was often simply placed in the coffin.' A. this place name rcflects the more commercial blue crown see CROWNS !\ND ROYAL REGALIA Dead. Chapter 301\. D.'SWAN). the Mediterranean coast and the Nile CATARAcrs south of Aswan.). 1984). Although vignettes always optimistically depict a successful outcome. The situation is summarized by W. Sillaiarchaeological lIlld "istoriml relotiomhips ill the BibliCi. numerous copies have survived. 16 cm. the Ballana. F.95-113. Since) however. naturally defended by its island location and surrounded by a thick defensive wall. The traditional borders of Egypt comprised the Western Desert. the section of the Book of the Dead that was most commonly illustrated by a vignette. It was introduced at the end of the Second Intermediate Period and consisted of about t. while giving the relevant 'neg-ative confession'. In some examples the effect is almost to reduce forth from Heliopolis. Pharaollic Egypl. from Thebes. but there is no definite archaeological evidence to connect either of these peoples with the royal cemetery at B:\LLANi\ dating to the same period. The judgement took the form of the weighing of the heart of the deceased against the feather of Maat. 2nd ed. (London. Such 'netherworld' texts as the Book of the Dead were usually inscribed on papyri. Ctulllllli lIm/Israel. C..he Bible lI"d Chris/jim. whether field boundary or national border. the Blemmyes and the Nobatac.pyrus inscribed mith mililary dispatches scm/rom the Egyptian garrison tit Sem1UI. The arl (/11(/ af(:hilcctllrl! of ancient EgJlpt. W. STEVENSON SMITll. idea illtO image. 181-2. I have not robbed. which appears to describe a fixed and unchanging universal limit./y Uerusalem. (London and Princ'Cton. moreover. frontiers and limits The Egyptians used two principal terms to describe a border or Limit: lash. The ancient Egyptian BOOA' olthe C. board-games see G""'CS borders. Y. B. Nubia: corridor 10 A]nca. the political boundaries of Egypt were theoretically infinite. . I have not been rapacious. was the fact that it provided a very large surface area for inscriptions relating to the funerary cult and the identification of the individual concerned. rev. was therefore essentially an clastic frontier. 133-5. 1992). REDFORD. Nosey who came forth from Hermopolis. might fail the test. Simpson (Harmondsworth. Since most wealthy individuals wcrc provided with Books of the Dead. in thc Pharaonic period. The original name of the settlement around the first cataract was Swenet ('trade'). 2nd cd. which refers to a real geographical limit set by people or deities. ed. Later on. both history and archaeology leave us in ignorance of the fate of the earlier Meroitic population and culturc. (EA10752 S"UT 3) Egyptians from outside interference for many centuries. Israel. New Kingdom texts suggest that the origin of the style was the desire to represcnt an individual in the form of a guardian seated in the gateway of a temple. RA""EY (ed. FAULKNER. II. W. Adams: 'We may . I have done no falsehood.l1 lUiciel1/ times (princeton./84/ BC. Thutmos III in the 18th Dynasty .~TH-HOUSE BORDERS. Both the Blemmyes and the Nobatae (another group of nomads in Lower 1 ubia) are mentioned in Classical texts. 55 .. 1981). representing private individuals in a very compressed squatting position. with the knees drawn up to the chin.' The desired outcomc of these negative confessions was that the deceased was declared 'true of voice' and introduced into Pari ala hieratic pa. ADAMS. these natural borders helped to maintain a the human body to a schematic block-like shape. Y. FRONTIERS AND LIMITS S. Middle Kingdom. Egyptia""!"t (London. Bredeck (New York. but it could also be rolled up and inserted into a statuette of Sokar-Osiris or even incorporated into the mummy bandaging. and djer. K. 1987). 1985). the Sinai Desert. trans. the pharaoh's the realm of the deceased. An important element of the ritual was the calling of each judge by name. Blemmyes Nomads active in Lower NUBIA during the X- Egyptological term used to refer to the funerary text known to the Egyptians as the 'spell for coming forth by day'. epitomize lhe riddle of post-Meroitic Nubia by observing that historians tell us of two peoples. Egypt. R. the demon AMMUT ('the devourer of the dead') was usually shown awaiting those who titulary described him as the ruler of the entire known world. was such rulers as Senusret I (1965-1920 DC) and Thutmose III (1479-1425 BC) could state an intention to 'extend the borders' (stlVesekh IlIsltW) of Egypt. 1992).). while in others some of the modelling of the limbs is still retained. ontlte !Jorder miLh Upper Nubia. The Blemmyes are usually identified as the ancestors of the modern Beja peuple. PAUL. 1992). EgYPI. 0 Fire-embracer who came forth from Kherarha. Group phase (LAD 350-700). in times of strength and prosperity.was marked by the Euphrates in the northeast and the KURGUS boundary stele (between the fourth and fifth Nile cataracts) in the south.

Tell elFarama (Pelusium). 3~ . probably built principally in the 12th Dynasty. SCI IOSKE . so the Buehis . S. located on the west bank of the Nile. thc APIS. After death.despite an attempt by the Old Kingdom ruler Merema (2287-2278 BC) to cut a canal all trade goods had to be transported along the bank. 1934). : ~ i~ 56 . At about the same time a fortress seems to have been established in the Wadi Natl·un. D. B. 'Frontier or border? The northeast Delta in Middle Kingdom texts'. Like the Apis bulls.c::. near the second cataract. known as the "Valls of the Prince (il/dllv !lek"). The archaeology. The New Kingdom fortresses and garrisons of the Delta borders . 'Demarcating the boundaries: an inrerpremrion of a scene in the tomb of Mahu.~rnl :' " blockA: residence of the fort commander :::: ::=:~~==::. trans. between Aswan and the region of Philac. Burials were made from the lime of Keetanebo . 41-51.~. consisting of a white body and blaek race. E. and the Roman writer Maerobius (c. 'Die Grcnzen \'on Zeit und Raum bei den Agyptern'. and about 260 km upstream from 50 100 150m 1 the 'barbiean' 2 residential areas 3 temple 4 the two rivetside gales 5 quays ~~~!5~~!n_~E. R. as in the case of the Saqqara Scrapeum.\PEUM). each Buchis was chosen on the basis of special markings. bread see FOOD and OFFERING UIlLE bronze see COPPER AND Bubastis see TELL BRO. e'--'\marna" BES9 (1987-8).'ed to be the principal ph)'si- cal manifestation (or BA) of R. od. each successive Buchis bull was interred in a great underground catacomb known as the Bucheum (sec SER. which was known as the 'Va)' or Horus during the Middle Kingdom. Because the first cati. 1992). northwestern and southern borders of Egypt were more or less fortified from the l\1iddle Kingdom onwards. but.rZE BASTA Buchis Sacred bull of MONTU at Hermonthis (Armant) south of Luxor.. A.were intended to prevent any recurrencc of the HYKSOS invnsion.l\1YERS. the mothers of the bulls were also interred.' and OSIRIS. Buhen Egyptian site in Lower Nubia.261-74.Archirjiir Orientjorsdlllug 17 (195+-5)..·idenee fur the use of the sile from the 18th Dynasty onwards. The Buchellm (London. FRONTIERS AND LIMITS BUHEi\ nature of the southern border."as belie. and their catacomb at AI'manr is known as the Baqariyyah. BRUNNER.BORDERS. Tell el-Heir (Migdol) and Tell el-Maskhuta (Pithom) in the east . As in the case of the Apis. was protected by a huge mud-brick wall. L. Bredeck (New York. This crucial land route to the cast of the ~iile. defending the \yestern Ddta from the Libyans.:=~ " " " .AD -tOO) described the bulls as changing colour with every hour and haying hair which grew back\yards. almost 7. The northeastern. From at least the reign of Amcncmhat I (1985-1955 Be) the eastern Delta was protected by a sITing of fortresses. the sire was much plundered. S. but burials dating to that time or earlier remain undiscm·cred.including e1Alamein and Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham in the west and Tell Abu Safa (Sile). Emen·. HORNU~(j. . 73-92. Nibbi (Oxford. NloNO and 0. These were intended to prc\'ent im'asion along the coastal route from thc Levant. geogl"llp/~JI flUrl his/OI]' oftIl/' Deltfl. E. 141~5. O'CoNXOR. QUIRKE.lract represented an obstacle to shipping . Just as his northern counterpart. The Buehis bulls' sarcophagi were of sandstone rather them granite.. . H. which was discO\"cred in 1927 by Robert Nlond and W.md H.(360-343 BC) until lhe reign of Dioeletian (AD 28+-305). was considcred to be the di\-ine incarnation of the god Ptah. . representing opportunities for profitable economic activities rather than the threat of invasion. There is e. The western and castern Delta dcfences were well maintained throughout the second millennium BC. idea into ill/age.5 km long. 1989).

it was the wild bull which waS often depicted as the prey of the king in hunting scenes.J. 2 yols (London. and among the objects found from the royal tombs of this period . llelck. the 'Lady of Byblos" a local form of t\STAJ~TE. Beitri(e.ur Ccschidl1t' da StierI'IIIIt. A.:~. ]ubeiJ) Ancient coast. The importance of Byblos lay in it'i function as a port. COFFl. 2 \'ols (London. 1986). 'rhe epithet 'mighty bull' or 'bull of Horus' was held by several pharaohs of I he New Kingdom (1550-1069 BC). 'Stierbmpf'.\XL\I. 16-17.S01\."'I'\.gypli(J1/ art (London.5. were sOllletirnes used in Predynastic and Early Dynastic architecture.-Jegypt(·" (l1erlin.~·I· Of<' Tilli 1:'(. rectangular blocks of housing separated by six major streets. eel. P. and other goods.'J). E. l. lI'esrendorf(\\iesbaden.\:\R. The 12th-Dynasty settlement consisted of sc\'cral regular. 'The site had several religious buildings including the so-called 'Obelisk Temple" dediCilted to lla'ahlt Gcbal.!EK'\K~' BELIEFS. 1974). thus transforming it into a military garrison controlling the area to the north of the second Kile cataract.. as the fromier of Egypt was pushed further south than the fourth Nile cataract. and from around the time of Egypt's unific. Similarly.~I-IEN BURIAL as the 5th Dynastv (2494--2. 1\lt\STI\BI\. and the cult of the _\I_'\'E\'IS hull of F-1c1iopolis was specifically encouraged by Akhenaten (1352-1336 Ilc) because of its solar associations. An imprcssi'"c array of mud-brick fortifications waS constructed around the settlement in the 12th Dynasty (1985-1795 Be). The remains were first studied in 1819 but mainly excavated between 1957 and 1964. B.A during the 1930s and 19405 than those employed by archaeologists working on settlement sites elsewherc in the world during the 19605.145 BC) and in Lhe PYR \ \IID TE\TS. E.. 57 bull Symbol of strength. \r.-here clay heads furnished with real bulls' horns wcre set in front of the palace-fac.O kill north of Beirut. \VesLCndorf (Wiesbaden. .\RS.al tOWl1.-l'i\KA 'J. BEIIRE'\.s. LexiI'()11 d('l" . cd. \~'. .e ::.Ire sevcral bearing the names of Amenemhat tit (1855-1808 tic) and II (1808-1799 Ilc) of the 12t h Dvnast'-. The subsequent New Kingdom town was undoubtedly much more of a civilian scttlcmCIU. R('(u!illg t.'\.e. R.\.11 Buhen was founded in the Old Kingdom (2686-2181 Ilc) as a centre for Egyptian mining expeditions. 1992).1 connection which may have helped establish Astarte as a goddess in Egypt. R. 14-16. A~\AIt!\ \~'est and SESEBI-SAL:I. thus considerably reducing Buhen's military importance.tbout .ebanon. 'fhe Kile INL. ehony and gold while local imitations llsed other materials and were exccuted in a less accomplished style.-illage. Eg\ptian cui LUre of the j\ liddlc Kingdom had an especially strong innuencc on the court of its l\liddle Bronze Age rulers. '\. . . E. t\lU~'I\IIFIC:t\'I'IOl\" and PYlUMIDS Viem of/he J211t-DYl/asty mmparls al Buhell. and the excavations wefe hampered by considerable post-depositional disturbance tEF1" rhe 5trarigraphy of the Pharaonic remains the site. known in the Akkadi.IS the kll /llII/~r('buli of his mother'). Bulls were also associated wilh solar imagery. The heads of hulls. (RHPROIJUCL'f) COUNTI:·. Emery at Buhen were closer to those of the CXGIyators of EL-/\j\\ARNA.""1' respecti\-cly. \v.\~. howcver. A number of bulls enjoyed special smrus as S.. CAWNOS.! was sometimes depicted as a bull. 56-7. One of the obelisks erected to her was inscribed with hieroglyphs.J'Ptolf}gi(' \ I. Otto and W. Egyptian objects included i\"or~-.. 'l'his connection between fertility. WII. and Egyplian objects arc found there from as early as the 2nd Dyn<1S1 y (2890-2686 BC). nombly the \PIS and BLClIIS bulls which were interred in catacombs at S.\.'J Byblos (Gubla. However.\IEIt). IIELC!\:.If Bulo see TELL 1::J.'\..U . Heick.1l1 language as Gubla.'\.1'1''1' EXPLORATION SOC/fn) Aswan. IlL. The famous cedars of I. The Nelli Killgdo1/l I"/IIpll's (~r Bulll:lI. the 'bull of R!\' is mentioned as early or PIau oflhe lvlit/dle Killgt/oll1jorlress lil Buheu. There wcre. passed through it. Duo and \V. E. \V. .ra'OIl tin Agypwlogie \ I. The methods employed by W. 'Stiergottcr'. perhaps representing sacrificed animals. B.\C:RED . burial SCi' Ct\NOI'IC J. ill . Emery's approach was necessarily ad hot: owing to the imminence of the Site's noDding by Lake Nasser (see AS\VAi'\' IJIGII D:\M). dating to lhe reign of the Ist-Dyn'lsty ruler DJET. The king might also be described . masculinity and fertilily which. . She was identified \\"ith I-IATIJOR. also strong links with the mOOn and the conslelhuion of Ursa t\ lajor. and the royal mother might herself take the form of a C:O\\. 1938).ade-style walls of the lOmb. 1979).lS !\ND St\RCOI'I IAGl. has a long history extending from the :\eolithic to the Late Bronze Age when the population appears to ha\·c mm·ed to a nearby site now covcred by a modern . seems to have been regarded as an embodiment of royal might (see ]. from the earliesl hisrorical times.\IEln et al. O"ITO. since both were strongly associated with the renewal of fertility. Tllejurlrt:ss oIBullell. as in ~ lasmb'l 350~ at Saqqara. the site of which is locatcd in modern Lebanon (formerly C. water and bulls probably also explains the occasional representations of the primordial lake NUN with the head of a bull. 1986). The settlement . .DATtO.\QQ:\R \ and \R\\ \'\. The principal seltiemcl1t.ttion it was a source of timber.

which was about six hours longer. Third I"Ier111ediate Period 10 Late Period. when the concept of the 'leap year' was introduced in the Alexandrian c.:t:11anCf. last king of the New Kingdom. something which would previously have been unthinkable.BYBLOS CALENDAR In the New Kingdom the city features prominently in the M1AR. a discrepancy gradually developed between the lunar YC"Jr of 365 days and the real solar year. Each season consisted of four thirty-day momhs. SALI. 1968). compared with the modern European calendar of unequal months. and it was briefly revived in France at the time of the Revolution. II.. 1980). and each month comprised three ten-day weeks.'M LETrERS. JIDEJIAN. after 600 /Je. which was the date of the heliaeal rising of the dog star Sirius (see :\STROr\o~n' A!\'D j\STROLOGY and SOPDET). Fouilles de Byblos (Paris. 11. but the division of the hOllr into sixty minutes was 1928). even with the addition of five intercalary 'epagomenar days (corresponding to the birthdays of the deities Osiris. (/:/JI047-1. later forming the basis for the Julian and Gregorian calendars. palwps inspired by foreign vessel shapes. but was later regained. papyrus (lnd pigment. sought military assistance from the Egyptian pharaoh.tlendar. Isis. measured with NILOMETERS. This Iype of 'New Year flask' appears in the Late Period. A sarcophagus found with objects of Rameses II (1279-1213 Be) and showing Egyptian innucoee is important for its later (tenth century DC) inscription for AhinuTI. !vt. However.-F. The Egyptian year was considered to begin on 19 July (according to the later Julian calendar). by the time of Rameses Xl (1099-1069 Ile). This effectively meant that the civil year and the genuine seasonal year wcre synchronized only once every 1-4-60 years.£S. LEvr Flask for maier[rom Ihe rising Nile al the beginning oftheflood. c calendar The earliest Egyptian calendars were based on lunar observations combined with the annual cycle of the Nile INUNDATION. 58 . since its ruler. 110 earlier than the 7th celltury Be.\ND. MONTET. (F-A2465/. Horus. Seth and Nephthys). Rihaddi. On this occasion Byblos fell into enemy hands. J3 cm. 1939-58). ]. On this basis the Egyptians divided the year into twelve months and three seasons: akhel (the inundation itself). peret (spring time. Surviving textual accounts of the observation of this event form the linchpin of the traditional chronology of Egypt. usually translated as 'moment' and having no definite length. The smallest unit of time recognized in ancient Egypt \Vas the ai. N. DRAW. when the crops began to emerge) and she1111J (harvest time). SHEET 2) La necropole 'k' de Byblos (Paris. 24 e11/. The division of the day and night into twelve hours each appears to have been initiated by the Egyptians. Lale Period. probably bv simple analogy with the twelve months of the year. DUN. BJiblos etl'EgYPle. green jaiellCf ofullknown pr01. 2 vols (Paris. llyblos through fhe ages (Beirut. The import. a local ruler. However.mce of Byblos itself gradually declined in favour of the neighbouring ports of Tyre and Sidon. marking the start ofthe New l'ear. This was an admirably simple system. Egypt had become so weak and impoverished that it no longer commanded the respect of cities such as Byblos. and the Report of JIVeIl(l1111111l tells how an Egyptian official was shabbily treated by a high-handed prince of Byblos. P. although this does not seem to hare been regarded as a fatal naw until the Ptolemaic period."" /JY CUR/STINE I1ARRAn) OELOW Calendar ill which the lUCk)! ami tmlucklf days oflhe year are marked il1 black and red respectivehl. which is in early alphabetic characters. introduced by the Babylonians.

The priests often calculated the dates of these according to the lunar month of about 29. 192-213. specific clements of the viscera were placed under the protection of four anthropomorphic genii known as the SONS OF HORUS. HEALY. although It mas tlsedjOr trtlnsportil1g commodities 110t Qn6' ill Canna" but IhroughoUllhe Aegean. 'The camel in the Nile valley: new radiocarbon accelerator dates from Q>sr Ibrim'. P. _. 167-8.g.57-71. 'Camels" Evolution o. Canaanites The region that was occupied by the C. he is said to have been aided by camel-using BEDOUIN from the Arabian desert. the Egyptians. When the ASSYRIAN king Esarhaddon invaded Egypt in 671 BC.!. and the name was therefore chosen by early Egyptologists to refer to any iar with a stopper in the form of a human head. Mason (London. The Cllle"dllrs (~r (lucienl Egypt (Chicago. 11. canopic jars Stone and ceramic vessels used for the burial of the viscera removed during . F. Bredeck Canaan. It may have been the need to develop sophisticated record-keeping or to deal with traders of many nationalities which led to the development here of an alphabetic script around 1700 BC.101-8. The 'Canopus of Osiris' image appeared on some Roman coins from the Alexandrian mint. A Z). cd. although loml copies mere made el~e1Phere. Cambyses see PERSIA. D. R. after which they were displaced by the Israelites and Philistines from the south and PI-IOE1"IClA~S from the north. but the earliest evidence for the domestication of the single-humped species in the Near East dates to the ninth century Ile. Mn. Several of their cities. Sothis-lI1ltl Jl1omltlll/eI1 (Hildesheim.5 days rather than according to the civil calendar. By the late Middle Kingdom a set of canopic equipment could comprise two chests (a stone---earved outer container and a wooden inner one) holding four jars furnished with (New York. cd. Canaan acted as a kind of 'clearing house' for the trade not only of itself but of its neighhours. REDFORD. R. and at this time the canopic bundles were sometimes also decorated with human-faced masks.0MBYSES CANOPIC JARS As well as the civil calendar there were also separate religious calendars consisting of FESTIVALS and ceremonies associated with particular deities and temples (e. MEGIDDO and Ugarit.lTH and the east) guarded the stomach. A.\1UMMIFlCATIOi\". L. The Canaanites were a Semitic people related to the llYKSOS.khet). During the First Intermediate Period (2181-2055 BC) the jars began to be provided with stoppers in the form of human heads. 197-257. Zur DO~lJeSlik{{tioll des K{{m~/s (Hanover./dea into image. in the light of the discovery of a camcPs mandible and a pellet of camel dung at the Lower Nubian site of Q!\SR IBRL\1. who had invaded Egypt in the Second Intermediate Period. and the falcon-headed Qebehsenuef (linked with SERKET and the west) looked after the intestines. They occupied this part of the Levant during the Late Bronze Age from around 2000 to 1200 BC. as the appearance of alphabetic inscriptions at Serabit el-Khadim in SlJ~AI.JNES 29 (1970). so the term 'Canaanite amphora' is cOllVellti0l1a/~)1 applied to this type ofBronze Age poLter]! vessel. since it was essential that many of them shuuld coincide with pardcular phases of the agricultural or astronomical cycle. The practice of preserving eviscerated organs during mummification is first attested in the burial of HHEPIIERES. the ape-headed Hapy (linked with NEPHTHYS and the north) cared for the lungs. Amorius lind CtI1ltuwites (Oxford. Just tiS the territorial ami ethnic C01111otatiom oftIlt: name 'Canaan' are somemhat ambiguous. This territory essentially consisted of a number of citystates. the jackal-headed Duamutef (linked with Nf. camel PERSIANS Although the single-humped Arabian camel (Came/us dromedllrius. E. R. Eastem Medilerrtwefw fwd Egypt. Reading fIJe past (London. CmltltUl ami Israel ill ancie1lt times (Princeton. mother of the 4thDynasty ruler Khufu (2589-2566 BC). The term 'canopic' derives from the misconception that they were connected with [he human-headed jars which were worshipped as personifications of the god OSIRIS by the inhabitants of the ancient Egyptian port of Gmopus (named after the Homeric character who was Menelaus' pilot). The name reJleclslhefliCtlhat the fOrm c1ear()/ origiuated in Syria-Palestine. 1992). D. KRAuss. ROWLEY-CoNWY. '5mhic dates and calendar "adjustments" " RdE9(1952). remained important under their new masters. it was very much a late arrival among the domesticated animals of the 1 ilc valley. on the northern coast of the Levant. 217-20. the Feast of Opet at Thebes. It used to be thought that domesticated camels did not appear in the Nile valley until the Ptolemaic pcriod~ but the earliest date is now considered to be the late ninth cenrury Be. Remains of the double-humped Bactrian camel have been found at sites such as Shahr-i Sokhta in eastern Iran dating to the third millennium He. Her viscera were stored in a travertine ('Egyptian alabaster') chest divided into four compartments. I. KE:. PARKER. while the fourth held a dry organic material. Peoples ofOItl Testament times. 'The beginning of the lunar month in ancient Egypr'. trans. 1984). Lachish. at GIZA. In later burials. celebrated in the second month of a. 1973). HORi'lUKG. Wiseman (Oxford. and the states of !\'lESOPOTAMIA. L. 245-8. 1966). _.JEA 74 (1988). 1992). The human-headed Imsety (linked with tSIS and the south) protected the liver. A. 1985). 1981). 29-52. 58. 1990). The two finds were excavated during the 1980s from separate archaeological contexts dating to the carly Napatan period. including UYBLOS. MASON. E.fdomeSlicated al1imals. and much of C1naanite culture is renected in that of the Phoenicians.]. These arc known as the Proto-Sinaitic or Proto-Canaanite scripts (sec BmLOs). K. the HITTITES. B. ]. three of which contained the remains of her organs in NATRON. more accurately described as a dromedary) figures prominently in the modern popular image of Egypt. and was much influenced by them.pi(fll 'Canaanite amphora' from el-Amama. I. Kca-ILER .\'YO:"l. Egypl. 1950). such as Byblos. who were themselves protected by tutelary deities guarding the four cardinal points. ilnd both dates were later confirmed by radiocarbon analysis.LARD. 'The early alphabet'.naanite people in the Middle and Late Bronze Ages (part of the area described by the ancient Egyptians as Retenu) roughly corresponds to modern Lebanon.8 em. 'The Canaanites'. roughly the same date 59 .

The inclusion of bound c. SapIa flj'E:f~'yPI [(NcwYork.'esscl containing rhe body of a mummified hawk at Saqqara.ltucs of capti"es in each pyramitl complex. perh../250 oe.and 6rhDynasty pyramid complexes of Ranefcrcf. 1994). <:. shomiug IhreejiJ1"l'/~!!.we been found in the 5th.'cs were used in cursing rituals. If/ondcll dlllllll~)I t'tflwpirjars/nr tIll II. IlrlJi ({/llopi (Milan. A. G.\IUi'\. Ulilermdlllllgell zU.s of the names of Nubian princes accompanied by insults. Throughollt the Pharaonic and GrecoRoman periods the depiction of the bound captive continued to be a popular theme of temple and palace decoration. DOLZ 'Nl. Djedkara-Isesi.:cs.~t!. nas. and hy the 19th Dynasty these had completely replaced the human-headed type. 1990).lraOJ1lC period. Oxford). a depicLion of an E:lrl~' Dynaslic royal ritual shows three hound captives running bet"'een nyO sets of three cairns (pcrh<. L0sClIEI{. sometimes accompanied by models of the rcle\-ant genii. schematic representations of bound capti. RI'JS. as in the CaSC of fi. C.lptives in the decoration of aspens of the fittings and furniture of royal palaces particularly contexts where the king mighr Dflllil oflhi' relieldl'Cortiliol1 nlllhe bllse oia slallll' ol Rall1l'. The French '1rchaeologist Jean-Philippe Lauer has suggcsted thal there may have been as many as a hundred S(. The earliest example of the archetypal scene of the pharaoh striking a bound captive was found on the painted wall of Tomb 100 at H1ERAKO:"\lPOLIS in lhc late fourth millennium Be.\RJ\tER 60 . Later in lhe Ph. header/jar 3 J Oil.lsed lO be used by the Roman pcriod. and one of thesc suniycd lhrough its reusc as a . but empty or dummy canopic jars were occasionally still included in rich burials. Canopic equipment is found in Ptolemaic tombs but had l:e. Cairo) inscribed with hieratic EXJ-:C1~-\TIO\ TEXTS comprising list.4gYPfischell Kaliopellkiisll'II (Hildcshcim. l\yuserra.CAPTIVES CAPTIVES Ashmolean j\luseum. as in the case of the c.-iscera were usual- palette and many other decorated royal artt'[lels of the late Prcdynastic and Early Dynastic periods fcature scenes of the king inflicting humiliation on foreign captives. TIl£' calwpic CiJllI/}//It!lIf o/Ihe l'illgs nI EgYPI (London. II·nEs. /11llhlllll'd perso/l.I':H.'c early 12th-Dynasty alabaster C<11)ti"e figures (now in the Egyptian i\tlusCUIll. On the Narmer macehead (now in the Limestone and wooden statues of foreign caplircs h. (. Pep~ I and Pcpy II at Saqqara and ABCSIR. [n the Third Intermediale Period (1069-7-4-] Be) mummified . (um. 1982). DOI)SON.l1 raplh.lps placed in lincs along either side of the C./000 /JC.~ 11111 Luoror /l'11Iple. on the pylons of Egyptian tcmples of the Greco--Roman period. Cauopies (Cairo. 21st DYlfasty. The "'. captives The motif of the bound foreign capti"e is one of the most fre<lucnt ilnd potent dements in ancient" Egyplian iconography. 1953). and the same (smiting scene' was still being depictcd thousands of years later.III) ly rerurncd to the body. V·l.mopie cquipmcIH of TL'T\~K'I\. hut from the later 18[h Dynasty onwards it became more common fill' the stoppers to take I he form of the characteristic heads of each of the four genii.1Useway linking the "alley and mortuary temples. 191h DYlIlIJly. The lasr known royal canopic jars belonged to \PRIES (589-570 Be). /9S62-5) oll/llJl/{/1/- stoppers in the form of human heads. Teti. C. 321}-6. c. 1967). 13. In the carly 18th Dynast)' the stoppers were still hUl11<1n-hC<ldcd.lps symbolizing Egypt's BOItOERS).

with whom he worked at EL-AMARNA in 1892.C. c.~r.ser\'ed to reinforce the pharaoh \ total suppression of foreigners and probabl~ also symbolized the dements of 'unrulc' that the gods required the king to control. T.M. his most famous achi~vement was undoubtedly the unearthing of the virtually undisturbed tomb of TUTA'\JKI-JAMUN I in November 1922. VVILKINSOi'\. In 1903 he resigned from the Egyptian Antiquities Service after a dispute with French tourists at Saqqara. G. C. T:WIDR. a task which is still incomplete. Homanl CarieI' bc. The lUlIlb of TllOlllmosis "'(London. 1987). although a few surviving examples of Old Kingdom mummies have thin layers of 61 . 61 e/fl. CARTER and P.-BAI-IIU. wild animals and foreigners in clapnets (sec HL.ILl temple de b pyramidc de Pepi ler'. it was his talent as a draughtsman that enabled Cartcr to join the Archaeological Survey of Egypt in 1891. when he was only seventeen. H5~52. 3 \'ols (London. 1992). There .Ire therefore a number of depictions in GrccoRoman temples shmying lines of gods capturing birds.'\lfI'ER . The captives' role as metaphors for the containment of the fCI)"CCS of chaos is also to be seell in the necropolis scalusccl in the Valley of the Kings. N. REEVES and J. Between 1893 and 1899 he worked as a draug'hrsman for Edouard Navillc <It DEII{ I. Ile mas a pl'illuss. RdE 21 (1969). which consists or a depiction of L\NUms surmounting nine foreign captives representing thc dangers threatening royal tombs. 190+). It was most commonly used fix making mummy Ml\SKS. H. including Gaston ~. and in 1899 he W.AlIlell. 'Lcs statuettes de prisonniers en bois d'Abousir'. nH(llYT birds were also sometimes lIsed as symbols of foreign captives :lod subject peoples. RdE 36 (1985). 18-19. Reading Egypliall (/1'1 (London. . 1923-33). LI':CL\I. G.Ji\SPERO and Flinders PETRIE. anthropoid coffins and othcr funerary items. (fA29770) I1JOllum. r-r. finally rewanling Carnarvon for his support over the preceding tifteen years. ]992). ottcn writing the names of the politics inside schemalic depictions of bound captives. 'Decouverte de statues de prisonniers . Carter.1i in New Kingdom tcmples list the foreign peoplcs and citics whom the Egyptians had conquered (or would havc liked 1"0 conquer). POSENER. Carter spent the rcmaining seventeen years of his life recording and analysing the funerary equipment from the tomb. such as painted pavements and footstools . VERNER. E. NEWBERRY.lS appointed Inspcctor Gencral of the monuments of Upper Egypt. /-I.19UO IJC. Howard Carler: Ihe palh 10 lillaukhalllllll (London) 1992).T.). cartonnage Nlatcrial consisting of layers of linen or papyrus stiffened with GESSQ (plaster) and often decorated with painr or gilding. The earliest cartonnage mummy masks date to the First Intermediate Period. I-I. R. until the offer of finance from Lord Carnarvon enabled him to return to excavation in the Valley of the Kings.55-62 . He then ~vorked for four years as a painter and dealer In antiquities. Gilded carlO/lllage 1I1l11lmql/llask {~rall l/llllallfCd mlwsc vullure headdrcss almOsl cCJ"I{fill~)1 illdi({{leS lhal .Allkh. ]MI'IES. Howard (1874--1939) Dorn in Kensington) the son of SamLlel John Carter (an animal painter). mummy cases. H. Till: lomb OJ'TlII. in which capacity he installed the first electric lights in the VALLEY OF TJ IE KL'\lGS and the temples at ABU SIMBEL. ].-p L:\UER and]./ore 'lItlaul)W1I/ulI (London.0Jl-TER. . I-Ie receivcd his training as an excavator and epigTapher from Somc of the most important Egyptologists or the late njnetccnth century. Although he discovered six roval tombs at Thebcs. Cinqjigllrcs d'cllv01llemelll (Cairo. Jl1idrlle Kingdom. HOWARD CARTONNAGE place his feel.\Tlj''. i\llany of thc relicf.

CARTOUCHE CATARACTS. ed. P. ZAS 98 (1970). literally 'the tomcat' (773-767 Be). 191h D)'IIIlS!)'. 166-8. R. as in the tomb of n'UTMOSE '" (1479-1425 BC) (Kv34). W. which may have been a diagram of the universe being encircled by the sun.rn-ox-BROCK. 23-4. From the Late Period onwards. was originally given to the royal frame by Napoleon's soldiers and savants. and both signs signified the concept of 'encircling protection' denoted by a coil of rope folded and tied at the end. D'Auria. battling with the evil serpent-god . Nile Rocky areas of rapids in the middle Nile valley. TtWLOR. mummy. From the 4th Dynasty (2613-2494 BC) onwards the line was drawn around the king's 'throne name' (prenomcn or lIesrIJ-bil) and 'birth name' (nomen or '" RIl). 1\'I1I1II111ies {lilt! magic. large numbers of sacred cats were mummified and deposired in underground galleries at such sites as Bubastis (TELL BASTA) and SPEOS ARTEMJDOS (see also SACRED ANIMALS). J\1ALEK. Readillg EgypliaN art (London. found its way inro various personal names from the Old Kingdom onwards. ARMITAGE and j. From the 12th Dynasty onwards. The carliest Egyptian remains of a cat were found in a tomb at the Predynastie site of Mostagedda. 1993). although not mentioned in the PYRAMID TEXTS. Westendorf (Wiesbaden. L. the cat was depicted on a number of Ramesside stelae found in the Theban region. The cM inlll1cienl Egypl (London. Figure o/a cal sacred 10 the goddess Baslet. including the 'Gayer-Anderson cat' in rhe collection of the British Museum. which may dare as early as the reign of PEPY " (2278-2184 BC). 185-96. The Egyptian word for 'cat' was the onomatopoeic term mim. either participating in rhe scenes of HUNTING and fowling in the marshes or seated beneath the chair of the owner. NILE plaster oyer the linen wrappings covering the facc. beovara and C. The cartouche was essentially an elongated form of the SHE" hieroglyph.. L. Cu. to be physil-alJy surrounded by the cartouehe. 1279-1213 BC. . P. which. cats were increasingly depicted in the painted decoration of private tombs. perhaps representing an earlier stage in the development of the material.. 5-16. 1980). Otto and \v. There were two indigenous feline species in ancient Egypt: the jungle cat (Felis tim us) and the African wild cat Detail oftheftrade of/he 'great temple' al Aim Simbel. Late Pen"od. H. The earliest Egyptian depiction of the cat took the form of rhree hieroglyphic symbols. Lexikol1 de. Some of the early 18th-Dynasty burial chambers in the Valley of the Kings. each representing seated <-ats. were also eartouche-shaped. KArlO"Y.47-53. and numerous bronze votive statuettes have also survived. Egyptian coffim (Princes Risborough. E.i If') because of its cartridge-like shape. iigyptologie III. 1980). ed. wearing protecliu wedjat-tye tmllllel. P. The French word carlOm:he. Journal oJArchaeological Science 8 (1981). 38 CIll. 194-5. cat Important both as a domestic pet and as a symbol of deities such as ""STET and RA (the 19reat cat of Heliopolis'). H. caused by abrupt geological changes. The symbolic protection afforded by a cartouche. There are six cataracts in the section of the Nile rhat passes through the area of ancient ubia. 610-26. (I. E. BAIrB. \J>OPIIiS. HElLK. S. J. suggesring that the Egyptians were already keeping cats as pets in the late fourth millennium Be. 'Konigsring" LexiJ:on del' Agyptologie Ill. TITUI. Otto and W. 'Karze'. STORK. near modern Asyut. The physical extension of the original shell sign into a cartouche was evidently necessitated by the increasing length of royal names. such as that of Merenptah (1213-1203 BC). Roehrig (Boston. cartouche (Egyptian slJe1ll1) Elliptical outline representing a length of knotted rope with which cerrain clements of the Egyptian ROYAl. cd. It proved invaluable to early scholars such as ]e. 1992). is graphically illustrated by the choice of this sign for the shape of some 18th-and 19th-Dynasty sarcophagi.ln-Fran~ois Champollion who were attempting to decipher the hieroglyphic script. V\T. cataracts. 'Der Konigsring als Symbol zykliseher Widerkehr'.. like his name. including the 22ndDynasty pharaoh known as Pamiu or Pimay. \\~ Heick. the former being found only in Egypt and southeastern Asia. WILKJNSON. As a result of irs connection with the sun-god.villi gold ril/gs. meaning 'gun cartridge'.. after 600 BC. 'A radiological and histological in\"es6garion inro the mummification of cats from ancient Egypt'. H. 1988).. between Aswan and Khartoum. It was in the funerary texts of the New Kingdom that the cat achieved full apotheosis: in the Amtlull/ (see FLil'\ERARY TEXTS) ir is portrayed as a demon decapitating bound CAI'TIVES and in the Li/any ofRa it appears to be a personification of the sun-god himself. thus allowing the king's (Fe/is silvestris li!JyCll). SJJ.367-70. (£A64391) 62 .ARY were surrounded. brol/ze . 'The development of cartonnage cases'. cOllSistillg o/a carlom:he cOl1taining the preuomell ofRameses If (User-A'll1l1t-Ra). 1989). These formed part of the phrase 'Lord of the Cit)' of Cats' inscribed on a stone block from EL-L1SIIT. j. in that it was presumed to indicate which groups of signs were the royal names. Westendorf (Wiesbaden.

was also a scholar. Anastasi I) provides an insight into the maintenance of chariou'y with a description of an Egyptian charioteer's visit 63 . 5-6. The characteristic hollow. 1835-47). because his brother. s/lOming two chariols. 1978). C-Croup bom! ofpolished incised ware. quarter-circle shape perhaps derives from the appearance of the tops of fronds of vegetation used in Predynastic huts.. pailller! plaster. Egyplllllr! Nllbill (London. MOlluwe1l1S de I'EgYPle et de!a. ]. who established a string of FORTRESSES between the 2nd and 3rd Nile cataracts. as well as artefacts imported from Egypt.lON. A Ramesside papyrus in the British Museum (P.\1. J. LI. furnished with an axle and a pair of four.or sixspoked wheels. /400 BC./ ClII. (EAS/230) pal archaeological characteristics included handmade black-topped pottery vessels bearing incised decoration filled with white pigment. Nubia. he was sent to the Lyceum at Grenoble at the age of eleven and had already delivered a paper on the ancient Egypti. before the emergence of mud-brick or stone archi tecture. Syriac and Chaldaean. 1822). 4 vols (Paris. The upper one is pulled !~}1tmo horses. four of which are from the tomb of TUTANKIIAMUN. along with IppoLito ROSELLJNI in 1828-9. TRIGGER. He is sometimes described as Champollion 'Ie jeune'. allowing the enemy to be bombarded by arrows from many different directions. 43 ClII. Its importance as an innovative item of mjjjtary technology was based on its use as a mobile platform for archers.lEA37 (1951).MA culture that was developing in Upper Nubia. Arabic. and their social system was essentially tribal. 1930). CHAMPOLI.wnry: the building craji (London. A long pole attached to the axle enabled the chariot to be drawn by a pair of horses. 1990)] cemeteries see rvlASTAflA and PYRMvUDS CGroup (C Horizon) Nubian cultural entity roughly synchronous with the period in Egyptian history between the Old and New Kingdoms (c. PYLONS. chantress see CUL'T SlNGERS AND TI~MPLl~ i\'IU$lC1AN$ chariot Although the origins of the horse~dra\Vn chariot have proved difficult to ascertain. Their subsistence paltern was dominated by cattle-herding. using the ROSETTA STONE (a Ptolemaic inscription consisting of the same decree written in Greek. C!ta111pollion et l'elligme egYPliC11ne (Paris. Champollion. After examining Egyptian antiquities in various European collections. Champollion lmdertook a detailed survey of Egypt. Dat:ier rtflalive ti I'a/phabet des hitirog(vphes pJumiliques (Paris.2494-1550 BC). IVl. POURPOINT.2340--/550 BC. In the early 12th Dynasty the C-Group territory in Lower Nubia was taken Over by the Egyptians. under Ihe pharaohs (London. he did not achieve a satisfactory understanding of the language until the completion of his grammar and dictionary shortly before his death from a stroke in 1832. OEi\IIOTlC and hiero~ glyphics) as his principal guide. He subsequently studied under the pioneering Egyptologist Silvestre de Sa~y at the College de France in Paris. Equipped with an excellent knowledge of Hebrew.m LANGUAGE by the time he left in 1807. 1963). [reprinted as Aucicnt Egyptiall fOllstruelioll (Iud architecture (New York. Their princi- B. Dacier of 1822 is usually regarded as the turning point in his studies. Jacques-Joseph Champollion-Figeac. 8. projecting from the tops of many Egyptian STELAE. (EA37982) F. Nubie. /81h Dynasly. 38-46. Lettre d . H. 'The decipherment of the hieroglyphs'. open-backed framework.. only cleven examples have survived. Although the chariot is often portrayed in temple and tomb decoration from the New )(jngdom (1550--1069 BC) onwards. The indigenous C-Group people of NUBIA were subjected to varying degrees of social and economic influence from their powerful northern neighbours. S. Fragmenl of11Jall-pail1lingjroJJlthe lomb-chapel of Nebalfll/1/ al ThebeJ. TAYLOR. he embarked on the task of deciphering hieroglyphs. Coptic. It consisted of a light wooden semicircular. CLARKE and R.. Jean-Fran~ois (1790--1832) French linguist and Egyptologist who \V. It. H. . 1991).-F. ALTARS or walls. Although his Leltre d M. e.0 TTLE CHANTRESS cattle see AN1MAL HUSBANDRY cavetto cornice Distinctive form of concave moulding.Fom Paras. GRIJ'FITl-I. The surviving textual and pictorial evidence suggests that the chariot (merael or merkebet) arrived in Egypt at roughly the same time as the IrYKSOS. Ancient EgVPliall mtl. e.1S responsible for the most important achievement in the history of the study of ancient Egypt: the decipherment of '"EROGLYPIIS. mhereas Ihe lomer onc appears to be dramll J~y mules. ENGELHACII. It has been suggested that one of the effects of the Egyptian occupation in the Middle Kingdom may have been to prevent the C Group from developing contacts with the more sophisticated KER. its arrival in Egypt can be fairly reliably dated to the Second Intermediate Period (1650--1550 BC). Born at Figcac.

The sidelock.AgYPlolog.SI up). there arc so-called '"absolute' chronologies. 1. but the identification of TOYS has proved mOre controversial. SCllULtI'l:\N.75-91 chronology J\llodern Egyptologists' cluonologies of ancient Egypt combine three basic appro. such as srratigraphic excavation. A. .\\/\. The situation. bntb boys and girls often wore a SIDELOCK OF YOUTII.38/lf.11 al/ciclll Egypt (London. including the famous depiction of TIIUTMOSE III being suckled by the goddess ISIS (in the form of a tree) in his tomb in the Valley of the Kings (1-:\'34). Crom. A. which was invented by I'linders PI':TRll': in 1899.e [[I. FEUCHT. KllAJ<·RA SCI' C GROUP similar purpose may have been served by the ceramic vessels depicting nursing mothers. it was also regarded as <1n essential part of the royal regalia. an elite corps of the Egyptian army in the New Kingdom. M.el// Egypt (Cambridge. (f. A number of magical spells were evidently intended to restore mother's milk. H. First.. LnT.2000-1500B. roughly comparable with the more ancient theme of the king smiting foreigners with a mace (sec I(Ji'<c."A117) nal years).f{lIlI. given the tendency for [hem to be R. E. or Lhe 'sequence dining' of artefacts. CROUWEI. 1980). 1985).(J! ill private tombs (Sydney. 'Childbirth and female figurines at DeiI' el-Medina and c1-Amarna'. the position of (royal wetnurse' was evidently a prestigious office. Both inf~lllts and child-gods such as Harpocrat'es (sec IIORUS) were reg'ulady c1epicLcd wiLh one fing'er in their mouths as a symbol of their childishness.\ST[HJI. played many GAr-dES and sports. 196-215. Heick.E. paintings and sculptures depict women suckling their babies. (/:. M. EDUCt\- TION. S. ranging from dancing and wrestling to ball games and races. 64 . is slightly confused by the fact that Lhe dates cited in the 5th-Dynasty KING LIST known as the P1\LERL 51'01\'E appear to refer to V10 the number of biennial cattle censuses (hesbe!) rather than to the number of years that the king had reigned. lite lower reg. however. which have survived from the lVliddle Kingdom (2055-1650 lJe) onwards.E:'\'Di\R). Cheops SCl' KIIUFU Chephren SCI' C Horizon children A great deal of evidence has survived from Egyptian medical and magical documents concerning precautions taken by WOMEN to ensure rapid conception. was worn until about the age of ten or 1110re.)..CHEOPS CHRONOLOGY to a repair shop in the Levantinc coastal city of Joppa.:oll del' . averaging perhaps at about five children who would actually have reached adolescence (assuming the early death of three or four offspring). From at least the Old Kingdom onwards (2686-2181 lJr. 11-29 G. 1990).'\[TI"Y). 'The emergence of the light. IKind'.f)! ill lite Eigltteel/llt DYllas/y of Egypt: (l s/lIr()' of/lte represell/al. Clwrio!s alld relaled equipmellt FOIll/lie tomb 4'TII/ ifllk/J(IIIIl1/l (Oxford. [4e.es fI a/ Abydns. R. judging from the surviving paintings and reliefs of the Pharaonic period. 1111' filll/. :\IEDICl1\'I·:. 'IN. safe pregnancy and successful childbirth. Nakedness was also particularly coml11on among children.7SSEA to (1980). therefore the number of See also ClRCU_\. \VIIM. c. R()Bl~S. cd.any surviving reliefs. 1989). M. P. Depictions of the king charging enemies in his chariot became a cOmmon feature of the exterior walls of temples as symbols of 'the containment of unrule'. A number of balls have survived. /9/h Dyllasty. It is also clear from such funerary art that children. The motif of the king being suckled by his mother Isis or 111\'1'1 [OR was an archetypal clement of Egyptian religion.1250 Be.'. especially by the women of the royal family..105-53. and l lJ\NSSEN. CLOTI liNG.eJl/aha 52 (1983).\UER and]. A. LnTt\UER and J. and attempts have been made to assess the rate of infant mortality on the basis of the ratios of adult to child burials. Wheelcd l:ehides ({lid riddell tlllilllals ill/he Allcielll Near East (Lei den and Cologne. wet~nurses were often employed. STROUIIO\I. Otto and '\. As I:\r as the elite were concerned. marking them out as pre-pubescent. The ancient Egyptians dated important poLitical and religious events not according to the number of years that had elpased since a single fixed point in history (such as the birth of Christ in the modern western calendar) but in terms of the years since the accession of each current king (rcg:- confused with religious and magical paraphernalia~ a 'doll' for instance might equally well have erotic or ritualistic signilicance (see SE:XU. 1993)..OGY and Ct\I.. Second. E. and a Killg hI/FolJI/lte lemple of Rallle:. perhaps providing some of the inspiration for the image of Madonna and Child in the Christian era.1I al/timt Egypt (London. The chariot was not only used in battle by the 1/J{f/:J!allllll. as in all ages.. +05-1+ S. Dates were therefore recorded in the following typical format: \lay three of the second month of perel in the third year of 1\1enkheperra (Thutmose [II)'.lIg IIjJ. Undoubtedly infant mortality was high. E.sla (~rwlticlt repealS the birth alld tlll"f)//e nallles r~rRa'/Jleses II. CROUWEL. Lt'xi/.lchcs. 1992). M. but families were nevertheless fairly large. I Vinllell . H. G. l\lloOREY. HA 1812(1986). Finall~\ there are 'radiometric' methods (principally radiocarbon dating and thermoluminescence). +24-37.I. based on calendrical and astronomical records obtained from ancient texts (see ASTI~01\O\n Ai\"D . essentially a tress of hail' hanging over the car. often entitling the individual to be depicted in the tomb of the royal individual whom she had nursed. Westendorf (Wiesbadcn.c. by means of which particular types of artefacts or organic remains can be assigned dates ill tenns of the measurement of radioactive decay or accumulation. horse-drawn charior in the Near East r. pa. R. PINClI .oll o/llte. Or. charimfY and the l-lyksos'.1I al/c.lI/ed lilllcs/one. 'Chariots. 1979). The graves of children have survived in varia LIS cemeteries from the Predynastic period onwards.\CISION. as well as rhe study of rhe human remains themselves. there are 'relative' dating methods.\1"115[.

one or two standard deviations). 1971). iL has been argued that circumcision waS essenrially a religious act for the Egyptians. Although Strouhal suggests tlut some ancient Egyptian texts refer to 'uncircumcised' virgins and the Roman wriL'er Strabo mentions that female circumcision was practised by the Egyptians. Moreover. The 6th-Dynasty mastaba of the vizier Ankhmahor at Saqqara contains a circumcision scene. a consensus has emerged that the two svstems arc broadh. cippus see flORUS circumcision The Greek historian Herodorus mentions that the Egyptians practised circumcision 'for cleanliness' sake. on the other hand.a circonclsion des nnciens Egypt-iens" Cel1/flurus I (1951). although the latter is unclear. 201-8.sc!1t:lI flUt! tethui~'(hell Chronologie /lllIi'gyp/ellS (Iliidesheim. and the practice may well have been inaugurated purely for reasons of hygiene. The names and relatiyc dates of the yarious rulers and m I\:\~TIES hil\-C been obtained from a number of tc.e. considering the lack of anriscptics. 295-317. It has been suggestcd. has benefited greatll' from the application of radiometric dating.Het!io'uc 12/1 (1967). never capable of pinpointing the construerion of a building or the making of an artefact to a specific year (or even a specific decade).). 0.ur IWrollom.. 6th DYlla. is uncircumcised and retains the SIDF. howcYer. In the Roman period. The ceremony itself.IS often more than one ruler or dynasty reigning simultaneously in different parts of the country. It is usually presumed lhal . which pcrhJps implies a group of indi"iduals of "arying ages. that boys would usually haye been abOlu f(Hlrteen years old when they '''ere circumciscd. whose hands were cut off. for which the Egyptian rerm was ubi. I/t1 23 (1991). B:\RDIS.Houdda/en: Stlldim ::.yhen a series of Egyptian artefacts were used as a bench-mark in order to assess the reliability of the newly invented radiocarbon dating technique.the traditional calendrical system of dating. 1.in line. 212-34.2300 (ie. . The major problcn~.tnd Ihis further illustrates that it was not compulsory for children to be circumcised at adolescence. judging from depictions of foreigners in battle scenes of the New Kingdom. KRAUSS. On the basis of this archaizing equipmenr. partly because there W. These range from the ~egJ'PliIlCll. since it was previously reliant on relative dating methods. The surviving records of observations of the heliacal rising of the dog star Sirius (SOPDET) serve both as the linchpin of the reconstruction of the Egyptian calendar and as its essential link with the chronology as a whole. A stele of the First Intermediate Period (2181-2055 Be) mentions the circumcision of 120 boys at one time.'n I hairstyle. whatever its failings.LOCK OF yor. 65 . mainly recorded on ("he walls of tombs and temples but also in the form of papni (as with the T Rll\ RQnL C\ "o~) or remote desert rock-carvings (as with the \\fadi Hammamat list). depictions of certain uncircumcised individuals in the decoration of Old Kingdom mastaba tombs suggest that rhe operation wns not universal. no physical evidence of the operation has yet been found 011 surviving female mummies. Th" Legacy ofl:. . which was found in the tomb of Amenhotep II.<ly. The 'intermediate periods' have proved to be particularly awkward. Dc/ailoIll relief/i·om the mas/aba 10mb of /lnkh".i"cllmc/~'iol1 011 ({ boy.\lanetho himself used king lists of these types as his sources. The 'traditional' absolute chronologies tend to rely on complex webs of textual references. [Q the much earlier h:. So/his-lIl1d . 'Circumcision in ancient Egypt\ flldiflllaJollJ'Jlal/or the Hist01J' o/. Knu IE:'\. K. A. is that. R. preferring to be clean rather than comely'. which waS therefore perhaps worn by young boys only in the years before circumcision. 'T.l cun'ed flint knife similar to those employed by embalmers. the Egyptians diffcrentiated belween the circumcised Semites. .gyp/.we made it possible ~ot only to place Petrie's sequence dates with~n a framework of absolute dates (however Imprecise) but also to push the chronology back into the earlier Neolithic and Palaeolithic periods. R. The mummy of a young prince aged about c!e\'cn.1. c. From at least the Late Period onwards (747-332 lie) it became compulsory for priests to be circumcised. 13-26. R. combining such elements as namcs1 dates and genealogical information into an oyerall historical framework which is more reliable in some periods than in others. waS carried our using . if the cut was as clean and rapid ns possible. chthonic Term lIsed to describe phenomena relating to the underworld and the earth. including deities such as GEB.notably Libyans"'hose penises were remoyed for the counting. Since the late 1940s. 'The chronology of ancient Eg\"pt'. 'The calendars and chronology'. Harris (Oxford. PARKER. The relationship between the calendrical and radiometric chronological systems has been relatively ambiyalent oyer the years. ed. In enumerating enemy dead. Nevertheless. which are necessarily quoted in terms of a broad band of dates (i.\KER and OSIRIS.:1 history compiled by an Egyptian priest called \I"'~ETII() in the early third century Be. such as those depicted in the mortuary temple of Ramescs III at I\lEIJI:'\ET II-\B(.ll\G LJSTS.. SHAW..a/wr fII Saqqara. and the uncircumcised foes . "irtually always has a smaller margin of error than radiocarbon dates.. ~'hOl1Jillg a priest pc/forming tin {fct ()/l. as part of the purification necessary for the performance of their temple duties.xtual sources. a ban on circumcision (from which only priests were exempt) appears to have been introduced. gi\'en the fact thal metal knives would hardly hil\'e surpnssed a newly-knapped flint in terms of sharpness.22-. On the other hand. which appcars to show bOLh Lhe cutting and the application of some sort of ointment. The prehistory of Egypt. The act of circumcision may have been performed as pan of a ceremony akin to the rites of passage in the 'age-grade systems' of many band and tribal societies.JNES 44N (1985).~ONOLOGY CIRCUMCISION 'years' in the date has to be doubled to find out the actual number of regnal years. . The radiometric techniques h. howe\'cr. 'Egyptian chronology and the lrish Oak calibration'. it may h3\'e simply been a practical expedient. [\ JO"'CKI11~E1{Jo:. The Egyptians themsclycs may have regarded circumcision as an ethnic 'identificr'. ~L E. 1985). the healing process would probably have been more likely to be successful.

making o. S. the earliest example being a linen dress/shirt from Tarkhan in Lower Egypt (c. HC)lJlL. W'IITEHORNE. killed. however. Fro/1/the south (rear) mll. '. Part of a cubit rod in the Metropolitan Museum. Ptolemy Caesarion. Ptolemy XII' (47-44 HC). Mark Antony divided various parts of the eastern Roman empire between Cleopatra and her children. she was reputedly the only Ptolemaic ruler to have learnt the Egyptian language. but Antony committed suicide and. VII (Ie/i) and her sou kJ' Julius Caesar. who she claimed had been fathered b)' Caesar. However. S. Cleopatra followed F(ssures oJ Cleopatra. which is marked with vertical lines of small holes relatiog to the twelve hours of the night. when he had become involved in the financial affairs of the Ptolemaic court. 1992). replacing him with the young Caesarion.. clothing Despite the fact that arid conditions have facilitated the survival of a number of items of clothing. Life il1 al/cient Egypt (C1mbridge. 41-54. who was the broth~ er of ~1ark Antony's Roman wifc. theoceforth treating Egypt as his own private estate. 'Ancient Egyptian water-clocks: a reappraisal'. B. Clothing can often be used as a reliable chronological guide in thaI the Egyptian Clite of most periods were generally subject to changes io fashion. Pompey fled to Egypt. Caesarian (right). 'Calcul d'un horloge it cau" OSEe 12 (1988). 1994)..320 BC). 'Cleopatra \"I] and the cults of the Ptolemaic queens" Cleopatra ~f Eg)lpt: Age oflhe Plolem. The last of these. where he was assassinated.1I ofthe temple o/Hat!wr at Dendera. (London. after which Cleopatra bore him twins. bears the words 'The hour according to the cubit: a jar(?) of copper filled with water .28-9. returning after his assassination. R.CY with her father Ptolemy XII (80-51 BC) and then with her brother Ptolemy XIII (51-·'17 BC) who ousted her from power for a time in 48 BC. 1988). STROUlI:\L. in view of the later eulogies of poets and playwrights such as Shakespeare. In 47 Be she bore a son.2800 BC). partly because Cleopatra's fleet unexpectedly withdrew from the engagement. textiles have so far not been studied in sufficient detail. womeo (and goddesses) arc usually portrayed wearing a kind of sheath-dress with broad shoulder straps. QUAEGEBEUR. including part of a basalt vessel dating to the reign of Philip Arrhidaeus (c. Oetavian then had her eldest son. 1990). The dress of courtiers of Ramesside times. legitimating this action to the Senate by informing them that he was simply installing client rulers. During the Old Kingdom. G. New York. F P. He spent the winter at Alexandria. her surviving portraits suggest that the historical Cleopatra was not especially beautiful. dwelling on their supposed licentious behaviour in Alexandria. She visited Caesar in Rome in 46 BC. Octavian pursued them both into Egypt. There are a variety of fragments of stone clepsydrae in the collection of the British Museum. copper or pottery) with a hole in the base through which the water gradually drained away. 25-34. CoUCI-IOUD. The following year Octavian defeated Mark Antony at the naval battle of Actium. Defeated by Caesar at Pharsalia in 48 BC. Cleopatra Name given to seven Ptolemaic queens of Egypt. j. (J~ 7: NICHOLSON) suit. KAMMINGA. consisting of a water-filled vessel (usually of stone. Cleopatra I'll (51-30 Be).CLEOPATRA CLOTHI~ E. AI/like Well 17/1 (1986).59-60. thus implying that the rod was dipped into a copper vessel in order to read the time as the water level fell. JouI"I/(I1 oIArcJuu:ological Scie1/ce 13 (1986).es. but b)' the New Kingdom this had clepsydra ('water clock') Device for ffiC'JSuring tinle. 'Eine agyptische Wasseruhr aus Ephesus'. He appointed himself pharaoh on 30 August. led a propaganda campaign against his brother~in-la\V and Cleopatra. Cleopatra (London. Modern studies of ancient Egyptian clothing are therefore still largely based on the srudy of wall-paintiogs. was the most illustrious. in the so-called 'Donations of Alexandria'. 31-50. Bianchi (New York. on 10 August 30 BC. whom she married. Her links with Rome were first forged through Pompey. Clearly intelligent and politically astute. and in 32 Be Rome declared war on Cleopatra. for instance. 66 . In general Egyptian clothing was very simple: men working in the fields or involved in craftwork often wore little more than a loincloth or short kilt.fTerillgs. primarily from tombs of the New Kingdom. could be extremely elaborate and the men often wore pleated kilts with unusual apronlike arrangements at the front. In 34 Be. and subsequently set about the business of using one another for their own political ends. The earliest surviving examples date to the 18th Dynasty (1550-1295 BC). Surprisingly. preferring death to the humiliation of a Roman triumph. L. Cleopatra VII first shared a COREGEJ. Tn the same year Caesar eOlered Egypt and restored Cleopatra to the throne as coregent with her second brother. J. CUn-ERELL. Cleopalra. Ptolemy Caesarion. DICKSON and]. shortly afterwards they were officially married. reliefs and sculptures. whereupon she bestowed a similar fate on her brother. cd. her various political manoeuvres then led to her being summoned to meet with lvlark Antony at Tarsus. Octavian (later Augustus). although shirt-like garments have survived from the Early Dynastic period onwards. who had been appointed as her guardian on the death of her father. HUGHFS-I-lALlLIT.

67 .rikoll dcr Agy/ojJ%gie VI. The dist. Priests. and by the reign of Amcnhotep III (1390-1352 Be) more diaphanous garments were being worn. Nu. in contrast to the Upper Egyptian vulture-goddess NEKJ-IBE·I·.avaled in 19/2fro1l/ mos/aba 2050 al Thrklutll. LEVI' Earlie:.SOb) IJELOW TlI!allkhallllll1. patron deiry of the town of Buto (TI~LL 1·:I. including children's clothing. The tomb of TUTt\.h mcJi/ringe. As the ruler of the two lands. Seventeen heavier linen tunics were provided for winter we'lf. some particularly fine examples having been excavated from the wellpreserved tomb of MAIl IERPRI in the Valley of the Kings (Kv36).Is the word 'sarcophagus' (Greek: 'flesh-cating') is used to refer only to t. cd. The limen.. G. R. JOIINSO. (GAl/tO. He and his wife each had their own individuallaundrymarks. viziers and certain other types of officials all marked their status with particular items or styles of dress.\ and ROYAL ·ITI'ULARY). Is/Dynasty.' was sometimes described as '"the great enchantress' (merel !leRam) and could be depicted as a cobra with a human head (as on the golden shrine of Tutankhamun). the cobra's protective attributes were recognized.\" The cobra goddess (!!"al1(ieul Eg)/IJ/ (London.\"(. 1986)./330 IlG. 1993). VOGELSANG-EASTWOOD. 1986). Fine clothing became one of the specialist products for which Egypt was known in Roman times. Decorated textiles became more common in the New Kingdom.JrER-ELI'ERT. (!'t:Tll/1:" AIUSUW. this is presumed to have been the function of the gilded wooden cobra found in the tomb of Tut. 1990). Westendorl'(Wiesoaden. Howard Carter believed these to be ceremonial garments.-I. c.ei (sec WADJYT). was usually depicted wearing a long robe which came up to his armpits.-MEDINA where Kha and his family lived.! surviving Egyptiflngarme1lf: linen sltirt 01" dress. In terms of decoration and shape."lJlJI/he lomb of c. 286148i) Triangular /jnenloindo/ltsj. comprising ({ plea/et/yoke and sleeves flffflclted to fI skin lIJi. some of the best examples deriving fi'om the tomb of Thuulluse IV (1400-1390 Be. HALL. but sOme of the linen contains gold thread. Kv43) and include crowned urrt.\ ND ROYAl. and it was identified as the EYE OF (v\. for instance. \Y.-\V. r. Otto and W. The excavation of the Theban tomb of the architect Kha (rr8) led to the discovery of twenty-six knee-length shirts ancl about fifty loincloths.le (nak edge 10 IIJrist) 58 em. E. I-I.A!.ankhamun. P/Ull"afJlIlt Egyptiall do/hillg (Lcidcll. including shorr triangular pieces of material that would have been worn in the context of agricultural or building work. I. reign o/Djc/. where. since both shared the same role of protecting the corpse. The colourful nature of the fabrics used in daily life (or perhaps the use of bead netting Over dresses) is illustrated by the figures of offering bearers from the tomb of Meketra (rr280) datiog to the early Middle Kingdom. cobra Type of snake that served as the sacred image of WAOJYT. while two items described as 'tablecloths' were among Kha's wife's clothes.~THING COBRA evolved into a type of dress with only one strap.he stone aliter container.inction made between these two itcms of Egyptian funerary equipment is theref()re essentially an artificial one. while the scm-priest was usually shown wearing a leopard-skin.\IKl-!t\MUN (Kv62) contained a large selection of textiles. Even before its identification with the king. and it is known that there were professional launderers attached to the workmen's village at JJEIR EI.906-11. coffins and sarcophagi The term 'coffin' is usually applied to the rectangular or anthropoid container in which the Egyptians placed the mummified boely. but mOre recently it has been sllg~ gcsted that they may havc been lIsed as vessel covers.. S. the king included the cobra (iarel) and the vulture among his titles and insignia (see C[~OWNS . but 'were still not common. The vizier. Pairs of cobras also guarded the gates that divided the individual hours of the underworld in the Book (~r Gales (see FUNERARY TEXTS). who came to represent Lower Egypt. c.'ARl\ 'IN) in the Delta. /81h PJ'/WSZ)'. FISC. invariably encasing one or more coffins. and one kilt was made up of colourful beadwork. Egyp/ian lex/iles (Princes Risborough. A few loincloths made of leather rather than linen have also survived. REGALf.2980 fie. sometimes shown protecting his solar disc by spitting fire and venol11. <Uto'. Heick. So far linlc of his wardrobe has been scientifically examined. I~!"s/cf"/.

'fhe cache of mummies of high priests of Amun <lI DEIR EL-U'\I lR] has also yielded a large number of private cofiins of the 21st Dyn<lst~ (1069-945 BC).. 2lsI DYlfflSZJI. During the Late Period exlT<\cts from the BOOI-: OF TIlE DL\D werc sometimes also inscribed inside the coffin. rislii coffins of the 17th and early J8th Dynasty were once thought to depict the wings of the goddess ISIS. The earliest burials in Egypt contain no coffins and are naturally desiccated by the hot sand. 'rhe principal feawre of most of the new scenes depicted on coffins was the Osirian and solar mytholog·y surrounding the concept of rcbirth (sec OSIRIS and RA). apparent1v serving as substitute bodies lest the original be destroyed.\IUt'\'II\IlF1CATION. Late Period coffins were also characterized by archaism. II. Decorated collins becamc still more important in the First fntcrmediate Period (2181~2055 Be). From these developed the vaulted house-shaped coffins that remained in lise into the 4th Dynasty (26l3-2494 lie)... as well as to view the rising SUIl. In the Third Intermediate Period (1069747 [Ie). becoming cstablished practice by the 26th Dynasty. usually consisting of sets of two or three (including an inner case with pedestal. The earliest coffins were baskets or simple plank constructions in which the body was placed in . /. papyri and stelae became the main vehicles for funerary scenes that had previollsly been carved and painted on the walls of tomb chapels. Rectangular coflins were effectively rcplaced by anthropoid types in the lRth Dynasty.1. when many tombs contained little mural decoration (sec 13E. Anthropoid coffins first appc<lred in the 12tb Dynasty (1985-1795 Be). thc voyage or the SOL\R BARK and parts of the LittlllY (~r RlI.there was often " reprcsel1ta~ tion of Nut. Among the new scenes intro_ duced in the decoration of coffins and On funerary papyri was the depiction of the separation of the earth-god Geb from the skygoddess NUT. perhaps because the increasingly common practice of e. In the Old and Nliddk Kingdoms.:'\i ew Kingdom). The feathered. coffins. it was evidently believed thal the deceased could therefore look out of the coffin to sce his or her offerings and the world from which he Or she had passed. literally providing a 'house' for the KA. In the 25th Dynasty <\ new repertoire of cof. but are now considered by some scholars to refer to the n:\ bird. known as the COF]T\' TE\TS. and by the rvliddle Kingdom (2055-1650 Ilc) they often incorporated revised extracts of the PYRAMID TE:\TS. The excavation of the 21st.I Ilcxed position.IOOO fJe. This change reflects the increased identificarion of the afterlife with OSIRIS.NI HASAN). fin types. beneath the lid .83 III. was introduced.'\1{ began 1"0 be portrayed on the coffin floor.COFFINS AND SARCOPHAGI COFFINS AND SARCOPHA~.'isceratioTl (sec CA"mPIC JARS) nude such an arrangement more suitable. The religious purpose of the coffin was to ensure the well-being of the dl:ccascd in the afterlife.1l and lIIl!11l/l~JI o/al/ lIlI/WllIed Tlteball pricsless. '\lith the New Kingdom (1550-1069 IIC). It lVas also from the end of the New Kingdom onwards that the interiors of coffins began to be decorated again. but some of their decorative clements were rerained. By the end of the Old Kingdom (2181 BC) food offerings were being painted on the inside of cottins as an extra means of pnwiding sustenance for the deceased in the event of the tomb chapel being destroyed or neglected.in the 22nd Dyni1sl~ (945-715 Be) . inyolving the rcPail/led moot/ell C(~!l. an intermediate anthropoid case and a 'fourposter' or anthropoid outer coffin). rather than the sun-god R!\ (sec Flji\!o:R}\R\ TEXTS). The separation of the corpse from the surrounding sand by the lise of a coffin or sarcophagus ironically led to the deterioration of the body. At around this time the Egyptians began to bury the corpse in an extended position.especiall~. including the judgcment of the deceased bcJore Osiris and the journey into the underworld. embracing her husband Osiris. perhaps stimulating developments in . c. while the 'goddess of the \ycst' (HKrHoR) or the [)JI·:n 1'11.! coffins and sarcophagi drew on roughly the same iconographic and styListic repertoire. a pair or eyes was often painted on the side or the coffin that liKed east when itwas placed in the tomb. ("·/-1879/-2) 68 . this form of coffin became morc popular and thc shape becamc identified with Osiris himsclf~ his BEARD and crossed arms somerjmes being added.and 22ndDynasty royal tombs at TANIS has proyided a number of examples or the royal coffins of the period (althollg·h the sarcophagi were sometimes rC-lIsed from the . It waS thus essential that coffins themselves should incorporate the basic elements of the tomb.

JI lIlId (Ol!ct'plfllll dt'rt.wated burials dating from c. particularly the 11th and 12th Dynasties Tcrm referring to (2055-1795 Be).LDtS. SI'E'\C1:1{. Both the Pyr. Coffin Texts . Man\' or the Coffin Texts were derivcd from the 1'\ ]{·\\\ID TEXTS. c.1n earthquakc damaged rhe nonhern staLUc. 'Coflins in human shape: ~l history of anthropoid sarcophagi'.:\BO at first speculated. whil:h was designed to preycnr the deceased from being judgcd unfit to enter the kingdom of Osiris . 1988).. when they typically ha\'c disproportionatel" large heads and wigs. 1-1.1 thousand spells. I-l. During the Old Kingdom the afterlife had been the prerogali\ c of (he king. R.S2S to 350 Be. (£. Death ill (II/rim! F. SOIl1C- J. 'ZUf D.\5":S . They have titles such as the sc!t:'explanatory '~ot to rot and not to do work in the kingdom of the dead'. 1988). the goddess of the dawn. NIWINSt.. selections from wh ich were inscribed on coffins during the Middle Kingdom.. The Greek writer STR. Bibliolhem Orimlli/ia-rz (1985). 2 hI Dyuasty (o. Th is latter \·iew became increasingly common from the time of the Coffin 'Jcxts onwards. pai1lutl mwc!. causing it to producc a characteristic whistling sound each morning. This mcant that eYCr\'onc could have access to the afterlife.fQFFIN TEXTS COLOSSI OF MEMNON introduction of c'lrlicr styles of coffin deeOl'arion. J rols (\Varminster.6/11.lmid Text. A.I group of O\Tr . A. 1993).m1lIfte Co/lin 'Iexts.""'·:R. suggesting thaI the figure was Ihe Homeric character . such as the proyision of the eye panel..\9+-508. of rhe Ncw Kingdom.lre located . 1989). can'ed from quartzite sandstone.md so condcmned to oblivion.lic period many mummies were pro\"ided with canonnagc \1. N.rls. which . L 0(1'00.It the eastern end uf thc silc of his much-plundered mortuary temple in wCS«:rTl Thebes. In 27 Be. fixed on to the body by strips of linen. \VII.:!./98. .tticrung lind Hcrkunft der :I!ragyprischcn Siirgc'. although rhe best Lh. There arc comparatiycly few exc. A.52--1.\\:\N.md plaques. TAYLOR.lFE. Tht illlantl! t!('mmlioll oj'lhe mjlill t~rGf{{f. SlI. who in death was identified with OSIRIS and transformed into a god. 1988).112.flinsji"u1I1 nll'hi'S (Mainz.::I. mighr pass do" n into the underworld of Osiris. F\LI. \VII. .l sequence of oftcn-obscure spells clnTd (In the internal walls of rhe Old Kingdom pyramids.. hoping for inclusion in his funerary cult so that they Loo mighl be gr~1I1ted some 'form of aftcrlife.\TIZ·\TIO\l OF TIl~~ . LAPP.. bur more coffLns have slIrYi"cd frol11 the succeeding phase (30th Dynast)' and ear"· Ptolemaic period). Wilhout'hcing associated directly with the royal culL These new aspirations of the deceased arc set out in a collection of spells painted in cursiyc hierogl\']Jhs inside l"he wooden corrin..eiden. For Lhis reason Old J. The Coffin 'Texts were intcnded to provide a guarantee of survival in the art-crworld and ~ol11e of them are the ancestors of spells found In the New Kingdom 1l00J-: OF TilE IlEI\IJ. Cln/sls (~rlije: {/ JllIl~)1 (~(lhe /Jlp%gy {lml r0l1apllliI1 del'c/opwell! oIIl/itftlle J. G. with the collapse of ~hc Old Kingdom camc grcaLer self-reliance ~lnd with it a proccss which is somctimcs described lw Egyptologists as thc DE\\OCR.) HC. i1/Jtribttl milh rXIrt1(ISj.1-2.\I'TERJ.j'mlll Dl'ird-limi/ll. However. The [gyp!ia/l CoHill Tc. and perhaps created somc flaw in thc stonc. e. although the precise reason remains uncertain_ Ancient Greek visitors knew the statue as Lhc '\'OCil1 Mcmnon'.-179.gyP! (1Iarll1tlnds\\'{)rrh. A. setting the scene for the funerary helic'!.s and the Coffin TexIs present more than one \-crsion of the destination of the deceased: they mig-ht traYe:1 the sl.Memnon. and 'Spell for not dying a second death'.lch of the figures is flanked by a rcprescnt<1tion of TIY.\II·:.. H Ii? 16/+ (1990).lI'iously ascribed to the effect of' the brecze or thc expansion of the Slone.lopmelll !d'/l1itltlle Kingdo/ll s!fuu/ard class O!l!i1lS (Lcidcn..y with thc sun-god IU or. singing 1'0 his mother Eos.·iugt/ul/1 suwdllrd rltm ro}]im (T .:.El\IS. C!Jests (~rld(': {/ SII/{~)I flllI/e Iypoll//!. E:!{)lpliall CI!llills (Aylesbury.\1I0TI·:I 1 III (1390-1]52 Be). ahernal-i\c1~. J.I.1308-10) Colossi of Memnon 'I\\'() colossal scated sratues of \.. 1.f..ingdolll courticrs sought hurial close to the king. 1973-8). 2+t--9. Nl\nNs}. 1982). During the early Proiem.lt they could hope for Was a continuation of lheir carthh status. ~)lp(lllJgic del' 5/ti'lgc /llId Sargl'fllllIl/cl'II (llcidclbcrg.BER.o. H. 69 . This has been \'. 121ft PJ/lUlJly.

On thc most universal level.COLOSSI OF MEMNON COLUMN Tlu: Colossi of/'rlemuoll 011 lite J1J(sl bauk (1/ Tlll'bl's tlrf: n:pn:seu/tll.trds the top.<\i\ et aI. 207-20. D. and this unusual form W. (P.LWCIIOViO.\I. forming an essential part of the cosmulogical nature of Egyptian temples.lpiral were carved in the form of four basic noral types: P\PYRUS. But the srone pillars and columns in Egyptian religious and funerary buildings served symbolic as weB as functional purposes.::)illg .lR.:\C1.'alley temple) . that the sound might have been crcated by Egyptians standing nearby. 'The Egyptian Memnon"Jl:. as decorative supports for the roofs and upper colossus. R.ll from the Aswan quarries to Saqqara.\IESSEU~' as the J\1cmnoniul11. II.'Wl>li\d·:R. STECI. palm and 'composite'.lUseway of L"'HS (2375-23~5 Be).'c been e\'entually convinced of irs supernatural origins.-j ?\kmnon: new slants'. The lIorthern sla/ut (right) is thtll J. KOZI..E:\L\l and L.I·:. 'The northern colossus of storeys. Fluted 'proto-Doric' columns were first carved in the entrance to the 12th-Dynast) tombs of Khnumhotep (Blt3) and Amenemhat (BIl2) at BEN1 HASI\'\i.-c rendered it dumb.·1Uwm to tludell! Creel' visitors tiS tlte 'weill 1\1e1ll1l01l'. EgypI S tll1. KI. KI.1re depicted in the prOl:ess of being transported by bo.'lft and C<. The e~lrliest stone columns were engaged papyrus.\. P.91-9. [11 the Kolosse'. the area of western Thebes itself became known as i\rlcmnonia. ArclweomellJ' 26/2 (198-1).l.m ElBt\ll!?.~. granite palm columns (some examples of which ha\C survi\'cd in Unas' . "rhe sh. where the columns arc made {Q appear more elegant by tapering them LOw. freestanding columns of many different stones were being used in the mortuary and valley temples of pyramid complexes. and the R·\.lS used again in the north colonnade ()f Hatshcpsut's chapel of Anubis at Dr. A.tJ 47 (1961). A. 138-9. I-I.·UK -10 (198-1). The term 1\1cmnoniu111 was even applied to the Osircion at . In the relief decoration the c:. such as Old Kingdom mortuary chapels. and in doing so seems to ha. branches and logs.HlII: AmenhoJcp HI tIIlll his nJl1rltl (Bloomington. LOTUS. BNY. BO".OFF third century the Roman emperor Scptirnius Sever us (In 193-21 J) repaired the damaged column Like much of Egyptian religious architecture. and B.'Iwnos. 'T'hcsc nan1es were stiLI fashion:'lblc in the ~arly nineteenth century. \Vooden columns were used in Egyptian houscs and occasionally also in religious buildings. In the Greco-Roman period.218-29.". By the ~th Dynasty (2613-2-194 Be). 1992).Il.OIlS ill quartzite sauds/olll' of Alllfn/Wlep /11.lt sceptically. the composite capital provided an opportunity for many more elaborate variations and combinations. ribbed and fluted columns in the cntrance and jubilee court" of the Step Pyramid complex at SAQQ.. the shapes of stone columns drew inspiration from Egyptian native flora and from Predynastie religious structures made of reeds. although he claims to ha. 'Die pharnonischcn Stcinbriichc des silifizierten Sandsteins und die Herkunft del' ?\ lemnon- wh. G. As a rC:iult of the identification of the colos- si with Memnon.\I~I. Thc shafts of columns were also frequently decorated with scenes and inscriptions in paintcd relier.Z0i\"1 applied the phrase 'young J\1cmnon' to a colossal head of Rameses 11 which he transported from rheR:'lmesseum to the British JVluseum. papyruS columns represented the reeds growing on the or 70 . when Giovanni m:I. MD.

ERjvIO STONE states that copper sLatues were already being created in the 2nd Dynasty (2890-2686 BC). Laic 51h Dynasty. an alloy combining copper and tin. in Lower Egypt. Die Kup.lsLER. 'The technique of monolithic carving'. and in some instances columns were decorated with djed signs. Bronze-morking t:ellll'es oIllVeslem Asia. The Coptic language and writing system (combining Greek letters with six furrher signs taken from the DEMOTIC script) were widely llscd throughout the Christian period vided with capitals that had iconographic associations with the particular religious context in which thcy stood.wul1:J': Ihe buildillg (I"(~{I (London.ife-size statue of the 6th-Dynasty pharaoh I'I':I'Y I and another smaller figure possibly representing his son Nlerenra. It was not until the J\tliddle Kingdom that bronze began to be imported regularly from Syria. indicating that mining was one of the earliest reasons for the Egyptian presence in Nubia.-11385) The production of bronze. Copper was mined at various localities in the Eastern Desert. in which the capital was a papyrus bud. may have prospered on the basis o[ its role as intermediary between the sources of copper in Sinai and the Levant and the Upper Egyptian 'proto~states' whose growth and competition produced a demand for metal tools and weapons. The archaeological and historical definition of 'Coptic' is extremely imprccise.. from about 2 to 16 per cent. [t is now more accurately described as the 'Christian' period and is roughly equivalent to the Byzantine period elsewhere in the Ncar East.]. D.58/11. con~isting of a leather-covered day vessel with a protruding tube. the percentage of tin varied considerably. 1930). JVl.297-310. near the third Nile cat. The lotus column (a relatively rare form except:. however. is an iconographic motif rather than a physical architectural clement.46--7.\' al Saqqara. was copper. and the 'campaniform' type. and the knowledge of copper-smelting and working was already highly developed. CLARKE and R. 136-50. thus increasing its liquidity for casting. MDAIK 48 (1992). the DJED I'rLL!\R. RADWA~. Harris (London. Building i11 Egypl: pharaonic slOllc /}/{{SOl/l)! (New York and Oxford.'\AIJI. with four horizontal bars across its capital.BACH. making the smelting of copper and bronze easier. were being produced.~UMN COPTIC PERIOD PRlJ\{EVAL l'vIOUND at the beginning of time. ARNOlD. R. Coptic period Chronological phase in Egypt lasting from the cnd of the Roman period (c f\1J 395) until the Islamic conquest (c.It ABUSIR and BEN! HASAN) was also sometimes represented with the capital in flower. rather than being made from solid bronzc. 1991). S. concubine of the dead see SEXUALITY copper and bronze The first metal to be exploited in Egypt. duration') was closely linked with the concept of support.w1O (Manchester. as elsewhere in the ancient world. D. although the meaning of the word djed ('stability. R. (£. Nubia and the Sinai peninsula (such as vVadi Maghara) from at least the early Old Kingdom. Additions of up to 4 per cent make the artefact stronger and harder.uac!:. 4th cd. COWEI. such as axe. LEAHY. cd.2345 lJe.JASTIC PERIOD. Tin lowers the melting point of copper. The technology of copper-smelting in the Old and Middle Kingdoms (2686-1650 Be) involved the use of crucibles and reed blowpipes. the earliest surviving examples of which are small artefacts such as beads and borers of the Badarian period ((. From the Saite period (664--525 He) onwards. they could be used as clements of the architectur. revealed traces of copper-smelting. was introduced. such as the temple of ]-Iatshepsut at 71 . cd. There wcre two types of papyrus column: the dosed form. gradually replacing the use of copper hardened with arsenic. 1962). However. A. M. The P.M. c. since the term is often applied nOL only to the art and architecture of the Christian period but also to the culture of the third and fourth centuries AD ('proto-Coptic') and the early medieval period (c. 1983). Finally. ~1It:ien' EgYPlion ma. thus saving valuable mctal. large items. It has been suggested that the important late Predynastic settlement of M. both in the Cairo l\1useum. 'The composition of Egyptian copper-based metalwork'. AD 641). Among the first known bronze artefacts in Egypt are a pair of ritual vessels from the tomb of the 2ndDynasty ruler KIIASEKHEMWY at AIn'DOS. . but higher levels of tin impair these qualitie~. which had been known since at least the Old Kingdom. although on a more practical level the forests of columns that make lip IIYPOSTYLE HALLS were probably also considered essential to avoid the collapse of the roof. 'Egypt as a bronzeworking centre (1000-539 lie)'. Since the PAPYRUS and LOTUS were the plants associated with Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.lind Bl"Ouzegefiisse '-:igyptC1lS: VOII dell ~1~/dllgell his ZUlli BegilllJ der Spiilzeit (IVlunich. An unusual type is the 'tent-pole' column found in the Festival Hall of Thurrnose IlJ at KARNAK.L. 45-55. 199-2z:l.and adze-heads.463-8. large numbers of votive statucttes of deities were cast in bronze using the lost-wax (eire perdlle) process. Thus. These were probably produced by hammering the metal over a wooden core. Et'\GET. There were also a number of columns pro- Deir c1-Bahri and the temple of Hathor at DENl)CRA. In the New Kingdom a form of bellows. A. unless the artefact is frequently annealed (reheated and allowed to cool). Ii.5500-4000 BC). especially in the sandstone temples constructed during the New Kingdom. 1988).fcr. LUCAS. The excavation of the Early Dynastic phase of the Egyptian fortress at nUl IEt'\. 1986). Larger objects could be cast around a core. in which the flower was shown in full bloom at the top of the column. SciCJla i'll Egyptology. appears to have spread from Western Asia. and the most spectacular surviving examples of copper-working fi·om the Old Kingdom (2686-2181 Be) are the l. Red grfll/i!l' palm colu11ln ji-Oll/ Ihe valley lemple oI U1!a. By the late I'REDY:-.\J.\ symbolism surrounding the union of the 'twO lands'. J Curtis (London. AD 700-1200). I-If\TlIORheaded (or SISTRUivl) columns were erected in religious buildings associated with the goddess Hathor. Allriolt EgJI/Jtiau materials alit! industries. rev. 3. presumably ip order to give thcm greater strength. A. A.

no doubt partly the same as in modern til1les (i. Caim. e1-Sheikh Fadl and the region ofTl. musician" . 1977). 1987). perfumes and cye-painls wen..l wax face-mask. an crect phallus. Throughout Egyptian history. .1S replaced by the bhJd galenn-hased form of kohl (11It'sdt'11ll't). The discovery that coregclH:ics existed waS.7-.:.J. corn mummy Term generally employed 10 describe a type of :lIlthropomorphic funerary objecl made of soil mixed wirh grains of corn.1 "I11<:S(\C111('1": cosmcliquc cI Illcdicarnems cg~ ptiens'.:\cd with water to form a paste and . /3. (EII-I030) in Egypt and arc still employed in modem times in the liturgics ilnd Biblical texlS of the Coptic church.\:_\:--:E. ill order to ensure that the transfer of po\\'er took place \\'ith the minimum of disruption and instability. 121~9. It would also h. Wa.ll1.. I~ JO. OilS and fats were considercd essential both for the preparalion of perfumes and L'r:E/'\SE cones .l1ld concubines (as well as in depictions of SOll1l' \\'omen in tOIllb-paintings). f(w instance. g-. l(. I-Jistoin' de la I/j:clt'lfJ/i' 2/7 (1952). or G. lind 18. and some were provided with a royal sceptre. A.1st as far .COREGENCY COSMETiCS R.wlms mrilll'l1 il1 lite Coptic stripl. including the annual ceremonial burinl of a corn mummy. \\'hich \\'015 itself regarded . an item of New Kingdom royal funerary equipment that probably functioned in a similar W:1Y to the corn mummy) can be traced back at le. Zj5.:Jtypl (\Varminsrcr. ~]-53. t. SL\lJ>SO'. cosmetics From the earliest times Egyptian men and women included yarious cosmetic items among their funerary equipment.]HA If) (1930). The surfaces of som(' these arc still stained with traces of blad..lbhancl c1-Qirud (in Thebes). NL STE. fcrtilily and the gro\\·th of corn. in the ~Iiddle Kingdom and the 181h Dlnas" " small nat-bottomed stone \'essel was u::ocd whereas in the late New Kill~·dom a tubuhlr form of yesse! (ori~inally a reed) bccamc more common. II. 1:·12 (1986). which were intended simply to aid the resurrection of one dcce'lscd indi\ idual.t form or 'rouge' on their checks (and perhaps also as lipslick) and employed h<:llilil 1'0 colour their hair.111 Ule/crown or a white cro\\'n.1. R. 17. from at least as early as the JVliddlc Kingdom. include certain spells equating the resurrection of the deceased with the sproutingofbarley frol11 the hod~ of Osiris (equatcd with the corn-god Nepe!'). The origins of rhe corn mummy (as well as the OSIRIS BED. stone cosmetic P\I. OlvIRO 63 (1982). 'lltttoos \YC1T also used as carly .lcli Q. The purpose or eye-paint "a:-. ur Os/raw" bearing cighlt'l'lIlincs oIp. '-\\:I)IEI{ and D. Til1lla e1-Gchc1.l' ofEgJ'pt Fuculty of--Iris Blllle/l'" 5 (1937). pro!J(/!J(JI.\B1C\ _\JJlJl'lI1l1 :111t! and A. 'Bclllerkungcn zur Sukzcssion del' Pharaonen in del' 12. AHll \DIE. Dynastic'.. '1\ study of the!\ lon~lstcry of S"int Anthony\ Ulliursi/. There arc many sun i\ ing depictions women applying cosmctics lIsing . Ihe corn mummies appear to ha\'c been connected wilh rhe mysreries of the cult of Osiris itsel[ An inscription in a roof chapel a1 IJE:'\I)F. Ihe Coplie old dlllrthes (Cairo. 197.n:RS. Inslcad.llena or grcen malachite. J. \Y./i"UII/ nebcs. 'Cosmci ics. R"" EN. The earliest suryjying Coptic religious establishments include the monasteries of St Anthony.. !:gl'!. as well as being a naLUra1 disinfeclant and a means of protecling the eyes from bright sunlight.. LORTON.. "1erms of coregency in the Middle Kingdom'.. usually consisting of an O\Trhtp of sC\'cral years bet· ween the end of one sole reign and the beginning of the next.:h funerary equipment.-ere probahh applied with the fingers until rhe introducti()~ of the 'kohl pencil' in the i\1iddle Kingdom.\\llL.IS the Predynastic period to decorale the skin. ALC:cx. The COFFI"J TEXTS. FI':DD"Z:. These ground pigmcms appear to haye been mi. 10 the periods during which 1\\'0 rulers werc simultaneously i. AUrfl'utEgyptiall aJr('gt'l1rirs (Chicago.. K. ~C)-5~. ~lost examples measure berween 35 and 50 <':111 in Icngdl and were usually placed in slllall woodell falcon-headed sarcophagi.2 {III. it is therefore usually assumed that they were intended to refer to the god OSIRIS. "'hen it \y.. D. The Egyptians used ochre as. suggesting thal oils.1\"c enabled the chosen successor to gain experience in the administration before his predceessor dict!. J. '1.113-20. judging from the presence of patterns on somc fcm.n po\\'er. C. T.1--61.J:n I'~.ln important stage in the darificat ion of the traditional C1IRO'OLOG' of Egypt. G. used for grillliing eye-painl pigments. 51 Catherine and St Samuel.. onc mUIllI1l. Ear(}1 Islmllir pc:riod. for discussion ofluirst~ les and hairdressing. "'. J. the enhancement and <tpparelll enlargement uf eyes).\. ~\1aartcn Raycil has pointed out that all those with archaeological provenances appc'lr to derivc from only four sites: \¥. J.~.·"M:Jt. 1-12.. 'The single-dated monuments of Scsostris I: an aspect of the instilution of coreg:ency in theT\yelfth Dynasry'. Since tht' corn mummies were not placed in the tombs of individuals. In the ear" Predynastic period. The gTeen mahtl'hitebased form of paint (/l{(ju) seems to havc becn uscd only until the middle of the Old Kingdom. coregency IVlodcrn tcrlll applied 72 .I I\IIRROR. Thc~· arc lllul11miform in shape. 7111-8/11 o:J1!l/l'ies . which was lIsually wrapped lip in linen bandages <lnd furnished with.214-19. hut il prob~lbly also had religious and symbolic resonances. perfumes and inccllsc in 'lllcicnr Egypt'. were already common. )972). 1\1. polle':)1 mill! piglllCIII. The types of \'csscls in which kohl \\-.w.I e1-Gcbel. Catalogut' des a/~/t'1J tit' !oilcllt' igyplims (Paris.i( archaeology illl:.li(/I! I~{i! (Londun.1S the l\liddlc Kingdom} since it is at this period that links began to be established between the cult of Osiris. most of thc fifty or so suni\'ing full-size corn mummies dcri\-e from simple pits (rather than rombs) and dare to the Ptolemaic or Roman periods.'\CKIIEERI·.l!oo stored \·<tried from one period to ~morhcr.18.IS :m important item of funerary equipment. 'Corn-l11ummies'. See also II \1H. JI/()I/(f. 101 (197~).}NES 1) (1956).\O.R·\ deslTibcs rituals rchuing to Osiris. L.\ of a singer had a small tattoo of l3es presenctl all the thigh. CfJptic Egypt (Cairo. _\ IlR.1c figurines and rhc prcsenation of geometric designs on the Illummies of certain dancers. 1993). LL C\S..lnd for thc protection of the skin. 1986).e:. C. Although a few miniature corn mummies have been found encased in Ptah-Sokar-Osiris statues in Llte Period burials. 'rhis system waS uscd.hey clearly had a slightly different function from 'Osiris heds' and other sw.' regarded as yirtual necessities.

.K. E. and was often" portrayed Ul religious and funerary offering Scenes. Since the sacred APlS bull represented OSIIUS. frequently inscribed and serving a purpose similar to that of a SCARAB..l· (Warminster. . STROUJ-IAI. but only Harhor and BAT were depicted with cow's ears./3077) cowroid Name given to a cowrie~shell~shaped amulet. were probably longhorned. JA1\SSEN and j. from at least the thirty~seventh regnal year of Ahmose II (570-526 Be) onwards. BREWER. providing milk. The image of the cow could also symbolize the mother of the Egyptian king.27-35. An association with the sky and the underworld . jA:\:SSEN. J. At HEKi\'lOPOUS E. MAGNA Nakl{l(l' aJ1!sistillg oicomroids and beads il1l1/(: !2111 DYl/asZ)/ {Iud New Killgdom. the myth centred on four pairs of primeval deities (the OGDn·\o). On a more prosaic level the cow was also an important domestic animal.MlD TEXTS show that. Otto and W. the sun~god emerged from a group of four pairs of male and female deities whose names simply describe aspects of the primordial chaos pre~ ceding creation: darkness.-IMHRI.! {lnimals: tlte EgyJ)/iall origill. the earliest text of which dates to the Middle Kingdom. 1992). 1984). 257--<i3.ls (Aylesbury. so that NUT could he depicted as a cow who bore the SUllgod R. 1989)..11(/elll EgyjJt (Cambridge. and at MEMP1US the account centred on the attributes of the god PTAI!.\ on her back each morning.77-93. language and ritual. The first domestic cattle in Egypt. Becf" was evidently the food of the \-.ng' appear out of 'non-being'? According to the Hermopolitan account. formlessness. 1994). the so-called Mothers of Apis were mummified and had their own catacombs in the S/\CRHJ f\NIM . eternity and hiddenness (or1 in the earliest version. It was only in the Ptolemaic and Roman periods that the process of cosmogony began to be regularly described in explicit narrative accounts. OGDOAD E\JNEAD and COW Animal which served as the archetypal Egyptian symbol of motherly and domestic qu<tlitics. and humped Zebu cattle were llsed from the 18th Dynasty onwards.Egyptial/ drlll/extie anima. each rooted in the cults of deities associated with particular localities. HOR. was concerned with the next stage in the process of cosmogony: the question of division and mu. on the other hand. There are. L STOR. bur a short-horned species appeared in the Old Kingdom.rikoll der Agyp/ologie ". The cowrie shell amulet is known . cd. the possession of it large herd was an indication of considerable wcalth. R. Le. How did the creator transform the one into the many? The references to the Ennead in the PYRA. From the 6th Dynasty (234. REDFORD. at IJELIOPOLIS there was a myth involving four generations of deities (the E::"!::"!EAD). Its shape was believed to mimic the female genitalia and girdles made from it were used to symbolically protect this area the body. D. B. 'Rind'. DOlI!cstic pIal/IS {lilt. The myth of the Ennead. introduced during the Predynastic period. Jorm o/fitlse beards or sidelod's oI}/uf/th. or creation During the Pharaonic period 1 a great deal of Egyptian thought regarding creation was simply embedded in their iconography. it was natural that the cow which gave birth to him should be identified with Isis. REDFORD and S.\-2181 Be) actual shells were imitated in faience ancllarer in carnelian and quartz.. meat and hides.'calthy elite. (£. rj1c bovine image of Harhor was therefore depicted suckling King Amenhorep 11 (1427-1400 Be) at DElI< EI. The funerarv reliefs also indicate that techniques of' ANi?I-lt\L 1IU$IJANDRY were well developed. twilight). much attention being paid to the depiction of the branding of srock and human assistance in the birth 01" calves.. at least as early as the Old Kingdom. L.ltiplication. and numerous funerary models of the IViiddle Kingdom (2055-1650 lie) depict the same activity.IS early as Predynastic times. 1982). J. W.vas characteristic of the bovine deities.84-9. The myth of the Ogdoad dealt primarily with the first mystery of creation: how did 'bei. 46. three principal surviving Egyptian creation myths. however. Westendorf (Wiesbaden.I\lUNG. Heick. the progressive fission and proliferarion of life were both seen in terms of divine 73 . D. 'Vall reliefs depicting scenes of 'cattle counting'.\ L necropolis at Saqqara. The two goddesses J IA1'IIOR and ISIS wcre often depicted with the horns of the cow. for the purpose of TAXJ\T10N.fQ?MOGONY CREATION E.3 (11/. cosmogony see CREATION. L~j{: ill (/. as in many other societies. Thus. Dcr iigYP/l~~(he NlytllOs von der Hilll111elsklllt (Freiburg and Gottingen. Cattle were regarded as status sym~ bois and. are common in lambs fr0111 the Old Kingdom (2686-2181 Be) onwards.

. This is lhe crown of Uppn F.o.1 single event at the beginning of Lhe uni\"crsc bUI as a phenomcnon which const.1 creatorgod. :\. combined .ltion of Ihe sh. resulting in .1/ft DY/ltls~J'. 52 C1I1.·:rERTE\I. cd through a comhination of 'm~lstllrhating" spilling and sneez- ing.ondon. /81h Dj/Ilt/sl)'.IS . relating principally to Osiris.'cr Eg~ pt. 'Vith unificariun these nyu tTO\\'IlS were combined LO become rhe 'Two _r-. Shu and Tcfnut then procreated to produce '\LT and GEU.AW. (CIlRO..IS C.ltions. The fertility god \ II:'\.·\L 'lOUl\!) and the BEl\BE' stone 10 the SC!\I{!\B heetle emerging fi'om a dunghill. . These legends.ltion wcre closel~ interlinked" ith their yiews concerning rebirth .let of crcariviLy or fertility by the cn:Mor . 'The ram-god hJl'L\l . E.\ hich he achie. Ha\ ing engendered himself.B6-1327 He) included among his rllncrar~ equipment a painted wooden representation of his own youthful head emerging from a lotus.~ 1I./. c. It was in order to identify himself \yith Nefertem and the act of creation and rebirth that TUT\'\ihIlAI\lUN (l.all myths (I.1Il:. 330c: REPRODLU'I) CUURTES~ OF 11/£ CR1FFlTltt\ST/11Tf) 74 ."hich comprises a tall 'thair-sh.\.:~)lpt: the ph.rl be {{ mfl. Idea ill'o image.1\ e modelled the first humans on a porter's \\'heel.~re formed from it.. also. on the other hand.the sun-god \TL~I. A plain \'crsion of this \\as Ihe J:lfl/I. 1f\ltT.'1'0\\ 11 (t!esltrl'/).f . or red (... Bredeck (New York. From the 18th Dynas~ onwards km~rs also worc the \blue crown' (J:ltt'presh). 1992). thl' double ero" n (psdll:lIt).{_ PIO' maeeheau and the :.!o. tI'ondell S!lflbl.all cn'at.lllus.39-5+.300(l Be).1' and human suffering./lte gllli Plall. from the PRI\lr. 2.riped cloth pulled tight across the forehead and lied into a kind uf mil <11 the b~lCk "hill' <It each side of the face t\n) !->trands or hlppets hung down.\1) shows Shu Till! 'SlfIll.IJJA' and POLlCE Crocodilopolis see .7/0 IJ(:. who "'as thought to ha\T emerged from a lotus noaLing on the face of the rleep.\\R\II:R palette (c. . plIrpol'li/fg '0 literally separating the personific. fill" instance.l'}/t 1~f{YPI. .from thar of the earth. 1 1.lped' . \.v.I. The tc. trans..light~ Ones'. Sia (a personification of 'perception') and I1t1 ('the diyine \\onl'). The 1\"arl11er palette also shims the (TO\yn of 1. The text was probably composed in Ihe late New Kingdom and survives in the form uf the 25th-Dynasty \Shabaqo SLOne\ a basalt slab now in the British I\luseum bearing a hieroglyphic inscription in which lhe i\lemphitc god Ptah creates all things by pronouncing their names.E:\.lCh corrl'sp()ndin~ to particular ceremonial situ. The king might also wcar the 1Il'lIft$ hCJdclolh. there was a mysterious . thus producing new life and splitting il into twO upposites: air (the god Shu) and moisture (the goddess 'I<:fnur). to .lring it number l)f different head covcrings. .·ith creation was thereforc the sun-god. 1990). went beyond cosmogony to deal \\'ith such issues as kl'\G5111.tntl~ recurred with e. \'iew of creation by means of the spoken word. oITlIlllllklwJ1JUII mellrillg Ihe red anum lIlId holdillg tlte crQuk (lIIdflai!. crowns and royal regalia The king can be depicted wC.l· (sec \r--\DJ'T) and [he \"UL'TLlH:. ./330 lJC.111 intents and purposes. and a l:ommOIl \ igncnc in the BOOk 01" TilE 1)1:.'hich is seen . AI..CREATION CROWNS AND RO\'AL REGALJ.'ith an upraised hand thrusting into the \-shape formed by Lhe flail o\er his shoulder (in apparem simulation of intercourse).~r IIl1t'. R.\'0. but ncvertheless compatible. c.. he Dead describes the sun-god as a 'golden youth who emergcd from the lot LIS'. The myth orthe Ennead not only deals wilh lhe question of creation but also Ie-lds on to the emergence ofhul1lan society in the form of the myths surrounding the sons and c1aug'htcrs or Gcb and Nut: OSIRIS and SETII and their consorts ISIS and 'JEPIITIJYS. .fJ11 dam rOr. B.. 1988). The Egyptian concepts of cre.11' or Jl crime .WJp!U ' . according LO the myth of 1he Ennead.lch new day or season and which was intinutcly connected with the prolonging of life beyond death.xts make it clear that they regarded creation not only .g~ pt or while Cl'Own (Jut/jet). c.lrI~ as the time of the _"l(. E. was considered to h. was considered LO h. bur their specific ch. This was a piece nf s.l succession of symmetrical pairs. Gellfs.\·IF. renewal and life after death. and their religious and funerary imagery is full of metaphors for the first act of creation. (I:" 1-/98) . Each local deity .l\'c crcmed hjmsclf with the aid of such forces as Heka (the Eg~ ptian term fiJI' \\ \Gre).\ lemphite Theology presents an alternative. The so-called ..~ee l.\ procreation.. The Book of. voyage through the sky during the day and disappearance at the sunset sen'cd to epitomize lhe cyclical nature of the creator. 1987). The hnm was decorated \\ ilh the Ul'{{tl/.lracteristics often led to rariations on the general theme of cremi\'it~. "-as portrayed as an icon of m.\1 crook and flail RHi/\L1o\ see CRO"'''S "'0 ROUI.37/1/. It is sometimes referred to as the 'I:rUt or '\rhire Z\efer'.ent (mciel/ (paris. the hea\ en and the earth. sencd as an unmistakable metaphor for the sexual act itself In the larc ~ew Kingdom the theme of the mound rising out of the watcrs of Nun was transformed into the myth of lhe child-Iikc god . whose appearance at dawn. E:t:ypt.9-28.from SOUI::K to BASTET- was. t\lJ'.tum (" hose name mc:mt 'completeness') then unde-nook me first act of di\ision or separation.s .llc fcrrilit~ "hose creel ph..\IEDII'ET EL-EIYt.oll accoJints C\Jc\\' l-la\TIl.l' '!(fl/l all(iml ({Jlllpositio/l describing the eTea/ioll oItlre lIuh:erse kI. who was connected with the fertile Nile sill and the porrery vessels that m.aqo S/O}/(' ': (f basalt sla/J bearilfg (( le. HORNU:\G. G. This is the head-dress rcprl'sen ted in the famous gold mask of TLT\\ihll \ \Ie. The ei1rli~ cst these to be depicted is a IOI'Jl1 of tall conical headpiece ending in a bulb. sometimes erroneollsly dcscribcd as the '\\. The dcity most regularly associated . In the beginning.lITangement frolll which protrudes a coil. 'Lcs cosmogonies de I'anciennc Egypre" Ut crC"f.

actually a sceptre symbolizing 'go\'crnrncnt'... ERTl\II\K. . By the beginning of the New I'. VV:\Ii\'\\RIGI-IT. 25-33.mon~ mOllS male counterparts. 'The kh(ll headdress to the atefcrown blue crown 75 . Oyer time. It. the chant. although these individuals never used the title 'musician' and were probably of a lower status th.qOWNS AND ROYAL REGALIA CULT SJ:'-IGERS A:"JD TEMPLE MUSICIANS I. PI~C1I. 90. Usually. werC a110\\ cd to sen'C as musici. which was worn in certain religious rituals. hence the characters were numerals al:companied by ol picture of the thing being quantified.md was initially used to record qUolnritics.\K~\I1I·\'\ languages. The I(/Icl crown' is effectivelya 'white crown' with a plume on either side and a small disc at the top. the name of which deri\'es from the Latin word amc/IS ('wedgc'). gr(II1J'lId. A/lJ)EL MONEI!'. IIEI. 'The elp crown of Nefertiti: its function and probable origin'. .212-1:1. eliSD BC.)'. the 'nail' or 'Oabellum' (lIddlllk!ut).ld be lIsed for pictographic. Femalc musicians wcre employcd in the culls of bOlh male .:hal1ge. M. as well as with s'lf. the uractls 1I11d the rcft'lIIouia! 'jitlse bell I'd'.1 (111.11 troupes' (Idfl'llcr) as well as dancers . cuneiform Type of script. L.WJ\) cult singers and temple musicians Prom thL' Old Kinguom uO\\"<uds.ingllom the priesthood had become ex:dusiycly male. 18th I~J'l/(lSt.\~l\R. LEAHY. ]E-/78 (1992). 'Royal iconography <lnd dynastic I. logographic and syllabic writing . This developed in j\IESOPOli\.EFT SIll/lit' o/Thlllll/Ml' //I J1'ean'l1g Ihi' ncmcs Itt'ddd"th.md female deities..RL" and .I1'r was associated primarily with the gods OSIIUS and ~w. 'They comprised both men and women.m their ditc fcmale colleagues. howc\'er. as accompaniment to the ritual chants or cult I [\\\\. lhcse pictures became stylized into a series of wcdge shapes \\ hieh could readily be impressed into tablet') of wet da~ Llsing a cut reed or other stylus.:' \ LElTERS. EATON-KR-\CSS. A. The most prominent items in the ro~al regalia were the so-called 'crook' (licka).royal regalia: the nail . (u \OR I/t sn 1/. G. 'The red crown in early prehistoric timcs'. hut also a hOSI of other western Asiatic tongues. the latter somctimcs indi\"idually named.tnd end orthcAmarna period" S.-IK 5 (1977). somc of whom \\cre married to the priests. 63-7.md m'er time came to incorporate all three. and despite the dcvelopment: of IlIr~ROGr .s were performed by male singers or musicians. referring to the wedge-shaped lincs making lip dle pictographic characters used in the earliest writing. amI sometimes cyen LO prO\'idc thc chants thcmselyes. A.]ARCE 13 (1976).750-525 IJ(:: rhe blue and cap crowns'.s. 1 OIh't' oj}c'ringJ 10 Hal/III" (Oxford. Uutt:rSlldl//lIgell /ibcr white crown of Upper Egypt red crown of Lower Egypt double crown of Upper and Lower Egpyt die altti'gyplischell KrollCII (GlUckst"adt.'s oj"rl'fJfPll.O\\ 111e major ()'Pt. and c1carl~ of greater importance than their . G.:rcd animals. It was lIsed to write down lhe SU\II'. Before it became oi. }2. 1993). 21-39. The role of Ihcsc women was to play the SISTRL \1.223--\0.\llr\ during the fourth millennium. E. IIoJJ/t'1I ill (lurit'1l1 Eg)lpI (London. but wumen of high rank. .Ire attested as clements or the staff of temple cults.1{5-9. which is shaped like <1 kind or tall.JFA ~ (1923). The script cou.ms (sht'11I11J'd). GR 11111111 IRRI.:t'. 'music. Rom's. 1937). nanged helmet: and I11<ldL: of" cloth adorned with golden discs.. G. The Egyptian court would have supported scribes fluent in the usc or this system."hich may have derived orilrinall\' frolll a flY whisk. The script is last crown'.l AnUIHKR. 1993). The bcsrknown examples of cunciform script in Egypt arc the .) PI lie writing in Egypt around 3100 BC il was cuneiform \vhich became the hlJ1guagc of diplomatic correspolldence throughout the Near East.

There are also considerable remains of a later phase of settlement in the Ramesside period (c. \V'LKINSON.'\!'. D Dab'a. In 1991 many fragments of Nlinoan wall-paint_ ings were discovered al110ng debris coyering the ancient gardens adjoining the palace.72-3. 76 . and l\tlanfrcd Bietak's excav.51-70.1l1 paintings predate those or Crete and Thera (Santorini). The existence of Nlinoal1 paintings (and thercf{)re presumably l\ilinoan artists) at a site within Egypt itself may help lO explain rhe appe'lrance in early 18th-Dynasty Egyptian tomb-paintings of such Aegean moti(o. C. F: Grotefend. Of these the Elamite waS deciphered by Edwin Norris in 1855. where the)' also Plall of Tell d-Dab'({ and Q!mlil: 13 N t 12 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 I 1 500 1000 1500 m 13 14 Tell el-Oab'a 19th-Dynasty temple of Seth modern flooded area Ezbet Rushdi el-Saghira 12th/13th-Dynasty palace 12th-Dynasty temple 19th-Dynasty palace possible area of palace lake New Kingdom settlement remains Tell Abu el-Rlus and Ezbet Rusdi el-Kebira and 12 Ezbet Yasergi and Ezbet Silmy Qantir Ezbet Helm. TELL EL- lIsed in the first century . It has been suggested that the fi·cqucnt usc of a red painted background may even mean that the T'cll c1-Dah' a Nlill0.and hindlegs outstretched in full flight). POSTG!\TE. discovering the names of two kings. N.l\ ation at Tcll cI-Dab'a was the substructure of a large palace building of the H yksos period at Ezbet Hclmi on the wcstern edge of dle site. the depiction of animals' fore. The town of Avaris. covering an area of some two square kilometres on a natural mound p. By 1802 a German. Similar fragmcnts of rvlinoan paintings have been found at two sites in the Levant (Kabri and i\.\D: interestingly these latest texts lise Sumerian logograms (word signs) even though the language had long since cei:lsed to be in general lISC. \Vhere<ls the iVlinoan and l'vlvcennean potten' vessels previously found' at many l\e. This work was carried much further by Henry Rawlinson who.. G. Tell el. CUflt'ijimJl (London. commonly used to refer to a species of baboon CPt/pio iynocep!tallls). The deep stratigraphy at Tell cl-Dab'a allows the changing settlement pattcrns of a large Bronze Age community to be observed over a period of many generations.ttions suggest that the colonist's were allocated rectangular areas of land. further to the north. although among the mOsl. which was one of the principal manifestations of the gods 1'1 lOTI 1 and KlIO:\lS. Ear()I A1e. In the early 1990s thc main focus of exe. texts from l\1esopotamia.and moon-gods. the earliest votive figurines of the cynocephalus baboon have been excavated in the Early Dynastic settlement at AUYDOS. J.wpolam. 1992).(anc. WALKER. consists of several strata of occupation dating from the First Imcrmcdiate Period to the Second Intermediate Period (2181-1550 Be). This waS of great significance since it could be linked to already discovered Babylonian and . 1987). in 1835. ilnd il frieze of baboons along the from of the Great Temple at I\RU SlivlBEL also have their arms raised in adoration of the rising SUIl. like those in the rvliddle Bronze Age palace at Knossos. This sire (DO had three versions of the texL and Rawlinson copied all three. The enrhusiasm with which wild baboons greeted the rising sun reinfixced the association between the baboon for111 ofThoth and the sun. the main cult-centre of Thoth. Old Persian. 1992).impressive surviving statues ofThoth are a pair of 18th-Dynasty quartzite colossal figures still standing /1/ sillf at HEI~­ MOI'OLlS :o. R.. and Rawlinson himself deciphered the OABYLO)JIAN text in 1851.lalakh). Typically portrayed in a squatting position... . The decipherment of cuneiform began with the recognition rhM a series of brief inscriptions at Persepolis (in PERSIA) were each written out in three forms of the script. deciphered a long inscription of Darius from Bchistul1 in Iran. Reading Egyptiall al'! (London. H.~· Kingdom sites in Egypt are usually interprer~ cd as evidence of trade with the Aegean (sec GREEKS). which has been under excavation since 1966. Several of these derive frol11 compositions depicting 'bull~leapers'. cynocephalus Term meaning 'dog-headed'. had achieved some success with the simplest of these. the patterning and oricntation of which were still oceasionaUy influcnced by the preceding l\tliddlc Kingdom town plan. the prcsence of l\1inoan wall-paintings at Tell e1-Dab'a suggests that the popuhnion of Avaris may actually han~ included Aegean families. \ SSYR1A.a: sociely a1/(/ ('{onomy at the damn oIltisfOlY (London and New York. The bases of a number of OBELlS"-S are carved with figures of baboons with their arms raised in characteristic worshipping posture.CYNOPHELUS D1\B'1\. as the 'flying gallop' (i. sometimes in close proximity.\. Both houses and ccmeteries were laid out within thc allocated areas.1295-1069 Be) when the city of Piramesse spread across Tellcl-Dab'a) although its nucleus was at Q.'it\GN!\.TIR.lrtly surrounded by a large lake. Avaris) Setrlement sire in the eastern Delta.e. During the Second Intermediate Period the Hyksos capital of Avaris was effectively an Asiatic colony within Egypt.

built fi"om the Outset with . BIETAK. '''''''.. The two pyramids of Sneferu were possibly the first such tombs to be designed from the outset as true pyramids rather than step pyramids.1. Sncferu's other monument at Dahshur is the (northern' or Ired' pyramid. which may derive fi'om the volcanic explosion on the island of Thera. ""'" south (bent) pyramid of Sneferu pyramidOf~ Amenemhat III ~. '''''''''---~ pyramid of .. Nearby are the burials of princesses of the late 12th or earl v 13th Dynasty..{(/! exploratiol/ illlltc cas/em Nile .""""'•.A7. In onc of the early 18th-Dynasty strata at Ezbet Helmi immediately above those containing the painting fi'agments Bietak also discovered many lumps of pumice-smne....SRET III (1874-1855 Be) and Amcnemhat TIl (1855-1808 Be).". Plan oIDahsh/l/: Amenemhat II'S pyramid is so ruinous that even its exact size is uncertain..'\110 •.. although the pyramid has other unusual features. ..1981). This complex also incorporated the burial of the 13th-Dynasty ruler Awibra HoI'.r ~ ~""""'!II1\"'~ ~ Dahshur Group of pyramid complexes making up the southern end the i\!lemphite necropolis. It waS first investigated by the Egyprian archaeologist Ahmed Fakhry inI951-5.'I'IIII/II"""'!'!"'/I. onl.VAHSHUR DAHSHUR appear to be associated with the ruling elite.. 500 1000 2000 m pyramid of Senusret III ~.. " """'. including a fine K. the superstructure of which was badly damaged by rVlaspero's work of ] 882-3... which stands about two kilometres north of the earlier monument. containing the sarcophagus and CANOI'IC.) edge of cultivation \ .1" """"""'''''1''''''1". DE MORGAN.. ".. The reason for this was probably structural. revealing that the burial-chamber was painted to resemble limestone. .mgle of 43° 22'. The king's remains. . so-called because of its marked change of angle from 54° 27' in the lower part to 43° 22' in the upper part. Fouillcs d J)ahcholll". ".. perhaps in order to allow the sarcophagus to stand out in contrast to its background. The 1110St prominent of the surviving monuments at Dahshur afC the two pyramids of the first 4th-Dynasty pharaoh.' the 'white pyramid' of Amenemhat II has a Stone core. 13~5... notably a western eorrance in addi~ tion to the usual northern one.$ or . The site also includes the remains of one of only three surviving 13thDynasty pyramid complexes." . 'Tell c1-Dab'a'. lts base area is second ani" to the Great Pvramid of his son Khufu 'at GIZA. Arcltivjiir Oricllljorsclllwg 32 (1985).. 1895-1903).vas re-examined by Dieter Arnold in the 1980s... the nucleus ohvhich is SM:tQ>\RA.. .."'''1. where he discovered the magnificent granite burial chamber containing a sarcophagus of the same material."". The nearby j\IASTAUA tombs contained the rich funerary equipment of the daughters of Senusret III and Amencmhat II. including items of jewellery discovered by de lvlorgan in 1894. who dis~ covered a plundered burial chamber containing a sandstone sarcophagus that is bcljeved to have been part.taris alld Piramcm:: ardlllco!og. Dc Morgan also tunnelled into the pyramid of Senusret m.". Sneferu'~ construction of two pyramids at Dahshur (as well as his completion of his father's pyramid at i\'\EIDUM) would have necessitated an amount of materials and labour Outstripping even the efforts involved in the construction of the Great Pyramid. Tell {'I-Dab'a II-\'[ (Vienna l 1975-91).. as at Avaris.. and work during the 19805 revealed a FOUNDATIOi\ DEPOSIT which included pottery. M...~ Amenemhat II ..\-statlle. The southernmost of the two is the 'bent' or 'rhomboidal' pyramid.. SNEFERU (2613-2589 Be).lflla (London and Oxford. J..L'\RS of Amenyqemau (formerly read as Amenyaamu).... of the original funerary equipment... ritual bricks and bull crania. The complex was excavated by Jacques de lVlorgan. which may have been simply a cenotaph.. 77 . 2 vols (Paris and Vienna. _. Although eaeh of the three 12th~Dvnastv Pyramids at Dahshur have stone casing~.. The three other major pyramid complexes at Dahshur belong to rulers of the Middle Kingdom. The 'black pyramid' of Amenemhat Tn also seems to have served as a cenotaph (the actual tomb probably being the pyramid at IIA\\"ARA). the others being of brick. how~ ever. . namely AMENE!\H1Kr II (1922-1878 BC). This pyramid..111 . SENJ.. have not been found in this pyramid. _.....

\R.\s early as the Prcdynaslic period there "ere depictions on p()[(cr~ \esscls sho"ing fenule figures (pcrhilps goddesses or priestesses) dancing with lheir arms raised ahoyc their heads. 181h Dynlfsly. 17-IS. L GlDm.lct of dancing was undouhtcdly all import. dance . ){I::::.. c.16 (19S0). (I. \\'L'LOC:.:te~ "'''''''''''('' .\1) 39j) include a necropolis ..rll11l'lIcmllCllII ill DlIhscllllr r (!dainz. 'Note sulh\ piramidt: eli Amcny 'Aan1u'.1turc of banquels. DaJ.\. 5nOEI..tt DeiI' c1~I-lagilr. AR'OI.fem til Dllhshllr. L.lwwaqa and a Roman settlemcnt and temple at lsm<lnr el-.'1I OFfJ-I/.. The Old Kingdom town and cemetery .harab ill Iht: DaJ.. .JnTKI. (cd. Roman tomhs at Qlrct el-i\luz. The sun'iring remains of thc Greek and Roman periods (332 or J\ Icidum und Dahschur'. CIIIW) 1\. Orie1J/llli1l37 (1968). shfJlI'ing IIl/lsirju1/S 111/(/ t!allraJ.DAKHLA OASIS DA:-iCE IlC.D.H Babt show th.. L.'mlll!It Ret! CIUlpd (II A-aniak. nCar the modern rillage of Balat. . R.' (New Yor~. In normal dail~ lill: musicians and clanccrs .. A.t 0 Muzawwaqa '~" ""'. 1987).VIDA I K. 19S9-61).:M" FamFa (1m! Klwrgll during plu. hut ccrhlin riTUal dances could also be crucial 10 the successful outcome of Q!wrl::ile rcliefb/ocA'f. DoNi/eli OaJ.l. IJ/(Jl/UJllt'l1h' a/Slle. GlDm and D. Da Py/"{/lIIiticlI/){'::.\S. and a temple the goddess J\lut oaring LO the latc Ramcsside period (t.\l.hlch Oasis'l fgYP/itill ·/rrhal'ologJI 5 (19 t J. ncar Ezbet Bashindi. G.i7~9... E..l'Plttff/ ouscs: Blllf(lr~)J(I.. +. Old Kingdom settlement Azbat Bashindi .r(umir limes (\\'arl11inSlCr. anothcr ccmetcry dating LO thc Deir el-Hagar r 20 el-Qasr \.\LDI. \'.1111 d-J. 11. The main phar:. I 10 30 40 50 60 /0 80 00 km Pltll1 oJDakhia Oasis. Balal: t N Qaret e!. Rl'..·ere a common fc.\I:\:'\:-". J 1.n the Egyptians' control extendcd hundreds of mjles into the Libyan Desert from . 'Snofru und die Pyramiden \'on First IIHcrmediatc Period (2181-2055 HC).:..~::. 19. 2 \'ols (C1iro. 325~38. BII' 10 SO (I9XII).-!IJ/CllClIllltfl I/f at Dahshlf/: (RfPIWDl CFJ)C01WfL.1 "ery early period.:~. 19R7).16).H cl-Qlsr..' MU. a temple dedicated [() Ihe 'Theban triad . 71ft. 78 . L. D. ncar modern Amhada.. Dakhla Oasis One of a chain of oases lac-ncd in the Libyan Desert.lOl1ic sites in Dakhla include a tOW11 site of the Old Kingdom (2686-2181 Be) Jnd its associated cemetery of 6th-Dynasty 1\IAS'mBf\ tombs. 51/ /11) lilla/or (Illhe !){If/a/ rlwml)(:r 4'.1979-NO'. 'Excayariun:-.:. 300 km west of the Egyptian city of Luxor.1l11 component of both l'illJal <Ind cl:khration in ancient Egypt. £g.10 ve). F \KIIK\.).. 'Bahn: rappurt prcliminain: des fouillcs:1 '-\yn Asil.1-I60 /1(. The .'. at 15111.).\GIOGLIO :md C.~~·~ll::·gdo.l.I'Jlarab.17-49. r I(wl.md templc of Thoth . C.irl' des K(j'III~~S .

as portrayed in the tomb of Ramcses VI (Kv9). It is possible that.\n.ng a series of different steps in particular dances. J. however. As a result it is relatively unusual to find mortals cle\'ared to the status of gods. 11.\i\lUi\. He was uniquely allowed to build his own mortuary temple among those of the New Kingdom pharaohs.33-117. as opposed to their offlcial cliits centred on the mortuary temple. c. There were also cerra in king's who received posthumous culrs among the populace.lbly rhose with a reputation for great wisdom . in recognition of their supposed role in founding the village.Q. kIt/II/Ie/ d'ardd%gle eg)/pllwllc [Y (Paris.IJ.13198i-) religious and funerary ceremonies) as in the Case of the l)fllll-dancers. SIi\l1RI. Llje ill (lncien! Egypt (Cambridge.not. the 18th-Dynasty pharaoh AKJ IEi'\ATE'i may have taken this process a stage further by effectively declaring himself to be the god incarnate.6/ (111. aspects of the ruler's kjngship being worshipped in the temples. (/:'. and features in the Book oIGMe:. the vizier of the 3rd-Dynasty ruler Djllscr (2667-2648 fie) and the archi. The pharaoh himself was not deified. shumi/lgji!/I/{/Ie //IlIsiciallS alld t!rlJlars at (f htll1f/uel.eC] the Step Pvramid a] SAQQ!\RA.\.\II':"'Jll0TEP [II (1390-1352 Br.\STRO. Little distinction appears to have been made bel WCCIl dancing and what would now be described as acrobatics. Les daflscs sanies. A number of other Old Kingdom viziers werc deified soon after their deaths. 391--486. BRUNNER-Tlv\LT.\O.'\HMALS. E. 19M). therefore the depictions or dancing in pharaonic tombs and temples invariably show the dancers either accompanied by groups or Illusici:ms or themselves playing castanets or clappers to keep the rhythm. I-Ie was deilied about twO thousand years after his death./imnlhe T/l/:ball tomb olNebalJ/lIl/. 1963). VANDIER. Likewise his bark probably rested in fronr of the statues of Ptah. perhaps fcaring that they would threaten the position of monarchy. deified. 1058). or 79 . often performing in pairs. and revered as a god or wisdom and medicine \"hom the Greeks were quick to identify wilh their own Asklepios. Ir \\"as his imag'c which replaced that of the god in the portable BARK. Dcr 711//::' im allell /i"gypteJl (Gluckstadl. Private individuals . Les dansc sacrces de PEgyptc ancienne'. J.lOO BC. and Amdll{fl. Stress was lherefore laid upon the cults of IU and PT'\II instead. with his promulgation of the worship of the !\TEi'\. From the 18th Dynasty. E.\\. with man" dancers being depicted in such athletic posc's as cartwheels. kings may hayc been seeking to diminish the power of certain priesthoods. becoming OSIRIS a[ death. handstands and back-bends. WU. in a few rare cases.were also. the architect who buiJr the 'ThebJI1 mortuary temple of 1\. The earliest of these was IMllOTI'. 'rhe idea that the drowned also became deified was established by the New Kingdom. notably that of .. the R1"\t\[ESSEU. A similar change took place in Egypt itself: where deified aspecrs of kingship were worshipped in the form of royal colossaJ statues ill temples. Sources Oricnlalcs 6 (Paris. H. and the most common scenes depicr groups or female dancers.41-3 where he stressed his identity as a manifestation of the sun-god 10\. who worc kilts and reed crowns and performed alongside fUlleral processions. Ra and Rameses II in the Great Temple at ADC inseparable from music. as weU as having statues of himself in the temple of Amun at Karnak and a personal shrine at DE[R EL-IlAl-lRl.\WRAUY lWLlEI'S decans see . Thus Amcnhotcp ] (1525-1504 DC) and his mother Ahmose 1\efertari were \vorshipped by the royal tomb-workers at DElR EL-i\tEDIKA. but was born as the living IIOIWS .I1·::\IIIOTEI' SON OF IIAPU. The aCL of dancing appears to have been Darius sa death see PERSL\.1\NCE DEIFICATION Pragmenl (~(II lJ1a1!-paiJlli/lg. Detailed study of the depictions of danccrs has revealed that the artists were often depicti. STROUIIAL. PERSIA:\S FU.P.. )\I{en and women are never shown dancing together. was similarly honoured as a god of healing.'\ND ASTROLOGY deification Ancient Egyptian gods were generally 'born' rather than made. some of which can thercf(lrc be reconstructed.\.) at Kom c1l-Ieitan.\. I-lis connection with learning also Icd to a culric link with TI lOTI I and hence an association with the cults of SAClUJ) . Amun... 18th Dynasty. and in Nubia rhe reigning king was linked with the official gaels. Rameses II (1279-1213 Be) identified himself with a local form of Amlin at his Theban mortuary temple. 1992).

Ex((n:alions (/1 Dei. The fl'/1/ple (~(Deir e1-Ba//lIri. painletl limeslolle..\ T:\1\ II. As well as incorponning chapels {Q Harl-lOr..\IHUII. as in the case of Pehar ilnd Petiesis at Dcndur in ubia. 53. comprising temples and tombs dating from the carly 1\liddle Kingdom to the Ptolemaic period.. (R 7: \X·IIOJ.'\f":'\leT.. ABon: TIn: lemple ulf/alshe/wII al DI.Ind the temple is decorated with relief.lR. H. III . il[ the spot where he drowned in .OUR EL-BAHRl OElR EL-BAH~ By the Lltc Period.111 a/tell. \VI'LOC". 80 .. cd at Deir c1-Bahri arc those of .ir e1-Bl/hri is huilt il/lu (f nalural embaymeJ11 ill Iht' rhL# J1.SlJ\) LH-r Fragmenl uf rdie/fromlhe adl-Iemple (~r .73-1f58 Be) and THUT. e!-B(/ha"'·' /9//-31 (New York. 7 mls (London. The temple of Hatshepsut is the best-preserved of the three. E. The kings . opposite Luxor. Ihe s~)'le o/mhjrh ilemulales. The site consists of n deep bny in the cliff. Another 'cachc'consisting or 153 reburied mummies af the 21 st-Dynasty priests themselves "'. In the early second century .2030 nr.\D the city of Antinoopolis became the cultcentre for the Emperor Hadrian's 'fayouritc\ Anrinolls.'\~IESI:S II. igyplt"1 (Berlin. c.1.'i containing lhe remains of the temples of Nebhepetra . 11th DYllasly.l1t'lIluhfJll'P 1/ al Deir el-Baltri. The most important private tombs excavat- I'X . 1969).'illg nWlrillg Ihe red fromll.3011. TIIUTj\\OSE I. JlA'I'SIIEPSUT (1-f. I-f. EgYP//tl1J Juiuls: deijiration. II and III.[ Egypt C'\ew York.\I""TeIIOTEI' II (2055-2004 ec).\.dlOse mummies were fiHlnd in the 'Deir el-Bahri cache' were SJ:QE.Vlaspero in J881) contained i1 cache of some fony royal mummies from the \ \1.. s/1QJ1Jillg Iltt' l.. SET)' I and R./.I. Anubis and Amun. .\ liddle Egypt.\II~\OSE I.. (£//397) D.l1 pIWfmJ/l. 1942). 1977). Nt\nI. as well as private tombs contemporary with each of these pharaohs. .\G.iIlOTU' I.jrh border Ihe I itlley I~rlhe Kings. depicting the divine birth of the queen and the exploits of her soldiers on a trading mission to the African land of rU~T."E:-. II. Deir el-Bahri (Deir c1-Bahari) lmponilnt Thehan religious and funerary site on the wcst bank of the i'\ile. \VILOL".1:" OFTlI£ Kl:'\GS reinterred there by 21 st-D~ nil'ity priests. ImhfllL'p /lilt! _-lmeuhotep: C0I1/perduug. 189+-1908).E. PiJ1udjem I and 11 and Siamun.\1ekelra (which contained many ~liddlc Kingdom painted wooden funerary models) and SI. consisting of three colonnaded terraces imitating the architectural style of IUenwhotcp's much earlier funerary complex immediately to the south of it. l1CIIIUlllJll'p II. cults began to be established for some of those \\"ho drowned in the Nile.\IE.l~ 'llsa found in a tomb at DeiI' c1-Bahri in 1891 E. ft is beller pn'sulxd Ihall lIfe earlier 1l'lJ1pk of. Fea/ures oIlhe (!l'diwliflll 0/ Ral1u:sscs II (Gluekstadt. 1977). An 11 th-Dmasty shaft tomh at the southern end of Deir el-Bahri (disco\ ered and robbed in 1871 and finally ncol\·ated hy Gaston .\\OSE 111 (1479-1425 IIC). L. .

'OLD. The lemplt· of_1leulfllwlep ill Dr. The area hetween these twO 'palaces' is occupied by rhe city itself...o_...Ml'1Itlllmlep (:-lew York.lra suggests that a group of Kew J-..IROIl....."""''\. j large Pjrt of which was exccwatcd by Reisner. LacO\..."SOS.~~ north wadi north ~ hill ".. Pctcr Lacovar.. houses o [ north ..ingdom houses to the west of the BELO" . while the North Palace may ha\·c bcen a royal residence during thc wars agclinst the II. forecourt ramp first court .:. 10 . second court \ •...... .. 1979)...- ~.md subscquently sun eyed ......rd-Bul/as. . exca\·arcd by Geurge Reisner m the turn of rhe cemury .''''\.Yebltl'pelre . . 11.ua's survey of Ballas is the discussion of the fUllctions of various structures originally excayated by Reisner. lie at eithcr end of..\.~~.r\.. .l interprels the early New Kingdom phase of Ballas as a prototypc of the 'royaJ city" foreshadowing: such later settlements as Gl.sK.:J~:::~--1110 Bab el-Husan: entrance to royal cenotaph causeway of Mentuhotep II causeway of Thutmose III kiosk of Thutmose JII 11 shrine of Hathor Ul.. The South Palace waS in f~lcr probably <1 fortress..l' slain snldiers o/. 19~5).\"'...\\OSE (t.. I\vo large ceremonial buildings. 197-1-). ~~~eC~~~~~~~~e 14 lower colonnade 15 shrine of Anubis 16 north colonnade 17 causeway of Hatshepsut PIau oIDt>. 1\\ \U"::ArA and EL-:\l\IAR. Ballas was probably originally a sraging post in the rcconqucst of northern Egypt by I\. clBIII""i (:-lew York. J. of Mentuhotep II 4 peristyle court 5 mastaba·style building 6 ramp . the so-called ~orth and South Palaces.""".1-1-:. 500 cemetery houses .."" 1 temple of Nebhepetra Mentuhotep II 2 shrine 3 entrance to royal tomb . Deir el-Ballas SClllemcnr site on the west bank of the Nile some 45 km nonh of TIIEBES. palace ..~IR EL-BAHRI DEIR EL-BALLAS LEFT \""...1555-1550 Be) and ·\Il\IOSE I (1550-1525 Be)...'. D.\.. A ll1<ljor contribution of Lacoy.md re-examined by an expedition from Boston concentrating on the residential areas. Deir "/-Ballar...".. " temple of"'''''' Hatshepsut -".'\R..f modern Village ~ I modern village i modern cultivation modern cultivation I I I I I 100 200 300 400 500 m 8\ . _..l long bay of desert". II: The lCmple IJI '1hllw/flsis III (\farsaw."... LIP!:\...." PIau olDeir cl-Balm".

40 km south of modern el-iVlinya.''f lombs of the Villagers Hathor the great pit .Vadi c1-Nakhb . E. 82 .. II. 192+-53).\lITII) The {lrl tlllt! IIrchi/eclllre oI {{l/ciCIII . ". Unfortunately this unrivalled opportunify to synthesize contemporaneous textual and archac()logicll data from a single site has not been fully realized.. V""'II'jl""'" ". unusual com~ bination of extensive settlement remains with large numbers of OSTIL\CA (used for rough notes and records).12.DEIR EL-BERSHA DEIR EL-MED~ North Palacl: were occupied by palace officials.t'gypl (I IarmondswOrlh. B.. -1(. or A130\ E Sfele u/NejerhOll'p.":. Closer to the river is a group of Christian monuments.Hion. 1892). 17 \'ols (Cairo. (H·I1S/(. L.~~ P10lemy IV V ~''''\\. \~r.. situated in a bay in the c1iff. 121h D)'III/sly. (ii. P E. /Il0/'klllfll! III Dn'r dA1edilla. .·alllS bearillg IJle{[po/ls alld.LLI. 1981). which was founded in the reign Amenhotep "' (1390-1352 lie) and almost completely rebuilt in the reign of Ptolemy I\" (221~205 l3e)./870 lie. 1958. P.. The major components of the site arc a row of tombs in the cliff. Rappol'! sur lesjouilles de Drir el .O\\ rhfj!. mostly belonging to the J\!liddle Kingdom governors the fifreenth Upper Egyptian nome. .. GRIFFITII. .'i at the mouth of dlC \. 1985).':. 'Tlie lomb-builtlers oIllie pha/'{/ohs (London.\COUIL\.ollc sui I"vur. providing important evidence of the socia-economic system of Egypt in the 18th to 20th Dynasties.lS a temple dedicated to various goels. L. £1-B('I'sl/(:II. 1927) Nl. 278-81. 1550-1069 Be). /~rThlllh(llcp til DeiI' cl-lJash{[. (/ ((/l"Iyillg [hair.. Deir el-Bersha I?uncrary site 011 t"he cast bank of the Nile. STE\D\'SON S.. (II Ihe rigIJl~//{flftl side... ("/11." and wall-paintings. SUrl'lfj' at Deil" el-Bal/as (J\blibll. The village of Deir c1-Medina was inhabitcd hy the workmcn who built the royal tombs in the Vf\LLEY Of TilE KtNGS betwecn the early 18th Dynasty and the late Ramesside period (c. SCIIIAPt\RE.. sh/}wiJlg a processiol/ olsen. The 12th-Dynasry !"omb chapel of Thuthotcp contains particularly interesting relief.'i midway bctween the Ramesseum anu i\rlediner Habll. primarily because of inadequate standards of e:\cav. The site also incorporated the tombs of many of the workmen as 50 lemple of Amun or t I ! 100 150 200 250 m PIal! oIDcil' e1-Jliledilla.) tion or the tTansportatioll of a colossal statue of the deceascd from the f-1t\TNUI3 tr~lvertinc qUilrries.MMinch.. limeslout'.. 2 vols (London.)O JJc. II. BIWYI':RF. including a church and monastery (DeiI' Anba Bishuy) which nourished during the sixth and seventh centuries AD.l/ /-/7) \yell .". 1982). della missifille ardlarologica ilaliflJlfl i1l £~!{itlri 11 (Turin. while a huge building interpreted b~' Reisner as a typical c1-Amarna-stylc '"iIb' is now thought to have been a set of palace kitchens. /9111 DYl1asly.. somc 30 km to the southeast. . . N """"111 "'If" Deir el-Medina Settlement site on the west bank the Nile opposite Luxor.. BIERBRIER. Deir d-lVlcdina was cxcavated by Ernesto Schiaparelli ii·om 1905 to 1909 and by Bernard BrU\~cre betwecn 1917 and 1947. rev. Rela.moll (~rp(fiJ1led limnlone relieJji"VIl/ Ihe ((jllff. 'rhe importance of the site to Egyptian archaeolugy as a whole lies in its. Nnvm:Rlo' and F. 33 ("/11. L. including a dcpic- or IWI. c. c.

The modern Delta is intersected by only two branches of the Nile (the Damietta and Rosetta). also known as cnchorial. but" thereafter the script survived only in the production of literary..~~1c':'A. scientific and literary texts. P/w/'(/oh:~ JPod'crs: flll~ ril/agas ofDeirel-J\!Iedil/({ (lrhacl and London. anges el demons en Egypte'. Nonliterary demotic O~"TH. including the pseudo-history of the Dt'lllO/i(. Dei.1ITU\Y :\ilc valley of Upper Egypt . demons In Egyptian religion and mythology.~ s1l01 ('writing for documents'). to some extent a misnomer. A.od plimh). It. which.--- ~D~E".)./ Allk!fs!fcsluJllf]j! (sec \rISDOI\1 LITERATURE). One of the earliest texts containing traces of the COPTIC alphabet (a combination of Greek and demotic) is the demotic 83 .AE being dated t"O AD 452). ~/ J/}a. Chroniclc. 112(>-1108 BC:). <lnd the Sayings 0. The 'household gods\ such as BES and Aha. G. 1986). The Nile Delta ill tnlllsitio/l: -Ith-3rd JIIi1/mlliullI 11(.:~~1~O~·I~"l:.e. D. Sources orientales \ III (Paris.J. 199+). h'ld replaced the HIERATIC script . C..: 'popular Iscript]' or '[script] in common use'. dMMim:h d I'CpOfjllt: mmesside (Cairo. 'Gcnie. these too could be warded ofI by their benevolent counterparts who guarded the tomb and its contcllls. religious and scientific texts and in monumental inscriptions (the latest demotic graffito at 1'11Il.'::C 0. such as the discontented dead. but three of them.2 (III. the region north of ancient "'E.30 Be). or Rcsill-((J(iC/wlmouden stall/cite (~/{/ demo/l (which placed by ils 19th-reI/tillY dis{ovCJ"n Ul1 ({ Laic Pa. I've VAN DE:\" BRI"K (ee1.YP/ (l . (Tel Avi. it is suggested that the act of imitation might eyen imply a strcngtheni_ng belief iJl the elfectiveness of" the institution of J-. P'SClI.•) WI. Sebennytic and Pclusiac branches. hcnce its appearance on STEl. norably those ofRameses VI (.T' and those associated with the netherworld. evil spirits and even sleepwalkers.\" EmbalmiNg RiullIl and the Khaemw<lset cycle of stories."gYPlirlJl Delta dl/ring tht' p!/{/J"{/olli( period (Oxford.. The name derives from the fclet' that the Nile l~lI1s out into several triburaTies as it appro.:. 1994). are sometimes described as benevolent demons. dcmotic could be used as a monumental script.. had dried up by the Islamic period. show numerous painted demons ti'OIll lhese FLNERARY TEXTS.by the 26th Dynasty (66+-525 Be). (I!AoI283) demons of OSIiUS and his followers. . the demons who affected the living were of two main types: the 'J\ilessengers of SEKJll\\F.. democratization of the afterlife Phrase used to describe the process of usurping of the pharaoh's funcrary prerogatives by private individuals. S.: concept of there having originally been 'two lands'. and it has been argued that the usurping of royal formulae and rituals docs not necessclrily suggest an erosion of belief in the kingship. creating a ITiangular area of fertile land shapcd hke the Greek letter dellil. 1()85). LESKO (cd. oIligun' --/-2.33-46.FolJllhe 11dley (!(the Kings.).'..maic period (332-30 IK:) it was also being Llsed for religious. V!\LlJELI. The latest surviving business documents wriuen entirely in demotic c1ate to 1\1) 130 and 175-6.ACA are found as late as I'D 232/3. Unlike [IlEHOGI. Like the carthly demons. H. E.Khcs the iVlcditcrranean. geography alld histolY Ii/the l. e/225 lJe'. the technical Api. 1143-1136 Be) and IX (I<v6.AE and as one of the three texts on the ROSETT.:\'9. This host of demons lived at lhe edge of the created world. The walls of some tombs. and the best known of these was AJ\Ii\\Ur. Delta Term used to uescribe Lower Egypt. 19/h Dynasty. united into a single state by the first pharaoh. its survival being ensured by such features of the administration as the provision of separate Greek and Egyptian lawcourts. 1971). ililhough this is probably only <l reflection of the generally unfocused lise of the term 'demon' in Egyptology. 155-8.YPti({IlI"t:II~f{iQI/(London. who features prominently beside the weighing scale in the vignettes illustrating Chapter 125 of the Book of the Dead.mel the broad Delta in the nonh th'H perhaps led to thl. which were intended for mutually exclusive media. 'of the cOllntry') Cursive script known to the Egyptians as sekh in religious and funerary matters.). It was this contrast between rhe 1l. however.from which it was deriycd . where they formed the f()rces of chaos which from time to time affected the lives and afterlives of humans. devourer of the hearts of the unrighteous. The term 'democratization' is.Til'l'S de f(/ lomhe. C/:Jlies.Y.i Lewis has suggested that the demise of demotic stemmed principally fi'om the nature of the new regime imposed . lnstead. l\IIEEKS.\ small rise in the ground surbce of the eastern Delta.Magic ill tllIl"It. III1l!l'S t:I dill/OilS. It was at Erst lIsed only in commercial anti bureaucratic documents but by the Pto1c. STOi\E.type of demon represents the goddess Sckhmet in her e\'ll aspect.:1NGSlllP. except plilllllS. The first. Le.'1I1 f~!. and this category also includes various other spirits.\IP] liS. ""fhis type was I-hought 1'0 be especially prevalent at the end of each vear and had to be warded off by the be~evolel1t demotic (Greek demOlit. L. The demons of the netherworld werc still more terrif~'ing.. Demotic continued in usc alongside Greek throughout the Ptolemaic period. panicularly in tcrms of the identification of the deceased with the god OSIIUS. Tht! ardlllcolog)I. the Canopic. QUIRKE.s. II. i.. 1992).omlon. In the Pharaonic period there were five tributaries. and Napthal.. whereby legal and administrative documents began to be written solely in Greek. E~!.\· fllI7.YPIIS and HIERATIC:.ll the beginning of the Roman period (c. 19(2). probably because of a combin:ltion canal-digging and . NlBm (cd.

. W. but Inter. located ncar modern ~na.-PUls ~rdt:l"uli[" le.l'<. The main entrance is a comparati. Tentyris) Site of' the ancient capital of the sixth Upper Egyptian . 1977).mel ebony labels were eXC-. However.\IIKG. 1987). is dedit.\IER'.\1. eighteen of them having bcen found by Flinders Petrie in 1900 amung the spoil-heaps leCt by the earlier excavator.(r.. making it an important centre in Dynastic times. A number of unfilled Glrtouches reflect the uncertain political conditions of (he first century Be.ling the earliesl depictions of the king wearing the 'double crown' and .'arious surviying buildings making up the temple of Hathor date from the 30th Dynasty [Q the Roman period and are surrounded by a well-preserved mud-brick cnclo- Tllf:Jinl/~J!pfJSlyle hall o/lhe tell/pIe off/alhor (II Del1dera. the local goddess. whose temple dominates the site.. (>+-1i. There arc also burials of s.73-80.. The main temple. Emery in his first season at Saqqara in 19:15 was Tomb 3035. P. \v.ing Den./i"fJlII Thebes bearing {/ dl'llw/ir imtriplioll dest:ribi/lg (/ I(J(III filmlf/:allll/d barley.'11 as being associated with the west and therefore with the dead.ll interest in the control of southern Palestine. \V. Twcnty i\"ory . LE\HS. ·lhntcrc. to h'1\"e been filled up \\-ith grave goods during the king's own lifetime (thus perhaps acting ns storehouscs for surplus produce). Emile AmCiincau. 'The demise of the demotic documcm: when and . The Dcndera necropolis rnnges in date from the Enrl~ Dynastic period to the First Intermediate Period. Although the present tonslruetion is late. VLEE. close to the mouth of the \Vadi Hammamat route to the Red Sea.:.lrliest surviving building is a . which contained jarsealings referring W . (R 7: \-IC1l0150. Junet. this Seems to indicate at least.\' nr-./1) 1~)1111l' I::mperor Tiberius.. S. a temple has stood on the site from ~1t least the early ~e\\. as \'t.DEN DE:'>iDE~ Papyrlls. built ill Ih('firsl Cet/lllly.31--48.2950 oe) Ruler of the mid 1st Dynasry who probably stolle-built architecture in an Egyptian fUllerary contcxt.. 1993). One of the Early Dyn~lstic burials cxc-. .D_ DIl'\G.\) 84 .~:\ tombs. both of which were constructed with the earliest examples of st'lirways leading down into them. whjle the south exrerior wall bears a colossal carving of CLEoprrR-\ \'11 and her son Caes:lrion before Lhe gods. Rneuil de (cortes demoliqucs el bihlJglll'S (T~cidcll.1 mnn called Tlemaka. if necessary.Ivaretl fro111 the Abydos tomb."".yho evidently liycd in the reign of Den. of Prolemait and Roman date. an architectural refinement th<. Plolel/lllir period.. The c.(ee1.-ch small propylon-style gateway rather than ~ large pylon as in most other Upper Egypti:lIt temples from the Nc\\" Kingdom onwards.QQ. TIlt' royal IOlI1bs oflhefirsl dJ"ulSI)' I (London. including \I'\ST\J. especially the cows associated with the cult of Ilathor. this is the earliest sun-h-ing instance of Dendera (:lI1c. sure wall exhibiting the technique of P.".lCred animals. He was Lhe first to add the nesm-bil name ('he of the sedge <Ind the bee') to his ROYAL TITLL\I{r.Icted ilS regent while he was too young to rule in his own right). This \yall also h:ls a l·j\f. One of the ebony tablets shows a scene from the ritual of the 'appearances of the king of Upper Egypt and the king of Lower Egypt'.\'in)grap/~)I (Louvaill. making Tomb 3015 the burial place of Hemab.. E.:ribed it as the tomb of King Den's chancellor in the north. l-Iathor who waS closely identified with 'LT.'iO\IE. 1900). An i\'()ry label for a pair uf sandals (now in the British t\lUSClll1l) shows the king smiting an Asiatic and bears the inscription: 'first time of striking the c~lstcrners'. Emery argued that it must haye been the actual buri<ll place of f. 19-1l1c. in the form uf'1 Hathor SISTRL \1 succeeded his mother \lI·:I~'F. Chmllitjll£' d'£g)'Ph' 56 (1981). ..·nast..-hy'.ITII 011 the thronc (since she may have .1 ritu. F.1ted by \v.llso running between ritual boundary markcrs).\l\\l\llSI (hirth-house) dating to the reign of Necrancbo I (380-362 Be)..\K.i. Sf'I·. The burial chamber of the tomb at Abydos dating to the reign of Den was also paved with granite slabs and some of the wooden roof supports were placed on granitc blocks. a ceremony which was probably simihlf to the sEn FESTI\ \L (inclu<.JEA 79 (1993). Den (Dewen. :"1. II.·Irrhaic Egypi (HarmondsworLh. :Is sky-goddess and daughter of R \. B. Cdimu) «.. relegating the tomb of Den at Abydos to the role of a mere cenomph.' 10831) London-Leidcn ~lagic'll Papyrus. A. .. . B. 27(~1.. The . Den's chancellor of Lower Egypt.St DOOR. Emery's first report on 'Tomb 3035 uesc. on the basis of the size and wealth of this nnd other tombs at Sal}qara. Egypt (London.u cd to a local form of . King Den is associated with tombs :U .Kingdom and texts ill the crypt mention a building from the time of Pepy I (2321-2287 oe) ufthe 6th D. 'La phase initialc e1u dcmoriquc ancien'.\U\DOS and S-\. 1961). many Egyptologists now believe that his first theory may have been correct. on the western side of the fiJrccourt. Earl). PETRII~. dated w the third ccnrur~ ·\D. 23 oll. PEsnu.j.\.1t would h'1\"c allowed the tombs. The (ollil1llI base sllOms dU1Il1t!!( where grains OfSI01U! 1/(l7.:e been groulld oul lor lISt' in}Oll: medicine il1 posl-Pharaollic limes.).

as the locations of cemeteries. I-I. Delldcre!J (London. such as .I" healing (see IIORUS). the most important of which was a Bf\ statue of l-bthor. NIARIETrE. The descr~s were es:cntially considered to be places dearh: first. were considered to watch over the desert routes affordinlT protection to tr. E. olle of which contained a zodiac (now in the Lounc and replaced by a copy). 1 outer hyposlyle hall 2 Inner hyposlyle hall (surrounded by ancillary rooms.tibule: 6 7 8 9 3 'Iaboratory'torpertumes hall of offerings second vestibule: hall of Ihe Ennead sanctuary surrounded by chapels corridor stairs to roof ( [ I.' of a range of three hills separ:lted by valleys) since the deserts were also mountains. Ct IA$SIN!\T and F DAUJ\li\."JUT chapel and the roof chapel where the ba was united wirh the solar disc. USIRIS. +vols (Paris.1\'ellers.\s exiles or as forced i :~~~s::./I1l1 IJC ====:J courtyard . The 'desert' hieroglyph was also used as a 'determinative' sign with reference to any foreign country. the traditional god of chaos. Dmdc}"(/ .S.'~: ~~ I enclosure wall 10 20 30 40 5010 or workers in mines or quarries). \\( 1\11. were a small temple to Isis and a sanatOrium for the accommodation :lI1d healing of pilgrims.. A. 1870-3).J.Il Ihe 3rd millml!. DAUJ\IAS. DClldera clle (eli/pIe d'J-!(/(!Jor (Cairo.. and. with wooden canopy (now defaced). Le lelll/Jlt' de Dem/al'((. Although not impassable. A variety of deities. G. some arc well preserved. well ----l I The columns of the fa(. The roof also has symbolic mortuary chapels (or Osiris. along with the two !//(UIlJl/. Although most of these columns have been damaged. second. This may have served as an (incubation chamber' (where pilgrims slept in order to receive hC:lling I)ln:Mvls) but it perh'lps principally functioned as a centre for {i/J/JI/. The vVestern Desert was regarded as the entrance to the underworld where the sun disappeared each night. e.S. in the sense of wildernesses in which wrongdoers might be sent to perish (either . Belween the two //WlllllliS/~' are the remains ofa basilica of the Christian period. in that they lay at a higher level than the inrervening' Nile valley. where those not able to enter the temple might petition the goddess.:3.c1e and outer hypostyle hall of thl: temple have capitals in t1~c form of tJ1C he'1(1 of I-bthor surmounted by :I J'Aos-shapcd sistrum. During New I I I I I I I I sacred lake I I I I I I I Year processions this would visit various pans of the temple including the . I .g. since he was said to rule over the deserts and the general disorder that they represented."i. • •• well sanatorium mammisiof Nectanebo I I \ Roman mammisi (New York. the deserts formed a barrier around Egypt protecting it from its 85 . The hicroglyph for desert consists of a dia- grammatic "ie\. 1969). Various FUN"tRARY TEXTS describe the peri lOlls deserts surrounding the kingdom of the dead itself. 19(0). 3 and 4) Christian basilica desert The Egyptians sometimes referred to the desert as tleshrel ('red land') in order to distinguish it from the fertile kemel ('black land'). F PI~Tt{ll~. as well as fig'ures of N lit and scenes relating to the rebirth of Osiris.. possibl) during the Christian period. F. 1968). so called because of the black soil that was deposited along rhe banks of the Nile by the annuaIINUNDATIO:-.\\I~ and H1\THOR.~RT DESERT PIau oI/he fell/pIe oj1/aJl/(Jr al Dendera. Outside the main temple. as opposed to the vegetation and fertility associated with his mythical counterp'lrt. 6 \'ols (Cairo. The crypts depict various cult objects stored in them. The epithet 'red god' was therefore often applied lo SETH. Delldaa!J. FISCHER. 1934--52).

:onrained .ginJlly <lssol...ITLRE Diodorus Siculus (fl.istorian born in the Sil.=O-='. 1989).. Egypt: tlllcieni m/Ilm'.1S tied. was commonly used in this sense in decor. -'lA.Ileti by Emile Amclineau. which W<lS t::\{.I number of chambers in which different types of grave goods were placed..i IIC) it was held bv Ihe mother of his principal wife. 1992). ji. BeRTo" Diot!nrm Simlus J: {f rnmmelllfll}' (Leiden.1rm was discarded and onl~ the jewellery was kept. and it has been suggested th. Ihe red hllld'.(lhe n'nl Dy.:i.'''III>. god of the dead. cross-bars.1 history of the world from the earliest timcs until Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul.1\-c li"ed until at least 21 Be. I I. O\'er the course of time it came to represem the more .~'{yptiallll}()lJIt'1l (London. induding rhe fact that the embalmer's incision was made on the left flank.:ilian town of Agyrium. and he claims that the man responsible t()r opening the corpse was usu<lll~ dri\len away by his colleagues (an act which is now gcnemlly presumed to hayc been ritual). djedpillar Roughly cruciform symbol with at least three Djet (Wodj. 'Raising the djed: a rite de marge.'\t least as early as the ~ Eddie Kjngdom.-Iklm "/iil/dlell 1985 JlI.C. "SO'.lI1d Gunther Dreyer.Vcrnel' K.iser .. the best-known depiction of which is in the Osiris Hall at AB\'IJOS. therefore it is still not c1tar whether the limb was that of Djer himsdf.]NES-1-6 (19X7). Greta lombs o. Saitc paind.:t. the hurial chamber contained :I stone image of Osiris on a funer. SII·\\\. but 'Villiam l\lurnane has now shown that it dated earlier than the reign of Dje!". Iliddcn in the northern wall of Djer's ttlmb was a linen-wnlpped human arm adorned \\ iIh bracelets of gold and gemstones.iclI({'. It was probably at Memphis that kings first performed the ceremony of 'raising the r/jerl pillar'. who \\ as prohably third in the sequence of rulers beginning with' \R\lER (as listed on a recently ext. \V.:lmpaign launched into Nubia at this time. This act not only sen'ed as a Early king of rhe 1st Dynasty. 'Serpent') (1"./{/s~)'.'I. ranging from stone '·ases sealed with golden Ijds.:. pl'rhaps left behind by tomb-robbers. 12-27.:ess of \IU.we sun'h'ed concerning the life of Diodorus.try couch. his tomb was cOll\'erled into a cenotaph of the gud OSIRIS. IlER VUET.lv<ltcd by Emile Amclincau and Flinders Pel ric at the end of the nineteenth century and reexcavated in 1988 bv \.\ lemphis. During the time of the sole reign of Thutmose 111 (ID9-142. E R. didactic literature see II ISDOII LlTER. Although his O'yn 'York is considcred by scholars to be undistinguished. I-I.1) c\'entually became a symbol of Osiris. I'T\H. for instance) gives details not recorded by IWROJ)O']'US.tluable for the fragments reproduced from more importalH works. rl''''icnl Egypt: u (I//tllm/top(lg1"{fp/~)1 (London.:A-=T--=U".tbstract concept of slabili(~~ and! like the _\2\. 1994).IS onCl' interpn'ted as cyidencc of a military c. The roya/tombs oflhe i'i"rst D)'"I/SI)' I (Londun. ed. AII/u/e! illthi'PJfllI ofa djed pillar.i\l. and when it was first eXGl\". \\"\1. E.-. although the ritual was also incorporated into one of the SED FESTmll. 13. A rock-can-ing al Gebel Sheikh Suleim<ln W.S or Amenhotep III (1390-1352 He) n< Thebes. Djer (1".\1J\IIF1C\TIOi'. //. tools and furniture made from i\-ory and chol1~. the precise connotations of which arc not fully unclersLOod. J .u it mjght represent a pole around which grain Wi.' diplomacy see diseases set' \II'IR" LE'ITERS REGIO' \U:D1CI'E divine adoratrice (Eg\'ptian tllI)(/I-lle!ja) Religious title held by women. Schoskc (llomburg. 'The blaek land. I. He also records that the Yiscera were washed after their removal. that the djed pillar metaphor for tht stahility of (he monarchy but also symbolized the resurrection of Osiri~.-'::.:ui\'e friezes. R. On arri\'a! al C.ned with the god SOK \R.R".. It was originally adopted by the daughter of the chief priest of the god . 'The Gebel Sheikh SuJeiman monument: epigraphic remarks'. J:.ill interpret as a Cenotaph rather than an actual burial-place) \\as floored with wooden planks. Tn the Book of the Dead it is said to represent his backbone.'I".=O-=A".C. ed. 1+9. and certain depictions of Ihe pillnr portray it with human arms holding the royal regalia.dn<\. 1900). R. {OS-II.-c tendencies of the Egyprians. Few details h.-ar'lIl'd clay seal impression from the royal ceml'tcry iU \uroos). 16+-S... (E//223. II. By the Third Intermediate Period it was held together with lhe title GOD'S WIFE OF t\i\IU".L-=I'-.1iro _\Iuseum rhe . J. dO lie) H.-I':::.\'IL"\l in the reign of l-Ialshepsur (1473-H·58 Be). his writings are often ".KII amI \US sr:EIyrRI: hieroglyphs. His -rectangular wood-lined burial chamber is now known to have heen 86 . From the reign of Djer onwanls. each royal t"Omb at Ahydos I. \\ ho is mcntioned in the "''\G LIST in the temple of SCI y I at \UrDOS. 1949-58)../ C1l1. \ \. G.-. who is \\ ell known for the description of Egypt included in the first book of his Bibliulhem /JiSloriCll..oBlNS. His account of the prol. 1961). Ku:s. gold bracelets. He may 'llso be the same king as hi. F PETRIE.. IIwtlali/alltl. 1993). :\lalek (S. Rr·(/{/illg EgJ'pliali uri (Lon dun. Its origins seem to be among the fetish symbols of the Predynastjc period. the patron deity of . \V. [t '''as because of the association ofPtah with Sobrand theref()rc also with OSIRIS. . S.282-5.':1"0'\.2980 BC) Rulcr of rhe 1st Dynasty who was probahly buried in Tomb z at Abydos.i\llR' \'\E. J \"ols (C1iro and London. copper bowls. .E=-' O~J. . The bll1'ial chamber of his tomb at Abydos (which some scholars st. 153.El:.3000 He) Diospolis Parva Sl'<' IIIII-SE. Although the djed pillar wns ori. J. 1972).. but he is knO\\'n to h.\IER\. food? weapons. A.!'! neighbours and probably hdping to promote the sometimes introspccti. is sometimes described <IS Ithe noble Djtd'. Dim/orm oISiri(JI (London and Cambridge. \V. 196i). \VII .

Since the jackal and the dog were not well separated Ln the Egyptian mind they were both regarded as sacred to tU\UBlS. Hundestele'. constructed the Step Pyramid at St\QQt\R:\. 5U}-8. Ll.69-71. 1:. although unfortunately there is little information available l:oncerning the particular species of dog at this site.f:!J. Suffice it to say that breeds closely related to the ba~enji. such as the Fmnine SteIl' at Sehel (sec FA. sometimes more negative aspel:ts of the Egyptians' attitude to dogs: their air of domestic subservience could be used as an insult. Vorbericht" kID. BREWER. PETRIE. the language of the rext suggests that this dream-list was originally compiled in the Ivliddlc Kingdom (2055-1650 He). FJsr:JlEl{.'liK +lJ (1993).1).\II!"!': and KJ-INUi\l). 'Schabl'. which are adorned wirh double IIraei: when the king awoke from his dream he was told. as <l young prince. TanUla111<lni's stele thus provides a mythical explanation for the unusual Kushite crowns. Despite the fame of his tomb. Grc(/llfllll!Js f!!. describing a dream in \yhich the throne of Egypt and Nubia was offered to him hy t\H) serpents. (London 1988). describes a number of dreams. cd. Only the I-Torus Ilame Nctjcrikhct was found in 3rd-Dynasty inscriptions associated with lhe pyramid. Centuries later. M. \v.JljJf. ZI"JE. S. 1994). and most of the 'historical' information concerning his reign takes the form hIte sources. E. sometimes being buried as SACRED tH\JJ\lt\I. S0111C dogs served as domestic pets or gUilrd dogs and even polict. FJRTH. rather than jal:kal. am] it is only through New Kingdom graffiti that an association has been made between this name and Djoser.~s found by AmelinCilli in the vicinity of the tomb. E. or ·fhe identifil:ation of specific breeds from such representations is difficult. Probably the finest of the 1stDynasty funerary stelae (now in the Louvre) w. Ll"RK£R. many of them tall sleek breeds suiublc for hunting. stelae sometimes recount the pseudo-prophetic dreams of pharaohs as a lllC. -169. '1-1 unci unci ~folr in ihrer Beziehung zum 'Tade'.~!tyjJli({1! ol'igills (Warminster. S. Both the impressive Tomb 3504 at Saqqara (probably belonging to Sekhcmka. 'Reliable' and 'Good Herdsman" as well as simpler names referring to their colour. this was bad and he would inevitably undergo suflering. 19(1).J.'\. 1989).\u::I{Y. rhe goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt".or in their own coffins. The classic eXilmple of the royal dream stele \yas erencd by TIIUUIOSE I\~ (1400-1390 Be) in front of the Great SPHIi'X ilt Giza. W. B'\RTA. few facts arc known concerning Djoser himself or the cvenl"s of his reign. is sometimes used. 1935-6). DOIIIC. cd. dress see n . donkeys see I\NIi\IAI. From the Late Period (747-332 Be) onwards it became relatively common for imliyiduals to sleep within temple enclosures so that ORj\CLES could be communicated to them through divinely inspired dreams (sec BES).>\i'. Edmartls. while there is a 1110re general category of dogs apparently rehned t"O mastiffs <lnd dachshunds. /111111. <lIld on the waUs of one of the subterranean galleries to the east of the burial chamber were three reliefs depicting I'he king enacting various rituals.I·lit jJ/{/lIfS ({lid (///im(/Is: 11ll' l::. S. D. ~U1 official during Djet's reign) and a large i\lI\STAB:\ LOmb at Giza have been dated to DjcL's reign by the presence of seal impressions bearing his n'lmc.' 10 (1969).a (II/ tlellxiJlI/e lI/iI/(!Jwirc (Cai. 'I-lunde. R. I !'I II 10TEP. Otto and W.OTI-JING 87 . B. 'An agricultural dream: ostr:tcon Ii. Their qualities of fairhfulness and bravery . since modern breed definitions allow little flexibilitv. that if a man dreamed of drinking warm beer. 1954). As well as ha\'ing a rple in the hunt. J. RAY. The Greek rerm (Jlfiroaifes was used La describe the priests whose role \yas to interpret these dreams. In royal propaganda (see U\JGSlllP). JANSSEN. who presumably symbolized the 'two ladies'.1959). Domestic dogs might also receive special burial. -. G.. Ard/llil" . 5th cd.--tclck. QLJrBl~LL and J-P. Heick.citlichcll Konigsfricdhof 5. E. Ojoser (Zoser.: dugs. Beatty III in the British Museum. the Kushite pharaoh ·1".III/dies and olha essays presell/ed (f) I.57. EDWARDS.\UNI::RON. 130-6 C. carved from finc limestone. DREYER. Thl' pYI"llJllids '!f'(!f.w. <lnd some texts include references to prisoners as 'the king's dogs'. 1976). an early Ramcssidc document found al DIER EJ. G. S. principally because they were thought to serve as a means of communicating the will of the gods and serving as clues to future events. REDFORD and S. 8. REI>FORD.9-13. Baines eL . W. l. 'Umm cl-Qlab: Nachuntcrsllchungen im fri-illi'. Thl! royal tOllltH oII!Il:/irsl t()I/I({S(j1 J (London.ro. M. 110--18. A number of differeot types of dogs can be reCognized from depictions in tombs. Gi::.lI1S of justifying their sllccession to the thrune. '·V./6.\'l!\NJ (664-656 Be) ser up a similar stele in the temple of Amun at the ~ap<ltan capital city Gebel Barbl (see l""-I'ATA).-l\lFDI'J. W. A number of fragments of statuary rcpresenl ing Nctjerikher were recovered from the pyramid complex.\! 5671 " Pyramid . F. ~4----S8. H. Thus we know of 'Brave One'.77-82.rikoll der Agyplologie Ill. HUSBAl\'!Jln Ora Abu el-Naga see THEBES dreams Dreams played an important role in Eg) ptian culture. E.LT. Le. The term 'Anubis animal'. ]900). saluki and greyhound Can be identified. D.S in the nubieion catacombs a1 Saqqara. Although the papyrus itself elates to the early thirteenth century IlCo.1IT sometimes referred to in the names they were given. Netjerikhet) (2667-2648 Be) Second ruler of the 3rd Dynast~T. 199.130-1. '11ft: Sfep I~Jlramidl 2 vols (Cairo. 'Westendorf (Wiesbadcn. 1976). E. 198-1). 'the two goddesses shine on your brow. II. J D. 176-83. The tll'thh:1' (~/H(Jr (London. he fell asleep in the shade of the sphinx and was then mid in a dream that if he cleared the sand away from its nanks he would become king' of Egypt. C. it bears the serpent hicroglyph (the phonetic \"a Illl: of which is ((jel) framed by a royal SEREKII and surmounted by a IIORUS falcoll.199-216.'xil'lJlI dcr AgYPf%gic v. for instance. 1980). these names are known from inscriptions on leather l:ollars as wcll as from depictions on stelae and reliefs. . Les S(JIlgcs t:/ /CI/r i/llcrpre/afioll (PaTis.11. each of which is followed by an interpretation and an evaluation as to whcther it was good or bad. refcrring to its barking noisc.\.)'PI (London. Alldt'lI! retords (~/ E'gy/JI n' (Chicago. R. 19(6).'Slit: {///il//{/Is (Aylesbury. either along with their owners . ed. J. (Harmonchworrh. describing' how. Papyrus Chester dog One ancient Egyptian word for dog is the Onomatopoeil: imi11J. since its identification is a matter of debate. [g)lpli{/}/ dOIlll. Otto and W Westendorf (Wiesbaclen.".. 1./licjirsl {()II/t/sty II (London. JANSSEN and J. however. There were. J.\11. J.0. L:\L'ER. J. which was not only the first pyramidal funerary complex but also the earliest example of large-scale stone masonry in Egypt (see I'YRM\lIns). 13RE>\STED. including an almosl life-size sealed statue from the SERlJAB (now in Cainl). the land is given to you in its leng'lh and breadth'.QlOSER DRESS surmounted by a brick-cased mound or sand or rubble hidden beneath the main rectangular superstructure.a practil:e known from the earliest dynasties . D. It is suggested. whose architect.

. The king is quoted '1S saying. dyad (pair-statue) Pair of statucs. the condition results from the t~1il­ ure of thc boncs to ossify properly. apparently com-cnicntly masking the area where his legs would hayc been if his limbs had been of normal proportions.ty ha\-c been to reprc~ent the body . K.)n the gifrs of the mine-land [Sinai I and of Pont'.. who was on his way back from an expedition to the south of Sudan. may portray both the mortal and deified aspects of the pharaoh. who was of normal staturc.') includes a copy of a Icner from the young 6th-Dynasty ruler PEP" II (2278-218{ He).. 1/£'111) Although the same EgYPlian term (deneg) appcars to ha\'c been used for both dwarfs and pygmies.\ at Saqqara.. LOlt. howc\'cr.md the spiritual manifcstatiuns of the deceased (sec 10\). Seneb's m. no doubt bec<. It is possible that royal dyads. ril:ilizalioJl (London.gYPlial1s lIud Ihe represeultlliul1l1. KEI::s. . 'I: .'tlcb milh his miji:: Sellelill's {/mllfteir -/Ih I/pO L'hiltl.I.tt male clwarf. T G. D. SOLl{QUZIA.~ were not ohliged to marry women with similar deformirics./lhc hlll1lalljigurt' ill EgYPlitifl art (Ann Arbor.m. (CIIRO.tls. or 88 .uriagc Lo a woman who \\"as a lady of the <. from \1 \ST\U. show signs of dwarfism. 11. . often sen-ing as 'dancers before the god'.-AGUIZY. It hilS been suggested that the intention of such 'pseudo-groups' m. There arc also occasional groups of two or three identical funerary Sto1tlies portraying . The EgypJiufI JtIliselll1l. 'Dwar(') and pygmics in ancient EgY]lt'.. tomb and funerary equipment. R. \VEEKS. Similarly.~. They were gencf<llly imported infO Egypt from tropical Africa.1 single individual. 'my majesty desires 10 see this pygmy more th.HIO::\ dwarfs and pygmies (Egyptian tlelleg. 1981).\II'.if fill. one the earliest cxamples being the dyad of the 5thDynasty priest of R \. The wealth and prestige eyidenlly enjoyed by Scncb.\sl':". and they arc also shown tendi.. seem to have received rather less beneficent treatment than dwarfs. Pygmies. as well as numerous dcpictions in reliefs and staruary. Seneb held sereral oflicial positions: he was OYCrseer of the palace dwarf. Sometimes the m. The apparent lack of prejudice against dw. usually can'cd next to their legs. .vfCf-IULSQ\) which mall and the gods had emerged (see and 'L'). and gods of thc living and thc dead. AS. SALEIl and H.\ tomb 1)56 at Saqqara (now in C1iro). The fllllllo11limll'lIomlt'dge II/Iht' IIUCh'llI l:. 19(1). The perH111ifiratiol1S ofLOJver Egypt (Ie/i) lind Upper Eg:JlPt (righl) cromll the pharaoh Pto!enql 'f Philomela nJ. They arc depicted as jewellerymakers in the Old Kingdom tumb of \IERERL)"-.trfs is perhaps also indic:lted by the tilet lhat a number of gods. The earth was distinct from the hcowens but the two together wcre the complemelltary halycs of the created universe. 0.Iames (London. In more pragamatic terms the Kl~G­ SIIIP (personified by the god Horus) and thc ordered bure'1Ucracy which it encouraged were seen to be strongcr than the powers of anarchy. such as the L1nusu. I. . many of whom appear to have had skilled or responsible occupations. while his children stand immediately in front of him. urging I-Jarkhuf. One particularly striking late 4-th. 19S7). chicf of the royal wardrobe. notably BES. e2500 lu:.ng anim. Cairo: official ((I/lt/ogue (!\lainz. 1993).hofu (2589-2566 BC) and Djedefra (2566-2558 BC). ed. so that there arc gods of Uppcr and Lmycr Egypt. The mythical struggle between I 'ORU~ and SETH was esscntially regardcd as the universal struggle betwecn good and evil.f. and sevcral such skdclons have survived. (/1."cd that unity waS emphasized by the complementarity of its parts. Nimaatsed. LO judge from his titlcs.I"/y. while beyond the DORnERS of the universe waS the 'ullereated" the chaos from H.:ourl and a priestess is onc of many indications th.m and wife arc accompanied by their children. resulting in srunred growth (achondroplasia).es to each of these categories differed considerably. thc triumph of light over darkness and the prevailing of order over chaos. B.~ /11 fll1c/clll E~~yp/ ((1ft1 Grl'at' (Oxford. and priest of the funerary colts ofl'. the Egyptians' auitud.mll Ciza. His statue shows him seated cross-legged besidc his \rife Scnctites. either representing a man and his wife or depicting two versions of Ihe same person. The decon1tion of the Old Kingdom tomb of Harkhuf (A8) at Qubbet el-Hawa (see \SlrA.. Cascs of dwarfism seem to h~l\-e been fairly common.ttlIC of Amenemhar III from "Etnis (also in Cairo). and sometimes prO\-iding entertainment for high officials. H. EI. CRE. was not unusual for Egyptian dwarfs in general..}fSI2IiO) ing pygmy he has acquired. 53-60 V. to take great care of the danc- Paill1/'d 1i11lt'sIfJ1I£'grf)Up sl(l/l/t' nIi/I(' dmfll/St. temple dam:ers or acrobat's in the service of Rt\.1llse they were essemially foreigners. Thus [)lC king of a united Egypt still bore the title 'lord of the two lands' (lleb I(f/I~l') and 'he of the sedge and the bee' (l1esm-bil). oftcn can-cd from the same block of material. undertaking agricultural work.Alll' ur l'arly 51ft I~)I/III..DUALITY DYAD duality The Egyptians bclic. and split berween the east (the land of the living) and the west (the realm of the dead).tl granitc double Sl.·llIl'ieul EgYPI: tII/(/lo"~Jt o/a 1989). This duality is prescnt at many lcycls of thought and symbolism.. nos {8 and I(). J Kt::.or carly 5th-Dynasty 'group statue' depicts the dwarf Seneb and his t:1mily. Dmll1:f./E71 (1987). the country was diyidcd into the black land (kemel) and the red hmd (tll's"rel). DUlllil)' mas (/1/ ill/porla"t part nIEgyptit/1/ tho/lght.th Iht' doubll' cr(mm. Temple oj' !lows (if Et(/il.~llIdelll Egypl: (l (il/Ilim/lopography.\1.

and h:IIASEf'J IE\I\\'\. Bccause of the tendency to regard the kingship as a unique and indi. GM 78 (198~). 79-86. (Cambridge. 'The Egyptian Archaic period:. The earliest securely dated historical e\"idcncc in the region of Edfu is n mckcaning of the name of the I st-Dyn~lsty king DJET (1". C \ \lU\I.\QQ-\R_\. Manetho's dynasties. IRO:'\. The sequence of 1st-Dynasty kings.lrd an interpretation of the role of ideology in the c\'oluLion of complcx sociery in EgYPl'. like the groups of rulers in Pharaonic king li5ts. whereas it is now known dlat some of them (such as the 13th to 17th Dvnastics) represented roughly contemporaneous and overlapping sequences of rulers who COlltrolled only certain parts of the country. '\D"lINISTR. See also C1IRO:"OWGY. f\ cerrain dcgrec of conlTovcrsy still surrounds the question of thc loc1tion of the royal tombs of the 1Sf and 2nd Dynastics.1-24A. SI1.. G. givcn thar there are Clite cemereries of the period at both ABYD<)S and Si\Q.:I!.\1. _\:'\£UJIB. The main sire includes sCll1ement and funerary remains covering the cntire Dynastic 50m t N 1 2 3 4 5 pylon gateway ambulatory firsthyp<lstyle halt second hypostyle hall 'laboratory' (inscribed with recipes for incense. Eflr~)I civilization: tI/Il'iml I:. rend La be n·eated as if the)' occurred in a linear sequence1 one after the other.lst~ was once regarded as a sudden politic~ll e\'elll.:\:ES to :\LEX.\TIO:\l. l-iO. often described as thc Archaic period. \lll1ll'1/W (Cambridge• .ypl: a soria I ltisIM:JI.gypt ill cOI/It'xl (Cairo.1sties as the 01. 1(86).AIIl'it'II( l:.Q\IU. primarily in the form of stone slclac.>O\1. 'IVlto men' l!Ie p!la}"(/o!ls? (London. both buried at Abydos..) in the Earll" Dmastic period.·idence. \VADDEI.I).\·ERj STO'\Ej T'\XATIO::'\. Some scholars include the 3rd Dynast~ (2686-2613 Br. SI'E:'\CER. perhaps raking the form: l-!ctcpsckhclllwy.1) hl::'\GI.~rch{feology II (1992).·ilization'.lst~ royal names. The transition li'om the PRU)Y'\·\STIC PERIOD to the 1st Dyn.1S an ilwasion. in the desert to the east of the main sitc.·isihlc phenomenon. REDFOR.lIlIl/clho IlIId der iigYPlisclten Kiiuiglistell (Berlin. during which many of thc major aspects of the culturc and society of the Pharaonic period emergcd. is more nebulous. The distinction bc[\yccn one dynasty . is now widely accepted as ::'\.\lA. DE. On the basis of these documents.L.10<1 another occasionall~ seems rather arbitrary but tWO of the most importi. W.'DER "1"1 [E GREtH.\"ETIIO in the early third century Be.\. 'Tow. who wcrc probably buried at S.\. The last two rulers of the 2nd Dynasty wcre PERlBSE-. 89 . G. 1993). with Queen \IER'\EITII sen-ing as a regent. TRADE and WOOD. J. all of whom wcre probably buried at Abydos.·ory labels. COI'I'ER.·Jl1lhropological.. TRIGGER. GOLD. the rough chronological structure of thc pcriod has been reconstructed. 1990). The tombs at Ab"dos and Saqqara ha. lIlIl/als alld daybooks: {{ conlribuliolllO tlte SI/I(~)I ollltt' Egypliall S('1/se olltistoJJI (1\t1ississauga. In general IVianetho1s dynasties appear to correspond quire closely to the grouping of kings Suggested by yariolls earlier Klt--G LISTS. Raneb. howcYcr.•IS .. comprising rhe first two dynasties of the Pharaonic period..m. UllterSltdumgeu ::'{I. 1983). inscribed pottery jars and chIy seal impressions.'--one dynasties consisted of groups of rulers stretching from the rime of the scmi-mythiGll first pharaoh 1\tE. BARD. Edfu (anc. when he composed his hisrory of Egypt (the AegyptillclI). but most chronologies trcal the 3rd to 6th Dyn. ancl in modern chronologies the dynasties afC usually grouped into 'kingdoms' and 'intermediate periods' . B.\IER. G. e yielded some of the earliest Egyptian textual c. The thir. ~ynetjcr. 19~0). OJER. P/lll/'(ffJlJic A'illg-li. eel.Jn1 determining factors appear to hayc been changes in royal kinship links and the location of the capital. tends more towards Abydos as the royal cemetcry and Saqqara as the burial ground of the high officials of the time. 8. 'The rise of Egyptian ci. D. together with the evidence of radiocarbon elating.) reappraisal of the C-H dates'. The material culture of the period. DJE1'. economics St'/1 I\GRICLI:rURE.. well-preseryed temple dedicated to the hawkgod !lORCS. SE'IERf'IIET and Q\'.". such .) Chronological phase. \\lcneg and Sened. wooden and i. G. Trigger et al. $11-\\\". etc) 6 offering hall 7 vestibule 8 sanctuary (surrounded by chapels) 9 'Nilometer' 10 'library' PIau of the lemplt· of Horus III EdJiJ.-ell as <1 necropolis of the Early Dmastic period (3100-2686 Be).\R. probabl~ either before or after the reib'11 of Den. and London. 1..and 2nd-Dyn. Current opinion. E(lr~J' Egypl: Ihe risl' oft:h'ili::. TRIGGER. E Early Dynastic period (3100-2686 nr. suggesrs that the cmergence of the Early Dynastic monarch~ was a ycry gradual process.. Djeh. huwc\·cr. 1956).]ollnwl of.atiolJ ill Ihe _Vill' nt/ley (London. QUIRK~. J.:. both of which include inscriptions bearing lst. :\pollonopolis ~lagna) Upper Egyptian site dominated by a large. \V. S. B. -\1-1-\. r-IELCK.15 the TL:RI~ RQ) .~ASTY ECONOMICS dynasty The division of the Pharaonic period into (h-nasnes was a chronological system introd~ced hy the priest \I. 1993). such .2980 Be). The chronology of the L'arly 2nd-Dynasty kings.

l11cient onc by the 90 . writing' . 1984). i\'[JCJ-JALOWSKJ et 011. 1993). K. HlOlI/el/ ill alleiclil EgypI (Lundon. Datier rda/hx d /'a/pltt/bel des hiirog()'phcs p//I}!ll. training was essentially vocational: practical trades and crafts were passed on from one generation to anot-her. thus indicating the widcspread literacy of the members of the ruling elite in thc 26th Dynasty at least. For the latter. iI/ OllciCI/I . with only a few selectecl indi\-iduals thcn being instructed in the more elahorale and artistic I HEHOGU·PIIS.31-7.1500-1100 Be). A document from the fourteenth regnal year of Psamtek 1 (664-610 J3C) contains the individual signatures of fifty high officials. ]993). people: S(Cllcsjj'l)lllliji.EgYPI (Oxford. Plolell/flit pi'riod.\' and E. For the elite members of Egyptian society. E.EDUCATION EGYPTOJ~ . il~ the most· pri\'iJeged cases.l. such as the f\Jlixre/fauie:. 1974). it is possible that a small proportion of women could read and write. the day on which jc:. although daughters generally seem to have acquired domestic skills. 165-203. G.\POLln. 1\\10I11cn's correspondence from DeiI' cl-tVlcdinch'. and many of the so-callcd '\\ i~d(l1TI 1 texts are presented in thc fiJrm of Sets of instructions spoken by fathers to Sons (sec 1':TIlleS and WIsnO:-'1 LlTEHATUHE). ~. ROBI:-\S. education Few ancient Egyptians were given any formal education.md one text includes lhe memorable phrase: 'A hoy's car is on his back . . 1992).I·:. I L JAW~S. education \Y<1S essentially a matter of scribal training) since the use of writing was thc key to Egyptian administration and economic organization) and the sphere of the trained scribe extended beyond writing to the roles of manager and bureaucrat. which was founded on the site of a much earlier Pharaonic temple.. and the majority of the people were illiterate. su that problems \\cre usually brokcn clown into a repetitive scrics of smaller calculations. . 523-l.J. in that most lessons . Scs/o COllgresS(} llllcl"I/u::. Alallrllt.m-Franyois (] IAI\lI'OL1./f/ti' E{!/il. Pharaoh :\. such as J IOR. '1'he subject of mathematics was evidently taught by means of numerous examples rather than by the liSe of abstract formulae. such as weaving and cooking.iIJ111J!e tli Egi//ologia. The question of the extent of female literacy is still a mattcr of considerable debate. S. Learning was by rote..mel Thomas YOUNG. The Sons of the elite seem to have been given a broader education involving reading. 1983) . 198+). Thl' Iriulllph oIHorus: ({II ({lIcIelll Egypliall sand drallu! (London. I I. /f.\ uI/he hawk-god [-forus.: wrote his Lellre d Ai. Usually a son would be expected to take over his father's trade or post and eventually to provide the principal means of support for the family. 'lilt: sou/It ()/I/if PY/OII is decorated mill! relit:l~ . l\tlany of the surviving texts fro111 the Pharaonic period were intended to flUlction not only as literary works but also as cclUCaI"ional textbooks. Lt lelllfi/crI'Mfil/l(Paris.J()". Erljil/l (Cairo. 'The French and Polish excavators of the 19205 and 1930s examined the temple as well as the GrccoRoman and Byzantine levels of the surround- ing settlement. from their mothers./iqlles.\L'\"I·ICS.IlEI\IONTEJ. G. Cairo. C\Urll. i J Be. 011 ci/!l{'J' sid" ({ the galemay (lrc s/al//t". lJulll:lill uJlheJohn 8)111I1Ids Libral)'. since there arc surviving Icttcrs to and fi'om women at the New Kingdom workmen's village of Deir cl-1\tlcdina ((.he listens when he is beaten'. 1892. The construction of the Ptolemaic temple of Horus.md \1!\Tl-lI·:. '\Vorship and festiv'l1s in an Egyptian temple'.SE OF LIFE in a temple Dr. Such boys would probahl y hare been taught in a scribal school attached t~ some particular diyision of thc administration such as lhe IIOl. STROLl L\I. The reliefs and inscriptions on lhe walls include the myth of the contendings of Horus and SI':Tl-I (probabl~' performed annually as :l religious drama) and an imponant' account of the ritual founcLttion of the temple.sler J7 (195+). to Egyptology Some scholars date the beginning of lhe discipline of Egyptology to 22 September 1822. D. hO\\ t\-er. and his work was actuall~ the culminadon of hundreds of years of earlier 'redisc{)\"cry' of ancient Egypt. bur a substantial proportion of the buildings remain unexcavared. ilnd boys often appear to have served apprenticeships under their fathers. -+ HJ1s (Cairo. DE ROr. vVrinen education was rcry clearly addressed boys. 136-51. at the roY'll COUrt itself For most of the Pharaonic period the l-lII':It'\TIC script would have been the first to be h:arned. dates to the period between the reigns of Ptolemy [lJ and Xil (246-51 13C). FMR. T. PY/OII oIII/1f lemple o/Horus a/ (/~ 'I: . Frequently such instructions presented a distinctly biased vlcw of society. 1918-). The Egyptian civilization was already regarded as a venerable and .I'tumling PtolelllY \'/1 SllfilillgIfm:iglln"s.tppcar to ha\'c taken the form of copying out exercises and commining long passages of [ext to memory.. L~/e in Il//(:icnl EgYPI (Cambridge. CtIASSI'\i\T. Alii II (Turin.. 1937-50). although it is equally possible that such documents might have been written and read by male SCRIBES on behal f of female patrons. There is little surviving evidence concerning the training or education of women. in which he demonstrated that he had deciphered the IIIEHOGLYPIIIC script. The exercises took the form of model LETI'ERS 1 reports and selections from 'instructions) such as the Book !~r KCIIO'I. SWEENEY. Tell EdJilll. and often the very sun-ivai of these documents is owed largely to constanl copying as a means of acquiring writing skills.\lAN.a IhJologie tI'Osiris ri EI({o1l (Cairo. I. was undoubtedly already drawing on the \\'ork of earlier writers. ranging from PIUESTS to VIZIERS.VlCllOtSOS) period.(~reaslt'l"lll(Jl1?a -1-1 l/l.111-14. N!. Chaillpollion. W. praising the scribal profession and sometimes satirizing othcr ways of life (see JIUMOUR). School discipline was strict.

~PTOLOGY

EGYPTOLOGY

These scientific expeditions lInfortlinarcl~ took place against a background of looting and collecting by such pioneers as Bernardino Dro\'etti and Gio'";lI1ni IWI.ZO'L The <llttiquitics acquired by such men e,-entually formed the nuclei of important national collections, such as the British :\Iuse.:um, the Lou\Tc, the.: Berlin museUlllS and the :\luseo Egiziu in Turin. In 1858 the Pasha appointed a Frenchman, Auguste \L\RIETIl~, to O\ersee all future e\(....I';1tion in Egypt. :\ot onI: did this mark the beginning of more ordtrl~ study but it also reOccred an increasing im cmcnt in the conscnmion and detailed ;.Jnalysis of thc monuments. Gradu;tll~ the subjcct gained rcspe.:ctabilil~, parrly through the c-'it;.Jblishmcnt it number of important academic posts in Egyptology, and schuhlrs such ;IS folinders I'J.TRII·. and George RCIS,I:I~ were ahle to de.:,·clop il1(.Te;ts-

0"

or

Photograph shomillg 'Cleopatra \- lll'cdlt" inlhi' protess o/bl'illg f!rcpal"edjlir 1/"(/llspl)rl(//if}II/~}llhe British eligilll!a}al/ll!s f)/~rf)lf. 7'l,c o[,eh,"k m(/s platcd
ill (/ speria/()'-II/w!t' lm'fal (I,/iI/del: IOJ1Jed 1~)1 bnat /11 El1g/al/d. alld l't'('JIIl/a!(JI era/cd /III/he Tlulllles
EI/IIJ(IJI~'lIlelll ill /8i8. 01l(V (f.l'ear ((/h,. Di.rolf fwd been (oillrar/ed 10 bring ilji-O/J/I:gypl. (RF:PIWDU:I.'l)

COl"RTES') OP Tllt:(;JUIT'I1I/\SnnT/)

time thal the Greek historian

IIEROJ)OTL:S

(c.48+--120 lie) compiled the firs! general
accOunt or the culture .IS a whole. Pharaonic Egypt was also a source of considerable interest to Ihabie scholars of the .\ I iddle Ages. :\ [any of these carly accounts mixed obSCITation ,,-ith fantasy, and more than a lillIe interest in treasure hunting, but some show a genuine cllriosi~' about the names and histories of the builders of the great monuments. It was obvious to Arabic scholars .md carl: tra,'ellcrs that the tombs and temples wcre coycred in carvings, the mysterious hieroglyphs, and it w.tS this aspect of Egyptian ci"ilization that attracted the attention of European scholars such as the German priest Athanasius Kircher, who undertook important research into Coptic and Arabic m.muscripts before turning his attention to the hieroglyphs. Unfortunately, he mistakenly believed these signs to be purely symbolic and non-phonetic, which led him to the fantastic interpretations of texts that in later times have earned him a somewhat unjustified notoriety, The found,;tions of Egyptological knowledge were laid by such European 'travellers' as Richard Pocockc, Claude Sicard and Frederick Ludwig Norden, whose pioneering accowlts of the Pharaonic sites the," visited are jn some cases the only record of m~nllments that have long since fallen victim to plundering or natural

deterioration. Howe\'er, the first systematic e.:xploration of Eg·ypt waS undertaken .tt the end or the cighteenlh century by a small team or French scholars accompanying ?\apoleon's military expedition through the Nile \';llley. '1'he task of these 'sa\'anls' was to rccord all aspe.:cts or Egypt's nora, ElUna and history, and their resolrs \Yere published be! ween 1809 and 1822 as the t\\"cnl~ -four-,'olumc DesaiplioJl de I'Eg)lftlt!o :'\";tpoleon's c.''\pedition was brought to ;1I1 end by the Brilish, but- the scholars were allowed to continue their ,york LUltill802. \Vhen Alexandria ,yas surrendered to the British, the colkclions made b: the sa,"anL'i wcre also handed o,·er, induding certain objects, such ,tS the ROSETn STO'\E, that wefe to prm·c crucial to the de, elopmem of Egyptology. Large.: numbers of indiyidual European tra,·ellers and collectors began to ,·isit Egypt in the nine.:tee.:nth century, along with seyeral further htrge-scalc scientific expeditions, most nOlably the work of Jean-Franc,:ois Champollion and lppolito ROSELLI~I between 1828 and 1829, as well as the amhitious and "ide-ranging researches uf the German scholar Karl Richard I.EPSIcS between 1842 and 1845. Lepsills' expedition undenook extensive mapping and a cert.tin amount of excavation, recording some sites nOt visited by the Fre.:nch as well as adding further de.:tails to the ;.JCCOlInts of known sites; his work "·as published under the title of Denk1!l(fe!er rI/I.I' AegyptClf lIud Aelhiopiel/. In the English-speaking world, the first comprehensive and reliable description of Egyptian antiquities and culture was Sir John Gardner WILKI"'l'SO'\j'S monumental JlIlaJ/l1ers flild CffsIOJII.~ oflhe allcielft Egypliafls, publishcd in three volumes in 1837, after twelve years of continuous fieldwork in Egypt and Nubia.

Portrait ill oils oflJo11'f1rd Carter. paintcd I~l,ltis
elder brother IVillialll il1 /92J. (REPRUOf. Ct./) (,'{)L"Rn°.\') Of 'tl1E CRlff17111\.,,.T1TL n)

ingly mcticulous techniques of field recording and cxca\";ltion. As a result, from the 18905 onwards the subject became increasingly professional in naturc. Mariette's oyersccing of excavations developed into the Egyptian Antiquities Service (the modern incarnation of which is the Supreme Council for Antiquities), which is now re.:sponsible for gmnting excavation permits to foreign missions, as well 'lS co-ordinating their work in the best interests of the Egyptim people. This increasingly involves thc rescue of sites and monuments endangered by construction works, such as the A5\\1.\1'\ lUGl1 Of\'\! in the 19605, the Cairo 'waste-water project' in the 91

.::E..::L_-

E<::I,=,"~ '

19805, and the el-Salaam canal in northern Sinai during the 1990s. In terms of the popular conception of Egyptology, however, these rescue projects have been disrincrly overshadowed by Howard CARTER'S discovery of the

tomb ofTutankhamun in 1922, which was the
first great 'media event' in the history of Egyptology, capturing the imagination of sub1 part of the town 2 temple of Nekhbet 3 temple ofThoth 4 sacred lake 5 rock-cut sanctuary of Shesmetet 6 el-Hamman: chapel of Setau 7 'vulture rock': rock carvings and inscriptions (prehistoric - Old Kingdom) B chapel of AmeBhotep III 9 rock tombs of New Kingdom nomarchs

sequent generations of scholars. lVlodcrn Egyptologists draw on a huge
diversity of techniques and disciplines, including sophisticated geophysical survey, meticulous CXCilVation and recording in plans and photographs, complltcr-g'cneratcd 1'CCOl1sf-ructions, as well as the more traditional fields of epigraphy (copying of inscriptions, paintings and reliefs) and papyrology. See Appendix 1 for a list of the names and dates of the m:.ljor early travellers and Egyptologists mentioned in the text. K. R. LEI'SIUS, Denhllaeler ails AcgypICIllllld AelhioJJ;ell, 12 vols (Berlin, 18-1-9-59). B. "M. P'\GAN, The rapt o/the Nile: lomb robbers. tOl/rists alld arefUte%gists in Egypt (London, 1977). J. VERCOliTI"ER., The scardlfbr (lUcient EgyPI (London, 1992). D. O'CONi\.·OR, 'Egyptology and archaeology: an African perspective', A !IiSloly oI/~/i·it-all archaeology, cd. P. Robcrtshaw (London, 1990), modem village of el-Hillal

River Nile

500

1000 m

P/1I11 orE/cab. in the New Kingdom (1550-1069 BC) it eclipsed the city of Nekhen (IlJER!\KONPOLlS) on the opposite bank, becoming the capital of the third nome of Upper Egypt. Its massive mud-brick walls, dating to the Late Period (747-332 Be) and still largely preserved, enclosed an area of abollt 250,000 sq. m. Ncar the centre of ..he town are the remains of sandstone tcmples dedicated to the deities i\EKI-IBET and 1'1101'11, which date primarily to the 18th to 30th Dynasties (1550-343 BC), but the original foundation of the temple of Nckhbet

23(}--51.
V\'. R.
DAWSON, E. P. UPI-L1LL and 1\11. BIERBRIER, 'IVI/O mas mho in EgyplOlogy, 3rd cd. (London, 1995).

el- All site names beginning with 'el-' (Arabic
'rhe') are alphabetized under the second part of the namc, e.g. KUlTu, cl-.

almost certainly dates back to tJ1C latc fom-th millennium Be The rock-tombs of the provincial governors ofElkab in the New Kingdom include those of Ahmose son of lbana (EK5), an admiral in Lhe wars of liberation against the l-lyksos rulers «(.1550 BC)l and Setau (1'~K4), a priest during the reign of Rameses tIt (1184--1153 BC). The style of the early 18th-Dynast" wall-paimings anticipates that of the first New Kingdom nobles' tombs at Thebes. In 1967 Paul Vermcersch discovcred a series of well-stratified EPJPALAEOLITlIIC campsites. Radiocarbon-dated to c.6400-5980 BC, these

Elephantine Iec ASWAN
Nekheb) Upper Egyptian site on the east bank of the Nile at the mouth of V\iadi Hillal, about 801m south of Luxor, consisring of prehistoric and Pharaonic settlements, rock-cut tombs of the early 18th Dynasty (1550-1295 Be), remains of temples dating from the Early Dynastic period (3100-2686 Be) to the Ptolemaic period (332-30 Be), as well as part of the walls of ;l COPTIC monastery. I?irst scientifically excavated by James Q;libell at the end of the nineteenth century, the site has been investigated primarily by Belgian archaeologists since 1937. The walled Ph,uaonic settlement of Nekheb was one of the first urban centres of the Early Dynastic period, and for a short time

Elkab (anc.

Selau and h~ mifi seated before a 'aMt (~r n.flcrings. TOJJ1boISelaual Elkab. (P. T. NICHOLSON)

92

~CAUSTIC

ESNA

the type-sites of the Elkabian microlirhic industry, filling;l gap in the prehistoric cultural sequence of Egypt, between the Upper Palaeolithic period (c. I0,000 BC) and the earliest eolithie phase (<:.5500 BC). l E. QUIIlELL, EI-Kllv (London, 1898). _, <L'Elkabicn. Unc nOllyc1lc industrie
,1fC

Eg)!ftl: Ihe olle allll til(' I1Ul1/.l' (London, 1983). N. GKI\I,I,I., A hislory oialleieul EgypI (Oxford, 1992),41-5. E. IloKsu'G, {dM illio iwage, trans. E. Bredeck (New York, 1992),39-54.

Epipalaeolithic
Poorly defined chronological phase between the Palaeolithic and i'\eolithic periods, characterized in Egypt by a subsistence pattern midway between TIt.::'\TI!'\G and ,\GRICU'TURI~. Tn cultural terms, it was roughly cquiyalent to the European ~lesolithic period.

epipa!coliLhi<!uc:i Elkab en Haute Egyprc, sa slr3tigraphic, sa typologie" CdE ~5 (1970),

45-68. P. DEROIAIN and P. VF.Rl\lEERSCJI, ElkalJ, 2 ,"ols (Brussels and Louvain, 1971-8).

encaustic
Painting technique, employing a heated mixture of wax and pigmcnL, which was particularly used for the Fayum mummy~portr<1its of Roman Egypt (sec .\RT and HA\\r\R\).

erotica
Since the definition of 'erotica' or 'pornography', as opposed to the honest portraY"ll of SEXUALITY, is a culturally biased exercise, much of rhe possible erotic significance of Egyptian art and literature may well be in the eye of the beholder. The line between erotic art and religion is not easily drawn, particular-

enchorial see DE,\I0TtC ennead (Egyptian pmdjel)
Term used to describe a group of nine gods. The earliest and mosl- significant instance of such a grouping was rhe Great Ennead HELlOPOLlS, consisting of ATUj\\ (the so-called

or

So-tailed 'Ntlukralicfigure'.frol1ltlte Greek set/lement al Naukmlis. Ptolel1laic period. c.300 Be. II..,.7 fill. (£<5-/893)
Iy in the case of the ancient Egyptian culture, in which sexuality and fertility were often important elements of di\,ine cults, such as Those of m:.5, II;\TIIOR and ;\11-". The so-called 'incubation chambers' of Bes at Saqqara appear to have been rooms in which 'pilgrims' hoped to receive erotic dreams leading lO greater fertility. The walls of the chambers were lined with figures of the dwarf-god Bes accompanied by nude females. Simihlrly, symplegU1lflfl (pottery artefacts depicting entangled groups of indi,·idllals engaged in sexual acts) were clearly depicting sexual intercourse, but it is not clear whether they were purely erotica or votive in function. A relatively 1I1lcontentious example of erotica has survived li·om the 19th Dynasty (1295-1186 Be), in the form of the celebrated Turin erotic papyrus (Turin, .Musco Egizio), which appears to portray rhe adventures of a comic character during a visit to a brothel. A number of ostraca also depict men and women engaged in sexual acts. The genre of love poetry appears to ha\"e

Vigllet/eji-01llthe Bool..' ofthe Delfd papyru.'i(~r Nesilanebtashru. shoming Ilm:t' oflhe 1I/l~1II"erS of lire Hehopulitf/1l El1l1ead: Ceb, 1V1I1 aud Slru. symbolizil1g hC{lven alld earlh separaled by tIlt' sky. 21s1 DYIIIIS(J'. c./025 JJC. (1:.//05.,4, SHEET8?)
'bull of the Ennead') and three generations of his progeny: his children SHU and TEFNUT, his grandchildren GEB :lnd NUT, and his fouf grcatgrandchildren OSIRIS, ISIS, SI':TI-I and NI~I'HTJ-lYS. These nine deities participated in the Heliopolitan CREATI01\ myth, whereby the sungod emerged from the primeval waters of ;"'JUN. E. HOR.i~UNG, COllcepliom olGod /11 tlllcieni

flourished in the marc cosmopolitan atmosphere of the .:\lew Kingdom, ,\"hen Egypt was exposed to new peoples and exotic ideas from abroad. The poems, written on papyri or ostfi.1ca ;md d;:uing primarily to the 19th to 20th Dynasties, seem to h;:l\"e been read ollt loud with musical accompaniment frOTn harpists, and so might be regarded as a form of song. Thc,· would perhaps ha,·e prm·ided part of the entertainment at the laY1sh banquets of the nobility, and were unlikely to have been spontaneous compositions. In such poems it was usual for the couple to refer to one another as 'brother' and 'sister', sometimes taking turns to describe rheir feelings of joy or loss at their particular romantic situation, or deli\·ering monologues addressed to their own he:ll·rs. Feasts and banquets in the 18th Dynasty often appear to have included elements of erotica, and both men ;.1I1d women are depicted wearing diaphanous clothing at such OCCasions, when they arc depicted on the walls of tomb chapels. Their entertainment often consisted of naked or semi-naked dancing girls, some of whom may have been prostitutes. It is possible, however, thar the erotic O\'crtones in these tomb-paintings may have been deliberarely intended to emphasize sexuality and fertility in order to enhance the potency of the funerary culr. Naked women, sometimes associated with C;:I[S and ducks, were often used as decoratiyc clements on toilet objects, particularly during the reign of AME:'\HOTEP III (1390-1352 BC). See SI·:XLi.,I.ITY for a discussion of the possible relationships between erotit.'a and fertility, including the production of so-called 'fertility figurines'. J. 01\11.1:'\, 'Oer papyrus 5500] und seine s.tririsch-crorischen Zeichnungen und lnschrifren" Cnllllogo tid ;\[useo Egizio tli Toriu" /11 (Turin, 1973). P. OERCJ 1.,1,1:'\, 'La pcrruque et Ie cristaI', SA K 2 (1975).55-14. 1\1. LICIITIIEI\I, ..-II/cielll EgYflli(ll1litemture II (Berkeley, 1976), 181-93. L. ~l.-\:'\:'\ICIIE, Sexunllift ill (llfl:iC1f1 I:.gyflt (London, 1987). E. STItOUlli\l., Life ill (llIcieul Egypt (Cambridge. 1992),11-19,39-49.

Esna (anc. lunyt, Ttl-sellet, Latopolis)
Site on the west bank of the Nile in Upper EgYPI, 50 km somh of Luxor. The main surviving arducological remains are the sacred necropolis of thc Nilc perch (Lates nilo/iellS) and the Greco-Roman temple dedicated to the ram-god KIINUM as well as the goddesses NEITII and Heka (see MAGIC), which was built on the site of a temple mentioned by texts at least as early as the reign of Thutmose III

93

ETHICS

EXECRATION 1 ~

'I~~r;mPle

...•••••• ..
4

• •2 • • • •

3 ••••••5

-.-~ ~
10

\-

20 m

1 texts of Marcus Aurelius 2 cartouc~les of Ptolemy VI

Philometer 3 cartouches of Antoninus Pius

4 cartouches of Claudius 5 scene of king and gods netting fowl and demons

PIau O/Iltc Ti.'lIIplc fJ/KlnlllJll a! ESI/fl.

(H79-l-l25 uc). Onh· the III I'OSTYI.I.ILILL \Yas excavated h~ Auguste 1\ laricLtc, and the rest o(

to ancient Egyptian ethics, representing the original state of tranquillity at thc mument of the CRDTI(J:, of the universe. It waS the rcath~ er 01" the g'Oddess ~laat that WilS weighed against the hean of the deceased to determine \,"hether he or she was worthy of resurrecrion in the afterlife. The so~(alled 'negalive confes~ sian' -.1 list of sins that had not been committed by the deceased - was intended l"O be recited in this 'hall of judgemcnf in order to ensure a successful outcome. A number or practical statements of Egyptian ethits have sun ived in the form of the .lcba)'t (see \r1SDO\1 L1TElUTuln:), main I) wrinen on pap) rus and dating I"rom the Old ~ingdom to the Roman pcriod ((.2686 BC- \1) 395). '1'he earliest of these documents destrihe the qualities required uf a person in order to ensure success both in his or her lifetime and in the afterlife. Individuals wcre expected both to satist\ their superiors and to protect those who were poorer. From the second millcnni~

icaJ defenccs fortifications.

to

back lip the physical military .

The execration texts have helped Eg)'ptologists to identif'~' those who \\'lT~ Con_ sidered to be cncmir:s of Egypt at different periods in their history, although the histllrical \iilue or such lists is reduced by the rClldclln to repeat stock lists of names, which are oftc~ olwiously <lI1<lchronistic. Sometimes the 1l.11llCS

the temple remains buried uncler the surrounding buildings of the modern town. The
building' was probabl~' connected originally

with the Nile by a processional way leading to
a quay, traces of which, bearing cutulIchcs of the Roman CllllRTOl" NLtrclls Aurelius (.\1)

16]-180), have been preserved in sillt.
According to some of the inscriptions in the temple, there were originally four other temples in the region (one of which was recorded by Napoleon's savants), but none of these has surrivcd into modern times. Important late Palaeolithic remains have also been found in the vicinity of Esna. Togethcr with contemporaneous matcrial at "J·\QAD!\, Dishna and Toshb, they make up rhe main sources of eridencc for the 'Esnan' lithic industry which nourished ,liongside the (~ldan, Afian and Scbilian industries during rhe Sahaha-Darau period ((.13,000-10,000 Be:). 'The remains at Esnan sites include grinding stones and sickle bbdes associated with the cultivation of domesticated plants, as well as the stone points and scrapers associated with hunting and gathering. S. Sr\UNI':RO,\" ESlla, 5 \'ols (Cairo, 1959-67). D. DOWNES, Thr exct/Z'alifills fit Emo 1905-1906 (Warmi n sterl I974). F \tVENOORf and R. 50-111.0 (cd.) PI'l'h~t(}/y (~rtlll: Nile valley (New York, 1976),289-91.
Lillc~drallJiJlg I!(all 'e.\'aratitilljiKlIre' ((msisllll.~ (I/a sdu;/l/ati( staluelle (~({( b(Jl(lld (tlptii'e inscribed 11,ith {/ hii'rtI/ie mrsil1g ritual. 011(' '~/Fi'1' similarjigllres thaI arr Ihl/ughtto lun:c ht!t'ujill/l/(/ (lille/mllif. The text lists variolls jVlf/JitlffS (Iud I,i/~)'alfs (/S me/I as tm(! EgYPlialf re/Jels. 12i1f Dynasty, c./920 !Jr:, trtll'cl'tilU:, II. 15 (IIf. (r "NO. .Jl~·6J95.1. ON /In fO tUCIIIN/) I' INA It\'.WJ,\)

(~rlhe

TJ11(}ji·i1glllellts uIII papyrus hHtribed IPilh sl'uiollS Instruction ofPtahhotep. /21h D.)'I/(/.I'~)!,

c.1900JJc./I.I.'oll. (1:,10371. 10-135)
lll11 Be, the code of ethics described in fhe Seb{fJ'1 was less worldly, tending to measlll'e virtue more in terms of piery to the gods rhan in terms of material succcss. Sec also LAW. T G. I-I. P!i"rlloli·.1 people (OxlorJ, 198-1), 73-99. E. STROUl [/\[., Lde ill (l!/l:iclfl EgyjJ/ (Cambridgc, 1992),31--4.

j""",,,

execration texts
'Type of document listing places, groups of peoplc or individuals regarded as hostile or inherently evil. These texts OCClll' from the late Old Kingdom onwards and were inscribed on stalUettes of prisoners or poner)' j,lrs, which were often broken and buried as part of:l magical process of tTiumphing over the persons or places listed ..Most of the surviving examples were found in the vicinity of tombs at Thebes and Saqqant, but a large numbcr were also excilvated at the .wliddle Kingdom FORTRESS of Mirgissa in Nubia (including texts inscribed on a human skull), no doubt comprising mag-

ethics
The accepted code of social behaviour and the distinction between right and wrong during the Pharaonic period both tend to be closely intcrnvincd with I'U1\ER!\RY BEr .II·:FS and cultic requirements. The concept of MAAT (often translated as 'truth' or 'harmony') was central

of the hostile forces are listed in great detail, while in other instanccs thc enemies ;Irc the stereotypical i\'1!':E BOWS, rhe figure 'nine' rep~ rescnting three times threc, which W;lS the 'pluralilY of pluralities" thus designating the entirety of all enemies. A related example of the magic involved in the execration textS is the ceremony of 'breaking red jars' as pan of temple ritual designed to ward orf evil, the j'lrs being the colour of blood. G. l'OSJ':NER l 'Achtungstcxtc', LC.ril.'Oll der .-·igyptologic II ed. \tv. IIelck, E. Otto and W. Wcstcndorf(Wicsbadcn, 1975),67-9. ~, Cill'J/igurcs d'cllvuiitclI/eIlt (Cairo, 1987). D. B. REDFORD, Egypt, Canaoll alld lsmc/ ill
{IudCIIllimes (Princeton, 1992),87-93.

R. K. RIT'i'ER, The lIIechanics oIuui'ielll Egyp/if/ II magical praUia (Chicago 199J).
l

eye of Ra
Term used to describe the eye of the sLln~god,

94

~OFRA

FAIENCE

which waS considered to exist as il separate entity, independent of the god himself: The symbolism of the eye of R-\, associated with a ;umbcr of g'oddesses, was complex and

diverse.ln the myth identifying; 1[HI lOR as" the eye, she was regarded as hil\-;ng rr,wcllcd to ~ubia, whence she had to be lured back. The SEKI h\lET \Trsion or the eye, on the other hand, rook the form of a s<\\"agc goddess \\'ho rcycllcd in the shlLlghrer of humans as the instrument of the sun-gad's \\Tath. These two \TTSions of the eye were essentially the two sides of the personality of the goddess. The eye waS also closely idenrificd with the cobra-goddess \r\D.1 fT , the divine personification of the IIrtltl/S (ittrel or Jlesfcl in Egyptian) which \\'ilS worn on the brow of the king in order to spit \TnOm at his enemies (sec COlm \). I I. TE VELDE, '1\ lut, the eye ofRe', _·li·lell Mli"lldJell 1985111, cd. S. Schoske (l-htmburg, 1989),395--403

F
faience
Ccr.lmic material composed of crushed quartz, or quartz sand, wi.th small amountS of" lime and plant ash or natron. T'his body material is usually coaled with a bright blue or green glaze of" soda-lime~silic;\ type. ft \\"<1S used from the Predynastic period to the fslamic period; typical products include small figurines and amukrs, architectural ornaments and inlays, vessels, and such runerar~ artefacts as SI IMJTI figures. The material waS known to the Egyptians as ~jl!"elll!l, the literal meaning of which \\"as 'brilliant' or 'dazzling' Like GI..\SS, which was introduced in the Ne,,' Kingdom (1550-1069 Be), irs main purpose WaS probably to imitate gem-stones such as TLH<tUOISI': and L.\PIS L-VI11.1. Although blue and green are the most common colours, many others could also be achieved, and polychrome pieces were very popular at certain periods, not least

eye-paint see COSI\\E'I'ICS

during the Nc\y King;dom when elabor;;ltc inlays and pieces of jcwellery were being pnlduced. 13lack decoration \\'as sometimes added to monochrome pieces by painting; in Ilunganese. The technology for producing faience J11a~ hi1\'e devcloped from the process glazing quartz and steatite slOncs. The material is more properly called 'Egyptian Elicnce', in order to distinguish it fi'om the tin-gbzc<' carthcl1\yare originally made at Facnze in lti1l~ h'om late mcdieyal times. llecause the bright colours of the Egyptian material reminded early Egyptologists European 'f"aienee' (now mOre currectly called I/ltIjolim), they used this somewhat misleading name. The body material of faience \\"as mixed with water and thell moulded or hand~ IlHltlellec1 to the required shape. Difficult shapes were sometimes abraded from l"Oughouts when partJy dried, thus allowing very delicate pieces to be prod llced ir necessary. !\'lan~ hundreds of" cla~' moulds tor producing rings, amulets ,l1ld other items of bicncc have

or

or

Egypliflllji/ic/ltt' lJoJ11lji-fJlll 7hebes. Nem Kingdulll. (EIJ790)

95

=-F,-=A~Lc=C=-:O=-:N-,---

1 ,-,'t:.:c:\"'.t.I.!:Y

survived, particularly [rom urban sites such as EL-AM../\R\f,\ and Q;\2'JTIR. Glazing' was achieved in three ways. The fiJ'st of these was 'emorcscence', whereby the

glazing material was mixed with the quartz
body and effloresced on to its surFace as the piece dried~ when fired, this coaring melted to become a ghize. The second method WJ5 'cementation" in which the artcf:lCt to be glazed was surrounded by glazing powder, which bonded with its surf:1CC during firing. The finished piece was then removed from the unused glazing powder, which could be easily cfumbled away. In the third meL hod, known as "application glazing" the object was coated in slurry (or in powder of glazing material) and then fIred. A. K.K.Z.\\ARCZYI{ and R. E. J'v1. I-lEDGES, Anc/clll J:.:~)lpliall.Jflielli:e (\,Varminster, 1983). P. VANDI\'ER and W. D. KIi\'OERY I 'Egyptian faience: the first high-tech ceramic', Ceramics lind ch.. :i!i;:,aliol/ flI, ed. VV. D. Kingery (Coltnnbus l Ohio, 1987), 19-34. P.. T NICHOLSO" Egyp/ialljiliel/t"l' alld glass (Princes Risborough, ]993).

or prey. T'hus, the Horus-falcon image may have been regarded as interch'1I1geable with a whole range of other birds of prey. L. STORK and H. ALT~NiI\OLLER, 'Falke', Le.\'il'oll der Agyptologie II, cd. vv. Heick, E. Ono and Vol Westendorf (Wiesbaden, 1977),93-7. R. 'VI1YINSO" Rcading Egyptiall art (London, 1992),82-3

false door
Elaborate stone or wooden architectural element inside Egyptian tombs and mortuary temples, in front of which funerary offerings were usually placed. The false door, westorientated and serving as a link between the living and the dead, was a rectangular imitation doorway which first appeared in tombs of the Old Kingdom (2686-2181 Be). The t}'pical form of the false door evolved out of the 'p;'llace-fa<;:ade' external architecture of the _\I'\STABA tombs of the elite in the EarJy Dynastic period (3100-2686 He), the external sides of which consisted of a series of alternate panels and recessed niches. The false door was effectively a narrow stepped niche surmounted by a rectangular stone slab-stele,

usualJy carved with a figure of the deceased seared before an OFFEIUJ\G "IABI.F. and inscribed with the traditional OFFERIt\G FOI{_ 1\IUl.l\ and the name and titles of the lomb_ owner. Some surviving false doors incorpo_ rate a life-size relief figure of the /.:(1 (spiritu_ al 'double') of the deceased stepping om of the niche. S. VVIEBACH, Die iigJljJtisrhe Scheill/iil" (Hamburg, 1981). N . STRUDWICK, The odlllinistralioll o/EgJIP/llllhl' Old KillgdulII (London, 1985). M. SALEII and H. SOulmuzl:\N, Thc Egyp/it/II ;VIl/scuIII. Cairo: oj}itial WIl/logl/{' (Mainz, 1YS7), CIt. nos. 57~S. G. HAENY I 'Schcinriir', Lexikoll derAgYPIolo!!.lf "", cd. \.v. I-kkk, E. Otto and vv. \Vestcndorl" (Wiesbaden, 198{), .163-71.

familv see CltILDRE.~ famine
Egypt's agricultural prosperity depended On the annual INUNDtHIO;\l of the Nile. For crops to nourish it was desirable that the !'\ile should rise about eight metres above a zero point at the first cataract near Aswan. A rise of only seven metres would produce a lean year, \\ hile six metres would lead to a famine. Thai such famines actually occurred in ancient Eg~ pt is

falcon
One of a number of birds which figured among the SACRED :\:'-JIMALS of ancient Egypt. The falcon (Egvptian bik) or hawk was frequently regarded as the BA of IIORUS, the hawkheaded god and son of OSIRIS (to whom the bird was also sacred). Excavations at IIIEI{;\KONPOLIS ('city of the falcon'), the ancienr Egyptian Nekhen, revealed a fine gold Ellcon head with two plumes and "I"aellS (Cairo, Egyptian Museum), which was once part of a composite statue. The Horus-falcon was the guardian deity of the ruler and is frequently depic.ted with its wings outstretched protectively behind the head of the king, as on the famous statue of the 4th-Dynasty ruler I(IIAFRA. It was also the falcon that surmounted the royal SF.HEKJ I, where it served a similar protective function, an extension of the role it seems to have adopted as early as the beginning of the Pharaonic period, when it was depicted on the palette of NARivIER. The bird was also sacred to the gods j\lO;.JTU and SOK}\]{, and occasionally also associated wit'h the goddess ]-[,\TI-IOR. A falcon on a plumed staff was one of the symbols of the west and the necropoleis, and the BA was sometimes represented as a human-headed falcon. At least as early as the Late Period (747-332 Be) at S,IIQQt\RA there was a catacomb constructed specifically for mummified hawks sacred to Horus. Recent examination of a number of these mummies has shown them to comprise a number of djfferent types of birds

Lillll!strme/itlsl! door 0/ P/ahslu:pses/rOIll his lomb
(1/

Saqqaru ..)/h DYll(l.\·OJ. c.2450 Be,

H.

3.66"1/1.

(£,1682)

96

It has been argued by some scholars. Ptolemaic and Roman remains. Fam/i·a Oasis (Cliro. . lhe phrase 'on the sandbank' (em ~ies) pcrh.n-c rc\"calcd a stT<ltigraphic level in \yhich Lower Egyptian Predynastic pottery types wcre gradually being replaced by Upper Egyptian Early Dynastic wares (see Plu":m·. On the island of Schel. including cemctcries.Ergebnisse ~ Perspcktivcn" PrfJh!c/IIs alld priorilics ill E'gYPlitlll ardwl!()logll. whose excil\. may indeed sometimes have led 10 politic'. about 300 km west of the modern w\\"n of ASYUL The slllaliest of the major Egyptian oases.(ane. describe how hc saved his people from 'dying on the sandbank of hell'. B. Currelly undenook trial exc. and IJI' the 19th Dynasn· (1295-1186 Be) it was said to hm-e been inhabited by Libyans. 1992).~)I(f (Cliro.. and may simply be designed to reinforce the claims of the temple of Khnum on Elephantine to tax local produce (although some scholars belie\'e that it is a copy of an authentic document)" That famines LOok place during me Old Kingdom is not in doubt. which is supposed to have been c\'cntually ended by the ram-god "'-I L'L.1 town of" the early Christian period (I"..lte Prcdynaslic times until the Roman period «(. In 1888 the sile was ideorifted as ancient Buto by Flinders Petric. 11. Ta-iht) Fertile depression in tIle "'estern Desert. This purports to be a decree of Djoscr (2667-26+8 BC) of the 3rd Dynasty recording his concern O\"er a scycn-ycar famine. immediately south of Aswan. La Jall/iuc dallS I Egyplc flUn"CJ/IIC (Cairo.2100 BC)1 at I~L-~IO'AI.nion have yet been discm"cred.11 fragmcnts of relief from the walls of the 5th-Dynasty causeway of the pyramid complex of U'\:\S (2375-23+5 BC) at Saqqara.mJ(I/I.lry end to the establishcd order. cd. Textual sources h. In faer the text dates to Ptolemaic times. nll·(~/i·(f alld Klrarga durillg pharaonic limes (W·arminstcr.'\. The Fall/illc Sle/e oJ//lle is/tlnd (~r Sehel.3. SCllorr. The Predynastic stratil at the site were first located in the 1980s by Thomas \"on der \\lay.ltions appear to h. partly on the basis of these relieE~.l'I'urjr/lllil1c lI1/{1 Plfl'/J0/. These reliefs depict numerous emaciated figures. haths and temples.~MINE FARAFRA OASIS a11cie1l1 f'gYIJI. their ribcages clearly visible. C. 190+). 'Auf'nahmen yom Houngersnotrclief aus clem Aufweg del' Unaspyramide'. 'Tell d-rara'in 83-85: Problcl11c . BEI. Farafra Oasis (anc. cd. and il has becn suggested that it was a IIYKSOS king of Egypt whom Joseph sayed frum the effects of famine (but see also BIBLICAL CO.U In dale 10 Ihe lilllc oIfll(' 3rd-DYll(/.299-30+. houses. L. T \'0:\ I)ER \VIW. PETRIE and C. and the suryiying visual evidencc includes scycf:. . Bum) Cluster of three mounds (comprising two fowns and a temple complex) in the northwestern Delta.\STIC PERIOD). T. arc the remains of . "rhe building of canals and irrigation ditches did much to alle\"iate the suffering caused by low floods.. D. 'f: NJC/IOI_~'O\) well documented from ~l number of sources. E.'\t Ain Dallal".I. F. on the northwestcro cdge of the Elnlfra depression. it is first mentioned in texts dating to the Old J(ingdolll (2686-2181 BC). no archaeological traces of the Pharaonic phase of ol:cup. Howc\"er. scated on the ground and apparelltly weak from hunger.. L. Rt-:IWORIJ. RdE 17 (1965). T CURREJ. \~l.. 1981). Prolonged periods of famine.3300 11C-.\'\DJER . which was occupied from l. AD +50). who controlled the rising of the waters. The inscriptions in the tomb of Hetcpi at Elkab also describe a ElIl1ine during the reign OI"INTEE 11 (2112-2063 BC).1-26. 1936). The Nile Delfa in Iftll1Siliol/: -Ilh-3rd millenllium /Jr.. and l:crtain papyri indil:atc that the roY'11 lOmbrobberies of the 20th Dynasn· (1186-1069 Be) may have been prompted by the need for gold to buy food during the so-called 'year of the hyenas ' .. 97 .l\·e identified Buto with 'Pe amI Oep'. STE\·E.'it'l: Iml (/cllllll~)' belongs 10 the PIn/elf/air paiod. 'The dark ages in ancient history. (London.I'I)' ruler Djo. Pc and Del'. GlI1D\'.. (p. that the Old Kingdom (2686-2181 Be) ended largely beeause of prolonged drought and increasing desertificarion. 2nd cd.7(Wl"IItl! of Ardwt!ology i5 (1971).7-1. Assmann e1" al. (Harmondsworth.ll turmoil and helped to bring abour a tempor. 'J'lll' rod. both literary and artistic. 1970).. AII/cri. At lean times people appe.lps refers to a low inundat"ion and hence to famine. I-HI.91-9.".I.]. M" \Can den Brink (Tel A\'iv. The arl tlnd a.. 1987). which date to the Roman period (30 BC-\n 395) . J.. I: The first dark agc in Egypt'. Per\iVadjyt. A S(IIf(Y f~r tht' Bib/hal SIOI)I of Joscpll (Leiden. caused by poor inundation.\£ions. "v.' hears 1/ mrn:d inscripliun /ph/eli refers If) (f sei'l'lf-.. I he semi-mythical Predyn~stic r-win C~lP­ imls of Lower Egypt.tr to ha\"c turned to the black market or to theft in order to feed themsclyes. 1987). The site waS subsequently not properly examined until the 19605 when the survey and exc:IYiltions of Veronica Seron-\Villiams and Dorolhy Charles\yorth rcyealed Late Period. J. 'Excavations at Tell c1-Fara'in/Buto in 1987-1989'. the earliest known sites being the settlements and cemeteries at Ain cl-\Vadi and \Vadi Abu Hinnis in the northern pan of the oasis.\SON 5\11"1"1 I. Tell el.I.hillYlure oJ Fara'in. The 'autobiographical' inscriptions in the tomb of the provincial governor Ankhtifi (c. B. fgyptiall O({Sf~". The Riblical ston' of Joscph mal' ilself h~\·e taken place during the Second Intcrmediale Period (1650-1550 BC). V.. BEAD"ELL. and in 190+ C. DaNdo. 1901). 'Ecno~s). )\'1.Y I Eh1/a.l/II .\D 395). but such sLramgems \yere not illways sufficient. Balum)ltl. S.\I. 133-+. is lhe Famine Stele.Ifill/ii (~r A.

1f..•"".\: nnd E.ulicst inhabitants of the Fayum werc thc EPU'. as well as the paint-layers and stylistic c1c\'c1opment of dlC cathcdral murals] ha\'ccontributcd significantly ro thc deyelopmcnt of a chronological framcwork for Christian Nubia. . SOIlI.\. j.\:\. (L/606) i\~L\Ii\1.\. H2-55. J.II) 6{ I). Pachoras) Sculcmcnt on rhe border between modern Egypt and Sudan.ll LO the museums :11 \Varsaw and Khartoum.' ji·ie. Traces of hnth groups were first found by Gertrude GUonThompson ilnd Elinor Gardner in the northern Fayum.l'lIf11 di'1. ~loeris) Large fcrtile depression covering 12. F \V":'I)OHF and R. 0.\. 226.l\.llQrS examined a large mound in the centre of the modern village th. S.. 1%6).000 sq.. S.ISII"l'. 1928-35 (l\lichigan. 1962-5).. o Qasr el-Sagha ". 1(79). J.)! (New York.\lIClI.\Rn"·I{. EO\\I" " ."'" . The stratified ponery from Lhe site..\GRICLI:rUIU: and IIUSI. ]976). Thc region incorporatcs an.~I. 19..ITY festivals The Egyptiall religious calendar was pllncruPlall oIlhe Fayulll rt'gi(il!.1 CIII...u had previously been erroneously interprcted as a typical stratified TELL-site. Smtlhf(jll/? bI(jcR (j/rll'("()rtlfil't. \:V. Thc region flourished from the \Iiddlc Kingdom (2055-16:')0 Be) onwards. "'1111111"'1"" Karanis o Bacchias "IIII'"~"". 1986).. The e. {72-8{. (!!. The episcopal eathedral (founded 1". when the Egyptian l:ilpital W<IS relocated at Itjla.. 198{).li\~LJR\ Fayum region (anc..\\\.11) 650) •mel the bishop's palace were discoycred in exceptionally good condition when Polish eXC..·. somewhere in the region of 1':I.. Vt\NTr'lJ. C. . Karanis: ('.l) (cds).OIlII·:I~':II(I.V3rS. Gntil the Palacolithic period a \'ast s3lt-w3ter lake lay at thc heilrt of the depression) but this was gradually transformed into the smaller. or fecundity figures see I LII'\ fertility figurines see SE~L\\.. farm animals sa . G.'{).I-shc..ypf alit:!" fhl' plU/rt/ohs (Lundun.lIe to the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. kill in the J .IJFOKI) and \V. 197~).}.]. which was succecded by the '\eolithic 'Fayum N culturc in (.1\]).8000 IlC.ibyan Desert about 60 km to the southwcst of Cairo. KCIlJ'\'sK. G. linked to the Nile by the Bahr (llfd lhe Xi/('--Ni. .. 1972).". E.\I. K. N t 10 20 30 40 km 98 .\To:\-TIIU\1PSO. Although thc site is now submerged under the waters of Lake Nasser the Polish archacologists were able to transfer 169 painted murals from the cathedr.PARAS FECUNDITY F1GU~ YlIsse[ channel.:"m cIAtl) were at thcir height. HCSSEUUN. /. o Biahmu .\15. which was first established as a small Egyptian f()rtrcss in the l\1iddle Kingdom (2055-1650 Be) and continued in use in the 18th to 19th Dynasties (1550-1186 w:) with the construction of five Egyptian temples. j.'idl' (Chicago. '].\1) 600-1500) it wns one of the most importanl bishoprics in Kubia.VPI.H·ai..\fiqllc dc /(1 Nllbie t:/irltiollll' (Leiden. A. Fams III (\Varsaw. K..'tllilJlIs t~(t/i( Ulli·uersi~)1 (!(A t lidligtlll ill E:!{.5500 Be. 15S-fII. Nubia: corridor to /lfriCti (London and Princeton. She-Ie. and during the Christian period (c. F·aras: teutre arti.ilrtlS I-II (\Varsaw. bUL most of the slIITiying archaeological remains d.~/(JJ:l' the Nile 1~/1Ie. 7th ce11IUlJ! /I). when such towns as Karanis (Kolll Allshim)) TcblUnis (Tell Umm cI-Breigat) and Bacchias (!.ji"Ol1l f/it/int ((It/il'rlmlaf/~/ras. S. 1r continucd to [unction as a religious cenrre after the departure of the Egyptians. FartH 1\ (\. _-\Rl\:EI. PrdliJlflril slIri'()'ofE.. fresh-w.lter Lake !Vlocris. h..I.1-1-)..ran.:hacological sites dating from the late Palaeolithic to the late Roman and Christian periods «(.ptulIl/lfi'stefll_lsia:Palt·o!ithIc1l1tfll Faras (ane.olldon.. Y Adams argues thal the importance of Faras owed more to indigenous Nubian traditions than to any military significance that it might hm"c had for Ihe Egyptian colon iSIS.. The J)e~'('f"f Fayu11I (T . 1929). 1970). "I'lle e.\L\EOUTIIlC 'Fa~ urn B' culture. Prt'hi.O\\SI(I.. \V.YlliollS af l(mH (Bolngna. Y.

\LL'1 '\\'orship and fcsti. Some of the most imponanl n. which is depicled on the walls of the colonnade . built bv Amenhotep III (1390-1352 Ile) and dcconIfcd by Tutankhamun (U36-nZ7 Be).IlI. describes the gigantic sizes of these crops. on either side of thc Nile... thus allowing her to givc birth t:o the royal "-. within which the barl.."RT. . such festivals required I he provision of amounts of loan.If Luxor. S. along a sphinx-lined roUle broken al inrer\"<lls b~ "bark-shrines' or wily-stations. 205-17. BU:I".·bieb took place at Thebes from the early 18th Dynasty onwards. thus j or 1 Delllil o/milll-pai11ling inlhe lomb (~rSI'l11le(lj"em ill !Jeir d-Aledilla. 1989).. the Raising of the Sh and the Festi\·al of the POller's \Yhecl.l/ IURR/SO. Fields orbru) 'Tb L pass through the field of reeds' WaS an Egyptian met'lphor for dearh.uional e\'cnts of this type \Yen: the :\cw Year Fesri. Vas Jl"hijl1t' Fesl ("Oil OPt'1 (Leipzig. According to Chapter 1-1-5 of the IK>O" OF TilE DEAD it was here Lhal the dcccilscd would galher the abundant crops el11l11cr and baricy.:iatcd with the smaller prm-incial temples.""I'I\.l1liol1 (London. Each festi.'al.\or in <1 series of cercmonial boals. 71. 165-203.1 god. J. SUIUIT.llllescs Ill'S mortuary temple).1". W. B. See also SED FE.J.ll procession of the divine images from K. A later version of this festiyal inyolved a more complex processional route via onc of the morru. Egyplitlllje.lking thc cult statues of" the Theban triad (Amun.s would be temporarily phlCed en route.E\II'. The religious purpose of this fe~ti\'al \\._"'nflml Egypl: (111t11011~)' ofu rlvili:::. lasting for a period that \"aried from two to four weeks. since I-he 'field of reeds' was a term used to describe the dOl11ain of OSIRIS.-al therefore incorporated a ceremony known :IS lhc 're. Chapter 109 me'1I1whilc. G./.'i along the route). Bullt'li" of/hI' JOhl1 RyltilltlS LiIJrary. The di. both of . Bff/IO H (1924).M./2oo 11<:' (GR. F \IR. meSII'1"1l Tht'bes.· fes- tirals. enabling his physical form to coalesce with lhc crernal fi)rm of the I:a.\lalldit'sla 37 (195{). The field was so synonymous Wilh fert-ility and abundance that: the hicroglyph t()I' field (sc/..inc imagcs werc raken to and from Lu. JVlut and Khons) from Karnak to [JEIR EL-BAIIlU 1 which arc located almost exactly opposite one another. The Beautiful Festival of the Valley in\"lJln:d an annual procession t. A similar festival linked T.'lsl-days in one year.m temple'. 1952).~STIVALS FJELD OF REEDS ~1 ated by numerous festivals. Two of the best-known annual religious events were the Fcsrh"al of Opet and the BC:luriful Festi\·al nf the Valle\. in which the extra f()()d offerings brough! to thc temple wcre redislributed to the masses. the Fesli\·al of SOk \R. D(O' s(hiilll! Fesl 1'QI1I 'ViislCIllllle (Wiesbaden. 11.:Il/!/) sometimes replaced the hett:p-sign thaI was usually employed to denote the act of offering. By the lale 18th Dynasty..u~..edinCl Habu. FOUC.·al of Opel.·als in an Egypti. so that he could emerge hom the temple as . 1931).·ine images in lheir sacred R\RKS were initially carried to Luxor overland. 'Etudes thebaincs: la Belle FeLe de laVallee'. c.'$ varying from eighty-fcJUr in a standard monthly festival to nearly four thousand in dle Festh-al of Sokar. 191h /)YI/{O'OI.uxor temple with the temple of Thutmose III at \lEI1I"!':T II·\BL (immediately La lhe northeast of R.\L. depicling Ihe tleu(fs{'(1 il1ll11' Field ofReed. _-\ similar text in rhe mortuary temple of Ramcses III (118+-1153 Ilc) at \IEIJI"ET IIAIll: lists six.IS to celebrate the sexual intercourse between Amun and the mother of the reigning king."e5 of bread depic£cd on offering tables were occasionally portrayed . The main event in this festival was the ritui.arnak to LU\:OI{. bur there would also have been many purely local fcsti.\ (spiritual cssence or double). the di. At' the culmination of the fcsti.IS actual reeds. In the Festiyal HallufThutmose 111 (H79-1425 Ilc) at K \R'" there is a list of fifty-fouf fC.'aI 1 the king himself cl1t'ercd the inner sanctum. SimilarlYl reed-shaped loa. fig.aic:ills: eJltlf/melllso! religiolls n'm'mal (Leiden. According ro the 'calendar of feasl and offcrings' at ."als assoc. The temple at Luxor was in fact conslTlIcled largely as a suitable architectural setling for the Festi. The Festiral of Opet also took place annually (in the second month of lhe season of {(kltel). \V \Vou. often consisting of procession in which the cult image of a deity was morcd li'om one temple to another (usually providing opportunities for OR_\CLE. l'...\) 99 . 1~209. 19(7). howcycr.·ersion of offerings'. c."ER. Field of Reeds (Fields of Offerings.temples that" lined the edge of the cultiviltion on the \ycst hank.

since this lisl was parr of the celebration of the royal cult. something \\ hieh is said Lo havc led to occ. Despite this <lpparentl~ inauspicious action. and for the poor people of ancient Eg~ pl lhese would have sen·ed as a substitute tor the more costly meat.0r:"" The rise alldfidl olthe A'fit/rl/e Kingdom. According to the Greek writer Plutarch ell) +6--126).\Kl. W. lhe marshy Delta. is at odds with lhe listing of sc\·cnteen names in (:nrtouches in the -'BYDOS king list. Reading EgYPI. R. for instance. Sec also FUl\'ERt\Rr BEI.. perhaps lasting about thirty years.Ol D. If there were. \VU.I~TIIO'S 7th to 10lh Dynasties and the early pari of the 11th Dynastl·.E KI"GIlOII (2055-1650 BC). denied 10 others. 'Wirtschaftlichc und gesdlschaftlichc f.1sional conflict. H. S.'S.\QQAR" suggests that l\Jlemphis at le.\YER.\CRElJ \'\I\L\LS).-l hislfII]' o/allcielll hgypt (Oxford. [n the tomb of Kabekhnet at Deir el-~ ledina (Tr2) a fish is depicted in Ihe position whcre lhe mummy of thc dece·i. 'The field of I-Jetep in Egyptian coflin texts'. The period corresponds to \\ \. This hypothesis.\BOO in one area could be eaten in another. WI?\1. K. the first of these probably being Meribra Khet)' I (r.\!. They comprised a series of rulers originating from HER. with its lapis blue colour. c. The general lack of information concerning the political dc. the Red Sea ilnd lhe 1\ lediterrancan coast are all rich in cdihle fish. The Nile.1193) was cut into pieces by SETII his phallus \\:15 tHen by three species of ~iIc fish .lst lay within the control of the 7[h. H.J1::I. GRI\I:\L• .. the Oxyrynchus fish was regarded as sacred at the town of that name in the fayum rcgion) since one tradition held that this fish camc forth from the wouIllls of Osiris himsclf. Day. N.1fe.'\OK and :\. LJ. t. L. E. were: the successurs of the 6[h.FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD symbolizing not only the offcrinb'"S of bread but a general abundance of other offerings. 112-16.' that fishermen were employed to provide some of the rations felf the royal tomb-workers. It is known [rom records CXC:l\"ated at DEIR EL-. fish which W~1S T. the 7th and 81h Dynasties still gO\"crncd Egypt from the Old Kingdom capital.ntwicklung im Obergang: vom Alrcn zlIm!\ littlcrcn Reich'. Hayes suggested that Ihe pharaohs of the 8th Dyn~lsty. B.-j\lO'ALLA and ASYLT was flourishing.111I1Il1. Prohl/jllls ((lid priorities il/ Egypti((11 ardllle%gy. about l\\'enty-five kings in thirty years. 18th !~)II/{/S~}I.-\.11 (2686--2181 Be) and the . D.\If.L\lF. Abydos) fish.rticular fish as sacred (sec S. with its colourful fins. EI. It is noticeable. TRIGGER.JSTS suggest.1I1d 7thDynasty pharaohs through the female line. O'Co"'. The 9th and 10th Dynasties may have lasted for as long as a hundred years.es (London.1sco would usually be shown.llen by some. Various provinces of Egypt regarded pa.Jj·Olll f'I-AJ11or!la.lJ1d ends in lhc reign of Ncbhcpctra \IE'\'TLIIOTEI' II.\I.i'. 137-5·1. . SEIUI . G. of PEPY II.the "'\ikcarp (LepidoIIfS). TITVL\KY. . N .~ccording to Manetho. First Intermediate Period (2181-2055 Be) Chronologil:al phase between the OLD KI"U00. e been impostors (or perhaps both). G.2160 Be).EOPOUS _\l. It is nOI clear where the scat of power lay during this period) and it is e'·cn possible thar i\ lemphis still continued to be the principal administrative centre.mce to either the Ilerakleopolitan Or Theban rulers. Borkard and I'. who was worshipped in the form of either a fish or a woman wearing a fish emblem (sometimes identified itS a dolphin but probably a LepidfJlIIS fish). but the apparently rapid sllccession of rulers .. The Hcmkleopolitan rulers C<lmc intu conniet with the early Theban 11 th Dynasf!~ beginning Iyith Seherrawy I"TEF I (2125-2112 BC). 12+-5. which appears to have been a lime of rehni\'c politic~ll disunity ~lnd instabil- ity. '1pparently being embalmed by the god 'NCB IS. cd.·c1opments during this pcriod also highlights the extent LO which the knowledgc of other pcriods in Egyptian history is founded on the evidence provided by the suryinl of elite funerary monumcnts.and 8th-Dynasty kings_ Although most of the rulers of the First Intermediatc Period used the KOY.1S describe both their own ilChie\·cments and their a. that relations hetween Thebes and Herakleopolis in the early ?diddle Kingdom do not seem to be characterized by any lingering reSentmenl or hostility.. E\-entually the Theban king Menlohotep II (2055-20M Be) succeeded in gaining conh-ol of rhe entire country.JIl'rjiJf (Mille/its. 1987).iO Ilc. 175-218. It begins wilh Ihe death of Queen Nitiqrcr. therefore theoreticaLly only legitimarc rulers would have been considered eligible.1 till. and the a!J(!i1l (i. J. the Oxyrynchus ((\Jom~}IT/I. C. 1983).l1 Thebes (i"\ew York. J. and the funerary inscriptions of the governors of Ulese . The Tilapia (or Cltromis) fish. Anrient Egypt: a Sf/ria! history (C1mbridge. The prescnce of the pyramid complex of the 8th-Dynasty ruler Qlkara Iby at S. hence the frcqucnl use of the name Neferkara. Assmann. bur the territory was largely restricted to northern Egypt. as the KING I.\G"\. . .\IE\II'IIIS.!3. vVea1thier people frequent!) kept fish in ponds both fiJl.llegi:. they must either h'.ornament and as a source uf food. f992). The Delta city of ~I[~IJE~ was the principal cult centre or the goddess I IAT-j\lEI IIT. 19-47)_ B. '-IU that a.1 plj~)'rhmml' glllSsjish i:l'sst. or prenomcn. il seems likely that they actually gm-crned only a small part of thc c()untry.SO"i.i.. hoth acted as pilots for the boal ofthc sun-god RA . howc\"er. During this period rhe artistic production of provincial sites such as liEBELEIi'.jARCE9 (1971-2).KI\. Ou. B.l. the last ruler of the 6rh Dynasty. 89-101.~) and the PlllIgrus. LESKO. mhirh l1'tJu/tllwt"c' beell med as fI L"fJII/a. 1992). although the lack of textual sources for the middle of his reign means that it is not clear whether he did so by the military conquest of Heraklcopolis or by somc f()rm of diplomatic arrangement. sometimes scorned~ e. which was the throne namc. warning of the approach of the snake APOI'IIIS during the voyage through the netherworld.DI.(11I ttrl (London. the 'chief of" the fishes'. and that temples al~o employed them to proyidc food for lesser olli- fish Fish enjoyed a somewhat ambiguous position in ancient Egypt: sometimes sacred.md thc eomparatiye lack of major building works are both likely indications of a decline in royal authority.I\'e reigned simultaneously or some of Lhem must ha.e. when the body of Ihe god OSIRIS 100 .

LA.lJiti{// ca/il/oguc (Mainz. the iconographic significance of nies is best known during the New King'dam (1550-1069 8e). for instance.FLAIL FOOD cials.uion known as the 'order of the golden fly' (or (fly of valour') was introduced. c. The image of the fly was also depicted on various riwal arteElcts during the Old and Middle Kingdoms (2686-]650 BC). (Ji. 1968-9). Similarly. Beer was lLsually made from harlcy or 101 .D-S~L\ISOE.\'.1 means of subsistence.\IAI':'\. inflicted consider.'{l.I' ill thejill'lll n/:/lics ~rralo{{1' '. Tn the tc. Coltlfllllnk/u(l' oj'AhllUlep Imilll three pmdtlu/. IVl. the tomb ascribed to three of the wiycs of Thutmosc [1. ANDRl:WS. Otto and W. (The abomination of the fish in Egyptian religion" Karl Rid/{/I"d LepsillS: Ak/ell del" tt/KlIllg (lIlliis. inscribed in Egyptian tombs from the Old Kingdom onwards.yhich might be dragged along the river channel either by teams of men or between two boats. ] 9iO). <1 lhoLisand 01" beer. 185-90. cd. 'i\Testendorf (Wicshadcn. '\lEBER.JC IWVI'J~. according to the Greek writer Herodotus it was with these . BREWER and R. 1. r. Bread . 120. J.62-3 flail see CROWl\"S _\1\"0 flies RO'r~i\L REG:\L1:\ The fly was considered ro have apotropaic <lnd prophylactic properties.it'h thirt. It was bread that formed the centrepiece offering' sccnes in tombs.'e IIlId Chris/el//lIlI! \'[1 (Stuttf{art.'cry commodities that the builders of the Great Pyramid were paid. some of . LcxibOIl rler.yith helping the deceased to <1yoid being captured in a kind trawling nct.]500-3100 IIC). GMd.xt of the Victory Stele of PlY (747-716 BC) the Kushite leader describes his unwillingness to meet all but onc of the defeated Lower Egyptian princes.'\GES) and a few vegetables. beer (see ·\I. judging from SlilTiving human skelctal material. The poorest peoplc in anciclll Egypt seem [Q have subsisted on bread. (flJ') 9 ClII. FRII~D-'tAi'\. Ahmose Pennekhbet.I(m/1 oI hollorilic amant.7C-/69-/) including the so-called ''. a . A. the OFFERING FOrO\L. the king. both through depictions of food processing and consumption in thcir funerary art.lecn 1\IIlIOTEP [ (L1550 Be). Fish were usually caught in traps or nets. on the gTouods that they wcre fish-eaters.rikoll. A pair oIgolden 'flies oI I.liir AII/II. which.[I\. ] 98i).1 (1479-1425 Be) contained a necklace adorned ".. priests and the 'blessed dead' (see A~ I) were not allowed to cat fish. religious and domestic contexts.O4--1492 Be).. when the military decor. (Flicge" Rca/Ic.vheat (TrilicullI dic()c(:UIII.lrdcd more as a sporr than as . ] 110----2+.Jble we.Varminstcr. (rhaia) 59 fill. W. Cairo: o. which was laboriously ground on an arrangement of stones known as a s~lddle quern. F. ]994).'i59416-7) cerning the diet of the ancient Egyptians.clep ('alTering') was actually depicting. l'reicr . 1917). E. already depicting it in the form that lhc hieroglyphic \Ieterminative' sign denoting the tly ((~/J) was later to aSSume. perhaps because of flies' apparent qualities of persistence in the face of opposition. is concerned . where it was usually portrayed in rows of long sikes on the table. JVem Kingdolll. cd.IS50 lie. D. SOL. C. . j'/sr!lt' /ll/d Fisr!lkllil im (/JII:1l A~!!. JVelP Killgdom. and stone amulets were being created as early as the Naqada [I period ((.I'lith seilles 100. J\1. However. especially if thc~· werc intended for ritu. E. SALElI and H.COHOI.md some of these were made in moulds. L food A great deal of information has surviycd con- 2 CIII.111<1 \V. Fish (flu/fishillg ill audelll [gYPI (\.ll usc rather than everyday consumption. 'Fliege'.llplo!ugie II.It\GIC 'wands' Although the precise symbolism of fly amulets remains obscure.lr on the teeth.YPh'1/ (Berlin. Stoneground flour ine"itably contained fragmcnts of stone and occasional sand grains. Similarly it was the loaf of bread on a slab that the hieroglyphic sign I. ] 988).J. I .264--5. replaced in Ptolemaic and Roman times (332 nC-l\D 395) by rhe more efficient rotar~T quem. !-IER. DA~NESh[OI. The Egyptitlll kl/lsetlm. a military official in the reign of ThutlllOSC I (]. Reinecke (Berlin. notably onions.fJJltien/ f~{{J!Pli(11! (1I1/1l1e1S (Lonuon. The best-known example is a gold chain and three fly pendants fi·om the Theban tomb of Q!. usually included a request fiJI' '<I thousand of bread. in addition.vas made from emmer-. Chapter 153 of the BOOK OF "1'1-11': DEAD. since it was identified particularly with the evil god SETII. Fishing using hooks or on a line is <1lso recorded. Heick. records that he was awarded six of these honorific flies. amI in the form of food remains from funerary. .l 500-1250 nc.y-three small flies. ] 989). Numerous types of 10'lf were produced. I. c. Todeslag. although rhis was presumably rcg. as is harpooning from papyrus skiffs.ROU/'. see t\GRICLTruRE). (celil/fI.'a/olll" '.\'IER-VVALLERT.

\leat was usually proyided in the form of complete catlle from the temple s[Ock~yards. I(DIP. At DeiI' cl-I\lledina it is recorded that confectioners were Egyptian TOwns were apparently only fonified at times of politiC. something to be c.wi. such as (he Early Dynastic phase (3100-2686 lie) and the three 'intermediate periods'. soupy liquid.'lrd/(/i( period (Leiden. the lists of rations gi'"c some ide. gazelle and other wild .. almonds) were . a row of forts."c me some ale) for I am hungry'. On [he other hand their largc sC. onions. l\tlilitary fortresses and garrisons. or simply as indh'idual portions. as opposcd 10 fortified sealements. .· Rameses 11 (1279~1213 lie).8 011.'illage of DEIK EL-. garljc..\ . 2000). although not alwavs strongly alcoholic.\1. were essential to the defence of Egypt's frontiers (sec BORDERS. Ducks and.mimals would h. CR.l\IU'\ shows that pigs were raised f()l' thcir mcaL Hares.:tbsencc of sug.owcr l'\ubia from the first 10 thc third catanu. T )JICIIOI. more rarely. stretchlllg from Aswan to Dongola.llions of funres~cs in ancient [gypl."aluable trade route from the lands to the south.take the form of latc PredYll:1stic schcmatic depictions of circular and rectangular fortified towns) but the earliest sun'iring archacological remains of fonifications arc the roughly circular walls at two Early Dynastic settlement sires in l ppcr Egypt: KOIll el-Ahmar (111I]UKO. The weahhy \ymild have eaten oxen.) as well as the I\cw "-. 511-\\\ (eeL). I97i). appears to ha\'c been gencrall~ consumcd by the ""calthier groups in Egyptian society.\IEDI:'\. lettuces and cucumbers were among thc mosl rcgular supplies of vegetables) but saltcd FISII also formed an important clement of the rillagers' diet. .)0 /lc.·'-. Food: lite giji o/Osiris (Lundun. B. 117-28.(:01 rOLlC BE\'EIUGES). E\IERY.:t.1 drink. \V. in the .tl 102 . incurporare many ingeniolls architectural de\'ices which \\ oLlld be more re.\'. 136-46.)r eggs <Ind meat. known as thc \Valls of thc Prince (iucbm lJl'ka).SO.ondon. Outside DeiI' el-lvlcdina. from thc New Nngdom oO\yards.\\\ FORD. 1t)()2). Honey was obtained both from \yild and domesticated BEES. 11.}cefull~ exploited by Egyptian mineral prospectors during the Old Kingdom. .t111ilies were clearly more nffluem than agricultural labourers. The designs of these fonrcsses.." ·ll1tim! Egypt iI/II lIla/eria!. since thcy were part of the staple dicl.Idily associatcd with medi\. 1llainl~ bcn\ cen the reigns of SenUsfct I and 1II ((. D_-\Rln.. FORTRE~ (Hordeul1l vulgtlre).. and in order to proyide milk for cheese making.t)()Us) and EI. and thc jars in whidl it \yas kept frequcntly state its place of origin and year of Yintagc (see . which.l\"~ pn)\"ided a supplcmcm [0 the diet of poorer people. \V. On the tine hand they wcrc intended to control and protecl lhe king's monopoly on the .perhaps disproportionate to the task . \"arious fruits (such as datcs.tl inst~lbilir:. 'Food: tradition anti change in lIelicnisl ie Egypt.ingdom 'workmen's village' at EL--\). was nutritious.Illllst ha\'c sen'cd as physical propaganda in an increasingly militaristic age.lt"en primarily at FI::STl\."" II (1979-80). meat would have been regarded as a considerable luxury for Animals wcre also used <IS a sourcc of fat. (~rslalld 2/. employed to prepare honey-<.. (EI. D. Emmer and barley were the most prized items.'1 of the foodstuffs commonly a\"ailablc in the :"ew Kingdom (1550-1069 ne).tst seventcen fortresses were built.~. \Vine. it \yas uscd to transform brcad into cakcs and to swccten beer. Ikram. The same border was later protectcd by a number of fortresses set up b. hens werc kept fl. pomegranates. Inl:hc reign ofAmcnemhat I (1985-1955 Be).. FJlIlCnllY o17erings l"OJ/SiJlillg o/bread (lndlOwl placed 011 a reed offering-sllIwl.1965-1855 Be). During the f\liddle Kingdom (2055-1650 Be) rhe area of T.\· {/lItlledlJ/%gy (Calllhridg:c. B. dom-palm nuts and. and wildfowl wcrc huntcd for sport and food.. \lIe. figs) grapes. P. however.[) U\IIT~).. Although these men and their f.'lle .60) a child is shown holding a bowl and the accompanying lines of speech rC~l(I: 'Gi. A/imcralY repasl ill (Ill fgYPfi(/l1 IfJlI1b OJ'I/'(' . and seems to hayc been a thick. In a scen~ in the New Kingdom tomb of Inrefiqcr (. 1989). J. Grapes were also used in the making of winc. "'hich had probabl~ heen pe. -Juril'lII EgypI: (l/ltIlo/1~}1 f~l/l ririli::-tllioll (I. Samuel and r ~l.\ indicate that the workers' paymeI1t:s took the form of food rations. J.. J.. . apparently sening hoLiI practical and symbolic purpo!'iCs.1s also somelimes sweetened with dares or fla. A group of" at !e.ji-Oll/ Thein's. and.\LS or on other special occasions. ehaplers by S.. Beans. became part of the Egyptian empire.'oured with other fruits.ll1d I.lilablc both to the inhabitants of the workmcn's vil1nge al Deir el-?\lcdina and to the population ilt large. FRO. ~lur"l\·1 fortresses The firsl rcpresent."idencc from the i\lliddle Kingdom (2055-1650 Be) p'Tamid-lOwn of Kahun (ELI. /8111 J)YIIllS~)" c. was established across the northeastern Delta in order to protect Egypt against invasion from the LC\"<\llt. thus emphasizing the natllrc of beer as food rather than simply . and there arc numerous tomb scenes of vintncrs at work.tkes for the g'Jng of \yorkmen. 1-1.iHOj The [ens on ostmca cXGIyated at the workmen's .FOOD most Egypthms. and the c. as well as providing IlL~TI"\'G quarry for the elite..tr. Beer w.TIER!'. D.:·\U.J.

Nubian fortresses were substantially rebuilt.lden. DL. including E·\!Fi\·CE.!fJrfS. 1961-7). 'Gri. the most cOmmon being the onOmatopoeic Rerer. [rom the Old Kingdom to the Ptolemaic period (2686-30 Ile). ncar DeiI' el-Bahri. The contcnts of the pits included food offerings and materials used in I:he construction of the tcmple. However. Askut. ]£>1 +(]917).\1. have proved essential to the dating of temple comple. 906-12. The pits in which the deposits were buried. were e. . Temples began to be built outside the foru'ess walls and new towns were esrablished \yith relatively perfunctory defences. Uronarti. Kumma. The tablets were made from stone.'sscs (SO lith to north: Scmna South. y.J.Jg. 1111. Sccolld c(l/aral"l. along with the mud bricks themselves.l m in diameter and lo5-loS m in depth.FOUNDATION DEPOSITS FROG architecture. Scmna. L. REISNER. 19(3). such as those of Amcnemhat I (1985-1Y55 Ilc) at 1::1_- Apart fi'om their ritual significance. In the mortuary temple of the lIth- D)'nast'· ruler Kcbhcpetra Mentuholep 11 (2055-2004 BC) at [)E1R EL-B. Although they share many common architectural features (such as bastions. it became a symbol of fertility.19). M. lead are and charcoal for smelting).\llltl.-'\IIA. T'he foundation deposits associated \\"ith a temple of Rameses IV (1153-1147 Be). The seep/a ({Eg}'jJt II (New York. ]977-9).r ring or the notched staff rcprcsenring: years. /925. 1977). 19.ARABS. three of which contained tablets of stone bearing the ROYAL TITL'L\RY of Nlentuhorep. cO\moros. lVlirgissil.39) foundation deposits Buried caches of ritual objects. internal grid-pi<lns and walled stairways connecting with the Nile)) their .000 and is commonly found decorating the SI-ll'::-. In the New Kingdom (1550-1069 HC). ditches. It was belieyed that the offering of model rools and materials would magically seryc to maintain the building for demity.. \"-i. sometimes brick-lined and occasionally in excess of two metres in \yidth. walls. 'Anciel1l Eg~vtian fortifications'.indungsbeigabe'.he. D. \Vestendorf" ('Viesb. swdy of the food offerings has contributed to the knowledge of ancient agriculture and diet. A. I lArES.\I and. Fourtecn brick-lined pits. The particular selections of model tools and yessels in f()Lll1dation deposits can sometimes pro\·ide insights into the technology ofthc Pharaonic period.v. such as those excavated at Tell Balamun in the Delta.l'P/ologic 11. onl~r a small number of fortified structures of the Third Intermediate Period (1069-7+7 Be) and Late Period (747-3J211C) ha\-e been preserved. Other foundation deposits. the four principal materials lIsed in building the temple. temples and tombs. 213-27. these deposits have proved invaluable to archaeologists fr0111 a chronological point of view.\\\CLETS. \"hile the corners were incorporated more bricks and a wider range ofbuilcling materials. Ten of the fi:>rtn. thc marked with larger pits containing food offerings.r eLl!.:. (RO(. frog The Egyptians referred to fi'ogs by severa] names. 7'll/: arf oImlll:f(lrc in Biblieal/ands ill flie liglrt (~rard/(/elJlogi(../TI\ 11[/. I. including parts of a sacrificed ox and miniature vessels for wine or beer. and the Victory Stele of the 25th-Dynasty ruler PI' (747-716 Ae) menrions nineteen fortified settlements in l'vliddlc Egypt. [comparison of founcbtion deposits li'om Gebel Barbl with those from Egyptian sites] C. 'The Barbl temples in 191(J'.lSIIT. while t."ariolls shapes and sizes were each designed to conform to differing local topographical and strategic requirements.]EA 51 (]965). J"'!'':SSEt\. D.3. B. ./~'RS Fe\'/) }'O/?A-. such as the 'palace' of' Apries (589-570 1](:) at MEMPHIS and the fortress of Dorginarti in Lower Nubia. thus symboEzing. but the role of the fortifications appears to have become much more symbolic. were generally located in the vicinity of the corners. "T. Heick.'11\£. The tops of these deposits were marked by four mud bricks. 2 \'Ols (London. LETELLIER. B. 11l:TI?OI'OI..xes.000 years. Dabenarti.. Each contained a loaf of bread. 2 yols (Boston. The image of the tadpole (h4iler) became the hicroglyph for 100.'11 '111\". 2.lch pbced at a crucial juncrure in the plan of the temple. Probably the best-known foundation deposits are those from rhe temple of Hatshepsut: (1473-1+58 Be) at DElI{ EL-IlAIII{I. lIsuaJly placed at crucial points in important buildings such as pyramjds. wooel ~1I1d metal. since they often include large numbers of plaques inscribed with the name of the ruler responsible ti)I' the construction of the building in question.'(d dis(01. contained several hundred inscribed plaques.8+--8. travertine j'lrs and model tools (such as cruciblcs and thc copper ore. 69-n W. This attention to the fi'og's call was extended to familiarity with its habits.. G. Essential fortresses and garrisons continucd to be huilt on the wCstern <lnd eastern borders of the Delta during the New King'dom (such as the Ramesside fortifications at Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham in the west and Tdl cl-I-Ieir in the caSt). Tlre/hrtress (lfill/hl'/l. as well as SC. creation and regeneration. including aspects of its life-c~:cle. E. A.-\WRE-'CE. Many Late Period foundation deposits. thus \yishing the king a reign of 100. a series of pits marked the a:\is of the building. Ret:Ol/stfllrlt:d/olllldatioll deposit/roJlltlre temple 0/ Ql/een Hiltslrep. Ll'xil'oll der .'l'IT (London. for instance. See also \Y/\IW'\RE. A. c. As a result. Kor and Buhen) were constructed in the area of the second cltaract \V-here the Nile valley is at its narrowest. Shalfak. YADIN.. Ei\IER.l'llt at DeiI' cl-B(/IIJ"i. ed. axes or gateways. 103 . measuring c. Otto and .

when most traditional religious bcliefs were discouraged. E. In order to be assimilated "'ilh Osiris. particuhuly during the formative period of the Prcdynastic. They are first recorded rrolll the 11th DYnast'· (2 J 25-1985 m:) and continue into the J. c.of offerings. Frog amulets were sometimes included in the \\Tappings of mummies. A.'idual's enjoyment of the afrerliCe was thcreti:>re a delicate business whereby all of these separate clements (the body.:. the god of Abydos who W. Bredcck C'1ew York. Lexihlll dlT . second. 1977). although most belong to the 104 .. B \ and . Dell/h i/l 11llrim/ Egyp/ (Ilarmonds\\orth. At the most basic level this could be ilchieycd by burying the body wilh a set of funeri1r~ equipment. The Egypti'1I1s beliered that each human individual comprised not only a 'physical body but also three other crucial clements. The identificiltion of the deceased with OSIRIS. shadow and name) were sustained .30839) . They also considered that the ~A. Egyptologists w explore the complexity and grndual elaboration of this belief system. including piery to the gods. ~U?\ and the OODO. E.\"1". thal etcrnal life could be ensured by vilrious means. 1982). 139-M. the deceased first had to prO\~e th.\0. before the cmcrgcm:c of writing..\'1'10'\'. I. l'he essence of each individual was contained in the sum of all these parts.. \¥ith the official arri"al of Christianity in Egypi in the fourth ccmury . known as [he h. the judgement scene depicted on many BOO'" OF TilE III \I) papyri shows the he. 19]5).. r'111ging from the transformation of humalls into circumpolar stars to the continuation of normal life in i111 ilfrerworld sometimes described as the FIEI.igyp/ologi(· II.jhull Deir el-Bl'fJIUI.lt his or her ei1rrhly deeds had been \\"orlh~ and four of the eight members of associated with the Hcrmopolitan CRE:\TIO.\lE and were liying entities. (1:'. E.\liddle Kingdom (2055-1650 Be) Heket was often shown on magical objects which wcre probably used in the rituals surrounding concep- tion and birth. \"Vcstcndorl" (Wicsbaden. particularh· the final stages of labour.1n views on tJ1C afterlife C:In be understood. Since the individual's IIE.ti.J. Heick. the consort of the creator god KII:"JUi\1.\KI-I..33-1-6.\TtOi\ OF TilE \1' l'LRJ.1S murdered by his brother SETII and brought back to life through the efforts of his wife ISIS.. J List as he created the human race On his porter's wheel.l the feather of the goddess . The sun·i. and in its most elaborate form lhe royal Cliit could include a number of temples complete with priests <lnd a st'cady 110\.. V'I. In/erior t/('ff/il o//he C(~/.ut being weighed ag-. Otto and W. Just i1S the royal mortuary cult inw>lrccl the tnmsformation of the dead king into Osiris. paiu/ed mond. so the funerary equipment of pri". so she often served as .t\IUi'\.)). The connection of" the frog with creation is also demonstrated by the fact that IIEI-I.\. none of \\ hich could be neglected. crucial to human existence. played i1 C1"lIl:iaI part SI-IAD(J\\. each of which was essential to human 5urri"ill both before and after in both royal and pri"afe funerary texts and rituals.\I) funerary beliefs During the Pharaonic period. The process of ensuring any indi. and the proyision of statuary and other funerary equipment. i\. 11. 1992). or cilrried as talismans. K[K. I.\RT was regarded as the physic:lllllilnif-cslation of their intelligence ilnd personality. 167-8-1. ka. the presen'ation of the body through .. were silid to be frog-headed.He Period (747-332 Be). frog amulets were still c'IITicd. E.\IIJS and FL:-l"EIUR\ TE_'\TS has enabled death. particul:lrl~ those in thc Theban area. SnJRK. thai death was simply a temporary interruption rilther th. SI'E'XO:R.'cn in the reign of H':J IE:'\. the Egyptians' iIttitudes to life and death wcre influenced by two fundamental beliefs: first. the frog was retained as a Coptic symbol of rebirth.FUNERARY BELIEFS FUNERARY CON~ The deity most commonly associated with the frog was lIEKI':T. dl!Comled Illiflt I1l1lap Jltomil/g /mo dijJi:rel1/ /'{Iu/es /0 /ltt lUulemJorld (part ofthe Book ofTwo \\"ays). A. funerary cones Clay COnes of 1~15 cm in length whjch were placed at the entrances of tombs.md prolected from harm. however. many being milnuEIctured ilt Akhenaten's new capital (e1-Amarna)..D OF REEDS. symbol of the universal harmony and ethical conduct 10 which all Egyptians aspired (see ETIlIC. lTans. oIodlill 2. l-lOR:\l . myth.ue indiriduills was designed to suhstitute the deceased for Osiris. 'Frosch'.lin·.lill oIGI/f/. and.6 IJ/. ok". The (lffiflldl! (~rflll' {/liciell/ l:'gyplillf/S 10 dell/h (/wllhe delld (Cambridgc. l1/h Dyuasty. usually financed by gifts of agricultural land and other economic resources.m a complete cessiltion of life. so that they could re-enact the myth of resurrection and obtain eternal life for themselves (see DEJ\10CRATli. GAHD!i\I':R.\TE\: (Ll52-1336 Be). .·irtuous. btl.\1.·ing funerary texts present an often conflicting set of descriptions of the afterlife. The sUfri"al of numerous TO./985-/795 IIC. In the .JFE).\IL 'I\IIFIC. eel. Idell in/o imllge.\.1 personification of childbirth. although far morc research is required before the full nature of Egypti. rather than simply linguistic and natural phenomena.

and \yas part of the solar iconography of rebirth.(llie i.). J. sllt't:'1'3) New Kingdom and the bulk of them to the 18th Dynasty (1550-1295 Be). but apparently not arranged in any specific order.: oIllIe Dead jJapvrus ~(tllc roya! saibe _.lFF. 'Inscribed funerary cOnes from the Theban necropolis'. The broadest end of the cone is usually stamped with hieroglyphs bearing a name. They are often said to reflect a IJI::MOCR. comprise some eight hundred spells or (utterances' written in columns on the walls of the pyramid chambers.:. L.".itical and social turmoil of the First: Intermediate Period (2181-2055 Be) the practice of inscribing funerary writings on privilte colTms developed.O IJC. 1'-:44/2 (1988). there is no evidence of cones from over three hundred other known tombs.7 {:IIl.S or boundary stones bUI current opinion suggests a more likely explanation. or else await discovery. M .:igllclle asso(. STEw. also found in eight pyramids dating from the 6th to 8th Dynasties (2345-2125 Be). lVlore significant. 7. . RUN. funerary texts The Egyptians' composition of texts relating to death and the afterlife probably stretched back to an original prelitcratc oral tradition.. however. 'The archaeological analysis of inscribed funerary cones'./2.l. N. 1986). the maximum number being the 675 utterances inscribed in the pyramid of I'EI'Y ]J (2268-218{ Be). DA\ WS and F. These texts. suggesting that the tombs to which they belonged have been destroyed or rc-used.Ire first ParI (~rllll' Boo!. P. ill wllirh Illl~ hl~art oIlhe deceased i. title . /-f. /911! Dynasly. The earliest. rollsisling o. lrr. D. while the broad end \vould be clearly visible. They were once thought to represent loaves of bread. KONDO. pOllc/y. However.·/96-19) Each tomb-owner had about three hundred identical cones. afe uninscribed. 165-70. amI the owners of many decorated tombs of the New Kingdom have been readily matched with surviving cones.. The earliest such writings arc known as the PYRAMID TEXTS. the first examples of which were inscribed in the. on the other hand. ' CJ\LHM.FUNERARY CONES FUNERARY TEXTS Fill/amy (Olle uf lvlelylllusc.ji"Ullf 7'lll:bcs. MUi\lj\\Y LAJ3Io:I.Y be thaI this broad circular end represented the sun's disc. they wcre sometimes also inscribed on papyri or the walls of private tombs. c. 5tl1Dynasty pyramid of UNAS (2375-2345 Be) at Saqqara. versions of which are recorded in these funerary texts. (1'.l' IJlciglled agaills/lhe ji'alhcr oIlhe godde. 16. c. roofing poles.. Nl. (/. traces of which have survived only in the form of poorly understood funerary artef~1Cts and sculptures. painted pap)lrIIs.l LiD BC. In the pol.mel sometimes a shorl inscription Or gellealogy. which were effect ively compressed and edited versions of the Pyramid Texts.1 all. althoug'j. have become known as the COFFIN TEXTS. H. Thesc private funerary documcnts. DE G. is the [let that no tombs are known for a fmthcr four hundred or so cones. The pointed cnd allowed them to be sel in plaster as <l frieze above the tomb entrance. No single pyramid contains the whole collection of spells.rJ corjJlIS (~/ illsaibedjimCl"fIlY (()/Ies I (Oxford. whereby individuals were no longer dependent On the ruler [or their afterlife. OriOI/ 23 (1987). perhaps as a direct result: of 105 .I)' iHaal. 1957).01-170.ATJZATI()~ OF 'I'IIE AI'TERI. l111uIJ/IIDI cases alld ills/:ribcd fUIf(j/'{I/:J' fOJ/es ill/he Pel ric ("ullcrlioll (Warminster.'111i. D."ia!cd milh Chapta /2. The words spoken at the ceremony of Ol'E:'-ili\G 01' THE i\'IOUTII . It m. along with offering lists.

The 'guiding' function of the fUller.'ast l11ajority of the sun"jying furniture is made of wood.I1ll1 comprised a wooden frame.r'/itmilllre: a box of rosmclio·.< (Oxford.t/termor/d.people would ha\"e uscd low sttJub. particularly those of the poor. Somc of these arc fincJ: crafted. R. 1!inioll.Nem Kingdom. Bn:dcck (New York. The differenccs between the texts of differcnt pcriods tend to result fi'OIll changes in funerary practice.IH70.·eloped.\1f1l11mil'J aud Alagh. would have had little furniturc.llOU IlCFOIll Thebes. The Egyprians had a grcat facility for mnking such light" or prcElbricared furniture for usc when travelling or on military expeditions. l\loSl ch~lirs <Ire of a simple t: pc "ith no arms. 11.. and by thc .. There was also a gradual mm·e to\\·arus thc concept of righteous liying as a qualification for the enjoyment of an aftcrlife. chairs. cd.: or TilE DE. Low tables were . jointed at the corners! ~nd upholstered with matting or IC'"Jther. just as the Pyramid Texts had decoratcd thc funcmr: complexes of thc Old Kingdom. Idea illlo il1ll1ge.lnd the Book (~r Bl'efl/Mug! which wcrc apparently designed to protect the deccased and facilitate safe passage to the underworld.3 . in their dcri\'ation from the Pyramid Texts. it might Jlso be argued that. ajar liud ajtlrslant!.lic pcriod (332-30 Be) these 'netherworld books' continued to be produced l including such rel11arkable tcxts as the BOIJI.. . I{ r!. Such 'netherwurkl texts' were usually written on papyri. /8/96. such as the shift fi'om regarding the afterlife as being achie\·ablc only \"ia the king to a situation in which individuals incre~lsingly made their o. II. is the Bnok I~r .: of Cat'ullS follm~'s. J.:~G. ·The netherworld texts comprise a number of relat"ed funerary writings. P. although cer~ tain sections were inscribed on f\\IL'LETS. although ilt sites such as u. E. (ti. the legs of which end in ducks' heads. including the famous example li'om TUT\'''II/\\\l. made up of around two hundred spells (or 'chapters'). stools and boxes (which served the purpose of the modern sideboard or wardrobe)..\1l (or "spell for cuming fonh by day'). The theme of all of these works is the journey of the sun-god Ihrough the realms of darkncss during the twelve hours of the night! leading up to his triumphant re-binh with the dawn each morning. 6. TIr. Lm:m"ara and C. but tluone-Like n~r­ sions arc known. They were frequently pOftrayed on the walls of the royal tombs in the \ \1.l\1iddle Kingdom . T'he Coffin Texts often included utterances forming ~guidc-hooks' La the netherworld. As early as the -Ith Dynasty a complete travelling bedroom set.·n provisions.: uflhe Dead. Book of Cales and the . ~nd in the lower level. .\s in the example from the lomb of Tumnkhal11ull.~ I~r Spew/ill/!.1\'c elegant 1. S..'st 6/ (III. 1988). These later texts reflect the cssential continuity of belief I'hroughout ancient Egyptian history. two wooden examples being known from TarkhaIl as early as thc tst DYI1asty (3100-2890 BC). F. c.rrflil/g ~r Ihe lJiddeu Challlber. furniture The best <lm:ient Egyptian furniture was heautifully made nnd elegantly proportioned.el1ll:. The l110st C0l111110n itcms wcre beds."ate hurials. P. HillS) The . although from the Third Intermediate Period (1069-747 RC) onwards the: began LO appear in pri. ilnd it is not surprising thai some of their designs were adopted It)!" Europe~tn furniture 01" the carly ninetccl1lh century (often \yith less success than their prototypcs).e11l Egypli(f1/ BQu/. . The (fl1C.''S tomb (K\'62). 1969).26. AI.·heir bills.. D'Auria. c. linCII. 1985).t (K\ 9. 1143-1136 Be) the Book of Cates is at the entrance 10 the upper level.\U. Howc\·cr.: I{Tmo '."1'\ER. including a tent and carrying chair. Egyptian houscs. olien with elaborate "ibrnelteS illustrilting [hc [cxt.Many copies of these books have been discO\·crcd.!tal mhidl is in till: Nt.. During the New Kingdom (1550-1069 BC) 'hey were virtually confined LO royal burials. e\Tntual1y culminating in the appearance of the so-called BOOt. By modern staIld'lI·ds.ere used only by the most wC.~/. The lIJlC. . trans. 1992).\ \1 \R'\" \ numerous limestone stools ~re founo. II head"('. The Icngth of the back support \"aried greatl).95-113. Chairs ~. 0.' fll/til'lIl EgYPli(f11/~l'ra1Jlid Tcx/.. and could be yery elaborate.. They included lhe {Juo~' {~r Caverl/s.'cd direcLl} from either the Pyramid Texts or the Catlin Tens. 6639.FUNERARY TEXTS FURNITURE the gradual decline in the ambitions of royal funerary complexes.try texts became increasingly important from the Second intermediate Period (1650-1550 BC) onwards. as did the st~ndard of workmanship: the mo~1 elaborate could h. During the Ptolcm.Ire recorded from the 1st Dynasty. the Bon!. Ftemily .L1~Y OF TIll·: ""GS. j\ lost.\Iso used. Roehrig (Boston. over h'llf of which "'cre deri.I~'.. whidl is gilded and inlaid.ming'. Andrews (London. Their placing is significant: fOf example in the 10mb of Rameses . E.lch grasping a rail in .g)lplifl11 ('(Jjli11 Texts. which together were known to the Egyptians as Amdual or 'that which is in the netherworld!.i. C. 1973-8). they simply rc-emph~lsize the crucial role still played hy the philraoh in pri"ate funerary rituals. a bed. 1-I0R'\t. howc\'er.I.yS. fur~ lhest from the cnrr~lIlCC.10:\. Beds . 's paw fel:l and might he inlaid. 106 . known as the Boo/.\" ilelm uldolllesl. cd.llth: people. .38-+9.I folding sLOol had been dc.. 'Funerary texts and their me-.'ols (Oxford..

whi<.1-72. Hall (Oxford. . C.\. o//..J' (Copenhagell. II.r 27. PLTSCI r. 'Games'. J. NO..'I. and they played on a grid of thirty squares knmnl as paw ('houses') and or squares'. G.LE.684-703.hv-ork'.nster. A less popular board game was 'twenty gardens In an essentially arid land such . the game 'passing'. c. Eg).. 11.-w'i. R.plialll1}(){ldworhllg lIudjimlillire (Princes Risborough. 1980). distinguished by shape or colour. often accompanied by a pool.. Secubr gardens were mainly cultiYated for vegetables. as with SI!J1el. Doll and R.'OURTES) UF TIll. Sometimes the w. Although several boards have survived and it is known to have been played by two players using five pieces.. E. +86-527. (EI2-1-79) Turin).IISO Be.:ig)'lJlell 1 (Berlin.lS a highly desirable asset for houses and temples too. ]1)82).J IJis/o/y of fCt. IhejiJ!ding s/oo/: til! {(ufie1l1 ~VIIIIl(J1 (~rdigllil. 1980-9+). (C-IINO. ISII! DYllasly c. I. cd.' G'NIFFlTlf li\Sn'nTL) Hili I I"!" Delail (~tlhe Sa/iriwl Papvms.l' injilllC/'(lIy SCelleS.5 on. W. ill mhit:h allilllals ill/ila/e figl/re..I(/Ilklf{/. B.. when portrayed in a funerary context. ". but by the New Kingdom (1550. J\!Jillllli:/ d'urdlco/ugic egypliellll/! IV (Paris. a chair and a smnd for a pottery vessel. Call1l' bo.26..199+).I. E. 73 OIl.'ella Ofru/iS. Brovarski.DRED.15 Egypt. NEPROJ)CCEIJ (. the rules of the game. Lall' Nfl}) Kingdolll. 2 vob (Warm. J TAIT. The Thchan tomb of the architect Kha (TT8) contains a representative range of New Kingdom furniture (now in the l\'lusco Egizio. the cultivated strip or the Nile vaHey represented an area of fertile green fields and watery irrigation channels.. This same lush vegetation. The object· was to convey the pieces around a snaking track to the finish.: ISth DYllasty. AHached to temples there were often gar- 107 . and were set close to the riYcr Or canal. 1982).\" EgJlptianjiml/fllrc. 593. E. 9 Oil. pail/led pam/fIlS.1069 ne) they had developed into more luxurious areas. and A.:h was played either on elaborate inlaid hoards or simply on grids of squares scratched on the surf-lee of a stone.J'P/:~go/dl'll age. usually seven. T. Eg. ](79). K. E. 1964).. orten or a semi-formal plan. KI·::--IHI. C..lS a sort of portable boudoir. serving . E.'/wl gall/e Iwx/rOIll/he lomb of l.lll-paintings in private tomb chapels depict the deceased playing a hoard-game. ed. VANDlER. have not been preserved.~r.lI1l1l1.now: h:o/J...\'t'J (1//11 auessoriesji'ulII Ihe lomb (j/il//{lI/khalllllll (Oxford. AI. and sometimes surrounded by high walls. \VANS(:! fER. Kll.o. was regarded simply as entertainmem or as a symbolic conttst intended to replicate the journey through the netherworld. J I-lolmyard. 195+). A series of poles and rails make lip a frame which could be fitted inside a rent or room to add extra warmth or privacy.::IIL:FL (2589-2566 Be). of (hlccn G games The most popular board game known to the Egyptians was SeNc!. Freed (Boston. Singer. (u/UO/6) arranged in three rOws or reno lVloves were determincd by 'throw-sticks' or 'astragals' (knuckle-bones). . Wooden (11tI. mother of J. ../330 W.FURNITURE GARDENS has survived among the funerary equipment IJETI':I'III':/U:S. including a toilet box. Das Send Brcl!Spiel /11/ AI/clI . A !iOIl tlllt! al/ alllelopl' are shoml/ playing (/ gallic ~tsenct. but it is nOI clear whether this activity. S. 'Fine woo<. via a number or specially marked squares represcIlting good or had fortUIlC. The two players each had an equal number of pieces. which is thought to have been introduced fi'OIll western Asia.'!llIfJ/OjjY I. milh ivtlly playing picas alld klll/rlde-bolles..

including the watl:ring and weeding of plants. The gardeners cmployed hy temples ~1I1c1 wealthy households had several responsibilities. In the myth of 1I0. c.'i ({(I all(Ifm1l11!tI lor/ay) 9.'. WILKI:"iSUN.l'homing all it/~)!plllllli(. Thc offspring of Geb and NUl were nSt.'ing..US and Seth. and from the paintings in the Theban tomb chapel of Kenamun (Tr93) it is known that wooden columns were sometimes used to support a pergo1:J armngement of \·incs. Since Osiris was the rightful ruler of the world. and these nine gods made lip the Heliopolitan E=':"E\1). as \vell as the artificial propagation of clate palms. and had been murdered h) his brother Seth. t (".1-I0TEP n (2055-2004 Be). such as white and blue lotuses (a kind of "ater lily).GARDENS GAZEI:. pail/ud papwllS .figllre(!/Ilrl' earth-god Gl'/J bmel/lli the sky-goddess NI/I. whose sister and wire \\as :-"UT the sky-goddess. unlike the whole grove of sycamore and mmarisk which stood in front of thc 11 thDynasty tcmple of ~ebhcpetra \IEyrt.!:. K. E. heavy with the fragrance of the 110wers and trees.\. in recognition of Gcb's protective role. SETII Stclleji'()Jll lire Book o. Tn the doctrine o!" Hcliopolis he was the son of SHU (god of the air) and TI':Fl\'UT (goddess of moisture). making him ruler of the li. . mandrakes.FolII Thebe. c. Freed (Boston. A. Brovarski. such as that of I LlTSIIEI'SUT (1473-1458 Be) at DeiI' c1-Bahri.\. The pomegranate. 1982). Tltird 111leflllediale Period. The provision of shade was an important clement of the Egyptian garden. introduced in the New Kingdom. became il popular shrub. the acacia and the willow. and among the most popular species were the pink-flowered tamarisk. and its flowers added to the colour of the garden. \\ho were thelllsel\·cs the children of YfL \1 (see CREATIO:\.lIllOng the trees and. figs and dompalm nuts. Flowers.\]IIJ1bolism(LondoD. E. (IeJiM?I. Thc over.'c had religious connoralions.37-9. daisies ~lI1d other small flowers were grown .100 /)(. where pits for two lrees were found. Doll :Ind R. Nineteen species of tree were reprcsented in the garden of Tneni./llre Dead paflYl"lIs oI Ttl/l/l.1Sl irrigation. The houses of thc wealthy often hild large and elaborate gardens cel1lred on ~l pool. Geb automatically fa\"oured Horus. Gmpcs might be used for the production of raisins or even home-made wine. g~1rdens are therefore one of the most frequent settings of Egyptian romalHic tilles.. (1I. Cornl1owers. could he used in the making of garlands for banquets or other occasions. The sacred persea tree was grown in both religious and secular gardens. arc known from the 'workmen's village at ELA. and ~EPIITIIYS.':: SCe/fC}. shuwilfg t!le dc(('({sed {fud his mUe Tjll//{ approaching Osiris flud kIllal ill/heir gardell. which in the New h. son of Osiris and ~lVengcr of his f.lS. Pools of this sh~lpe arc known also from Hatshcpsut's tcmple at Deir cl-Bahri.n'c been grown for use in the rituals performed at the chapels there.ingdom was sometimes Tshaped. 11. Geb acted as judge between them.. and served as havens [or waLerfowl.F in lise. and representations such as that from the tomb of Ipuy (Yr217) sho\\' a SIIADL.. such as dates. architect to Thutmose [ (1504-1492 Be). J-c."(J/J/ lilt Buok (~/lhe D('(u! papyrus of NaHI/.).\COVM. poppies. lliu. Unfortunately.11 effecl would be one of cool shade.. trees were used as a source of fruil. where \'cgcrablcs m'1)" h.1. ISIS. /9111 Djll/aSly. 1990). 1989). Goon and P. g<lrdens required constant attention. gi.~. HUjONOT.\'/l/ie7'21) den plots for the cultivation of specific kinds of vegetable. the growing of 'cos lettllces' (sacred to 1'111 "i) is frequently portrayed in reliefs and paintings. Such pools wcre stocked with ornamental fish. CardC11.950 IJ(.·en the aridity of the Egyptian climate. . G. Ornamental trees were sometimes planted in pits in front of temples. Lej((rdil/ d((m I'Egyptc (lII(iclllle (Frankfurt.10008) 108 . and papyrus is attested in the pools at Deir cl-Bahri. 'The garden" Egypt's goldclI ((gl'.l\L\Ri\.tther. and the shape may therefore ha.\· ill (("dent Egypt: lltcir IO(lItioll tllld . As well as providing shady arbours. S. gazelle Sl!e ANTElOPE Geb God of" the earth. Similar small plots. cd.5011. The phar'lOh was therefore sometimes described as lht-ir of Geb'. made up or squares or earth divided by walls of mud. L. grew in some of these pools.. like the lows flowers and some of the tree foliage. a proccss that evidently required considerable skill. not lC.

. SCJIL-\I'-\REI. In the Ptolemaic period (332-30 Be) he became idcntified with the Greek god Kronos. Per-Hathor..1-3-1.ized by his crect ph'lllus pointing skyward towards his wife.\FIt. imprisoning the buried dead within his body. TRAUNECKER. 1937).:. 'EI Kab and Gebclcn'. The Giza plateau c. but there arc also petroglyphs and graffiti in [he cliffs dating back to the latc Predynastic period 109 ..atcrial consisting of a layer of fine plaster to which gilding was offen attached using an adhesi"e. On Gebclcin's western hill arc a number of tombs.. the decoration of which dates primarily from l"he lith to 15th Dynasties (2055-1550 BC).2800 Be) J VANDIER. 1\Ilost date to the First Intermediate Period (2l81-2055 BC).OS and T G. Both sides of the hippopotamus-tusk handle are engraved in a style which is thought to be Lev~1I1tinc or 1\!csoputamian rather than Egyptian.utes part of the growing body of evidence for the influcnce of \Vestern Asia on late PredYI1i1stic Egypt.EY 'A rcview of the c"idencc concerning early Egyptian ivory knife h:lI1cJ. 'Lcs archi"es pri"ees de Pathyris :i 11cpoque ptolcma"iquc' S/udia Papwo/igic(J 11"'io (Pap. W.S·I-'\B/\ \'. The stylc or the Gebel cl-Arak knifehandle constit. some or which. Turin. 162-3. In funerary contexts he was a malc"olent force.>ORFF.md might actually be portrayed with .. CuP/os: !W/J/lIlCS eI dim.3200 BC).\I./ Si/. 12W. T. 'Lc courcau de Gebel el Arak'. KELI. I-I. are located along the wcst bank and date primarily t:o the New Kingdom (1550-1069 DC). Fondfl/ioll Ellgellt' Pio/. on his head. pis xxxviii-ixi.(Leiden. Like the Protodynastic palettes and maCehei. but the earliest known mOI1ulllent is )\l1\.Vtcsopotamia. including the Mesopotamian or Elamite rnotif of two lions separatcd bv a man. 1 Gebel Barkal set' :<. Westendorf (Wiesbaden. where a group of pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty (2613~2494 Be)} comprising those or I{IIL"fU."cgetation springing from him. I I. ill beheersillg (Leidcl1) 1961).. 19(2).lSPCcr he was a god of fertility. 'Gcb'. The term deri"es from the Italian word for a chalky substance used in preparing panels for painting during the Renaissance} although it can also be traced back to a term used for gypsum in ancient . \-I. C". The remains of the ullexca"ared town-site arc located at the foot of the eastern hill. HELCK. it provides important evidence relating to thc early devclopment of the Egypthm stare. The namc of the owner of the tomb is unknown. Ouo and W. Cra!Jjillule des '\lli/l/erm Reidles II (Berlin.lcs'} Tlrc. ll'!oll1lllle11lS e/ Atlhlloires 22 (1916). 'The 1'\ ubian mcrcenaries of Gebclein during the First Intermediate Period" A:uslr 9 (1961).·nl 1I~r1d 6(1983). Aphroditopolis) The distinctivc topography of this site} about 30 km south of Thebes. -1+-80. G. rock-cut shrincs and stelae on both sidcs or the f'\ilc about 65 km north of Aswan.u.. 19i7). The eastern hill is dominated by the remains of .KAL:R-\. He was also sometimes shown with the whircfrontcd goose. \-leick. .'Vlflllue/ d'ardllf%gie (5gyp/ielllle 1/1 (Paris..lSl bank."cgemtion. L.I.1'/1.208-18. were in lise fi'OJll the 18th Dynasty onwards. f.. and is now in the collection of the Lou'Te. 1\10ss} Topagmphiml I>iblivgmpl>J' I' (Oxrord. and it was in I his context that he was often mentioned in the I'YR \ 'lID TEXTS. 11-3-1. including the Great SPEOS of Horemheb. Gebel el-Silsila (anc. E. 1952). E. In his benevolent <. 'Rp't . might be described as the ~cgg of the goose'.I>d . STEI:'\I.I.hieh was purchased in 189-+ hy the French archaeologist Georges Renedite at Gebel c1-Arak in I\liddle Egypt. ". W. 1963). Giza Necropolis located in the immediatc "icinit) of the southwestern suburbs of modern Cairo. 1 Vil'l1J I~rl//(' Gt'be/l'/-Silsila saflds/mll' quarries.I'[\ Gebelein (ane. G.\GI':. Most of the shrines.lS. including the tomb of Iti. primarily on tilC C.1 tcmple of Bathol'. . As a god of the earth. Orielllillill 19(1950). L. although the survi"al of a number of Gerzean artefacts suggests that the much-plundered cemeteries were already in use by the late Predynastic period. ha\'C been ahle to he dated to the late Prcdynastic.95-102. F •. although in some other inst. The temple of Hathor was ccrtainly established by the end of the Early Dynastic period (2686 Be) and waS still in existem:e during the Roman period (30 Be-AD 395). providing a detailed picture of daily life at Gebclcin in the Ptolcmaic period. B.hose Willi-paintings arc now in the I\Iuseo Egizio. Path\Tis. are located.\l1y005 and IIIER. his emblem. Kheny) Pharaonic and Greco-Roman sandstone quarries. n~NI~f)l"rr. Boswinkel et al.\ and \\I':'.:. The decoration on one side consists or a depiction of sC"cral wild beasts.\" sur /e parvis de Ceb (Lcu"cn.mces he wOre the Lower Egyptian crown. jA. sometimes cmph. although the presence of the graves of fifty-six retainers suggests that he or she was an important member of the Early Dynastic elite. is indicated b) its Arabic namc which means 'two hills'.-I7-105. B.ril'ol/ der '{!iy///%gie lI. G. -116-. A. (I. Jar-scalings bearing the nallle of the 2nd-D~-nasty ruler Nynctjer ((. PORTER and R. -127-9. 1937).Il. It A. B.i/alr I (London.R. responsible {tl!' . he was sometimes coloured green.lt :\1\'). W.1+. .I965). ASSELBERGI [Sl Chao.lllr dem Thrun dcs Geb'.lds from . .../1/) (c.Moss. cd.220-1. Gerzean Si'': gesso I'REDY~ \STIC PI~Rlon 1\ I.lIlnOi be regarded .533-9. particularly in the decoration of C:\RTO:'\1\. The othcr side of the handle bear~ scenes of hand-lo-hand lighting betwecn foot-soldiers as well as a naval connict between thrce crescent-shaped papyrus skiffs and two unusual verticalProwcd bO~lts possibly representing foreig'ners. C.~n(i.\s fully explored. 'The quarries.. PSBA 15 (1893).. .. E. 1901). B. P. -196-500. ed. PORTER and R.s>:. Gebel el-Arak knife-handle Decorated inlry handle or a ripple-flaked nint knife dating to the late Predynastic period (c. E. 'La missionc italiana a Ghebclein'. Jsis. as his daughter.3-100-3100 Be).\KO'!>flI. Lugd. I L G. Fisci n.lSAE21 (1921).2980 Be). 1\Ilany demotic and Greek papyri have been found at the site. Ll'.IP. TE VELm:. TnpflgrapIJi({f/ I>iMiogmph)' \' (Oxford. Earthquakes wcre bclic\'ed to be the 'laughter of Gcb'.'UCS. C. PE~T\l \". which probably dates to the reign of ('he 1st-Dynasty nl1cr DJET (c.~BEL EL-ARAK KNIFE-HANDLE GERZEAN Geb is usually depicted as reclining on his side with one arm bent. \V. Khenw. although much plundered.

:::'~ 11 '1"'11'"'' "'"'''''''''lItl''''' "'\\ PllIU of/lw Gi::ll llermpoh.\\.lrt of a complex. . using a robol camCril.-=G:.n"ing two burial chambers \\"irhin the built slrUl:[lire and a third unfinished ch'lmber below growld_ From each of the two upper chambers. Like all pyramids. .mdoned at all early stage of the \\orl. and for some time it has been accepted that they may hayc some astronomical functioLl.- 9.1l1d the l:~lIsc\\"a~ leading to the \ alley temple has been robbed out .\. Se\'eral boat-pits surrounded [he 110 . -.. It: was con- structed from some 3.000 blocks of limestone. which has ted to specuhnion that a fourth chamber might he located there. FERL Khufu (2589-2566 Be) . each weighing an average of 2.1\ e been a subterranean burial chamber. It has been suggested that in the original design of the Great Pyramid there was to h.te Period (2181-21155 lie) \yhen the cenrral aUlhorin-.l\-ing been robbed a~ carl~ <1S the Firs' In'ennedi..:tcd. discovered a scaled door in one of the shafts from the Queen's chamber..lre the most obviolls part. perhaps h'. now usually described as the Great Pyramid but originally called 'Khufu is the one belonging to the horizon'.:.. and it differs from most P: ram ids in h.:I-=Z.20 . "'hen first recorded the chambers were found empty."hich the Lhree subsidiary pyramids (the so-called queens' p~ ramids) . narrow sloping tunnels were constTlIt.126 23 " " \\ "I' " " " 26 27 "~'~Il'"'''''' \\.. but that this must haye been ah.:A'----- G~~ 100 200 300 400 500m 16 18 I:8l pyramid of Menkaura queens' pyramids rock-cut tombs mortuary temple of Menkaura valley temple of Menkaura tomb 01 Queen Khentkawes rock-cut tombs maslaba tombs tomb of Queen Khamerernebty II (wile of Khafra) valley temple of Khafra sphinx temple Great Sphinx mo~uary temple ot Khafra pyramid of Khafra subsidiary pyramid storerooms (?) tomb of Hemiunu weslern mastaba field pyramid of Khufu boat-pits mas!aba-tombs queens' pyramids easfern mastaba field rock-cut tombs New Kingdom temple of Horemakhet modern village 01 Nazlet el-Simman tomb of Hetepheres I 15 17 18 18 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 21 22 [x]l2Jl~\~O 0\\ 27 \\ 20. these so-called 'air sharts' probahly had linle to do with \'entihuion. ]11 1993 a German team led by Rudolf Ganrenhrink and Rainer Stadelmann. that of KJ1llfu \\jl:-i p. of \. since it is only partl~ hc\\n. howe also been found in a tomh to the south of the main necropolis... which had heen responsible for their consll~uclion.200. The temple 011 the cast side is ruined.5 I"Ons.whose father S"E(2613-2589 Be) had erected the first true pyramid .1IlL! lost bene~1th the modern settlement of 'azler cI-Simman.built the largest suryj"ing pyramid. collapsed. ..

Although Khufu's immediate successor. One has been reconstructed and is currently displayed close to thc sitc of its discovery. The earliest private tombs at Giza are cur into the quarry E1CCS surrounding the pyramids of Khafra and iVlenkaura. probably crowned by gold sheet at the apex. Thc smallest of the thrce pyramid complexes at Giza is that ofI\lenkaura (2532-2503 lie). in \yhich members of the royal bmily and high officials were buried. On the nonh and west sides it shows clear evidence of the quarrying necessary to level the site. he may have been responsible for some quarrying at Giza. [-!owe\·er. Unlike its predecessor. lies just to the cast of the pyramid and givcs some indication of the richcs which might have accompanied a pharaoh of this pcriod. ~nd is morc typical of Old Kingdom pyramid design. began to construct a pyramid complex at . pyramid. the removed stone being used for the construction itself.of Khufu. \yith its schist triad stat"Ues were discovered by thc Harvard/Boston expedition in 1908. his head symbolically protected by I JORUS (now in the Egyptian Nluseu11l. the valley temple w~s not of granite but finished in mud brick.\IH tombs. the mother of Khufu. Like the pyramid of Khafi·a. although the wooden coffin lid is in the British Museum.':i . the superstructure or the Great Djedefra (2566---2558 Be). This pyramid was the suhje<. Unlike the other pyramids at Giza.. The site of the pyramid itself" is on a slight eminence. it is equally likely that they performed a more symbolic role. . goddess of i\IEi\\PI-II. The hurial of IIETEPIIERES. Stawcs of the king. which leads from hil'i well-preserved granite valley temple to the mortuary temple on the eastcrn side of his pyramid. howeycr. and some scholars h~l\'c attributed work on the Great SPI-IiNX to him.O\'IE dcities. rhat" of l\Ilenbura had its lowest courses cased in red granitc.: VIr:JH)I. it was here that a series of superb Above Sections of the pyramids tooking west: Khufu: 1 descending passage 2 burial chamber of lhelstplan 3 ascending passage 4 level passage 5 burial chamber of the 2nd plan ('Queen's Chamber') 6 great gallery 7 burial chamber of the 3rd plan ('King's Chamber') B weight-relieving rooms 9 'airshatts' (perhaps of religious significance) Khalfa: 1 upperen\rance 210werenlrance 3 burial chamber of Ihe 1st plan nU! pyramids (~j"Gi:::. (I'. al· this site and elsewhere. The slI/ollesl I~\' Ihul (JIAJlenkfl/(ra.\ ST.'W\") 4 burial chamber of Ihe 2nd plan Menkaura: 1 2 3 4 abandoned descending passageollhe 1st plan burial chamber of Ihe 1st plan descending passage burial chamber of the 3rd plan Sec/. and like its predecessor had the ch'lmbers below the built structure. The pyramid complexes arc surrounded by groups of M. 'rhey represent the king with IIATHOR. and f()r this reaSOIl.'\ iUustration). as part of the funerary cquipmcnt provided fOr the travels of the deceased king with the Sun-god. and thar perhaps one of them bore the king's body to the valley tcmple. 1n the 18th Dynasty Amenhotep II (1427-1+00 uc) built a temple to T-Toremakhet ('Horus of the Horizon') ncar the Great Sphinx. when a new wooden coffin was inserted. The sphinx is carved from a knoll of rock in a quarry beside Khafi-a's causeway. In 1838 the original granite sarcophagus was lost at sea while being transported to England.\BU ROt\SI r 8 kill north of Giza.. sillte Ihis lauer is buill (1/1 {{ slight ollillC1lce. ~ l~qom GIZA subterranean burial chamber. each tomb being of a similar size. it appears larger than that. The Creal Pyralllid oI Kllldil (/40 appears slI/aller Ihall Ihal {~r KI/{/fra (aI/Ire). and by yirtlle of its still preserving some of its limestone casing at the apex. During the New Kingdom there \\"as renewed activity ill Giza. Cairo). In ancient times the monument was known as {Great is Khafra'.0-ZA Pyramid would not original1y have been uneven but c()\"ered by a layer of smooth white Tura limestone. 'Nlenkaura is Divine' had pahicef<t<. and boats have been found ill t\VO of these. Like the other true pyramids.on dramiJ/gs f~rlhe I!lree Giza /~l'rall/ids.acle carving on its interior walls.. 'This covering was stripped awa~' in mcdieval and Iatcr times. during the excavation of the valley tcmple (see KI-lr\FR. Howcver. The most extensive nustaba cemeteries are arranged in regular ~strects' to the west.. builder of the second of the Giza pyramids. 50mh and east of the pyramid of Khufu. and i\.a. were discovered by Auguste lViariette's workmen in 1860. It has been argued Iha' these boats were used in the funerary ceremonies.:t of S]\ITE interest in the 26th Dvnast\· (664-525 HC). and this was bter enlarged by III . although this sculpture is usually assig'ncd to the reign of Khafra (2558-2532 He).

I.(/ necropolis. ISS).JCE. A core of mud and sand in the shape of the vessel interior was formed around a handling rod. decorated the piece. which instead appears as 3 fully fledged industry. c. .'gy/)/.'ssels. 197. there arc no surviving Glass COll!ailll:rs'/or /llIguents and cosmetirs.\8 Be) and colourless glass inlays occur 1I1 the throne of Tutankhamun (1336-1327 Be). alkali and lime) and glass-J1)ot. including vessels. an area which continued to be lIsed . J\'I.1500 Be. (l-lannondsworlh.. ElaftIJlIIrtgud. 5th cd. 'vv.ltion of craftsmen from abroad. and even by the time of Akhen<1ten (1352-1336 Be) glass was still of sufficient importance to merit inclusion in diplomatic correspondence.IS a cemetery as late as the Persian period.hllg from read)prepared ingots or scrap glass (cullct).fi. 1929~55). but by corcforming. STEVEi\"SON S\lITI I. beads and amulets.:::G-"Lc. such as clcar dccolorizcd glass. Coloured threads were added to rhe base colour of the vessel (commonly blue or blue-green) so that strands of )cUow.1). 55/93. The rims and feet of the vessels could be shaped using pincers. A liistolT of/he Gi:::.lUse of an import. MA.98-151. so that either finished items or raw glass were imported for use by workers (c.199. LEII"'ER. The first of these is considerably more difficult than the second. L ollisll 14. which bean tlll'1/ame ufT/IIIllI/ose til. Archil: tla Orit:Il~(iJrsdlllllg32 (1985). 1\ l. obtaining their supplies in the form of ingots from more sophistjcatcd installations. there were workshops which worked only glass. E. or or glass Although the glazing of stones such as quartz and steatite.-\RDs. which was introduced only in Roman times. In the 26th Dynasty the pyramid 1\!lenkaura was restored. A distinction should be made between glass-makillg from its raw m.:A"'S"'S ----:G'=-'c~ SCly I (1294--1279 Be) in the 19th Dynasty. F PI~TlUE. red etc. white.. but the process was usually more complicated than this. 12 vols (Vienna. when captive glass-makers may have been brought to Egypt from MIT:\NN1.ltcrials (siLica. as well as the making of FAIE:-. had been known since Predynastic times (t. arc known from as earl~i as the rci6'1l of Hatshepsut (1473-14. 8·\1{ \KAr ct a1. This core would thcn be dipped into the viscous molten glass (or the glass be trailed ovcr it) and evened out by rolling the whole on a nat stone (marvcr). Thejug. -/7620.'>8'1.\). H.c sounder experiments tit fhe pyralllid (!I'Giza (Berkeley. -/7-1/) instances of trial stages in the making of glass in Egypt. As well as bcing used for inlays.5500-3100 fie). 2. During the Third Intermediate Period (1069-747 Be) the southernmost of the subsidiary queens' pyramids in the Khufu complex was converted into a temple of Isis. 112 It is possible that the craft: of glass-making was first introduced into Egypt following the campaigns of Thutmose III (1479-1425 He). glass is extremely rare before c. and recent 3nalyses suggest that some of the earliest glass in Egypt was made using materiab from ahroad. S. the temple of Isis was enlarged and a number tombs were constructed along the causeway of Khafra. The latter were not made by blowing.5 WI. Perhaps bec. 2 \'ols (Cambridge. REISNER and 'vv. 'A contextual approach to the Giza pyramids'.\) N. (L/24J9/. ]he lnl1'fll/lids alld ICIII/J/es (~r Ci~c.JUNKER) Giza. It is likely that. Emv. These were . is oJ/e oflhe earliest dalable Egypliall glass "i'f. and these loan-words perhaps point [Q 1he eastern origins of the earliest glass. Conscquently. where the technology was alrC<ldy available. Tht' pyramids oIf. even when the industry became bener esmblished. Glass is certainly one of t'he materials mentioned in lists of tribute in the Allna/s of Till/III/OS(' If! at Karnak.lptive or otherwise) in Egypt. In the r\:'IIARNA LI':TITRS the Hurrian and Akkadian terms ehlipakku and IIfckkl/ were used. and not certainly attested in Egypt before the late l\lliddle Kingdom.19-12-5.' (London.1-I50 /336 1Jc. till corejormed apart/ro/IJ the gold-rimmed solid tl/sl CHilI/pIe Oil/he le. 136-58. A. technologically difficult pieces. G. glass was used also in attempts at more ambitious pieces. 18th DYllasty.

however. i.\IOSE '\EFE1~T"RI. In the 25th and 26th Dynasties (747-525 Be). thc god's wife and her adopted successor goats sce :\:\111\\1\1. items of cameo glass.\TET lIABU. J-T.never developed forms of its own hut rather copied those traditionally made in stone. IIUSB. 1976). This office was sometimes combined with that of chief of the priestesses of AmLIn. 28. 'T NICl-IOLSON. COONEY. the title \Va. LIIJ'QCIST and R.. B. HOl. Conne) has suggested that it persisted on a much reduced scale.<. as a priestess. It seems that for much of the Ne.md by rhe mother of the 'great royal wife' (see QUEI':. Latc 8!1t celltlllY IJC. and then rolled on rhe marver to impress them into the still soft body glass. 1993). Sludics iJll'aru' Egyplial/ glass (New York.\t this time was much reduced. The finished vcssd was then allowed to cool slo\-. The function of the god's wife was to play the part of the consort of MIUN in religious ceremonies. but its importance was slighI' compared with earli~ cr periods. especially in the shoulders of narrow-necked vessels. C. lumps of glass. In Ptolemaic times. M. and like such stones is sometimes imitated in painted wooel. claimants to the throne. U. with seclions of glass cane of different colours fused together in <l mould to l11.SOlER. referring to the act of masturbation by ATli!ll by which he produccd SIIU and TEFNUT Atum's hand was thus regarded as remale. D. 195+). Ca!alogue oIEgyptian. It seems increasingly likely that glass-making was cafried on alongside faience production. From the time of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 Be) until the end of the 18th Dynasty there appears to have been no royal holder of the office of god's wife of Amun.'L'rnRY god's wife of Amun (lielllel Ile!jer III [lIlell) The title of 'god's wife of Am un' is first attesfed in the early New Kingdom in the form of a temple post endowed by AI-h\10SE 1 (1550-1525 Be) for his wife . and possibly orher pyrotechnical crafts. 1968).ldrests made for 'l'utankhamun.GLASS GOD'S WIFE OF AMUN sometimes pulled with a needle to make swag or feather patterns.'rllJ{/lllIlIg lIltd Ccschidllc der Instill/liO/l der GOllcsgemah/i1l des 113 . This is an extremely difficult process requiring great skill. sister of King Shahaqo (716-702 BC) or the 25th Dynasty. In this way the king sought to ensure that he always held power in Thebes and also prevented elder daughters from aiding rival Grallite staluelll' (lflhc g(j(t:~ 111{fi: Amellirdis t.ly in an oven in a process known as annealing. L 'epOl!Sl~ dll dim. It hHer became closely associated with the title of l)[YIi'\E '\1)ORf\TRICE (dmal-Ilclja) which was held by the daughter or the chier priest or Anum under Hatshepsut (1473-1458 Be)l . nOt to be revived on any scale until the 26th Dynastv (664-525 BC). thus stressing the belief that" kings were conceived from the union between Amlin ilnd the great roY_II wife. where he found a great deal of glass waste. Alexandria became a centre for glass craftsmanship.. She was barred fi'om marriage 1 remaining a virgin. but it could also be much more complex.sid remai"s (Chicago. reintroduced. NOl.. faience or other materials. As well as the remains at el-Amarna. 1>. sometimes moulded to roughly the shape desired. The best evidence for glass production comes from Flinders Petrie's excavations at CL-Al\IARNA. This office was from then on bestowed on the king's daughter \"ho. It was also possible to work glass by cold cutting. (/:'.\I-I.rE. while those with broader necks appear more translucent. Thce.lke multicoloured vessels. which allowed the stresses dc\'cloped in the glass to be released gradually. In the late 20th Dynasty. probably including the t~InlOUS Pan-land Vase (now in thc British Muscum). and given as gifts to favoured officials. thus creating what was largely a political post.\'S) in the sale reign of Thurmose III (l-t-79-1425 BC). Until recently the production of glass was thought to have declined af'ter the 21 sl Dynasty (1069-945 BC). Perhaps because of this connection il. N. therefore she had to adopl the daughter of the next king as heiress to her office. but there arc still enormous areas of technology that are not properly underStood.wdl1lllgCll ::'II/" f/.---igypren (Berlin. Glass might also be moulded. would have held great religious and political power in the city of Thebes. were worked as though they were pieces of stone and so carved to shape.. The god's wife was in fact the most prominent member ofa group of 'Amun's concubines" all virgins and all \\"ith adopted successors. including two he.. probably under royal control. None the less some fine pieces.L. or the conglomerate glass pieces with angular fragments of many colours fused into bowls. there are glass-working sites at EL-LlSI IT and ~IALK1\"I!\. Rameses \'1 (1143-1136 BC) conrcrred on his daughter Isis a combined title of both god\ wife of Amlin and divine adoratrice. Class (London. Die Clusge/iisse im alh'Il. UlIlcr.rwvalioll r~r/Vlcd/}[ct HallJl v: Posl-Rfnnc. Glass seems to have been regarded as an artificial precious stone. Some measure of the wealth and influence of these women is seen by the building of a 'tomb with chapel' by Ameninlis I. dal/gll/('/" I)/Ihe Kwhile mlcr Kashttl. EgYPliulljiticllcc al/(I glass (Avlesburv. and the remains of the core often added to the opacity of these pieces.· Kingdom it was a costly novelty material. Once cold the core could bt: broken up and removed through the vessel opening. GrITO'\'. The title 'god's hanlf was also sometimes used.'1-J. although its importance . In this process. BrUl.6699) played an important role in the transference of rOY_II power. within the temple enclosure at j\lEDL. J D. 1993). 1975). In the 19th Dynastv (1295-1186 Be).dlll/qll/!ics in !/{e Bri!is/{ l\llwCIIIII [\". were produced in this way. with the pro~ dUction of core-formed vessels and. At its simplest this involved the making of plain glass forms. and excavations at that site during the 1990s havc produced new evidence based primarily on the detailed study of kilns. such as those with yellow eyes on a green background.ut J. It was frequently difficult to remove the core entirely.3 WI. Ahmcs N4er!alT (Paris.'. GRAEFE. E. in Roman times.

G."cry great quantities gold that has not been worked. IIL"SNO rcwo. ncar the mouth of vVadi Ha111J11amat.1 lure for tomb-robhers. The Egyptians' prodigious \\'eahh in gold made them the envy of their neighbours in the )Jcar East.lll'eady much richer in gold than the Levantine city-states. as spectacularly witnessed by the mask and coffins of Tutankhamuil (1336-1327 J3c). e 1"1: 11179) LEI'T IlELOW ParI v/a !1Jall-pailltillgji'O/l! 1111: tom/!d{{fpl!! (~(Subekl{()t('p (rr63).sIS and ~VI'J-1TIIY. (as st/'llllg) 12. where there arc Egyptian inscriptions from Early Dynastic and Old J(jngdom times (3100-2181 Ilc). It is no surprise that the oidesl known geological map is a diagram of the g'old mines and beJdlf:l/-stone (siltstone) quarries in the \iVadi T-bmmamat.-IOO Bc. although it was outranked by Sll.llg geol()gltal !!lap..f:!!. The laborious and dangerous work may have ensured that t<lr many it was . Nem Kingdom.1 death sentence. The gold-bearing rock had to be laboriollsly crushed and washed to extract the metal which was then carried off" for refining and working. c. 198{). slwIPillg iYuhilllH presellting gold as tri!Jute 10 the L~f!.It the ends of sarcophagi or coffins '. however.:O'-'L"'D"--- ---'~ AlIIlflll'/llJI Begin des Nmen Re/rhcs 11I~~ zur brown unpainted Spdt"eit (vVicsbadcn..-"G:. For example letter EA 19 from Tushratta of :Mit<lnni reads: 'May my brother send me in .ng !)({PYl"lts'.)3-1 /17 /lC.Z)1 of a gold-mill.n ~ 4 workers' huts 5 slreaksolbrown. II~Jlllel! ill 1993). associating the king with the sun.ltc tombs. In my brother's country gold is as plentiful as dirt. As such it was used in the making of 1 sle)e01 Sety I 2 cistern (orwater-resef\loir) 3 shrine of 'Amun of the puremounlain' ')E. During the New Kingdom (1550--1069 DC) it was obtained also from Syri'1~Palestine by way of tribute. Gold was regarded as the Oesh OfR'\ and the other gods.I·. Grn-o:\'. despite the fact that Egypt was .n o!Ra!!lcses /I. and was eagerly sought. (n HI\.est surl'.llg t'.1/ 1IIill.2 ClI1. (II/timl . as recorded in Papyrus Abbot' which deals with the desecration of the tomb of King Sobkcmsaf II of the 17tb Dmasty (1650-15511 lJe): Part ~rajloral {"f}lIarjr)l"IIfI:rlji'n/ll gold. and finds frequent 111enl ion in the A. was known as Nub! ('gold town '). such as that of Sobekhotep ("I"T63).ypi (London.YPti(fll hllg. By the lVliddlc Kingdom (2055-16. . Nlining and quarrying expeditions were carried out Linder military control. 1981).. mhidl rlomlllcllts (/ qual"ly. gold 'I'hat gold was a precious commodity in Eg'ypt is undoubted. ~l di"inc metal that never tarnished. sometimes include depictions of Nubians bringing gold as tribute. The late Predynastic town at !\'.\(!{\JJ:\. it also adorncd temples and the pyramidions surmounting obelisks and pyramids. I 1.10 He). idenlifiedas the 'road thai leads 10 Ihe sea' CIIPY ~(part olthe "ntr. (I:' . c.\ ER \yhcn this was first introduced. and may my brother send me much more gold than he did to my father. or as gilt for di\'ine statues.s were orten shown kneeling On the hieroglyphic sign for gold (Ilcbm). while . and lllany of the labolln:rs were COllYicts (sec STOi'\E \ND <tUARRYI"iG). The sarcophagus chamber in the royal tomb was known as the 'house of gold'. f.l'pl'ilitioll ill the "i.ji'fllll Y'ltcbcs. i\1.. (1. In the SthDynasty tomb of ly-Ivlerv at Giza (G6020) an inscription points out that the shape of the Ifebm sign was being imit<lt'ed by pairs of dancers in the funerary dance knO\\'n <IS the f(here}: In times of unrest the golden funerary equipment' acred as ..perhaps indicating geological variation 6 wadi Iloor. 18th DYllasty.r.::. the earl. II. The ROY:\L TITUL. R('/~f!.(21) images of the god. Thl' gold has beell ({1st illto rings/ur ease (~rfI'(lIlSpf!"f. perhaps indicating that it grew rich fi'om the gold trade..137{}--1300 IJG. Lcs divines ipowcs tie fa /& {~J'lltlSlie (Paris.. while the goddess Hathor was sometimes described as '1'he golden one This connection with the gods made it the ideal mctal in funerary contexts.'Il"Ir!.\I1\IC"Ji\ LETI'ERS.ng seltlellll'lll illlhe "'{uli Ilal/ll/lfllJlflf.. c:. mhith illustrates Ihe we ({the C/(JI:WJIIIU/ technique vI gf/!d/1Jorkillg. ROUL\S.\RY included the 'Golden Horus' name. Ne\\' Kingclom priv.. comeli({n (flld bl//e glass inlaid elell1t'11t. Gold W:1S mined hath from the Eastern Desert and from Nubia. although lesser individuals aspired to gilded or yellow-painted masks. H9-56.-13071) RIGHT 114 . gold had become the most precious material.

B·\I'I·:$. Gold could also serve the li\ iog.E\I\I. :lnd his headpiece of gold was upon him. j. blll il was in the ~C\\ Kingdom (1550-1069 Be) that contacts bccome mosl clear_ [n Eg'-ptian lombs of 1500-I-HO Be there arc rcprcscnlalions of cups of the type found at \"aphcio in m~linlilnd Greece.\IIIEn being rc\\'ardcd with golden collars by the pharaoh.e sign for the ter111 that suggests dry land rather than water. ancl the material melted down b~ the robhers would have been used in exchanges. By rhe 12th D. \-·\NDERSI.''' /9851\.1 bullheaded rhyron.EYF.1Cts with [ [5 . /vlDAJ K SO (199-l). KLE:\L\I and D.1 suitable reward for emincnt indi"iduals.. 3-4-5-S2. I-he im.\.-nast\· (1985-1795 Be) the TOO (reasure shows Greek influence. 1986).GOLD GREEKS 4. and his coffins were adorned with gold.\ Iaya and !I0RE. There arc many sun-i. The noble Illummy of this King "'as C0111pletely bedecked with t:'old.of the tomb of Tlitankhamun. and there arc represenlJtions of faHlUred !'\C\\ Kingdom officials such as .tgination of the twentieth-century press became particularl~ obsessed \\'ith rhe 'gold of the pharaohs'.1s been pointed out. and we set fire to their conins . J. CEIC\T. G'ahiers d'I-!islfJire -'lOll/fill It' I (1~5-1). !-ISU 11(:. "ariolls economic and polil'ic:i1 links gradually dc\"c1opeu m'er the centuries. for instance. The Ianer interpretation is a matter of considerable debale.LEE~S Greeks Egypt did not dc\"c1op dose conl. which wcre brought to Thebes as tribute by Cretans. shomillgjim!ig1l rulers from IIII. ~03-21. The gold of ancient Egypt became legendary ancl c. . phllraoh. 'Chronologischcr Abriss dc. since there was no . . Paintings in the tomb of Senenmut (-r1'71) show not only il gianl Vapheio Clip but 'llso .:\gyprens'.ui. Schoske (Hamburg. il h. l!Jlh PVlltISly.. C. Ft. and found the noble mummy of this King equipped with a falchion [cun-ed sword] '" amulets and jewels of gold were upon his neck. and olher documents USe a determin.'cntllally passed into medieval folklore_ With the discOlen. (I . The high \'~duc of gold made it . The proslrale/igllrc o1llhe It:'ji is described liS Ihe 'c!n't{ofJl/(' K(/iim' (usf(({/~)1 (lSSII/11cd 10 be 0 n:fi!l'l!llL'e 10 Crete) alld IIIefigllre fill IIIe/i/l' righlmcars rleg. c.-ing examples of the 'FIX of \'alour'. while Cret'ans arc also shown in the tomb of iV[cnkhcpcrrascneb ("nS6). The goddess Tc\WERET was modified to become the so-called Cretan 'genius" losing her hippopota~llthough 'T'crm llsed to refer to a I If\!'\ ) great royal wife s<'<' (l. cd.'(li1l1filyjigun·s: EgYPlian P('I"s(Jl/~li({fli(J1/ lIw/lhl! i(011ld0JJ.-:r antiken Goldgewinnung in del' Ostwiisre .1 or the 1\ lcditcrranean se. Greece until well into the Pharaonic period.l) coinage. ]991). 'Prices and wages in Egypt in the Ramcssidc period'. that ccrtain texts (such as Papyrus Ramcsscu111 n) describe the crossing of the 'great grcen' by foot. great green (Egyptian madj ma) fecunclit~ tig'ure (sec who appe'lrs to have personified either the lakes within the Nile Delt. since some l\linoan frescos portray papyrus columns.letu. R.Ai'lm IIII/i/l(III.'. CoPJ' OflllJ'1l1l-plli1lIillgji'0111Ihe /rimb of JImkheperrascneb 01 TlJ('bes.~rc opened their sarcophagi and their coffins ..Y ofa genn: (\Varminstcr. 29-]5.'11I1 t!olhiug ({lfd curries (/ Illfilluall-slJ'le bull:\' head. KI. 'vVc collected the gold we found On the mummy of this god. S. It may be that Cretans and other Greeks visited Egypt during this time and rook away with them notions or Egyptian architecture. D. often at the expense of discm'crics that arc archaeologiL"ally more signific'lnt.c sens de Ouadj-Our (W'd\~ir)'. a military honOur uSll:llly nude of gold.' Aegeall 1Illlllhi' Yellr Elisl bringing Irilmlc 10 lilt.

nephe. e been discoycred . /:''gypl (({ia fhe plwl'flo!t. \yas also imported into Crete.·ati"e ways.\-\'IlDRt.-:\:\\ \R. and Egypt fell.llilltJ(/J/ potlt'lT from second mil/(. B.'gYP' C\1:tin. The Egyptians levied a duty on commerce there. and with Athenian help hc besieged lhe Persi:lI1s at 1\ lcmphis. >\li-\ler) Settlement site at thc southeaster n end of the Fayum region. retaining their contacts with Athens. held Eg~ pt in high regard as. It W.1$ . derived their characteris tic appearance from the Greeks' observation of Plaa "(Camb. his supporters sun-ived in the Delta marshcs. occupied fr0111 the e'lrl~ 18rh Dynasty until at least the time of Ramcses r 116 .SIRIS at Tuna el-Gebel. . Psamtek I (66-1-610 lie) allowed Greeks from 1\ lilctus to found a commercia l cclHrc at :'\AuhR. It was at some time during this period that lhe Greek hisrorian IIElmnOTL:S m.m can.EES. N. had been used increasingly from the l'\ew Kingdom.· ofTcos.1 n. The Greeks. making Egypt. Afi'lI/phis fluder .tbly Icd to the conqucst of Egypt in 525 Be... The rising powcr of PERSIA inc\'it. ousting the Persians in 332 BC.11 curiosities.' \.. 'rhe power of the Greek mercenaries at this time is indicclled by the fact that a subsequent re\'olt in favouf of Neetanebo II (360-343 BC).t'nJ:(1II tier .l\tlacedonian Greeks N+. in this c1mpaign he depended hca"il~ on the Greek mercenarie s prorided by the Sparf:lI1 king Agcsilaus ~lI1d the .-cnrually killed in 454 Be. 898-'1Il. but the Greek merccmlri<.- under \L£. perhaps . and Nepheritcs I (399-393 BC) supporled the Cypriots against the Persians.1. became an important agricultur. E. ..J05 Be Darius II of Persia (42+-405 BC) died and in the following year Amyrtaios (-+0+-399 Be) seized power in Egypt. and under Ahmosc II (j70--526 Be:) [heir trade was limited to this city. In 465 BC. lVlercenary soldiers.. succeeded primarily because of the suppOTt of Agesilaus. in his baboon manifestati on.·lgyplologic III. 1(81). rerolts in Persia led l·cos (362-360 Be) to attempt to rcg.\1 0. there waS. "I'hoth. 1-1. (Oxford. A. In 3-4-3 IJC thc Persians attacked again. Egypt had been drawn cver more into the Greek wodd.1lso important as a source of copper. 1977). and in this way Egyptian civilization exerted a strong innuence on the Classical world.GREEKS mus form until she more closely resembled a donkey. TIIO\II'SO~.\ YRY~ClILS and else"'here. New cities such <1S \LE. imported as ox-hide ingots. ' and Ptolcmais were cstablished and scttled by Greeks. anc. the only type of coin known from Pharaonic Egypt. The ancien1 Greek kOllrosfigures. with traditional subjects depicted in inno. LE" IS.1I11iu111 t.·jlization owe considerab ly morc to Eg~ pt than is commonly realized. 1988).l1 Centre. The cir~ struck its own coinage. cd. 1."S were once more disloy<11. 1n . QLlO . 1986). B(l" \1 \'\. including some fi'om the l\lediterr. Certain resins shatt tombs 50 shatt tombs 100 150 200 m may also h<l\"c been imported frol11 Cyprus (and elsewhere in Greece) and Cypriot paltCry is also atresred in Eg\'pt. This mixing of Greeks and Egyptians led to new artistic dcrelopme nts. and this \YaS sent to the tcmple or Neirh at S_\IS. following rhe death of Xerxes I (486-l65 Be). 1986). Grech iu Ptolemaic Egyp. Through the lasl decades of the fifth century Be. KE~IP and R. LVI yccnaean ponery reached Egypt in the New Kingdom. j. recording recent political events and 10L'. Wcsrendorf(Wiesbaden. J.\· (London. TIiISSE.tdc his visit ro Egypt. and has been found in large quantities ill sites such as EI.hl' P'lIk//lIi'S (Princeton.{D!:R TilE GREXI' (332-323 Be).lin those prm-inccs that had been lost. while the F\YL \1 JU:GIO:'\.l\thcni.dsdom.\" 'Griechcn in Agyptcn'. that brought Egypt rully into the J-lcllenistic world.1S containers for a particular valued commodity.l fom of ancient .11111 W..-]. but by rhe S:\IT!: period (664-525 Be) Egypr had come to depend eyer more heavily on Greek mercenary troops. Greek was adopted as the official language. Gurob (Medinet el-Ghurob .md numerous papyri or the period ha.l revoIr by Psamtek of Sais. \Y. and through thcm the Romans. K.':\.. :\ICRRI1. as in the scenes from the tomb of PETo.\TIS. ror cxJmple. The roots of \\CSlern ci.1tural ally of the Greek city-slates. becoming the only ruler of the 28th Dynasty.Hues. who were settled in j\/lcmphis. Similarly..lS (he coming of .z. I-Iekk.. Egyptian st. D.m admiral Chabrias. Cyprus W. Later. allhough he was e.

1981).. In 1905 the LOwn was examined by the German archaeologist Ludwig Borchardt. 'rhe main town.·jd"als. Climb (London.lIh the surf<. 011.ji·om Dcirel-Aledil1a. L. P. appears to foclis on a centr.UROJE-/7J97) their hair at the sidc of lhe hcad sometimcs as one or two {TeSSCS or a plait.rs. and \ycre otherwise shaven. presence or absence of hair were all of great importance to the Egyptians.\'GELfHCII. Contrary [Q persistcnt references in the archaeological literature.256U) LEJoT Dclail fi"()lll Ihc relic/decoratio/l ({the sarcophagus oIQpet:1l Kawil ((1 m{/e oj"Nt.GUROB HAIR (I I·P-I 143 BC).mes added to the existing hair. the heads of rRIEsrs were completely shaven 117 . although \. "·ould often have been scented (see 1. L. London. now in the Egyptian i\!(USCU111. 3.latiol1. ClIrn": (l NelP Killgdom IOITJIl. (. hut Lhe use of t. wcre fu II wigs.. \Vigs were worn On public occasions and at banquets. Ivl.1S regularly depicted.Kingdom town. temple and cemeteries constitutcs a morc reprcsentati\·c set of cvidence than the material at the betterdocumented and better-preserved urban site of EL-Ai\I/\R"t\. of mlin' sarmpltagm 2. therc is no c\·idencc for the lise of \\"001 or other animal hair in wigs. Cum" (London. hmyc\"cr.woid greying and baldness. and. 'The harilll-palace ar Nledinet el~ Ghurab'. Children wore sexuali~'. contained within an enclosure wall and divldcd into three blocks (each with its own enclosure walls and gateways). who suggested that thc main enclosure-wall contained not a temple ~ ~IS Petrie had argued . 2 vols (Warminster. which may have been an carly New Kingdom scnlcment similar ro lhat beside the South Palace at DElI{ F. 1905). Barry Kemp has synthesized the results of the various excavations to construe! an impression of the New Kingdom Iwrim-town which must have superseded the earlier \·ilI:1ge. Flinders Petrie excavated part of the Nc\\.llUS.1.\l.-as usually washed and scentcd. 1911). From . which includes very few artefacts from funerarY contexts. BRli:'XTOX and R.122-33. II l"OI1SL~/S ofa lIIas. I lIlt D. !Vlen generally worC shoner wigs than women. none of which seems likely to ha\ e been \"ery cfTccti\-c.·ery long. and wcalthy individuals emplo~ed hairdressers.20-l0 lie. 1. ~IS well as a model head with lhe outlinc of the wig's attachments. The objects included a sack and jars containing hair.000 ltuma1! ha.lde of genuine human hair. S.his material scems to have been wholly exceptional. . K(.b!tepelra !\IlelllultOlcp II.)5-200-/oc. 5U.It least as carly as the :\"ew Kingdom. KEI\lP. and havc bcen c~Halogued in the course of a reassessment of the site as a whole.]l limestone building. The Egyptians wok great care of their hair. LOAT.Many of the finds from the town are in the collection of the Petrie iVluseu111. This characteristic SIDELOCK OF YOl'Tll W. doning to the reign of Thutmose III.. although ycgetable fibres were sometimes used for padding bene.hUII.· of":!(hl-mloured mrl~ 0" toP ofplails.. even in the portrayals of deities such as the infant" llORUS (Ilarpocrates). judging from the survival of texts including remedies for Ihese conditions.11 Tell e1-Amarl1al (Leipzig. I. BoRCIIARDT. which was C\Tlltually dismantled by Rameses II (1279-1213 BC). ~-JIOI1'I1It(/t"illg heT IUtir llrrf1l1ged kJ' (/ sert'flu/. amI mould proI1l1b(j. nOl only as a ma((cr of personal appearance but also as symbols or indicalions of st. J\ lore common. Twu Roman wigs made entirely of grass have also survived. as in eighreenrh-cenrur~ Europe. It might be argued that the combination of artefilCtual material from town. c. The act of ritual humiliation and subjection was demonsn·ated by thc king's action of scizing his enemics by the hair before smiting them. Der POrJriillmp[du Kiillig. 1890). H hair The style. 1891).nd appears to have flourished in the reign of Amenhutep III (1390-1352 BC). Lo~lt mentions the remains of a small 18th-Dynasty village close to a fiJrdfied buiJding. A.JlIlaso'.-1I. S. \\figs \yere usually 1ll. Cairo) shows such a hairdresser at work. Gurub alld Ilamart{ (London. and wcre concerned to . which was established by Thutmuse III (1479-1425 BC) as a ruyaIIlAl". hair . E. hare been 11J(In! 011 ajestin' ()("C(H. The 11 th-Dynasty sarcophagus ofC&eell Kawit from Deir el-Bahri (r.62 111 (C. designed 10 aI/om t:elJ/. e\·cn in the Clse of rclatiycly poor indi. Date palm is knO\\"n to hayc been used for this purpose in the 21st DI'nast)' (1069-9-15 IIC). One of the slain soldiers of ~ [entuholep II (2055-200-1 Be) buried at Deir c1-Bahri was found to be wearing a hair-piece of this type. as well as a building identified as it temple.. W. like \UO\ E Elaborale m. E PETRIE. . which were not confined to those who had lost their hair but served as a regular item of dress for the elite. Kahlln alld Gurob (London. 1927).g 1/ulf!t'jiwl1 about 120. .u Trje: AIIsgrabrmgen der DClltscheu Or. and cemeteries d~lring to the Kc\\ Kingdom and the Prolemaic period (332-30 BC). W. Nc\-crthclcss.lce. z£is IS (1978). G.OU. The 'mrk of subsequent British archaeologists conccntriltcd primarily 011 the cemeteries and temple. II/ahl/II. Nem Kingdom.n·y wigs and these were considered to add [0 their hair.\I. hc.\ICl~'\lSE).l-AS. \Vomen often wore . although their styles were sometimes even more ehlborate..20. Hair-pieces in the form of false phlits and curls were someLi.V. in 1974 a team of Polish archacolo~ gists discovered the rcmains of a wig-maker's workshop dating to the lVliddlc and New Kingdoms in a rocky clen at Dcir c1-Bahri. Gurob has been identified with the rown of NIi-weT. L. fl.ent-Gt'srl/srlurji.but a late 18th-Dynasty palacc and harim as well as the town itself J\'lore recently. Excavated between 1888 and ]920. 13. TIIOi\IAS. i\lany Egyptian wigs were extremely complex and arranged into careful plaits and strands.

'BUSI. There was e..152 Be) and Akhcnaten (]]52-1J36 Be) rcspct. The !tarim was adl11iniSLered h. G.. perhaps alJuding to the myth of Isis CUlling off onc of her locks as a symbol of her grief for Osiris. ET 10 (1978).. from the 5th-Dynasty mortuary temple of Sahura (2~S7-2475 lJe) al .\li\R\J/\.\ rale of hair. 'Un atelicr de flerruqucrier . cd.{ (}II l!te Icji side oflheslallle.'-I-I'-'-A'-'P_Y'---- -'-l~I~ during their period of office.{lI genre (\Varminstcr. an . to the Greco~Roman temple of Horus and Sobek al "':0\1 oJ\IIJO. and in this sense he was inrerehangeable . but th'1I site hilS nOi sun·i.and. 2000). which ironically was not idenlified as a !tarim by its eXC.l\-ators than from any hard CYidcnce (although the so~called 1\orth Palace al e1~ Amarna..·cd.-'\. 13·\1'1':''). T Nicholson and 1.N:'\E:\L.which was simply known as iler. (332lfi.'. P()SE1\'I~R. 1964). papyri and variollS other inscribed artefacts from the main buildings ill the sire repeatedly include t. L \S"-o\\'S"-!\-KL"SZT\I. Feamdi~l'.. and on the other hand the archaeological remains at GLHOH are clearly identified as the remains of <In independent establishment relating to rOY'll women (a 'lllfrilll-pabce').figllrl·s: (!{Y/Jfian pl'1"s(JII~limliom lIIulllrt' irtJllolog)/IJ.:f a similar desire LO present an image of the body that drew on both male and female aspects of fertility.·c sign for mourning consists of three locks of hair.yith a number of other 'fecundity figures' whose depictions draw on the same reservoir of characteristics. From the 19th Dynasty (1295-1186 Be) onwards there wcrc occasionally reliefs ponraying two fecundity figures.lyernS among the rocks of the first cataract. Sh<l\\ (Cambridge. He was usually represented ilS a potbellied bearded man with pendulous breasts and a headdress formcd of aquatic plants.ttions of the Ottoman hanm and because dle texts and arch.c) (Paris. 1 \IF. J. 2 "ols (Leiden. c. bears some l.iys of offcrinbJ"S. (1:/8) the uther wearing the Upper Egyptian 10tllS. the usc of this e\'ocativc term in the ancient Egyptian contcxt is con- son with the buildings al Gurob).lct hinted at in Papyrus RamessclIll1 \1 and described in derail by the Greek writer Plutarch (c.{111I' prillteJses ill !tis harim. which incorporated the palaces of Amenhotep III (1390-1.-ll/cil'1ll . D." such male officials as tJx-collectors and scribes. which th~y deified in the form of lli1py. Copy lila rclieIslwII'illg Rallleses III /IIi/!t Iliff . fliSIt'1"1I CalC. As 1:11" .~~J'Pli{{1/ IIllIlerials (/llilla/lImloK)'. wigs .~ inllfmor ofR. L. E. '. l!t"j{u:ialjcalllres (~rOsor/. P.I DeiI' el-Baluri'.(( tTlIl' till Ni/.llfd1llft Habll. 'Yhose titles hayc been prescn"cd on numerous surviving documents. FI. I. \\ here he was thought to dwell in the c./I.\ iI. 2."-:\'li\ and 1·:J. The hieroglyphic detcrminati.2111.~//(IlIfJ fl. 'La leg-ende de Ia ITcsse d'Hathor'.IS the weaving of linen (an acti"ity th.IT'\IH'I'I01\. is depitll'd ill rclie.lSI been identified among the remains at such sites as ~II\I. and sOlllcrimcs c-Ycn J'cI11o\"ing locks of hair.) and oeelJpied throughout the rest of the 18th Dynast~. L '/q'11I11e (i /" alll'tllI.:li\'c1Yl they arc unlikely to have had any conncction with the !tarim descrihed in the leXlS <Inti usu'llly in fact deri"e more from the imaginJtions of the cxc. and 10 reinforce their cleanliness. ..SII$II. 111-17. 1. 2211lIDy.l'·awrs. The inscriptions on stelac. . On the one hand. 83-12U. and recci. (LWO-1352 Be) .:\ and \s\\ \~.ETClII~R. Hapv (baboon-god) sec "'''OI'IC J IKS Hapv (god of the inundation) The Egyptians m'lde an impormnt distinction between the Nile itself . dirillile eK.. the surviving texts describe an important cconomic institution supported from t'IXatlOn. 1986). S{. 1-l::lpy's major cult centres \\ere at GElJEI. 'A:"\ DER Pl. Times of mourning were oficll marked by throwing ashes or dirt over Lhc head.'\!IIOTEI' III .ATI':~ (1352-1336 Be) . The lower registers of many temple walls. the women arc said to have undertakcn such tasks."ind-pipe hieroglyph (scilla) signifying the unity of the southern and northern halves or Egypt. It has also been suggestcd that the androgynous features of the phar~lOh '\"'I-IE'\.may reflet.md lice'. D.?'.. 1"0 some extent. These atlributes were designed to stress his fertility and fecundity.l'!llieflut' if Irm. I1I{. ]. H."identl~ a ".and the Nile I. 1986).910oc.l"l{.:£'rs mille fms d'/u"sloirt. one wearing the papyrus of Lower Egypt and 118 fusing both because it had none of the erotic connot.·\I) ~6-126). L'gYPI/Ilogiml sIJUli('.-6-1-1 ap. EI. to signify their subscn'ience to the deity. Alrhough orher !tarims h.IS thc texlual "ersiOllofl"hc institution is c011l:crned. 1985).OIl I. BO. However.imilar establishment in ~IE\IPI liS. in the act uf binding togethcr the '.he tides of officills connectcd with the royalllllrim (or pl'r-l.lccording to the Greek historian Herodotus.leological remains are difficult to reconcile. 'the riyer' . 'Hair and wigs'.31-3. \Vhen the pharaoh took a ne\\ or "ire . were decorated wit h depictions of processional fecundity figurcs hearing tr. 1. sIUJ/1J11l1'il{.ltlS~)I. ing rcgu_ 1. . iJIIl1ldaliulI-god I-Iapy.t.. .. harim (Egvptian ipel. ParI'a. EgYPlian tlrdwcolllgy 5 (1994)..n e in Lhe P.. pcr~t"ellcr) Term used by Egyptologists to describe an administraLi\"c institution connected with royal women . \5.:hL'lft'T) of ~ Ii-weI'.lt is well attested at Gurub).)nd probably attached to Pharaonic palaces and yillas during the New Kingdom.11' supplies of rations. J.c.:ompari- Qjfarl:zill' slalUt' o.esko (llanOl·er and London. founded in rhe reign of Thutlllose III (l-t79-1~25 1Jr. cd.OS(' SOil.

llIse of the mytil in which she restored the sight of llorus "fter llis eye had been put out by Seth. and her role as the daughtcr of I( \ was reinforccd in the temple of IIORLS at 1':llFU by references to her marriage to Horus of Edf'u . along with several of the other conspirators. By extension she \yas also known as 'htdy of F\IE:'\CE' (thc latter being an artificial sllbsL~1I1ce designed to imitate certain precious stones). so that. The dying therefore desired [() bc 'in the following of Hathor' so that the) would enjoy similar protection in the netherworld. <l wife of Rameses III (118+-1153 Ill:). QL. Horus and Ihy is still preserved (on the sitt: of an earlier f()undation). the capiml of which was the city of \IE:'\DL"i.um End/! des MR) (Berlin. \ycn. lJERCl1 \1:'\. (E. plorred \\ ilh other women and some of the male oflicials lO O\"enhrow him in bnlur of her son. horns and sun disc.. Au. Row.:. associated "Egypfi~1I1 119 . \~T. PI'O I. where a tcmple of the Ptolemait and Roman periods dedicated to the triad of' Harhor. TlIlire oJ}i:rillgs 10 Hallwr (Oxford. her principal cult centrc. I huhor W'1S also one of tile deities who waS thought to be able to detcrmine the destinies of newborn children. In one myth Harhor was said to h:t\·e been scnt to destroy humanity (sec EYE OF R\). S. "harem" or "musical performers"r. and as a woman wcaring a headdress consisting of a wig. 1981).E. literally dozens of \. who sen·ed as the symbol uf the sixteenth nome of Lower Eg) pt. 1992). She was also describcd as 'lady of the sky'. H.ce oflhe godde. Her associations and cult centres were among the most numerous and diverse of any of the Egyptian deities.]E·/62 (1976).. and as such was worshipped as (lady of B\l.\J) 3(0).152-(. as a cow. A.-t'piduIIIS) or as a woman wilh a FISII emblem (once misidentificd . G.. SETII ~lI1d OSIRIS was conOated with that of the birth of I-Iorus.u 11m/un: milh ((J/11~( l'ur. 1(72). a falcon-god associated with the heavens.38--40.. <The tcrm/lllr."cnt the plOI waS discO\'crcd and lhe prince W:lS fi)l"Ccd to commit suicide. was 'son Hathor'. Her connection with music was particularly represented by the SISTKL. At the TLHQLOISI·.15 a dolphin) on her hcad. joy and \IU!'iIC. but or Harpocrates Ii'e 1I0HLS Harsomtus see Hathor lIOHl'S ting sun.he Old Kingdom (2686-2181 lie) her principal cult centre waS at I1E'\I1EHA.\luseum. The king..\l. hieroglyphic inscriptions ancl hieratic graffiti al the site show that it \Y:lS in use intermittently from at least as early as rhe reign of Khufu lIntil the Roman period (1'. and in this guise she \yas regarded as one of' the <eyes' of the sun-god It\.122-33. 12(.191-21 B. sometimes surmounted by a \J·\()S. 261h f)YIUIS~lt. Davis (BoSlon. she was known as <lady of the \Vest' or 'lady of the western mountain l . 8cilni~l!. Ihe Aegea1l (lw/lhe SudalJ. it is perhaps not surprising LO find that the women of the /wrim occasionally became in\'oln::d in political intrigue. Children. E. . She was the goddess mOSt often ~lssociated with the desert and foreign countries. a practice that may hayc fostered the Biblical story of ~loscs.-30.' brought up in the royal Ilflrilll. She was usually represented either as a I\"ile carp (I. Shc was also regularly portrayed on the lilli/wI counterpoise attached to necklaces. J.c cult of Hathor. Cairo).lthor was correspondingly rcgarded as the divine mother of each reigning king.rn. Her role as royal mother is well illustrated by a statue of Hathor in the form of a cow suckling the pharaoh Amenholep II (1+27-1+00 BC) from a chapel al DEIR EI.s. Giycn the details of the 1\ loses narrati.+.-Indt/JI f:'gyplial/ rdigiol1 (London. ceremonial eXilmples of which wcre often cndowed wilh I hllhor hcads. including occasional young foreign captives. who appears to ha\'c usurped Ilathor's role whcn tllC legend of Isis. Since the pharaoh was identified with Horus. RI~ISE]{. mines of Serabit e1-~hadim in Sinai a temple was built [Q her in her role as 'lady of turquoise'. From the 'Turin Judicial Papyrus it is known that Tiy.-B\lIRI (no. P..p. The city of 1\ lemphis was an important centre of Hathor \yorship." (II/(I disliuClii:l' mrlillg /pig. lI'tnllclI in autienl J:. and fi'cquenrJy shaken by the pricstesses of d. In the e. The pottery.lLOS'.HARI'OCRATES HAT-M EI-I IT concubine she was added to the !tarim. Kemp. SII/(lics ill (ll/ticlIl L'gypl.1rded as her consort. and she was described there as 'lady of the sycamore'. was also rcgularl~ described as the son of ISIS.:rJ. G. The I-Iarnuh quarry settlements. cd. D."c.I'pl (London l 1993).}!{)'PICII /ll1d seilte I ('rma/fllng (Vienna. Her worship aL j\ lClldes bcc~lmc less important with the rise of the ram-god Bancbdjcdet. \ \I.2589 IlC-.·hich she then protected until morning. [mp0rlant bm·inc goddess worshipped in three filrms: as a woman wiLh the ears of a cow. Each evening she was considcred to recei\'e the set- Hatnub alabaster' (tr~wertinc) quarries and :lssocial'ed seasonally occupied workcrs' settlement in the Eastern Desert.e ZlIm HalllOr!. 1993). In her funcrary aspect. 137--45. zAs 15 (1978). but from as early as .K. The literal meaning ofhcr namc waS (house of Horus" and was written ill the fix111 of a EllCOn contained within a hieroglyph representing a rcctangular building. . .IRh. NORD. Dcr 1. DE Du:h. Simpson and IV. howeYer. along with her entourage of maidscryants. who came to be reg-. 'The harim-pa!ace al 1\ lediner elGhurab'. Hallwr Q!uulrijimx (Istanbul. Fuience sislrum derortlfct! milh Ihl.]. although the fale ofTiy and the other women is not known.\I. as rime wenl by.lpyrus of Turin" ]EA 23 (1937). The sanatorium associated wilh this temple probably relates to the healing properties thM were associalcd with the goddess oec. M.'(i'II/~rdirhc /larilJl /11/ allclI. 1963)."omen might be attached to it. aboul 65 km sOutheaSI or modern el-J\ilinya. 1110SI' notably at western Thebes. ajia 600 /lC..11 (hix ::. and one of the royal titles Hat-Mehit Fish-goddess of the Delm. S. 'The judicial p. KI':1\ll'.IJ-I190j she was more usually associated with such pleasurable aspccts of life as SE:\L.· in the Egyptian . In her \'Cngeful aspect she sometimes also shared the leonine form of the goddess SE"J1\1ET. 1972) [reviewed b~' B.

but the heir to rhe thronc. It is likely.wghrcr.mee both of Neferura and Senenmut (who is not attestcd after Thutmose Ill'S nineteenth rcgnal ye~lr) m. (1. thus effectiycly blocking him from full power. 1.\1 "lOSE 'EFEK[\KI. She had a d. SUfYCy:lt union between Amun and her mother Q!."as discu v- Reliefblock. (CRAII. cairns and stone alignments. On the other hand her tWO mas~i"e obelisks at Karnak appear to h.. as opposed 10 a feeling that her reign had simply been contraf\' to tradition. causc\yays. in the P~lst. it is possible lhar his political skills had alreadv helped to gain Hatshcpsut her e!t:-yatcd posi~ tion. perhaps in order to strengthen his claim to the thronc. \}\ J"cpurls Ill. Because Thunnosc III was still young when his father <.n·c eased rhe transfcr of power. Tn this she appears to ha.. and they orten refer to her with masculine pronouns and adjcctires as though she were male (ahhough. Die Ft'lsenillSchrijim i'OIl Hawub (Leipzig. there must have been some sensc of conflict between her sex <lnd the masculine role of the pharaoh. including the royal beard.:hilcl.l tomb for herself in the Valley or the Kings (Kv20)1 which . G. E. Her monuments at Deir c1-Bahri and elsewhere frequenl"ly show her in kingl~ costume. A'\Tllf-S. 73-82.IS retribution for her seizure of pmYer.·cntually became sole ruler. that these reliefs and inscriptions concerning her legitimacy were simply part of the usual paraphernalia of f. 1em of/ht' 0'" Killgdom/rarer/lnt' fj/larlY lit Ha/lIuh. who was married to her half-brother Thlltmose 11 (1+92-1+79 BC). roads.-engeance or anger. howe.\h. although she claimed to h. :'\cfcfura.\[OSI-:' (150+-1+92 Be:) and Queen . hur e.fiolll Ihe Red Chapel OJHltlShepSIII III Karnak. Here she recorded lither aspects of her reign. and she took the funher step of having herself crowned king. cd.\R'\. ~md her name w~s among those omitted fro Ol subsequcnt KI'\G LISTS. 11 has been argued that the apparcnt disappear.yas probably ncyer the chosen heir of her father ThUt"I11oSC I. Thl.l/ IIIIWfSON) 120 .IS "ell as the transport of two cnormous granite obelisks from the quarries at Aswan tn the temple of Allllln-R.lY perhaps h. arc ch. F'tlSI'R..tractcrized by drystone windbreaks.lecn Ahmose.-/. Dllring her reign there was renewed build- I-Jamub\Amanlll J. and some of the reliefs in her mori uary temple at DEIR EL-IlAIIRI reinforced her claim by emphasizing her divine birth. despite the . sister Ncferura in order to reinfi:Jrce his position. shomillg the {flll'en pCljormillg a religious (crt'mmq' msoriated mith the kingship.lied. was the Iinest of her buildings.)I1lOJO'. \Vhen Thutmose III reached maturit). . it is likely th'lt this was simply a case of ailllering to the accepted decorum of kingship rather than deliberatc deception). bccn suggested that the rcign of Hatshepsut was an unusually peaceful pcriod in Egyptian history. Kemp (London. 18tft D.nical slips in the texIS (and.:ticc.lS. "'as the only male <. by Thutmosc II. She had prepared . It used to be thought that Thutmosc immcdiately set about remm·ing his "ICPmother's namc from her monuments. SII\\\. chief courtier and tutor to :\cfcrura.I-/lO He.·cr. Hatshepsut (1+73-1+58 Daughter O[TllcT.1\1. but il is by no rne~lIlS c1e~lr whether Iiatshepsul simpl~ died or was forcibly removcd from power. It h. R. W.mun. c. Hatshepsut was appointed regem.511. Since Thllm10se "' (1+79-1425 I1c). he e.iE'JCY with the young 'Thulmose. quart. 1928). most notably her trading expeditions to I'L:'\T.lVe been gh·en thc kingship during her Euhcr's lifetimc.~ redating perhaps calls illlo question the mllrirc of pure .l\'(' heen deliberateh· conel'aled behind masonry. allowing her to continue to enjoy a long COIU:(. more importantl). but only the occasional gramm. I'SBA 16 (189+). once ag:lin. BC) 189-212.HATSHEPSUT I-IATSHEI~ . the son of a secondary wife. in which she was assisted by SESU\ \ILT. archi_ tect.·c had the support of the pricsts of A. In pnu.lpparem cmphasis on trade in the n:licfs at Deir cl-Bahri.:!:\'GSI-IIP rather than selfconsciolls propag'anda on her part". Il\ BLOS and SI'\ \1 . lhe posthumous attempts to remove her name from monulllents) have suryived as indic1tions of sueh feelings of inappropriateness.l at "-. She ./11) with three principal quarries) like those associated with gold mines in the \Vadi f-htmmamal and elsewhere. 198Cl). B. but it is nnw known that these defacements did not take place until much later in his reign. idencc has gradually emerged for the continucd dispatch of milimry expeditions during her reign. the future Thutmose III was the son of one of Thutlnose Il'S concubines.dte. 'Hal-Nub'. the result of a ing activity at Thebes and elsewhere. Her temple at Deir el-Bahri. he \Vas married to his half. influcnted by the earlier temple of Ncbhepetra \IE'\_ TLIIOTEP II (2055-2004 BC).

Boston). Romalf period. A.EY.AUSTIC or tempera and datillg to the Romal1 period (30 13e-. who described a complex of three thousand rooms connected by winding passages.]F. Ma::::g/{/l('h (London. it has been sug'gcstcd that it may originally have had some similarities to the complex surrounding the Step Pyramid of Dioser (2667-2648 Be) at S.107-18. '":'\l ew light on the rccarycd sarcophagus or Hatshcpsut and Thutlllose I in the iVI useum of Fine Arts. (I.HAWARA HAWARA ered b~' Howard Carter in 190J. She may hayc been laid to rest in an earlier tomb} the so-called 'SO Lith tomb' in the Wadi Sikket 'Cl(F cl-Zcid in the dirfs to the south or Deir cl-Bahri. DER IVI.]EA 56 (1970).\L\:'\. 'A tomb prepared for Queen Hatshcpsuir and other recent discoycrics at Thebes'.\ Q... Biahlllll and ./IV) Hawara Royal necropolis in the sOlltheastern Fayum region.s. The 11I01lllJIIC1lls vI SeJlCJlIIlII/ (London. The mortuary temple constructed immediately to the south orthe pyramid was known to Classical authors as the 'Labyrinth'.'\l.II\'\ and C. In the yicinity or Hawar. ]21 . Hawara was first identified by Lepsius in 184-3 Jnd later cxcavatcd by Flinders Peu·ie in ]889-9 and 1910-11. Although only a few traces of the mortuary temple havc survivcd. 1890). lVlo\Cl-. B. There is no evidence that" \'20 was eyer used for her burial.Q. illrorporatillg C/lull/slit pOflrail o.. NI.·\RA.121-56. F EJ)(~ElnO. CARTER. TIl{. Gum/! awl HalJlal'{f (London. W. \V.67/11. P. Om.fArll'lllidoflls.r o/Alllcncmlllli III al Ha/IJartl. 11.lEA 79 (1994). Tn. 1933). _Halcl/l:psIII: lite .uIOI1 (Chicago. LLOYD l 'The Egyptian Labyrinth'. D. . SII. H.1\"eIlers. PETIUE 1 Ha/IJara. The site subsequently became parr of the itinerary of Greek and Roman tn.' L(f/~vrillfh.ll!Je dact/sed. 1912). The l'l/ll!/l/osid SIIUC. H. (L/21810) IUGIIT till N t (1855-1808 Be). 'WAINWRIGHT and E.A 4 (1917).. Boslon'. E Pt':Tlm:. which had been constructed before her rise to the throne. DOR. AR:'\OLD.81-100. Kahlill.Fo/// Ht/mara. the mOSL important element of which was the pyramid complex of A~IE~E~lIIAT III N/ulIImy (ase o.DESI. Gcrzt:h aud Plall oIlhe pyramid toll/plc. It was visited by the Greek historian Herodotus. A. G. E. LOElJE:---.1-9.] Petrie also discoyercd a cemetery incorporating a number or Fayum mummy-portraits executed in E:-"'(. pail/led (flld gilded slllcco.::AY.Jv1. M. .\]) 395). J. 1889). 1996).'\1l()\T ViCJ/l (!llhe pyra/llid ttl J1({/1)({/"{/. CAlflTR and T. 'Das Labyrinth und seine Vorbilder" MnilK 35 (1979). TiJe IMlib HfllslwpsillJ (London.fi'lIwle pl/{/rtloh (I-Iarmonclsworth. 1988).-lrsilloc (Lonclon. ettrf)' 2nd relllllJY -W.\i\'UI':I.1. although it contained an empty quartzite sarcophagus originally intended for Thlllmose I (nO\y in the lVIUSCUITI of Fine Arts. 1906). F.. or vv. P.

was determined by the hearl.the heart of the dcceased was :-. and from an Egyptological point of view often serve as the principal clue [0 the identity of the deity concernec!.:\"tll: ceramic \ esse!. 'I'he COmmonest headdresses . IVlin: double-plumed crown with ribbon or strcamer hanging fi'OI11 thc back.lnd crescent. Hapy Atum. Horus Osiris Seshat or Khnum Sobek Nekhbet. Abat: feather.ln~­ thing against 111e in the presence the weat god of the wcst.l ~lI1d regalia Egyptian rulers and deities included a wide variety of headdresses. <l pair of' co\\ 's horns . \:-.a popular vignette in copies of the Booh. .\I{ \Jl \\ as i.. Isis Hathor. ranging' from the double crown to the simple IICllh'S heaclcloth (see (RO\\ '\.t sun disc. "\ephth~ s: hieroglyphs denoting 'mistres~ of tilt: hOllse'. in order to pre\Tnt this. a heart SC. I-b (god or the \Vestern Desert): the hicrog·lyph for desert or hills. Wits regilrdcd as the Source of human wisdom and the centre or the emotions anclll1cmory. rathl'r than the brain.Sekllmet or Khans Satet Reshef Amun. The pharaoh in\·ariably wore headgear of some kind. Mut.. . consisting uf a rectangle surmolllllt. Chaptcr~ 16-9 uf the Book of rhe Dead were therefore Neith.1' Or iM. Gcb: either a goose or the crown of Lowcr Eg~ pl combined with thc tilt/crown. The heart was thullg'h. Horus On uris Anuket 122 .L~- H~[~ Hawawish.mel . Osiris: ({hi crown. Shu: ostrich fcather.:ul1sidcrcd to be the most important of tl1l: imcrnal organs. do not speak against me concerning' wh'11 I h'1\·e dOlle. Harhor: cO\r's horns . I-Jeh: norchcd palm frond. Atum: double crown or upper and Lower Egypl. Occasionally such artributes as the headdress arc transferred from olle deity to another in order to reflect the adoption of particular characteristics.lnd sular disc. Jeities' headdresses \\"tTe often JistincriH:. Hemsut .:d h\ a basket shape.ltet: \\·hitt c!"U\yn with :lllTelupt horns Serket: scorpion.IS \'\1) IUJ)'\I. Isis Ra-HorakhtY. cxtremcJ~ The An1lm: crown with two tall plumes.ho\\'n being weighed against the !Cather of \1 \Xl (rhe symhol of uninTsal truth and harmony). although one religious treatise states that the mon.Ire listed belm\: Amcnn.--\). 01':1 \'tJlture headdress. t MT 1 Amentet labet Isis Meskhent Wadjyt Upper Egypt. el.:(JIll1l1only wrapped within the bal1dagc~.Sllu Nephthys Ha Neith Nut Heh Lower Egypt. ~tnd if acciclcntall) removed would be sewn back into place.lrked IJlll with irrigation channels).CO. or In:G\u. . label (personificltiol1 of the East): spear stal1cbnl. nut! the god Anubis \\.mcnt of all parts of the bod~. placed abO\·c the hierog:lyphic sig:n f(JI· nome (:1 field 1ll. Hurus: douhle crown or triple alelcro\\l1. ~hons: lunar disc . headdresses The insigni.1 sO[:lr elise. S. heart To the Egyptill1s the heart (//((1.01" TJ Il~ 1JIo~ \D: '0 my hean which 1 had frum my morhcr. Ihe Dead .:t (pnsonification of the \VesT): standard surmounted by a leather and bird.\1 hawk see FAI. In the portrayal of the tinal judgement . even after death. ~Tekhhct: ndture headdress or crown of Upper Egypt. \faset/Wosrct (goddess ofrhe Theban I1llllll'): \\ SCEPTRE with a rihbon._E_. il was l. Ptah: skull-clp.:<Iddrcss sometimes surmounted by double crowl1. do not bring up . Beclusc of its supposed links with intellect_.1 b\II. Since it .\5 sometimes to bt seen adjll~ting the balance slightly in EI\our of the deceased to ensure a salC entry into the underworld. Nefertem: lotus flc)\\cr. The inscription 011 this scarab lIsuall~ consiSlCd or Chapter ]fl ii'om the HelO". Its function in the circulation of the blood was not understood. There \vas some concern that the heart might testify against its O\\l1er ilntl:->o condemn him or her at the judgement.Vlut: \'ulturc hc. Isis: the hieroglyphic sign for till·one. J\nuket: crown or cap or feathers. persollality <mel melllory. it \yas left in the hody during \IL\L\IIFJ< HIU'\._H_A_\_VA_\'_'I~S_I-~I. Ncith: shield \\-irh t\W crossed arrows and l:nl\\ n of Lo\ycr Egypt. do not rise up agai_nst me as a witness in the presence or the lord of things.sec 1\". to be gi\cn hack to the deceased in the afterlife. also combined \\-ith.·as felt that the heart could rncal a person's (Tue character. () my hC<lrt which I had upon earth. Scshat: star of £1\·(: or seven points. Hapy Maat.

leI king to the sk~. at certain times rhe year. 'I leh'./ Ofl.·ity.72-3.llso sho\\11 carrying'1I1 \''''11 sign o\er his .\('i'. Heh God of infiniry. I-lch was also connected with the mnh of the 'celestial eO\\ " who was said to h.8 OJJ.!t/tt'1! hearl. [08-1-6. RI. R. [[clck.. Hekel (Heqal) Goddess represented in lhe form of it frog. 52-6. (r: /1)68/7) Tal' RIG!JT stealile.\"raraIJ iUJrTibet/mil" Clmplt!r 3011 (!!' the Book oI'h" J)t'm!.. cd. \1{ U. (I.jlaf-/!o(A't'fI. 1977). 2. F BOKliIlOLTS.3 tJl1.\TS where she is said lo ha\ e assisted in lhe journey of the de.I. hur there are man) sUITi. I .300 Be) at Tuoa el-Gebel there is'l text dealing with <l procession in her honour. such :lS glass. the alternati\'c word for etcrnit). From the ~e\\ ~ingdom (1550-1069 11<') on\yards. Occasionally he is . F-\LI. a group or tight primcval deities whose main cult centre was at IlER~\()I>()I.hi' mUJ1/a" Isis. IlJ72).1) mrrTO'I I<IGII'I' It'gll/ IlIrfjlloisc-b1ul' g!ass. l7te-f). \\'ith typical Egyptian .' Ulldcrside /17'-111 Chapler 30n ull/Il' ilook {~rlhi' Dl'ad. The mu/asitle bt'liTS Clwpll'I" JOB offill' /JOllA' of/hi' Dl'ad. lO82---1.1 means of ensuring longnit).II(I and Heka Ji!t' _\!-\Gte Lid ofa mirror-ftls.Ln~'\ \lL. Ilekct)s strongest association was with childhirth.. The heading Chapter 29h in the Book of the Dead stated that such :lmulet'i should be made of s£'llerct stone (cornekm). bl'tlriug a. TIlt' tll/rieuf Eg. Andrews (London. NCIJl Kil/gdo/ll.ypfiall BooI' oI /he Dead. The motif of J-leh was often incorporatcd into tbe decoration of royal regal. 3rd /Ulr:rull'dillie Period. A'Dlu:\\ S. r~lkil1g the fiJrlll a vase with lug handles (perhaps representing the blood \Tcsscls)./igllre (!{tltt' god JIt. I. dje/. l.-ing examples \yhich are made from 01 her materials. _'\. 2. C.r--. iX/T//al.(((Imbs uud m1lu!t'ls: TOP l.mcntion to DL \1.lrIn. II.K.o. usually represented as a kneeling man either holding a notched palm-rib (hieroglyphic s) mool for ')C'Jr') in each h:lnd or wcaring a palm-rib on his head. 'rhe remains of a temple of Hekel h.LEK.. (C/lfm \0. The primary meaning of the term heIJ was 'millions'.'f'R{)DLCU) COL RrrSl OJ' 7m: GN{FFfTII (\S'/TJ'L '1'1) same W<lY. or or 199-1). 6.. 18th Dynasty.. '.I·rr grecu}iliCJ1l'l' . During lhe .\liddlc Kingdom (2055-1650 Be). "·ll/ll/lct.\.Y.. LexiI'oll tla --igyp/%gie II.1tlested in the 1" I~ \ \lIn TE.IS \l. I I. a typical primordial creature which. ed.)'p/ (London. '(-Jeh.7 nil. (1:'. 1977). (I.6 (/1/.. Weslendorf (\Yiesbadell.ia as . was obscrved to emerge from the Nile./8/28) intended to ensure thaI lhe heart W~IS restored and could nor bc rcmO\"cd.l\'~ been supported by a group of eight Heh deities.:ingdlJlII.ifting it hack into the heavens at the end of its \'0) age through the netherworld.:. apparently reborn and thus perhaps emphasizing the coming of new life. but he \\ as transformed into the god of etcrnal life by such s~'mbolic associations with the conccpts of 'yell"' and 'life'..VOIl f. E.l\"c bcen eXGI\'3ted at Qus. .I. L 6.HE 1-1 HEIRESS THEORY A sdt!rlioll "flu'Ilrt . (EI38073) BOTlU\IIJ]·T gn'fm-gla. in which she requests that her temple at J ler-wcr (a still-unlocated site) he restored and protected from rhe inundation.\I1.\'jilt'l!s. 'heart amulets'. Orro and W Wesrendorf(Wiesbadell.exiI'l)lI tier . in the heiress lheory . . f\ lung "'ith his consort l-!auhet 1 Heh was also one of 1he OGlJo. she W<lS dcpiclcd or Ilamed on such magical ~lrlefacts as .1'1"./" 1/.et! slcalile smrab in/aid mith ({Jmeliall (lwl bllIl' glass. ed.'fmm /ltt' /0111/1 of TI//aul. His image "as consequently incorporated into royal iconography as ~I means of ensuring the king's longc. Orro and \Y. hflllJ{/l1-lwaded hell 1"/ s((fr{/b illscrihed fllllhl. Ileh is often reprcsented as holding up the SOl.270Jl.\I{h: and finally l. /I.·lgypllI/ogil' II. C. \Y.' 12926. J.:/UII//f(II.• -1.~ (!(fllltiem L~f!.ICC CiU':E'S 111\10Sr ~rFrl(T. E. She is first . Ilelcl. and in the lOmb of PETOSII(1S (r. was represcnted as a female deit).fur . panicularly the final stages of labour.' /668/-1) nO'ITO\1 U:"'''\TRE po()'ClmJ1IIl' glass hcarl ({mldi'/ mith sliglf/()' (OII1:/!. Sl'JI' A-ingdollf. were inrroduccd into the fum:r"ry equipmenl. (mli'c."ory daggers or [23 . Oarreichen des'.

Heqat sa 1WUT Herakleopolis Magna (Ihnasya el-IIJedina. Sedment el-Gebel. 1989).RYSIIEF.l now known as A.l: 11\1. C. ]. S. dedic~1ted to thc god RaHorakhty (sec R'\). when the Greeks identif. \. J.ERI::T.l.1/1L'TlIllIIsklllule 12 (C1iro. which was probably first constructed in the «1I"1y Old "-ingdom ((. II.i:ue Period cemetcries. Reign ofR II mcs('J II c. during which.5. 'Akhcnilrcn in Ileliopolis'. IV. Thc lextual studics of lanscn\Vi~keln increasingly suggest that PianJ. am:. S\IE:'\l)ES (his cycntual SUCl:CSsor) who controlled most of Lower Eg~ pi fnllll the Delta city of 1'\'\:"15. and Herihor.. (!f. F PI:TIOE.:!{yPI (London.::ade of Ramcses XI'S reign. The 5th-Dynasty sun temple of Nyuserra (2++5-2-121 BC) at .28/11. the finds included a libation altar and a pair of inlaid C:l. r. so Heket was porrrayed as his Diorite-gllt'iss amulel inlhe/or". whose power-base Wi1S in t\.lv:ncd parts of rhe First Intermediate Period ..I\ClII. a combination of offices that must hayc brought him to the brink of ruling as a pharaoh in his own right.\b\·dos.U:.nd rock-tombs of the Ptolemaic and Roman pc:riods (332 IIC-\n 395).In are.lS the 4 sout hern Hcliopolis'. 1915). Tleliopolis. Just as the ram-god Kll"L·~1 was considered to hayc been responsible for fashioning the first humans on a POl- ter's wheel.\"-1 IE~­ . H \I..\ I. \l. P'\l)RO and .).ur. Although amulels of Hekel were less popu- lar than those of m:s or ""\\\.lS stil1 nominally rhe only legitimate rulcr. 1971). a large temple and part of thc settlement.lrrluu'"llJgy j I (1995)...e11l J:. hUllI. 1\1. the only significant monument still standing in silu is a pink gr~lIlite OHF. It was renamed Hcraklcopolis Magna in the Prolemaic period (332-30 Be).:S lhought to dcri.\BL GL" III is thought to ha\'c been modelled on the prototypical Hcliopolitan sun-temple complex. A1.I]l\l)os·nl. PEREZ-DIE. By the last c. LOl-'I·:Z.( (t!mt'It'f./ill/iql/lI.i 13 (197+).·c been mt)Yed elsewhere. .I: Heliopolis (Tell Hisn. The site also flourished during the Third Inl"ermediale Period (1069-747 BC).). -lImtis cl J1t'tliudl (Hemdl'()polu ."c been applied to midwi. St'IP Kingdom-3rt! 111ll'rm('ditJl~ Period.lemphis and J\ Iiddle Egypt. Her life-giving powers associated her with the myths surrounding OSIRIS. The pret~)IJI(Hf.1iru.35-45.\TE' (1352-1336 Be).' II.-lIllI/INS ofuf/r.2600 Be). when many other tradilional cults were proscribed. 'Tra'·ilLLX r~ccl1lS til: lit mission archeologique cspagnolc:1 Herakleopolis l\l.l:. lhe administration of Egypt W~lS effectivcl~ dh-ided between three l11en: the pharaoh himsdf.REz-Du:. a ram-god called IIE.1J758) female complement in that she \yas credited with fashioning the child in the womb and thm ha. and in this capacity she was depicred as rcceiying otlcrings from SelY l (129+-1279 IIC) in his temple at . Dwo'\o.63. they arc not uncommon. The origins of Ilerihor arc poorly knO\\ n. A'DRE\\S.. Herihor had acquired the ritles of high priesr of Amun at Thcbes.yhich incorponues a cemetery of thc First lntermedi~lle Period o.229-37.-e from a cult ~tatue. Ft'~'Hdmll Rick/!: B/!itrtige :::. which both datc to rhe reign of Thutmose JII (I+79-H25 BC). one of which was dedicated to Herysher. Sehoske (Hamburg.1250 IJC.ied the local deit:.'II1I1I. in one relicf in the temple of heliacal rising see CII. The same tl'. ~IK"o\'. .1' al Ht'!i"polis (C.1988). I')I). when . ed. ane. Indeed.I':"'"'' and SOTIlIC cn:l. Herihor (fl. On) One of the most important cull-centres of the Pharaonic period and the site of the first known sun temple..\ L PF. Inseriplions in the last decade of the Dynasty refer to a 'renaissance era'.rab cl-Tawil there \Yas <l necropolis of sacred :\H\EVIS bulls ur the Ramesside period (1295-1069 Be).1 \\as constructed."11111/1//1" aud Sh/lrt~{tl (Lon dOll.tgna'. which reached its peak as the capiml of the 9th and 10th DYllast"ics during the Pirsl Intermediate Period (2181-2055 BC). The site also incorponHcs a Prcdynastic cemetery and the tombs of the chief priests of l-lcliopolis during the 6th Dynasty (23+5-2181 ur.h. (1"1/23) 12+ .)'plisdleJI BliujorulwlIg l1ud .1t'11 . K(~/i' .'mph' ofHl'1yslll{1I1 HUlIk/cop()lis A'agllli. 'Rapport prclil11inilire sur les fuuilles cI'l Ierakleopolis (1968)'. 23-~.·cs.HELIACAL RISING HERIIl~ and chipper"" in her role . was the father-in-law of Herihor (set. i\E\\' Kli\GDOI\I). its imporlance in the Pharaonic period was such that \R\I\'\T was sometimes described .'l'1I 190J (London.'llIficantly enlarged during the reign of Ram~ses 11 (l279-12Llllc). )Jo\\ IJ. 1080-1070 BC) High priest of Amun at Thebes during the reign of thc last 20th-Dynasty ruler It \\II'. fJ. and thc nearby necropolis of giving iL life.1 [iiudlell 198.Ilagua) (London. Hcnen~nesw) Site located 15 km to the wesl of modern Beni Suef. I.fll1.md Third l. There are a number of sun'iying monuments and fragments of rclief from Heliopolis Granile roluJJm milh tl pal/ll-Ielllmpillll·lmm till' h. alrhough Ramescs W.J (III.IS protector of the household and guardian of pregnant women: The term 'sen-ant of Hekel' may ha. the god of the dead.h team during the 1980s. (E. once thought to be l-Ierihor's son and suc. Because a great deal of the original telnplc at Hcliopolis is now buried beneath the northwestern suburb of Cairo.hi. and the sun'l\-ing remains or this date include a ccm~­ tery."hen the tcmplc \\ as exc~l\"ated by i1 Spanic.\Iidcllc "-ingdom (2055-1650 BC) and si!.ntermct.US" dating to the time of Sen us ret 1 (1965-1920 Be). :\Ithough little remains of the site now. In . gcneralissimo and nO:Rm OF Kl:SI-I.SLS XI (1099-1069 IIC). 'Discm·cries at Herad('opoli~ \lah'1la" Egypl. r. F PETRIE and E. 189-1-).:c.299-316. c'"en during the reign of . The suryiying remains includc two Pharaonic tcmples. w. 199+).::CC"isor. oIt/uFoggoddess lIl'l:t:I. with their own god Herakles. The main temple of Hcryshef was founded ill least as earl~ as the . \\ho dominated pper Egypt and 1'\ubia. E.i£'lls . including the obelisks re-erectcd in :"\ew York and London.lm has also cxc. O. but it is thought likely that his parents \\ efe LilH"an.

224-30 [translation of the Reporl (~j"fI~'I/({lIIlfIlJ j\ L-A. LITtOYRE. H:\:"u.ing monuments of Hcrihor arc a statue (Egyptian lVluseum. ROEmJ{ and R.md it was Ramcscs Xl'S name that appeared in administratiyc documents throughout the country. Egypl KrrCllEN. Auri£'lll EgY!lfi(/ll hUI'(lI!lI"£' II (Berkeley. fur-il cffccrivcmcl1t roi". Khmun) Ancient Pharaonic capital of the 15th Upper Egyptian '\'OI\IE and cult_~centre of Thoth.. Problems {I lid priorilies ill Egypt jail (lrdlacolofY. -l. . A. G.' (Brooklyn. K. ROEDER. Tv1.v kilometres to the sourheast. a fe. .. His rule over the Theban region was the chronological setting' for the Report (~r JII/eIl{flll/fJl (the text of which is preserved on a single papyrus 110W in the Pushkin lVluSCUI11.\ ELGEBEl.ID 395). The nearby cemetery of Tl::-':. J. 1987).. . LIC! 1'1'111-:1. c.\lE. at HaJJ/opolis _'\tIl/gila. M.52j IlC-.255-60. I301'\III'. There arc also substantial remains of a r.HERIHOR HERMOPOLIS MAGNA modern town of Nlallawi.:-OJ 1986). the tomb~chapel or PETOSIRIS (1'.2+8-52. shnmillg the d{'(eased {/lid his IIJ?/i:.I370 ne. 'Hcrihor. Apart from the Hermopolis Magna (c1-AshlUuncin.J07D He. This literary classic. (. Lcidcn). Cairo) and a stele (RijksJ1111SClIJ11 van Oudhedcn. SPE:-JCER and D. there are still surviring traces of tcmples dating to the i\fiddle and New King'doms. c. ed . Z<J5 Il9 (l992). JA. Assmann et al. 1976). 1959).I. Reign 0. ] 929).lJr) LEFT Piau (~rHermopolis /V!aglla. and no traces of his tomb have been found in western Thebes.OI'TIC basilica consrrucled from the remains of a Ptolemaic temple built enrirely in <l Greek architectural style. COOl"EY. S/-I. 16-23.t temple ofThoth and extcnsi.~ {illS Hall/opolis. (London. seated colossi of Rameses II 100 200 300 400 500 m modern settlement AB()\"E Qne (!j"l/'e wlossalslutlles oItlle god Tholll as a baboou. G. 22-37..:aliolls (II el-flsllllllflll'ill.. J.105-11) Khans at I(. 1969-78).\1. but this 'kingship' seems to have heen limited to a few relatively restricted conrexts within the confines of K.535-+ I 'Das Enue des !'\eul'11 Reiches'. 125 . Thebes. (\Varminster. close to the reljcfs at Karnak.. 1965). lVloscow). A.ran. A.\\.'c catacombs dating mainly from the 27th Dynasty to the Roman period (t:. G. plifres d>JIIIOIl de Kamakjllsqll'd la \'V/C r()llIaSfie (Paris. RUI.. BIFA079 (1979). including a pylon constructed by Ramcses Il (1279-1213 Be) which contained stone blocks quarried from the temples of Akhenatcn (1352-1336 Be) at EL-. HCI"/l/opolis 1929-39 (lliidesheim. AIJ/(IrJ}a J"eliep FOil! AIIIl!I"lr(l1l De/ai! ~r{he B{)(j~' of/he Dmd papyrus of HerihOl. 2nd ed.Er. Hall/opolis ill (ollertioll.hen Egyptian influence in the Levant" was on the wanc. Both Herihor and his wife Nodjmet were given carrollchcs in the inscriptions on their funerary equipment. the only signific<1nt sun'i. D.\'ols (London. The site was badly plundered during the early Islamic period but. . 2 vols (Hildesheim. includes nyO of the rock~cur 'boundary stelae' of Akhenatcn.\R'J:\I'.J. 267-8+ his name is wrinen in <l cartotlchc and he is explicitly portrayed as equal in status to the king.'RSA. Lalt Nem Kingdo/ll. located to the west of the Nile./ AIIlCllIlOlep III. The Third il/lerlllcdiale Per/od in (1100-650 UC).. ane. His/oire des grallt!. while in another relief c1sc\yhcre in the temple he is shown wearing the double crown. narrates the difficulties encountered by an Egyptian diplomat sent by l-lerihor to bring back timber from SYRIA at a time . (I. 300 13C). E. AI/l(/nUl-rt'li(:f. 1983-93).:\SEN-\\iIN"-EI . which may possibly be based 011 a true account.J SPE"CER. 'Ashmun<io 1980-1985: a practical approach to townsite excavation'.

HERODOTUS HES~ Herodotus (<. [.wc described him as the 'father of history" i.mel the god of lhe dc-. At the bad of" each nidlc stood a carved .E!I and 11.1 subtcrn1l1can chamber connected "ith thl: supcrstruclUre by a shaft. A.' IIRO]f185U-!. 1913). (lJJIIIIIClllary 1-98 .wc been brightly painted in matting patterns. a theme tll. SIIIfI) -\HO\ E /)('10.\G' \. . (Leiden.\( was to be repeated man~ times in 1. :\ m~ljor source of information on .wc called him >father of lies'. which literally means 'he who is upon his lake'. 1\1.('5 III/ullflws dc 1'."cI5 in EgYPl. J. 19~7).wily 011 personal experiences.BO (\\ ho \'isired Egypt in c. no.lrenll~ drawing he.eiden.~)': excm.:\eycnhelcss.-ertheless.S and the Persians. he attracted numerous ancicnt imitators. E."f/fi"II. B. (I.' 11-/011. 'rhe etymology of' Hcryshef's nalllt. Cairo: oj]itial ((lia/oglll' (.\sty (. ma~ h:l\ c extended as far south as As\yan. The burial itself was locatcd in .' oIHe.-120 Be) Greek tra'-cllcr and historian born at Halicarnassus in Asia \ linor. its west Willi consisting of cle"en niches. 126 . I{ (IImplt'1£' . SMA' II (London. about thirty years later. His . Incil'lI F. J. and principall~ describe the struggles between the GKITt-. whose titles indllded the posts of 'o\'crseer of the royal scribes.1: ((JI1I1JI£'lIll1ry 99--182 Heryshef (:\rsaphes) Fertility god lIslIally represented in the form of a ram or ram-headed man. f1erodfJ/1I. II"ILSO'.' earliesl representation of a crocodile awaiting un"ilr~ cattle as Ihe~ crossed a strcam..~J'ra (S /QQ If{ / 2-105). 1882-9).Istllte obscn'arions included the identification of the pyramids as royal burial places. mDEIJ. \\. and his .1 tit S(f(/'Iam (Cairo.I.yooden p~lJ1cl. while thc bcall!ifull~ caned !licrogl~ph."ith the SUIlgod Ra .\lainz. l-L\lrr. 21. . 10m stairs shaft hidden niches painted corridor outer corridor serdab (statue chamber) 'VOOI}.: 1970). 85~7. apP.\3]).48+-(.:r of matting. HemdrJlllJ BmlA' 11.'c becn anxious to rake <1ch"ant. many of .lge of an ~tpP. :'\e.iU fJC.\I."aluc. SH. .1 OIOO(lRLS SICLI.1100-2890 Be). . a number uf his srories h./: (JI/ illlrodll(lin1l (I.luse of his supposedly fanmsril: mles. as the 1st [)\'r1.\III·IL\TIO' and other . REG·H.r. whose . LEFT . cach of which would originally h.ller mast. 1976)..'. his account of Egypt in the fifth century RC has been largely suhstantiatcd.we subsequently been .l'IIISt:III1l."indicated by archaeology (sec TI:l. HemdfJIlIS BooA·II. bee."alliable source for rhe latcr history of Egypl. only six of which had sun iyed ilt the time of discOH'ry (nmy in the Egypti"ln l\luseul11. c~lrefl1lly set OUI as if arranged in . Cairo). I. The nine books of Herodotus' llislo!"i!'s were \HiLLen between and Be. :\ t \IUErn:.t! /)ynllsty.~)lra III fila moot!ell . 19.lhhough others h.{YPli(1II . B\ST\).19).\ Bon/.LS. according to the l'\LF. who was worshipped in the region of 1I1:!{·\I\:I.1.\laricttc in the 1880s.\IL. \\'.lrcntly gullible yisitor in ordcr to sho\\' off their ~lssllmed knowledge.\. 1/.Ilel.1 shell\.':'Ieft' ji-fJllllhc lomb 'd Slu///ara. from at least as earll.. His lr<1. G. The eastern wall of [his corridor \\<IS decorated with delit':lld~ painted coIn"ings of furniture and offcnn~s. The lOmb has an cia borate corridor chapel with pahlce-fa~adl: decoration (sec SI':RI:I"::II) along. although he gi\"es no dctailed account of Thebes.s present his name and titles..II/pm· (P"ris. including STR". 3. located ro the north of the Step Pyramid at S-\{&-\R"" was discmered b~ :\ugllste .I \). I-Lis information was largely proyided by Egypti:lI1 priesls. suggests that he was considered to be a creator-god who emerged from the primc"al \\"arcrs of rhe sacred lake.. The panels arc sculpted -no -ns Hl'. fluodfllm.Htle chamber).26.IS th. SOL ROUZI'\" Thl' E~. ahhough the second hook is dC"orcd to F. The tfJlII!J ()II-It. 1988).EOPOJ. 1975). Hcryshcf was at \'arious times associated \. LLOYD. Some schohlfS h.2660 Ilc) Oflici<ll of the lime of the 3rd-Dyn"lsty ruler "JOS"O (2667-26+8 Be). greatest of physici'1T1s and dentists'.. hy Junes Qrihdl. 'A reconstruction of rhe reliefs of l-ksy-re· .R\lU STO"JI'.lS \I.JO IX:) and taking all Egyptian pun at face . The tomb \n1S tine of the firs! ro incorponnc <1 SERD\B (st.J.yhom probably held only minor offices and would perhaps ha..l\'alcd. The first-cenrury Greek historian Plutarch rendered the name as Arsaphcs and translated it as 'manliness" bur he was probabl~ simpl~ with the figure of Hesyra in \-arious costumes.-IIIG· 15 (1978). Tht' l1/{/sla!Ja 10m. I1md"llIs ill (~)'pi (Leiden. Q!_IHEI. 1986). c. ncar modern Belli Sucf. G. and fl'-cxc.lbas.2: (Leiden. In an ourer corridor "".ul OSIRIS: he is therefore sometimes portrayed with either rhe sun-disc hcaddress or the {fIef crown (see OW\\ 's "I) Rm \1.9-24. fl. J dinjolllflj' of EgypliaN gods {flit! godt!esst'S (London..\I:\STlil \ tomb (s2+05 [."orks arc a particularly . Hesyra (l-les\-) (1". conccntr~lling instead on the Delta. which took place in about -4-50 Be.1I1cient Egypti'ln religious and funerary customs.g~ pi.

. . overlying Predynastic settlement 127 . 5..th-DynasIY queen. (EG}'!''!'I/\ sealed sarcophagus. 71Il' pYrtll1lid lomb o/Helep-hert'J tlml Iht' sall!/Iilt' pyramid o/A.llluJIlIt'lIIpt'l Sdfl'HllOllks I.."llldi. The exc. CaIlOPY. W. Little is kno\\-n of her life. However nu tomb of Hctcphercs has yct been found at Dahshur. 1926).(/ necropolis II: Tile lomb o/l1t'1epllerl's.l carrying chair. Inscriptions on some of the objects indicaled that the mmb belonged to Hetcphercs.'IITI1 1 _. LEII'ER. last ruler of the 3rd Dynasty. it was probably the lack of a superstrucrure that helped to presen"c the original burial. the first of the 's:l. TI. which indicate that Teudjoi \\. a bed and an elaborale canopy that would probably ha\T been erected m·cr the bed. Teudjoi. where there were caches of Greek and demotic papyri.1). 1t nourished during the hue l)j"cdynastic and Earll' Dynastic periods «(.2600 uc.". 1955). including rcst eXG1\"ations within the settlcmenr. when it once more dc.4000-2686 BC). a mass of gilded wood in a very poor st.. and indeed the only e\"idence for her existence deril'CS from Tomb c.'\mun great of roarings '). GHE:\FEJ.1050 IIC) who presumably esmblished a residence at cI-l-liba. \t'\.n)oclen Fl-IC\ITCR. The earliest exca\"ations at eI~Hiba concentr.:. the mother of "IIL'FL (2589-2566 IIC) and probabll' also the daughter of Huni. although it is possible [hat Ci7000x was felt to be so close to the satellite pyramid as not to require the transfer of callopic equipment. \\"1-::\.. G.". R. 1955)."C from Ihe .E included .·as panicularly associated with the hawk-god 110RCS. (J\lainz. constructed by Sheshonq I (9~5-92+ BC).c Hibclt papyri I (London. and A.ologi(tlI il/restiguliol/.ID 395). G.'~'~~ffron 1 Predynastic settlement 2 Predynastic cemeteries 3 2nd-Dynasty 'tori' historic town with temple ot Horus and 'Main Deposil'.I full royal burial of the period_ The items of gilded .1-:.. This has led .l'llasly. ponery and furniture of the original tomb. el. !It. 198. A. howc"cr.\:~~\\\I1I. This theory might also explain the damage innicrcd on the sarcophagus. Hierakonpolis (Kolll ei-. TCR. the Greek namc of thc rown meaning 'city of the hawk/falcon'. whereas pyramid liHl W.·cloped into a miljmry settlement. Although the sarcophagus was empt~~ a concealed niche was found to contain an alabaster C.15 robbed in ancient times. lhc American archaeologist Roben \Vcnte conductcd a surface sur\-cy of the enrire sire. From the late 20th to the 22ml Omastl' (1100-715 IIC). /lNO) c.. bi'i elilib/' (Berlin.... J. In 1980. who was the principal wife ofs'EFERu (2613-2589 lie).. I I. Largc numbers of bricks from thc enclosure wall wcre stamped with the names of Pinudjel11 I and ~lenkheperra.15 robbed. R~""'E.(anc. and a number of items of melalwork.. with residucs bclie"ed to deri. 80 km south of Luxor. This l:ontaincd a canopic chcst was not removed.. I ! I 1 750 1500m "". )1.i7000x) was discOI'ered in 1925 bl' the staff photographer of the I-Ian'ard-Bosron expedition./i'fJ/// 1I11' 10/l/b ofQpcm Heleplrcres.. Nekhen) Settlement and necropolis.. Ironically.. r. alrlIlihell 1980: PrdillliJlifly repol"l (1\Ltlibu. -1I1f D. It is srill not clear. which . or on the Greco-Roman areas of lhc town.. The careful rcsroration of rhe fmJs (no\\. After a period of declinc during: rhe Late Period (7-1-7-332 Be) the rown regained its importance under the name of Ankyronpolis in the Greco-Rolllan period (c. Reisner bclie. One PIau slwJ1l/'ng !hi' I()rali(Jul~(tITe priucipal sCII/efl/cu! al1d reme/t"]' areas oIflierakoflpolis. 1906)..I11UI1 of the crag' (or '. pnn·iding insights into the likely "e~llth of.1..~~"'. dcep below which was a concealed burial chamber. /<a9c~.' Hihi'lt papyri II (London.lled either on thc cemeteries.lyation of an area of unexplained white plasler on the eastern side of the Great Pyramid I'C\ c<tlcd a lOmb shaft leading fo <1 smail empty room. perhaps located ncar that of Sneferu at DAIISIIL"R.'\ER.lS founded at least as early as the ~ew Kingdom. III '"1". S. led b~' George Reisner. whose funerary clJuipment had apparcntly been hastily rcburied.lte of prL'SclTatioll. the mOlhcr of Khufu. lilt' lllolht'ro/Ch/'()ps(Cambridge. REIS:\t-:R and \V.·lrdw/. \yho wcre powcrful Theban chief priests of Amun-Ra in the early 21 Sl Omast)' (1'.'\hmar.J IIisIOI:)1 (!(tJIt: Gi::.\MlI'IC box. Cairo) has yielded somc of the best c\-idence for funerary equipment during lhe Old Kingdom.2600 lie) Early -J. 1985). why rhc Hiba. Ihe town of'1cudjoi functioned as an important frontier fortrcss between lhe zoncs controlled by the cities of Heraklcopolis i\llagna and Hcrmopolis j\'lagna. but her well-preselwd burial at <. E..itZ\ (<. anc.luseul11. Koplisrltt' F'ril'dIJldi? bi'i Kamra 1/1111 tier ..-\. .I-IETEl'HERES I HIERAKO:\.d ((//(/ rlwir.\lL \I"IFIC\TIO~ of her body.\lark Lehner to suggest thai the Giza shaft tomb Was in fact the qucen's original place of burial but that her body and the 111'1jority of the equipment were reburied under GH1. B.:..POLIS Hetepheres I (c. MUSEL'lI.-ed that the remains of Hetepheres' funcrary equipment· had been reburicd by Khufu after her origini1l tomb.nh'ronpolis) Settlement site incorporating a poorly preserved temple of 'A.in the Egyptian l\.30~ IlC-.'" .7000x. howe\"cr.. n.Icllite pyramids' to lhe east of Khufu's main pyranlid..

.of sign (phonogram:.I~~. 'Photographs of rhe decorated tomb ar Hierakonpolis'. ':\[ain Deposit'. c.I. The . D-n 11-:5. Om' sheel oflht' Cn'ell 1Iarri.111 Old Kingdom temple complex within the settlement.q~~.//50 llc. hieratic (Greek iJi<'l""lik.]EJ 59 (1973).320() Be) ro the laic fourth century .~.·c cenrurics carlier. ADnIS.. The decipherment or hieroglyphs by JcanFran~ois 01'\ \ll'()LJ.R. \\" GR1·:I-:'. which .\'J.111':\1\\ \' has now been idenlified as a 'funeraTy enclosure' like the Shunct c1-Zcbib at -\J3ynos.~-1'.IO~.'lS. 1988).."~ .k'..·ertical lines.".jiml/ Thebes. Painled Itiemg(l'phs on lite inlerior Qflhe OilIer mj}ill oflhe p/~)'Jirilill Sl'IIi.16-43. E.~'In~-:::O: .'.\II'. <1 late Gcrzc. (:luBEI."cre able to write more rapidly on papyri and ostraca. Theftrl (ell/eu'IY til Ilieral'ol1polis (extm.S. Hialilischc Pu/(i"f1gmpltil'. \Vith the dcvclopment of hieratic.:. 2 "ols (London...!rJ~"':. 1909-10).Lr. .... II. and 19S0s. :kJ\tSl. Ri'/gn . was in USc from the lone Gerzean period (c.!t~~~f. H()FF\I-\' er 011. nor ol1l~" idenrif~'ing a range of Predynastic sites in the dcsert surrounding the 1"0Wl1 but also shedding further light 011 socioeconomic patterning of the Early Dynastic town and idcnrifYing the only known example of a Prcdyn<lstic shrine.vcre used lor most of [he Pharaonic period in such religious writings as the COFFI~ TE:\TS and the BOOK OFTIII': DEr\U.. .<~1 :... scribes \.::~f'o\-. B. whereas the oricntation of cursiye hieroglyphs varied. l\lOl. The esscntially cursi\'c hicratic script was based on the hierogl) phic symbols that had cmcrged somc ti.t.5011.3000 IK:).i~ paintings (sec \ltT)..-t~~'.\R\IER palette and SCORPIO'.).: 'sacred') Script dating from the end of the Early Dynastic period (t'. but if should not be confused with 'cursive hieroglyphs'. !Jainlt'tI 11l()otl.~'1II\-':.1(1986).d'R1l11leSt!s II. Hieratic was a]w. r.4 per cent or the population) has led to the suggestion thal hieroglyphic texts w~rL: employed by rhe elite as.~t<\~.:. By lhe 261h Dynasty (664-525 DC) thc IJE."u. Green included the diseO\TfY of the . \VILLI \ \IS. consistin1! of thrc~ basic types ..m brick-lined burial which was the first Egyptian tomb to be decorated with ..rather [hall the more cumbersome hieroglyphs . Thc apparently low leyel of literacy 111 Pharaonic Egypt (estimated at perhaps as 1(1\\ as 0.'-.""":!. /5011.!. j.~'·..'1'l:!:-.ting knowl~dgc and powcr.l1 ofRllfJU'ses III. 1987). 1909-12). macchcad. history and intcUeclual achie\-emcnts of the ancient Egyptian!'!. . _~~. '..'~~~~~~1::'::i-l'.::.lI1ging: from the rapid 'businc!:is' hand to the morc aesrhetically pleasing' 'literary' hand. SIIHT 7.) Be) that hieratic began to be 'Hitten in different styles.\T10~). c.':it\:J1\'"u·. Y.. 'Scribal training in ancicnr Egypt'.. Hit. Further surycy and cxcaY<lrions at Hierakonpolis rook place in the 1970... 2I+-2J. rIO 1308-11) :\1.\lain Deposit seems to h~l\'e consisted primarily of ceremonial objects dating ro rhe Prorodynasric period (f.~~"t:'. was cancd On 24 August \l) 394. a stratum between two walls relating to . Howe\'er.\I0TlC script had cmcrged out of the so-called 'business hieratic' of Lower Egypt..:.t:\:a..:. including the '-.-\ model of urban development for the llierakonpolis region from plTdynastic through Old Kingdom times'. was undoubtcdly lhe single greatest e\"em in the development of Egrptolog~.\1).. -12.~r/l'lIIph' elldml'lm'II1S lIlId II shOl'l SIIIII1IIlIJ:)' oflhe re(f!. prinurily tluough his examination of the tribngual decree inscrihed on the ROSE'IT" STO):E. and this script . J\liddle Kingdolll.\'1l1'. (1. f1if1'tlA-rmpolis.J'/OS 92 (1972).ji-ollllJeir el-Bersl/tl. on the gare uf Hadrian at Philae.t.:..lYs written from right 1"0 Iert. \\'. The poorly rccorllcd cxc3nuion of the town of Hierakonpolis undertaken hy James Quihdl and F.1')<)<)9. Therc was also an e. EgYPliil1l hiemg(l'plu (London.:h:i*:-~'~~Y.~··_·l~llU called Painted Tomb is no longer knO'yn. and F. II. 197~). but the location of this 50- ~---. It "as also in the Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 128 .rtllisdu' [l'sesliid'e.j.}(I:. which was used tor business texts in Upper Egypt during the Third Intermediatc Period (I069-7~7 Be). 1900-2)..1.nll- ~~~J. R. 11 is Ihl' In/lgl'.-~*-'::':':'::d'1 G..a:. because of a lack of accurate published plans and strmigraphic sections.':lll . A. 3 .'CI1 more cursive form of the scripl known as 'abnormal hicratic'.\' Papyrus.2686 Be) onwards..became the prefen'cd medium for scribal tuition (see EDCC..:lI1ed 1~)'J(l11I1 Ctlrsltlllg) (London..irillg papyrus roll.fQ. but most tens li'om the 12th Dynasty (1985-1795 [Ie) onwards consisted of horizontal lincs.HIERATIC HIEROGLYPHS of the most import~nt discoveries in the Prcdynastic cemetery is Tomb 100.::.~'d.... logograms and \Icterminatircs') arrangcli In horizonml and .175-87. (( hitrlliit dotl/melll riJlISisliug I)fa lisl .o.~. J. B.. rhe rrue date and significance of this crucial Prorodynastic assemblage remain unclear. 3 yols (Leipzig.~1 sJln..J1\~~-1I\it"N/r.21-. Until the 11th Omasty (2055-1 'i85 Be) hieraric documents were arrangcd mainly in columns. _1I1ciclIllliaal'ollpfJ!is (\Varminsrer.2000 IH:.\ means of restrit. prm·iding thc key to an unLlcrstanding of the names. J·JRCE2....·~::.uo\". 1.t~·~:<t ~'3c.\\o1:l1\. 111l'ffJuriug -11111.'ols (Leipzig.. 13.:-dki'i\UtEt... AIH \IS. hieroglyphs (Greek: 'sacred caned [lellersJ") The Eg\-pLian hierogh-phic script.r.. The last known dat3hle hieroglyphic inscription.j::. The so-called 'fort' of 1\:1-[ \51':1.

ph1ccd at the ends of words made up of phonograms in order to indicate what types of words they were (i. There was a nucleus of frequenr basic signs. becJuse it often trampled and de\"oured crops.. and others were eyidcntIy im'cnted and introduced as the~ became necessary. 'T'he hieroglyphic systcm was uscu for funerary and religious texts whjlc the cursive IIIER. The orientation of the letters W:15 usually towards the right. iVLmy oCthe masraha tombs of the Old Kingdom. the indi. R-\\.\'.1:""i. the verb ml!slfcb. per and mfi'r. 3YO-8. in the . In the Pharaonic period fewer than a thalls.'\EH \KY TE\TS. it'\'DRE\\ S. 'Liler. it was intended that the ideogram should consist of the most characteristic and \ isually familiar clements of its physical appearance ~ thus lllost birds are shown completcly in profile. GAIWI'\ER. C. Like the crocodile. e.. The main problem encountered in pronouncing a section of hieroglyphic text is lhat there were no nlwels in the written form of ancient Egyptian.'gyplitll/ gmlllJ/((f/. only consonants.~ (London. A. -'I'd cel. /2t"-/311r DYf/aSlies. lY8i). but one exception is the owl.lll figure. whether the sign is representing a loaf of bread.'idual signs of the hieroglyphic script arc essentially diagrams or the phcnomenon or entity in question. and to insert the lencr e \yhcrc\'er necessary: thus the words l.1S replaced. . such as thar or the 5thDynaslY official TY ar Saqqara (no. D.. 3rd cd. The logograms and dererminati\'es in hieroglyphic script were both essentiall~ depictions of the thinbrs th'1t the~ represented: thus logograms were indi\ idual signs whosc meaning \\as broadly cquiyalent to their appe. an owl or a hum. 60). included depictions of the spearing or hippopotami. I I. thl' majority of these were introduced during the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. 9.ITEH. G. as well as rarious slIITiving transliterations of Egyptian words into other ancicIH scripts (SUd1 ilS \SS\ Rl\_'. it was highly cOllsclTiltivc and continually hlgg'cl1 hehind l"he spoken 1.2011. has its face shown frontally.I"(:II" SliJl/(' (Lund on.g. Tlri' !?o. hippopotamus Riverine mammal thaI nourished in Egypt until weJl into Dynastic times.\GE in both VOCilbllhuy and syntax.WIES. was followed by a sign consisting of :1 111. in the spoken language at least. Sec L.111 holding his h<lnd to his mouth). the quail~chick sign.' It was probably for this reason that hippoporaIllUS hunts were org-anized as early as the prehistorjc period. The signs wcre written in continuous lines withoUl any pun<. FISClICR and R.mel symbols 'lfe attested._-I1fcil'lll t. J:. such as the diagram of it house- phm. oecllIse of its distinctive eyes. LIBIURII':S. There \\"ere three basic stages in the dc\'elopmcnt of the hieroglyphic script: early. Egyplitll/ lri(·rog()IPh. I YSi). the logogram representing the adjccti.1S pronounced pr).. R. I. A crucial distinction therefore needs to be made oet\yeen the stages in the developmem uf the language and the various phases of its wrillen form. although in certain instances (such i1S the engnn'ing of two symmetrical inscriptions on either side of a stele or relief) the orientation was from left to right.1S feil that the hieroglyphic names of gods. (Oxford. cyenlually being superseded by COPTIC:. W. which. the male hippopotamus was regarded as a nuisance and a doer of e. The language has onc distinct break. J.\'\GL.HIEROGLYPHS HIPPOPOTMvlUS Hieroglyphs were primarily used as descriptive components of the can"cd reliefs dcconuing temples and funerary monuments. Wllil3 (1986).'c been identified.\liddle Kingdom (2055-1650 BC).lcy and ancient Egyprian society'. 19S I). being all inlrot!urlifJl/ 10 '/'e sl/u()r (JIlricrogh'flu. which was pronounced IIIr). sometimes proyiding an indic.'c "good'. pronounced m). when 'synthetic' Old and i\liddlc Egyptian. about a hundred biconsonantal signs (pairs of consonams. B \1". so that the text was read from right to lefL and top {() bonom.\ I " and Greek). Determinilth·es wcre pictures or types of things. which Wi. II.·il. As in Egyptian art. Egyptian is the only 'language of ilSpCCe for which the change from the 'synt"hetic' slag'e to (analytical' can actually be stlluied in its wrillen rorm. the conycmional method of making the consonants pronounceable is to read the signs ' ~lIld 3 as if they were lhe letter ". Faienf" :ilalnelle o/a lrippopfJltllIfllS.\Tun:. characterized by inflected yerb endings. A. The date of its disappear~lI1ce in Egypt is debauble. The phonograms consist of three types: twcIHy-six uniconsonilntal signs (each representing a single consonant. people and animals were as c'lpable of posing a ducal as the liring entity itself .:tuation or spaces to show where words or sentences began or ended. 5i2-Y9. Howe"er.for this reason many of the signs in the P' R \ \110 TEXTS and some CQFF1"\. The study uf the COPTIC language (which c\·olyed OUI of the ancient Egyptian bnguage). D. Hf\ BYLO:. It W."e and literary texts. middle ilnd late. b~ the 'analytical' form of Late Egyptian. pI' and 11ft are cOT1\'entionally pronounced as SII.~!fypli"1/ epigmp/~)llllf(l palaeQgraf/~)I.· (664-525 Be) DE\lOTIC had replaced hieratic. Alrhough a total of more than six thousand hieroglyphic signs ha.l TEXTS were deliberately abbre"iated and mutihttcd in order to neutral- ize any potential dangers within the royal tomb. has enabled the 'rocalization' or many Egyptian \\ords to be at least partiall~ reconstructed. and forty to fifty triconsonanral signs (e.c. with a verbal structure consisting of articulated elements.\GE for charr of hieroglyphs.g. (Ii IJ50H) 129 . 198i).. A. bUl it was certainly still present during the 1'\ew Kingdom (1550--1069 BC).1111/1 18 (1983).nance (i. and for i1 number of centuries the Greek and demotic scripts were lIscd side by side. a ! e\\ Kingdom school text makes this clear: 'Do you not recall the fine of the farmer when the han'esl is regiSI"ered? The \\"orm has taken half the grain. J. By the 26th Omast. 'The emergcnce of writing in EgYPI'. ~1 shorthand diagram of the sky meant 'sky').:HIC script \\ as used primarily for administrati.. meaning 'to answer'. I/. (New York. "'. and an e\en smaller number were in regular usc. the hippopotalllus has dc\"oured the rest. See also fL. C-\\II'\os.-\'\GL'.e.nion of changes in material culture.. I'WYRUS and SCKlBES.

The contents of most of the m0l1umellt. therefore their provenances are poorly known. In this myth. for instance. However.these are all primordial events. By the sixteenth century Be: they had conquered Syria.Flhc (!!.. TIll' idl:" o.NEl\Uli\T II (1922-]878 BC). Ihe upliftings or Shu. 1+7-H J -.1953). in which both Rameses and the Hittite king . the nucleus the state was established in central Anatolia. It is usually assumed.loIIS mUlive (Uppsaia. rather than being attempts to present objective accounts of the past. The stalemate dut res~J1ted from this battle.<llIc/eIll Hislmy.-l-8-1--i'. Even the supposedly hisrorical fragments or Egyptian texts such as the Kamose stelae. which was commemorated on mam of Rameses' temples. There is <1 common tendency to rcg.yas oftell portrayed in the act of harpooning Seth as a hippopotamus (although in other contexts Seth was depicted as it crocodilc 1 an ass Or a typhonian animal). with its capiwl initially .Muwatallis appear to have or or 130 .lt given by Redford: these arc the stelae of r-. '!l"hlPPOpoll/ll/lls hU//ling tIS history and historiography Defining Egyptjan history is as difficult a task as defining f. probably for funerary use. KEES.\A1nSE (t·. as in the myth of J lOR-US and SETI!.lrd myth as a form of 'primitive history'.I. Horus . 1955). 1992). describing his conquest of Egypt. 'Ancicnr Eg-ypt'. which shows that something approximating to the modern concepl of . but rllthcr \\ ith their present significance . in the form OfT!\\\'ERET ('the great [female] one'). predilection and satisraction of contemporarics.lIT onl~' four sur\"iving Egyptian historical texts that would conform to a definition such as th.-I-20 Be) in that they incorporate a high degree or symbolism and pure ritual. all t'gVPIIlI1l r('fln'sCl/lalio//s (f rC/(l!. BI] IR!\IANI\. 127-9. Breded-. were associated with rertility and the regenerative effect of the Nile. large numbers of blue faience figurines or hippopotami were created. who deserted him for Horus.lS "Fest del' \Vcissen" und die Stadt S"'. T Si\n:-S0nt~RIlEIU. however.. 1450-1200 BC) the Hittites appear to h'l\ C concentrated on reinforcing their grip O'er northern Syria. disco\'cred at l\llcmphis in the mid-] 9505 but not published until 1980. A. though usuallYl in narrative form). and the Victon" Stele of 1'1\' (7+7-716 lie). and neither king' nOr priest who re-enacts them can be s. 'The ~mn~lls ofAmenemhar 1I'.'(j. This scene was fi"cqucntly repeated on the walls or temples. in which the stated aim at least is to present the objective truth about past events..:. 1986). In f"act \Villiaml-Iayes suggests. \\"ho settled in Anatolia in the third millennium Be.l' 2 (1992).{IJislrJlY lit Ih(' _'l//ril!1ll Nellr fllsl.gyptian (lit"crature'.:. culminating in the IMTTLE OF (t'\DESII in 127-1.11 texts and reliefs on the walls of Egyptian tombs and temples are much closer to the symbolic and static world of myth than 10 history. most notably that ofI-lorus at EUJlL. KJl\G LISTS). and at one stage the empire stretched as 1~1I' south as IHBYLON. E. The Canadian Egyptologist Donald Redford defines true history as (rhe telling of events involving or affecting human beings (not necessarily. in bOlh cases.l historical record (although lacking any analytical component) was already being compiled in the .V/llil/ll Sl://se (!{ltisl()}:J' Uvlississ<luga. Although they themselves were speakers of an IndoEuropean l:tnguage.1555-1550 ue). H. in the Call1bridgc .mel coils of rope.\".HISTORY AND HISTORIOGRAPHY HLTTIT~ Such hunts might have given rise to a royal ceremony in which the king-'s ritual killing of a hippopotamus was symbolic of the overthrow of evil.\' ~r Tl/lIlmuse III (1-1-79-1-1-25 Be). thus displacing the l\llitannians and bringing them into direct conflicr wil h . the Speos Artcmidos 'speech' and the /IJlJJ(//s oIThllllllf)se If! arc effectively componcnts of the temples in which they were found: they therefore differ considcr~ ably from the truc historical tr. allhough their popularity with art collectors is such that few h. The most famous of their military confrontations with Egypt took pl:tce during fhe early reign of Rameses JJ (1279-1213 nc). in the form of derailed records of the political and religious c\'ents from each year of a king's reign. Ruwol{J).n-e been obtained from archaeological cxcavation. and particularly associated with women in childhirth.lugurated by the Greek historian I r£RoDOTUS (C.llllpioning of his father. However./::!{)'fJllilll Ardlflc%g. describing his campaigns in Syria-Palesfine. ZAS83 (1958). (D.\SSYRIA and Egypt.Be. as well as in tomb scenes and in the form of royal funerary statuettes such as those showing Tutankhamun with his harpoon . that these staluenes. Taweret \yas the consort of Seth. or to be commemorating "history"'. In I'I. D. (New York.. trans. During the Hittite Old Kingdom ((. In I"heir cull of the king's personality they arc closer to the Res geslae glorifying the deeds or the Roman emperor Augustus than the more 'journalistic' histories written by Thucydides or Tacitus.!\Jliddle Kingdom (20551650 BC). Phfl/"{/O/lIC ki/lg-lisl.lIll hippopotamus-goddess \yho was among the most popular of the household gods. the female hippopotamus had a beneficent aspect. the AIlIWI.1750-1450 BC). Das Nilpji:rd in der losleI/u/lgslIJt'1t dt'/' A/lell AgYPll.ldition in..lid to fuHil an histOric role. eel. During this period of imperial cxpansion (c. Bul. J Obcrl1lann (Nc\\ Howen and London. modern scholars arc inevitably attempting to impose upon the Egyptian sources modern concepts and categories that would often have had no real meaning or relev~ll1ce to the ancient writers. they therefore have to he carefuUy interpreted if genuinely 'historical' data are to be extracted from them. During the Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 Be). The types of ancient Egyptian texts that are usually described as 'historical' would have had a very different function when they were originally composed (see. Horus's Ch.l.1( Kussara and later at the bcllcrknown site of Boghazkoy (ancient ]-LllIUSilS). a possibly fictional speech made by 1{. in time their empire absorbed the Hurrian-speaking people \\IT. FloRi'\U. timeless and ever-present.\ :\INI. Redford makes il good distinction hetween myth and llistory: (The meaning of myths has nothing to do with Iheir having occurred in the past. E. which took place prior to the time of composition. whose bodies are frequently decorated with depictions of Yegetation. L.\\lESI':S III (] 18+--1153 BC) arthe end of the Gn~at Harris Papyrus and Osorkon's description of rhe Theban rebellions in the Third Tnfermediatc Period (1069-7-1-7 Be). the murder of Osiris .TI\RUI'S \'ersion of the myth of Horus and Seth.. and the J\K"-t\DJAN language was frequently used for diplomatic and comlllercial correspondence. 1989).lll. the vast majority of such narrative-structured and ceremonial texIs surviving rrom Egypt" were concerned much more with preserving and transmitting national traditions or with performing a particular religious or funerary role. and not for the enhancement of" fhe writer's personal reputation'.'1l1 (Frankfurt. Hittites People of somewhat obscure origins. the pregn. described by the Egyptians as Kheta. RedfiJrd adds to these Halshepsul's speech inscribed in the SPf':OS '\lrI"E\IIDOS rock-temple. bllt~this is rarc1~r the case.. Ihat there .18. IIIl/wls /llld day-bonA'S: (f cfllllrlblllifJIIIO Iht: SIIII()' n. A further text which may now be added to this list is il fragment of the annals of ·\I\IF. Ihe chief aim of which is to explain t"hose evems for the benefit. notwithstanding the few exceptions listed above.lbLH. idea 11/10 l//lage. B. describing his bartles against the Hyksos.

lyatcd by Flinders Petrie in 1898-9. \ l. 1962).74-95. 1982). (1-I:1rmondsworth. although this is disputed by many Egypwlogists. reloc1tlng some of these cemeteries and finding that the Predynastic Cemeleries Land Rand lhe Old Kingdom _\I.1J11C of Paarenemhcb. Pharaonic and Roman-period sites 011 the east bank of the Nile in Upper Egypt. dcrivcd directly from ancient Egyptian sources.. '1i1ll/Il/lklWllIflll da/ls fC.]h>/2 (19I. VERGOTI·:. Even among the Hirtires themsches.15 celebrated by the I-finite marriage stele ilt Abu Simbel. The prince in questiun.lstic settlement rhat Pel ric had mentioncd only briefly in his reporr.HIW-SEMAINA REGIOr\ HOREMAKHET claimeu . This left only the rump of their empire in Syri"l.. 0.11illfJr.".. withm TL"T\'''11 \\Il':.ETI'1':I{S as being imported into Egypt in small quantitics.6 km aluminium factory '/'lll' f1im--Sl'IIwill{l region. 2nd cd. whose rule represented a return to companuh-c normality after the" \1 \RX \ period.\ h'ld been destroyed.\L\R' \ I.:IIE:\"ATE:'\ (1352-1336 Be). c. Valeriano Dolzoni's l-Jierog~)lphi((I. J G.::athryn Bani conducted a nc. which first appeared in 1556 and was reprinted and enlarged on several oc<. the first attempT to link the twO great POWlTS. 1901).J. The original was probably written in COPTIC.I· arrhivcs hil/iles (Istanbul.. G.u's.-es for their me-Jnings arc Hiw-Semaina region (Diospolis Paml) Group of I'RI':!)YN'\STIC.i).' sun'cy of the area. Little is known of his background apart from the fact that his family camc from I-Ieraklcopolis.-lsi(J .·crpool. hO\\c\cr. A. She also re-examined a few suryiying palches of PredYl1<. and B~lron von Bunscn'.:asions. . In 1989 J. 'T'he I-liw-Sem<lin:I region l which was surveyed and exc..ee II0l<'ZO" and IIDI<US Horemheb (1323-1295 Be) General and I Sth-Dynas~ pharaoh. although the work is known only [rom Greek translations. .-ic.. KITClIE:".m to disimegnlle in the late lhin-eenth century Be. 'Predynasric scltlemcl11 patterns in rhe Iliw-Semainch region. \\-. which is still largely . 1986). Plumwh /riumpflll1l/: 11ll' I!/i: {lmllimi's of R(".he _11lwrJ/a pharaohs (Li. Diosp()/is Parra: Ihi' <elllc/aiL'S of _If)(uh:l'eh find I-/II (Londun. It was :llso during the Hittite imperi:ll phase that a closely guarded lcchniquc for smelling IRQ\! was discoycred.127 Be) he had risen to a position of grear power as generalissimo and hegan work on his tomb at Si\~\R. 'rhe Anatolian he:lrtland of the Hittile empire fin:ll1y beg. H·\Lt. hO\\T\-er. was murdered l'lI routt' to Egypt and the proposcd marriagc seems nc. and iron is certainly one of the commodities mentioned in the ..\I.-JlOugh the meanings of many signs were correctly identified by HorapoHo. suit:lblc only for prestige goods. J()rming the basis of G. such as Gardner \\"IU. Horemakhet . E"en in the nineteenth century a number of scholars. K. By the reign of TUT. His wife lVlutnedjmet may possibly have been NEFERTITI'5 sistcr. P.---~----7-+---!.\"\KIIJ\_\IUi"\ (1 336-l. an acl that \\".~('. requesting the llittitc king Suppiluliumas I to send one of his sons to he her husband. perhaps as a result of the appearance of the 5E \ I)EOPLES whose migrations also threatened Egypt. the exca"ation report on [J1C Predyn<lslic cemcteries of Ab~H. the allegorical reasons that he gi.\. Tlu: HiJfilt's {llItlllll'ir cOlllcmp()mrit's il1. R. . (London.\D) Supposedly a nativc of Upper Egypt. 133-67. suggesting that the Hiw-Se01aina region may h:n'c been a Predynastic ccntre for stone vcsscl manuf'lcrure.:tory. often fantastic. 2nd cd.liya and [-liw that formed the basis 1-01' Petrie's compilation of the first relativc chronology of the bte Plu:nY. Nl'ame .\ST.~ /I (\\"arminstcr. claimed to be an explanation of the symbolic meaning of various hieroglyphic signs. B \RD. A lellrr discmTred in the Hittite archives is beliered to hare been sent by it ro~ al womaJl of the hue Amarna period (perhaps Ankhcscn<lllluJ1. This was nOl. in which case she may have bolstered his claims to the Ihrone. This document is preserrcd both on Egyptian monuments . AI. 'Letters to Sir 'vVilliam Gell from Henry S. ppcr Egypt'. GLR'E\. iron seems to h. (Sir).·/kulllu 32 (1989). R.\l \CQL:EI~'\. The llieroglyphica was rediscovered in the fourteenth century \1) amI cxerted great influcnce on the scholars of Renaissance Europe. the lIicrog)l'phiro.'\n iron dagger in the tomb of Tutankhamun nO doubt dcriycd from the same source. Wilkinson. 1990).\(\STIC PERlon (Naqada I-II). consisting of a group of 'Nco-Hittite' Cily-slares which werc finally absorbed by \SSYIUA in the eighth century He:.:J::'\SO:'\. a "iew which retarded the decipherment of the script for many years.~~. Unfortunarely it was the allegorical and symholic aspects of Horapollo's work thm led scholars such as Athan:lsius Kirchcr (1602-80) to regard hierogl~ phs as a symbolic language. whose work.\R. At site ~Sll" <1n arca of bte Prcdynastic setllemcnt which Bard discoycrcd ncar Scmaina and beside Petrie's Cemctery II.1I1d on Akkadian cuneiform tablets from Boghazk(l)'. from the village of I-Iiw in the southwcst to Semaina in the northeast. 1(61). when he was perhaps known by the earlier n. cr to h:wc raken place. Ramcscs cemented the alliance by marrying: a Hittite princess. K.). 2--1. E Pt:TRIE. SlIppiflllillJl/a alld . the Horapollo (fourth centur\' . were still hcing misled by Horapollo and thus frustrated in their attcmpts at decipherment. 7 Predynastic Village of Halfia Gibi (site HG) 8 Predynastic Cemetery C 9 and 10 areas of Predynastic settlement or (Petrie's site F) 11 Predynastic Cemetery Hand Predynastic settlement (site SH) 12 modern village of Semaina 13 modern village of Abadiya ).llid. IT. It was 131 .1\ e been regarded as an cxtremel~ precious metal.llt."cntually led to the signing or a PCilCC u"eaf)' in the twenty-first year of Ramcscs' reign.J.\IH at Cemetery .----. The HifJilt's. another surface survey revealed widespread lraces of stonc-working. stretches for about 15 km along either side of the modern e1Ranan cal1:11. His military career prob~lbly began during the reign of .

ure. used for sut. began.\l-\RTI.\K amI LLXOR. c.-SII. h was perh./) horizon was also considered to be protected by ". 1965). and ."cad through the coUcclions of many different museums."57) was innm·ative both in its decoration (sunk relief scenes from the Book. R.ing his yirtu:1lIy completed private LOmo at Saqqar'1. /Jus Grab de:. r~r Clites) and in its architectural style.13+-5. 1981).L EI.Hed by an Anglo-Dllf ch expedition during the late 1970s./0. R_ H. It was during Horemheb 's reign that the dismantlin g of Akhcnatcn 's temples lO the ATE\.1t Karnak bearing an inscription outlining his plans for the restoration of order after the depredatio ns of the Amarna period. Horelllheb ella reill£' i1/1oll/lfedjmd. II. horizon The Egyptian hieroglyph denoting the horizon (akltet) was essentially a schematic depiction of the two mountains between which the sun rose. which formed parr. Horemakh el. 'rhis wmb was first located by the German archaeologist Richard Lepsius in the nineteenth century and cxcaY.l' AI/!11lphi/1' lomb ofHrm:mlu'h (London.·e been around 1. 1.1 d/!r Kiifligt' (Berne.lim.:-ingdom (1 S50-1ll6<) Be) occ.:limes replaced the mountains on either sick of the sun.\l.18300) imitated in the iconography and form~ Egyptian art and architecl. \\'II. 1\1cmphilC necropolis. to the twin towers of 1'\ LO'S. 011 la }in (1'. mounted on them.HOREMH EB HORSE LEVI' Door--jalllb jimNlhe lomb ~r l/orc1I1hl'b.3100 BC). although some sur\'iving examples "c:rc e. although it is possible that the destruction of the royal romb at clAmarna LOok place slightly later.35 m.f(I'\SO:---..xc~n·atcd at TEI. in the early Ramessidc period... When he succeeded ."c leye! he introduced numerous reforms designed primarily to decentraliz e the go\-crnmcn t. In the burial chamber his red granitc S<lfcophagus remains ill Jilll. (ommel//aire ipl~~raphilfl/l'. consisting of a single straight corridor wilh side-chambers. One aspect of the god 1I0Rl"S. rather lhan the bent-axis style of the previous 18d1-Dynast)' royal tombs.I\fril::t and the ~car Easl. KRL:C1 nT'-. abandon.ll Avaris. I-I-\Rl.ilallle Q/Horel/lhl'b.. although banle scenes in the r\ew l-. (int: J"l'slomlhm) 1.·ic1cntly taller.0\' Saibc .'B'" the site of the IIH. . nJih D.l11i' (6 r1UHlil' (Gcnc"a.l·tilu/iol/ll d (Brussels.r/I//ulel illlltt'jiu·11l a/tlte {fA. phiJologiqlte cf ill.N. Hurcmhab ill/ 7.13001Jc.ltet Itierog~)'ph rl'prt'Je1lting Iht' lrori::.It GEBEL 1~I. horses were essentially status symbols."-Ell. such o1S the 1. 1989).\1 '''~.ol1. The Theban tomb (".lps this link between thc lions and the horizon which led [0 the Great Sphinx at Giza bein~ regarded as the principal manifestation oj.SIL\ he created a SPEOS (rock-temple).lrance of the horizon "as often . Its painted relief scenes. fragments of which arc sp. from the guddess of the horizon. Unlike donkeys. and he erected a stele in the temple of l\lul i. (\EII }ONJ. G..1I. J.lsionally show indi\'iduilJ soldier<. SOS caplt.. Scycral horsc burials have been e. He usurped Ay's mortuary templc in the yicinity of "'EDIKET 1-1"IlL in western Thebes and constructed a new roY'11 tomb fill' himselfin or the Valley of the Kings. E. 23. By the end of the 18th Dynast)~ (1550~1295 Be).l'"asly. (1::. but the mummy has not sllITivcd.lIed horse was inrroduced into Eg~ pt from western Asia in the Second Intermedia te Period (1650-1550 Be) ~It roughly the same time as thc C!HIUOT. 71.1st the bcginninl!' of the Pharaonic period ((. horses were firmly established as prestige gifts between rulers in north .:h acti. T. J?mdillg Egyplilill uri (London. On an administrati. c.-ities as IIL":'\TI'\G. "·'Rr\RE and ceremonial processions. 1971).83 Ill. As the place of sunrise and sunset the horse The domestic. as he attempted to restore the Egyptian empire in Nubia and the Lenll1t. although a horse skeleton excavated at !JUliE:' may date as early as the Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 Be). 18/h DJ'1I(1S~)I. depict scenes uf his triumphan t return from l11iliti1r~ c3mpaigns. Lt' rleerel "'Horemheb: fradlle/ioll.. blll" they seem to ha\c becn particularly prized by the Kushitc kings oflhe 132 ./300 /le. who was closely associated with the sun cult) was therefore described as Horemakh cl ('Horus in the horizon»).5-m-high skeleton found in front of the tomb of SE"~' \ll'I (rr71). which were used for agricultural work from at IC. a god personified by a pair of L10'" sometimes replacing the mOllntains in amulets depicting the horizon..-.. 1992). HOR~L":-'G and F T":ICII.11 ({II allilude 0/ (It/omliol1. /11i/1I (arred reliefshoming Ihe king. indicating that the horizon was regarded as the home of the sun-god.-ould ha.. On the basis of surviving chariot yokes it has been calculated thaI the aycragc "heigh'. H/:TROf'f)UT /\ 'I[ SEt II. The appC. whose two breasts somr.-I).. (1:" 650) 131::1. They were almosl always uscd to pull cluriots rather than being ridden. of the transforma tion of temples into metaphors for thc cosmos.\Y (1327-1323 Be) on the throne he undertook numerous constructio n works at lhe temples of "0\R'.

/350 LJC.ingdom'.:e!Jir!t'S (lilt! riddt'll (/1/i1l/(I/s il1 [he Allciefll Sear East (Leiden <\nd Cologne. JNES 10 (1957).ex (hn.. Horemakhet.l10D IlC). mImi mosl e. whn had se"eral horses interred beside their pyramidal tombs and 'l.\ who adjudicates at the end or an eighry-year contest. as ilorus Iun-mutcf~ priests or e]ckst sons wearing p"lI1t'hcr~skin costumes would ritually purify the path of the Horus (Harocris l I-Tarpocratl:s. scorpions. H.\'{fwples mere oIs/(lI/c.1empI11~~ (?).ETI'ES l apparently subjugating his enemies in the battles IC<.38-13. lions or othcr animals in his oUfstrerchcd arms.\fI'JG OF Tl IE . a more li\cl~ \'ersion is pro\'ided by the RamessidL" Papyrus Chester Beatty I (Chester Beart\ Libran. uxikull tier _Tgyplologie J\. As a son of Isis and OSIRIS..c!J probllb~l' origil/a/()'Jimned pafl oIII depictio!1 (jIll royal chariot professioll. Tn the first version. sometimes ludicrous.•1901/. mh. and a complex array of myths becilme associated with him. During his contendings with Seth.ttle Paiod. and in this role (lalcr known as Harpocratcs) he waS usually depicted in human form with the SIIJEI.8. A. L. the throne of Egypt. and J. SnILI. 181h DyIlIlSO'. L.HORUS HORUS RIGHT ReliefMockji'OJ11l'1-. Tn addition. Seth was Horus l unclt. hilt tlu. The Shabaqo Stone (c. C. Horus is s:lid to have lost his left eye (which represented the moon). although as usual it is Ilorus who rmally becomes king ofEg~. Harsomtus.ingclom text. ft is possible thal these mythological cuntendings.t:. may renect a distant mcmory of the struggles of the 'nro lands' bcf(we unillcarion. II'. 'Egyptian representations of horsemen and riding in the New K. ~l. 1171ee/cd r. the god who performed the rite of OI'I':. the term IIdjal 133 . (£·/60958) ..lrmcr' ceremoni'll P. J1lood. Li/.inc ""GSIIII' and protector of the reigning pharaoh.. Ltt/(.lilras.'t!I'{IJIIiC htlrJI?/jd. According 10 one of the most common myths. Paiod. ri\'alry of Horus and Seth. The latest narratives of the myth tend to combinc scveral different traditions.T\LER and j. The purpose of the cippm seems to haye been to prm'ide healing po\\'ers to combat such problems as snake bit·es or scorpion stings.'lll/x till NOlIl't'1 Empire EgYPfieu (Brussds l 1091). which details the Yaried. c.. ROi\L\lEI. /9) 25th DynasC\ (7-17-656 BC). hc was the child of the goddess ISIS.705 Be.ication of Egypt. Horus \\·as also worshipped under the name of Harsicse.:rsion he was his brother.OC" OF YOLTII and a finger to his mouth l often being seated on his mother's lap (particularly in amulets and bronze yoti\.lding to the unif. this ifem is oImood. On such dppi Horus was also somctimes associat- Dublin).e statuet tes).RI. 1989). II.JIPli{/IIIt(JlIseh(J1dtluill/u/s (Aylesbury.:-t\!) 395) a new vehicle for the image or Horus l the dppus.-god whose name is attcsted from al least as carly as the beginning of thc Dynastic period (£".: l \yhcrcas in the second \·t. E. R.l "SSE:". This was a form of protective stele or amulet showing the naked child-god Horus sian ding on a CrOcodile and holding snakes. including a race in boats of stone. Howe\'cr. E~~.LT\RClI. I•.3200Cippm /)1' '[['Ims sfele'. it is probably the Horus-f~lIeon who mlS depicted on the 'Bau]cficld' and 'i'\. Although not actuallY deceased's coflln. ilt EL-kLRI{L cd with other deities. Otto and W. '''''" lORA.1II/uma bearillg (l depj(lioll a/a pair o/llfIrses. although few prehistorians would now attempt to usc such comlxlral-i\'c1~ reCent documents to interpret the late Predyn<1stic archaeological material ((.. Westendorf (Wicsbaden. 1979).\I-\'. gods merged \\ ith lhat of Horus. 1982)... 1009-13. cd. !. describes thc story of the earth-god lil:n judging berwcen the t\\'o and cyentuaUy :marding the throne to Horus./7'J\ HLW:L II. a 25th-Dynasty inscription purporting to be a copy of an Old K. Heick. C. The IIt(jator medjal-eye (thc 'eye of Horus l ) thercf()re came to symbolize the gener"ll process of 'making whole l and healing. bccame popular.\I. an e\'en later account of \yhich is gi\'cn by the Greek writer PJ. /979. sl/filllillg Horus as u dlild //Jith t/ie pnmer to Oi.\IGLTll on his dead fathcr. Gradually the cults of other hawk- The mythology of the Osirian Ilorus (r"lther than any or the other aspect~ of Horus) was principally concerned with his struggles to avenge the murder of his f"llhcr Osiris and to claim his rightful inheritance. CROLII EL. There arc also difTering accounts of their struggles or 'eolHendings\ which wcrc associated with the myth of Horus c\'cn before the cOlltcndings becamc linked with the Osiris myth. /1.. (I/L7RO/ JOI. Horus was not only a god of the sky but the embodiment of di\.\:'\o:'\ (a 19th-Dynasty king list) describes the Prcdynastic rulers of Egypt as 'followers ofllol'us l • Usually depicted as a hawk or as a man with the head of a hawk.Fmll A. thus legitimizing his succession to the thronc as earthly ruler.·\EIH:. From the T c Period to the Roman period ~al (747 m.' prolllilll!lIf Bes heud alltl fhree~dimeJlsinl1t11 represclltatio/l oIthl' (hiM Homs poinllo l/ic I. the TLRI:'\ Ron!. in a simibr vein. ajh:r600 He. now in the British l\luseum). 'Pfcrd'.3100 Ile). R.267-70. 23011. although t(lrtunatcly the goddess I L\'I'IIOI{ was able to rcsrorc it. named as such.'c Nem Kingdom exalllples. A.\. In this \'crsion it is the sun-god R. by defeating the c\-il god SETH. Ra-Horakhty) F:\LCO. SToRe".

yas in these rooms fhat one of the rare fragments of papyrus at cl-Amarna (part of a funerary text) was founel.\\.]DI 30 (19+1).'\ House of Life (Egvptian per ankh) Templc institution somctimes compared wifh a medieval scriptorium. and he was frequently described in the Old Kingdom (2686-2181 Be) as a god of the cast. The personnel of the House of J . the site or the ancient city of1"le5cn.\Rl'A 1 a complex of mud-brick buildings in the centre of the eily or Akhetatcn.lcrificial aCL !vI. a town in the Delra. GARDI. displaying the bodies of six of thL:m On its walls. COIllposed in the Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 Be) and preserved on Papyrus "iestcar (Berlin). ]9(3).\DLEBL"RY. C. However.l'cannibalism hymn' and Papyrus Westcar] A. Cairo) which probably formed part of a cult image. geography. Al/tiClI1 Hgyp/itlll re!tiiull (London. and it may be thar the sanatoria associated with a number later temples were connected in some way widl .\D wcre produced feu' sale to pri\"ate individuals. bUl. Koptos. Prom the late Predynasric period oO'. 1992). 7i:. Although usuall~ associated with a religious institution. h. 1992). 61-97. The House of Life at EL-. 1931). rotiye objects . A.lnd temple walls were ti'equclltIy decorated .lcts of ritual execution arc usuall~ depicted in the context of wart~lre.yPI (London. Tl is also likely that copies of such funerary fexts as the noot\: OF TILE DE.. Till' CIles/a lJe{/lIy I)(//~)'I"i I (London. these buildings were undistinctive. H. There was a temple of Horus at Edfu fi'om al least as early as the Nc\y Kingdom. provides a good illustration of the Egypti. which describes the king 'eating the magic' and 'swallowing I hI.235-41.lIls' apparent abhorrence of human sacrifice. r'\IRi\II\N. Tn the Protodynastic and Early Dynastic period (d200-2686 Be). A. VI!. according to the story."CrC perhaps involved in the design of new pieces for manufacture.O). GRlFF1TIIS.lVC lltilized the tcmpk I. \rhose role appears 10 haH.is eyes wcre interpreted as the sun and moon. Tn this guise he became ~nowl1 as Horemakhct ('Horus in the I I(JRII. A. The actual sacrifice of prisoners at temples .1S the interpretation DIU~'\\lS. D. an image that constantly recurred in the decoration of many other remples.U'.: Ra-Horakhty. LIClITIIEI.as opposed 1"0 the depiction foreigners as bound eapti'Ts . In most other respects. he was also portrayed as a winged sun-disc.He his magical abilit~ to restore severed heads.n-c been taught in the House of Life. There wcre numerous forms of Horus throughOllt Egypt.!/11urt/s alld SCIIt FO/lf hg. burials' sUITuunding· the tombs of certain lst-D~ nasty rulers at Abldos and Saqqara (3]OI)-28YI) IlC:) is an indication that large numbers of royal retaincrs were killed simultaneoLlsl~· in anler t·o accompany the pharaoh into the aftcrlik This practke would no doubt later have been superseded by the more widespread usc of representations of sen·ants at \york (in thl' form of wall decoration and rhree-dimcn:-'ion_ al models).61-7.\L (}\LIJO and SOi\S Oi' 110RUS. was c1carly indcntifiable when excavated in the 1930s because the bricks were stamped with the words pn (Ilft. and served as a metaphor for protection.-h. . II.AlIIlIleH o!al/tielll Egypi (London. It also represented the waxing and . houses see TOWNS Hu see IlI\r-SEI\IAlj'\"·\ human sacrifice IU~GIO. or school for SCRIBES and the children of the elite (sec EIlLCITIO'). It has becn argued that the apparent shared roof coycring many 'subsidiar~.43--4. The (fII~/li(t . The priests of the House of Life Illay also haye been concerned with oyerseeing the work of temple craftsmen. G"tRJJ1NI']{."o~Ild probabl~ also h. . See also KD.: spirits' of the gods. 150. been to undermke agricultural work on hehalf or the deceased. 17---14.!.\. lW. it is difficult to know in rhis instance whether the cuncept of the king eating the gods was purely metaphorical or based on some early s.lll. 1993). 1974). H.1S part or a triad with I-Lllhor and Lheir child HarSOl11tus. the magician insists that the lkmonstration be made on a goose rather than a hum. ]/ledja/-eye i1I11ulcts arc extremely common. as 'Yell .].ypliall alld Classi(al SOlfrt!!S (Li\Trpool. G. 'The House of Life' . From the temple at this site Was excavated the golden falcon head (nmY in the Egyptian ?vluseum. STROL:lif\I. 1994).JHRARY. In his role as Horus of Behdel. 1975). ]-2. 23-60. Horus W~L" also closely associated with 11mRt\K01\POI. DI'IIIf)//~fdll' TrallllldclIl//lIg (Copenhagen.lS early as the -hh Dynasty Horus Khenty-Irty was worshipped aL Letopolis (Kom Ausim) in the western Della.extual evidence from 'he reign 01' Amenhotep " (1427-1400 l1e).:l1Cl/{/I(.ife also appear 1"0 haye been concerned with \lI':f)LCI\T. D \In:sSY.J!Pli{/1I s(lcral drama (London. and hence the sunrise. . although the practice is known from KEILVIA in Nubia at a time roughly contemporary with the Second Intermediate Period (l 650-1550 BC).llso worth noting that the PrR \ \lID 'n:yrs include possible references to cannibalism in the form of the so-called 'cannihal hymn' (Utterances 273--1-). AN1JRI. S. ]942). harking back to his originall11anifestarion as a god of the sky. or or servants. strength and perfection.l cosmogunie deity. I) and he was also merged \YIth Ra. 115.. Lije ill al/rielll Egypt (Cambridge.. The Iriumph oII-lurl/s: (II! (lIIde1// L~~.HOUSE OF LIFE HUMO~ literally meaning 'sound'. there may be archaeological indications of the funerary sacrifice of humour Since humour and satire are both concerned with the subversion and undermining of the 134 . Abydos. S. G. '\STRO'\O\I'. 2J7-20.. (2589-2566 J..-1I1t"i':lIl [gyptif/II lileraillre I (Berkeley. or House of Books (per JIIcdjal).aIling of the moon.is attestcd by t. hut rhese .\rus. 'HonlS the 13ehdetite'. E([I'~)I L:'. Houses of Life are recorded at iVLemphis.~ el dessills /IwgiljllcS (Cairo. hut he is particularly associated with EIWL.IS (Iitcnilly 'town of the h~nyk') which was known as Nekhcn during the Phar~lOnjc period. and in the wcll-preserved Ptolemaic temple he was ""orshippcd .. Esna and Edfu and rhere lllust certainly have been examples at Thebes and elsewhere. PE:.lIld hanging {he body 01" the seventh on the walls or of l'\AJ'AJi\.]EA 24 (]938). QUlIU':I':. to bCCOIlH. . VOLTEN. which would 110 doubt have been the principal source of the original documents copied by rhe pupils. would h.\l. while priests would haye had ample theological material to study. Prom at least . E. J.. the I-louse of Life differed from its monastic counterpart in that it was not simply a place where PRIESTS were trained in the reading and copying of sacred texts but apparently also a There is no certain evidencc of the practice of human sacrifice in Egypt from the Old Kingdom (2686-ZlSJ Be) onwards.·he Houses of Life. Khufu is portrayed as a stereotypical t~ rant who asks for a prisoner 1"0 be decapitated so that Djedi can demonstr.\1 \"1"1 IL\L\TICS and L'\\\.:ws.1/ 111/1 (London. and '. midway between the main temple and pabce. ]57-79. ]951). SPENC1~R. Since Horus was a sky-god and . however.'1Et{. They .r/('. although significantly it .cntual pro\'isioll of SIIABTI figures. Cily (~r--l/. He claims to have executed seven S~Tian princcs in dle temple of AmLin at Karnak. It is . ·rhe tale of the +th-Dynasry rukr Khufu He) and rhe magician Djedi.36-8. Akhmim.Yith scenes of the king smiting his enemies while gripping them by their hair. and the e\.

\I!':rl)L.ll world.Jr~ counterpart fC)f the gentle visual mockery of some of the labourers depicted in prh-.ingdol11 settlement at SOLEB in ~ubia has yielded traces of post-holes which may well indic. Com'crsel~.{l'Plc (Leiden. 19(5). there seem to h<1\ e been relath-c1y fc\\' outlets for humour within the confines of official funerary ."g binls in lite marsltes.survive of 'beast fablcs'.1 actiyitics of the elite.\IIOTEP III (l390-13S2 Be) were carry the queen'. when cyell the most bOlSic framework of the system of decorum (or social mores) is not t!f IYr.-H.-ate tombs that shmy the deceased Imming wild game in the desert. although no Iitcrary coulHcrparts have survived.:.\ rare opportunity to depict rhe distinct1.'ing chariots or making obeisance to a ruler..lrily of small-scale fishing and bird-snaring on the hanks of the :\"ilc.rerly.ingdoms thar poured scorn on all trades and professions other than that of the scribe.md religious arr and literature.lYat"ion of the \Jew J. and the decoration of the first pylon of the morrtli. E11I into the cltegory of 'animal fahles'. the simple netting of birds became an important parr of tern pic decOI'arion. there are'l few relatively unambiguOliS sUI"\'i. which dates to the late New Kingdom and includes scencs of. prO\'iding a liten.. Although the Egyptian scribe's superiority complex was so highly developed tlut parts of the \atircs' nuy eren have been regarded as factual rather than ironic. A large number of such sketches.1379ii) 135 .'anna and desert landscapes in \\'hich the hunt occurred. CL'RTO. ~ot withstanding this basic prohlem.\II"'. with the king and v. (F.E."ing examples of visual humour. dri. On the wholc. crocodiles and IIIPPOI'OT. elephanrs and rhinoceroses formed an essential part of the characteristic Egyptian sryle of KI'\TGSllIP. there is undoubtedly a considcr~lble clement of comical exaggeration and Guicature in the descriptions of the rarious trades."C taken place within deliberately enclosed areas. .1S in the case of rhe so-called Satirical Papyrus (now in the British l\luscum). and bulls.ll of ritualistic .u.l'. The comic impacl or this scene on anciem Egyptians is perhaps indicated hy rhe SUf\"j'". 1811t Dyuasl.\ll in the marshes. 1:\\'0 series of commemorativc SC\IL\US of \\IE. whose caption rcads 'the donkey that had to Huni see .\\ and S:'\EFERL hunting Although hunting in the Pharaonic period was rehnively unimpormnr as a means of subsistence.: depictions of fowling in private tombs no doubt reflected the aCIll.\IES for illustration) and a c.l11d lions in deserr terrain. pail/led plaster. let '11onc in an anciem culture such as Pharaonic Egypt.yo basic types of hunting were regularly represented on the walls of tombs and temples throughout the Pharaonic period: 'fowling and fishing' and 'big-game'. ln a few instances these scenes arc portrayed on pjpyrus. therefore most of the more lighthearted aspects of Egyptian culture tend to be restricted ro rhe arena of rough sketches and OSTRAC.He tomb-p'lintings. howeycr. Such rilles . h.1-100 /lC. that portrays the orcrwcight figure of the queen of Pl:.'s. c.81 fll1..\.\S.HUMOUR HUNTING nl)rl1l~1 decorum of society. By the )Jew Kingdom (1550-1069 Be).particularly cats ~1I1d mice . in which the disintegration of society is described in terms of deliberate re\-crsals and inyersions of the narur.]s Salin: UII I!lt' lratlt's and Be (f srribt' are used by Egyptologists to describe parricular ~'pes of text from the . L10:. :md the latter consisting of the hunting of wild deer :. In the Old Kingdom. so that the animals would have no escape. fully undcr:->tood. La stllira IId(ulllirn EgillQ (Turin. 1969).uing a rough sketch of the queen c1e~uly copied from the original. It has becn suggested that these images of animals may be all th. the temple scenes arc usually interpreted as allegories of the presenation of harmony by hunting down and suppressing cyil and unstable phenomena (symbolized by the birds and animals struggling in nets). descriptions of [he pharaoh's exploits as a hunter of such beasts as wild bulls. in which animals .lrious gods often being depicted hauling clap-nets containing both birds and beasts.-cring an area or 600 m x 300 m. the pyramid com- I t'all-pailllil1gfmm IItl' lomb-dltlpl'l ofNd){I11lfI11.md religious significance.\"T followed by a small donley.'iding the artists \\-ith.'e Sa. S. 13. among the relicfs in the temple of l-blshepslIl (1+73-H5~ He) al DEli{ I'I. L '!If/mImI' dum III lilleralllft' t'I dl/IIS I'arl de I'{/I/rit:lluc 1:.. ir still retained a great de. There arc also a fell' pri. they arc notoriously diflil:ult to analyse or dissect in modern times.lr~ temple or Rameses BI (I 18+--1 153 Be) at \II'DI'ET I1'\BC includes .\C().'cs..\. with scenes of 'fowling and lishing: in the marshes' being . \-Vhcreas tht.ji'fllII TItebi.\. such as the scene.·. Such royal hunts appear to hn.I common component of pri.ttc tomb decorillion but only in one case appelring in a roynl tomb (thaL of King \\.ue the presence of an enclosure surrounding a large hunring park cu. sltoming lite dcreased millt Iti.1 demiled depicrion of the king and his soldiers hunting bulls.are depicted engaged in typical hum. depicting such T'\BOO subjects as a pharaoh with unsecmly stubble on his chin.DE 'V·\J. and there is currently no sure way of determining whether the pictures were either intended to be humorous or connected in some way with such didactic writings as the Discourse inscribed with detailed descriptions of his hunting of wild bulls nnd lion. 11.I.ll of an mtrK.~!. bc.lt herding geese.\23 in theYalley of the Kings). These two categories also correspond roughly to the private and royal domains. \:\'. thus pro.:\ liddle and New K. and the exc..m activities such as beating capti.">..~fil1l1ihll/lf1l1..'l lion and antelope playing a board-game (see Gt\. the former consisting prim. T.

ingdol11.Iakbaal (c.. 147-67. s!lomillg llu' killg IlllI/lillg mild Hyksos (Eg'~ptian Ireka Hili''''/: 'rulers of foreign lands') Term used to refer to a Palestinian group (or perhaps only their rulcrs) who migr~llcd inlO EgYPI during Ihe late i\liddle Kingdom (c.. [t used to be assumed that the Hyksos conqucred Egypt at the cnd of the 13th Dynasty. SpOrlJ (fill! games fJIllncienl 1~:f{)IPI.11 )'ORI\.HUSBANDRY HYKSOS RdieldarJr(lIiOIl on thl' fwel: oIIII/:jinl py!rJ11 of Ihe mortuary Jemple ofRmut'seslll (118-1-1153) at J/Il'dillt'! J-!a!JlI. the allegorical nature of these scenes. (\/. T. trans.lti\'c Egyptians.i (Paris.lI(fI/1~J' A~. alrhough j\lh\nfrcd Bit. Con\'cntional forms or . STROLl 1. Lije ill oJ/ciml EgypI (Cambridge.lstern Delta sitcs as TELL EI.0\1. TITLL.mldiers ill t!le !fJII'CI" regis/a are slIfWi/l firing arrows. 727-3-L \V. including the Ramcssidc Papyrus Sallier I (c 1220 Be). "1'1. ' . ~ 1992).\. !u pam!t' cll'eail. The ccmeteries. and the archaeological c\ i(knee is considerably morc ambiguous. J650-1.: de chasse de 13 ~ubic phar:lOnique\ Li'SO!.1" imposition of Asiatic culture on thaI of tht: n. S \\ E-SOl)EIWEIHjll. 118-22 husbandry sec IIUSB. 'Un pan. two closely related goddesses (If S)To-Palcstini~lI1 origin. Guttmann (i'\'ew Haven.>50 BC) dearly indicate their non-Egyptian origins. A number 1\e\\ Kingdom texts. the Hyksos assumption of power rcycals itself as a peaceful takeoycr from within b~ a racial c1cment already in the majority. 'it is not unreasonable to assume that with the gradual weakening of royal authority.lI 1\ lILSEI II) rcligio/lS mOlh'" (Uppsala.I. SIIIII) plexes of Sahura (2487-2+75 Be) and Pcp. tlud thrusling 1I !oug IUl11fmg sptllr at Dill' is portrayed slul/diug in his dlllrio/ olt/u: hulk TIlt' larding grnup (~(. temples and stratified sett1cmcnt remains at such e.' The Semitic nameS of such 15th-and 1()[hDynasty l-Iyksos rulers as Khyan. l/ETROI·OI. EL-\\ \S. which transform the aCI of hinding and spearing a hippopotamus into a dramatic re-enactment of the mythical conniet between the gods Horus anu SETII. 1992). 01/ Egypl.\Rr.. There is some e\-idcl1l:c 10 suggest that Ihe rulers supported the traditional forms of gm"crnment ilnd adopted an Egyp[ian-Sl~ Ie ROYo\!. A.a}/ ft'presl'l!ftlliollS /{hippuPIJIUIIIIIS hUl/ling (IS tI easy to cross the horder and senle in LO\\er Egypt".!et:lioll ofscllrabs tlll/illg 10 .hl' r~J'hos pai(lt!.'DR\ 'GKICGI:rcKE and. Joam and . E. mi/lmgl's etIllOlIIlI/agf' . and groups of transhumants found it bulls."IIL"T\ and TiLl EL-nIlLIJIU include considerable quantities of Syro-Palestiniau material dating to lhe ~ riddle Bronze Age II period (c. (I. RaJ'l1/olltl.. according to Donald Redford. 136 .. is demonstrated by the rcliefs in the temple of IIORes :1l ElJrL. suggest that the llyksos interlude was essentially the rUlhb. Their major deity was SET!I but thcy also \'01'shipped other Egyptian gods as well as \. n and AST-\RTE. appa/'m/()I R([1I1eSl'5 engaged ou(p illlhe more 1II1111t/(/l1(' pursuit of/ht' birds ant/Jish (~rlhr marsh-lauds. 1981). TEI. DEC.:ta" has discU\'cred a door jamb al Tell d-Dah'a bearing the name of Ihe T-Iyksos king Sokarher with the title ht/Nt khllsm/.-O\11'·\.~I St. LELJ."ER.· 2000 lIW tI'hisloire aFimilll'. bUI it is now recognized that the process was prohably En more gradual and peaceful. in [crms of the king's containment of chaos.:.1800-1650 BC) and rose to power in Lowcr Egypt during the Second lntcrmediate Period (1650-1550 DC). J. but the Hyksos kinl:!s thcmseh'es ha\-e left fc\\ distinctively 'Asiatic' remains. lhe Delta defenses were allowed 1"0 lapse. Ha\-ing persuaded oneself of thi~.' " (2278-2184 BC) contained depictions of thc king hunting a hjppopotamus rendered at a larger-than-life scale. The sJllall number of royal sculptures of the H~ ksos period largely adhere to the iconographic Jnt! stylistic traditions of the l\lidlllc t. but these were unduuhtcdl~ biased accounts.2000-700 lie).-\'\T. =:. 1953).\1.

BE(XER. It has also heen suggested by Barry Kemp that the appareJ1l Icultural hiatus' in thl: Fayum region during the Second Intermediate Period may simply be iln indication of political disruption in those areas which had pre\ iously had a strong association with the _\liddle Kingdom central administration. y\. but: the hypocephali proper consist of l~l'P{J(l'plt(l/us fJIXl'shorpllkht'rl'd.meileu Zmisdu'//:.~~YPI(' l'l d'lsral!/: etlfde.ickstadt and New York.mong the most poelic of the h~-111ns to the sun was the l!)lJJI1l 10 tht _lien. and the LilllllY of RlI. includes hymns to be sung: by the worshippers in a temple. RCDFORD.:.lse of the ff. f. B. the 17th Thcban Dynasty. deroratedl1Jitli lilt' prr?/i/c figures o//." in the sustenancc of the world from dawn to sunset has often been compared with Psalm 104) although the uncloubred similarities between the two compositions ~t1most certainly result from a conmlon literary heritilge rather than as some scholars hiwe argued . usually consisting of .Papyrus Chester Beatt~· 1'\ (recto) now in the British ~Iuseum). Hymns could be inscribed on the walls uf both tombs and temples as well as on papyri. hypaethral Term Llsed to describe a building that has no roof and is thcrefore open to the sky.. /7yksos.ril ill /-i.\ \HR:'\. describing onc of the Theb~m campaigns agotinst the Hyksos.l ri\'nl group. Thebes. includes clear references to a Kubian-Hyksos alliance by the end of the 17th Omas. Ullfenllcllungell . mel helmct<i.: 0]1 TilE: DUD and oCC<. _1110"ellt EgyptitlJllituliturr II (Berkeley. Numerous funerary stelae were inscribed \\·ith hymns W OSIRIS. f~}!1I11lt'S tI·l:."'en..y.I (III.frum any connection between the worship of the Aten ilnd the origins of Jewish Illonothl:ism. (c 136/88) polifl:~cllcll Gesellidar tier :::. appilrcntl~ a corrupted form of Salitis.\II·. -Ith~]rd re1Jtltric. were \'iolcntly opposed to foreign rule. G. was inscribed in milny Ramessidc royal tombs in the \. D. it has oficn becn pointcd out that there is link in the 1~)'mll 10 Ihl' _ -lltll that docs not already appear in e.ji-o".ltcd the de\'cIopment of new military techniques and strategies.f. such as the Rhinu _\!athematical Papyrus (see \I \TIIE\I HIC~) l:onrinucd to be composed or copied. fl. but it is not clear when thc~' would have beell recited) whether as part of [he regular cult at the pyramid complex or on a special occasion such as the \'isit of the reigning king. the longest \'ersion of which was inscribed in the tomb of ·w at EL-. The mythological details indudcd in many hymns help [Q compensate for the general dearth of naffatiye-style myths in Egyprhm literature. (Cambridge.thD~ nasty A. which facilil."aris) suggest that the ncw rulers maintained trading links with rhe Ncar East and lhe Acgc~lIl. 1966). The presence of these seals probably indicarcs that thefe was ~lJ1 alliance between the I lyksos and the kingdom of I':erma. they appear to have gradually spread westward. \yhere . Seals . B.but they were sometimes composed simply as 'lil"el'i1ry' documents in their own right.81-118.rrJ-l. it was probabl~ the adoption of such ne. although they were generally intended to be recitl'd as part of the ritual of a cult . AUFI'Jn:T.. The Second Stele of "". greater use was madc of IIOKSF"S. the earliest known Hyksos king.\1.:ingdorn..~)lplt!n (Gli. B-\ItLcQ.J:It\\ \ be.\. AI/rimt Egypt: II soria/ltistOlT.. A.military technology by the Thcbans that helped their rulers to dcfcar the Hyksos. Ironically. Irs description of the role of the rrE. suggesting that the cultural impact of the Hyksos rulers may hiwe been restrict cd to the Deltil region.~ 11C.71-182. for instance. ].. Ofll:1l the f"unction of the hYllln can be difficult to ascertain: a cycle of five hymns to SE"LSKn III (187+-1855 BC) were found in the town associated with his pyramid at EL1. Thcy wcre intended to 'warm' the head of the deceased. P.".". D_-\l \1 \S. along with body armour .lsionally bearing \"ignettcs reprcsenting certain deities. ~[j'iggcr ct al. .aJld r.t period. pillstued lil1CII 1I1ll1 p(~I/Ie1II.1 small number of objects inscrihed with the names of Hyksos kings at sires such as Knossos. SETERS.'IWl It) the _Yilt: lUl/mlll/. and founder of the :\ell" Kingdom (1550-1069 uc).E.IIL. The earliest examples simply consisted of pieces of inscribed papyrus. LlIft. hymns and litanies One of the most l:ommon types of religious text in ancient Egypt was the hymn. a hymn to the sun-god.HYKSOS HYPAETHRAL of Egyptian literature. KE. ELnIILmY.HIII.aiglltioll (:\e\\" (-]. Baghdad and Boghazk(}'y (as well as the remains of -'linoan frescos at l.EY OF TilE ""GS. During the Hyksos period.0. \. Ctll/lllllllllltllsrtlt'1 ill lIucienllillles (Princt:ron. The discO\"cry of.1 eulogy incorporating the names.1r the name Shcshi.~ tic sfm(/ures /ittertlires (Frcihurg... and tu l:smblish ..ol/ (one \-crsion of which is recorded on Pap~ rus Chester Beatty \").. fflrll/llc'S i'l prieres de I'E:!fl'pte ll1l(Jt'lIl1i' (Paris. Eg)lpt.'.\I.. TIlt. . 137 . which \\ould hu\'e helped them both to counter opposition in Uppcr Egypt.:'1/1" j.98--129.\lOSE I (1550-1525 lie) as the first king of the 18th Dynasty."ing established their capiml at AY:lris. Pc'riod or P/O/eJllll.rill1l.lcts from Chapter 162 of the HOOF-.IIOSE. as in the l . E\Tn sites in the j\rll:mphitc region and the western Delta show few indications of Palestinian influence. 1976).trlier Egyprian hymns to the sun-god.\. LICIITIIEI\I. 1983). establishing centres such as TEI..4. as is the case in the Kiosk ofTrajan at I'HIL. B. The gra\'e goods in Upper Egyptian pri\"iltc ccmcteries of the Hyksos period (such as Abydos and Qtu) sho\\" greilt continuity with the prc-Hyksos period. 1980).. ~liddlc Kingdom and Second Tntermediate P(. {I 1l'1I1pll'1I1ItS.Jl/I" IwbU/IllS l1'fll'shippilJg Ihe .I.riod'. . In "lddition. 'Old f. 1992). 19(5). the god of thl: dead..It the :"Jubian site of . Ha. 1981). and taking control of the important Egypti<ll1 cit~ of _~lcmphis. titles and epithets of a deity. and their use in warfnre was developed through the introduction of the CIURIOT. a Jlem im:e.I.\II. hypocephalus Amuletic discs inscribl:d with extr. The curyed sword (khepesh) was introduced.

. where. while the lowest parts of the enclosing walls often be'lf scenes of rows of offering bearers walking along the ground surface.:css of CRE.\TI()~ itself Beyond the h'll1. These afe the slJ/allel. P. 7: .SOX) 138 . the 'swamp' symbolism is reinforced by the can'ing of insects on the column capitals. while the dimensions of Lhe rooms grew smaller.tp~ rlls ShL'Ct':i mounted on small c. Bredeck (Nell'York. <.".. The great columns along lhe axis route <. they were usually placed betwcl:11 the head of the mummified hody and the funcnlry headrest.gyptialt temple: a lexiwgmphiwl Jt/l(~)1 (London. There are also .J.:. E. 1992).OGY). hypostyle hall Large temple court filled . since Lhe entire IT\\PLE was regarded as a microcosm of the prO<. Pal't oIthe Creat J-Jypo5tyl£' Hall (~Fthe temph' of . the name dcri. while the rest of the columns han: closed papyrus bud capitals. 115-29. A. doscd flapyl'lls hud coll/II/m: tltc OpCII papyrus i'OIl/II/IIS along the axial fOIl/e slalld 23111 high.m \STROI. This cosmogonic symbolism is well illusrratcd in the temple of Amlin at 1-\'\Rl\Ah:.HYI'OSTYLE HALL HYI'OSTYLE HALL p. E."arying diameter and height.O\\Y '\ '.. the roof of the temple inyariably became lower and the floor higher.1S not uncommon for a single temple to ha\'e two hYPos(~'le halls.it'h columns. There was a distincl lransition frol11 the PYLO:. The archilravcs above the columns.\:\GE discs. forming an essential clement in Egyptian religiolls architecture.\. nil' I:.\.\ into the open courtyard and then into the hypostylc hall. until the sanctuary itself was reached. SP":~CER. and end in massiye open papyrus flowers. 'llrhough those lining the axis route of the temple \ycre usually the tallest and broadest.-ing from the Greek for 'resting on pillars'. 1n keeping with their intended function. (p.\RTO.l few suryiving examples madc from metal..11 f:.'\ dense fores\.). The columns coulll be of .IS well as the ceiling itself: arc representati\'c of the sky (see \STRO.hnuI11 .\ tG-IOI.Ire each 23 m in height. 'T'he symbolism expressed by the hypostylc hall is that of the reed swamp growing at the fringes of the I'RI\IEnL 1\IOL\lD.4/1/1/" at Karnak.S:\'. which have been discoycred in il few tombs from the 261h D~·nast)" (66+--525 Be onwards). trans. I IOR'LJ'\'G. The hall was crowded with pillars and lit only by clerestory windows in the uppermost pan of the walls.. Idcu into image. 1r \\'<. In the temple of .J. of 134 columns spring fi'om bases reminiscent of the earth around the roots of papyrus plants. 198.

Heick. J . Until the nineteenth century it WilS rchnirdy common in Egypt but by 1850 it had almost dis<. Jle is also said to howe wriLten a number of 'instructions' (. as well as long legs and . A JIIllllfJII{jieti i/Jisjimlllhl' Sacred _'IIl/lIIal Nampolis all/orlh Saqqtlnl.ondon. somc two thousand years after his death 1 the first c"idcnce appcars of his deific.'c items mllst han~ phtyed . \I. hindquarters <.\1tL" Imhotep Vizier and archirect of the first pyramid. /.1S most respcctcd and. which lIsuall~ include the sacred ilnd gloss~ \"lrieties.:.."c fe.IBIS ILLAHU~ I ibis The sacred ibis (Tltreskiomis tll'/hiopj(w) is rhe best knO\\ n of the: principal species of ihis in Egypt.'c 4'Hor(London.111<1 legs. The sulTt'd flJlillltll /ll'{ropo!is III Sorlh SlIljqara (London.0 HC (EI682/9) mummified remains of these birds that some must" hilYC been hastened to their death. Imouthcs) with the im'cnrion of building in dressed stone.":. cd. 'Spitzmaus um! ichneumon als Ticre des Sonncngortcs'.)32-30 DC). its disrincti. P./6]800) 139 .1I1e1 buried in catacombs at TC\:i\ EL-(iEllI:l. once lOok the form of an i<. and as . it was frequently depicted in tomb reliels frum the Old "-ingdum (2686-2181 Be).In important part in the economy..ltel'sick bird. the goddess traditionally asSOciatcd with Lowcr Egypt. lYI£.III".\I. it is known fi'om examination of rhe ichneumon Type or mongoosc common in Arrica.\\EL>JCI'\E. ((.~ jilkiut!/II1S) has a characteristic curved bill.:hneumon in order to fight \POPIIIS. This sohlr identificat ion is rcsponsible lor the sun disc surmounting some ichneumon ligures.i""iJlp:CIl (1965). lmhotep" LaIc Paif)d.~!!.\'ith the cults of the gods '1'1 lOTI I in his time it waS an ofTence to kill an ibis.we been p'1rticularIy suitable gi.triety of fnlUdulent practices arc recorded in the archi"e of a priest called HoI' at Saqqara. see \\ ISI){). 111t'''i. flrdu'.l result beeline linked .' and elsewhere (see S"-CREI> \'T\L\I.. R." the ~liddle "-ingdom (2055-1650 Be) the ichncumon was included among the SAClH·:n ''\I'I.ITIIO credits him (under the Grcck form of his name.\. 61h-llh fl'''IIfric. U. a dark cunul bill and a black neck.. Since it is not a w. in addjtion it scems that they were being dclibcratcl~ hred for the purpose of "oriYc mummification."ed. c. h has been suggested thai their eggs were artificially incubated in m-cns. it features less commonly in ancient scenes set on the banks of the Kilc. 1l)t)3).Yhich flew to Egypt from Arabi~1.l' IIC (.111 iridescent" bronze-colourcd gloss on ils 1olh:/! bnm:::'1! stalue11t' u/lhl' (Ie~rit'd archiltrl. usualh" being painted as if it .ith \\. "lomb 60 at Saqqara).hen its depiction can be ditlicult to differentiate from that of the sluc\\.trning that he '\'. and a \·.. T l\hRTIi\. 197(l)" G.2~00 Be. The mongoose emblem of the goddess l\bfdet suggests that she may ha"e originally adopted this manifeslation. E. Thc cult ofThoth led to the production of numerous ihis amulets and statuettes. The wI in (fllrielll EgYPI (f .' for non-royal indi. although most time from the Late Period (7-+7-332 oc) or Ptolemaic period (. I\".1-+6-7.ll serpent of the underworld. Sometimes this disc is accompanied by 0. Hmycrcl'. 1986)126-32.ttion.. Like the sacred ibis.S).'\\. 1980). The GrccJ.\ 1\LEI-.). The creature is realistically ponntyed in . the gre. HOLl.\.. ".1I1 its Indian counterpart.\·sellsdwjiell ill G'.. . _J\ct:ording to Herodorus it fought with winged serpents . It was tor his great le. such as that of ~ lenna (rr69) at Thebes. E.-cn her supposed PO\\ er oyer snakes and scorpions. long legs and a distim:ri"e ruff: le'luing some scholars roo describe it as the 'crested ibis'.l!xiI'lIl1 tier _lgyplolngil' III. 'ichneumon'.JTEIUTLIU:. lIIahun $('(' EI. many of which hayc sun'iyed at Tun. D. and thus higger th.\1 I.1 uraCIIS. bULh mummified eggs and the remains of other species of ibises are knO\Yll from the cuacombs .-c becn more common in ancient times."cre eompletcl~ black.... The mummificarion of ibises and the production of Y(Hi. and less rcalisLicall~' depicted in some of the :\cw J-. \\hich would h. i\ bny bronze figurines of ichncumons h~l\'e SLllyj. 32~9. J.lst numbers . but it may ha. In modern Egypt it is a rare :Iccidental migrant. The 'glossy ibis' (Pleg(fdi. 1.-U'adclllic tier' /·i.. NlldmdtlclI dcl' and I'T\l1. Plolt!lIIair period.I'PI (\\'arminstcr.. \R. Its skill in despatching snakcs led to the myth that the sun-goo It.1 number of Old Kingdom tombs such as that of the 5thDynasty noble . 0110 and " . The 'hermit ibis' (Geronliells t!rfJl/ila) has <1 long neck.I'eIJffyl. 1981). S 'Qq.-idu"lls in ancient Egypt. Its image sen'ed as the hieroglyph meaning 'to shine' (sec \"11).llurcs include a white body.tt rarir-. the Step PITamid of IlJOSER (2667-2M8 Be) of the 3rd Dynasty.S and by Ramessicle times (1295-l06Y Be) it sen·ed as a symbol 01" the spirits of the underworld.\1))' '1'. and in the Lac Period (7~7-332 Be) and Ptolemaic times (332-30 Be) sacred ibises were mummified in \'. although nonc has surYi"cd. F. writing and .. historian IIER0l10TLS states that Lipper hack and wings. 122-3.-I. . BI{L:"KER-TI{-\L"T.ingdom rombs.1 c1-Gcbcl and Saqqara. which is larger than a domestic Glt. This bird W~lS regarded as an incarnation of TIIOTIJ.11 Saqqara. wing-tips. "·estendorf (Wicsbaden. \\ hich sen es to identify the creature ".lppcarcd.tlSiJfllll(il'llll:. a gre. He WilS considered ro be a god 01" wisdom. 123-63.

The b.-n·\llRI and clscwhcre.\Icditerranean. (CIIRO. nEm EI. D. pail/It'd p/a~·If1:. As a resulr.\lIRI. on top of which a cone of incense mixed with Elt was placed. lhe iminl is sometimcs described as the ~Anubis fetish' and selTes as one of the cpithcts of the god. Emery to search the area ror the tomb or Tmhotep himself. i'\lodcls of the emblem were sometimes included among funerary equipment. Tlu> ((Imp/ell' T"lal/klll/lI/ulI (London. although some have argued that it may be the large uninscrihed m<lstaba 3518 <It Saqqara. As well as haring a cult centre at Saqqara.\/)202.\RX. a Eltt which led the British archacologisr~V. (£. is nO\\ known to come from ~l species of PiSI{u·ill. Tradilionall~' it has bcen assumed that these cones would gradually melt in lhe \yarm atmosphere and run down the \yig and c10lhing or the guest to lc~lVe them fragrant and (onl. The funer-ion of "incense cones' is a m. howe"er. C. IUPRODl elf) COl R1E.\I. but is best known through its nssimihnion with the worship of A. 1111('//llOtt:p: GUl/lI'adtwg i/1/ a/tL'1f Agyptl'J/ (Berlin./-IOO BC.\L necropolis. 133(J He. Egyptian SlliJlfs: deijiCfltioll ill pharaonic F...'S used for burning in temples and for scenting rhe person. 'lncense trees' were one of lh~' commodiries brought to Egypt by Hatshcpsur (1+73-1458 DC) as a result of the expedition that she sent to the African land of pc. 1977).)'lIflS~l" c.. There are numerous representations of guests ar banquets and public func[ions. headless skin or <1n animal (often a fcline) tied to a pole which was mounted in a pot. No stich cones have been discm·ered archaeoI{ s/f{)millg gflt'slS /1l('{ITing i1l(Cmf (Om's at (f banquet.H:-.\. The Saqqanl cat.mer of SOme debate. another impOrlanl deified official. and his cult centre at Saqqara. where he was .."enerated alongside .. T'mo imilll}l'lishes (fir ~'JlIl1his}elJ~~hes') ji·(jll/ lht: lomb f~rTi/la1/ldftllflll1f. the 'Asklcpion" became a centre for pilgrimage by those seeking healing. 19911).nubis. 11. B.wds.\IE:'\lIOTrr so.. 61 mI. incense The most common Egyptian word for the product used as incense is selle~ier (meaning ~to make diyincl HmYc. 1977). J-Ie is usually represented as a seated scribe unrolling a papyrus aCross his knees. 3S in the case of the tomb of TUTAl\KllA. Imhol:cp was also worshipped al K.\E and in the Ptolemaic temple to Hathor al DEm EI.. the term incense has 1-+0 . Sellt'Uu./67011.-\II-:DI\. wearing their heil\·y wigs. Bronze figurines of the deified lmhorcp arc common from the Late Period 011\\ . N. BELO\\ Fragmt!1I1 (~r11Jall~p{/illlillgFf)/Illht> ImnIJ imiut Fetish symbol consisting or the stuffed.'aguely used by Egyprologish 10 describe .l range of aromatic substanCt. !·IIlL. c.. 1::Jlh D. and aromatics were also imported from thl· .rrlf "STlTlT!.IMIUT INCE:--iSE The Greeks identified him with their O\Y11 god of medicine.gypt (~!<~\\ York. II..\j} OF 1"1.\OS /9-1 /. The tomb of Imhotcp has still nOI been discovered.li"(JfJl Thebes. being depicted in the Ch'lpcl of Anubis at DElI{ EI. r. ~ 1any worshippers left a mummified LBIS as it \ Olive offering to him in the great underground cat. Pilgrims '1lso left clay models of diseased limbs and organs in the hope of being healed by lmhmcp. Clur. lm!lfltcp lIIlt!. as in the tomb of Nebamun.\.J37Y8-1) lVc!Ja/J1ff1l. OF 1+\PlJ. and some of these birds bear appliques of lmhorep on their \\Tappings. a process which ina(iYertcntly led to the discovery of the s \eRED .lcombs nearby. :\sklcpios. ISlh DY1lasty. ~.-er. It is recorded as early as the 1st Dyn~lst~ (311111-2890 BC).lcombs extend bcne~lth the 3rd-Dynasty \\ \ST·\11 \ tombs. .lSC of lhe Staluclle sometimes bears the names and titles of its donor.-B.) been somewhat . RI]~\'I~S.. 135. \VIUJL '-:"G.\IUJ'\ (1336-1327 BC).\ . I.

Heral. 80' 'j'..lfter an 8th-Dynasty Theban nomarch (provincial governor) and chief priest. who ruled Upper Egypt during a period of instahiJity immediately preceding the emergcnce of rulers (in this case "'''lOSE and AII\IOSE I) who reunited the two hah'es of the country.Il\STRUCTIONS INYOTEF logically. was to becomc the first ruler of both Upper 141 . E_ \VI'l.\. recci\'C the heaYy summer rains of the Ethiopian highlands. Nebhcpetra .(KY62. 'The significance of" incense and libations in funerary and temple rituals'.\liddle Kingdom (2055-1650 BC). Bl. However. STR1C:/.md smincd (although some paintings perhaps suggest that this did happen). fl/I~rll WIIIIIII/kil (2112-2063 IJc).\'\. percl the growing se:lson. although he is usually described as Inref the Great.1ItCl1l1lfd .md it could be raised from thc ri\'cr by irrigation deYiccs such as the SII.rtlphisdlel1 Zeugllisse tier 7. J.127 BC). Howcyer. prior to the construction of the High Dam.m'. The inuncl~ltion was also a time of celcbra~ tion.lined longer on the land by the lise of basins and canals.·nast'·'. 'rhere are a number of earlier examples of iron artefacts in Egypt. ll/I~r. during which certain corvec tasks could be undertaken. -If/rim' Egyptitl1/ hair: (I sfllt()' ill Jo.:l(opolis. I-I.·i!(l'ptel/S (lriesbaden.\1'\.EL. ]..\~SSE'.ln J Ith Dynasty (2125--1985 BC). the god who personified the ~ile nood.YES ~612 (1987). . These riYers greatl~ increase their yolume and nood along the Nile's course. and the high water le\'cls could be used to ship stone closer to construction sites than would otherwise hiwe been possible. 88+-97. so that fertilizer was not generally necessary. 1995). led to the devising of methods for the rccording of thc Nile's height. bur later in his reign he conquered the ri\-al cities of ~()I"'OS."\ LE'JTERS include references to gifts of iron sent from western Asiatic rulers to Amenhorep BI (1390-1352 BC) and . indicating the prestigious nature of the mcral at this date (see lIlTTlTES). prR \\IIU building was one such task.md the ensuing fertility. De {/i:as/rowing rail de Nijl (Leidcn. fLETCIIER • .layer of fertile silt eyery year. 'On the parentage of the Tnter kings of the Ele\CIlth D. The first crops could be planted in October and . In addition. 'The bot. E. D. VVIIlTE. 1336-J. and s11l'1//1/ the drought season. z.G Llsr). 69-75. since the ci\'il C\LE'\D-\R itself became gradually more and more out of step with the seasonal and lunar measurements of time. CHi-bel' de. Thf/!ell: tlil' t'p~l!. Lmil the 22ml Dynast'· (9~5-71 5 BC) iron artefacts were primarily restricted to ritual contexts.lI1 seasons wcre based on the annual 1':ile cycle.2600 uc). the son of Mcntuhotcp I. 1965). _llItiq/li~lr 7{ (2000).watcd by Flinders Per-ric at the Oelta dry of K:\Uk. 1976). who were all buried in rock-cut S.Q\IETERS (although there is no c\-idcnce for them in the earliest periods). . The L\L\R..~S 72 (1936). His son.2125 BC). The water could be ret. 'The dny the inundation beg4. Cairo) was found in 1860 by Auguste 1\ilarictte. The yie\\ that the cone illustratcs something that would otherwise be impossible to represent seems a plausible one.khenaten (1352-1336 Be).ER.\1 I. SeilerlllIP)! (2125-2 112 IJc). D. 1956).'\. and would h~l\'e reached its full height in the \-icinily of Cairo by Scplember.dll~rt!Je •Hidtllt' A"illgdoll/ i1l Thebes (Nc\\ York. Ea"~)1 hydraulic tir:ilizatirJl/ in Rgypl (Chicago.OCI'. Z i~) 50 (1912). The nooding of the land led to thc dcposition of a nc\\. the founder of the 11 th Dynasty. prohabl~ composed in the . Dil' Bemiiss('rtllIgsrn:llluIJIJJ! illl allell_~gJ'Pten (Maillz. 19i6). was exC<. NE\\llElun. 118-20. who was the father of \lE"TcHOTEI' I (c. and offerings wcre made to 11.\' .\IE:"oiTUIIQTEP II. Dyllmtie . VI/. which has nOt taken place since lhe complction of the \s\r:\:'\ IIIGI' D. listed as a ruler in the so-ealled ']"ble of Karnak (an 18th-Dynasty Thehan "J.:. Invotel see '''TEF iron Although iron \yas introduced into westcrn Asia by the third millennium Be. the flood would h~l\-e become noticeable at Aswan by the laSl week of June.mical identity and transport of incense during the Egyptian New Kingdom'. instructions Sl'l' \rlSUO. the first e\·idencc of iron smelting in Egypt.IIt-mphis.· TO\lUS. They called themselves .trif region of western Thches.lfiflleri'll R". the Dlue :\ilc "nd the Atbara. P. ~I. La lTlle till Sit (Paris. Tht' fist' {flld.!. such as royal tombs. The Egypti.RAT1S. j.md Joann Fk[(. dating to the sixth century Be. A fragment of iron f()lllld in the pyramid complex of Khufu at GIZ. f. \\~ SCIIE't>. The name Inter was also taken by three Theban rulers of the 17th Dynasty. The inscriptions in the tomb of Hetepi at Elkab deseribe a F\\II'" during his reign. a personitic~ltion of the noods . as in the casc of the small iron dagger found in the tomb of TcT\'IKIl·\\lc:-. 129-"6. and Lower Egypt" since the enJ of the Old Kingdom. The 1/)rlJ111 to /he _Yile [/lundatiou.IS and adopted a Rm. the soil being replaced e~1Ch year. A.\O\-embcr and would ripen in _\ brch or April. outside Inter II'S tomb at el-Tarit: describing his conquests and pOrlr~tying him \yith (i\'e namcd dogs at his feet. M:m<:hcster University. the lo\yer portion of <1 stele (Egypti~ln J\luseulll.\ has bcen shown to be much huer in date than the Old Kingdom.le. J. Thc extensiye nootling of the hmd aJso produced an un'l\'oidable 'slack period' in the agricultural year. ].TZER. using XII. The floods would begin to subsidc about two weeks l:ner.-1 J. 19{7). inundation Tcrm used to describe the annllill nooding of the i ilc in Egypt.\L TITULAR) . at which rimc the rin:r had re~lChcd its !O\\est Icyel (see -\GRJCLTrLltE). succceded in consolidating the military successes to achie\'e genuine control m'cr Cpper Egypt. f""'l"l }\'{fkllll/eblepl/~(er(206"-2055 BC) is thought to have restored the funerary chapel or the deified nomarch I-Ieqaib iH Elephantine_ His reign is generally more poorly documented than his two predecessors.:hcr has put forward an argument that the depiction of the conc is used simply as il hieroglyphic s~ mbol ro depict the fact that the wigs \\-ere scented. there is no firm e\'idcncc that such records were used to calcuhnc crop yields as a basis for '[i\X \T10N.of these are assumed to have inYoh-ed naturally occurring meteoric rather lhan smelted iron. In the Old Kingdum (2686-2181 lie). For thousands of years. So IE:-\KI·:I. the son of Intef I Sehertawy.\TLRI: Intel (I nyotc!) Name taken by three rulers of the Theh.ITER.1ainz. Each year between June and September the Nile Jnd its tributaries. .\IJLF. 1978). The importancc of recording the le\'ei of the inundation. BL \C~\l. . in the cI-1i. praises the ri\-cr f(}r the renewed life it brings to Egypt each year. stretching back to the e:lrly Old Kingdom «(. initially rook the title 'supreme chief of Upper Egypt'. however. It seems unlikely that guests would h~we wished to have their \'cr~' elaborate and expensive wigs matted with congealed fat or their fine linen garments marked .id'l'S ill EI-1t/riICf\. Such was the importance of the l'\ilc inundation to the ancicnt Egyptians that the~ worshipped 1/\1''".\\ in 1971.W.. During this time little watering would hil\ c bcen necessary. /)L. 196{).. 1\IL SERPICO and R.]Orm (/l/djil11t/ioll (unpublished dissertation.."-L'. in terms of predicting soil fertility and crop yields.\R:'\OLl>. but muSI. H. B. and named accordingly: "ldlct thc inundation. the inundation only occasionally occurred in the calendrical season of ilklu!!.OERA and IllER \~O"P()I.

From the ~ew Kingdom (1550-1069 Be) oInYards. in the Hcliopolitan theolog-~ she was regarded as a d"lughter of the deities (jEll . I L.:r-witC to OSIRIS and mother to 110RLS.r:--'DXno. Osiris became ruler 01" the underworld.cUI Egyptiall /JUlla/als aud .IS m:. She is lx:st kno" n mythologically as the dc'orcd wife of Osiris. and would be im·oked at times of injur).235--13.'\. LLL\S • . thus enabling him to acquire great powers. 'The origin of iron smelting in --'Jriea'. mother to the . J.. Her great cunning W'1S also described in thl' story of the contendings of Horus and Gi!l.\I'IS bull. She is said to hayc made the first mummy from the dismembered limbs of Osiris.AE ncar As. l. 23 Oil. 1962). The grc. although she seems to haye been first wurshipped in rhe Delta. re\. sec \\U{OI: . 1989). \Vhen the sun-god H \ '\"as birren hy a snake (fashioned by Isis {i·om earth mixed wilh Ra's sali. 1uc.( g/"IJ./iu·r (lj'I!1t' godrlt'. (~/ier 600 l1e. while Isis g. She was also able to combine her medicinal skills with great cunning. Her most famous and long-lived saI1ctU.'" in Syria-Palestine. in whidl she was instrulllental in 11:1.hemmis in the Delta.((l1I JUlinttll (JI_lrdll/I'ulogy S (1975).I.IRRIGATION ISIS It ""as only during the Roman period (30 BC~ :\11 395) that iron rools . Seth.Ind weapons beC~1l11C rehlliycly common in Egypr. and as such became the symbolic mother or the Egypli'1J1 king.. in pri'·ate funerary scenes. I:. ingScth condemn himscll~ so lhal" her son" olJld become the earthly ruler of Eg~"pt.oJ/J ({fhl' R.l\ e birth to her sOn at f. \1 \l)DI'.f2 .0. Jorl·illg tlut! lOuIs (Princes RisborcJugh.-an..md so sometimes "are a solar disc between CO" horns. B. R.Jr~ "·as on Ihe island of PII1I. For rhe usc of iron in r\"uhia. originally meant 'seat'. bUI as a uni"crsa! goddess she was widely '\01'shipped.lving found out this name. 4th eel. irrigation see \(iIOCl"ITL"RE. 1-9.'ing her son Horus in the process. I LeI' origins are uncertain.1l importance atta(!1cd to her Clilt by the )Jubians is demonsuarcd 1. According to the myths. and 'gre'l( white sow of Hcliopolis'.'gyptitlJl1lll'fa!l. :"Jul11erous bronzes and or reliefs show her sud. In the temple of Hathor af nE~lJER \. In reference to this role. F T\ I.. As 'Isis greal in magic' she could he called upon to protect the young. SClI[!:!.(( i. she was closely connected with 1I.·a) she is said to have offered to CUlT him in rerum for knowlcdg·c of his secret' n. there arc rdicfs depicting this necrophiliac act of conception.()I{I'IO~ and Sfl \I>LF ished tree SCt' TREES Isis Goddess who cnc.\mc. showing Isis hovering over thl. IEarl~ East" Tralw!(I. •-\.: mummy in the form of a kite./im// I/on" Saqqal"{f.lI1d '\.lpsularcd the yirrues lhc archl:[ypal Egypt ian \\ ire ilnd mother. The aSsOciarion bCI wcen Lsis and the physical rO~'<ll throne itsclf is perhaps indicated by the f~lct that hcr name may han. She was the sisrc..\ as well as at In III . "'hose bod~ she sought after his murder b: SETII. Her maternal role included that of the 'Isis-eow'. TIll' /1l(lorlm dwir (fud pnlt'5w/ tire origllltf! tI/u!I"t. l'. II !'Sf _ -I/r. iron metallurgy in the T\car Iron (/ut! Stu/lustilUll' ofJlIplIlI 15/2 (1975). R. the deceased.tlII! Period.l by his own name' and passed on her knowledge to Horus. she beelIlle 'misrress of the gods who knows R.FCOTF. bmll::. she is often depicted in the form of a woman with long eleganr wings.t tI/l(! moot! sltI/1ft'lIe oIlsis Jud'liug /-Iorus. I (arris (London.:. who mlS himself regarded as a human manifcsmrion of Horus.LT. and the emblem thill she wore on her head was the hieroglyphic sign ror throne.1'IIOR . with significant cults at Egyplian sites such . (i /6i186) If. using her wings to breathe life into him and magicillly cOl1cci.m/us/rits. 59-68.ling Llorus in the f<JrI11 of the ~ollng king seated on her lap.'\I)ER. Sl. 17-18. often emhracing rhe pharaoh or..

particularl~ Ihe gods \.1 s~ mhol of the moon.3 NOS) ithyphallic ~ot specifically an E~yptological term. cd. CI/Jasud1llugen ::.l11l. J \'ols (Leidcn.:hitcet"ure of which closely rescmbled contemporary Canaanitc \'illages.: I{ (1963). ho\\'c\"er. The Classical writer Apuleius (r. PETRIE. their pi. 213-H_ 1-+3 . Israel is first tcxtuall~ attested as a political entil~ in the so-c'lllcd Israel Stele. 212. \\hid. /21 J 1203 Be.\frer his reign.'/l1l der.-"n. 'Isis mit dem Horllskinde'.{'{.Ittcstcd in Syria-Palestine from the late llronzt' I\ge onwards.1nJan who established thcl11scl..( Lchcl/s (Hildesheim."alling both the traditional Roman ~ods ilnd early Christianily. K.1'.uwen (Egyptian ill''': \pillar') Pilhtr-shaped fetish of the cil~ of I JEI.:hacological e\"idcncc for the settlement of C".llthough the filu! rile in the ceremony \\:IS not disclosed. 3. f\Jthough.1 dccwle in the fortunes of Ci.lrchacological record.1. Dc [side 1'1 Osiride (Swansea. The 1:. . \\". llJi3). L(' mIle d'his dllllS Ie bas.lre ortcn at odds both \\ iLh other al1l:icnt te\:lUal sourccs and with the an.' mas t'n'tled I~JI . an inscription of the fifth year of the reign of \IEKI':'1'T\11 (1213-1203 lie). partly because the archaeological and Biblical sources or c\'idencc are dil"ficult to reconcile. See also 1lIB1.YPlulfJgit' [II. gradually spreading through the Hellenistic world and the Roman empire. Six lempli's al TltdJt's (London.e. Judah and orher Syro-Paicsr. emcrging as the dominant stmc in lhc LC\".JC \1.\ eut'll Reirhes (Berlin.l'iJ. . its seeu exists no more. Israel The Israelites . includes a list of defeated peoples: \Their chiers prostrate themsel\"cs <lnd beg for pe<lce.1986). 1987). Some authorities h. G.I. J. unlike Israel. 1972--{). By rhe end uf the thirteenth ce11l1lry IIC the Shasu/lsr'll..HC . In post-Pharaonic times her cult was adopted as one of rhe Classical 'mystery' culls.I'/f/l. Ycnoam <lnnihilMed. Canaan is ell'\"astated. Gezr. 2 "ols (Leiden.lraohs' sphere of influence in S~Tia-Palcstine.lrC priOl:ipally described in the books of ::\umbers. \\.1\'(' argued thar lhc early Israelites were an oppressed rural group of Canaanites who rebelled against the Call<1anite cities along the coast.\' in the late Bronze Age and coldy lron Age ((. Isri.\l.'L '<I. CaJ!({(l1/ alld IsrtfN ill (1/II"iCllllilllt:. R. only the barest ruins tcmple .\IL_' and \11'. WrIT. The name was also applied to the moon-god manifcstalioll of OSJI{I~.\1..'\ge. 1981). or (~rlsmN ([)I~T\IL \Iln\ I~).uHI palace 11. l1'ht'rh i. c1emcnt of Canaanjte culture during the century or so prior to this.1\'(' sur\"i\'ed .\ ltrcnptah" (r:ypJelllllltl. h~f{)'PI.q'lllhfll tle. Ll'. but gencrally used to refer 10 deities or human figUITS ha\ ing an erect penis. il/ellfdillg Ihe/irsl /"'ll///})II 1IIt'lIlioll slered by the fact that the hieroglyphic detcrminati\"e written in front of the name !snltl on the Israel Stele indicates that it" \. LUL\VI'.\lL·.jrh bis .'III 5 (19SJ).1 of her worship at Philac (Ull the border between Egypt and :.:r is t'lkcn. es in the highlands . \\"estcndorf ("-jesbaden. In Greco-Roman times. E.\ L .:lires were beginning to establish 5111. . J3.1600-750 lie). including a subsranti<11 complex at the Campus 1\ lartius. . SOLlU>LZI \'. This theory is bol- . Cairo (. respel:ti\"cly.ISRAEL ITHYPI-IALLIC by the sun"j.11 the end 01" the Bronze . which . Joshua and Judges.sTER. 'Die Israclslelc des. no. while others hmc hypothesized thai thc~ were the sun in)rs of. In the Eg~ pti'1I1 Third lmermediate Period (l069-7{7 Be) and Late Period (747~JJ2 Be) there are a number of references in F. "Vll. 1977). Quo and \\'. grey grullile.' Donald Redford has suggested that the [sraelites were probabl~ emerging as a distinct 'I'll(' so-mlled 'Israel SIl'1l" or 'i:itlory sit/Ie (d' (f lisl /!t .ER. by which tim!.:~YPli(l1l . known to the Egyptians as the Sh. her cult began to surpass that of Osiris in popuhlriL~. fl..lS which was . makes a good c:lse ror equaling: the "cry earliest Israelites with the semi-nomadic people in the highlands of central Palestine.IS" \Y:IS associated wilh the sun-god. the Shasu arc often mentioned in Egyptian lextS.: virtually all or Egypt had become Christianized. R.71.I..'\r rhe capiml.~ i1/S(n1Ji'd milh d~/i:(fIt'd pt'oples.11//Sl'/Il1/. 'Iun-Plcikr'. rhe .\lainz. Thl! . which sUITi\'ed unril 722 and 587 Ill.STRO\I. particul. Redf()J"(.lsu (sec BEI>OLl'). 111m Il'eri' Jhl' Israeliles? (Irinona Lake.\1t'/(IIJ1(Jrphoses.J. 19(8). .jrl~ in the f()q:6ng of alliances to hold back the threats posed by the \SS\KI.\l('n:u/llah·. I [OJ{.In. AIII."as regarded <IS a group 01" people rather lh. seriousl: ri. who constantly disrupted rhe Ramesside phi. \\". 191h PI'flUSO'. .n' bibliographi'llll' ties lsitlw.I lamplah ill his/i(1/('ruly le1l1pk aJ 1111'/)". 1980). the territory \\'as split betwecn the kingdoms of Israel and Judah.ur Ciilliulsis i.0" 'ITTIO:'\S. Heick. 16-18. :\ 1\RTI:'\.\lubia) until the sixth century \D. \r. in the samc way that the ()BEI. ["."ow Allen Ri.111 sctt1t:ments in the uplands. 22+-. J. . E DL:. G. Syria is made a widow for Eg~ pi. There wcre temples crecfcd to her in Rome itself.ill orimlfllt: tie la AUdili'rffl//{. 1970).\' (Princcl:on. GRIFFlTI IS.IOPOf. 7-38. 18m. 1897). fill Ctlrllul.l).\.. 1971). The Biblical accoulllS of the origins of the people of Israel. E.illian politics. 1992).nitiation inw rhe cult of [sis in his .1-:11 :lnd fl. Ashkclon is \"anquished. Rl:IlFC)l{IJ. 5\1.1Cl is laid waste. \I) I{O) described a ceremony of i.'. A.\IU.II".. PllIlart/':.lstoral Iifest~ Ic has left few traces in the i.11.. lsis illlhe Cmem-!?lJIllall world (London. 25i-82.-3J. In the remh ccntur~ Be Solomon ruled 0\ er an Israelite kingdom thai had 0\ crcome both Canaanites and Philistines.eiden. Solomun's Jerusalem. F.btyptian te\:ts to Egyptian political dealings with Israel. 1. IIIi"t'Illll.\'S and I'EltSI \'s. Their cultural and ethnic origins are difficult to clarifY. D.s TeJla/!/l.':11111 Emit' ties . and all lands h'l\"C been pacified. F. I I. . /lrl!n illlhe mlll'( !p1/1)'hip (d1sis IIlId Sari/pix (T. (c IIHOP.Jn a cit~.

EFT .·I(f:::'lIli. including a delicate bracelet of gold hall-beads. the fact that this piece has no fasrcn- ings suggests that it may have been made specificaHy for funerary usc. when works of great elegance and refinement were produced.il-lT I/pO bl't/({!/el ... The jewellery of l\Ilenwi.-I. 57700) BOrrO. (1:. whose equipment indudcd magnificent inlay work.ISHT came Egyptiall mYlllje/pclle!:JI (~(the AtJiddlc Kingdo/ll {fml Scculf(/lnlcrlllcdia/e Period (c. as in the case of the je\yellery of Princess Khnemel. the excavations did reveal itcms of spectacular jeweLlery. and ~I further broad colJar with [Ikoll terminals.::IWT at Saqqara.·157699. (F. which included a diadem. Later in the PREDYKASTIC I'ER. During the Badarian period (c. ulhl!arl s(aJ"({!J 3. it is not surprising to find that jewellery is among the lirsl lypes of artefact known from Egypt.:nt and . The earliest significlT1t finds of je\\'elh::r~ in rhe New Kingdom derive from the tomb of Q!. fi:. Although the actual burial was nut preserved in the 3rdDynasty tomb of SEI-. along with bracelets and amulets of shell and ivory. The peak of Egyptian jewellery-making was undoubtedly the l\1iddle Kingdom (20551650 Be). three foreign wives of Thutl110se III (1479-1425 BC). In certain periods the Egyptians seem to have regarded SII. (/. and the famous Cretan-influenced 'bull mosaic' pendant. CaiTo). jewellery. 17876) I. was discovered in a much- 144 .\ ER as more \'aJlIable than gold.\.6 011. New ·York and I"he Egyptian Nluseul11.\1 hUI1IIIIl-headed grcclljllsper heart st"tlf(f1J of Sllb~'(. including a gold 'breast-plate' bearing d. as well as necklaces and bead-girdles (now in the iVlet:ropolitan j\luseum. ililaid !pith (Orne/ian. was widely believed to be GL1\SS.:I-1F\\J. The same tomb contained gold hair ornaments in the.5500-l000 IIC) broad belts or 'girdles' of green glazr.-1/11e11cml/(/1 /I rdli. grcclljelr/sf!a/" (flld laf!/~. DOG and \H~P\\A\n:T From the carliest times in ancient Egypt.rm of flowers.157698) I. (/ rollg!l~)I-ilf(:i..ICen lIE'l'EPlIERES I at Giza contained numerous pieces of royal jcwellcr~~ including silver bangles inl<lid with butterfly desig'ns.A.. turquoise and gold leaf However. until recently.e pattern or an Egyptian broad collar.llIsaIII.\.~re(/{"h !Wllles l\'ubkhepel'rtI JII"{lIl1r1 III~' mifi SobkclIlSlf{ (". Her equipment included two beautifully made openwork diadems inlaid with semi-precious stones. TunCtCOISE and amethyst were already being used.'.ii-i-60j '\HOVE C:E1\'TIU~ r~iollnf gold plaqllc shuming . T'he je\\ellery of [his period W<lS ro influence products in neighbouring hinds.l.IOD neckh1ccs of faience beads were \\ orn. whose 'broad collar' incorporates faience.. and such precious materials as GOLf).'\0 RIC. The 4th-Dynasty tomh of Q. Thus. "rhe Dahshur treasure \\"lIS rivalled only by the late 12thDynasty jewellery or Sithathoriunet from a shaft-tomb at EL-LAlllJ. J\!lcrri and .>rillg 1lIlgIlCll//O . wilh Imch.:e Ihre({ding II/bes. TOP e/a/rulll !pingcd smmb.:d stone beads were made.: (~(lhe Dead aroulld Ihi' gold plin/h. and this find gi\'cs some indication of the rich jeweUery that must have accompanied the burials of the pharaohs during the Old Kingdom (2686-2181 Be).. the iI/slTiplifJn 011 the base .\[IIiOTEI' [I. In the 1st-Dynasty tomb ofoJ!::R at Abydos a dismembered arm decorated with four bracelets was discO\"ered by Flinders Petrie. who was buried at IJAIlSIIUR during the reign of the 12thD)'nam· ruler Amenemhat II (1922-1878 Be).was Llsed as a means of sdf-adornmc. and excavations at the Syro-Palcstinian city or Byblos have revealed numerous Egyptianizing items.JACKAL JEWELLERY jackal :.ce jewellery '\NLHlS.. a bead belt with <1 gold buckle decorated with Senebtisy's name.cl. L:\J'lS L\ZL:l.. :1 gold collar and rwo pectorals.w!d r·t!"s/! O/Chupler 30fJ/imnlhc Boo/."1111111.ICel1 .1lso as an indication of social statliS. (F. which. and an extremely tinc chain made from looped six-ply gold wire.. These early examples of jc\ycllcry show tonsidcrablc sophistication.·6919i-) CE~Tl{Egold jinger-rillg /pill/lapis lazuli be::./880-/590 Be). the fine jewellery of a 12th-Dynast: noblewoman named Senebtisy.1"/IifCCl'-bal'S C/"o/}Jued I~JI reclining Cl/ls. I'rom the royal necropolis at EI.Menhet.

I'illg fjl/(ulruple fllld /ltIrd-sloJlf beads. OUUI':'.lEFS sct' FL " " IRY F'mgmtmJ (~rm(/lI-p{lill1il1gJi'{)//II"l' 1//11/h td' Il"lp/e SO!JCIdWli'P(1T63) .C!'{I' bom drills at this time.omlun. I-I. R. The jewellcry \Yorn by poorer people was mostly made from Icss yalunhle gcmstoncs or faience. Sn'eral oj'fhe II/milt/! l/. which.)llltlSlJ'.lds were evidelltly produced (and los() in their thousands ill such It)th-n~n'lsly to'YIl siles as cl-!\.'bcs. pail//t'd plusler.marna and Nlalkata.l'.\Iiddle Kingdom .lrlier work..\1 jewellery of the Third Inrermedii'ltc Period (1069-747 m:)./981).-\'\nRE'\~. about three kilometres to the .'\ic" York..:'lI1d . hayc rC"calcd large quantities of fired clay moulds used for the making of Eliencc amulets.. Although gbss \raS prCl:iOllS or a son of Ramoses " (1279-1213 BC) . 1395 He. The c:xcayations of (he 18th-Dynasty city at c1-!\marna or 145 .(I. The fabulous jewellery of TL·j·\'I. as well ~lS the debris of F'\IE'\CE workshops such as those at 1:1. Amenemopet (TT276) and Sobckhotep ('1"1'63). Pierre 1\ lonrCI"'5 ex-caY. .66 CI11.. R.15 cxpcnsi\'c costume jewellery. from tombs such as those IU·:KI1\\IR!\ ('1''1'100).haemwasct. \\·I'\J.JEWELLERY JUDGE~IENT OF THE DEAD plundered rOl:k tomb at \radi Gabhancr c1Q!. The Irl'tlsure o/Ihn't' E:~)'p/il/lI priflt"t'sseJ (. A.}! ions ilt '1'\ '\!IS in 193CJ-+O led to the discovery of ro~. The major find of the 19th Dyn. A. .. n:/:Jfn (!l71m/JIlost' II. T.ingdom car ornamenlS became relatiycly common.'o 01" the ...lsty is the jewellery of I-. 1~90)_ judgement of the dead m:I.-\tDRt:n.'\ '\DRE\\S• .\Pls-bull burials made by the prince also comaincd jc.llllong the g'clllstones and gold. Kingdom matcrinL The scientific and aesthetic stuJ~ of Ihe sUITi\'ing items of jewellery has been sllpplcmenred by pictorial cyidcnce.ji'(J1I/ 1111.}l'IPc/It'ly I~l(h{' (ll/riml /llfI/-}d (London. (flld praiolls O/~it!f/. 11. ll/tj"1I1 fgrp/ialljl'Jl'elJeJY (Londun. Blue faience disc be. C. 194-8). 11)82)_ C.-cst DeiI' c1-Bahri in m. lacking rhe refinement of the . Calalugue ()Il<~)'pljal/ allli/lui/it'S ill IIIl' Brili. The finds (11m\" in the ~ IClropolitan !\ luSCUI11 orA-rtf New York) include g'lass clements . jCJ20) II) P.l \'ariety of earrings were produced. although less accomplished (han some of the e. 18111 1J.:.7('/111'1/('1]1 (Lonr/ol/..-hose rllnCr~try chapel was attached to the SH \PI:L \\ at Saqqara. beads and finger rings."adi (blbbanet d-Qjrud finds mark the beginning of a Irend wherehy New Kingdom jeweller~ became increasingly elahorate and garish. is clearly of a gcncrall~ similar type to the ~e\. making: more use of artificial stones. although this is generally regarded as clumsy and poorly made..md early ~ew Kingdom work. . C.:Jr·\\lU' (1336--1327 Be) is sometimes described .:stcrn Thebes. ]. 1~71)_ C.7cmds (~rlht' pJulftlflhJ (I..dl JIIISOI1I1 \ I: .. E..(x:". During rhe i\ew K..Ycllcry.lrud. the \. and gradu~lll~ becoming less delicate.-\\\ \K' \.(!wlJ1iugje/11dleql-l1lllk'l'rS amI melfll-mOrRl'rS ilia king bead. particularly in stone and glass.

1-1-\.:O\':U<1. eel. but his mummified body disimegnllcd as soon as it ."ere reassembled at :l new location 750 m to the south of the -\s\n:"1I1GIIIJ.·cre made before the E\L~E DooKS set up in lambs.. Cairo).7 UI.·hieh were i)l:tivatcd b~ thc orrERI"G FOR. Gbl1\·ille (Oxford. all of . Roehrig (Boston. Kalabsllll. 1992). forecourt ..~ecolld stele of Kal//{J. 'Funerary texts and thcir meaning'. In gi\·ing food or drink to one another in normal daily lifc. and it appears lhal his tomb had still not been robbed O\·er four hundred years later when the necropolis was inspected during the reign of Rameses 1\ (1126-1108 He).1l (one of the 'blessed dead')~ J. '1 ..~e aud his struggle agai1lstthe I-~). In 1962-3 the buildings were dismantled.<1<. c. Egyptian i\luscum.. '0 Ka-statlle (!lKing Ami/Jra 1-10/.·pos.. Consequently the offerings themselvcs came to be known as l'({/IJ and wcre somctimes replaced in reprcsentations of thc OFFERI'\'G T.IfHo. The Ka. His coffin was diseo' ered at Dra Abu c1-:--Jaga in IR57. the /.. vVhcn any individual dicd.. Talmis) Site of an unfinished. in order to save them from the waters of Lake ! asscr. S.3-8.:a continucd to live.30 1lC)./700 lJe. Sll~GLEI(.07m. Breded (NmYork.\ K ka Almost untranslatable tcrm llsed by the Egyptians to describe the l:reativc life-force of each individual.al god 1'vbndulis and dales primarily to the early Roman period «(. T'he principal doculllent.:. but the colony at ·Ellmis evidently dares back to at least the reign of !\menhorcp II (1427-1+00 Be). 13th Dynasty. K.lson it was proyide<.'a in the underworld effectively transformed the deceased into an f\J-.l either with genuine food offerings or with representations of food depie. disuJi. cd.l hicroglyph consisting of a pair of arms. L. 1. A. 1932). relating to his reign are two large stelae at f..]L:>IIO (In4). and sometimes these too incorporated the Jm symbol.he J!a was thought not to cat thc offerings physically but simply to assimilate their lifepreser\'ing force. twO vestibules and a sam:tu:lry.E by the J!a sign . D'Auria and C.'\Bl. f.-Ie hall. 7111: . For this rC. as in the case of the image of the 13th-Dynasty ruler --\wibra Hor from D·\lISIlI. G..IL"Ci\1 was shown modelling [he A'a on a potter's wheel at the same time as he was forming the bodies of humanity.1972). The rext dcrh'ed fr0111 these three documents begins b~ describing the "·ar between Seqencnra 1aa II and the Hyksos king _'\. It was thought that the reunion of the BA and /. 217-77. It was to the J!a that offerings . 1988).II-'ClII. II. trans. P.UTJ-IIJo:R. the first 18th-Dynasty ruler. dedicated to thl: lo(.:. E. about 50 kill south of Aswan.hat .ks(}s ruler (Iud his (apital (GluekSladt. hypostyl~ hall.md so required rhe samc sustenance a5 the human being had enjoyed in life. H6 . Somelimes the crcilwr-god K. S. oIstatue 1.]L1. II"ho is depic'ed in the painted wall reliefs or .'\. G \RDL'ER. P.he h. E..1750 Be.1 (1917). where thc c:ulicr 17th-Dynasty royal tombs are located.s deux rois Kamose (-"\"lie dynastic)'. whether human or divine. H. was considered to be the essential ingredient thill' differentiated a li\'ing person fi-om a dead one.:-arnak (both recounting his campaigns against the IIrKSOS rulers). the Egyptians therefore sometimes used the formula "f{}r your ka' in acknowledgement of this lifegiving force. 'The tombs of the kings of rhe Seventeenth D)·nasty at Thebes'. HORl\L:'G} Idea iuto illlage. (c.ls the deceased \vith the Ra hieroglyph in the form of <1 headdrcss.:qucnrly sen-ing as his or her ~double' :tnd sometimes being depicted in funerary ilrt as a slightly smaller figure slanding beside the li\'ing being (see I]\. 167-{H.38--19.l·aml J1fagil". G_-\. Il \\:1<. It came into existence at the same moment that the indi. \VINLOCh:. 9.-110. as well as thc Carnarvon Tablet.tur lmd BlJugeschirhtc des l'c'mpcls (Berlin} 1970).1560 Be) and predecessor of AllJ\IOSE [(1550-1525 Be). IIlIOS 2. which appears to be a hucr scribal copy of the stelae. H.. and in 1970 they \.IS opened.auserra \1'1:1'1 (1585-15+2 Be) and goes on to narrate Kamose's cOlltil1ll<llion of the conflict after his father's death . subsr.. . and is therefore somelimes (ranslated as 'sustenance'. Slll'cessor of SEQE"E~R.h~ the kfl.KA KALABSH.(. R. t-I.\ ·"'A IJ ((.. The complex was built in sandstone masonn and consisted of a pylon. I-l. Kalabsha (ane.·.ojdual was born. rcprescmcd by .two OUlstretched arms that magically warded off the forces of cvil. Studies Grillith.R «(. which depi(. Arrhitel. ALLE'.ed on the wall of the tomb.ered mithill its IIlI()S iJla tomb /() the "ortlt oIthe pyramid oI Amme111hatlll (1/ Dahsllllr.\D). It appears . Funerary statues were regarded as images of ule ka of the deceased. free-standing temple in Lower Nubia. 'The dcfcat of lhe Hyksos by Kamose'.\\1. addressed diree.He was buried in it pyramidal-style tomh at Ora Abo e1-Naga (see "1'IIEm:s).\ICL.EJ09J8) Kamose (1555-1550 Be) Last ruler of rhe Thchan 17th Dynasty. II. ""tllllmie.

-.dcn. r_::: i ram-headed sphinx. G.\1.:- 19 ~ .-\F::-. .t major town. \VOOI.308-9. ADAMS.!Y. \Vhereas j\lferoitie sites in Upper Nubia consist principally or temples and tombs./((/2 (1976).E'. Hall third pylon fourth pylon fjfth and six. 2nd cd. The main temples were continu- temple of Nectanebo II Pla/1 ofl/IC temple (Olllp/e..\111'1'0/. Y. In view or Ihis discrepanc~' vv. L.__J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 first pylon triple shrine of Sety II temple of Rameses III second pylon Great Hypostyl. Kar<tnog had developed into ...~:::::::~ temple of Plah __ ~t':m~p~leOfThutmosel chapel of Osiris Hekadjet Karanog Large town-site and necropolis located in Lower Nubia abollt 60 \. e.hl' I?olll(l/lo-Nub/all (C11le/elY (Philadelphia.es 100 200 m OF MONTU t. R1C"F. a study in cultural contrasts'. ce!..mpl.he !OWII (Philadelphia. \VOOLl.EY and D.r 01 K(/rII{fl~.:h surrounded by trapezoidal mud-brick enclosure walls.11-26. Gebel Adela and Qo\SR IBRL\I) in being protected by a huge three-storey mud-brick 'castle' rather than a surrounding enclosure wall. 1pct-isut) Huge complex of religious huilding·s C(wcring over a hundred hectares in the northeastern area of modern Luxor) <._of__ . KlIrflllOg..nd Princeton. H. \\1. 1980). 33-4. Dm K{/lII/lleI-I-leilt~!{'/l11I HalSd'l'pSIlIS wid 'l/llltll/OSeS III (Cairo. L. 1911). 198+).356-7.. 'Meroitil' north and south. By at least as carly as the third century Be.:oll da AgYP/ldogie HI.:ompassed several smaller temples dedical'ed t:o I'Tl\ 1-1 . Y.. PRECINCT .Nubia: (orridor loAF/ca. 147 . Amun-lVlin-Kamutcf is frequently depicted receiving offerings of lettuces. . ~.th pylons Middle Kingdom court festival hall of Thutmose III 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 first ('cachette') court seventh pylon second court eighth pylon ninth pylon sed-festival temple of Amenhotep II temple of Khans tenth pylon temple olOpet temple of Khans Pa-Khered temple of Mut temple of Rameses HI sanctuary of Amun Kamutef bark station of Thutmose III and Hatshepsut Karnak (ane. Kurtll/og. H. 2 f o r e c o u r:t T 5 1 : E 7 10 8~ ~ East Karnak sacred lake enclosure of sacred fowl L.ng under the direct control of" the l\Ileroilic kings in the south. Otto and .KAMUTEF KARNAK Kamutef Divine epithet meaning 'bull of his mother" which \Y<1S Llsed from the New Kingdom onwards to refer to the combined ithyphallic form of "-1\IUI\" and !\Hi'\. \Vestendorf (Wicsh. (London .1. MUT and 1\\O. \V. The enclosures also cn<.:111 south of AswaIl. 1910). RA~n:\LL-J\ll:\ch EI~.371-8.ri/. H. Adams has proposed that Lower Nubian towns sueh as Karanog may have been go\"erned by local feudal rulers rather than bei. the remains or Karanog and other suniving Lower Nubian _IVlcroitic settlements are dominated by palaces and fortifications. and there is a distinct lack of royal sculptures and inscriptions..\lTU. Opet and Kl jO.:onsisting: of three major sa<':l'cd precincts dedicated to the deities Ai\Wi\'-Rf'. I_a_v_en_u_. or standing beside them <IS the~· grow.. E.g.of Monlu ~ PRECINCT OF AMUN-RA - ·. Ff\RAS. the unusually scattered settlement was unique among Nferoitic administrative centres (e. C.'\ls respectively. 1939). Le. l-lelck. CAll 90 (1986). . 'Zum Kamutcf'.Ji\RITZ l 'Kamutef'. which flourished in the rVIeroitic and postIVleroitic periods (c. .100 m-:-AIJ 550). e(1<.

theref ore. known . is a .J"tl les(Lo ndon. stiJI in Silll.-ast rectan gular Kenarnun (Qcna mun) «. rende ring it largel y inacce ssible 10 (Oxl(lI"(l.. a ccme tery of late Kcrm a-cul ture tumu lusgravc s (inclu ding the IOmbs of rulers ).ti ns surro unded .dimen sion.\I'\nL S. is the first known picce or three. he gaine d during the New Kingd om e\ CI1 by indi\-i duals with relath-ely indire er Ijnks to thc royal family. The Egyp tians referr ed 1. dating to the sc\'en recnth centu ry Be.. almos t certai nly a te111pic. \R'''k . This Kenal11un shoul d not be cunfust . who was J\ layor of the Sourh crn City (Thch es) in lhe reign of Amcn hotcp lit (1390-1 ]52 liC).lrab lc with that at Gebel 13arka l.ltions since the late nineteenth centur y.190 -1352 Be) but it had been \~irtuall\" abandoned hr· the reih'll or Rame ses \ll (1136 --1129 IIc). ckdic ated to :\.C . now in the Corni ng . /1.-:.ast major iry of resou rces ha\'c becn derot ed to the conse rvatio n and reerecti on of the stand ing monu ments . 1\IIuch of the ancie nt Theba ll the sixth year ufhis reign. which was almos t cenJi nly thc capita l of tht: .l l Egypt ian sculp turc to he forme d from (jJ~\SS (altho ugh .lIh mode rn .i. black landsc . ~i·\l. known to the Egypt ians as Deshr cl ('the red land') . 1930).II1UHQI.EI'..cd with the Egypt ians' 'land of Yam'. bhlck was essent ially the colou r of rebirt h and rcgen crario n. the \.S.\xl.. settle ment theref ore lies under ne. dating to 1.1. . de G . Kingdom. consis£cd of two axes. 'Elhar qo effecgious centre of Egypt for most of I he Dynas tic ti\'ely create d . afchac()!{lgislS. huried under the templ e noor. small er templ es.\ luscu m of Glass . Kernet The name that the ancien t Egypt ians used to descri be Egyp t itself The literal mean ing of Kcmc t is 'bhH.ltcd sinc(' it was alread y kllo\\ n to early tra"eU ers in the eighte enth centur~ \D. Tahar qo's work was two kilom etres south\ \"ilrds to the area aroun d comm emora ted by a stele. in lhat their land was that of the LOTU .}1 and religio us 'lcti\-ities regain ed its impo rtanc e . For the Egypt ians.: collec tion of thou~-ands of fragmenTs of ro~. New York.e slolllClle uIa Kushile /.\01{ tcmpl e. The 10mb oIKo h 11111/11 01 TI1l'bt'sl 2 yols (Lond on. (>:/63595) tions incor porat e \·aluab le epigr aphic data conce rning the politic.\.-tnrim l ('{)'PI : (I mllllrall(jpfl grt1pj~)I.. To fi'om west to easr. 2. axis exlt:nds the templ e soutlnrards to\rards the nearby prCcinl:l of the godde ss _\ lul.. is in the centre of the town. each COlllprisin g'l slIccession of jJ) Ions and courty date to the 'lew I-:ing dnm (1550 -1069 lie).lS found ed by \ \11':"1110'1'1':1' III (1. ES IJI: . K.\! \ cultur e. 19~9-. Kernatef Sf<' I.O (716.\T1H: Fit -\ . alter which sacked by rhe \SS\ RL\' ruler Ashur banip al and thc Kush ite kings were oblige d to carry out from then on the city centre gradu ally moved impor tanl rituals at Kaw. 1(62).o-!::(j" PTlI·:" l>'f:TLl )I'. 'Glass SCUlprufC in JncicllI Eg)l)I '."ush itc Kingd om durin g thc Egypt ian Old and ~Iiddlc I-:ing doms (2686 -1650 lie) . Altho ugh Karnak has been subje ct to nume rous exc:l\". proba bly gi\ en to him by the king. N.66f Be) all comri huted new of Thebe s (ane.ul of i\men hotep II.\B..\IE'1I 0T!'. would h~l\-c been roughl~ contc mpor~lry).l11un-Ra.250 0-150 0 11(:)..R \1'\. and the p. The site of Kerm a incorp orates a large scttle ment of Ihe Secon d lnlerm ediate Perio d (1650 -1550 lie). H.lmcs. Lc Il'lIJplt' tI~ fmoll-Nt' (i Kal"l/( /l': I!ssai (eliro .lnd of imper ial Egypt .lpe of Kel11ct was Kawa Temp le sit. \\"hose \\"ellprcser \'ed Theh an tomh (rr93 ) \\"3S ne\ cr propcrI~ excl\". of the red CrQ\\"1 l and the \\hite. of Uppe r and LO\\"cr Egypt .11h the :"Jew Kingd om. and its reliefs D. hy the dcscrt .1 glass sculp ture of the hc. . The fertile .:ing (perhaps larges t and best-p reserv ed rem pie comp lex of 7itlUlrqo)/j·tJll1 Tt:mph' Tal KlI/l'lI . Tht' Il!lJIplt's oI"'(l1I J1I. "·('.:c1 with bis n. in stark contra st. and inscri pe.KAW A KENA~llJ. H. incorp oratin g the Great l-hpos tylc llall of Rame ses II (1279 -1213 lie).1 of the 18th D\·nas ty.\D\\I. The princi pal templ e at Karna k.702 Be).lnd statua ry. Ll'S It'mph'. BC-\D ally exten ded and embel lished by the rulers of Egypt fi"OIll at least the . The sitc is domin ated by two cnigm atic mud.\ COI11period .brick struct ures. A 51' \Il"n of J. LEC.l.IIL' 1929). Coo'! ':\. It is the BnlJ/:::. This sense of n~llllral DL \LlT\ \\"i!S deepl y ingrai ned in the Egypt ian world -ric\\. The templ e cOlllplex W. The earliest axis stretc hes ards inters perse d \\ ith obelis ks. B \RCiL!i':T. but most of the suryjy ing rem.\" tI/i "~{/n1lf/. SII.il is theref ore the type-s ite fi)r the Kerm a cultur e ((. 'fhesc elite burial s also incorp orated Iargc numb t'fS of sacrif iced retain ers.7/1lfrl /f/j oIGlr w ~"l~//ldil's 2 (1960). \Q.i).lke. Cahias de f.667 He the tcmpl e and town wcre p.e loc:Hed oppos ite Dong ola in the he~lrtland of the Nubia n kER. The first court on the nOrth-SQUlh axis is also known as 'cache ne cOllrt " sil1Ce an impre ssin. Kerrna Town -sitc of the early secon d millen nium He.cnamun. which was the relibuildi ngs. 'The fact thai he was thc son of the roY'11 nur~L: Amcn emop et is perha ps an indica tion that high admin istrati ye posts could. ncar the third ~ile catara ct in uppe r :"Juhi.n~~esl' P. 'The secon d shrine s ilnd altilrs. with the emerg ence of the Kushi te 25th Dyna sty (7-4-7-656 Be). 2 \'ols Luxor .2 (//1. while the east- C1·:.0 thems elves as the rClflcJ (h C11 Kellll'J ('the peopl e of" the hlad land') . .\1. 6 \'ols (19-4-3-82). and owne r of anoth er Theb an tomb (rrI62 ).1 ~51J--l ~Oillle ) High ufoci. G.: (Brussels.5 hectar es in arca. proba bly to be identi r. He was chief stcwa rd to \. which is on:1" 0.cw 395). 1961).l new S.P " (1~27-HOO Be) and sUJler intend enl or the docky ard of Peru. Shabi tqo (702690 l1e) and Karna k was surro unded b~ the growi ng cit~ T\ll\R (l!) (690. ln (. l2-H. II. r. D.\"E. Cairo ) was discov ered here in 1902. T G.nefcr ncar :\lemp his.:k land" a refere nce to the fcrtile Nile silt which was annuall~ sprea d across the l:lI1d by the "L'~Df\Ti()'\.lnct uary or \j\IU. the sitc 148 . reliefs .690 lie. Event-uillly."Vaset).\Iidd lc Kingd om (2055 -1650 lie) u11Iil the Roma n period (30 the south of rhe juncti on bel WCen the two axes S\CRI ]) I. D\\'IES . L.. DI':S TE\lI'I..:al"1fal'. proba bly ha\'in g none of the weste rn conno tation s of dcath and decay.lS the dcJ]i(fil.ll ~lnd pririlt c statua ry (most ly no\\' in the Eg~ pt ian J"luse um. the pre-e minen t god of the J\. J. The Lshapc d weste rn deJJi(f{I.

The reign of nJosER (perhaps his son) was marked by the transfer of power to j\1Er\\PIJIS.Hed by Auguste i\ larieuc in 1860. (1981)... car. B. The diorite-gneiss from" hich the statue was caned was obt..10-/550 If(. 1\. There h. which Djcdefra had used for lhe first time. \\" /' / r . exca'-.x was C<lrvcd into the appearam:c of Khafra. G.EIS'\'ER. His pyramid complex at Giza was similar to that of' Khuf'u. 'La dcffufa occidcnt~tlc '-1 Kcrma: cssai d'inlcrprCl.. which is Im':'ltcd in the Libyan Desert ~Ibout 175 km east of Luxor. Each of the d41i1. G. BO'\.. 9+-.:k of his head. temple of Amun. 332 BC-\lJ 500). V \1\DERSI. TIll' PJ. is part of the cemetery at the southern end of the site. km. l-Iowc\'cr. no..\TIE:\. 1923). It is usually assumed that t he head or l"11e Great Sphin. h. II. GU.mel 1-1. BII~ 10 81 Supp. L GII)I>\. 41h PJIIUUO'.rl"m. 1978).. was found to contain se\-eral roy. 11.we been suggestions thaI the geological condition of the sphinx indicates that it was carved at a somewhat earlier date. I::. Mut and Khans. pyramid (omp/ex lIJ DioriJe-gm:iss scaJcd sJaJuc ofK/lllfra F011l his Gi:::'lI. R..'gypl. Cairo). C/assit A:afllif phase.'aJley temple. 2558-2532 oc) Son of" 1l. at around 100 sq.. 5lh ed.KHAFRA KHARGA OASIS J!fllldlllllt/t.sai tit: c1assijiCfllirlll (I. lion at Kharga and its material culture \\'. a type offullcrary chapel..lnite-lined . Persian and ptolemaic temple of Amun modern town of el-Kharga Qasr el-Ghueida. lhe largest of rhe major Egyptian "estern oases.EH='.1ces of \Iiddle Palaeolithic (~\loustcrian) occupa- ern d([!.6811I.9 10 ' . some 240 km soulh-\\eSl of modern .h h Dynasty and builder of the second pynunid ar GIZ \.. but the archaeological and circumstantial evidence appear to support P/lIII nI"'lwrga Oasis. Fara}TfI (J1lI1 K/ullga during p!tarf/onir Jimes (\Varminster.6 (III. ED\\ \lmS..2686 Be) T. Lt's mIlan:. allhough slighl1y smaller and currently better preserved. Khasekhemwy (Khasekhem) (".'\. (I-htrmondsworth. 'Unc tetc de ChHrcn en granite rose'.72--1. Khafrn's ROY:\LTITLL:\R\ included the new . 1. 19H7)..I'/(}I:J' (London. Cairo: oJIida/ taJa/ogut' (... 1987). "hafra's gn. (r:Allf(JJi:l0062) 149 . 205-12. 171C EgypJiall Ilmcul1!. which is onc of the masterpieces of Old K-ingdom sculpture (now in the Egypti'1I11\luseum. 04 5 i I 06 07 08 t ».2500 /Jr:. c. Rakhaef.\1ai.lined b~ an expedition sent to the so-called 'Chephrcn quarries' in Lower l\uhia.~2-/) its synchronicit~ with the 4th-Dynasty pyramid complexes.. 61 1-25 Qasr el·Mustafa Khasif Nadura. 1110S1 of the sur\"i\'ing architectural remains (including settlements. J.. Roman temple el-B?qawat.: '\.. "Excavations at the Nubian royallOwn of Kcrma: 1975-91'. who had constructed his pyramid al \Be RO\SII r~lIher than Giza (leading to suggestions from some schohtrs thai Ihere was a tcmporar~ religious schism between rhe younger and cider branches of Khufu's successors).i\ET. E. 121-37. o \!. C.I" was originally illl almost solid blot:k or mud bricks covering 0111 area uf roughly 1500 sq. 1992).1S also becn discO\'cred more recently_ j\ I. fourth ruler of the . O"kh/a. Ptolemaic and Roman temple and town (Tchonemyris) modem town of Bufaq modern town of el-Maks el-Qibla 10 Qasr Dush. c.1 1.l' 66 (1992). fgypli(t1I oases: 8ahrm:l1fl.\S""'1I1.. Kenl/a: ('. 1952). RilE 38 (1987)...15 clearly c1ose1~ connected with that of the Nile yalley throughout the Pharaonic period.:Jlflrga Oasis ill pn:hi. Roman temple of Isis and serapis 030 o 2 1 ~.dil.'.'oliol/S at Kallla ]-IY. GR. Kharga Oasis Thc southernmost and. I.HI RII ('son of Ra') epithet.. The hcall of a pink granitc SL~1tue of a similar type.. ~"') t \.J hisJ01]r oft/1Icil'IlJ EgYPI (Oxford. . SOLTROLZI \. 1\ lA. sincc it is situated immediately nexl" to his causeway and valley temple.. Ill. There arc tr. (L6.~-f"\... II. '\. including a magnificenr monolithic scatcd statue of the king "'ith a Horus falcon embracing the b'H..\ N \.rtll/lids of f.ilk. 2 mls (Cambridge. representing Khafra.ltion'. Khafra (Chcphrcn.7. Illliquil.I\I \1. C \TO'-TIIO\II'SO'. c... 1993).ll statues.. whose reign is particularly important because he was the last Abydcnc ruler (sec AUYDOS). S. Christian cemetery Hibis.l1z. S \LEII . 'KalJla marl" "('(fl'cr/hllll 7/i/llulm "{II f{ul/la. the introduction of large-scale stone masonry and the orficial tmnsfer to a new royal cemetery at SM~\RA. .I'L (2589-2566 BC).ale 2nd-Dynasty ruler. He succeeded to the throne after the death of his half-brother Djedefra (2566-2558 Be). Late Period and ptolemaic Qasr Zaiyan. stone temples ~lJ1d cemeteries) dale from the Ptolemaic period to Coptic times (. 31..

On a more monumental scalc..KHASEKI-IEM WY KI-IEPRI One of Khasckhemwy's wives. the name is now generally considered to be an alternative spelling for Khasekhcmwy. celch of which was erected by one of the rulers buried in cemetery B.lione. The suhstructure consists of a central corri~ dol'. (c.P()J. 11 lI'lIsJinmd iI/ COllstantillople. Dale {/llli prrn. and because the movement of the sun from easl to west W. (f:. The debate about the political events at the end of the 2nd Dynasty hinges partly on the question of whethcr thc myth of the sU'ugglc of Horus and Seth had any historical antecedents. NimaathcPI was later worshipped as the ancestress of the 3rd Dynasty (2686--2613 Be). P. 1\ l. were all exc:mlted from the E. J\lOLNIJ 3S it arose from the waters of NU. he is depicted wearing the CRO\\':'>. is now Khenty-khety see TELL ATRlB Khepri Creator-god principally manifested in the form of rhe sr. is nor only the last royal tomb in cemetery B at Umm c1Q. it has been suggested that Khasekhemwy's reign represented J return to religious (and perhaps also political) normality.IS believed to be the result of being physically pushed like a dung-ball.183--4.-f. leading fo a srone-lined burial chamber which is then followed by a continuation of the corri<. As techniques of STOne architecture developed. flanked by thirty-three store-rooms for funerary offerings.IS 'he who is coming: into heing'). after a period of turmoil under his predecessor. thejorm /aken k)' till! sUI/-go" til the time o/his birth ill/he morning. 'The Ser rebellion of the second dynasty" Ancient Egypt (1922). Since the serekh of his predecessor PERIBSE' was surmounted by it Seth animal . the scarab form of amulet was being produced in very large quantities.trly Dynastic temple at Hierakonpolis. both of which are at ABYDOS. 1 have become Khepri. a huge double-walled Illud-brick enclosure located <It the desert edge./iJre the pharaohs (London.lor flanked by tcn further magazines.7-1j 150 . \Il or dung beetle.\I.of the second dynasty·.'\TL.lr1y Dynastic cemetery at" Umm eI-Q!t'ab and thc Shunet cl-Zebih.JOO Be). nearly 70 III in length. Because the Egyptians observed that scarab beetles emerged.IS well as the so-called 'fon' of Khasckhemwy at IIJERAKO:'>. 'A foundation scene . wlrere it had probab(y hew takw in Rowall/iwes. As a deit~ dosely <1ssociated with resurrection. Because he was self-created.IlACII. El':GEI. these rows of knots were u'anslated into decorative carved or painted fi'iczes around the upper edges of buildings.\I. although he .\\ BERR' .emmce Ifnlmfl11111. hOWC\'Cf. The depictions of slain enemies on the two statues ha\'c been inrerpretcd as e"idence of military activities during his reign. This.-\.. tolossal statue "fa sCflrab beetle.'ab but also the largest and most unusual.\:\. The Shunet e1-Zehih. R. pmbab()1 rcpn:senling tire god Khepri. l:.l'Pt be. apparently spontaneously. His tomb.·/20 (193-1). which was thought to refer to another ruler reigning bet-ween Pcribscn and Khasckhcmwy. NF.1 scarab as a head or as a scarab in a hoar held aloft by i\L:'>. and passed through her body to be reborn each morning. The picture was once bclieved ro be fUrlher complicated by the existence of the name Khasekhem. from halls of dung. The name Khasckhcn1wy was lIsually writ- ten inside a SEREKI' frame surmounted by depictions of a SETII animal alongside the usuallloRLS falcon. 1980).\H. ll/I!} khekerfrieze Decorative morif commonly employed in ancient Egyptian architecture from at least as early as rhe 3rd D\'nasty (2686--2613 Be). is probably an csccssiycIy historical explanation for what may essentially hu\"c been an iconographic phenomenon. He appear~ in this guise in Chapter 83 of the BOOK OF Tl IJ m:AD: 'T h. hl' was identified with the creator-god .\I.l\'C l"lown lip like rhe primeyal ones. thus constantly alluding to the idea of the first shrines built· on the PRJi\IEV!\1. E. is the best surviving example of a group of 'funerary cnclosurcs\ probably the f()rerunners of the valley temples in pyramid complexes. The principal surviving monuments from Khasekhemwy's reign are Tomb v in the E...0.l the sun to appear in his name of Khepri (the literal meaning of which W. . was sometimes depicred in tomb paintings and funerary p'lpyri as a man with . It. although the poor standard of Emile Amclineau's exc"l\'ation in 1897-9 and 1905 has hindered any more definite statement regarding its function.3-18-5-1. itself Rhepri is attested from at least as early '15 the 5th Dynast)· (2-19+-23-15 Be). The earliest shrines and temples were constructed from reeds Lied into bundles or mattingJ and sometimes the tops of these were clabor~tcly knotted. generally considered to have been a mortuary monument comparable with the Shunet elZebib. Hon·.TS illYoke<.\IIIJ TE:\. when One of the spells in the PYR.\. The Hierakonpolis 'fj)rt\ a large mud-brick enclosure also located close to the floodplain. From the Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 Be) onwards. . Khepri was also believed to be swallO\n~d by his mother '\IVT each evening. However. as well as an inscribed granite door jamb (bearing his name and a depiction of the temple foundation ceremony).-6. hc was also idenrified with the sun-god R.g. 89 on. it was perhaps not surprising that they came to belie\'e that the scarab was associated with the process of eRE \'I'to.]£. decorated stone "essels (both bearing depictions of the goddess '\I~KI mET) and a fragment of a stele.IS. In the tomb of I'I'TO"015 at Tona e1-Gebel of the god Osiris. it is considered likely rhat each temple originally incorporated a coloss3j GraJ1ilt. Two statues of fhe king.

t:T. the traditional potency of the ram and the fact that the Egyptian word for ram. probably from the Early Dynastic period (3100-2686 lie) onwards. where he was worshipped.1"") lioness-goddess. Khons j\lloon-god.i Sihel (Cairo. 501-7.ing a liba/ioll mltl ufferings. The tcxts on the walls of the Esna temple celebrate his creation of rhe entire universe including gods. who was therefore depictcd with it ram's head as he passed through the netherworld in the solar bark.uded as the quintessential /Ja of the sun-god R/\. Lexi/wII der . Otto and W.\IUi'\. Khnum Ram-god whose principal cliit ccntTc was on the island of Elephantine at ASWA '\!. B. 1937).93+--10. which had corkscrew horns extcnding horizontally outwards from the head. also hacJ the meaning of 'spiritual essence' (although the latter was usually written with the stork hieroglyph). J ASSi\lAKN. 'Cheprc'. been portnlyed as the first type of ram domesticated in Egypt (O.~/e1e./550-/295 He. cd. animals and plants. and in the Thcban region he was considered to be the son of Al\IUN and "l!T. humans. /300 lie. 1986). although the goddess ~Ern-I also features prominently in rhe reliefs.W.It Sehcl describes appeals 151 . whose name means 'wanderer'. BEJlRl~:-"S. 38. fl. 'Was Anukis considered as the wife of KIlIlum or as his daughter?'. which had horns curving inwards rowards the face and was more often associated with the god A.) em. A. P.. Westendorf (Wicsbaden. La slele de III Jil1l1illi! . Perhaps partl~r because of this punnin'g connection with the concept of the /Ja.. Inllgipes). Ro\RGL. however. A5'A£ 50 (1950). Heick.i.ri"gypla!ogit: I. ~IOL:l\. At "OM Ol\'lBO. 1953). Otto and IV.US baboon. he was also portrayed as a CYi\OCEI~IIAI. In his earliest" form he appears ro have principal creator-gods (sec C1{EAT10'\). HA.rlgYPlologie n. This creative role stemmed inevitably from the combination of the crcati. as paft of a triad with the goddesses SATET and ANUKET. as opposed to the later specics (Ovis pla/ym). '''Vidder'.16. where his consort was ivlenhyt. he was regarded as the son of the deities SOBEK and 11ATJ-IOR. c. W. IIAIIACIII. E. Heick. Khnum was reg. Like TIIOTII (another lunar deity). P. E. representing the temple <15 the PRL\lE\'t\l.\DAWI. Such a sc<trab is still prcscn·cd ill situ beside the sacred lake in the temple of Amun at Kt\]{j\"!\h':. L.. Westendorf (Wicsbadcn. The best-preserved temple of Khnum is Ihe Greco-Roman construction at F_'i""!:\. He appears to have originally been associated with childbirth.1 em. the upper register ofmhieh depil:/S a sealedfigurt: of/he god Khom rccei"i.1. c. In the 20th Dynasty (1186-1069 lie) a temple of Khons was built within the precincts of the temple of Amun at KARNAK. Khnum's strong association with both the Nile INUi'\Dr\TIOi'\' and the fertile soil itself contributed to his role as a potter-god and therefore also to his cosmogonic role as one of the Fmgme11l ()[slI11dsI01/e wlIlI-relieldewrtlletlmilh 1I represlW/fIlion oflhe god Klmu111 ll. 18111 Dynasly. (1:. lV\. a relativcly unknown to Khnum at a time of famine caused by low inundations.'c symbolism of moulding pottery. ed.( 1I rtlm-helltled mlln. Lex/koll del' . II. Der Coil Chill/III (Gliicksladt. 181h DYIJ(IS~)I. typically represented as a mummiform human figure (occasionally hawk-headed) holding VUlit:e .-1/297) sceptre and flail and wearing the SIDELOC:K OF YOUTII with a headdress consisting of a horizontal crescent moon surmounted by a full moon. The socalled Ft\MINE Stelc . 1975).1) li'OIll which the sun-god emerged to begin the process of cosmogony. (". 1243-5. limes/one. -I.KHNUM KHONS stone scarab on a plinth.

/iwn A!~)l(lo.ht({r I (Cairu.llion of thc cult of roy. (Cambridge.1300 Be). Heick.KHUFU KING I. E.ltuette: is it an Old Kingdom SCUlpl Lire:'. Unlike the other Ilyksos pharaohs. 'Thc Khufu S(. I EgYPL fi'om the death uf AI11I11CI1CI11CS III to Seqel1cllrc II'. The hieralic papyrus known as the TLRI'\ KOY. c. the only surviv- Tn later tradition he was repured to h.n the f<ll"m of" papyrus cupies in temple LIBR \IUES.. was fOllnd in the 10mb of a scribc called Tenro)". which was cxc. are "aluable records. Khyan (Sellserenra.'en rulers from the 1st Dynasty umit Lhc reign of Rameses II. B.:Iled from the temple of Khentimcilriu at \uroos by Flindcrs Petrie. or or . where rhc deccased is shown worshipping the stalUl'S of thirteen pharaohs. The international innuencc of Khyan is perhaps indicated by the disco"cry of a number of objects bearing his name at sites outside Egypt.lCCouI1l of the history of Egypt.ll anceSlOrs.ll impressions in the Le":tnt. and an earlier example fi'OI11 the templc of Amun at K:\ Rl'\!A t\:.<pectedly.. . Z. POSl':..l'xil·011 tla /(iJypJologil' I. EI\lt':RV.-iS93 (1966).tiling foreign princess calIco Rcmresh.":. '. Despite the fame of his funerary complex. I L\\\. which is known only hom the somctimes contradiclory fi·agmcl1t"s preserved in the works of other ancient authors. regularly omirting ccrt.1\. who commissioned .II"oJI36/43) 152 ruler of Lower EgYPl.tOly 11/1. listing sc\'cnty-six kings from \IE::'\ES 10 SCI-y himse1f~ remains in its original cOTHexl.l\e been a tyrannical ruler. (lII1W/S (l1/(! day-books: a ((illlrilm/ion lo Ihe ... 13. 1985). REDFOIW. /11yfhes el rile. 'Vne rcintcrprcurion tardi\'c ell! nom du dieul\:honsuu'. although these traclitions cannot bc substantiated by contemporary c\"idencc and perhaps rehne simply to the imposing scale of his pyramid.\ss.I'aibed on llie olher side.98-121. 3U.. pis IJ-J. ilnd is now in the Egyptian . 'ChOIlS'.'gYPI.960-3. dated palacographically to th\: 12th f)~·nasty (1985-1795 BC). including scarabs and sC. n"sT. 202-4. .2570 IIc. )1)93). 11 \YES. 5Lh cd.lmpic of a king list W. a travertine \'asc lid at Knossos.lS found in tllC tomb Amcnmcssu at Thebes (IT373.21-+. DERCII \1'\. G. such a~ \KIIE. daring from the end of thc 5th Dynasty. it is possible that the SC:lls indicatc a degrce of I-Iyksos conlrol O\'er southcrn Palestine. cd. (.~. listing sixtytwo kings from ~iJenes to ThutmosL: III (1-1-79-1-1-25 lie).1. II. Sourus fJrimlalcs . 'vV.. The lists arc often surprisingly accur. 'I'hc historian \1 \ '\1-:"1'110 must h:l\'c used such king lists} prcsumably i.tOly (Mississauga. 19(1). Khufu (Cheops) (258Y-2566 BC) Second ruler of the 4th Dynasty.lS (Bughazki)y). Iv.\IAST'\IJA tomb ncar his pyramid.1re incompletc. Another pri\'ate ex. There arc also a few much briefer king lists1 such as . . 'rhe Bentrcsh Stele (ncm" in the Luuuc) is <111 inscription composed in the fuurth century Be bur purporring to date to the reign uf Rameses 11 (I27Y-1213 BC).'c our cril spirits.~/llIf)1 fllthe E:!{)ljJlirlll selw'oIhi. E. and the basalt stele known as the I'\U:R \I() STO'I':.\).\luscum. Pharaol/ic king-!isls.ly illegitim<ltc or inappnlpriatc. . although both . l.17Y-94. "hcreb~ c:leh king established his own legitimac~ and place in the succession by making rcgular offerings ro a list of the names of his predecessors.) on (c. 1973).. although they arc also noticeahly sc1ectiyc. Although the two latter items wcrc presumably prestigc gifts or trade goods. W. whose name is an abbreviation of the phrase K/11I1111l-1. Cliro. "litis is Ihe onf)! surviving represenlaf. .1 throne caned with Khufu's Horus-name. Z. 'V. E PeTRIE. S.115-19./on oj' Ihe builder oflhe Creal Pyramid af. whcn he was compiling his .lin rulers.lSTS One manifestation or Khons. R.a. 7. mhosc J-!O/'IIS 1/fIIIIC is imailJed 011 Ihe riglll side ofille Ihrnne: his car/oud/(:. 'A scaling of Khyan from the Shephcla or southern Palestine'. LI600 A 15th-Dynasty IIYKS(JS Be) fvm]! sltlllfclle oIKIIIIJil.".much of the Turin C:lI1on h<l\ing been losl in modern times.! (paris. L Olin and IV.'c from religious or fun crary contexts and usually rehIle to the celebr. C. S.\!.'\ second list. Cflmbridgl' Allcielll!-h+.l. EI)\\!\IH>S.\. is now in the Louvre. 'Y-68. It claims that the pharaoh senT a statue ofKhons to a Syri. 1962).. although onl~ thtl! in the temple of Sery I (129+-1279 BC) at \Innos. The granite lion bearing Khyan's namc that was found buill" into a housc wall at Baghdad and is now in the collection of the British I\luscum is usuall~ assumed to have been removed from Egypt some time after U1C Hyksos period.Ill cxample of a pri\'atc funcrary clIlr of the royal ancestors. D. Sncral rock-can ed texts at remote quarrying sites such as II \T'\L"H and \Vadi ~\bghara suggest thm his reign} not une. His own burial chamber was found to con lain ollly all empty sarcophagus.\·1I (Londun. 1986). whose 'lluone name' was Seuscrenr. BIU.\'\0'\. 1975).'\i\I~R. I Ic was the son of SNEFERU (261J-258Y Be) and the builder of the Great Pyramid at (lIZI\.. part of an obsidian "cssel .1I~}ldlJ. is parlf)1 broken. cd. 1903). king lists Term used by Egyptologists to refer to sun'iv- ing lists of the names and titlcs of rulers or Egypt. 1. P. known as 'the proyillcr" was credited with the ability to dri.+. The Saqqara 'T:1blct. W:lS marked by considerable quarrying and mining acti\'it~. f.lcr tu f~lcililare rhe cure of an .1 graffito at the mining and quarrying sitc of 'Vadi Ilammamat. J11c:/allges Gall/a! A'loIlJ. Edw~lrds et aI. (along with his successor Aauserra '\1'1·:1'1) ilnd llubastis (TEl. Ardlllic EgyjJt (I-1armondsworth. it lists fifty-sc. ing completc representation of Khufu himself is a small ivory statuette of a ruler wC<lring the red crown of Lowcr Egypt and seated on .42-76. Westendurf (Wicsbadcn. which consists of the names of fiyc 4th-Dynasty rulers and princcs.JEA 51 (1965). is now in the British l\ilusellm. 1\1. compiled in dle 19th Dynast). from the nearby temple of Rameses II (I27Y-12IJ BC).1rd cd. Se"cral such lists exist. blll part of the funerary equipment of his mother.>IIC[ffi CKIINLJ\l protects mc').\lythcs ct dicux lunairt"S en Egyptc'.!. ill. somc which also incorporate information concerning the length amI principal C\'cnts of indi"idu:11 reigns. . Gi::. (Hal'l11onds\Vorlh. H. (".): La Itllli'.m ruler in on. -1111 Dynasty. GI\ 1':0. IIETEI'IIEIH:S I) survivcd in a .ll the Iliuitc capital of ((altUS. '1'1/1: p)ll"(lIl1ids oI1:. YirtLlally all of the sun·jying examples deri.llC.'cry few architectural or sculptural monumcms} Khyan was responsible for the decoration of religious slructures at GEUELEIl\.'\ER.\TE:'\ (1352-1336 Be» who \\'ere considered to ha"c been in any W.

. The nearby cemetery spans a much broader period) ranging from the Old Kingdom to the late Roman period.-as c.\1'' (Prolemy I Soter.. 'Die Ddrasradt 'lCrClllllhis uno ihre Giirrin'.\lesopotamia.71-(1. R-n. PORTEI{ and R. \V.67-9. J.·cntually transformcd. DI! 1(/ divinih.. 4H. J.KINGSHIP KIOSK 13. mounds made up of the ruins of ancient settlements. kingship passed from Either to SOil. ~·h()mil/g the mriting oftht' mortl 'plulI"fwh' (pcr-'la) ill (l rarlOliche. \Q)IJ\ and S_\~t\R \ suggesls that the basic l1al"urc of Eg~ pti~m \n. Li'S lerllles de la pr"'pa. 7'opographiat! IJ1Ni(Jgrap/~)II\. N. the best known examples being that of Senusrel I (1965-1920 lie) al "-IB' IK./()/' l!Ii' king.whidl . and 011 a more political level he . and the strong associi. riwa! lIIfd kingship. l\lo!'ls. P/UlflU>1I. J.ll1clcl/l F. owing to the proximity of the road leading 10 \Vadi Natrull. The in.IS thcir di"ine hirth .. 20+-2S. (Oxford. ldeally tht. the ruler could demonstrate the continuity of the kingship b~ ensuring thm his predecessor's mortu.\TRO' and salt. '\.\' illlc'I1IPk. such as the temple lands and pri. 1-1ckk. J. most of the sun i. and each king was usually keen to demonstrate his (ilial links with the IJrC.gy/JI: 1I11{/1(l1I~11 (London. 19{8).21-3.llmost (he kingship itsell). Griffith in 1887-8.ril.u deal of the ideology surrounding Egyptian kingship can be deduced to some extent from the dc. . B.~hip aud the gods (ChiclgO. exc<wated hy F T. into the \\urd pharaoh . 'The kingship rituals of Eg~ pt'.\\OTIC or Greek.rrllOI{ in her manifesmtion of 'mistress of turquoise'. 1993). 1988). 1st ed. S.rithin the orcrall role of the king in imposing order and prcrcnting chaos.I. SII 1/1) Term which has eJ1lcrcd Arabic from the Coptic word xmp <.1{. . in that neSJ1) appears to mean the unchanging di\'ine king (.::'lIli()// .-ious ruler. FR'''''FORT. ed.ed 'Pith Ihis gel/air 1i'1"II1. Koru Abu Billo C1erenuLhis) Site or a Pharaonic and Greco-Roman town situated in the western Delta. //Ia kiosk 1\pe of small openwork temple with supporring pillars. therefore a great deal of the il:onography in Egyptian temples. the e"idence from such sites as \UH>OS. L.HD.llld . BO.III::\lE and A.68-77. TRIGGER ct aJ. while bil seems to be a more ephemeral reference to the individual holder of the kingship.1t house' was the ovcrarching cntity responsihle lor the T\X\TIO' orthe lesser 'houses' (pam).\~)Ith.. The title IIfJ1JJ.! hi. I\L A. while many of the Roman-period tombs were marked by unusual stelae l:onsisting of relief representations of the deceased either standing or lying on a COUdl and accompanied by all inscription in IJE. and rhe cxphtn<ltion of how e~H.\IL\I~-nnTI02\. Malek (Sydney.HTlpti(JIl. 1119-72. GRJI"FITIIS..IS ensured by his own divinity.1':. POSE\!':R. the royal anccstors (sce t. ria Greek. Just as it was esscntial to stress the king\ divinc hirth. Its mc'1l1ing is therefore similar to the Arabic . W.u of the snakcgoddess RE\C'\""CTET. 153 . and there arc nearby burials of' sacred cows presumably rehuing to the cult of I-Lllhor. whose cult \\ as celebrated in the ~1I"C'1. G. kingship The com:cpt of kingship and the di"inity of the pharaoh wcre l:clllral (0 Egyptian society and religion. the IICSJ1J and the bil. and consider'lbly Illore COIllplex. G. A grc.ll.'iUny (Cambridge. till plUlrtlll1l (Paris.52-61. E. At the vcry beginning of Egyptian history.-c1. On a practical Ic. Egypl: I/IIt:iell/ wltllre. SOl1letimt. The term per-llll Cgrcat housc') . The term is sometimcs also employed fo refer to a small sun-shade or p~l\'ilion for the use of a king or official.nt.-atc estates. Hooker (Oxlord. B.we heen misinterpretcd as 'propagandist:' efforts to distort the truth by mcans of thc various reliefs and inscriptions depicting such e.Yould do his best to demonstrate thai he was the chosen heir whose right to rule W.:ingdolll graycs contajnl:d 'slipper-coffins' made of pottery and decorated with ugly facial features. and thaL ofTrajan (. first 1''''01.\II'. (h'i1i. The f'unetjon of the king as the representative or the gods was to preserve and kohl see COS\lETIC'i koru Dctail (~r(f . which deri.·c!opmcnl of the RO) \1. 1989).1 whole.'iatioll (~rI11all-n. Although there may have heen a certajn amount of political (rather than religious) impctus behind the works of such unusual rulers as Queen 1l. so the cclebratjon and depiction of each SED FESTI\-A1.1l1d thc bestowal of the kingship hy Ihe gods. 1960).h reign rdated to the kingship as . restore the original harmony of rhe uni"ersc.Allcienl Egypl: II Slid. the term hegan to be used to refer to the king himself H. Each king was therefore it combination of the divine and the mortal. 7+-10{.. 'The early Pwlemaic temple remains. (royal jubilee) was intcnded to ensure that the king was still capable or performing his ritual role.-anl . (I. 1958). During the Roman period the economic importance of Tcrcnuthis rested on the role il played in the procurement ~lIld trading of '. Otto and W.l' tdicll indllde {(Jrfol/r!lcs imaif. A.·as linked with Horus and the dead kings.lflldl' n~J'a! i:gyplil'lIlIl! de la xixi' thflUlSlil' ti la {(Im/llile tI>llexulU!n' (Paris. 288-99. 1986). 'The pharaohs and their court'.rcnurhis" Le. were dedicated to the goddess l-I. cd.Yord lell.. B~ extension. from the latc I Sth Dynasty omyards. 1934).uionships between the king and the gods. 111'. were associatcd with OSrKIS. lIIodem laud. FOGE \L. cd. 305-285 IlC). GRI\l \1.uion between the king and the falcon-god IIORL'S had alreildy hecome well established.'!.\\as initially used to describe the royal court or indeed the stare itsel r.• . I3. tombs and palaces was cono:rncd much 1110re with this overaLl aim than with the indi.-bit (liter<lll~ 'he of the sedge and the bee') is usually tnmslated <1S 'King of Upper and Lower Egypt' but its true meaning is quite diffen.·ing references to the kingship belong much morc . G.:lliliu the it'll/pic oI HlltlfOr atlJl'IIdl'Ta. F \IR_\"\="-. 'lc.ITSIlEI'SLT (1473-1458 Be). 1-1.'es irs Greek name from th.-ing king .. rallter Iltall mith a or . in the sense that the 'grc."illagc') and is generall~ used to refer 10 the... including the establishment the rcl.11lce of this temple rests primarily 011 (he f.lry temple and tomb were completed. D.11'.'011 da AgyplfJlogii' \'1.~ $l'(Tl'ts tlli pom:oir (Paris.·idual cirl:ul1lslol1ll:es of the ruler at any particular poim in time. 1986). 1983).'cnts . T1TLL \R\.'S the anempts of certain rulers to demonstrate rheir unquestioncd right to thc kingship h.\1 \i\i\. which fulfilled a number of roles.11> 98-117) at 1'1>11 . Westendorf (Wieslmkn. in the Same way that the li.l'jJl'(Uic' ruler:~ JIlllne.:!'\'(i LISTS). The imporl.~ (~rthc' Ptolemaic (lnd RuwlIn pniod. Some of the Nc" f. KE.'IIK 5 (I 93{). le.ttt that it is one of the few monumenls l:onstructed during the reign of' the. King. although [Jle latter is 1110re commonly applied to fhe higher settlement mounds of the Le.

51-2A. ].. H \\1-\11-\ ~ . stone-built Middle Kingdom tomb of KheslIwcf..Z2/-20S IlC (I. 19.. 'Exca\"ations aL KOIll c1-1 Iisn. 10 20 30 40m 12 I tln I ~ [~I] 11 ~.:. PORTER and R.14). N{/flkrlltis II (London. . 77-80... G. 2 "ols (Vienn.~rthe doubl" 1i'll/flle (~tlJ()I"IIS III/d So/Jd. inner vestibule forecourt altar (northern) sanctuary of first hypostyle hall Horus (Haroeris) second hypostyle hall 9 (southern) sanctuary of Sobek outer vestibule 10 inner corridor middle vestibule 11 outer corridor 12 position of false door stele Kom Medinet Ghurob see GUROB Kom Ombo (ane. 281-3. . 'O\'crseef of prophets'. about 12 km south of "iAUKRATIS. 1909).' {I/ KOII/Om!Jo. ASAJ:: 4 (1903).::. 1888). ~I()ss.. with suryiving structural remains dating from at least as early as the 18th Dynast\' (1550-1295 BC).2 : • ••• • ••• . although there are also a number of Upper Palaeolithic sites scattered oycr the surrounding region. The principal mound is dominated by the ruins of a temple dedicated to the local goddess.. mOSl of the relief decoration having been completed in the first century IIC.niving temple buildings.. located in the western Dclra. 1946'. <l large proportion of the mound was still in existence. III . The i1JThitcctural plan of the temple is unusual in that it effecti. shom. but it is now much reduced by the work of sebaR!lin Cfan11crs quarrying ancient mud-brick for use as fertilizer).. 1981). The su.81-5. /I Philopa/or l11ai'illg offirillgs In Ihe O'omtlill'-gotl So"ek. ASAE +8 (1948).£](J. Dt\RESSY. B. L. KOI1l Ombos. the town of lOll! rephlCcd the c~rlicr (still undiscovered) [Own of Hwt-ihyt as the capital of the third Lower Egyptian nome. 'Kom e1-llisn" Cities of/he Del/a I: Nllllkl'llliJ(~lalibu. including statues of Amencmhat [II (1855-1808 Be) aod Rameses II (1279-1213 IIC). SIIIII) Piau . 'Excavations at Kom c1-1 IisH. 195-205.. which was established by SE"USRET I (1965-1920 Be) in the earlv 12th Dynasty. G'\IWi\'EK. first dcarcd of debris by Jacques de I"lorgan in 1893. 1st cd..-\RID. each side having its own individual succession of gateways ilnd chapels.. S[KII~IET-II:\THOK. most of which date from the First intermediate Period (2181-2055 BC) to the New Kingdom. A. I£:W.IS Kom el-Hisn (anc. · · ·3· · ••••• 1 2 3 4 5 6 ·1· :N\. DE ~\IORGA" cr aI.KOM EL-AI-IMAR KOM aMBO Dettlilofa sec/ion ofmil II-reliefill/he /l'Il1ph' of /-fOrtH {f1U1 Sobel. Ptolemaic period. (Oxford.ng P/ol('1l~}. "ere dedicated 10 the dcities Sobek and Haroeris (see I-I()RUS) and date mainly to the Ptolemaic and Roman periods (. Imu) Site of the town of Tmll.m. 299-325. \:Vhen the large rectangular temple encloSUfe was exca\·~ltcd in 19-+3-6 by the Egyptian archaeologists A. 'Rapporr sur KOI11 cl-T lisn'.al Kom Om"o. s". ambos) Temple and assol:iatcd settlement site located 4-0 km north of Asw. .: Kom el-Ahmar see I UE~'KO"I'OI. B. Hamada and ~L e1-Amir. .. in 1885. F.. . In the New Kingdom (1550-1069 BC). it was found to contain yariolls items of Middle and New Kingdom sculpture. The nearhy cemetery contains hundreds of graves.lson 1945'. j ••••• I-~_ . When it was first surveycd by E LL Griffith. I~ BRODIE ct aI. Topographiml bibliography 11'.l.·ISA£ 46 (1947).132 UC-... E..ll feature al Kom cl-Hisn is the painted..\D 395).. According to the brief report describing a Cmadian sun'cy of the site in 1980. c.'c1~ combines two traditional cult· temples into one... Ihe most imprcssi\'c suniving archircctur. and S. 154 J:±.

TRALSECKER and L.KOM EL-SHUQAFA KUSH Kom el-Shuqafa see . arc considered LO h. The choice of this spot for the erection of the stelae.II. The surviving settlement remains at Kaptos date back to the beginning of the historical period (c.3300-3100 BC). Sehoske (Hamburg.3000 BC). ~LIII. passing through the gold-bearing region of the Wadis Allaqi and Gabgaba. 1896)..J'nllJ~)" c.'\ and \·ICERQ) OF K. 33. D.'DA. ADo\1'. 155 . The subterranean burial chambers could be entered clown long flights of steps leading from shafts also siruatcd to the cast of ei. DL"'llnl. P:\.lIce11lf/eriesoIKffslt.< (London. In the later ~apatan period (r.Yhich were cxc~l\'atec1 by rlinders Petrie in an Eouly Dynastic context at the temple of l\1in. Kurru. anc.ILEX. which also includes the sites of Gebel Barkal. y. flneiem EgYPI: 1lIU11011~)' ola ch:i/i::::fl1ioll (London. J.\T\L. Thl..H92 HC) and Thutmose III (1479-H25 BC) both carved inscriptions on boulders marking the southern fi·onticr of Egypt. 1989).·isible remains of the temple date mainly from the New Kingdom onwards. TlteroJ!. REINAClI.\\I'. elRoyal necropolis of the Napatan period «(.illg lire limils Qf his hngdom.-. C. \V. haye been studied by Claude Traunecker and Laure Pantalacci.y slOIlCJ symho/i:::. at the entrance to the "Vadi Hammamat."alley contained gold mines and breccia quarries and also scrycd as the principal trade-route between the Nile .\'lin.. /. The Greek and Roman I11onUl1ll. Adjacent to the pyramidal tombs.'o. fig. The benefits of the town's loc'lrion. After the mid seventh century Be.1\"C been the primary reason for the foundation and subsequent prosperity of the Pharaonic settlement at Koptos. el-Kurru \\"<lS effectively abandoned and Nuri became the sire of the new cemerery of rhe Naparan rulers."".\CCI. 201-10.USII Limes/olle sl/lIl' relic/depicting Senwrt:l J engaged ill a sed-je. M.TRlf IILS1:"U. suggests that an importanL oyerlanc1 trade-route./U'Jcll Ailiif/chell 1985111..750--653 BC). which include those of SIL\II:\QO (716-702 IIC). 1910).1/111. are twenty-four roughly conrcmpor:lry horse burials. situated in Upper Nubia on the Dongola reach of the Nile. 2nd cd. when !. Nubia: corridor 10 /~fi"ica./: EI-KIIITIl (Boston. l' PETRIF. Ihe greal got/mho is ill Ihe mitisl of/us dO". KE.1ch pyramid. situated almost opposite Kopros on the west bank. Kop/o. including a small temple of ISIS at the nearby site of el-Qtl'a. including lhree eolussal B. Kush see kER\P. Kumma see 5[. (London and Princeton.hroue name and Horus mlJ}U!. illfronl nfhim arc his . 1950).6+-91. the royal tombs at c1-Kurru were built in the style of miniature Egyptian pyramids. Shabitqo (702-690 BC) and TA~LT-\!\IAi\1 (66-1-656 Be). To the cast of the main site there arc cemeteries dating to the late Prcdynastic period (c. Kcbel) Temple ilnd (Own si[C located abollt 40 km north of Luxor. on the east bank of the NUc. . W.aival rilua/ in Ihe preSf11Cf o//lte ftrJili~)'-god. starting with that of I'IY (747-716 BC). the founder of Ihe 25th Dynasty. 'Le temple eI'lsi a EI Q11'a pres de Copros'. 1989). close to the southern end of the so-called Korosko Road. where Th utmose I (150-1-. The lille of vertical/ext belom lite 1lames reatls '/uwellil1g k)/ b01l1 to A1in. 11.1000-300 He). ~URI and Sallam.'A Koptos (Qift. The .\1:'\. . Rapports SlIr It'sjouilles tie KopI()J (Paris. 1J786) limestone statues of the local fertility-god 1\IIN and various other items of 'preforma!' sculpture.\ Kurgus Site in the fifth-cataract region of Nubia. /21h D. was pruhably already being used in the early New Kingdom. (N.nts at Koptos. A.IOOO Be onwards for the tumulus-burials of the rulers of the kingdom of Kush. The killg is showII runlling helmccu bOlUular. sire was first used from c. eel. Undecorated rectangular funerary chapels were located immediately beside the east f~lces of each of the supersrrucHires. 1984).lS.]. the political focus of which waS i\t\PIrn. was the dominant town in the region. This .-alley and the Red Sea. S./950 BC.

cemelery pyramid of Senusret II rock tombs 'V-\ ~-ll \ -- rock tombs cemetery 900 alley temple -. Bcside Sellusret II'S Valley Temple arc the remains of h:allll11. ~L E PETKW.212-13.Jrchii· i·OIl fllalllm (Hi('J"{/li. I//lfhlll/. Em\ \RDS. loc• .He).\Iiddle I-../!'d .H-//I' Papyri) (Berlin. !\ILRRH. It forms onc of the fiyc branches of a family of languages spol.s (Jill{'/' casillg {lIltl:iO hilS J1Il'tlllwwllfJ {/ roulfded projile.m:ient Egyptian is probably rhc sccond old cst wriHcn language in the world.1'/1"11(1/11"" has IIISI i. daring to the late .. 149-37.\fiddle Kingdom (t.'Acropolis' Kahun town canouchcs of Scnusrci II and Amcnemhat III (1855-1808 Ile). The burial chamber contains an exquisite red granire sarcophagus and a tr<lvcrt"inc offering table. prescnt or futurc.cs I!I' limes/ulle malh.rh {fiJI be set'll 1/1 Iht' btl. elNecropolis and town-sill'.. the business letters or thc templc scribe l-Iorclllsaf. 106-7.. . E. GL '\ '\. unlike most other pyramids. I': PI':TKIE. (/~ II. 121-79. language A. .I. al w.wl"c IY~+). lhe entrance is frum the south rather than the norrh. 1993). S. F. r<lLhcr than whether it occurred in the past.7E I ~I (19+5).IH98).\ large number of IllER \TIC papyri. Flinders Pc(]·ic and Guy Brunton discO\·crcd the JE\\TI.n the eastern edge of the F" L \1 IH:GIO'. The internal arrangement of the superslfucIUfC consisted of a knoLl of rock. LLvr. A crucial distinction needs LO be made bct\yecn Ihe stages in lhc dc\'c)opment of the Egypti.1I1I (London. Gumh(l. One of the most unusual features SCllusrcr II'S 1ll0IUIIl1Cnt is the fact that..-[()mbs on the south side of the pyramid. wcrc discol ered hI· Flinders Pe.\p~ ril B.185U-1650 Be) and ranging from religious dOl:lll11enLs to pri\ aLe COITcspondcllce. + (IY8~). sOll/e I~rmh. j-/jt'I"{/(it p(lpyriJimll J. which is thought to han~ originally housed the officials responsible for SenusrCl's royal mortuary cult but was later regardcd as a to\\ n in its own right..I.hc p<.ncicn! Egyptian Lhcrefore includes certain words that arc identicli to those in such langll~lgcs m. 5 (1986)..- LANGUAGI:: L Lahun. perhaps because he \\ as more concerned with the sc(urity of the tomb than irs alignment \\ jlh the circlImpolar stars.. 1992). 'lilt' p)'f"{/I//itls ofEgYPI. being preccded only by SL\I1:RI\' in western Asia.0Cr-::. KI':\ll'."le1lle11l. IR91J). Further documcnt<i wcrc later disl:o\"ered as <1 result or illicit excaViltions. The principal monument is the pyramid complex of Scnusret [I (1880-187-1.:(///Ifll (Iud B"uvro~ and \L A.1. 1989).I.SU\) 13. I. The . which mcans thaI thl' cmphasis is plal:cd on \yhethcr an aCLion has becn complcted or not. Oil'III1N'lll' j (1982). "rhe name ot' the pyramid toWIl of Sesos'risII '. Wli\1.(k arol/lld a ser.alwlIlIlld IlIe ass(J(ialed . Berber <lnd Tuareg. these liyc ling-uisLic branches arc thought to tIeri\L' from an earlier 'proto-language'. G/lmh (l1lt/ HII/lI(f/"{1 (London.-ludelll Egyp/: {fllalol1qr '!I'a (i6Ii::'(//. 101-56. PIal! (~(JI/l' pyrllJlu·d (Oll/plex ofSel///Srel c1-/. G. .\lCIIOI. Egyptian is ~llso thc earliest written language in which \'crbs hayc different 'aSpCl:IS' rathcr than tenscs. . 117-5~. /(ahllll.cn in north Africa anti thc 'lI1ciem Ne... illl:luding items bcaring the or The pyralllhl f~rSC/lligf/ /I {fl el-Lallllll is OJllSlrlft.J.'1. Lun·. In onc of the four sh~lfi. Small sun·jving areas of such settlemcnts h<. arc now in Berlin and have nor ycr becn fully published. If GRIFFITH. U. /)w . Hehre\\.. (I-Iarmonds\\orth.1. J\I. 'l1lahul1srudicn'.. l!rO-fllll/lll (Ne\\' 7: .:. Kal/ll1l alld Gumh (London. known as Afro-Asiatic (or HamilO-Scmitic).l\C been found at other siLcs in the immediatc yicillil~ of Old and . surmounlcd by a network uf stone-buill reraining walls smhilizing the mud-brick matrix of" the building. planncd sClllemcnr. The lI"e(l. 1.-. E. Uni\·ersiL~ College London).l·c oftht' pymll!id. 1923).tr East. LahUl/II 156 .1lcd .I':ln of Sithathoriuncl. U. 1891). h~l\"ing 'l/wly-'(mayor).ingdom pyramids.lballt 100 km southeast of Cliro. rncasuring about 384 m x 335 m. a rectangular.. w. . (London. Bccause of \·arious common c1emcnts of yocabulary and grammar. thcse papyri. 5th cd.rie in 188Y-YO (now in Lhc Petrie i\lusculll.ondon.~rlllffd-br.m languagc and the \'arious pluscs of its writtcn F. York.LA~IUN.

- copper or bronze ~~ y \\ ru deep guttural. the Egyptian language ilself.LEI{\ until the Late PerioJ (747-332 BC). proyed extremdy useful in terms 01" working oul the "ol:<llization of the EgYPlian Ianguagc. [IOl>til':.l).. when it was particularly popular for amulcts. ~ @ ~I h = ~ t as I in tune -"I. 1957). in the "tiddle Kingdom (2055-1650 Be). therefore the~ considered il to be supl'l"ior to all m~lIcrials other than gold and sih-cr. ship h' ~ /VVVV'. ~ d p -++- as = originally ~ !12::ifJ 'd g as d in dune ~ h senses f@ 'lib 'to live' f III r = s (Jlhierog()'phir originally nv as S5 as sit in motion animal (-skin) r ~~ @ c==o -<=>."crbal strucllIrc consisting of ~lrtict1hl1cd clements. passed through sC\'eral phases:.:'lually a Icss suitable means of rendering the Egyptian language.: . condition' 1\ Chllrl dll/mtler. The language has one distiner. I-I. it docs not occur naturally in the desens Egypt but had to he imported or 157 . -e> k 111. Ilu: h~/ori(lIl suluJI/ oI111I: l.\I()TIC emcrged.~I/I{()llJlltil!rog()lpk~. C. \\'hich is dark blue in colour and often necked \\ ith impurities of cakitl'. 1975).lIl \\Tiling s~s­ tems consistcd purely of consonants. Akkadian and Babylonian documt.3reI cd."crb endings.-!lim/sialic: ({ SlI/T()' (The Haguc.. 198.:tcd .m. despitc being .Yl'lllC system was used f()r funerary and rclig'ious te. C. Ne\'erlheless. Its primary use was as inlay in jewellery. by the morc complex 'nnalytical' form of Lltc EgypLi.11(' dij}i. rich in the blue mincrallazuritc (a complex fddspathoid). I? name people cloth tOyi11 } lV I. Coptic texts (as \Yell as occasional instances of Greek. iron pyrites or gold. '\:) =I:=r I -ylII 'sea' ~'Ilf1J1lillg . BC) m:. occupation. bur it W. has sun-j\Td in a fossilized form in the liturg~ of the Coptil: church cycn after I"he emergence of A rabic as the spokcn language of Egypt. T. They used it extensively in JE\\·'~I.olher stones lIsed in Egyptian jewellery. Sinl:e the pre-Coptic Egypti. as eh in loch ~ ~J III 2=:J book (papyrus roll).:\lcnlmorphosed form ofljmcstone.ns used for administrativc and litcrary texts.IS introduced for purely religious and cultural rC'lsons: Egypt had become a Christian country and the hieroglyphic system and its deri\ali\cs were considered to be fundamcntally 'prcChristian' in their connotations. charac.I I I sb rw 'plans. Semitic h Q stronger g asgin good ->(j1 ss. althoug'h small vessels are also known. Unlike 1110sl.nillen in an adaptation of the Greek alph~l­ bet. /-l1l1llilo-Si.nts that transcribe Egyptian \\'orlIs and namcs intu ntlwr sl:ripts) havt. on the other hand. This was ~lt.... Egypliall gnlllll/u//.. II was ti·cquentl~' dcsuibcd as 'rrue' Nles!J{!d.'l1lilim: pm(('ctlings filII ((JlloquilJllllleltl/~). form. (Oxford. abstracts J 0 ~ b ~ b softer ~.LANGUAGE LAPIS LAZULI ~ ~ 3 glottal stop II 11 ~ q as q in queen ~ ~ SI1' ~ D plants 301". and il could also he used ~IS inlay in the eyes of llgurines.\liddlc Egyptian. in l"ilC spoken language at least. . G \RIJI'\I':R./m 0 sun. A.-d) .break. to distinguish it from imitations madc in h\IE'\:CE or (fuss.'rml ~)IPt'. \I-hen 'synthetic' Old and .illguisliCSjlssOl"ialifJl/ (Crt'al Bntain).lol"d. \\as replaced. beillg {[II IIII/w/llctloll 10 tIll' . time ~ . man. By the 25th to 26th Dynaslies (j·n-52:. \\' \1:n:RS • • 111 ell'lIwlllI1:J' Coptic grall/mar (If '''l'Sallitlietliala/. In the first stage. The wrillcn form of Egyptian. C.o'\: (cds). with a . 1971)_ J and T Th. Egyptian is the only 'language asprer' 1'01' which thc changc from the 'synthetic' stagc to 'analytical' can actually be studied in its wriltcn form. I he slOnc-calTcd J 111]{()(il.\ts while thc cursiyc IllEIU'I'lC script . which consisted of the Greek or alphabet combined with six demotic signs. lapis lazuli (Egl"j)li"n khl'sl. The Egyptians considered that iL" appearance imitated thar of the hea\"ens. 2nd cd. lcrizcd b~ inncc. and fill' a number of centuries lhc Greek and demutic scripls wcrc uscd side by side. The demotil: and hieroglyphic "Titing systems beg~1Il to be replaced in the third centur~ I\D by COPTIC..• \lfudl l<JiO(Thc Hague. (O.

including the completion of projects that had been initiated by Saitc rulers.. However. but his successor Darius I (522-486 uc) undertook major building works. embarked on a course of rebellion. and within four years from the whole countn·.f-399 He) prOl'cd to be the only king of the 28th Dynasty: in 399 Be the throne was usurped by Nefaarud (Nepherites) I (399~393 uc). PERSIA had become the dominant power.{gold. Luc-\s. IIERR. as tribute or trade goods from the Near East. who was aided by tWO local rulers from SAIS NJo:KAU I (672-66{ BC) and his son Psamtek <lnd was thus able finally LO establish Assyrian rule O\'er Egypt. although it is morc probable that Ahmose simply reorganized one of a number of existing Greek settkments. was therefore able to reoccupy j\/lemphis. Despite the fact that the 25th-Dynasty 158 kings ruled over a larger territory than in the preceding pcriod. when Esarhaddon (681 ~669 Be) mounted an invasion of Egypt. Psamtek was an astute ruler and sought ro establish a sense of national identity while at the same time making usc of foreign mercenaries. was able to appoint himself king as the first full ruler of the 26th SAITE D"nasl\' (66. The Egyptian kings attempted to thwart the spread of Assyria into the Levant by joining forccs with somc of the Palestinian rulers. l-lowcYer. Later in the dynast~·. the second ruler of the Kushite 25th Dynasty. the son and successor ofTaharqo. -J. exerted Nubian inOuence over the north hath by milit. AIlC/ilil E:. ri\"alled only by the rising empire of the -\SSYRI. The constant breaking of Assyrian rule led to seycre reprisals. and. Not only did they fail to overthrow thc Assyrians. first from the Delta. iraq 30 (1968). succeeded to the throne. a trading colony of GREEKS was established. (London.f-656 BC). but was killed by the armies of T.\I:\N'\.'gYPlia1//!/alerials (Iud intlm/rit's.'i oyer the Persians.\T (332 Be).KIII'T BIR" late Period (747-332 Be) Phase of Egyptian hislOry comprising the 25th to 31 st Dynasties. but by the time rh~lt Ahmosc II'S son. P. he was still unable to suppress all opposition.AK. He appears ro have been 0111 unpopular ruler.8 011./6. thc state does not seem to have been truly unified during this period. J C.f-525 BC). with Tanutamani also gone. ruling . Nevertheless. hut SIl:\[l:\QO (716--702 liC).i~80. The Egyptians. From this time onwards Egypt was increasingly drawn into the Classical and Hellenistic sphere. 58~61. ::'\'ekau I'S son.TEIUIEDIHE PERIOD (1069-7D ue) to the arri\"al of \I. 1962).\NIJER TilE GRE. stretching from the end of the TIIIRD I:>. 3lJ8-400. In 404 Be Egyptian unrest reached a dimax iJ1 the revolt by Amynaios of S~lis which resulted in the expulsion of the Persians. In 525 BC Cambyses (525~.::\JU. 21-57. in 671 BC. Thc Egyptian king TAII.EX.i22 BC) invaded Egypt. }()reign policy in the 26th Dynasty had largely been concerned with attempting to preserve the bahmce of power. supported by military aid from the Greeks. wirh loc'11 princes apparently maintaining considerable independence.Be thcy were themselves threatened. nombly Greeks and Carians. 17.16/6) either directly from Badakhsh<1J1 (in north- eastern Afghanistan) or indirectly. Nekau I was left as governor. Despite its exotic origin it was already in usc as early as the Prcdynasric period. laying waste to great areas of the country and forcing 'I~lIlutamani to flee back to Nubia.\RQO (690-664 BC). Irat{ 30 (1968). Ir is represented in temple scenes at \1EDI:'\IET I-IA-BU and aL J. was morc successful. The Third lntermedi. (£.'NUH"" "I (66. !rallica Allfiquu IS (1980). the Assyrians attacked again. and Ashurbanipal returned to Egypt at some point" after 663 Be. but in 67-1. POR. rhe combined kingdom of Egypt and Nubia was a formidable onc. Psamtek III (526-525 Be).lrly phnses of its trade'. this time under Ashurbanipal (669-627 uc). L ofscaralJ 2. howe"er. lapwing see RF. showing that farreaching exchange networks between north Africa and western Asia must have already existed in the fourth millennium Be:. 'A lapis lazuli figurine from Hicrakonpolis in Egypt'. 'Lapis lazuli in early Egypt'.w~t-:. But Amyrtaios (40. who had fled to Nubia. The beads (Ire o.LAPWING LATE PERIOD De/ail of" bracelet consisting of a/a pis la:::-uli scarab SCI ill gold.th ed. come/iflll ({utlji/iel/ce. This attack failed. E. this by no means put paid to Egyptian independence: a rebellion in HABYLO:\I:\ caused Ashurbanipal to withdraw. the Greek writer Herodotus credits this act to .'\I-I\IOSE II (570-526 Be).uy conquest and by mo\"ing rhe administrarive centre back from Thebes to Memphis. A. PS:\\ITEK I (66~1O BC). (Lapis lazuli: the c. establishing the Persian 27th Dynasty (525-404 BC). G.\:\ rulers.\IH. to suppress those local rulers who might oppose him.tte Period was dominnted hy simultaneous dynasties of rulers in the Delta and the Theban region. and although his second campaign. presumably inspired by Greek "ictorjc.

Late 19th DYI/as. or defaulted on the cor\'(~e labour demanded by the state. Individuals frequently kept their own noles of such cases on OSTRAQ\. Tr is thought that a gold .-ing sratues of high officials from the Late Period are shown wearing such a chain and pendant.'c been the official 'badge' held by legal officials.). 1983). was prc!)crvccl. their children were automatically outlawed along with them. IVlinor cases were tried by councils of elders. records the punishment duties imposed on labour defaulters. 1992). Since Lhe pharaoh \vas a living god. dating to the 13lh Dynasty (c. It is known from DeiI' el-Nledina. presumably so that if repayments were not made in the agreed lime they could remind those preselll at the judgement and receive redress.-izierate offices.14--82. Persian attempts al re-conquest were thwarted until 343 BC when Nectanebo II (360-3. for instance. This short second phase of Persian dOl11ill. Judgements and decisions were evidently recorded by official scribes. G_ Trigger et al. Amenhotep I (1525-1504 BC). Simihtrly.'lI.LES rather I han by human magistr~tcs. It is unclear how this divine judgement W~IS actually given. Thal some were clearly dealt with in this W~lY is reflected in the popular Middle I\:.\.()!. R.3 Be).esel/tatioll (~rthe hug. 1974). I t seems. 'Vith the IVlacedonian conquest.\I. who may have been responsible for deciding the punishment in the most serious Cases.lSCS were archived at the rem pie or . W~IS defeated by Artaxerxcs III Ochus (343-338 BC) who established the 31st Dynasty or Second Persian Period (343-332 BC). Die polilische Gesdlicll/(' . (Cambridge.nioll was particularly unwelcome. RUSS\I:\. A. mostly dealing with small matters such as non-repayment of loans. Cases were sometimes judged by divine ORi\C. 'The L~lte Period. 159 . (f~IJOO. Life ill (l millti-cultuml $(JcieO': Eg:yptji'ol1l CamlD'ses In Cf)I/S/(lIItil1e mul beyond (Chicago. and it is possible that the Yari01l5 industries amI priesthoods associated with the sacred animal necropoleis became an import. that Egyptian law issued similar punishments to aU those who had committed similar offences. no doubt often have been difficult. The law is a particularly difficult area of study because the translation of ancient terms into modern legal language tends to give them a misleading air of precision. bur no such documents haye sun'in:d. however. 295-326 A. The Egyptians do not appear to have differentiated between administrativc and legal functions. irrespective of variations in wealth or status (except in the case of SI.le del/fllIl/cing tlte (fimes ultlrejoreIJ/r11l Pr11leh. c. 19. families could suffer imprisonment if a relative deserted from milimry service. SI'ALINGER. B. was essentially based on the concept of .ingdom (2055-1650 BC) narrative known as the Tide tlte Elf/quelll Peasant. Some slIrvi..t was deemed appropriate. in other words the common-scnse vicw of right and wrong as defined by the social norms of the day.-c been held by the ancient equivalent of a 'm'lgistrate' and the term (mansions' probably referred to the main C~lses or hlw court in Thebes (although there must surely h~l\-C been other such courts).triations being introduced where appropriate. thus allocating them placcs in the overall administrative hierarchy. recorded on Lhe Leopold II-Amherst Papyrus. anyone with a grievance could take a case to the vizier.. The principles of the Pharaonic legal system are thought to have been codified [() some extent.ji-fIIJ1 Dl'irel-Medillu. A historJ' o!(lncit:lIt Egypt (Oxford. in certain circumstances.LAW LAW from another Delta city. 1992). Verdicts and punishments were probably based loosely on precedent wilh v./lOO 11C. Definitions of official roles probably existed for all important offices. it was dearly he who was rhe supreme judge and law-giver (see J. nod in this way were able to srave off further Persian incursions. N.. therefore the situation in earlier times is more difficult to assess. as with his priestly duti-cs. ].$ were parricuhlrly important . There arc. This new line continued the 'nationalistic' air of the 25th and 26th Dynasties. However. Ancient Eg)lpl: a social history... particularly in terms of the renewal of building activity and increased devotion to traditional cults. cel. However.'[CT\:'\EIIO I (380-362 BC). although actually gaining an audience would E K. this papyrus docs not record rhe sentences of the accused.1446.7ahrillmdert 1'01' du Zeitmellde (Berlin. make legal judgements.It this time. Egypt became cstablished as part of the Hellenistic and i\1edilernmean world. VQm Detailji'fl1l1lhe Sail Papyl'lls.trchi.s.-here indi\-idll'lls were sentenced to exile. Egyptian law. The cases that they examined would be reported 10 the pharaoh. so that any person in authority might.f.UT pcndant (nn\l' in the British . J. howcver.1795-1650 BC).OYD.mt part of the economy.\l. 'Esarhaddon and Egypt: an analysis of the first invasion of Egypt'. that the deified founder of the village. like the codes of [TIIIC~.\I. the title 'overseer of the six great mansions' seems to ha.\I HT ('decorum' or 'correctness'). JOIINSO~ (cd.-ing such documents that the famous trial of tomb-robbers. therefore the conquering: armies of Alexander the Great (332-323 BC) in 332 BC appear to have encountered little opposition.. a number of f uncrary texts outlining thc duties of such high officials as the \'IZIER.>enbct in charge of the judiciary. references to past cases were nO doubt usually possible_ It was thanks to this practice of .::L\JGSIIII'). KIE:\ITZ.AVES). For eX<llllple. in the form of thc records of the workmen at I)EIR EL-. GRL\IAL. He and his successors of the 29th Dynasty (399-380 BC) relied hea\"ily upon foreign merccn~U"ics for their military power. H.i\lllselllll) may ha.1Utomatic~t1ly . the last native pharaoh. Since the records of C.NN. Orientalia 43 (1974). In theory.3. but this is known only from the Late Period (747-332 lie).i3). The n~p. nfortunately.\IEIJI'-:I\. his :::'U11I -I.. .{f{)lptem 7.. but it seems that ostraca for and against the aCCllsation would be put at each side of the street and the god's image would incline LOward whichever verdi. a number of cases survive from the New Kingdom (1550-1069 BC). which Cdn shed some indirect light on the legal practices. E. mlticlt cO/ltains lite petilioN QIthe !1Jorkmal/ AmenllaN. Finally they were themseh·cs displaced bl' the . was oftcn asked to decide on particular cases.. beginning with ). it was often found necessary [Q dcleg:uc his authority.279-348. 66+-323 riC'. Tn cases . Papyrus Brooklyn 35. each town having its own local J. The cults of SACRED .lOthDynasty rulers.'S) law A Greek writer states that there was a Pharaonic legal code set Ollt in eight hooks. under the control of Alexander's successors the Ptolemies (see lyrOLDIAIC PERIOD). LI. j\IE"n!::. ruling by di\'inc right. xxvth Dynasty (Brussels.

. R. The Rumans introduced a system of law thaL \Y<lS common throughout the empire. DtIS bi/il/glll' Dc/.('psius. VLEDILV"i.·o11llf f1)Q11ItIIl cal/ed Dedi 10 Iter delfd IliIsl)(md. DiscOi:t'ri('J in EgYPI (London. Eng. in the course of which he discO\'crcd thc C1I10pUS Decree at T\'\'IS. GleaullIgs. Janseen (Lciden. h.. It \'as aftcr the completion of this disscrtation that he began to study Egyptology in Paris.em lx)'plims(\'atiC3n City._anal. .lt thc worlds of the liring . such as Ilark. letters to the dead The Egyptians bc1ie\"Cd th. Most or those rrom thc !\liddlc Kingdom (2055-1650 He) are madc up of an archiye of eighty-six letters from Kahun (see 1:1. H2-5.alliollJ (ltilTlilir papyri illlltt' Brilislt !\'IIIS('IIIIf) (Londun./! ji/h'd IJli/hjootfojJi'rillgs t/Ild plt/ced i11 ({ IOIllb. E. 1872). The earliest known lettcrs belong to the hltter category. 1962).n.. He also worked in Suchm and Palestine. }\\1I'. completing . j. he spent sC\'cral years \-isiting European collcctions of Egyptian . and thc following year he returned to Egypt with an expcdition to record the monuments of the eastern Delta and Suez region. Karl Richard (18 I (}-8~) German Egyptologist \yho led the Prussian cxpedition 10 Egypt in 1842-5.huf's record or a letter sent to him by thc )oung I'EI'\ II (2278-218~ ilL). 1982).ER-\R\ IlEI. (Leipzig. He was born in Naumburg-<lm-Saalc and educated at the uniycrsities of Leipzig. c.le.l'O'. G.. tn 1865. for the last time in order to witness the inauguration of the Suez C.ing help or asking fiJI' forgi\'eness.tntiquities befiJre making his first \isit to Egypt in 18~2. such as the t\\O lettcrs written by an oil-boiler at c1Amarna.. P. eel. j\ lany items of prh·ate and royal correspondence fi'OJn thc lew Kingdom harc sun-i. 'The days on .:tiscd during the 21 st Dynasty (I 069-9~5 Be). H.:e \Hitten on papyri hare survircd. (ou III \ In R.~ t:~J'Plil'1J. His career conrinued with l1UI'I1CroUS furLher publications as well <1S the editing of rhe principal German EgypLological journal (Zeilst/lrJ/i jlir t.s. /21h D. J. whether real or imagined. Thc I/Ckffl/(/Nllc j)(fpas tilld ollter t'ffr()' Alit/dll' KingdoJII d/J(lfll/clIls (Nc.\I EIJI'.htc and his family.1900 HC. 'Les decrcts royaux: source e1u droit" IX 8 (1987). Eg. Greeks \\cre fan>Urcd by the law. Ill/ad \So. 1(.ois (J 1'\i\11'OLLlOi' 's ncwl~ publishcd grammar to learn thc ancient Egyp! ian language. trans. Demaree and j.md the dcad Q\·crlapped (sec FL. ostraca and wooden boards). LL'lIt!rS/rolllllllrielll E:~J'pt ( th1l1[a. .lethifJpie". o.18).·engcancc on the Ih-ing.-his was the gi\ ing of the law through the oracle of Amlin.wing Illaclc one of the greateST individual conrributions in the history of Egyptology.'(/h~)1 have hl'(. TYLDEsl. -100".IS appoinlcd as 160 letters Therc arc two ways in which Egyptian ICltcrs havc been preserved in the archacological record: sometimes the originals theIllschTs havc sUiTived (in the form of papyri. 1852).piSlolllin' rhe::.I1:~slJ1fdl dn tllleJ1. 2 pts (Leipzig. 1-7. B. being hieroglyphic copies of letters sent by King Djedkar<t-lsesi (H 1+-2. -/fgypleJ1Um/ .89-95.) . . (New Leontopolis see TELL '·. Tn the Ptolemaic period (332-30 Be).1-92.\.. J.'cn items of corrcspondence betwecn Ilekanal. and his main aim was to rccurd the major munuments and collect 'lIltiquitics. S.I.1 colleague.Jf1/a. J.mel a set of cle. Like Champollion. 184-9-59).inue to take an interest· in the aflairs or their Elmilics and acquilintances.~ tfl' 1i.uc letters. and in 1869 hc \'isired Egypt modifictlions. in the samc Wil)' as the earlier Napoleonic expedition (sec E(~"YI'UI.·cn lO wreak .~p(Jqllc phartlolliqllc (Paris. Gottingcn and Bcrlin. f{/j". invariably requcst. Ear().-1.En) oflhe .fil1algro:m·lIIilli'lJ/.'\TE. still prO\·idcs useful information for modern archacologists (many of the sitcs and monuments having severely detcriorated since the mid nineLecnth century). Only a fe\\ other letters h.. Dellkmtlt'll!r tltIS. or .' York. 18. The jutfgclIlI.175 IlC) to the officials Scnedjemib and Shepsesra . sending some firtecn thousand antiquities and plaster casts back to Prussia in the course of his tnI\·cls. Riduml [.ard in the Slate cuurts.uidl' 1('lIcn lIml COIllI1lI1Il. .'1/1 oIII1l' ph(/raoh: (rill/t' (//1(1 plllfi:dl1111'111 ill (/JI(il'lll Egypl (London 20(0). ridiculing his abilities .ulIg beida Tc. R. which.I1elhiupicn. with unly sllmmar~ Keeper of the Egyptian collections in the llcrlin l\ll1sClll1l. 1886). 1991).'rJCI:::.C expedition in the form of an immensc rwelvevolume work. 0/1 gl'l1n' (..-cs incurponlte transcriptions or letters. including a skillcd draughtsman.-\ILQD.!i·oJII Deird-.CJTI·:RS). including the simple hieratic notes on oslraca sent by rhc workmen at DEI\{ EL-. 18.. LEI'SILS. 1991). inscriptions or tcmple archi. and cases against them were generally h(.LEONTOI'OLIS LETTERS TO THE DEAD J\ national variant on . which was pra<. EBERS. f oin:sji-olll (luo"elll L:~}lpl (London. 11.I1edi!lll.ale RlIlI/f. I. \\'t:.Ca. J. so Ihat it was possible for the c1ead to C01ll. iufor11ling himlhal/heir serl"tlul-girl is ill tlllt! appett/iug 10 hi11ljor help ill martling'drlht' il/m'ss. A large numbcr or actual items of correspondem. in which one orficial writcs lO .:wu/t').()GY).93-101. 1990). I.. This document would h'l\'c cduc'ltcd scribes in the protocol of letter-writing.1Ild setting tcsts of his nureaucnltic knowledge. and Lhe foyal diplomatic correspondcncc fj·om c1Amarna (sec 1\.It . numerous latc Ramesside pri\·.tlthough all impOrlanL specializcd form of letter from this period has survived in the form or the so-callcd 'SE\\'\JI\ dispatches' (12th-Dynasty military cOl1lmuniciltions hetween'fhehes and the Nubian FORTIU:SSES).\HLSIR.·gYPlisdlt Sprat/Ie /lilt! _lIler/lIll/sl. Hc died in Berlin in lR8~. but in many other cases such commemoratiye documents as stelac.I doctorate in 1833.v) .\1{ \RI. J WII50" 'Authority and ht" in anciC:1l1 Egypt'. 19S~).' ptian 1:1\\ existed alon~rsidc that of the Greeks."hich the f(lIb.-\ . Fewer than twenty of these leltcr)o.\.lmeri{(/1/ On'mlal SQrieJy Sljljll"III""117(195~). Lepsius W.-I lelia 10 Ihl' dmd mrillL'1I /If/lhe illltrior (RIGI rr) alld eXlcrior (I. like the Napoleonic Descriplioll de I'E'gyple. La 1.:rel1-'oll A'-tll/f/p1lS ill tier On:l. and perhaps c. In 18~9-59 he published the results of d.\1 \SI'ERO.we sun'i\'cd from the Old Kingdom (2686-2 I 81 BC). 11 vols (Leipzig. .\I'\R'J \ I.m Boml'. JUI/rna/ of/he .\1 York. R.1EFS).'. G.:lS written in cunciform on clay tablets. Lepsius. S \RR_\F. used to gather'.o/I/Jf/ till tfmi/ tf'lfprcs It's tllIr. (I rou7h fed POllclY vessel mhich would pm. The Il'//l'r isj. which \\.\1 tL . although only certain cases could be tried under it. using jcan-Franc.:I'SO~.rlt.I \~SSI':'. 1887). He took with him a tcam of Prussian scholars. DI!/lkll/aclcr ({lIS /Iegyfl/en [{wi . The rclatiyes of the deceased thercfore often sought to communicate wiLh thcm by \\TiLing letters.--{t'!I)'Plu. P'\RI. G. a bilingual doculllenl that providcd a uscful linguistic comparison \\ iLh the ROSErL\ STU'!:.-ed. One of the most importanl texts used in scribal [caching during this period was lhc satirical Ll'lIer I~r flo!".

l\nkhiry'.\IASTIC.lbandoncd him and thrcatcning to comphtin to Lhe gods ahout the unhappiness that her untimely death had caused.lI11csseuITI. was home to the Tjchcnll. Tcresh.Illy papyri.. C\'\. Until tbe Nell Kingoom (1550-1069 lie).ikc room in lhe southern wall of the. two of which . 1-1. This collection of lexts . hut the only..'Ster Be. 1989).\lIy little more than plInith'e raiding.. 1988). Thcy were regularly depicl'ed by the Egyptians as bearded and light-skinned) but they wcre also occasionally sho\\'n as fairhaired and bluc-eyed.!'TA I I (1213-1203 lie) to repulse them. Tjemehu.\. I-Ie f"ceo a force comprising not on.lead because of the magical powers lhat they "-ere thought to h. including literary narratives.\matic or ritualistic composition."ared from a room in the Fayum city of 'Tcbturlls. exca.1:>2 m:) by leuers addressed directly to deities. but they appear to have been replaeeo in the Late Perioo (7-17-.. 5 under the R. another large librnry was created.1-2589 BC) or the 4th Dynasty and Sahli.}EA 52 (1966).: Alexandria library had prab.l 'library'.icher1iste des Tempels "on Edfll lind Imhotcp'.\Kl).H R. thaI thc defeated enemy depicred on the late Predynastic Ilattlefield Palene «(. G.-hich they were anachcd. the legacy of the Alexandria libraries can be measured also in terms of the scholarship underlakcn by such writers as l\pollonius of Rhodes and Aristophanes of Byzantium. the \"'estern Descrt. As far as the libraries of the Plur. "A late Old Kingdom lei ter ro the dead from Nag' ed-Deir . R. but this too was destroyed in \1) 391. definitely identifie. L.1250 Be) at Thcbes has pro"ed a more comentiolls question.3100 BC) were Lihyans. and still currcnt in hncr times.tter in the Ptolemaic period.md learned their trade.o. such as those at ES'\ \ and PlllLAE." (2487-2475 BC) orthe 5th Dy-nasly.gy/lliall fe/h'rs the dcad (London ItJ2S). beyond Egypt's frontiers..we lists of texts wriuen on ccrtain walls. \ .\1. 18(8).54-9.: i:tlllislll'tllibrury. 'An Egyptian bookplate: the ex-libris of Am enol' his III and"Ieie'.-\\I.\l1s'. PARK. .·ariety of texts which might have been included in a 1\1 iddle Kingdom library. h.\ Libyan chicf by lhe king. The (cllers date from the Old Kingdom to rhe l'\cw Kingdom (2686-1069 BC). as \lE:\\PIIiS and EI. K.:d by Egyptian priests was compiled by Clement.. A small temple library of the Roman period. 'till" RlIlIleSSClI11I (London. action a~inst the Libyans was gcncr. The term pu 11/l'lIj(l1 ('house of papyrus rolls') is used to describe the repositories of papyri associated with go"ernmCnt buildings and tcmple complexes. usually t..~ (C1mbridge. a hymn to Sobek and fragments or a dr:. I hu.Ire also inscribed with the names of the literary works written on thc papyrus rolls to . a scene repe.. showing Lhe dispatching of. l\ list of the texts llse.\bl)' bce.ETnJ{s)) an O\:O.-ingdom papyri .-\lEI)I\:\..1.\clual institution or building.iS 100 (1973).lhura's mortuary temple contained relief. although they .l)" l\Ileshwesh and Libu but . including lhe ChC.'c not survived.\ted in the mortuary temple or Pep) II (2278-2184 IIC:) of the 6th Dynasty. but temple libraries and official archives ha."ery existcnce) of a library in the R \ \IESSEL. but it h~lS been paimed Out that their cxtcnsiyc geographical distribution probably indicates a widespread sense of the need to communicate with the <.Menl (N3737) ill Nag' ed-Deir'. 'The lettcr!u fhe dead from lhe [()mb of .\1C\. . although archives of lhe late New Kingdom administrarion were found in the immecliate vicinity of the murtuary temple of Ramcscs III at ~lEDL\'ET liMn. has been identified at stich citic."e generally proved more difficult to locate. 1\ L Ryle (Lonoon. G:\R])I~E]{ 31lU K.:d temple library is il niche-l. initially cre~lling both institutions as an.lOnic period arc concerned. An inscription Q"cr the entrance to this room describes it as the 'library of Horus" although it is pussiblc that it simpl~ cont~\incd thc fcw rolls necessary It)!' the daily rituals. military dispatches from SEj\INA fortress (see J. L. 147-60.is ofren referred to as . however. who also founded the ~luseum ('shrine of the Muses'). 'Dic agyplischc 'lcmpelbibliothek'. King !)JEIl (cJOOO BC) of tbe 1st Dynasty is said to have sent an expedition against the Libyans. Libyans (Tjehenu. 78-115.FOR \J '11. The existence of I"Oval libraries is indic<lted by the survi\'~tl of thrce faience 'bookplates' bearing the names of A:\II'::'\IIO"l'I]' III. The word 'library' is also used to describe the large col- Icetion of papyri owned by a succession of scribes at DElI{ 1-:l.E\:\l\"DRI/\. probably within the Alexandria SER \1'[\. Sherden and "arious Aege. 'Bibliotheken in alLen Agypren'.nexes to his palace.. 'Die Bi.llso Ekwcsh. who both served ns directors of the Great Library.' PEOPLES..18-64~ L Gl'IUIOT.wc acquired in the afterlife.. 142-5. SIJ\\I'SUX. 1oifesJi'01l1 (II/rim/ Egypt (Lonoon. ~lesbllesb. I'I1lIr(w!tJ tl1fd "'Orltll. \V. R. S. h is thought likely. Some letters to the dead wcre simply written on papyrus but a number of shrewder individuals adopted the plo~ of inst:ribing the texts 011 the bowls in .. J E.300 IIC). A numbcr of temples.: otHer hypostylc hall of lhe Greco-Roman temple of Horus at EIJFL (c.EI\lr I Soter (305-285 Be). (1980). 30-. with most modern Egyptologists I~\iling to identify any rOOI11 that equates "ith thc 'sacred library' mcntioned by the Greek hislOrian Diodorus (c.-hich food was offered to the deceased in the tomb-ehapcl. 9-1-103. nUKK.JJ:"/12 (1926). Libu) In the Ohl and J\liddle Kingdoms.. discovering a wooden chest containing a set of papyri belonging to a lector-priest of the I Jth Dynast'· (c. bishop of Alexandria in the late second ccnlury 1\IL In 1896 James Quibell excavated shaft-tomb no. Although the papyri thcmseh'es ha. (r. I:.the mosl valuable single find of. SETIIE. They seem to have been semi-nomadic pastoral.39-52. By the time of Scty 1 (129-1-1279 BC). 'Lettrc a une cpo use defuncte (Pap. 371)'. Leiden I.1 Ramcssidc military officer to his dead wifc} whom he addressed as 'the excellent spirit. One of the bcs(known such letters was scm from . magical spells. QLlBEI. 110. /0 A.JEA 56 (1970).1170 BC). -. a people knO\nl as the i\ileshwcsh and T. there is certainly evidence that the Alexandrian institutions stood at" the end of a long tradition of EgYPlian archivism.O'\'.tn groups. They attacked Egypt in rvIerenptah)s l6l . The.:n established by IJTOI.L~99 (1973). 85-90. asking her why she had .1 (1984).\ liddlc f'. II. L. which was burned LO the ground in the Iarc rhird ccntury 1\D. J D. Biblili/hd:: ForsdulIIg lI1fd Pm..ranslated as 'Lib~. This confederation became known as the SE. medical remedies. and other campaigns arc recorded unoer S~E""':RU (261.1795-1650 lie).\re often difficulr to distinguish satisfactorily from the inhabitants of the wcstern Delta of Egypt irself. where Egyptian SCRIBES generally worked .ibu had settled in the territory prc\"iollsly occupied by the Tjchellu and were attempting to settle in rhe Delta.rJ~~ -J.I.79-80. lrans.3500'.. WESSETZ" \. contained a number of literar~ ~1I1d medic~ll works along with the purely religious texts that had no doubt dominated mosl earlier temple libraries in the Pharaonic period.I2\'SO~. libraries The gcncral queslion of the nature of ancient Egyptian librarics is orcrshadowcd by thc loss of the Great Library at AI..:. The localion (or indeed the . 1991). but in Ihis context the tcrm refers more loosely to an assemblage of documcnts rather than an .\I (c. Z. BOuKKI \L. the texts prO\'ide a good idea of lhe wide . They were held at hay by Set)' and his son R"meses II (1279-1213 IIC)) but it was left to 1\ II·:IH:/\. Shckelcsh.LIBRARIES LIBYANS have SUryi\Td.ists. and they m~lke occ~\sional appearances in Egyprian art from early times. G. Nevertheless.80 BC). The I lOUSE OF LIFE (per lIukh).

1990). K. 51-65. . 1914). onl" to be dereatcd in a bloody naval barrie.I) in the Delta was sacred to Ihe lion god IVlihos (Greek Mysis).--19. SANDi\RS. . symbolic of past and fmure. smlpletl inlhe reign of Amen/lOlep III bUI bearing a dedicalory lexl of TlIlallkhal1llln und a11 il/scriplion ~tl"e A1lcroilh rn/cr AJJlunis!o. perhaps in order that the occupant roo wou ld rise renewed after sleep or rest.lqqilra in the SACRED ANI"'!\!.ER guarded thc gateway to the underworld through which the sun came and wCnt each day. LEt\11Y. 11+. Headrests sometimes took the form of this lIkhef hieroglyph.<. Ironically. and the motif of I"he smiting of a Libyan ehier reappeared in the temple or 'Elharqo (690-6M Be) at '.125-60. so the lion was also connected with death and rebirth and was thus portrayed on funerary couches or biers. TIll! easlau Lik)'II1IJ (London.lTER:\TURE). \VAIX\rRIGlIT.. and some scholars argue thal the existence of contemporaneous lines of rulers was characteristic of Liby.11 and they returned under Ramoses III (118+-1153 Be).It first serving the generals rulingl'hebes in the 21st Dynasty (1069-945 Be). and although the initial response was slow the king eventually drove them hack. IHSTA) and T. on either side of the IIDRIZON hierogl.\t'\IS respectively (see OSORKO" and SIII·:SIIO'Jq)..LIBYA'S LIO anarchy. N. when their symbolic and religious associations first became esmblishcd. J7 111. Since the sun itself eould be represented as a lion. on an example from Tumnkhamun's tomb they flank SHU. c. The Delta sire or Leontopolis (TELL ELj\lUQPM. I am the Shll'et who eats the roreleg. -. as the 22nd and 2Jrd Dynasties (945-715 lie).~ide· {i 10 lhe 1:':IfYPliall deities SekltmcJ IIlld He!. supported by two lions.ji'om Soleb. The aggressive and anarchic spirit of these times is perhaps renected in the demotic Cycle nf Petlu!Jaslis (see J. T'lle Sell Peoples: IVfI. LibYlIlIllIl Eg)lpl. ruling from nuhastis (TELl. II. /I.jnd Shu and TEF1'. But the victory was not fin. they came to be considered as the guardians of Ihe eastern and western horizons. the leg or beer is extended to me.limcstol1t:. /rom Gebel Barka!. 1978). The beds ilnd chairs of the living wcre sometimes also decorated with lions' paws or heads.m society._J73965) fifth regnal year. god of the air. (fel2) 162 . 221/{/ DY1llHJy. 'Some notes on the' Libyans of the Old Kingdom and later hisroriClI reflexes'. c. . In this connection they sometimes replaced the eastern and western mountains. t/fl11f11ioll rill/cd ill lite hieratic lexl be/om to ycar 7 (~lShesJ/{mq I' tllld speq/icd (II len tlrouras (a/8JUI seven at"I"Cs).) (111. Chapter 62 or the BOOK OF TilE DEAD st<Ucs: 1~1i1Y I be granted power over the wmers like rhe limbs of Seth. 181h D. £". Since the sun was horn each morning and died each evening on the horizons.760 IlC.EA48 (1962). 'The ~1cshwesh"J. A Greek papyrus mentions lion burials at S. G.)IIIU.1). 30. who were probably Ihemselves of Libyan ancestry. particularly during the 2Jrd Dynasty. pmbab~). the places of sunrise and sunset. J3-rn:.·lI. Jr is possible that the connection between the king and the lion stemmed from the hunting of these animals by the tribal chiefs of the Predynastic period.l'~JI./3S0 He. Since lions characteristically lived on the desert margins. 1 ~lm the Lion or Ra. but these have not yet been laconed... supposedly killing six thousand and taking nine thousand prisoners. The g:!rgoyle rainspollts of lemplcs were often made in the form oflions' heads because it W~lS im'lgined that the lion stood on the temple roof absorbing the evil rainstorms of SETII and then spirting them out down the sides of the building. J\'l. for I am he who crosses the sky. Despite this politic:!1 unccrtainl"y. many of the prisoners taken in such actions were forcibly settled in Egypt and gradually became a powerful group. as well as embalming tables. necropolis.89-99. Ultimately the Libyans came 10 power in their own right. although there seems to have been little monumental construction taking place. lion By the Pharaonic period the number of lions Stele showing" Ljlm chielt~ni:rillg lite hierog6'plt for ·COlll1lr'y. certain crafts such as bronze work nourished. J.iflJ'S oIl/it: easlern Medilerranean (London.III"A. gralli/i'. original().7SSEA 9 (1979).UT were also venerated in leonine form at S.. (E. This so-called 'Lihyan period' was heset by rivalries between different claimants to the throne. The reunification of Egypt under the Kushite 25th Dynasty and Saite 26th Dynasty put an end to the period of Libyan in Egypt had declined compared with prehistoric times. A.vph (akhe/). SP-\UXliER. representing the sun. The lion-god i\h.1300-750 He (London. 0. who suppons the head of the king..alUl' oIa Ij(m. 'The Libyan period in Egypt: an essay in imcrpretation\ LibYlllI Sludies 16 (198. A.

1080-90. \Vithin particular periods of Egyptian history. cd. Although many texts have been .rLl~\·It/ I: TlU' pyramid 1~I'Sel1/11o. However.g. fl.17) 58011.IS no literature in . R6SSI.. the individual documenrs cm.KIi\SON.baden.EK.:.1 town-site has not yet been located.()III. Lisht. \\1. they are usually best understood in terms of the specific historical and social context in which rhey were wrirren. /2111 gessoal tlud pain/l'd mood.J l\tI::T.I). originally 61 m high. IIIERxnc. courtiers. surrounded by nine small subsidiary pyramids.\IPIlIS as lhe scat of government. as well as a few surviving caches of papyri and ostraca owned by individuals or institutions. there were many different genres of texts. proyide a good sense of the range of texts that" were deliberately collected and preserved during the Pharaonic period. DYII{1s~}I.SRET J (£'. The actu. be v:lriously grouped ilnd categorized on the basis of such diverse critcria as physical media (e. Till' . 51\II'SO:\'. As far as IIISTORY :\"0 IIISTORIOGR.EK-I-.. used in pri\-atc tombs to provide a poetic description of the \'irtues of the dece'lsed. . Senusret-ankh's burial chamber contains cxtncts from the PYJl. ltjtawy. the most important of these was SEJ. script (1IiEROGL\ '·IIIC.T. chief priest of 1"Ii\ll. Greek or COPTIC) and the precise date in the hisLOry of the language. . Otto and W.:11\'G LISTS). c. U. \Vrr.ll. its core included limestone blocks taken from Old Kingdom buildings at S!\(~l!\RA. was origin:llly about 58 111 high. about 50 km south of Cairo.gypIC lll1c'ie1l111:(Leiden. ARNOI.. W. Reudiug Egypliall art (London.\PII\ is concerned. tcn se.ing of <1 new royal residence. used in roY'11 tombs. including that of Scnusrct-ankh.H the northern end of the site. there W. A stone causeway leads down from the mortuary temple towards the \alley temple exc~l\·atc<.1.n"v Ml'SELII.IBRARIE. 1980). H. Le role clle SCI/S tlllliOI/ dims 1'1:.Wllflt ame/uies oILislt/ II: Tlll'tontrol liMes {lmllellm 111l1rh' (l'\ew York. SCI IWEITZER..".. 'The residence of Ir-rowy" lARCE 2 (1963). lts mortuary Lemple was loc'lted on its east side.ived (see It..\I<. (METROI'OI. literature The term 'Egyptian literature' is oftcn employed to refer LO the enrire sUrYiving corpus oftcxLs fi'om the Pharaonic period (usually excluding such pfi1ctical documents as LETTERS or administrati\'e texts). Sec also SPIIINX. E. and the 'funerary autobiography'.\.\BA rombs of Slaluctlc o/a god or king (p{Jssib~)I SCllusrel I) /rom 'he lomb oflm/wlep in Ihe sOlllh pyramid cemelery (II e/-Lisht. since they wcre sometimes regarded as lion cubs created by ATUr-.111 of Senusret J. like othcr ancient texts.Most leonine deities wcre female. Cairo). There is also some evidence of the composition of such technical texts as medical treatises. lJl-:). 1985). 163 . The complex of Senusret I is similar in basic plan to that of his {':lther.\"'1!/ / (New York.68-9. N . 53-M. elNecropolis including the pyramid complexes of the two earliest" ] 2th-DynaslY rulers.. SEW) OHA. Westendorf" (Wie. Lowc-St. whose cult was eventually merged with those of 1l. K./950 ne.\1\11':'1.LISHT.-he narrowest sense of the term. R.1951).. located :lbout 200 m LO the east of the outer enclosure ".. The Old Kingdom literary record was dominated by religious I'Li"ER!\I{Y TEXTS. Inscriptions listing the coments of temple arcru\'cs and I. OSTRACA. C.Issigned to particular genTes (such as WISUO\I J.1985-1920 Be).l by the Antiquities Inspectorate. located on the west bank or rhe Nile. it has probably been covered by cultivated land.1I1d mathematical documents.ncd life-size statues of the king were found (now in thc Egyptian Nluseum. U/J1)l' 1I1/t! sphillx illl (fltcn AgJlPlell (Gliiekstadt.\IE.. DE. a few fragments or annals have sun. which appears to hare temporarily replaced .·1. EL- LITERATURE the site. I'\I'YRI or STEI . TIlt: . because. rather than being used in its much more restricted sense LO describe overtly 'literary' ompul. 19{5). Thc pyramids :lre surroundcd by I he remains of numerous i\ll\~'l'. 1992). I-leick.IO"'Ie. 7'l1t: S01l11l (ClIIl'leries (). \VII. like many Egypti'lI1 settlements.ITElV\TUHI': or love pocms).'STET and .HlIcn" LexiI'oll tier Agyplologie Ill. U. She was regarded as one of the "EYES OF RA " and in one myth she was almost responsible for the annihilation of mankind. comprising a limestone pyramid. although no actw11 documents have sun-i"ed.\lID TEXTS executed in sunk hieroglyphs. including technical manuals such as medic-dl . 1990). ltjtawy is often mentioned in texts of the period and probably lay a short distance to the cast of cl-Lisht.wlI/1l {('me/aiL's ofLiS/II Ill: Tllc pyrllmid {/Implex ofSellfflOsre/ / (New York I 1992). 'Lowc-Kopfc.:l\'UIAT J and SENL. . .\E). parLicularly the PYI{A \IID TEXTS. D. Although a form of verse was used for many 'non~practical' writings. The pyramid of Amenemhat I. Just to the north of the mortuary temple. The est:lblishmcm of a royal necropolis ar el-Lisht was a direcr result of the found.

·idual.s. although others have suggested.ralflre et pulitiljlle dullS fE. "01. census lists. J6. Greek works such as the Homeric epics or Ilcllenislic noyc1s and poetry.we been as low as 0.. . Although the demotic script. lotus Botanical term used by Egyptologists to rcfer lO the w:ltcr lily (S£'SIIt. The related question of the extent of Iileraey is also contro.lrtS of the plant were somctimes eaten.j set of slOries dealing with the exploilS of a heroic indi.\lUll n.'cr.LITERATURE LIVESTOCK The Middle Kingdom \Y.10 ITIIU'I.'I/). see I. II1llmOmll. In hllcr limcs. SCRIBES. t:.1ri\"es and accounts uf actual e"ents. I iJiteslm11l aUfie1ll Eg)lpt: III/ IIntlllllo. bcfllrc closing and sinking beneath the water. 3 .. which served as the emblem of Upper Egypt. based on the Pyramid T(. '1\"0 hue Nc\\ ~ingdom documents.lCwal c\-cnrs. and part of this problem stems from a gt'neral inabilil"~ to recognize the aims and collfexls of particular texts.. 2. The buds form under water ~md gradually break the surface before opening suddenly :l few days later.f ..gypt£' de la \lte t()'l/(wit' (Paris. as 'propaganda') prm'lde a good counterpoint to oflicial texts.g. 'Ocr lirernrischc Tnre im Alten .. the Ncporl of IIt:1I1l1lf1l1l and the LiJcrtllJ' [. funerary texts (e. Chapter g 1 of the BOOK OF TIlE m:"\1) is COllcerned with the act of being transfllrmed into such a lotus: '] am the pure onc who issucd from Ihe fCll Oh Lotus belonging 10 the scmblanee of Nefcnem. B. R. mathematical and diagrammatic texts. wriTTen in hieratic fi'om the Ramesside period onwards and usually consisting of dramatic monologues spoken by one or both of the 100'ers. ahhough m. which h. It is noticeahk thal literary texts began to be composed in Late Egyptian.-III(iCIII Egyptiall literuturt'. -t . The rJnge of demotic literary genres was jusr as wide JS in hieroglyphs and hieratic. Throughout the Pharaonic period it is often difficult 10 distinguish hel"ween fictional narn. it began to be used for literary texts from at least Lhe earl. pail1ted mood. as well as man~ ICg.'crsial.+ per cent of the population. 1991). the Tale (~r Ihe E/flqJfl'11J PellSalll. frequently held to {he noses of banqueters in tomb scenes. 19n). ' The bluc lotus was also the emblcm of the god NEFERTL\I. induding a much \\ ider range of types of te'\t.tny of the details of their plots indic. {.md u:rrERS. such as the Thle of the Predestined Prince and the Title (~r the Captllrc nfJoppa. rathcr mislcadingl~ and anachronistically. hymns or didactic text's. in contrast to rhe Lower Egyptian Pl\1'YRU~ plant. !:'ar(l' 18th D.l'l1l1. the Tides oj" l1imdn (PapHLls \\'cslear) and the Tide ufSiullltC. L1~TI'EIlS TO J.\.\(s. see "1"-\'\ \"1"10_'\ and TR_\DE). magical spells and medici.\'1J 1. ~ lany of these fictional narratiycs lVollf/m board. P \Rh:I'SO'. Ir\I:'\S . journals) 'funerary biographies'.llled \miscclJany\ consisring of collections of prayers.lliddlt. It is noticeable. lViany scholars have argued that thc percentage oflitcratc members of Egyptian society may h. 1I0u~E OF LIFE. The lorus was symbolic of rebirth. cd.!t1t! Sailor. lVelulIIlJo lIf1q/era. (/ li/£'rmy dis{fIJlr.ob (l.\:"~.m Litcrarure'..1te historical backgrounds.'. was introduced from India. The t"o outstanding examples of demotic narr. and recent researchers ha.'cry large flowcrs.\·/rm (~rlh(' Discourse of Khakhcpc1'1':ISCllCb. 378-90. fi-om which they do not rc-emerge.J. including loye poems.ingdom (e. decrees and treaties.lS particularly characterized by the introduction of slIch fictional literature as rhe 7hle of fltt' S/tipIPral. There arc also numerous suryi. III the l\ew Kingdom (1550-1069 BC) mam of the existing ~enres were augmcnted and cxpanded. is generally considered to be more light-hearted and episodic. n1. prrn'l'J/lIl1((. . the B(){)"'OFTlIE DE\D).-99. jTl.' Ptolemaic period onwclrds.'c suggcsted lh~1t the lotus had hallucinogenic properties. . and the blooms generally last only a single day. excmplif~ this problem. It is the blue lurus which is most commonly dcpicted in art. The Alldwr 8iMe DittiOJulIY. similar to the modern amhology. showing the subtle shades of distinction hetwecn good and e.!..). ~1I1d cerrai.\STIC. i\1:muscripts hare surviyed more plentifully from the 12th and 13th Dynasties.y passing (f (ort! Ihmllgh Ihe hole IJ// Ihl' righl. ahhough the fragrance may not be 'Try strong.\gYPlcn: \'erslich cincr Bcgriffbcstimmung'.. G.117-26. the COFFI' TE~TS. from. howcver. prt'/wn:d wilh gt'SSIJ {II pJ"(Jl'itle 1I good /pri/jllg SIII:!{/tC.. Tn the religious sphere.. milS probab(y suspended/i'ol!l II pe!!.·il.nly no more than four. 19j6). trials and wills..'. onomastica.l" l!rE:~)'pl. and the blue Nympllflert raulllac. 'Liter:lc~ and ancienr Egyptian SOCiCI~'. offering lists. IS (1983).nive fiction arc the '1i11f'S (~r Se/llel KI/(/elllnJaset and the Cycle (~rJIf(/ros/ Pedulwsfis. II. n ::\. since one of the CIlE \'1'10'\ myths describcs how lhe newborn sun rose out of a lotus noating on the waters of 'C~. tl1at virtually all of rhe surviving 'Literary' texts were primarily aimed at (~lI1d wrinen by) a small elite group. . introduced in the Late Period. 1\lany such documents arc perhaps besl regarded as semi-fictional \\orks and their original function and intended audience may nevcr he properly c1arificd. hymns. a third typc.md a slightly smaller flO\ycr. 'd'1y-books' (dail~ scrib:11 accounts of royal acti. whose petJls are bluntly poinled and which has .I'li\:'\IES TO O~O'I._JllrlCllt rcam!. deeds of sale. The lorus ilml papyrus are exemplified by two types of granitc pillar in the 11all of Records at h:!\R. \\\).:iugd/J11IIl'ritil1gs (London. or at least influenced by.'. Sec also EDUCATION. In addition.11 records (e. livestock see IJLSB\~I)RY \GR1Clxn':RE and \:'\'1\\ \1. all of which purport to be historicli aCColints. 11 has been suggested that some oflhe themes and motifs in these demotic tales were borrowed from. POSI·. including such Glteguries as annals. The lexl is Ilu: o!lh' rc(/. was initially lIsed only fl. J n 'I'\L~.\l\".llg 7. f\ ncw fc)rm of text is the so-c:. . began to be used in priyate tombs. U. 1\ L 1. The Greek historian Herodotus states lhJt p. altl)()Ugh no love poetry has yel been attested.'iries) ..)r commercial and administratiye texts.·ty.'ols (Chicago.w/l{/f.)' of. on lhc basis of the copious written records from IJEm EL-MEI>I2'JA (admittedly an atypical community). howevcr. 30011. in that the~ prcsent a much more :lmbi"alent "icw of ancicnt Eg~ pi. 'Egypli.cller oI "ltu'.H' (()/I({'ming sf/tial and pNsr}/fal (haos. each consisting of. in tllat we cannot be sure whether they arc official accounts of actual individuals or simply stories with comparatively accur.g. BIU:ASTI':D. au 69 (197-1). (I:' 156-15 I) (somctimes described. 11. king lists.tl remedies (sec \\ \Gle). Ass\I. f. 1975-80). Freedman (Nt"\\ York. The centre of (he nowers is yellow. that the ability to read and write was considerably more widespread.'I:I{."'''GUAGE).l1c that they were fantasies designed to cnrcrmin anti edify ntthcr than to record .F. probably afrer j25 BC. whereas official inscriptions conl"inued to he written in Middle Egyptian (sec !. The style of New Kin~dom narratives. prayers. 190(. tax documents. 'lord of TilE DEAD.ondon.'ing records of economic transactions from the ::\cw K.g.15UO IIC. During the Pharaonic period there were essentially two kinds of 10lus: the white 1\~)'lIIpltllell lot liS.~)1 slfrrh.my more 'personal' types of documenr began to be composed.lS pointed petals .

PROIJL Ch'l) em RTI:'S\ OF TIIH CRIFFl7'111.LOVE POEMS L XOR perfumes'. t\ t. which is one of the fcw surviying examples of temple relief from the reign of TLT\. NI. A.-S \(II11R. The perislTle court.B2 Be). L"/flllp/edt LOllxflr(Cairo.· Ralllses /I ti l. 'Luxor remple and rhc culr orLhe royal /·/I'. DE 19 (It)91).1330 11r:.J'lrl1led.C pricsthood in order to protect them from the pillaging of in\·adcrs.'/'cy (~rlhe Killgs.I. 1I0RE.11.4.~I"\IL' (]}36--1327 Be).49-54. Lajira' Jud dll Iflassift's/ dll p.\K'\I\: cachenc) \"as cxcavatcd from beneath the noor of' the court of Amcnh()[ep Ill. '\0.H:hcttc of exquisitely can'ed stone statuary (similar to the "-. •• •• •• (l }23-1295 BC. \V. A./"lTlT/. The discorcly (~(thl' sla/mllY eadli'lle oILuxur /1!I1lpft> (1\ lainz. 5.~/y.inc rOY~ll "'\ in the presence of Amun.\\IESES II (1279-12l3 Be) and AI. had perhaps been buried there by d. Dus Saui:liwr .ry/ Ctcmple of the southern private quarters' or 'southern !Jariw'). .\T\T uux:"s deriving fi'om a now-destroyed templc to the \TE'. form of :\Tefcrtcm emerging from a lotus (sec illusrrat ion). the p~ Ion entrance and m'o OIlEI. II. L.lS founded in the rcign of Ai\IENIlO'l'EP III (1390-1352 m:) ~lIld augmented by sllccessi\'c pharaohs.. ]0 till.\ l. dating mainly to the 18th Dynasty (1550-1295 Be). constructed by Amcnhotcp III ::Ind later usurped by 165 . 'The most bcttluiful ofnowcrs: w. 251-94. 'The so-called plant of Upper Egypt'. Thc pylon con mined T\J. including R. NIHlll..uuxor(Cliru. is nanked Iw a frieze depicting the celebration of the Fcstiyal of Opet. 1971). who claims to hayc restorcd it 1"0 its original st.1986).1 shrine of the imperial cult in the Roman period and eventually partially overbuilt by the mosque or Abu Haggag. ·"'l ::::5:::: •••••••• •• •• •• •• •• •• : : peristyle court of : : •• Amenholep III •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •••••• •••••• •••••••••••• \ The head oj"7illfluHwlIIlIlIl'11u:rgillg olJi nIlI/uIIIS. The statues. /8111 DY1/(f. I-bREI{.. 100m love poems SIX EROTIC\ and SE\L \LlT' Luxor lVlodcrn name for a 'T'hcban religious site Lledicated to the cult of \ \IL~ K~lmlllef. the other.8.ller lilies and lotuses in ancient Egypt'. 189-1-). now stands in thc Place de 1a Concorde in Paris.\'01: annual1~ along: an avcnue of sphinxcs leading from thc temple of Anum at "-. The temple was transformed into . in which lhe cult statue of the god Anum was carried Plan f~(/IU' 1l'1Ifpl(' o. In 1989 a c.J--US. The inscriptions in the templc describc him as 'Foremost of all the living bs' when he emcrges from the inner s.. 1991).IS"S were added b~ Rall1eses 11.\T (332-323 Be). which W. ABIJEL-R-\ZIQ.·Jlllelloph~ /11 im L/Ixor-Tclllpr/(Toho. The primary function of the original temple was as a setting for the FESTlrl\L orOpet.'II IEII or C.-) N •• •• •• .-l ReE 22 (1985). G·\\ ET. was reconstructed in the late fourth ccnlLlry Be b~' :\lcxandcr the Grcat. from his /Q11Ib i1l tire I.). OSSI ". 'Phannacologic:11 and hiological properrics of the Eg~'ptian lo[us'./AlI1fflf-A"(fI/ll/lt. Only onc of the obelisks rcmains ill situ. and thcn to rcappear with his royal and di\·inc esscnec reju\'cnatcd.. C.uxor.11lctllar~~ The processional colonnadc at J.:E'TI..4S-59. The main sanctuary the tcmple. (c /fRO. gi\cn to thc French in 1819. Kil/T 10 (1) (1999).ia/ 1. paillted mood.uxor. Onc of the purposes of the Opel fcsti\'al was to cnable thc human king to 'mcrgc' with his di\.\5. B. wh. 1 sanctuary of Amenhotep III .]NfS H (1985). consisting of the ipel-re. EI.lIe 'in the time of Amcnhotcp'.. A painted wooden sculpture fi'om the tomb of Tutankhamull (l3J6-1327 Be) appears to depict the head of the king in dlC obelisk seated colossi of Rameses If pylon of Rameses II colonnade of Amenhotep III hyposlyle hall first antechamber ('Roman sanctuary') second antechamber 'birth room' bark shrines of Amenhotep III and Alexander the Great '0 transverse hall .\R' \" to J.}. c.ich had perhaps 1"lIen into disrepair b) the Late Period (747-.. BEI.E'\:\~DER TilE GRE.. Kt.

1952). was later reviled as the antithesis of 1\ bat.'ilorisehe ZeiIJdmfl65 (1990).'.11-16. consisting of W:1ttlc'lIH.. E. these mainly consisted of a globular jar with a broad.\I{1ll1 dl's r:.xc:wations suggest that the eastern part was occupied earlier than the western. •. ASS\IA:'\'\". held the tirle 'priest of 1\ la~1t') and it has been suggested that a gold chain incorporating a figure of the goddess may haye served as the badge of office of a legal official. chisels. ~[aar also represented the divine order of the unjycrsc as originally brought into being at the moment of CRE. C\RERA. The imagc of ~\la~ll was the supreme utfering gi\·en by thc king to the gods. P-\L\UERI.IIICJ::2+ (1987).. E. which was no doubt an expression of the fact that the pharaohs were considered to rule through her authority. justice and the essenlill harmony of the universc. TEETER.\GII'·\RE and A. 123-56. As well as agriculIliral remains. J. AID. 1\ I.·1111flnUl (Baitilllore. 1979). The exca\'<1rion of J\'laadi has revealed large quantities of imported poner} ii'om Palestine dating to the Early Bronze Age I phase (including thirty-one complete jars).lds and Tel c1-Eralli suggest that ~Ilaadi was functioning as an cntrepot in the late Predynastic period. The earliest examples. FIU. who was usually portrayed as a seared wOl11an wearing an ostrich feather.MAADI MACE M Maadi Late Prcdynaslic settlement-site of abollt 18 hectares. and many rulers held the epithet 'helovcd of j\ bat'. carnelian be.l'. in sourhcastern Sinai.105-14.:. from Palestinian clay. Although the figure of 1\1aat is widely rcprescnted in the lcmples of othcr deities. 2. when the liE \RT of the deceased was weighed against her feather or an image of thc goddess. II.. RIZK. mllieh 11U1)1 hm:l' serret/ liS 1I judge S im(~lIill.\Rt\ and J. 261h lJylllwy or fraer. '. A.ld attached to il shaft of wood (or sometimes of i\'ory or horn). high shoulders and long cylindrical neck.\Jaat'. who com rolled the L\\\ courts of Egypt. Over eighty per cent of the pottery is of a local ware (nor known from Upper Egyptian sites). \10L. gy mace Early weapon consisting of it SlOne he. 4 yols (jvbinz.8011.\badi ."dIlW/()11 rOJl. RtZK \'\ \ and J. 5+-7.u.\Ilaadi (including copper pins. trans.Heei 5 km to the south of modern C~iro. recent c. The concept was therefore central both to the Egypti:ms' idc<ls abollr the universe and to their codc of ETJ fJ(:S. including a slllali structure in the precinci of i\lontu at h:"-R'\. J.lyarions. i\'l. I. although many of these appear to ha\·e been either roo lighl or too small to h. that at W'adi Digb being the richest. SHIlEH. there was also extcnsiyc e\ idcnce of craft specialization. although she could sometimes he represented simply by the fcarher itself or by the plinth on \\·hich she sat (probably a symbol of the I'JU\IEr:\1.'\k. flat hase.' York.lncfacts also implics thm there was increasing contact with Upper Egypt. basalt \-essels. only a few temples dedicated to the goddess herself have sun'ived. A'\"TIIES. it is not surprising to find rhat the nZIER. 'fhe settlement. 200~1+.n the Theban tomb of the vizier R.:\la'at and Silm: some cOlllparatin: considerations of Eg:yplian :llld Greek thought'.:m::'\::\TE'\ (1J52-1336 lie).\1.'icm 5 (1987). j. V. bur there were als() three cemeteries nearby. 1992).'\I)). 1990).' II (1936).Halll: Ihc f(lJ/Ulgrtlp/~)la11t/ Iheology {JIlI11 {111tie11l Egyp/ian oiTaillg ri/ulIl (Chicago. Even . 237-52. It should be noted that Ihe remains of cemeteries at el-San· and I-Tarageh (in tVliddle Egypl) contain ilems rhat are characteristic of the "!\1aadian' culture. loc. SI~EIIER. iHtlat/i. (u-/8998) 166 .t'llIltl111 i1/ Ilu'jnrm of/he goddess Jl1(f(J/. Cdl:. 11K +0 (19S+). J. There were also large numbers of storage pits containing carbonized gl"Jin. 1990). made with unusual manufacturing techniques and..I-daub oval and crescent-shaped huts. A. suggesting th~H lhere may also ha\'e been a cermin amount of cultural expansion southwards in the late Prcd~'lastic period. wcre disc-shaped. The mcans by which rhe trade goods were transported has perhaps been confirmed by the discO\·ery of bodies of donkeys at .I-IoFFJ\I'\'\. ~md other \'aillable items at the southern end of tbe sileo The bodies of foetuses and children were sometimes buried within the senlcmcllt.40003500 Be). The imported ceramics also included the socalled \Vare \' pottery. Since the goddess e£lecrivcly embodied the concept of juslice. bitumen and cornelian beads) and the presence of typical Nlaadian and Gerzean products at such Paleslinian sites as \Vadj Ghazzeh (Sitc II) 19Si-90). Bredcck (Ne. At the northern edge of the settlement there were one-metre-high pottery storage jars buried lip [Q their necks. as well as tugc subterranean houses. 'Prcdynastic Egypr: llew data fi·()m t\badi" Aji-i((llf Ardwcolllgicl/l Iki.\_\IOSE (rr:. r\'lany maceheads h.\TIO'. fishhooks. 1.501295 Be) she was being described as the 'daughter of Ra'. often tapcring towards the end that was grippcd. nourished from K'lqada I to II. It was Ihe power of i\l:tat that was belieyed to regulate the seasons. dating to the Taqada I period «(. i\lla 'fl/: Gercdl/igl'eit lind Um/erbliehkeil illl alleu A pll'lI (i\1unidl. 'New light on the relation oL\laadi to the Upper Egyptian culrural sequellce'.600 /iC. The discO\·cry of a clay model macehead at l\/(osmgedda suggests that they may oftell h. Her cult is arrestcd from the Old Kingdom (26S(}-2ISI Be) onwards and by the 18th Dynasty (1:. J 13-21. Dil' . 1\ bat was also present at the judgement of the de-Jd. whosc dCl'lltion ro the cult of thc tnEi\. On a cosmic scale. A \IER.5) as 'Ii\'ing by . !tIt'll i11ln imagi'. 7//£' pn'sclllalioll of.Vlaadi. SI·:EJ lEI{. the movement of the stars and the relations between men and gods. R. EgYPI belore Ihe /.. including the processing and trading of copper. 11oRxu'\G. Pmelti.\\'c been excavated from Predynastic and Earl~ Dynastic cemeteries. according 10 petrographic analysis. The combination or Palestinian products found at . is described i.!/(/"aohs (New York. There was less evidence of hunting and gathering <It J\badi thiln at earlier Lower Egyptian Predynastic sites. the 'lI1alysis of which suggests lhat it probably derivcd fi·om mines atTimna and the \\iadi Arabah. but the presence of Gerzean pottery and stone . tabuJar-like nint tools. 'rhe place in which the judgement rook place was known as the 'hall of the two truths' (llIfIllO'). and somctimes her image surmounts rhe bJIante itself. 193.1\·e been actually used in hattIe. I. 'fOUl'\. 'Annual report of the l\ laadi cxc. Maat Goddess pcrsoni(ving truth.l\·c Guldell ehaillwi/h a goldfail /. {dier e. which is also sOJ1lcl'1l1les shown beneath the thronc of OSiRIS in judgement scenes.cine priidynasriche Kulrurgruppc zwischen Obcragyplcn und Palesun. E.

the belief that thc replication of a name.~lltlpcdmafelu:at! n. 1/. 36cm. Wesrendorr (Wiesb"den.. These texts r~1I1gc from the Book oICales in New Kingdom royal tombs to curses inscribed on OSTR!\C'\. vv.lh. E.+19003. in the modcrn sense of the word. but ~11l of them would have been regarded by the Egyptians as roughly comparable methods of gaining di"ine assistance. l. .It Hierakonpolis. threatens a row of C \PTI\ ES with a mace. Thc royal uraeus (see COBR.-a! . B. This text describes \'arious marvels performed by the magicians Djadjacmankh and Djecli at Ihe courts of S~EFERL' and t-J 11IFU in the 4th Dmasty (2613-2{9{ BC). whose epithcts included the phrase 'lord of the mace. 6. pointed form that may have been introduced from western Asia). (1:'118/75) 167 .lge of kingship by the time the :-'.f/glll'l!. dliling Iu the Ntlqlldll I period (-I00G-3500 l1e). [leick. who may c\-en be an early pharaoh.I'ed m.3500-3 J00 BC). Probably the best-known litcrary description of the practice of magic in Egypt is a fictional narrativc composed in the rVliddle Kingdom (2055-1650 Be:) and preservcd on the 18th-Dynasty Papyrus \Vestcar. J980). . Cairo) was canoed. in the scnse of a di"ine force (sometimes personified "s the god I-Ieka) that could be invoked both by dcities and humans to solve problems or crises. \\'hcreas magic.3500-3100 lie). DECI-:ER. perhaps the most Yi"id symbol of the pharaoh's powcr.MACE MAGIC trcatments (ses!ul1v).{t!lI! Nal/ru/" II period (c.E or 'magic" but in ancient Egypt (and many other cultures) these three categories were regarded as overlapping and complementilry. 1926). The im.'\s in many other cultures the tcchniques employed by Egyptian magicians werc based largely on the concept of imitation . probably iUlmt/r:d II) prolCt'1 1!1t' 1)f1111erfrom harm. 197.rikrlll cia Agyplo!og. A somewhat artificial distinction is usually made betwcen the religious texts in tombs and temples and the 'magical texts' or lspelb.\·il'(I1]I.mag/(' JI1(/lfd. smiting down his foes\ and its importance in terms of the kingship is re-emphasized by the presence of two gilt wooden model maces among the funcrary equipment of TLT. The mace WaS associated with the healthy cye of the god IIURLS.' and \\ \DJYT). anD and \V.I' vfde/I/es aud 1I~)llh/('(J! beusls. The archetypal scene of the mace-wielding pharaoh was of such iconographic importance that it continued to be depicted on templc walls until the Roman period.'f\:II"" \IL" (1336-1327 HC). 'KcuJe. \VOLF. 8.:lgc of the triumphant king brandishing a mace had already become an enduring im.111 forms of order and harmuny could be ensured. /llldell/ HiemJ. \IEDICI. W. ill(. hippopOlamu. a singlc problem. In modern timcs a clear distinction is usually made betwcen the lise of pmyers. The imitation of names mcant that \'erbal trickery.5-13./800 11C. showing King Narmcr (c. metaphors and acr05ti's. might be soh'cd by a combination of magical rituals or ('/In. and preparing to strike a foreigner with his mace.1-1-15.It the vcry heart of reli~ gious ritual ane! liturgy.\IS. o. Tn Thmb 100 at IIIEIUKO~I'OLIS the painted decoration includes a scene in which a warrior.A~\IER palette (Egyptian !\luscum. eel.). has become relatively peripheral to the esmblished religions.Hit/till' K/ngdom. such as puns. image or mythical event could produce an effect in the real world. .'ol1po!is (\Varminster.-al potency that empowered the creillor-god at the beginning of rime. (.Lvli 32089) been intended as ritualistic or symbolic objects. medicinal prescriptions (pekltret) and religious texts (I'm). Thus. in ancient Egypt it lay .\. V"T.9(11I. showing: that the macehead itself had become a \'chicle for royal propaganda.E"ITES .e Old Kingdom temple . Ashmolean [V1. whether a disease or ~1 hated ri\-al.\I. ADA.uscum). By the hue Prcdynastic period both ceremonial P. c.. JVlagic was the means by which the restoration of . [n the Naqada " period ((. 'fhe same deposit included nyo limeslOne maccheads c~lned with elaborate reliefs. one belonging LO King SCORPIOI\ and the other to ~larmer (Oxford. the prime. aud a red brad" pl'lIr-.' that were intended Lo soh'c the cYeryday problems of individuals.8 Oil. wcre regarded as powerful forms of magic rather than simply litcrary skills. \\·a5 somelimes described as 11Jfrel htRum: 'great of magic'. was found in the '~Ilain Deposit' (probably incorporating a cache of votive items) in tJ. or e"cn spells to cure nasal catarrh.mel macchcads had become part of the regalia surrounding the emerging KIi\GSI-IIP. KClIlcnkopf'.:--. magic The Egypt ialls used the Lerm heka ro reter to magical power. Le.e III. This ceremonial mudstone palene.3]OO or:) wearing the white CRu\r.. the discoid form was superseded by the pearshaped head (as well as a narrow. In the A diorite dis(-s//(fped Pre{~)IIl(Hli( mtlcelwuljhllll el-/lI/a/ltlSJ/a. nit' BemajTllIl/Ig dt's a!liigypllsdlm Ileeres (Leipzig. All employed heiNl.

~ 11Io'l'1If fgypfi. 'Rcport on general work done in the southern inspectorate I: Biban cl-!\lolouk'. Tilt' I//alufllirs lif'l/Iln'l'1J1 Egypfiall IIwgiml PI'IICf. the creation of Sl. O/ltl/(cid/.C JJl'tll!delillgcl/ fli! /(el I?ij/"'SI/IIISWIII L'llll Ol/{I/wlcnle l.orel in 1899. Dayis (\Varminslcr. e. C r\.)'pI (London.lr. 199+).EII and II. 119-30. OF Tt rE DE \1). +6. The bricks were inscribed "'ith seClions of rhe hier:1tic te~t of Chapter 151 of lhe uc)() .. C\JrrER. as well as a box containing learher loincloths.IS a standard-bearer in the Eg~ pfian army (perhaps c. (c 1I1U1. a secLion of J magic rod.\.'gypfioulifUOfllrl· (Bcrkele. 199. R. as well as Ic:lthcr tJui.1450 BC) f\lilitary official of lhe early 18th Dynasty.\1. 1988). S \1.all.). ThuLmosc '" (1479-1425 lie). d. The amulcts Ihcl11selycs Llsually faccd tmrards the opposite . Plwn/fill:~ l1'(}rh-rs: IIlI' i:. Malkata Settlement .'III1t1J~!!..I.l!agas of Dl'i. IIORLS (stelae depicting Horus the child defeating snakes. The exc. upposite modern Luxor. yisual and physical imitation. 1990).lrtially remedied this siwalion.gyplillll //lagit'. TIIO"-\S. c. SOL:ROL-ZI \ '\.111S and for a number of differenl purposes. in Egypri:lJl magic and symbolism'.allllll/.lr~ equipment "·ere two clog collars. f~j' '1iIlllllk{. ed. ~1l1d lhere is not c. one of which W:IS inscribed . RIT'I·.ca"ared li'om heneath the Ramesscum in "estern Thebes contained a mixture of 'religious' and 'magiCOlI' artefacts.\1:\:'\. cnabling an indi"idual priest to draw un the power of the gods with a wide Yariel~ of mc.. although the poor records of ilS exc<1yalion mean rhat linle is known . Amcnholcp" (1427-1400 Be) and Thutl1loSC 1\ (1400-1390 lie).\t\Sf. Similar1~. 215-22.. \C". . it has heen su~gesled that ~biherpri.ion and curl~' hair) indicate: thal he was of ~llbian descent.].). Survi"ing examples dare from al least as early as the reign of Thurmose III (1479-1425 BC) umil the time of Rameses II (1279-1213 nr.:a :lnd London.u. ''\ bgical pnH:riccs among lhe "ill:lgcrs'. and holding two snakewands. literary and magical reXlS (see 1. II.'c way of th\\ arting them. 11.\ binz. it \Yas eXCilY~lI­ ed hctwcen lR88 and 1918. It was the first unplundercd lomb to be discovered in the \. \(). while his physical features (dark t:omple). amI a box of pap~ ri inscribed with a wide range of religious.-en a ddinitiyc list of the ObjcCls I hemscl Yes. tT.lIUCrrCS or figurines of gods Of enemies. Q./ Oil.watcd area of the sire comprises seyeral large official buildings (including fOllr Maiherpri (i\bhirpra) (. perhaps being. Br. Tilt' BrilJ:~b .. 1987).\I.1."c \\'a~· of gaining control over c. ~·ll1C.I11S. Thl' f itllt:). L. cred wooden sart:ophaglls containing t\\'o smaller coffins. but only ~l small part or this work has been published.md palace site at the southern end of western Thebes. describing the role they played in protecting the deceascd from the enemies of OSIRIS. magic bricks SCl of f<JUr mud bricks dl~lI were often placed on the four sides of the tomb during lhe :\e\Y I'-ingdom (1550-1069 Be) in order to protecl the deceased £i·om e. 1\1. Ihe form of which depended on the cOlrdinal point where the hrick was placed: rhus thl' brick beside rhe western wall included a faience DJI']) pillar. A.E) OF TilE "J'\GS in modern times. a l-<)stefbrother or son of one of the early Nc\\ ~ingdom rulers.J. rR"1: and J.\ I.19. S.. j\ 1.11wt'lllll. and the more recenl re-examination of the site by Da"id O'Connor and Barry Kemp in the earl~ 1970s has only p. I L LesJ-o (Irh..'. \.e ff)lIfl. whose small inlact romb (1':\ 36) was found in western 'f'hebes b~ Victor T.\J) papyrus.1978). ({til(' Kil1gs (London. 1985).f/' (Chicago. Tn a sophisticated combination of \ erbal. 18..hl' bl/rial dUlll/her ill I{.'\CER. a lcmalc fertility figurine. \V.. Iral1Stribl>dFmu Papyrus Ilt'sua!' (IJalill Papyrus 3(33). must hare enjoyed consider. 2.l'1If f. socket in each hrick supporred an \\ILl£T. !I'/(/gi{ brir/: l1. TS. it was bclic\'cd that waleI' poured oyer tipp.\'\lIllS. 1994). Essentially rhe remains of a community that grew tip around lhe Thehan residence of Amcnhotep III (1390-1352 Be).ilh shabti-Iih' IfII/lUIII jigl/re. \ I.11 DYliusly.'J) ern NTrS} or T"I:(.lring the names of enemies "as cunsidered to be an cffccri. Cairo: (dlidal w(alo}!:Jlc (.1330 fir.J. 142. possible candidares arc I "'tshepsllt (1473-1458 1lC:).'RlrFrrll f\STlnTE) 7---11. r.MAGIC BRICKS MALKATA case of the E\ECR -\TIO"... which could then he either propitiated or I11l1tihnetl.tbom the original 16S .111I{'\RII':S).9+-.. . Other leather ilems prcsened among his funer. whose name \\ as inscribed on a piece of linen in rhe 10mb. NDJR()J)( CI. The runer<1r~ equipment included a larg-e black resin-co. 1.eidcII6+ (19R3).II'"""us Il"cSlc"r] . no.YI"iali .ISlern wall incorporated all unfired clay .. 71-8. a bronze cobrawand. which Hmrard Carler hucr discO\-cred buried under. 140-7..llagit· ill al/timl Hgyp.. 1992). that beside the e.lblc royal EI\"()lIr.lSlE 4 (19113).R.IC1ITIJI·. . Da.·il. dating to Ihe carl~ f<llIrteenth ccnlllr~ Be. 'rhe funerary equipment included all imprcssi\c nOOh: or Till: IJE. includin~ a sl~1tuCrrc of a woman "cOlring a lion .1700 Be) c. G.t rock outside thc tomb. A.). Tilt> slOlT 1~{A'illg A:llcrJps 111Id flU' II/agirillw. disposition ur the items within rhe hurial chamber. scorpions and other dangers) would confer healing 011 those who drank it. who held the tilles 'ran bearer on the right hand of the king' and 'child or thc rroyall nursery'. SI'E..·ics (Reading..1 \UL F. both or which were empty. K. Because of the fine quality of the burial and its loc~ltion among the royal tombs of the l\e\\ Kingdom.ji'IJJJI Iht' IIllrf/( IPollli/." magia/llt·xlS (Leidcn. the act of sm:lshing osrraca or figurines hC. 'The four nidll:s and allluictic figures in 'fhc:ban royallolllbs'.·ith lhe animal's name (Talllanuel). PI". REE\ ES. (London. There are fc\\ clues as tu the ruler umkr whom he sen cd. R \ \\ 1:" ""a. ."il forces. 1973).. E r10f{GItOLTS. E. cd.J.1).\L1.-IRCr: 3 (1 96.. Tbi' 1:~t!. an iyur~ clapper. or '1'hc shaft tomb of a priest of the hIll' \Ii. The hody itself lay in a second set of coffins to onc sidc of" the sarcophag'us. "l'1:\'1'S.-crs full of ~lITO\\S (some tipped wilh flim) which reinforce his identification .1 I IISt'lIm L IwoJ: n/oJ/l'il'lll 1~!!. \\as regarded as an cffccri.md those beside thl' southern and northern w~l\ls contained <I reed \yith a wick resembling a torch and a mummiform SI L\IlTJ-like figure respccti\'el~.klle Kingdom ((. J F BORGIIOl. .\ltdilltl.-en <1 ro~al bodyguard). This single collection of equipment clearly demonstrates the "ast specIrum of 5trategies which would hayc been ill\"oh-cd in Egyptian magic.

y. 1939). and with his abilit~. storerooms. 2 yols (eliro.:d ill a series of" some~ limes cOl1tradictor~' fragments in the works of other writers. Crilicisl/Is (~r [-laodollfs and TIJe Bllok r!FSOIIJis.\1)).LXOIL The temple complex at Dcndcra includes two Illtlllllllisis in front of Ihe main temple. (/~ 'r: \ tC/fOLS().istorian. rt is highly likd~' that similar dramas and rituals lOok place in other birth-houses. 01/ Allt/clIl Rill/a! alld Rell:rtirlll. such as I':IWL. J. There are therefore Egyptian depictions of such phenomena as landscapes and architectural features that might. Wadell.hich 'Illystcr~ plays' concerning. that he was Egyptian and could read Egyptian scripts.ypticu.:mplc. E.IBR:\RIES).\1) 800).11. Lcs 1I/II11l111isi ties lell/ples (:y. which he dedicated to Ptolemy II (285-2+6 IIC). . l:d. as mJI as kitchens. 01/ fIJt: JlIfaRiJig r~F ~J'phi (the latter being a typc of incense). His major work l a 111STOR\ of Egypt called the .305-285 lie) Egyptian priest and h. 0" Festiva!s. mammisi (Coptic: 'birth-place'l 'birth-house') Artificial Coplk term invented by the nineteenth-century Egyptologist ]can-f'ran<.. JL. surrounded by a colonnade . cd.7ol/l"IItll/!(Nal/l/(a! Arrhalfulogy alltl L'ntlrrllJala EXIIII/ratioll 3/ I (197+).::. notably the Jewish historian Josephus (first eentury .in modern terms . H.. rhines ct . S(/(I'ed BOOR.er construction of Ncctancbo I (380-362 Be) in .Vascda Uni. 19+0). . 35---l0.lr the modern town of Samannud ill the Delta.. .I' (Paris. S..~legYPliac(/. 1959).-f prelilll/Ill//T reporllJlI {he Pl"l~­ extort/l/o1! (~r{hl' pa/acc oI. Manetho (1.'\.l\-atiolls at thl: Birkel Habu'.ith intercolumnar screen walls.ois Champollion to describe a panieular type of l'lu' mammisi (~(HorllS illl:'/((lI mas [OIlSlmOn! by PlolclII)' I'll il/U! Yilt autl was Ihe SCllil/gjil1" {{llIIlW! '1J~}'sl('lY plays' (ol/(allillg Ihe hirllt (!(lhe god.. A.\lJ 395). The southern end of the site (Kom cJ-Samak) was surYl:ycd and cxc:lyatcd during the 1970s and 19ROs I". rcrealing an unusual ceremonial pain led platform-kiosk approached by a stair and ramp. OJ. which is ne.J63)..-crsit-y. residential areas and a tcmpk dulicatcd to the god Amllll. 1\11<1netho is credited wilh a further seven works: TIlt.imcllho/l'jlllI (New York. Unfc)J"tunatdy his history has not survived intact". his division of the earthly rulers into thirty OY.101-36.to read hieroglyphs he waS able to produce a valuable sludy. B.as 'diagrammatic" in the sense rhat they combine 169 . It is clear.lIlus (to AD 220). 'Inscriptions h'ml1 the pabee o( Amenhu. 1t.IOI'Ol. /lcgJlPli(/({/.I.c(/u/"{/I rest/mllioll (Tok~'Ol 1986). 1\ 1'\'\.I! 1Ilt/l/llIlisi t!'Et(jOlf.(:) at r. The arch/fettilre I~( Kom E! Sal/wR III . G.h:ER .lS.He Pcri()(l to the Roman period (7-P nC-.I" II/al/Ill/isis de DL'Iltlill"{f (Cairo. fi'om the I.18 "':) al I1E'" F.n. it has been tentatively sllg'~cstcd that his priestly dlllies included a role in rhe establishmcI11 of the cult or SI':R'\l'lS under Prolemy I Soter (305-21)5 He). probably in connr. the births of both the god [hy (see 111\"1"1 lOH) and the pharaoh are said fO have been cnacted.lge of the goddess (Isis or Bathol') and the birth of the child-god were celebrated. but is prescrn.. As a priest he would have had access to the archircs of Eg-ypt's temples (see !. SJo:KI. O'CU'\!'\()l{l 'An ancient Nile h:lrbour: Uni'Trsity i\[useum cxc. The Ptolemaic Il/aJJJlllisi usually consisted of a small u. The last of these was certainly not the work of !vlanetho l and it is equally possible that some of the other works were nC\Tr c\"cn written..md E. J~J!I"al/lid sll/dil's al/d fI/!Jcr essays jm:sC1llctl In I.WES. Tl/teJ"llaf/olla!. One of these dares 10 the Roman period. .. Loeb Classical Library (London. Lt'. Eusebius ((. F D-\LT~I. P!~)lsi(a! maps and plans The question of ancient" Egyptian usc of maps. F:t!martls. m:~m:R'\ and 1'1111. \\t.\'la!Rata SOl/lh: {/ stl1l(JI (!( archi. 'V:rm:"i \ Ill': and r. while lhe other is a much earli. 1958). \\lI\'TER. and it is disputed whether he was born at \IENDES or lIEl. a Japanese expedition from \. although he '\Tote in Greek. with the i11lenrion of ensuring agricultural success and the continuation of the royal line.\\l' and D.. 1903). comprising thirteen acts and two interyals. Dm Gebllrlshill/s des '1.MAMMISI MANETHO probable palaces). I)E P. 01 \SSI'\l\T. There appear La have been carlier counterpans of the IIWllllllisi in the form of 18th-Dynasty reliefs describing the di\-inc binh uf J-Iatshepsur (1+73-1+.]NLS 10 (1951). 'i\ l~lnctho and rhe Thirty-fiirst D. plans and diagrams is complicated by the differences between modern conceptions of" art and representation and those that prevailed in the Pharaonic period. R.'lIIpl'!s til'/' h'is ill Phild (Vil:nna. was probably prepared during his Lime at the temple of Schenn~'tos. (London. On modern perceptions of the outline of Egyptian history. T. '\1) 320) and George called Synccllus (c. I)..ctioll with his SED FESTlr:\L. I. Tn"us. be described . often placed at right angles to the main temple axi::. ].\S.\·\STWS (with the later addition of a thirty-first) has been a major influenc!.dll Epitollle oj' or Dorlrilles. Little is known his life.I. hm\"ever.1\1':.H of :\mcnhotep 111 (1390U52 1.ep 1I1'.1':"1"110. \'\T.. and the Christian writers Julius f\rric.\) building attached to certain temples. 15+-60. and trans. KE. and the system was used by Jean-Fran~ois Champollion in ordering the sequence of C·\RTOL:C1l1':S he discovered from his decipherment of the hieroglyphs.~II\llIU and th. in which the rituals of the marri.'"nasl~". 198R). Nevertheless. E. 10 the cast of 1\tblbt~l arc the remains of a huge artificial lake (the Birkel Habu) c\-itlcntl~ created at rhc same time as Amcnhotcp Ill'S palaces.

In 1850 he W<lS sent to Egypt to acquire papyri 1'01' the Louvre.1. ir has been pointed out that tile equivalent lllale term hi ('husband') is onl~ rarely encountered. a cistern (or 'water-reservoir'). but it is not clear what the social or legal implications of the term were.:ITicc and the Egyptian rV{useum. who produced huge numbers of drawings as a draughtsl11<1n On C1IAJ\IPOLLJOi'\'S expedition lo Egypt in 1828-9 Between 1842 and 1849 1\tlarielre taught himself hieroglyphics (using Champollion's grammar <lnd dictionary) and studied Coptic.. existence of some texts of the New Kingdum (1550-1069 DC) that describe a woman as both hemel and hebslPf at the same time. without \yhjch the plundering of Egypt would h<lye carried on . ]fIIlCE 29 (1992). or. which is occasionally translatcd as 'concubine'. while a less detailed plan on an Ostracon in the Egyptian NI useum. at the very least. then:fore womcn are prilllaril~ identified in terms 01" their relationships with men (rather than the men being defincd by their links with women). but instead embarked on the excavation of the Saqqanl SER. regularly using large numbers of relatively unsupervised workers. 1950).f\PEU. IL\IUU:J. B. a tract of land bounded by two branches of the R. although a number 01" legal texts.I. in Ramcsc~ II'S depictions of the Battle of Q. bUl the siwalion is confused by till. '1\"0 other architectural drawings have been recognized as plans of specific royal tombs in the VALLEY OF TJ IE f\:INGS. Auguste (1821-81) french Egyptolog'ist who exclyated many of the major Egyptian siles and monuments and (oundcd the Egyptian Antiquities Service.. which remains unidentified.. G. 'The tomb of Ralllcsses JLmd theTl. Tn 1855 he became Assistant Conservator at the Louvre and two years later he returncd to Egypt.In actual building. P'\RKIN~(). eventually obtaining a post in the Louvre. This is one of the lllOSt obvious results of the fact that most of the survi\'ing sculptures and texts relate to male funerary cults. 81-103. ncar Cairo. The work hehslPf seems to have been used to refer to another cat'egory of female partner.. it was evidently a document eirher created to assist in a beldu1I-srone quarr~-'ing expedition in the reign of Ramcses J\ (1153-1147 l1e). Turin. 1864).(1126-1108 HC). teaching Frcnch and drawing in Stratford and working unsuccessfully as a designer in Coventry. 1877).incorporates colour-coded geological zones. HebslPl is therefore sometimes taken to refer to a man's second or third wife. ch1l'es to the mid-twelfth century Be:.\'l. andY 1'\'1. j\. on a more metaphysicallevel. marriage Although many current descriptions of ancient Egypt tend to assume that marriage in the Pharaonic period was similar to the modern institution. as a means of na\"ig.130-58. vVith the financial support of Said Pasha. _·f II/(/ldl'l't/yetlrs (!(arc!wc%. He was born and educated in Boulogne-sur-1\!lcr and in 1839--40 he lived in England. In addition. the locations of the mines and quarries. composed in order to commemorate the details of the event. there is surprisingly little cyidence either for marriage ceremonies or for the concept of the married couple (as opposed to a man and woman simply living together). including work at Giza. The earliest surviving Egyptian map of an actual geographical region is the so-called Turin Mining Papyrus. .\·./i"o/ll all(ielll Egypt (London. In June 1858 he was appointed as the first Director of the newly created Egyptian Antiquities Service. S EfhlJ(lJ"{/s. l. E.MAPS AND PLANS MARRIAGE several different perspectives. the ensuing four years were probably till' most successful of his archaeological career. Lc Sh'ap'. haye survived from the period spanning' the Late and Ptolemaic periods (747-30 Be). R. exca- vators such as Flinders PETIUE and George REIS1'\ER. now in lhe . For instance. E. 'There arc also. which enabled him to gather together sufficient antiquities to establish a national museum at Bulaq.J. ti Bllulal. He died al Buhiq in IRSI and was buried in a sarcophagus which was laler moved to t.i\TI" Grames).e. BRO\\':\I. Mariette. (Cairo. The earliest surviving Egyptian maps arc of the Janer type. Very few documents describing the act of marriage have survived from the Pharaonic period. ed. C\RTER and A. 190-J. A papyrus in Turin bears part of a detailed ink plan of the tomb of Rameses 1\'. were criticized by later. often described as 'marriage contracts'.IARWTTE. cOIl\Tntionally translated as 'wife" is regularly used to identify a man'5 female partner. . there is a bird's-eye view of the immediate context of Qtdcsh (i. 1899 and 1969'. Thebes.\IWSII (c.lting through tht: afterlife. 1988).Il a far greater pace in the late nineteenth century. an annotated pictori~ al record of an expedition to the beklrellstone (greywacke or siltstone) quarries of 'Vadi I-fammamat in the Eastern Desert. where he made an inventory or all 01" the Egyptian inscriptions in the collection. 'ZUlll Turiner Grabplan'. the viceroy 01" Egypt. 'The oldesl sur\.he forecollrl of the modern Egyptjan j\lluseum in Cairo. lVo/icc tics prillojwlfJ" /l/O/lll/lIl'1/'S exposes tI(/II~' /es ga/cries pnnisoirt's till A1l/lsee. he undertook several simultaneous excavations. three ancient roads. 170 . The map identifies the essential elements of a group of gold mines (.It a site now known as Bir Umm Fawakhir) as weB as the principal quarries.fuitt'. which are located I"lIr~ ther to the east.Museo Egizio.)'. H. The textual and pictorial details 01" the papyrus have recently been re-analysed J and its meaning and archaeological context re~ assessed. Abydos and Elephantine. His subsequent. lSI cd. 138--42. 1'NI).\. An ostracon of thL: Ramesside period in the British j\lIuseum bears a rough architectural plan annotated with measurements and accompanied by a hieratic text describing the orientation of the drawing in relation to . A. however. In 1841 he returned to Boulogne to complete his education. ]\il!\luETTE. I L GARDINER. A. It. consisting of schematic depictions ofthe route ro the netherworld (the BOIJk (!( 1'.excavations at thirtyfive different sites. (London.PO I1l(lyS) painted on coffins of the Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 Be). but he is nevertheless dcseryedh honoured b~' modern archa~ologists as th~ creator of the Egyptian Antiquities Sl. (London. whether as the working drawings of architects or.i\'ing topographical map fi'olll ancient Egypt: Turin Papyri 1879. Tht' 1I/01l1fll/iJIlIs (II Upper Egypf (London.lIllI de JI1elllphis (Paris. a shrine dedical'ed to 'Amun of the pure mountain' and a commemorative stele from the time of SETY [ (1294-1279I1c). [plan of tbe nethenyorld] ]. two locations associated with the processing and transportation of minerals.). 134-6. and the following year he developed an enthusiasm tor Egyptology when he examined the papers bequeathed to his famjly by his cousin Nestor L'J-T6te. _Marielfe Pac!w (Paris.. I IORKUNG. a small number of surviving dr~l\vings on astraC<l and papyri that differ from mainstream Egyptian works of an in that they appear to have had various practical uses as diagrams. but the city itself is depicted as if seen from the side. J Rlines et al.1274 Be). The word helJlel. E. if he remarried after the death or diyorce 01" an earlier spouse. 'T'he Turin 1\1ining Papyrus. a miners' settlement.lrin plan ofa royal lomb'. 160--4. Cairo has been identified as the tomb of Ramcses IY. more scientific. 1857) . These texts. JE" 4 (1917).. P)'/"{/lIIitl studies tllld OIher essays prCSfJllt'd to 1. D:\NIEL.

dating to the 171 . S. 19J1. The site was first ex~a\"ilted b. /279-/2/3 Bc.". Ill". through which an ancient canal connected the apex of Howc\'cr."c. .l' .·alent depictions of the Ph~lraonic period. S. 1961). whether these depictions are always intended to represent physical manifestations of the gods themselves.· Edouard Navillc in 1883 on bchalf of th~ newly established Egypt Exploration Fund. from ....JNES 38 (1979).and animal-headed humilOs.IS certainl~ practised by the Egyptian kings. cffecti\-cly setting the king apart from his subjects. which would probably have allowed the wearer fO assume the identity of the magical demon Aha.. Some of the ceremonial P. but more recent excavations by a tcam from the University of Toromo have disprm'cd this theory. TELL EL- MASKS frequently incorporating the phrase sltep 1:11 schemel ('price for [marryingl a woman'). Studies concerning priests' lise of masks are h~lmpcred by the facI that only two examples have survi\"cd. A relief in the Ptolemaic temple of Harhor at Dendera shows a priest apparently wearing :1 similar jackal-head mask} with his own head visible inside the olltline of the jackal's head. sometimes described as masked figures.ll le. STROLJII \l. R.yorkcrs' cOllll1lunity of 1)1]1{ EL-MVDI'!\ appc." . Bldck gral1ile ('olire ji(/rol1 ofRa11leses 11. located at" the eastern edge of the Delta."adi Tumilat.100-i A. Tell el. but there arc more frequent records of dinJ[ces. 1/95 CIII.l1~ 100 200 The custom of brother-sisrer and fathcr-cbughrcr marriage appears to have been confined to the royal family. being cited as rhe 'great royal wife' (//('11/('1 m's". K.56-74..ii-lI111 Tell el-JlllsJdlllta.AI1UN).\ ILLE. 1-1.0.trriage and multiple marriages were possible. A pair of holes were bored through the ponery below the snoU[. Flinders Petrie excavated a C:\lrroJ\". many pharaohs also took foreign wi. ""as regarded as a royal prerogarj. SI. the site was identified with the Biblical city of Pirhom.A.".' '\. perhaps partly hecause the dclibcratc praclice of Plall (!FTcll td-j\!lmNlIIlll.51-8. . the figures are masked pricsts representing the deity in question.' (London. (Ii 11006) 'T'hc question of the extem to which masks '''ere used in Egyptian religious and funerary rituals has not yel been satisfactorily resolved. Maskhuta. 'Quelques aspects du mariage Jans l'Egypte ancicnnc'. Paintings.\I.. 1993). The lluctuaring importance of the site appC<lTs LO ha. although thc~ arc not necessarily any more likely to he masked than equi.\II'SO'\...1795-1650 Be).'c been closely linked [() the fortunes of the \. J. from jackals to falcons..-/I 1. IHarriagt' and I11mrimnnilll pr(Jpcr~)' ill 1I11ciml EgYPI (Leiden. bur it is not clear how common it was for men to take 1 enclosure wall 2 storehouses (?) 3 central buildings 4 temple (?) was a In KSOS level helow the remains of the cit\' founded b\' :\ckau " (610-595 BC) which (30 modem Villagel modern cultivation more than one wife. the Delta with the Red Sca. HULL \1)·\\ . 1982). . PEST\lo\i\.(anc.1 marriage. as seems possible in some instancc. The actual ceremony of m'llTiage is poorly documented. incest.. or whether.. It has been pointed out that the numbers of roOIllS in tht New Kingdom tomb-.. In the l\cw ~ingdom. merel. .\'.. rather than specifically documenting or endorsing the act ". SCIIUL. 'Polygamy in Egypt in the tVliddleKingdom"]V/60(19N)..-I.. the 'mask' also had nOlches on either side of the base to fit o\'er the wL'arcr's shoulders.\"AGE lion's head mask proyided with eye-holes. presumably in order to allow the priest to sec OUl. This mask. II (>-35. G. who would have been obliged to send his daughter to the king bOlh as an act of surrender and as a means of ensuring his subsequent loyalty..u" to conform with monogamouS rather than polygamous arrangements. Life in (l11rie11l Egypt (Cambridge. 177-94.. however.. DYllusly. Tjeku) lown-site and capital of the eighth nome of Lower Egypt during the Late Period (747-332 Be).jEA 67 (1981). Th" sIOn'-l"it. P..MASKHUTA. 18~5).3300-2900 Ilc) arc carved with depictions or bird.~(Pi"lOlII and Ihe rOllle (~(Ihl' Erodll. appear to lay down the property rights of each of the partners in .. Bmh rcm.'. canal .".:!{ypI (London.u'''·'' On the basis of its ancient name. Cilics oIlhl' Dt:!/a Iff: Ti. E.. 15 km west of modern [smailiva and the Suez Canal. 1992). Tn the Romer-Pclizacus M lIseum ill I-1ildesheim there is a painted ceramic bust of Anubis of unknown provenance} nearly 50 em high and dated to the fifth or sixth ccntury Be. Homen il1l1l/rie/ll f..'1A111sHI/IIII (~lalihu. \V."cs in so-called 'diplomatic marriages" which were lIsed either as a means of consolidating alliances with the kingdoms of d1C ancient Ncar East or as an indicuion of the complete subjugation of a foreign prince. reliefs and statuary throughout the Pharaonic period regularly include depictions of human figures with the heads of various crcat"urcs. sec QUEE~S). It is unccrmin. demonstrating that there of marriage itself. E. Pcr-Tcmu..lst as early as the 11th Dynast\' (1".. ALl.. 'Diplomatic m~lrriage in the Egyptian New Kingdom'.\LE1TES of the late Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods (c.0". commonly occurring in the myths of Egyptian deities. polygam.'D 395). NJ.Jr. was still nourishing in the Roman period BC~.. Per-TemB. RomJ\s.'! masks 300 400m with one consort uSll:J. At One of the houses in the town of KahuJ1 (see EJ.

\1 \GIL It is possible th. 168-89.MASKS MASTABA l\liddle 1:.111 that of the base. .It EL-. He died t\\O ~elrs later.'luirc (l1I(i(.tskc: \erhiillung lind Offcnbarung'. From the mid 1st Dyn.l lion-headed goddess Or a painted plaster heads and the sO-C<llled Ipayull1 portraits' (depicting the face of the deceased in E.27-30.I'Oriell/.1smhas comprise a pit cut into the rock and di\-ided by brick partitions. .1 (19n).EE"EI~.\. 1~lJ8). e\en in Egypt's climate.s wcre m'ldc of organic m. DE 6 (1986).1100-2686 lie) but onl\· lor pri. la(lis !a:... but this is thought 10 be of Greco-Roman date. he cXC<lyatcd at numerous siles from Saqqara to the Valley of the h:. 1893-1(16). J \ ols (Paris. ]. E.·ate burials in the Old Kingdom (268(}-2181 BC). 1~.1I'ds a stairwa~ was incorporated into the design allowing easier access to the tomb. . \\ hen hollow 172 . D. The . \YOlllan wcaring a similar kind of mask.: to the {th to 6th Dynasties (261.1 . . 199{). supplcmel1led b~ those at .'\f: \L:STIC or tempera 011 a \y()ouen board) began to be used alongside the traditional car- tonnage masks.-B\IIRI. Ancillary buildings. !\ plaster mould. would not nccessaril~ have suryjycd in the archacologiGl1 record.. If. intended to aid the sculptors in making accurate rcprcsent. 'I\lasks in nncient Egypt: the image of divinity'. perhaps fulfilling a similar purpose to the -I-th-Uynasry RESER\ E liE \US.. Thc forerunners of mummy-masks d:w. 198{).Hcrials such as cartonnagc.(. 'Anubis-j\ bske'. 1895-9).:~. T\YI. 5-/. EllUl!!. .1-2181 He). at the agc of only twcmy-thrcc.ings. of '1iIItI1lHItlIlll/lI.16-49.."h.15 (199.'i tic Deir ('I-Ballari (Cairo. D. 1900) G.lpparcntly mkcn directly from the f. QUIIJE!.cs iusnipliom dl'.)nd all were roofed over with timher."-rabie: 'bench') C. c.tec of il corpse. c\'cnwally becoming Professor of Egyptolog~ at" rhe Ecole des Hautes Etudes in 186Y. Il/J J /UJI)( CFJJ(. KU/lIl11.\\ \R' \ were probably not death-masks al all hut copics of sculptures. For the Old Kin~dolll.1:>6-1:127 Be) and "SLSE~~rs I (10. The central chamber. 'T .rprt'ssi(jll.11.1 cdited the first fift~ \'ulul11es of the immense catalogue of the collection there.130 11e.' J"(~)'fIk.(llf.1.011<1011. Guide'll/l risilell/"alllllll:it.lsty onw. W.~tl(fl!" bridgl' (Lt'idcn. Lt's mOll/ie."\Q. B \RS. /i"gyjlfCIIS zur 'Vcllllllld/I.lriollS of Lhe c1-Amarna elite. just hefore he waS about to address a mceting of thc ~L\cadcIllY in Paris. 1992). notably ch'lpcls. as Dircl:tor of the Egyptian AntiquitiL'S Sen'icc and the Bulaq i\luseum. linen or le. pl. and completion of the Prrdilt· i:iC/11 t~rJltl·Jil1ll'mr.J.ls the Earl~ Dynastic period dcri\'cs from \11) 1l0S and S \Q.\R \. quart::::. The (<11'tolln.312-13. The best cyidence for mastah. L.l is smaller th. 38--10.\'('/1) 1t~'. 1915). C \1 1. .lgc mummy mask W. As a result the burial h'ld to he made before the hrick superstructure \\-as completed. 1978).FolII his I(lmb ill lht' I . 1~09).1s.\ lusculll . In the carliest examples.ingtlom (2055-1650 Be). was sometimes decorated. \v. G. 'l'he superficially similar plaster 'masks' that were cxc~w~1tcd in the house of the sculptor Thutlllose . 'Ancient Egyptian ceremunial Illasks'. W.J' mad.I.19-991 Be) to the humbler painted ca!"tonnage masks that wen: introduced in the First Intermediate Period (2181-2055 Be) to assist in the idelllilicalion of the linen-wrapped mUll1my. 2. G. Gil.:II!i. P:\'\1. thnt for the burial.\. Hi. \ 1 \SPI:RO and A.. taking the form of thin coatings of plaster moulded either directly oyer the f~\cl' or (~n fOp of the linen wnlppings. 18/11 DYffasty. 66-89. A.ais d'Archcologic Orientale. is now in the collection of" Lhe l\lam:hcsrcr J\luscum.: (d' repn-JCllflllifJl/ illlllfe pn-hiJ/o1"l( 1:.. \ 111. -hh cd .1l \\IL' (1. the underground rooms did nol have connecting doors.lslaba tomb WilS L1sed for both royal .UK.ll many other mas}.\:'\TI.:!fJ'PI (1.!. .ol/igie ~!! • . or Maspero.. surmounted hy a mud-brick or SLOne supcrstruclUre.). 1\1 \SI'UW. ~~'IJRI-:\\S. S\\ EE'E) . lurqlloise IIl/d mlo/lred gillss. j\L F: Pl':TR1E. lie was born in Paris and cducated at lhe Lycce Louis Ie Grand and the Ecole Normalc. the 18th and 26th Dynasties and the GrecoRoman period (32 IIC-·\I) 395). cd. Eggcbrcdu (l\lainz.\laek (London. r-lildcshcim. ullsidial/.:s: Iltt' tlr! (~rt:."'·lIH n) The lise of masks in funerary cOn!cxts is much better documented. The m.\lli\<'jt-:I~.'O/ JUrSl ()F'I'IIJ.\K. \VOU'S"I. J3I. R. Prom 1881 onwards. W:lS c\'entuall~ broughl to an end through illness. Fouillt's all1llllf til' III {J)'J"tImitl" . cd.It BuhH. (18{(}-j916) French Egyptologist who succeeded Auguslc \\ \IUI:Tn: as Dircctor of the I':gyptian. 'Die l\l. {7-53.IS llsed in Ihe First lmcrmediatc Period. ranging from the famous gulden masks of TLT\. was excavated from the 6th-Dyn<1SIY mortuary temple of '1'1':'1'1 (23-+5-2323 Ile). so lhat the roof arC. The dwt({tlaislir !Jc"rd haJ hem remm:erl ill/hi. R\'015 (p~lris. I. wcre originally attached to thc superstnu. A. . ""'IS . Exnli:alifills ill SaqquJ"{f (NIJ7-/91J8) (Cairo. lX8~). ..1880 he made his first trip to Egypt at the head of a French archaeologiL"d1 mission that \yas C\'cnt ually to become the Inslitut Franc.!.\I1\.J'Plilfllllrl l\1asmba tombs have sloping walls.111<.:lure but were gradually incurporated inlo it-.' (C1iro.wls. which forced him to return to france in IlJ14.1 pri\'ate burials in the Early Dynastic period (. (Cairo. GIZ \.l'Plilln 1/111111111iCJ (London.111 0/1 (/1I(inll1:. C.' pyramitles (It Sa(j(jal'{//t (Paris.\HUSIK and \II':II)L \1 are all important maslaba ccmcterlcs. which. 112. lIsually consisting of the burial chamber and magazines. The unusual sci or hue 1\ liddle Kingdom objccrs found in shaft-tomb :) under the RilIlH. . rhe _\Iiddlc ~ingJom." dll Gaire.l'PliL'IIIIC.\" de 110 ' lllologic el tI'urdu. .1t comprises .. 19(3).erters from i\ laspcro to Amelia Edwards'. Ala. pI.I'Om1ll..{. 72-82.SSClIl11 included a wooden ligurinc representing either . mastaba (..J.1 substructure.. A. S \QQ..Hher. IH9{). Arabic term applied 10 style of Egyptian tomh in which [he superstructure resemhles the 10\\ mud-brick benches outside Egyptian houses. which included the first publication of the l'YIL\\lID ·IEO·S and the discovery of the cache of royal mummies at DI:lR EI. 30. Climb (lml f!a/1l((/'{f (London) 18~O). exh. Tn .1).11(1' (~(il/l' f:illgs.·omelial/. Early Dynastic l11.111Il' til'S pel/pll'S tI.111<.101--1.\ t \SI'I:IHJ. .Q. 'Eg~ ptian masks in motion'. Gaston 1\.UII'I'I'I"II (Berkeley.27.·lld~'lieg ll. ha\·ing· studied with both !\lariette and Oli\'ier de Rouge.]E/. D·\\\ so~.I' plw/ogrll{JlI.. His distinguished career. gold. which probably connected in some wa~ with the performance of . Jlll1Jl'illg Iht' bioII': Jlu: san. (c //!?{) JI:60672.

~lta and Quhaniya during the 1\liddlc Kingdom. only a burial dumher remained. At most other siles.000. This smirway W~lS blocked by portcullises in an attempt [Q prevent robbery of the burial and magazines. O'ALRI-\. in contr. Berlin) Kahun and} mOst famously.0 the relati\-cly solid mass or the Old :Ind . Panelled fa<.n. Superstructures of the 2nd Dynasty were plainerl except for niches at the north and south ends of the eastern wall.during the 3rd Dynasty. ~ umbers were wrinen from the largest to the sm<. and their tombs..:).122 (re. s.1 g-. however. which had c\'oh'cd into a simple chapel.I. Rhind). . but scribes occasionally left . although not ahvays on all sides of the tomb. W. but the maSI'<1ba continued to be used by the rest of the elite. 1961). 45-60. SPE'CEI{. BIUXKS. DOOR stele and altar. the so-caHed '"chapel-tombs'.Ir(//(/i( E:fIypl (Ilarmondswonh.llIest. Similarly.\'I 09 (1980). The modern surve~ s of monumcnts hayc enabled much to be dcdm:cd conccrning the Egyptians' practical use of mathematics. as in the 'streets' of IOlllbs at (ilZI\ and SAQft'\lt·\.. Sh.It . so that 1.000 [often meaning 'more than -I C<1n count'l. G. 0 IERI'[O'. \fummies alld magic (l3051On. became larger.ll1dm Empire: 1/.MASTABA MATHEMATICS AND NUMBERS 1 burial shaft 2 burial chamber with sarcophagus 3 chapel where false door stele and offering table are localed 4 serdab for stalue of tomb-owner CIII-amay tlramilJg uIlllI Old KingdolJl pri7:(J!l' !//(/s!a!Ja fUll/b. \ can"Cd on thc \\alls would also magic'1l1y ensure susten. which. the Egyptians did not dc\"Clop abslrilct formulae... E. have been likened by some scholars 10 Ihe mastaba form. J.\\I·:RY. but proceeded by <1 series of smililer calculmions. took the f(H'm a palacc-fa\=adc design (sec SEREKII) during the 1st Dynasl). by the . L\C. The f{)llowing signs wcre lIsed 1O represent numbers: 10 100 1000 10.. An OFFI':RI:. the southern offering niche. The st. the afterlife of officials depended un royal EIYOUr. usually loc. Some of these tombs were ~lCcompanicd also by boat pits. Mastaba tombs continued to be constructed for pri\·ate individuals .SI".\Iu and C.cin slrllklllrcilcrVergleieh'. H.lst 1.. like the superstructure. superstructure before burial was made.Ite of mathen1<\tic. 1987).-ll knowledge in the Pharaonic pcriod has been deduced from a sm<111 number of mathcl11'llic'll texts. . some of which bcg-. Here the family would come to make their ufferings to the dcccilscd. as in the case of the royal tombs of the 21st and 22nd Dynasties (1069-715 Ile) in the precineLs of the temple of Amun at 'C\~IS. statues of whom were walled up in a SERIJ.II sites such as AJlLSm.mce for the deccased. granted by the king.ades regained populari~. particularly exemplificd by the l\ Icmphitc tomb of I IORE1\IlIEII at Saqqara. These often bore elaborate decoration. Unlikc the Greeks. The Late Period rombs of the Gon's wln:s OF 1\\IUl\ . By the Inrc 2nd Dynasty a series of rock-clIt chambers sometimes led from a centra) corridor beneath the superstructure. p. In the 2\ew Kingdom (1550-1069 Be).45-11 1. including scenes of daily lif·c which are valuable for the understanding or agricullural and craft activities (scc 1\IEIU~RU" \ and "1'\'). The chapel conmincd the Fc\l.000 100. During the ord Dynasry (2686-261] Be).1 funerary chapel.n tt tomb had essentially replaced the maslaba as the principal form of pri\iltc funerary archilecllIrc.lfts led down 10 the burial chamber from the courtyards of the supcrstructure" Chapel-tombs were also common after the end of the ~ew "'-ingdom.'lding q fi-om right 10 feft) would he: II nn ~ .\IEDINET ItABU were also in l·he same architectural tradition.f.\B and \'isiblc only through small openings in the masonr~. This type of mastaba \yas built throughout the rest of the Old Kingdom. 1989). de\'e1oping into a distinct room within the superstnH.lIed in an oflcring ch"lmbel' abo\c the burial. and- 173 .O\". which probably originally had superstructures of this type (although only the substructures have sun i\"cd). lhe rm. 1988).gypl (Harmonds\\orlh.1I1 to be incorpOnIted into the superstructure. P.lp hetwcen numbers as though such a sign existed. and by the 5th and 6th Dynasties (249+-2181 Ill:) a whole series of rOoms had de\"c1opcd in the superstructure. ROEIIRIG (cds).. 1':])10'1. Jlll1swb(/s e/I~}lpngies d'. A. a leather scroll and two wooden tablets. problc1/ll' de la dala/io/l (Brussels. mathematics and numbers 'T'he Egyprian numcrical system was a combi~ nation of the decimal and the repetitive" ft lacked a s~ mbol for zero. the PYRMdln complex developed as the royal burial monument.IJNtlh ill {lllril~t1I J:. sometimes copying the pyramids of the 12th Dynas. 1982). \\'_-\'1'50'" l::!{}'plilill Pyrtlmids (JIltl Jllt/Sltl/w lumbs (i\vlcsbllry.Middle Kingdom mast"abas.000 1. '1\lasfaba und Pyramidcl1lcmpel. During the Old Kingdolll.y (1985-1795 Be) in lheir lise of elaborate open-exca\-ation corridors.:ture. although the number of subterranean rooms was gradually reduced until. J. t'omprising four papyri (the Moscow. A number of l1la[hematical papyri written in thc 1J1':1\IO'l'[C script· h<lve also survived from the PtOlemaic period (302-00 He).th Oynast~ (2613-2494 BC). The superstructure of these chapc1-t"ombs usually had the appearance of a shriJlc or lemple consisting of a SCi of rooms arranged along an axis. and by the 4th DynaslY stone had become the preferred building material. Tombs \\cre surrounded by an enclosure wall. I\". or transfi:)rming it inlo . c1uslcrcd around his monumClH. connected lO the superstructure by a vertical shaft which could be blocked with rubble.\G FOR\ICI.

. all of whieh were written by placing Lhe hieroglyph 'I" above thc relevant number: thus one-third wouJd have been rendered as ~ .\·ZJI. (1:I100S7. but claiming 10 be (f copy (JIll 121h-DYllilsly motk.8) . J. then its area would be half that of rhe rectangle. This is evident fi'om tomb scenes showing scribes recording the amount of grain or counting cattle (sec '1)\.ondon. which is the product of 17 X 19. ROBINS and C. the royal cubit was lIsed by artists. \Vith their knowledge of area. which gives 3n approximate value for pi of 3. or measurement Knowledge of weights and measures was fundamenral to rhe smooth running of rhe Egyptian bureaucracy.'sos period. Complicated fractions were written by reducing them to two or three separate fractions. having the same length as its sides and the same height as its width. /5/h PJI1lIl. for instance. are nevertheless COITeer. lriauglrs find pyramids.Jimll Tl1Cbcs. The Egyptians lIsed rhe observation of practical situations to develop geometrical knowledge early in their history. including that for a cylinder and pyramid.liries than in theory. They had also found that if a triangle was drawn inside the rectangle. could become one hundred.MATHEMATICS AND NUMBERS MEASUREMENT However. while the multiplicand was il'self doubled as many timcs as Ilccessary for the multiplier. in the else cited above. in which 16 + 2 + I = 19: i\'IUITIPI.£lela PufJ1lcdllliw. 1972). This was done by squaring eightninths of the diameter's length. 1987). Puin' C VUT v Pm"" 13 (1983). The Rhim/ lIlalhemalim!paPJll.9cm) which was roughly the length from elbow to thumb tip. they were . three-quarters.H least since the rime of Flinders Petrie's sur- vey of GIZA . simply tables of duplication. All that was now necessary was to read acrOSs the table and add the relevant figures (marked above by an asterisk).i" ill the lilllC (~(lh(' pharaoh. The royal cubit comprised 7 palm widths each of -f. J.'/{lJ/g!es.'\!\TION).. The usc of fractions appears to have caused more difficulties. Tn the absence of formulae. the first of which had the smallest possible denominator.ngs. which is used where calculations could not be exactly matched to proofs. A. SIIL. replacing the figures with their own. G. 272 + 34 + 17 = 323. SCtJ. however.J. The Egyptians' calculation of whole numbers was relatively simple: La l11uhiply by tell. digits of thumb width (thus 28 digits to the cubit). conventionally 45 cm. This part o. four-fifths and five-sixths.16. They knew a rectangle was equal to irs that the area length multiplied by its width. also some special signs for such commonly used li·aetions as two-thirds. a sum equal to the desired multiplier was reached by a process of doubling. There were. although they lack rhe c!eg'l11cc of formulae. SIII'I·".ICM\!I) l' 2' 4 8 16' 17" 34' 68 136 272' Once a number was reached which was equal to half or more of that desired. Thus. . even when truncated. Division was achieved by reversing this process.li\!GS. Thus the sum 17 X 19 would be calculated by tirst deriving the multiplier fi-oIll the table below. In calculations fi'actions were broken down and thus treated as whole numbers. R.4 em). 69-80.it has been dear that the meth- ods involved in setting out the pyramid COI11~ plcxcs (2686-1650 Be) were pragmatic rather than mystical. for cxampl~ the appropriate hieroglyphs were changed for the next highest.us (l. This again was achieved by a series of smallcr calculations. and the H.-J\WD1NA. 11. R. 'The bread and beer prohlems of" lhe j\tloscow Nlathcmatical Papyrus\JE.1-1ence there was no need for multiplication t"lbles. Unlike the Nlesoporamian mathematicians the Egyprians were more interested in praclica. From the SAlTl:: PERIOD (664-525 Be) onwards.. and from the measured rations and weights of copper issued at D!·:m 1·:I.II-:R MUITII'I. written in lite Hyl. 'Beitrag zur Erforschung del' Gesehidu. During tile Persian .Walltc1!luliw/ Papyrus.TE. no further doubling was needed./550 11(. Artists generally used a grid to layout thciJ' drawi.IS well as vignettes of the weighing of the heart in the BOOK OF THE DEAIJ. and until the end of the Third Intermediate Period (1069-747 "c) they used the 'short cubit' of 6 palms (44. DelllOli" I!wlhclII(tli(lt! papyri (London. AJ[alhl'}I/alif. GII.OI1 f?FlIu' Rltilld . Neyertheless. Thus twoftfths was written as one-third + one-fifteenth. C.. E NL\lS. so that ITn.t14+ (1958). which.hind Papyrus is exceptional in presenting a table of fractions in which the numcrator is two. particularly as the Egyptians recognized only those in which the Ilumerator was one. certain calculations in the Rhino l'vlathematical Papyrus end with the short phrase mill pm ('it is equal').\" (Cambridge} ]\11A) 1972). papyrus. The main unit of measurement" was the royal cubit (52.e tkrVermcssungskunde im alren Agypten'. PARKER.32 {llf. 16 174 is morc than half of 19. SVI\ST!\L. scribes learned their mathematics by copying out ser examples. In other calculations. c.(thc lexl {OllsislS (?(a series (d"Prob/CIIH (ol/urning l/ie 'volullles oIrc(. approximately the length of a man's forearm and represented by the hieroglyph ~ . however.llso able to <:<11culatc volume. 56-65. the Egyptians' major achievement in geometry was the calculation of" the area of a circle according to the (ength of irs diameter.

while others are in the shape of bulls' heads. although the nucleus of the complex is of the 18th Dvnasty (1.2300~2181 Be). thus forming a rudimentary price system in the non-monetary economy of the Pharaonic period (sec 'I'R. J. roughly rectangular mud-brick temple..10--1295 ilL) and the outer sections are Greco-Roman in date (332 BC-ill) 395).2 I). re-used elsewhere on the site. C.82-7. This carly 'shrine' appears to lie outside the normaJ conventions of Pharaonic temple design. on the other hand. Area was measured by seljll/ (100 cubic square). later c. F G. long with the la (or mch-ta) of 100 royal cubits. This consisted of a polygonal enclosure wall containing a grove of trees surrounding a small. similar to u1e Bucheum at . ROBlClIO. and each chamber being covered by an ovaJ mound of soil. 'l\llcasures and weights'. ABOVE IIVoot/en mbil-rod.2 em was sometimes used. Ana'elll E:!!. V'\IULtE. RIGIIT Pragmcllf (~rs{hiSf mbif-rod. 1938'.85 em long. A knotted rope was used in surveying land.es in Egypt in the Raml:sside period'. there were already individuals corresponding roughly to the modern concept of a doctor. 'Prices and wag. cattle or other animals. 77+-84. 66-9. Madu) Site an ancielll rown localed 5 km northeast of KARl'\:\K temple. B. J C!':RN".i400 1)(:). A. which could vary considerably.l. L. Ra'ttawy and Harpocrates (the child-like form of r IORUS). but from ceremonial cubit-rods cut in stone and deposited in temples.77 I. The temple is dedicated to the local triad comprising Montu. perhaps symbolizing the I'KII\IEVt\L MOU.3 Oil. known as kllllJ'.2' as well as into thirds.I:-. However. Many weighls in the Dynastic period arc inscribed.3.The most detailed knowledge of the cubit derives not fi'om workaday measures. Nl~m Kingdom. 1tJS9).\DE). whereas Medamud (ane. There were also surgeons (called 'priests of Sekhmet') as well as the ancient equivalents of dental and vetcrinary practitioners. E. was uncovered in 1939.903-21. the royal Persian cubit of 64. St\. for whom the term siul7J was used. writing in the fifth century Be. forming a kind of compendium of the sort once found in school exercise books in Europe.. These were also inscribed the l. Scribcs measuring grain arc depicted in the tomb or l\'lenna. 1905). such as or 175 . Hall (O. date to the Predynastic period (c. (EA23078) f. since many illnesses tended to be regarded as the result of malignant influences or incorrect behaviour. have survived. R. Beneath medicine Egyptian medicine was a mixture or magical and religious spells with remedies based on keen observation of patients.\RM.. dated by pOl:tery to the late Old Kingdom (c. and any attempt to impose thc modern distinction between vlt\GIC and medicine usually only confuses rhe picture. notably thc hill (about 0. The 11i11 could be subdivided into units as small as Y.lord. /5.1-179.07 em). at least as early as the 3rd Dynasty (2686-2613 Ilc). and one kIWI" making 160 lJillJ1l (75. including the wooden examples lIsed by craftsma.14). J.3S00-3100 Ge).af. IYciglilS alld balill/ct. silver or gold.ANT.85 em each.te measured silver or gold only. the boundaries of which could he marked with stones.\'I). or occasionally buried with officials. The length of the double remel/ was equal to that of the diagonal of a square with sides of 1 royal cubit (74.ypl: (//llll(l"~)ll~ra (i"Hli:::.1 lle) this unit was supplemented by the "ile of 9-1 0 g. and the dcbell itself was increased to weigh 10 kile. The Greek historian HERODOTUS. ~! Dcs(ripfi()ll sflJ!lJllfIiri' tlllfempll' pr.'iIOin' !\'Iol/(!ialc 1 (1954). CdE \-1-/27 (1939). was the measurement lIsed in land surveying.'NER. KEI\\I'. The double remC1I. although a reference cubit for this measure at Abvdos is actually 63. \"eights were traditionally made in units known as debem. pottery and bronze have survived. the c"lrliesl. Singer. cIVlcdamoud: fouillc!-i tlu Musce tIu Louvre. cd. but numerous stone architectural clements such as columns and royal statues have survived. Cl/lliers tI'fJi.. but after the 12th Dynasty (198. excavated at Naqada. 'i'he modern site is dominated by ~l temple of the falcon-god MONTU \"hich dates back at least to the J\!liddle Kingdom (2055-1650 m:). VV'·:lOAI. _. Nex! to the main Greco-Roman temple was a SACRED LAKE and behind it was a smaller temple dedicated to the bull manifestation of Montu.oll (London.1Ued the t/ronrtf. 19. 1940). each leading to a small chambcr. weighing about 93.1. as portrayed in the tomb or Menna at Thebes ('1T69. The ground-plan of the ~1iddlc Kingdom phase of the temple of Montu has been ohliterated by the later phases superimposed on it.?s (Cairo.:'\ and A. They were used to describe the equivalent valuc of a wide variNy of non-metallic goods. the main tcmple. claimed that Egyptian doctors each had their own specializations. a much earlier phase. The most common curc fiJI' maladies was probably the /\MULET or the magic spell rather than medical prescriptions alone. j\lIeasures of capacity also cxisted. (H 136656) with other useful informarion such as Ii'\U~n.3 g. and a large number in stone. Weights were also commonly lIsed.lJ!if~rde /vldtllfJ!l(Wt! (Cairo.MEASUREMENT MEDICINE occupation. C.A hisfo/:ll 1~(Jedlllol()gy I. Lale paiod.ll and surveyors.47 I): tcn lIil1m making one lJekal of ahout 4.2 Oil. At the rear of the small temple there were two winding corridors. at the northernmost edge of Thebes. The delnJl/ was a measure of copper. A numher of measuring rods. divided into fony smaller units of 1. I-Iolmyanl and A.\­ TJo::'-J levels or references to names (provinces). (.

J. [f the barley grows. Sen) d.1550 I~C) is inscrihcd with m·cr 250 prescriptions.It Saqqara became a centre lor medicine. assimilated with those of thc Greeks. The symptoms of cach case an: described and where possible a remedy prescribed..Itc Period (7-t7~332 Be) onwards..ings uf the h lIman body.\. when scyeral rulers of the 13th Dynasry (I795~1650 lie) tollk 176 . in that the prim:ipal sources arc inscriptions on runcrary monuments.. it was not re. ritu<lls and practical prescriptions. stomach complaints. Detail (?{. she will gi\·c birth.fon. P.1200 BC:) is concerned only with dise..~ plwl"llo/ls (Paris..ll all bodily fluids. 1983) A. _ if both grow.\)) 129-99) th. If the cmmcr gro.. anc. <1 numher of whieh deal wilh brokcn boncs <lnd biles (including that or the hippupotamus) The Brooklyn Papyrus deals with snakebitcs it( grcal lengt"h. icicocc Lhal this WitS so in the Pharaonic period. 1955). gynaccology or osteopathy} but there is no e." L \I REG10'J. on the other hand.lr from these \yorks that it would b~ incorreci to suppose th:1t the diss~ction ilwol\'cd in mummification pro\'ided the Egyptians \\ ith a good knowledge of the" 01'1. as in the cult-place of IWS at Saqqara. A number of sun-j"ing mcdil:al papyri pro. which might be described as holistic in modern terms. It is dc. such as blood. 'The . dislocations and crushings. while the Chester Beatty \ J Papyrus (t.l\·e been a doctor associated with ~t pyramid-building workforce.\RIES).-I'.llized t h. .\ledic(fl Papyrus. The purpose of the kidneys was also unknown. but Ihe earliest knu\\ 11 archilccillral remains deriyc fi·om a temple of Sobek construcrcd in [he 12th Dynasty (1985-1795 Be) and restored by Ramcses II (1279-1213 lie). puts his fingers to the ror hcad to the two lunds.2100~1901l Be). any sill/}) docror . contains thc c:lrliest kno\yn pregnancy tcst: ']Jadey and cmmer'.. From the L.1 female child.crning dlC Egypti.·cre const'lnrl~ circuhning around the body.·omen must moistcn it with urine e\·cry day . an actiyity .·hich the Egyptians ascribed to the heart.\".l. (u/IJIi. I t is not clear when the settlement of" Shedyct was f{)lllldcd. Shedyet. all of which would ha\c heen considered equally essent"ial to thc recO\·cry of the patient. for example.u rhe ancient temple archi\-es at i\ femphis were being (onsulted by Greek and Roman do(tors of his 0\\ n time. III the Ptolemaic period (332~30 Be) Grcek forms of mcdicine were combi. Crocodilopolis) Silc of the cult centrc of the crocodile-god SOUl':".1ns' knowledge of medicine and the composition of the body.(London. It also dcscribes such methods of contraception as the consumption of 'excremelll of crocodile mixed with sour milk' or the injection of'l mixture of honc) and n~1tron into the vagina. Although it cannot he claimed that the writer fully undersrood the conccpt of" Ihe cin':lliation of the blood.IY well be hiased.i9).\Iedieal Pap\Tus (r.\. 1930).yhen a Sckhmet priest. but recent opinion suggests that its aurhor may h. each part symbolizing a fraction from I / (.. Prescriptions were made up in proportions according 10 fractions based on parts 01" the eye of IIORU~. deals with thc ailmcnts of women and is particularly conccrncd with the womb and the determination of fertility. diyiding ils forty-eight cases into three classes: 'an ailment which I will treal'. 1550 Ill:). A. The purpose of numerous organs remained unknown. Such medical texts l11a~ ha\"c been hOllsed in temple archives (sec L1BR. [I. suggesting surprising scicntific support for this test. located in thc centre of the F. The text deals m'linl~ wilh such problems as broken bones. The Ehers :\ ledieal Papyrus (d555 Be) was originally (H'el" 20 III long and consisted simply of a list of some 876 prescriptions and rcmedics for such ailments as \\·ounds. sanatoria were often attached to major templcs such as the cult~centrc of Hat hor at DE'DER.o/ldoll. just as the local deities wen.he I. The Edwin Smith i\ledical Papyrus (c 1600 m:) was once thought to be the work of a militar~ surgeon. BKI·. although il was known dl. in every \"esse!. it mcans . The Berlin Papyrus (c.ned with those of the Egyptians. although thl' only e"idence for this is the assertion of the Greek physician Galen (t . G \lWI'EK. most of which were created men rather than wOlllen. cyery part of thc bod~.. he clearly recognized that the condition of the heart could he judged by the pulse: 'The counting of i11lything with the fingers lis done] to recognize the way lhc heart goes. P. urinc. LI·L\.lticl1ts somclimes also stayed m·crnight in 50called incubaTion chambers al such temples....' The Kahun .·ill actually prc\·ent the grO\\ th of barle~. to the place of the heart il speaks .llltit!ll1 1':':~YPlitl/ll11{'{li(illt. GJ t \L!OL 'GLI. Tht' Ra1llt'Ht:II11/ Papyri (O.·s it means ..1t the hr:tin had :lI1ything to do " ith thl' act of thinking.\I~.MEDICINE MEDINET EL-FAYU~1 F:iugr/(lIII.\lodern experiments hase shown thai thc urine of a woman who is not prcgnant . in the hope of rccei\'ing a cure through diyincly inspircd ilKI': \.1t brain damage could cause paralysis.. gynaecological problcms and skin irritations. and it "as belic\ ed th.'ide information com. l\L. The T:t/mill Smith Papyrus. The p/~)'sir.1 malc child. Thc London Papyrus is one of the best examples of the Egyptian three-pronged approach to healing. and the Asklcpiciol1 . \\ hich may also hc thc original source lor the R.lses of the anus.. The settlement and the temple must harc particularly flourished during the late 1\ liddle Kingdom. c:\crel1lcnL :lnd semen. given the f~lC[ that only one wom~m doc(or is definitely attested. There <lrc vessels in it leading to crery part of the body \. although this c"i~ dcncc l11.{f1fS /If p!f{{rlfflllit· (~)'PI (eliro. Egyptian doctors appear to have been m<linl~­ men. 'an ailment with which I will contend' Jnd an 'ailment not to be treated'.~ to 1/1" Thc I-lcarst Pap~ rus (r. It consists of a combination of magical spclls.\~-n:lJ. J.' . If neither grows she will not give birth.ll11CSSClim 1\-\ and Cill"lsberg \·111 papyri.WIJ-/21i1i /Ie. 2 \ol~ (Chicago. . 1995) Medinet el-Fayum (Kiman rares. Thus the deified !i\111()"1'i':1' become idcntified with the Greek god Asklepios. 1983). La mit/aim' igyptiflwe tl/II1!1IlPS t/t'.

'"hroJ. with .MEDINET l-IAnU MEDINET J-1ABU names including references to Sobc1. L. The focus of the main axis of the temple is the sanctuary of Amun.\'\.(). 1.lling from tht. bur this was later eclipsed by the construction of the monuary temple of Ralllcscs III (1184-1153 1Ir:). K·\hOS\.rih)1l tla AgypffI!ogil' Ill. Quo and \V. \rho arc also depicted in the first court of the temple.mghts with the women of his II'RI\L It is possible t1ut it was in this pri\ate suile of rooms that an unsuccessful . !\Lost of the archacologic'l! and epigraphic work at the site ""as undertaken by the Chicago Epigraphic Sun'e~" in the 1920s and 1~30s. In the carl~ l\\cnticlh century \1> the sire still cU'"crcd an area of some three hundred acres..801-11. \\t.I cop: of a Syrian fortress. the columns being reduced to onl\ a few mctres Howcrer in the southwest ~orncr is a tre~l~ury build'ing with scenes depicting somc of the tcmple 18 18 n. 1980).12 BC-·\D 31)5).l550-332 Itc) at the southern end of the Thcball \ycst bank. The first PYI.ES.uc to the Greco-Roman period (3. notably his w~lrs "ilh the L1llY.lChed the site b: i1 canal from the Nile.'1Ilsion of thl' modern cit~.lSlern gateway (sometimes called the 'p. having re."all of I he sanc!. The exterior walls of the temple are decofmed with scenes from the rarious campaigns of Ramcscs III. known as a 11I~t!d"l.odilskulre'. \\'cstendorf(\\'ieslmdcn.111d the St"".. but convcnlionally the side facing: the Nile is described as cast. PEOPI. opposite modern Luxor. bchind which lies a false door for 'Amun-Ra united "ilh eternity" namely the divine tC:Jrm of Rilmescs Ill" 177 . scn'ing as ils e. cd.\ shown the king smiting his enemies) while rows of' human-headed 'name rings' depict the conquered lands. the llYPOS"]"' u: 11'1. E.lvilion gate'). Djeme) Temple complex d.l' WI/pic mll1plcx (~(R{/Illescs Ilf al A1edilfci !JaIJII" equipment. The latter is aligned roughly southeast to northwest. i'\earb: "as a landing stage where boats could moor. but it has 110\\ diminished considerably because of the nonhwestward exp. a sacred lake and some baths) d. The second coun is devoted to sccneS of religious processions) notably those or \11'\J and SOh: 'R.lncmpt to assassinate Ramescs III took place. In rooms aho\'c the gate arc scenes showing Ramescs III at leisure.S . Heick.1.:' NI. hilS suffcred greatly. Djamct.e. The" hole complex is surrounded by massi\"c mud-brick walls. Other temple \'aluables were probably kept in i1 betler concealed building immedionely in (ront of the north .:\\' Kingdnm to the Late Period (c. !\lost of" the sun"iving remains (including another temple.1re displayed below windows in the eastern passage of the gone" a:. T'he heads of foreign capti\·es . Despite t"hc gcnerally good state of preservation of the temple. courtyard of Antoninus Pius Ptolemaic pylon easlern (fortified or 'Migdol') gateway tomb chapels of god's wives ot Amun temple of Amun (of HalshepsuVfhutmose III) sacred lake first pylon 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 first court second pylon second court hyposlyle hall first vestibule second veslibule sanctuary 15 Gale ot Rameses III 16 palace 17 18 19 20 western gateway residential areas magazines indicates position of the house of Bufehamun 15 Medinet Habu (ane. playing dr. The earliest section of the complex "as a small temple built by Hatshcpsul' (1-173-1-158 ue) and Thlltmosc III (1-179-1-125 Be).Uary. \yhen the town was rhe capital of the pro\'ince of Arsinoc.

Less than ..'\NN. and in Ptolemaic allll Roman rimes.IIII11///lt/brick cllr!osure malls (Iefi (lilt! right) is f/ie mortl/my It.ulic group originally from the eastern dcserts of Nubia.me..:amped near the city of i\legiddo: lO take a southerly route . It has been suggested that thc unusually good preSery.:h had created a network of vassal citY-Slates in Syria during the early 15th century ur:.1\'c pro. The Ptolemaic parts of the temple comprise a pa' ed processional way passing through an eight-c..'E.:allcd l:1. who were commonl~ employed as sc. may have been due simply to its rclati. the Asiatics fled into the city. \ riddle "-ingdolll and SCl:ond Lnrcrmedi.. "-E.\II'. i\ ILR'-\i\E. . Medjav NOll1. the pharaoh chose the direci approach. The dark sandstOne inner part of the tcmplc consists of a small papyrus-columned hall leading to a sanctuary comprising threc chapels. arc at the western end of the tcmple. In the ensuing slaughtcr. aftcr the death of II rrsln:psLT). VOGI. or peruse it from .. Ullh. U. Trigger ct al. From the palace the king could enter the first court. 19H3). In the Ptolemaic pcriod the town of Djclllc .\·. howe"er. For a disclission of the an. see RA. Battle of Conflict bel wcen the armies of the I »thDynasty ruler TllUT. tis mell m ()/Iu}' buildiugs.:al significance or New Kingdom mortu. j.MEDINET I-IAllU MEDJAY Reiehes ill 1~5-'). and its bathrooms were lined with limestone (0 protect the n1udbrick.:e of the Syro-P.hacologir. 'Old "-ingdom.\CE. Tjamcr or Djamet.(iO.. against the advice of his generals and despite the dangers involved in a rhrceday march single-file through :l narrow pass.e temple (~r"lcdilll'1 Habn. ~lcdinct Habu becamc a rcfuge in unsettled times.e.fi1l'lfgrlJ/lJld (It!ji) Ilu: rllapels I~rlhc /!. IHDAIK 8 (1~39).:outs and light infamry from the Second Intermediate Period (1650-1550 BL) onwards. Dja. c. SClml. G.yas built within thc main walled compound.luack on the enemy. CJ 1IC:\.·i'l a town c.'\.emple complex.lled r\'\.lAi'\O.lilan. .\I. h. each containing sl. During this time the secund court of Ramescs Jll's temple was uscd as a church.J:\lcgiddo. Ncar the e.LTET (a han'est deity) was founded during the reigns or ""'.lS ncgotiated successfully. 111 Ihe.l team of arch. the temple defences were oycrwhelmcd and the west gate demolished. or to head directly across the ridge. the remains of the housc of onc of the "illage scribes.rcul'ulioll (!( lIedillcl !!alm. leaving behind the kings or Qldesh and Nlegiddo. The central chapel incorporared a large slatue of Rcnemllet. [t wax later expanded and embellished during Ihe Greco-Roman period.'c seclusion.\t (on which thc basic plan or Ramcses Ill's mortuary tcmple was modellcd).ltion of this t.:ompiled by the military scribe Tjaneni and inscribed on the walls of the Hall of Annals in the temple of Amun at I'. and took advantage or of the protection offered by the site. which was probably much smaller than the king's main residence. 'DcrTclllpei des Mittleren 178 . ~ledine[ J\ladi'. W. 7J-I~2 (169-71). E. 227-8. J. as well as sixteen further campaigns in the Levant. Un/lnl milll elerniql: (f cmfcisl' gu/rlt' 10 Ihe IIItnllllllClI1S (JIJledillef Habit (ChiclgO and Cairo.and 26th-Dynasty Gon's Wl\'ES OF "IUN (Shepenwepct II. At some later time. 1936-7). This route.GR'\\ E CL. I 93+-S-l).-l11cicl/l Egypt: a so(illllJislfI1Y. Amenirdis J.: "'fU!()f.mach. EI'IUIUPlliC SLR\'E'. scrying as a spiritual palace as well as for occasional royal \'isits.lry temples. R.(J(rl' mires (dAmllll WII bt SCCII. Shepcnwepet III and iVLehitcnwesckhet) were buried. Primo (l'setOlldo) rappfJrlfj degli smt'/ coude"i del/If R. B.. 1930-70). 8 "Dis (Chil:agu.cnila tli . lr \Y<lS originally decorated with glazed liles.tins a royall'. allowing them to launch a surprise frontal . Thurmosc embarked on a campaign to de.656 Be). which la~ abuut eight kilometres southeast of . 1977). and the residents of the workmen's yillage at IJEIR EI. The route to the AnuJI1 temple of Hatshepsut and Thutmosc [II underwent modifications in the 25th Dynasty (7-+7. who had to be hauled on to the battlcments by rheiJ Medinet Maadi (.SON) On the southeastern side of the temple are the rem.:'\I{.lstern gate are a group or ~chapel-lOmbs\ beneath which several of the 25th.DE (cd.Mila1/u III!//a Zfj//a di i1ladilU:1 A'III(/(li. E. IloIR'iClIER. the firs! pylol/ oI mhirh is slw11Jn !Iere. It derived its name from the ancient Egyptian term for the site.·hic.. 1935-6 (~. (f~ . 11. .lre now in the Cairo l\luscum. many of \\ hich .'l/1p/e (~rR(/lIfeses III. tu march northwards to the town of Djefty.1100-1069 Be).111 uprising of Syro-Palcstinian cit~­ states.).". A council of war between the king and his generals rC"caleu that there were three possible strategies for 'lrtacking the prince of Qlllcsh.11 with ..1 "window of appearaOl:es' on its southern side Because of its strong fortificatjons. however. \r.'1""1 IT III and II (1855-1799 Be).·i~)lpten l1ud Kusdf (Berlin. 1980).:olumncd KIOSK leading to a ponico and transverse vestibule. Megiddo.Yhich would allo'" them to appear from the hills about nyO kilometres from Nlegiddo.nESI'EI.llestinian city of Qldesh.Hues of deities. _"ledillci Ha!Ju. N·'L \I.-idcd the details of the Battle of _1\-1egiduo.I:I·L"RE. \!armouthix) Site in the southwestcrn fayum region where a temple or Ihe cobra-goddess RE. 'The latter was no doubt backed by the military might or the stilte of j\IlT'\NNI.l year after assuming sole rule of Egypl (i. emerging to rhe west of Nlegiddo. Butchamun. whose armies wcre cnc.lcologisls from the University of !vlilan in the 1930s. 'fhcy hayc been identified with the archaeological remains of the sO-C"J.-\IEDI' \ mO"cd there during the late 20th Dynast) (. The 'annals' of the reign nf Thutmose Ilt. A.nc Period'. with Amencmhat III and J\ standing on either side of her. although some scholars disagree with this association. excavated by . (C1mbridgc. ... :} "ols (Chic'lgO. The e.\ILSSl':u.\lOSE III (H79-1{25 Be) and those of the princ. 1n time-honoured fashion. B.

1) H.. 2) lJ)ere iidilll'd to gii'C fhe SlllflO/1z pHdi/e (3).(i1ltl/ slepfled prtdiles (1.1 well-established cemetery of early -I-thDynasty \IASTAJ3!\ tombs surrounding the pyramid. N1. 'Some . Meir Group of decorated rock-cut tombs in iVliddle 179 . The pyramid (although Sneferu's 'north' pyramid at Dahshur may have been the earLiest to have been designed as such from the outset). EDWARDS. GM 33 (1979). S. since Sneferu himself appears to have had twO pyramid complexes at D:\I-IS1 fUR.. although his name docs not appear anywhere on the monument and it is perhaps more likely that his fun crary monument \muld have been located at S:\QQ\R:\ (possibly in an unexcavatcd enclosure to the wcst of the step pyramids of DJOSfR and SEKI-IE. were discovered by Auguste iVbriettc in 1871 in a mastaba to the north of the pyramid. 1993). W O\INWIOUIIT. ST\OEI. last king of the 3rd Dynasty. H. as well as the New Kingdon) graffiti in the mortuary temple. (Harmonds\Vorrh. 60-71. The earliest surviving mummy. E.!II' pJll"{{lIlid ((I . situated close to the Fayum region. it is regarded as second only to the 'grand gal1ery' in thc Great Pyramid of Khufu (2589-2566 Be) at GIZA.J lET). Thl! burial dwmher is labclled-l. the presence of . is usually ascribed to Huni (2637-2613 Be). SOLJROUZII\N~ The Ej{Jlptiall . The pyramids (~r Egypt. J.t1mc/lm.Nleidulll pyramid is that of a stepped tower. R. MDAIK 36 (1980). located north and cast of the pyramid. but apparently short-lived. PETRIE.lOtI ilssociated pri.l\ll:\{x!\Y and G.\!Ie/dulll. M. The same tomb also includes an inno\'<ltive. Megiddo \VaS captured. A. 1.MEIDUM MEIR clothing. and. A.Idditional rtmarks on the batrle of Megiddo'. and finally provided with a smooth outer casing to transform it into the earliest true pyramid Tile pyramid of NTeidll1ll JlOW presellts a tOlJJcr-like a]Jf!('{//'{/llcc tllle In till' loss {Jli/s origillal emillg. 221-9. The building interpreted as a mortuary temple on the east side of the pyramid was found to incorporate two enormous uninscribed round-topped stone stelae probably f()rming part of an offering chapel. which has not yet" been eXG1Yiltcd. have provided some of the best examples of early 4th-Dynasty paintings. including the celebrated depiction of the 'jVlcidum Geese'. 'Some notes on the Battle of Megiddo and reflections on Egyptian military writing'. nos 25-7. amended to eight steps. It /1){/S probllb(v rOIlS/meted I~)I eitller III/ili (lr /lis SO/I. 5th cd. ~7-54. oaring to the 5th Dynasty. Caim CMainzl J987). 1910).nd surface. 1949). and thus inspired the change of angle in the final stages of Snefcru's 'bent"' pyramid at Dahshur.\IAN1'" 'Snofru und die Pyramidcl1 von Meidulll und Daschur'. F. The internal walls of the superstructure of the tomb of Ncfcrmaat and his wife Atet were decorated with painted scenes of daily life. all make it more likely thal rhe collapse came much hner. shoming 110m lire on~f. The mast"ab<l cemeteries.SSOi\. Alternatiyely it ma~' hayc been completcd by Sneferu but begun by Huni. F VV. and certainly no earlier than the Ne\\" Kingdom. HQwever. probably a son and daughter-in-law of Sneferu. The Mcidum pyramid may have belonged to his son Si\EFERV. 251-2. K. (/~ 1: \tGtlO/. 50 100 m Cross-sert. The corbelled burial chamber was built into the superstructure of the pyramid at the level of thl" old groll.'vleidum in 1891. SI/{fcru. It was once suggested that the outer casing of the N. 'A building disaster at the Meidum pyramid'. Cairo).lte cemerery.. S.'\L1. Meidum Funerary site of an unusual early pyramid complex . The painted limestone statlles of Rahotep and Nofret (Egyptian lVluseum.EII and 1-1. in its architcc- reliefs and statuary. vv.71----8.7EA 60 (I97~). but it was originally constructed as a scven-stepped pyramid. ~37-9.leidum pyramid collapsed early in the -I-th Dynasty. assuming that both were being built simultaneously. bringing the campaig'n to a successful conclusion. An open causeway led to the \'alley temple. ]\11.\1t. After a seven-month siege. GR!\I'O\\'. 'The collapse of the l\ileidum pvramid'.')'Ov) tural sophistication. J11eydlllll (London. _. H. 191. Sludit'Il:::'1I tlm_ll/Nalell Tllllllllosis des driflelllll/d:::'lI ihllm VCFIJJlllldlt'lI his/oristlll'll Bt!ridrlell des NetiC/! Reichl's (Berlin. 1. E. was excavated by Flinders Petrie at . whose name is mentioncd in graffiti dating to the New Kingdom (1550-1069 DC) in the passag'e and chamber of a small mortuary temple at the Site. SAl.·. PI':TRIE. i\ifeydlllll alld J1!lemphis III (London. E. form of wall decoration using coloured paste inlays. NFLSO".olllhrollgh . SI'.\GElt. 'lire Im"le l~rjHegiddfJ (Chjcago. but it was btcr destroyed when the Royal College of Surgeons was bombed during the Second World War.7EA 59 (1973). The modern appearance of thc . 1892). EDWARDS. /vW1JK 30 (197~). ME1'-DEI.

which probably rcferrcd to the appearance of the fortified palace of onc of the earliest kings. perhaps brought fro111 Saqqara.I':'·\i':DIU \. and earlier elcments. f-1owe\"er 1 Pt. Memphis retained :1 great deal of" importance..\ITI~ PERIOD. Its remains were still clearly Yisible or or 180 .--:c. includes (north ro south) ·\IILT Rt)J\SII. The name r\Jlcmphis seems to derive from the pyramid town associated wilh the pyramid of' Pepy I (2321-2287 Be) at Saqqara.:::. is both dlC largest and nearest section or Ihe nccropolis. where F'\fIo:'\Cr-: was bcing produced.\:'.. a nomarch (provincial gQ\"crnor) during the reign of Amcncmhat I (Ill. ultimately to become part of Cairo (aftcr the Arab conquest in (41).111 e<lrly seulement in an area of ancient higher ground by means of a serics of drill corings fonlling Lhe basis for a map of the subsud.ll1ts were cut into the surrounding clifTs.--=-~. \\TIT badly pillaged during the nineteenth ccntllr~' and c\'cntuall~· excavated and n:cordnl by Aylward Blackman between 1912 and 1950. Memphis (Men-ncb) Capilal cit)' of Egypl for most of the Pharaonic period 1 thc site of which is centred on the modern yiJbge of lViit Rahina.::. was one of the mOSI ancient deities or Egypt. An l. Part of the Ramessitle temple rC-llses pyramid casing blocks. GIZA.. located to the wcst of thc ciry. the timc \yhen TIIEBES had become the religious and admil1istrati\T centre of Eg~'IH.-=-lJI.'IleJlljJhis. The visible New I-. The Kom Qlla area of the site contains the remains of a palacc of i\r[e. liying manirestation of Pfah. Z!\\\ I~ 1':'1" I·:I. including a lintel of Amcllemhat JJI (l855-1808Ilc).. including cnormous travertine cmbalming tables.l "aluable ceramic chronological scquence fill· thc New Kingdom and pan of the J\liddle Kingdom . Perhaps intcntionally. 1-1O\\"c\-cr. The remains of early l\\cmphis lie beneath thick deposits of Nile allllYillIll.:::::.:. ]91+-.:::_.. which was a source of inspirarion for artistic revi\"al during the S.. inclieating that older strUCl"Ures remain to be disco\'ered.. A. who at .\'lcmphis formed a TKL\lJ with SI':"IL\IET and '\!EFFltTI': \\. It has been suggested that this original town may have bccn located ncar the Illodern village or Abusir and that the settlement gradually shifted southwards toward modern ivlit Rahina. ). The tombs.ingdom l110llllmCllts comprise the tcmple of 1'"["-\11...~ cc2=::-----c-~===~~~~-~\\ \\ II \': ~I\ ~ 8 oil :[09 11 \\ jI those ofNiankhpcpykel11... dating to the 6th and 12th ])\Ilasties (2345-218] and ]985-1795 I)l: respectively). Memnon SfC COLOSSI OF . It W'1S capital or the lirst Lower Egyptian . a SlllTe~ directed by David Jeffre"s on behalf nf the Egypt Exploration Socicty is attempting· to locate . In Ptolcmaic limes the ciry dwindled in importance.:c=_:::. while the shaft-tombs of their Scn'.\BL'SIR. The '1\1emphite necropolis'.=tj~_-~ __ 5 I flIt) II 11 --::. Saqqara) hO\\'(::n.. which was called J\ifen-nder (meaning 'established and bcautifuF). The 1110st obyious l11onul11cnts at the site belong. and much is below the water table."). successor 10 Ramcses Il. 13LACh. 2321-2287 Be). The lOCH ion of lhc site al the apex of' the Delta madc it well suited f()r the COol 1'01 of both this and the Nile \'alley.lfeir. tht. . havc been found thcre. sO that it was sometimes also known as the 'balancc of the two lands'. as well as giving greater insights into a small pan or Ihe ancient city.he founding of Fustat. 6 vols I 100 I 200 I 300 I 400 I SOD I 600 1 700 m (London.\W and the adminiSlrarive capital during the Early Dynastic period (3100-2686 Ile) anel Old Kiogdom (2686-2181 Be). St\(~~\R\ and D\IISIILR.=:_~ \\ ~_-. yielding . along with a smallcr Ptah temple. and continued to seryc as the northern capital. Indeed l11an~ scholars see it as the 'real' administrativr capital for most of Pharaonic hislory.lCe topography. Neverthclcss."::. which was situiHcd about eigln kilometres to the east. 10 12 oI. They contained the funerary rcmain~ of the governors of Cusac and members o[ their families. -~--~~. dealt the final blow to the city. This too has becn the subject of reccnt CXG1\·ation. It is said to have been f()lInded by the 1st-Dynasty ruler j\lI':W:S. There ilre few remaining traces of the town of' Cusac (Qjs). was built b~ Sheshonq I (945-924 lIe) of the 22ml Dynasty. and traces of this.\I'IS buil. to the I\"ew Kingdom. while t.~:::. and earlier temples to him c1earl~" existed..11T palace 01 Apries nortllernenclosurewall modern village of Mit Rahina enclosure wall of the temple 01 Ptah hyposlyle hall west pylon embalming hOllseofApis oulls 'alabaster' sphinx colossi of Rameses II 10 temple of Rameses II 11 Korn Rabia 12 Kom Fakhry: area of First Intermediate Period lombsand section of Middle Kingdom settlement 13 templeofPtah 14 palace of Merenptatl 15 ruins of unidentified strucfure 14 \r-:""::._~::: _ j ) !I ~.MEMNON MEMPHIS Egypt.T. co\ering ~l dist. losing out to the new sea-port at \1. are still visible.-_\In. A more ancient name fix the city was lncb-hedj ('''Vhite \'Valls' or '\\Thite Forlress').. while at KOI11 Fakhry therc arc tombs of22nd-Dynasty high priests (9-1-5-7] 5 IlC). ::\earby Petrie discovered the remains of an industria] sitc of the Roman period.:mbalming housc fClr the . North of rhe precinct of Plah is an enclosure of the Lire Period. The rOlk ((JlIlhs \\ \. some 2-+ km south of modern Cairo. since the tcmplc is uften nooded O\\-ing to the high water table. and Scnbi. prob. this mound \Hmld ha\T provided /-\pries wilh a clear \·iew the Saqqara necropolis. Very ICw tombs arc actually located at Nkmphis ifsclf~ although a few /i'om the First Intermediate Period (2I8l-2()55 Be) havc becn discovered close to iVlil Rahina. Among the most important tombs . The Kom Rabia area \yas thc f()Cus of a British cxclVatioll during the] 980s.. A fallcn colossus of Rameses II and an 'a1i. 15 ~\ II I: II ~: n I \\ \i:-=~-::.'\o.1bly replacing an earlier structurc.ance of approximately 15 km. lYSS-1953 lIe). besr known f()[· thc imprc5siyc 26thD~'nasty palace mound of f\prics (5R9-570 IIC).\II':\F\O'\ P/(/II (~(. a chancclJor ofPcpy I (\1._=_... much or \\"hich datcs to the time of Ramcses II (]279-]2]3 Be).1. ~_--:.lbasler' sphinx the )!cw Kingdom arc thosc fcatures of the sire mOSI C0l11111on]~ \'isited in modern ti111(:s.: clpital of the fourteenth prm"incc of Upper Egypt.~--_:=:--::.. about 5U km northwest of" modern Asyut..=-.\1 \'-.-~.lh.'. patron or Ihe ci.renptah (12131203 IK).

W. c. \~fl':'. M. . Jl[lJrJ fA· 50 (1994). c. Menkaura (2532-250. PORTER and R..'\D.: (2589-2566 BC). unfort"unately it is not c1car \vhclhcr l\ifcncs is to he identified with the historical ligures i\. The Grcek "Titer Herodotus credits him with draining the plain of . An ivory plaque rroml. Eal"~}1 DYllasllr Pa. 1961). Ml'llIfi/II's I (London. JHilrahil/tI 1956 (Philadelphia.. IS] . ANTIIES.'cssel Reauice sank in October 1838.~IIIIf(: rigill-lullul sidc /!!"lhc IUp rcglslcl' is Iltc hlt'mg~)lflh men. The earliest surviving structures at the site arc _\I·\ST·\I{·\ tombs of the late Old Kingdom.\l"ed by George REIS. The Greek historian Herodolus. Ol-:.. since lhe two namcs arc linkcd on jar-scalings fi'OIll .--IIf({. Their Son Harpocran. j\[enes was the founder of the Egyptian state.305-285 lH. Ho\Ycycr) part of an anthropoid coffin bearing the namc of the king was safely ITmo\'ed to London along' \yith honcs fi'om the burial chamber. D. cd. (E. mhirtl has hem ill!eljJrclcd as . D. B.:s (sec JlORUS) completed the rvlendesian triad. JEFFREYS. ] 976). th. (~r/l{/s(' 9 WI. who describes him as a piolls and Mendes (ane.O\yer Egyptian .. R. Ti.i\ II-:LI.}nds as his only memori'll. l\1. Per-banebdjedet) Tell el-Rub'a is the site uf Per-banebdjedet. It is possible. To the ancient Egyptians he was the (-irst human ruler.E'\'\ERE and P.6UO glas. noted the sacrifice of goats at Nlendcs. L.\11A. 26L!1 D.:nes. T-\\:\RJ-.e Nile Dclll! III 1f/lllSilioll: -I-/!I . W. Hmye\-er. 191-7.\i\(~.3/0() IlC. The ass()ci~ ated city may have been the home-town. the unification of Egypt.-irtually nothing' of the reign uf this ruler. G.\IE\\PllIS. and a granite NAOS or the time of Ahmosc " (570-526 Be) is the carliest of the temple ITl1l. C.I. including Colonel Vyse. the identification remains uncertain. Unfi)l'wnatcly it was lost when thc merchant .I.ford..1lJc) Penultimate king of the +th Dynasty.M mdcs II (\Varminster. The slIn:ey ..)'IIIISI. He was the son of K:11. It is now Known that the date of the coffin cannot bc any earlier than SAITI': Thc 'ram o/J\!loulc:i'. nmy st. E P":'I'R. the builders of the lwO other p~Tamids at thc site. c. of some 01" the rulers of the 29th Dvnastv (399-380 Bt:). sec SEREKll) and attempted to send it baCK to England by boar."gypi (J-brmondsworth.\FR1\ (2558-2532 Be) and grandSOil or KJ ICFt.MENDES MF.7f3/773) the Lnificatiol1 of the Two Lands.:ri\"e principall~· from the Greek historian lIFROI)OTLS. !\luss. Menes (dOlJO Ill:) According 1"0 the EgYPlian historian :\1. The sUl'\·iving details of his life arc largely anccdotal and (!l. 7i)p{J{!. in COlllraSl to lhe usc of sheep elsewhere in Egypt.\ beaTS the name of both IvIenes (1Vlcn) and Aha.8 ClII. B.\1\ hut like the stone buildings of its necropolis they have suffered fro111 "quarrying' and the activities of se!Ja/. :Many scholars now believc that Narmcr is the legcndary Nh. 26111 DYlIasly. 11'111. There arc IusaipII(}// Oil al! inNJ' lavcljin all oiljal. II.8311-75.. B. "an dell I3rillk ('lei '\\i".'\IOi\lE. 'Transilion~l] tIle Prcclynaslic-Early Dynasli(: oenlDations at l\lcndes: ~l preliminar~ repon'.". j\ L\CK_n-.1l1y evidence. -1.2. 'The historic landscape of Early Dynastic L\ lemphis'..1'.s. but \yithout .ETll0 ((.\. II. . h·fJI]'. His pyramid complex was eXC. I Nwdcl/ odJiIl/imlllltl! pyramid o/lllc -1111DYl1asly mIl!/" J\IICI//. and builder of the third pyramid ill GIZ:\. 1992). but from the 2nd Dynasty (2890-2686 Be) onwards she was increasingly replaced by her consort.lt he mistook the sacred ram for a gont. FIIII/ Ihe muslava IOlllb o/Neillt!wlcp al iVaI/ada. E/o. E.. although il has been argued that il probably records a yisit by the latter to a place connccted with ~1enes.J. {{ rcaml (d'('IYIl(S 1I/I11C relgl/ (~(KIllg . l.NKAURA in the twelfth century . 'Vhell told by the oLKle or llUTO that he had only six years to lin:.\11':1 lIT. His great achic\'Clllcnt.lins.IEln'. he is said to have effectively doubled his remaining lifc by banquet ing throug'h the hours of each night.E. although the pyramid itself had been entered pIT\'iously by a numbcr of' early nineteenth-century Egyptologists. .66f-. the ram-god Banebdjedet (!Ja ImanifcstationJ of the Lord of Djedct).\lE]{. Tn either casc we know .fcmphis (London.:). the capital of the sixteenth T.inlmillcl/llil/1ll /fC."F.~. 19119). hiJl (farmers using ancient mud-brick as fertllizcr). JEFFREYS and A.16.143-74 also traces of minor Ramesside buildings at the site. responsible for 'I'he chief deity here was originally the goddess [11\'1'-.C IWIIiC 0/ . 1978).()d.. who removed a fine sarcophagus (decorated in tht: palace-bpde sl'ylc.) lie.'fl1lra al Giza.1772) IlC. B]{E\\ ER ami R..\lI~l~ or . 1985).l\'. G. 196j). whereas earlier kings were regarded as demi-gods. (el/NO . however.I.!(JI.leues.Ttlphi(({/ bibliogl'llfi/IJ' Ili/2 (O.'\R. who visited Egypt around +50 ue.\13\ LJOS. Arr!la/I" t. fresh fieldwork during the 1980s has rcyealcd senlement remains of the late Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods. and perhaps also the capital. D. (duM7) just ruler.

fl'C{ (Ourlilioll (Jilt! aji'agllli'lfl (~l a/Uik -1-111 DJ!II{/S~JI.ke Ir/tul s/tl/ue fJI/\JImhllfra. Its lowest sixteen courses are of red granite. whose Theban lOmb ('1'"1' 69) at Sheikh Abd cl-Qyrna included important scenes depicting land surycy. These arc among the finest examples of Old Kingdom sculpt"Ure and are now in the Egyptian iVluSCUI11. E.501/.Ieen Khamerernebty . SOme of the passages are also lined with granite.700-650 Be) 'Prince of the city' and 'fourth prophet of Amun'. c. {/(((JlII[Jtll/ied by tile g(}ddes. The p~Talllid. 137-51. Topogmphiral /li/ilio/{rtfj.'\tER.ftt. (<:lIlIu. Tlte temples (~rthl' third pyramid at Giza (Cambridge.25(){} HC. during which Egypt was 182 . from the complex Comes a statue or thc king and his wife.ll of remains believed to be those of the king.RDS J TIll! pyramids f~rE:!ZJ. A. If. Cairo. as well as religious and funerary scenes. II. J\11A' l 1931). occasionally carved into palace-Eu.\1) statues have also been discovered. The w~lll decorations also include the agricultural actiyities overseen by ~Ilenna.\ and D'\IISIIUIL REIS. and was probably (2503-2{98 I1C) who chose to be buried in a large mastaba-shaped fllmb (the A1lastabat Fara'un) midway between S:\QQ!\R. lVloss. ED\U.adc de<.. S. and it is possible that the whole was to be covered in this way. 5th cd. who rose Lo power in the Theban region during the reign or rhe Kushire pharaoh T/\!-!:\IUl!) (690-664 lie).rpedilioll jimn IIII' 7. PORTER and R. (I-Iarmondsworth. B. HOO BC) An 'estate inspector' in dle reign ofThutmosc II' (HOO-1390 BC). which covers less lhan a quarter of the area of the Great Pyramid.!Jv 1/1 (Oxford. 11/1)(/. 1993). underwent several changes of plan. Q. L.1' exmv{/Ied by Iht' J-JaITarr!-BoSlnJl e.~ flat/wI' (Ull !lis right) {Iut! fhe per.rJ!l nI'he J7th !lO//ll' of Upper Egypt ((II/Iris leji). alrmg /Ilith 'lira fJlher In'ads i/1 peJ. G..Wl/ijical.!. and was probably nC\Tr finished. Menna (t. 92.7""0679) <1 breI' rcburi. Mentuemhat (<'. including the weighing of the IIE1\RT.. 1960).'lIlllT tempI!' oI/Vlenkaurri al Giza ill 190/'l. I.:oration.MENNA MENTUEMHAT Gn:ymill.13-+-9. i\tIenkaura was succeeded b~f Shcpseska[ rimes (664-525 Be). on whose behalfhc constructed various additions to the temple af KARl\r\". while a number of fine 'I'RI. His career spanned the transition between the 25th and 26th Dynasties l surviving the turmoil of the mid seventh century Be. B. although the associated bones hayc' been dated to the Coptic period.

ll' tI'Amoll. lie assumed control of the country as a wholc.m in the south to perhaps as far north as Hermopolis l\lagna. '1'0\111. H. 1:.\R'\OI. the lounder of the 12th Dynast\' (1985-1795 Be). E. Despite the f~ll:t that the first Assyrian invasion in\'olvcd the sacking of Thebes by Esarhaddon's armies. struggled for scver. Six hundred years later its plan was copied and elaborated by II ITSlWI'SLT (1-f7J-1-f58 BC) in lhe design of her mortuary temple. who W<1S the father of I~TEF I (2125-2112 Be). 1961).l hislnry nI1I11cieli/ Egypl (Oxford._2055-200-1 BC. he built an unusual Icrraccd funerary complex. in western Thebes. ~lcntucmhat appCi. \Iou.lmani. rc-established the post of VIZIER. lie subsequently moved the capiral to Thebes. Ml'lIloucmllfJl. J\1crenptah. although it: appears to have been an ingenious combination of clements of the S.\FF Merenptah (121. 194-7)."-26. /I. stretching from Asw. Tht' \-1/11 D'yl1l1S~)IIl'mple al Dl'i.t1 years against the Saitc pharaohs.eries of three Theban kings of the 11 th Dynasty (2055-1985 Be) and nne of their ancestors. including a mab'11ificellt set of limestone sarcophagi. "\Et..C risc lI1ulfitil o/Iht' .UC'. The rclie(1) are typical of the archaizing tendencies of the 25th and 26th Dynasties. Mentuhotep (Birth name' (meaning 't\IONTU is contcnt').'llizcd as the founders of the :\Iiulile Kingdom..1BYi\NS and SEt\ PI':OI'I. drawing extensi\'ely on the styles and subject-matter of scenes in Old and ew Kingdom tombs.J. fJlltilrieml' proplu.IBYANS and the Sinai 11I':1J0UI1'-.mu[i. he controlled a large area. D. which is loc~1f­ cd immediately to the north. Die 1111J11I/1//cnlalen GmblmulclI tla Spiil:::. 1992). _\lcntuhotep II'S complex incorporated il cenotaph containing ~1 se. '1S the earliest lith-Dynasty ruler of the Thcban region.ed to himself and the I-leraklcopoliran ruler KhelY III al rhe site of el-Khatana.s and 111harqo's successor. 'lI. His successor."TE' I (66+-610 BC). hoth !\Ientuhotep I and Tntef I were giycn their own religious cults and the fictitious llorus name Tepy-a'l ('ancestor') was imcmed for i\lelltuhotcp I. who was for sc\·cral years the appointed heir. At the death of TanuLamani in (. NICIIIIl!lOICP II NebttlW)lrtI (1992-1985 Be). \leulflluJlep t'OIl Deir el-IJalwri. GRL\\ \L. so _i\1erenptah described his victory in prose f()rm on a wall beside the sixth pylon at KARNAK and in poetic form on a large 183 . 1974). bur would otherwise be praclic:ll1y unknown if it were not tor the rockcarved records of his quarrying expeditions to the \Vadi c1-Huui amethyst mines and the \Vaeli I·:lammamat siltstone quarries. The most important of Ihe four llth- Grey gra. 'r.' n. .I'leuluhl/lcp III Suuk!lkllrl/ (200+-1992 Be).37 III. rather than J\lentuhorcp I.lfS ahout JHenlulrolep I. nil' slain so/tlias nf. consisting of a similar combination of ramp anti podium. 2.1 \"ols (J . thc precise reconstruction of which is a m. Very little is known Dynasty rulers of Egypt was lWe11lullf11ep /I Nebl1t:pt:lra. launched military campaigns against thc I.1~ 1203 Be) '1'he cxtraordinary length of the reign OfR \ \11-:SES" (1279-12I.:.-hcre a cult was later dcclicolt.fAJenlulwlep " Neblrepelrtl. sometimes described as a 'lcmplc SIi. <:-. The name uf the fimll 11lhDynasty ruler. Just as Rall1cses 11 had recorded the Battle of (1'\I)I':SII in both prose olnd poetry.\'\1.. since he and I nref I were both rccob.llile . N. D. which he managed to fend off in the fifth year after his accession.720) f)YIllIS~)1.656 lie. 1\10st chronologies therefore list Intef I. Their reigns (particularly that of Mcntuhotcp II) heralded a return to political stability after the comparative confusion and decentralization of the First Intermediate Period (2181-2055 Be).1tcd statue of the king as well as the tomhs of six of his queens. I Je rebuilt the fortresses along the border of the eastern Delta. Paiult'd Jamlsloui' lIead nla s/tl/llf. howc\"Cr. the major event of his reign was an attempted invasion by the I. Rallri.li·()11l1Irc Cachelle COllrl in/hl' It'll/pIe (~/AI!1I1I/ til Kawai'. clBlIlwri. j. including Khacm\\'<lset. . priucctie la i:illl'(Cairo. l.1Iiddle A:illgtlom ill Thebes (New York. whu had been thc principal rivals of the earl~r 11th-Dynasty rulers.I'la/llt: (~/AIIf'l/llffmlf(/I. was buried in another \"~1IlCY a short distance to the somh of Deir el-B<.. rhe fourth pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty. the latter venture being led by a \"IZIER named Amcncmhat. E. Tn the reign of SenusrcL I..0<:. ... LEO.ondoll. and regained a cerrain degree of control over i'\UHlA. (e I/RO ee-l2236) to have maintained a liglll grip over lhe Thcban region.I.ltter of dcharc.1. Der 7i:mpd deJ Kiilligs. \VI'\1.D.thri. 19.-I.. 1907-13)."E\III·rr I (1985-1955 Be).5).i-l-8.1)" h. EIG"IER. J\'lentucmhal"'s tomb in western Thebes (rr34) consisted of a decorated subtcrranL-an burial chamber and a huge stone and 111udbrick supersr-ructure with talJ papyrus columns in its forccourt.Ve/J/repelrt: All'IIIUllOlep (New York.n. the first fully recognized ruler of the Theban region.AC I (672-66-+ BC) allll PS. Apart from an incident in which he sent food supplies to the ailing ll1TTITE empire. held hy a . At IlEJR U~-I3J\III{I. but his funcnuy complex.ES.AXT.. 1984).670 flC. . 2 yols (-''!ainz. and a cylinder-seal of Ashurbanipal dcsuibcd him as Iking of 'rhebes'.MENTUHOTEP MERENPTAII (wicc conquered by the \SSYRI \ .. is recorded on a stone howl from EI../' DYII/lsties.we later become \\1I'. .eil in tier Iheballischell Nekropole (Vienna.. was unfinished and uninscribed.. Illh rIC.Folll his ruillemple til Deir e1- the Old Kingdom \\ \ST>\IH and lhe symbolism of the PRI\IF.1Bc) meant that at Icasttwclve of his sons died before him. primarily by ovcrthrowing thc Ilerakleopolitan 10th Dynasty. II. N \\ ILLE.. was therefi)re probably already in his fifties by the time he c:lITIe to the lhronc. 1.ISIIT. who 01. 38 Oil..

md hyenas (see \"\"1\1 \1. but this mar bc iln overestimate. The body or .~II/(I·1'1If f:g. J. From lhe 17th Dmasry (1650-1550 IlC) fa the Roman period a ritual called 'consecratjon of the llIl'rcl chests' or 'dragging the llIatl chests' \\ as celebrated by the pharaoh and oftcn depicted in tcmplc relicfs.\Q. and somc areas of debris arc up to 2 111 dcep.l1gdll/lI (London. 108-12. G. (uS51!!) or or who dedicated nuny stelae to her. the best sun"j.e (I Ltmburg. as. It \\as cXC:I\. belien~Ll Merimda Beni Salama nastic settlement site in the \\ estern m.s in the hope or a cure...\t [he emirc sile may have been one small bur gradually shifting community rathcr than a large set of simultancously occupied villages. which still contains rragll1cnts of his stone sarcophag.. I\lso known h~. Tift' IIIlIslaha of Herem!... Allc. 1%5). about 60 kill northwest of Cairo.l/tt! li/lfI'S/"1/('•.. 1/. including depictions of attempts to domcsticatc gazelles . \\' \1'" kIGIIT.gypl.\ 18+ . 7'l1l' JfI1l. B. . The symbolic link between Egypt and the chesls appears to h. whcre it had been I'e-uscd to cover lhe conjns and mummy I'SLSE~ ~ES (Pascbakhaelll1iut) I (1039-991 Be).II"mph. /985. E<.JEt +(.73-8.-. 19-20. 16. Iler rC:l1111 encompassed the whole of Lhe Thchan necropolis.525-37.))I11I/{1i find l11ag. 175-6.INeu . This monument is usually described as the Israel Stele because it is the earliest sun i\ ing Egyptian tc:Xl to mention the people of lSI{ \10:1. The pOller) and lithics arc similar 1"0 thosl: Pred~ Mereruka (. and the stehle frequcntly seek ro make aroncmelll lor such wrongdoing. 1\ I.\lerl Sega ti Dt'.porA'l//an K/IIIlIl////WSI' JIlonlt.u J tarlseger. E. She was thought to lire on the mountain overlooking the Vt\l. . PORTER and R. 1994).·IS. a royal . <Illhough the magnificent granite lid the oulcr san:ophag"us was CXGIrated from an intact royal burial at '1"'\ ~IS.llii"(//I'//. The funcrary statuc of _\lcrcruka is situated at the northern side of his si).ul/ hleralure 11 (Ikrkcle\·.'I/.\·ql. The cult of" l\leretscgcr bcg. \\1.L. and many fragments now in thc collection of the Cnircrsity !\luscllm Philadelphia.:c. of SERI"l\BS (statuc chambers). She W. Her cult is primarily attested during the New Kingdom (1550-106911(:)..:a (Chicago. and she was especiall~ re\Tred by the workmen of DEli{ El. The gr. 'Reporl on the unwrapping of the momm) of J\lenephmh'.-illage life in the :\ile ralley. .1I1 In decline fi-om the 21st Dynasty (1069-945 Be) onwards. 191IJ I~)I//(/. S.1200 Be. G..\LLEY ()FTIIE "I~GS. S\IITII. IILSU"DR\). I lis wife was the Princess 'vVatctkhethor (nick. 1976). 'Consecrating the 1/lt'Tt'I-chests: some rencetions on. chief justice and inspector of the prophets and tcn:lI1ts of the p~ ramid of Tcti (2. H. with some thirty-two rooms.'il'l'I-.l result of this l"Opographic connection) she was also sometimes known as 't he peak of Lhe wcst'.. Cairo). ing structure from .. cd.'cs within the scnkmclll are largcl~ those of childrcn and are cntirely lacking in grave goods.decorated with numerouS daily-life scencs.pping lite serpclIl jorm 0IIIII: gmlt/e.J I (London. and thc ritual inrohTd the presentation of each chest four times berore a god. it was due to his connections with the royal family that he held high office.'lelJ (Cairo..we deri\"cd at leas I partly from the phonetic similariry between the term la 1111'1'£'1 (mertl chest) and the phrase III mCI:>' (bclm'ed land).l1 e:'\tcnt of the site is estimated at 180.\lcrcnptah's reign is the royal residence that he built nc~r LO the temple of Prah at _\le. .lfcd in 1915-19 b~ Clarence m.-columned hall. .'\. 241-7.r It'll/pies al Thebes (London. B.md incorporated thc burial or his wife and son. S.\1 \ST\It\ tomb at S. E. he was the son of cdjelcmpcl. the presl'lltation of the chests also symbolized resurrection and renew. 1897). D. F. 18'18). gi"cll the gcncr'lll~ poor prcscr'arion of I'\UCES. since Barry Kcmp argucs th.I...the nickname 'f\ lera'. (1%0).\1.\IPillS.i\ terenptilh 's mortuary temple at \ycslcrn '1'1 WBES.l'PI. . Oil. 'The f"our chests symbolized the four corners of the earth and therefore the whole of Egypt. G. (in a list of cities and states defeated b) \ lerenptah).. he \\as succeeded hy his son SET\" " (1200-119+ Be). Karl Butzer has estimated the population al abollt sixteen thousand.l/Il.liERTS. Following the brier reign of a usurper cllled Amcnmcssu.ulI hll'mlflft' II: Thl' XfJl' A.\los~. thc literalmcaning of whose namc is 'she who loves silence'.RUKA MERIMDA I3E-"II SALAMA granite stele (Egyptian ~luscum.trgin of the Delta.-\IEDlI'. 1989).SS\.I(] rl·IIEI.. at rOllghl~ rhe samc pace as the abandonment of rile Thebiln necropolis itsclf B. Unusually. Each of the fC)lIr chests \ras bound up on the outside and decorated with four upright ostrich l'eathers. PlI.MERF.\I. \VIl .\Ierenplah himself was found among the c.000 sq.'£:l' oj'. The mastaba .named Seshseshet) and.:ql1aintam.l'PI. 1978).'\mcnhotcp II ("r35). His . 2+-5. BRL \ 1':10':.\1. in keeping with the practice of the Old Kingdom. m.Q..ntl IJiNiogr{/p/~}' 111/2 (Oxford.I/i. G. P.(/J! (IfI (London. Since the dismemberment. D \RF.JEFFRE\!'i..lllrn:1' III. r.lIl Egyptian ritc·•. 1930). I'SO'. I.lS to punish by blindness or venom those who committed crimes. R. as well as himself The rDmb is Meretseger Theh. . which was discon:rcd b~ Flinders Petrie in 1896 in the first COLIn of . LICIITIIEI\I . and craft :H. c. DLI.. Schosl. "" lerneptah's aid LO lhe Hittires. 1938).J.u:r 01'" TIll·: I.H5-2323 Be) of the early 6th Dynast\·. A.r £'I.c ill l:. reasscmhl~ and revival of the dead god was a cruchtl clement in thc myth of Osiris.\lCd.i.1J1 cohra-goddcss.·.H.. or O~'lrtI{"(I// sltom.\R·\ is lhe largest known at the site.I'lIl J:':!'(..:ti\"ilies which arc a \". \ S in the \.lluahlc source of information on tht' socicty ami economy of the 6th Dynasty. Lf IIllIslaha dc Ilao (Cairo. Radiocarbon dates suggest that it \\'a"i inhabited hetwet'n about suno and 4500 B< .. _\lcri-TcLi.. TI. ur meretchest Cercmonial chesrs containing linen or clothing of four different colours.t!' A.2350 Be) Vizier. c1cg:antl~. 7iJpograplJ.The tOl:.lsonry arc Fisher. 1976).tlso incorporated a number.19 and the 1980s haH' revealed the earliest cridencc for full~ sedentary . Tlis other major surriring monumenl is tOl"nb I.\STIC I'I:RIOJ) appears to ha\T been roughI~ contemporary with the late Uadarian and Amrarian phases in Upper Egypt.ug til(' . 107-9. PETRU'. columns and slehle from the nearby mortuary temple of \\IF.II'GS) which in ancient times bore her nallle. where excayations b~ German archaeologisl"s in 1928-.lche of" mummies reinterred in the LOmb of .. Little of the l11ortuar~ temple 110\\ remains il1 siJIl and it mosll~ consisted of fe-used stone blocks./i'fJI/J D.IE 8 (1907).·bcs. which symbolized the cloth that was used to wrap up thc body of OSIRIS. . The 'n lerimda' phasc of the Lower Eg~ pi ian PRID\ ~.

( /-1."3 (19M)).s is close()' puwlkled 3./.:WL'j\\ REGION).1It' Gold fl1"/I1/11IC1I1 represenling sfllllcjbrlll . K. 167-81 ]. J./Ildc-Bclli Sa//illle.I·Y"I" 350). lsI cell/Illy JJC. 1\11. abollt 60 km southwest of lVleroe. but the shapes and decoration of the pottcr~ arc 1110re elaborate and varied at j'vlcrimda. I-IOI'Ft\I'\N. (c/68502) presence of large slag heaps deriving fi·om the smelling of IHO. lHa.O/l vlt/. founded in the third ccntun. 6 \'ols (Vienncl.r! (~j"Qjlel'lI /}lIIf1llishal-!. B. the earliest which were locmed at the sOllthern end.(/IIl..30n BeI.J1.'."IIA1\\ and S. which may well have been one of the mainsta)'s of the city's prosperity.IS ". To lhc east of the town there \Vas also a temple of :\I'EI)E1\l. The eartiest houses at 1'Vlcrimda Beni S.edllllfg ('Oil .11E. l\lIl'rtll': (/ (h. 19(7).l000-300 Be) an~1 a temple 01" Amun which was established in the seventh century He and elaborated in the first century AI).\"'-. 1952-6~).\·lji!/IUt!C rula . L. SIIIN. and b) lhc [Itt thaI a number of the mud huts were laid out in rough rows as if arranged <llong streets.1) ASTIU)IJK.elo.:J'o:I{. New insights into the end of the Meroitic period .'i(l!tillle. which became the centre of the Kushite kingdom in the fifth century Be.!iZf/I.2 III. taking' the t()J"Jl1 of jars or baskets.Sthell S. 1979).to thc NAIWll\i\'" l.. 22-33./IIde-Bflli.\IY .d/I /iber tlie Grt/bul/g tiel .Y Merneptah sel! j\ lI':RE"\'P"!"-\ I 1 pro!Jab(JI !Jdvi/Ked 10 QjleclI S/wkdakhetc (c.e hcelljilfllld IIcar dC(/r(ll (~rJlllt'roili( mork (11ft! I~)I To the eaSI or the town of Nleroc. 1984--8) AllO\·E Frt/glllcll/ (~rn:lie/rmll/ the sOl/lh m(/II (!Flhe jilll('fflly dwpd ~(pY/.suggesting that there was no dramatic collapse of the civilization but simply a process of t:ultur~11 ch<lnge.'i (Nc\\ York.ne. 7J1l: rO)ltl! U:lIlc/eril's (!j"KlI.I"s hi. hooks. net weights and harpoons suggests that fishing was an important subsistence activity. One of the most striking features of th~ site is the i/l Libya_ il. D.. (H.. CdE 4.'ili. perhaps {/ jadwl. 2 vols (J\!lainz. 'The city iJlcludcs a number of palaces (possibly t\Vo-storc\'ed) <l tcmple Isis datin o . ViJr/ti"t!li. A//hough ./719) Meroe Type~sitc 01" the )\Ilcroitic period AD (r. 'lVlcroitic.have been provided b) the excavation of . polished black pottery has been found in the upper strata. but iron artefacts do nol appear to have been unusually prominent in l\lleroitic scttlcmenrs or graves and it was nol until fhe jJost-Meroitic period that iron became crucial to the economy of Nubia. fgllJlI (If/a Ihe !IIUI/"({o!l.d NIl (/1 )\IIaot'. Site i. p. 2.t 'post-l\lleroitic' lllmllius burial at the site of el-I--lobagi.1 Ilcre shOl1'1l enlhrollcd millt (f printc allr! prolcrlt'd IJ)I Ihl' millgs (~rlhe godtll'. II" was once suggested that Ihe 1\ileroitic kingdom supplied iron to the rest of Africa. EnvJ\i\GER.\. CJ IAI'\ll\i\.:::s. George Reisncr and Peter Shinnie.1 O/!.I.11 Ihe pyrtill/.~r onillla!. The presence of fish bones. L.~rJlIIr:r{)c. H. measuring no morc dun 1111 in diameter. and adjaccnr to the modern village of Begarawiya is it cemetery of small pyramidal royal tomb chapels of the Ivlcroitic period. J KE:\SI':. mhieh merkhet set' :\STR()i\'O. lIl-V (Bas lon.. while the later strata include th<: remains of mud-brick huts (probably wilh pitched roofs)..I1katlemic tier I VissclISc!udint ill IlficlI flld'tler lIe. P. JUNf.E. l!lejir. 2nd CClltlll:JII1C).Illcr. olher exal/lp/esjiJIIlld .erio~1 (c.MERKHET MEROE of the Fayum A culture (sec 1.c Stu/all (London.'r Ba.'\J . (({1I. which have been interpreled as prototypes for the Upper Egyptian GcrZC<111 macchcads (sec J\l:\CE).ell as pear-shaped stone m<1cchcads possibly deri\'ing from Asiatic examplt. . SIIIN:\J1-: and F. cxca\·atcd by john Garstang. located on the Cilst bank of thc Nile in the Butana region of Su(hl.llama wcre simple \\'ind-hrcaks and polcframed huts. the Nubian liollgod. A. II.\I1\ 'iVlcrimda alld the theory of house burial in prehistoric Egypt'. The high Icyc1 of organization within the villages is indicated by the prcscm:e of numerous 'granaries'..: iron or or 185 . DU'. IY29---!O).1 is G~llrelll' said tolun.

iddle Kingdom.\'lEI{()[ Mersa Matruh (anc. Little textual evidence has survived concerning lvlentuhotep IV Ncbtawyra l the last . 'University of Pennsylvania expedition La Marsa Man-uh. She was also . 27. L. midway between !vlcmphis and Nlcidum. may be the same indjvidual as the first king of the 12th Dynas!"y. 51-84. . B. and SI1.f). which was the site of the Ptolemaic city of Paractonium. perhaps indicating stronger links between the nomarchs (pnJYincial governors) and the Rcsidence.· ill (/!/{:ielll £. abOllt 200 km wcst of Alexandria.. have not yet been located.~. IJABY1. about 20 km to the west of the site of Paraetonium. including the earliest known phases of the tcmple of Amlin at IV\R~f\J{ and the temple of Sobek and Amencmhat III ar l\IEDb'ET M:\i\DI.1Lhough many of the classic texts. I':L-L\IIU~ (Senusret JI).jljJt (London. audience and inl'ent. who established a new capital called Amenemhatitjtawy ('Amcnemhat takes possession of the two lands'). including the proliferation of WISDOM LlTERKruRE.0 be surrounded by more substantial remains of the tombs of courtiers. P. At the same time.tt the judgement of the deceased to aid in their rebirth into the afterlife. slimmer 1985'.'ll:ill. 'VVllITE. Ear()l3rd millellniulIl IJC. PIN(] I. and at this period his funerary monument at DEIR EL-BI\IIRI was cvidently considered to be one of lhc fincst achievements of the period. such as the Title oI Si1flthl' and the Di. 1997).Mentuhotep II was regarded as the founder of the i'Vliddle Kjngdom. T\WERET.'·WlIl"Sl' oI Ndl'l"ly. TC)R()I\:. in the Umm el-Ql'ab rcgion of the site. thus consolidating the Egyptian grip on the resourceS of Nubia. ed.of the inere. (11/ UUC. 1987'. mON COPPER. arc difficult to analyse because of uncertainty as to their original functions. all of whom were buried ill ABLSIR.. the agricultural development of the FAru\\ and the gradual annexation of LO\\L:I" NUBI!\.'\T I. indicating a wide r. The reign of Senusret III secms to have constituted a watershed in the Nliddle Kingdom. D. 1990). The excavated artefacts from the island include large quantities of SyroPalestinian. provides some insights into the social and political concerns of the period.0. AIl/iqllily 66 (1992). M.lsing significance of the god OSIRIS. where the Rcsidence (royaJ court) was situated until the end of the J\!liddle Kingdom. often abbreviated to Ttjtawy.-~fi·i((/II (({pllft! Meroitic sec . just as she had in life itself Sec also BES. Amenemhat.\11\ and AssrRI/\. metals and metalworking see G01. Paraetonium) Harbour-site un the Egyptian lVleditcrrancan coast. 'The 1985 excavations on Bates' Island. 8-12.\'1I~:-'IE:\III. 'Excavations at !vIersa i\tlatruh. Nlinoan. JJ!\IISlllTR (Amencmhat II. 17-28. the carly 1\!liddle Kingdom (consisting of the late 11 th and early 12th Dynasties) and the late Middle Kingdom (from the reign of $I':NUSRET 111 to the end of the 13th Dynasty). IW1R EL-HERSIIA. The earliest traces of Egyprian occupat'ion in the area are the ruins of a fortress of Rameses II (1279-1213 Be) at' Z:1wiyal Umm el-Rakham. (I~' /6-135-1) ment at Mersa :Nlatruh on an island in the lagoon.n:avalet! gmres in/he i.q:! (~ra 1lC:) Iype 1/wugll! IIrI:f!. N. SUl\'IER. but 111<ll1y appear to have been dismantled and re-used in the course of the foundation of thc temples of the New Kingdom. Papyrus \Vcstcar describes how she told each of the first three kings of the 5th Dynasty (2494-2345 Be). Senusret III and Amenemhnt Ill) and III\W'\RA (l\menemhat Ill). IIEKET. NAIICE 131 (1985). a. j\llilIcl <lnd 1\.r. the rivers being the Tigris and Euphrares. from the New Kingdom (155lJ-. NAIICE 139 (1987). a few examples of religious buildings have survived..-I.IS11T. In the New Kingdom the KING LISTS suggest thilt .1 funerary goddess and was present ..in: sill/i/ar slolle vessels If) be o/LikV({J/ hare bel'li e. If. LENOlll.3-17.CJ!l .]\"c been on lhe west bank or the Nile in the vicinity of rhe pyramid complexes of Amenemhat I and his successor Senusret I at EI. It is usually assumed to h. 186 . By the late 12th Dynasty the royal pyramid complexes began 1. \RYnos bcc. i\.llso determined irs destiny. that they would erentually come to rule Egypt. Chronological phase thilt began with the reign of lhe Theban ruler t\H:i'\TUlIOTEI' II Nebhepetra (2055-2004 BC) and ended with Ihe demise of the 13th Dynasty (c 1650 BC). but it is possible that his vizier.ly oj'J'lIel"sfI JHfltmh.nnid complexes located at elLisht. The principal sources of evidence for the royal court or the 12th Dynasty derive from the pyr.1 (Ill.1 ItbDynasty ruler.MEROITIC MIDDLE KINGDOM working\ lvIcroilic slutlies. 1n the late second millennium Be colonists rrom the eastern lvlcditerranean appear 1:0 have founded the first small scnlc- 1994).E and N.127-8 Mesopotamia 'IeI'm used to describe the area covered by modern Iraq.C. The archaeological remains of this city. As far as the non-funerary architecturc of the period is concerned.lllge of trade links between the Aegean region and the north African COast during the New Kingdom (1550-1069 BC). 'Barbarians at the gates? the royal mounds of d-Hobagi and the Meskhent Goddess of childbirth. Kellel' (Berlin. it is usually divided into two phases. The early 12th Dynasty was characterized by the clarirication of rhe bouncbries or nomes. bmh in terms of the administrative system and the nature of the surviving funenlry remains. kIno£' {.~)I: (London. L. end of IVlcroc'. ROM" CII/fural atlus (~rMl's{Jp()lfllIli{/ (New York and Oxford.lme particularly important as a centre of pilgrimage as <.n:R Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 Basa!J FOIll 1. encompassing at various times the ancient Kingdoms of !\Kh:i\O. Marsa Matruh'. l\J!agit. D. Cypriot and lVlycenaean potrery vessels. illEIR and BEi\'llli\SAN also continued to flourish during the early 12th Dynasty at least. the excavation of a channel through the first Nile cataract at Aswan would have had the effect of allowing boats to travel unhindered from the second cataract to the lVledirerranean coast. However. Nt SItARIF. 626-35. who is represented in the form of a female-headed hirth-hriek (on which anclent Egyptian women delivered their children) or as a woman with a brick on her head. The word derives from the Greek term mcaning '[the IandJ between the rivers'.-I069 Be) onwards this role could be taken by the male god SHAY. 1982). . 'J'he divcrse literary output of the j\t1". G. At the time of a child's birrh she . whose burial place was identified with that of DJER. It was during his reign that the string of FORT]{ESSES in Nubia were strengthened.1 result.j'IIICE 23 (1986). but dite prO\·incial cemeteries at sites such as AS) l '1'.

E"'''KDS.mbridge.. which became known as Panopolis in the Ptolemaic period.::.35. PARKINS()~. Pharauhs alltl morlals: EgYPliall arl ill lite Middle Kiugdom (C1. WI'l..·n behind him. He was associated first with the site or KOPTOS and later with AKIIMIM. him <1$ a l1'lllmmjform human figure hulding his erect phallus wiLh his left hand. srhisl. j.). resulting in a relaxation of the grip over Nubia and an influx oL'\siatics in the Delta (particularly app. lightning bolt or pair of fossil shells) \Vas depicted on pottery vessels.md N. H \YES.1. 1991). In lhe Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 BC) the cult of Nlin-like that of SOI'l':I>.:ed in Ih". im. Cambridge Allclew !lisIUJ)1 1/2: Ear6' hislory o/tht' A'liddll' Easl./938) had effectively become the primeval crcatorgod manifestation of . EI.od 1\11ill in raised rdief LaiC Prc'()/J/(/stit~ c. fl.il/iraillre el pu/iligUt' dans {. and it has been suggested that he may h. B. (1:.lvatell by Flinders Petrie at the siLe of Koptos.2686 HC) is probahly the earliest examplc of the anthropomorphic. and he was ISiS. MIRGISSt\ and SEM:". rendered in Greek as the JlYKSOS.fi) 1//1 it/~)Ip//ll/licjigflre oIA1in. Kingdom mrilings (London. despite a general lack of political continuity.:ohil1. another dcity of the Eastern Desert-was often assimilated with the myth of 1I0\U':S. C. D.J20 BC. L./. J..'. according to the 1'\ LEI{ \10 STO'E.lrenl in the archaeological remains at TELl.\.1011. The fragmented nature of the 13th Dynasty undoubtedly h~ld a damaging effect on the control of Egypt's borders. a "I. 1988). because or the Greeks' association of lVlin with the god Pan. He was already being worshipped in the late Predynastic period (c.'p. E.\ in the eastern Delta).he god which. 1956). He three limestone colossal statues exc. he was considered to be part of a TR!. This was cyidently the form taken by a st'atuc of . maceheads and patcltes. anti (011 tlu' le. VOices/rom allrielll Egypl: au 11l1thology oIA'lifft/It. S. thc~ would he the earliest suryiving three-dimensional ycrsions of the anthropomorphic aspect of l\1in. often placed on a standard. At least as early as the 61h Dynasty (23~S-2181 Br.!'KE.-IHB'. E. while his right ann is raised in <1 smiting gesture.n'e fealured in the P\ IUI\l11> TE:\TS as 'the one who raises his arm in the cast'.1 long ribbon trailing do."'1 papyrus oflht' lale AIIiddle Kingdom inlhe Brookhm MlISt'lim (Brooklyn. S. \v C.f!. and the depictions of !\'lin often show a set of letfuces placed on an offering lable beside him. the marcrhll culture and political . An ink drawing on a stone bowl from the tomb of rhe late 2nd-Dynasty king Khasekhemwy (c.5 (11/.1 low crown surmounted by two plumcs and with . In other respects. there appear t~ have been a large number of rulers with .G LIST dating to the 5th Dynasty (2-1-94-23-1-5 BC). 19-1-7).limn (~rsrhl'lJl(fli( birds' hcads allht' top (fud bcaring lIlt' ~J'/llbol (~r thcjertilitY-l!. nonc of whom were in pO\~ler for long enough to construct funerary complexes on the same scale as their 12thDrnasrv predecessors.a slr:mge shape consisLing of a horizont::!1 line embellished with a central disc flanked by LWO hemispheric'11 protrusions ("ariously interpreted as a door-bolt. QUIRKE (cd. \v. G.". Oxford) dale 10 the Earl\~ Dynastic periud (3100-2686 BC). See also BUIIEI"~ C (iRO!.EgYPle tie la XII f~J'lf(lSIit. 'Ihe riu {//III}it/I ufillt' A'litldh' Kingdom ill Thelu's (New Yurk. howcv"er. as many scholars have soggested on art-historit:al grounds. Characteristic Pharaonic depictions show rn-IYPI\AI. was carved b~ royal decree in the I st Dynasty. Min or Cere/Jfouia/ palclll' ((f1"1•.).n a 5Lh-Dynasty tomb at GiZ:l a 'procession of l\ lin' is mentioned. he was particularly associated with the long (or 'cos') lettuce (Ill£"tum st/t/t:lI). . [.MIN MIN Although ~1anetho's 13th Dynasty evidently continued to rule fr0111 ltjrawy. of which Akhmim was Ihe capital. If these figures (now in the Ashmolean IVluseum.IC .. 1971).3100 nc. OriClI/alia 57 (1988). probably because of a percci"cd link between lhe milky sap of lettuces ~lI1d human scmen. BoURRll\U. (Cambridge. barbed arrow.yes argued that the real central jJO\ycr during the 13th Dynasty resided largely with the VIZIERS. c. Philip Arrhidlll:ffS.oo. . A1idd/c Kingtlom sludil's (New Malden.~l'dm ('miller dod' 'J mn:ed mit!J sanes ofoJ]i:riu[!. 245-74. 29.OI) usually wore. 'Zur Chronologie des J\1illleren Reiches: I & II'.md social "'stems of the late 12th and 13th Dvnastics were relatively homogeneous. god and symbol of male POtcncy. Senusret [ (1965-1920 Be) is portrayed in the act of performing certain jubilee rituals in front of Min on a limestone relief 187 Min fertilit). I lA. but there are also Fmgmew oIIi basil II dt.46-1-531.. J1111fedollial1 period.:!'. who served also as the protecLor or mining arcas in the Eastern Desert.\IL."!). Iht' J1111£"etlollililf king.). This emblem. G. At sometimes described as thc son other times.. COFrli': TEXTS. H. C. R.. By the New Kingdom (1550-1069 Be).'l\lO"n (cd.113-38. with a flail simultaneously poised above his hand. (1:. whcll his emblem . howcvcr.· (Paris.\DD .3100 BC). The end of the Middle Kingdom was marked by the abandonment of lrjtawy at roughly the same time lhaL the minor rulers of parts of the Delm were supplanted by the lteka-khas1/Jt ('rulers of f(]reign lands').·. ithyphallic portrayal of Min. 1955). later became part of the hieroglyphic rcpresentation of the god's name and also that of the ninth Upper Egyptian nome. G.I. I. H. II. FRA. 1991). The ceremonies surrounding the coronations and jubilees of" Egyptian kings (see SED FESTlVi\L) therefore lIsually incorporated a festival of J\llin designed to ensure the poreney of the pharaoh. POSENER. I.Irom e/-Amrtf. bur it is now considered morc likely that royal aU[horiL~ was maintained. with Isis as his consort and Horus as their son.'crv shorr reigns. 3rd ed.

On Ihc island of D:Iben~lrti. \V. BES / (1985-6). Our of a lOtal of ~lbour two thousand potrery ycsscls.·. CL \Rt(E.\lirgissa garrison could be transferred in an emergency.. _J\!lirrors occur from at leasl as early as the Old Kingdom (2686---2181 Be).. BES II (1991-2). Secolld ((/lat(frl/nrH II: Umllarli. (Lf32. 'Die Ausd(.rpcdili(}11 llfJrbaidll 19/8-1984(~llInieh. D.-\\I. I. 1-1.·If.'aiu 5 (1972). H. an e-xtcnsi.1 P.1USC mctal was commonly used fflr lhe handles of this Iimc. protecting the royal monopoly on trade from the south..11-19. 1985).i83) I8H .. K. immediately to dlC west of thc southern end of the second Ni1c cataraCl.Vile Della: problems tlml priorilies.\ rot~ll ~lre<l of some four hectares. 1967). K. cd.1Il those of iVlaadi but continlied until a slightly later date. 1:.lI. ~. 1. R.. 1989). or as the g()ddes~ II\TIIOR. fig.J:.. ExcaY<lt1ons in the late 19705 and 1980s rcvcalcd a sequcnce or nearly four hundrcd gr.·an den Brink (Amsterdam.wcs stretching from r\aqada II to the 1st Dynas~·. .{.79-81. I'ethaps hCL"':.linshat Abu Omar than at 1\ la~ldi. "Ancient Egyptian fromier lonresses'. C. J.109-18. From the ~liddle Kingdom (2055---1650 Be) onll'ards they . The site has been suhmerged beneath L~lke KJsscr since the completion of the .MINSI-IAT AUU OMAR MIRROR now in the Petrie . 'A propos des miroirs cgypliens ~i manche en forme de statlleltc feminine'.:astcrn Nile delta'. S.. f. 155-/9. Tht' an:haelJlugy III/he .Vi. about a l. jayclins and shields were manufactured and stored).Ei\lP. A. usually of polished bronze or copper) ilttacheli to a handle.:'{/Iioll (London. cemeTer~ site locaTed in the Cilstcrn Delta. 141-76. ~ 3 tCh R. J.. 1~~YPli(/1I111irrorsFom Ihe earliesl limes IlmwKh 11u.l'Pt'sgoldi'1I age. E. Covering . but the sun·i. J. 28. (Boston.. An auger-oore sun-ey of the surrounding region has indicatcd the presence of late Predynastic and Early Dynastic serrlcIllcnt about 500 m fi·om the ccmctery.lrdu!ologilfllt'S L'/ Hisloril'lIJ tI'. R.2'. 'Preliminnry rcport of the Uni\ersit~ of California expedition 10 Dahcnani.. 111(. KoplO' (London. to whol11 two mirrors might he offercd as {hc~. Minshat Abu Omar Prcd~rnaslic .Yllalfill'.w (BoslOn.tIll! 1\1. GEI(\lI~. like the roughly COnlCmpOr~lry settlement at _\H. 1982). while wood and iYor~ were more cummon in earlier perjod~.he temple or Ramcses III (118-!-J 153 IJ(:) at 1I. 1896).m! . 1963'. Krzyzaniak :.\PYRL-S stalk. an armoury (whcre spears. 'Yhich. probably carrying erohc overtones amI scn'ing as an extension of the Hathor themt-:o \ greatcr di. 'Ancient Ncar Eastern raiscd- arm figures and lhl' iconograph~ of the Egypri'\Il god \[in'. J ..evant bcgall slightly later th. The site included granaries. 6-16. Therc is ~llso a larger proportion of Gerzean potter! at f. it nuy perhaps haye been intended as a lemporary outpost fO which lhc l.were to the goddess \ll·l. I I. jiJ!((1I/s.-\5\\ \ . DUNI!.\lunidl 1~. KHOEI'ER and D. e. located in Lower Nubia..ed along the bank.. Occasional representations show mirrors in Lise.\DI. Z. \1... twenty were dcfinitely identified as Palestinian imports_ Thc dates of these imported vessels (mainly wm-y-handled and loop-handled jars) suggest that the l\1inshat Abu Omar trade links with the T. S.\.-lrl dl' LUIfi. Rl'rlle til'S . 'Die Bedeutung des Lmichs als pnanze des . the mirror had both runctional and symbolic uses. SClI~FE. it was I he 1:1rgcst of eleven fortresses built in the reign or Senllsret III (187-!-1855 Be) between the seconu anuthird cataracts.~f!:YPI: {/I/lIIOII~J' f{1I ~""rili. apparcmly uf similar date. SC.\lin'. 26i-85. j to Nile B.. 1---/.'ing remains consisted of a pair of 12th-Dyn~lsty uJrtresscs (one on the deser! plateau and one on the yalley floor) as well itS two ccmeteries. cd. Iken') Fonified site of the ~Iiddlc Kingdom (2055-1650 Be).lIl agricullllra! god.lsr-DclLa expedition in !\1inshaL Abu Omar'.Iin fesrival is also depicted among the reliefs in rhe second court 01' . EnURD--DERRIt-. !Y/irgiss(/.·c quayside and a Illudlined slipway (so that boats could be dragg. e.JE ·/3 (1916)... such as a Iaely applying kohl in the Turin Erol ic Papyrus (sec EI~OT[C\). where the king is shown scything <l sheaf of wheill in rCl:ognirion of l"lin's role as. KRZYZA:-'-I-\t-.l/ii/tlll' Kil/gdolll (13erlin. Thcse factors suggest thaI Mirgissa was not onlY:l garrison bUI also a depot for the warehousing of trade goods. 'Rccent :lfchaeological cvidcnce nn lhe earliest scltlcment in the t.:illgdom. about ISO km northeast of Cairo.mel Early DYllilstic Bronze lIJirror mill! tI hamill' ill Ilrejbrlll (~/(( papyrus pIt/ill slInJwlIllled I~}' 111'0 Mirgissa (ane.: 8 (1980).R.85-/.\FER. Kobusiewiez (Poznan. J. LII. c. and the handle is frequently rcprl'sen led as :. cd.Vll. () residential area--unexcavated ~ "- r . 1988). Brovarski et:ll. They consist or a nat disc. VERcOli:rrER. ~1.1300 BC.-ilh Upper Egyptian hlle Prcdynastic sites.S..29---\1. T.ondon (sec "011for illusrration). 350 km south of modern r\SW~lIl. pis TOS 111-1\ I I I 0 50 100m /N granary block outer gateway mirror As might he c:xpccled of an implement which reflects an image. Handles could also take the rorm of tCmale flgurcs. Eg.i\lusculll. _·I". 18+-8. \\'. . WIl.utllng dcr Spicgclplallt' als Sonnenseheibc'. 19/0-6).ilometre cast of _ Iirgissa..J)L. 3 \'ols (Paris and Lille. Kl(m:I'I·:R. CIII. E PETRII'. \. 1979). arc the remains of an unfinished fortified mud-brick outpost. 'Some notes on rhe iconography of 1\lin'. thus avoiding the Kabub rapids). OGI>O'\. The presence of only four potsherds al this smaller sifC suggests rhat il was never actually occupied.ake the form or a sun-disc.85. shows cvidencc of trade with southcrn Palestinc.ew Kingdom (1550-1069 Be).~ ..ll·:nl\fET JlAIlL.. The phltcau filrtress was surrounded by a ditch and inner and outcr enclosure w~llls. Rl:In. Jl:steps leadmg. 'i\1irrors'. Laic IJrehislWl' f~rlhe Nili' Hasill allillhe Sahara.. 1989).KI\:SO:. Jl'firgis. suggesting much stronger links . . Mill$lwl Abu O/l/(/r: Afiil/t1mer ()s/dell(/~H.. Nem 11.HlUIST.11 D\ \1 in 1971. 54--6..-crsity of t~ pes of handle is known li'om the :-. 'The cxcl\"ations of" (he . KII'</I 12 (1964). is 68 (1932).

J~NGEI.' ('power' or physical manifestation) Qf the sun-god at llEUOPOI.ETI"EKS contain rererenees to Nlitanni at this time and during the reign or Akhenaten (1352-1336 BC). !\lonthu) F:.. ///. The AI\I/\I{N/\ J.\lLR:'\..mni foU{)\\"eo is witnessed by the sending. Apis in rank.. }950). he gare OR. with Mitannian princesses entering the Egyptian HARL\\. 19X2).\111 \T ('Amun is in the forefront').lsions. Oricm AUlifjllUS 1 (1962). located on the cast bank or lhe Nile. the biographical texiS on the walls 01" Ankhtifi's tomb provide imporlOlnl historical inf()rm<llion concerning the complicated political C\'cIHS in rhe iml11edia(e arl'crmath or the end of the OILl Kingdom (sec F\]\II . (L~ 112) Dyn"'ty (2125-19R5 Ile). and the] !illites described it ... But.\U. . Ull /11t'}ttf leji ill Jln'il/us/ra/io. and that. L K. both also associated with theThcban district. date of Ankluifi of "to'alla'.F_'j to his worshippers. The saned IIU:lllS (". just. m11lpfi~'ilfg I11J{) "fAlo1l/11-Ra (olleoj"IJ. \h. 193-J.. nuclus or i\llnevis bull at anyone time. usually represented with il headdress consisting of a sun-disc and two plumes.\titanni was \V.I-/50 fie. B.kiI) bulls. Nc\"erthelcss i\lontu 189 modi us Term for . pttrpfJsejimJlI!Je /cmpk ((IWp/i'x til A-amak.E OF \lEUlnno) and imo the jVIitanni hC<1rLland itself In thc reign of Thul1nose II' (1400-1390 Be) there were diplomatic marriages between the two countries.. Just as the mothers of the Apis ilnd Buchis hulls were gircn separate cults. 169.'\F. who stated 011 onc of the 'boundary stelae' at 1·:I.791425 Be) took him be)ond the yassaI cities of Syria (sec IlA·nI. RO. M. fhe cmcrgence of the 12th Dynasll' (1985-1795 Ile).mel Egyptology I hc term is used also to describe a cylindrical headdress (of \"ariable height).Vhcreas many sacred birds and animaJs. The capital of .\J. The only two decoratcd tombs belong to the gm'crnors Ankhtifi and prO\·incial Sobckhotep. \~i.Mit3nni. Ut ch:iliSll/ilJ1t dCJ I-fi//ites e/ dt:s .. dating li'om the !\Iiddle Kingdom (205S-1650 Be) to the Roman period. as rhe ·\['IS bulls were associated with PT'\II (sec SER \1'1':U\I) and the \1'\E\'IS bulls linkcd wilh Ra at llEI.IS 'the land of the Hurrians'. \Y."IER..IS usually represented with a sun-disc and IIrtft'llS (sec \\ \I)J\'T) betwcen its horns.ttcn's tomb..llcon-headed god of war. cd. 87-H D. j\ lolltu played an important role in the 11 th Mo'alla. 'Mitanni: Problcme seiner Expansion lind politischc Strllklur'.:O and TO]). to the northeast of the destroyed temple of Heliopolis. LIVER" . tlml/11'O olJln' gf)("k.b"c1en. G. c. Montu Uvlonth.(~ Ha/lun: 18/11 Dy1lasly. therc W~IS only one \PIS.III.I-:. I leick. The "nwult"T s/l·ltlt' of_-lkhClltllt'" (London. Cui/ural at/as uj". huried in the so-called Bucheum at . GM7X (198{)..LT·\RClI daimed that the \lne\ is bull was second· only to tht. and gmdually mm·cd south into Syria. \Vhile the Apis was usuall~ <1 blat:k bull selected because of the diamond-shaped patch of whire hair on its lorehcad. Howc"er. including a number of rulers named "\11':'\''1-:.lUsc of his close connections" ith the sUIl-god. although the mass of the popuhtfion were HUlTian. IA'xil'lI1t tier fi"gYPlologic 1/. Eventually lhe cult of the :.IS required to be t'Otally black and \\'.). and major temples.\\!·\ltNt\: 'Let a ccmetery for thc Mnevis bull be made in the eastern moun rain of Akhetatcn that he Illay be buried in it'. /ll'ed gmlli/cjiJllr-sitlcd //lollllmenl (~tllllk1/()/l'l1 11I01lf/1llCl// J.. . 94-5.-..with similar 'The. E. CfI1UUllI alltl hrad i1/ (Weiel1/ /imt:J (Princeton.78 Ill.JS. having formerly been their equal.gyP/. 1992). /tlJfJ nITlm/llU1st' Mnevis (Mer-wer) Sacred bull regarded as the II.\. cOl11l11only worn b~ such deities <1S the hippopotamus-goddess T\\\'ERI:T. \.:os" '_\lnnis'.\I!Csopolllmia (:'\Ie\\ Yorkand Oxlord. in order to help cure Amenholcp III (1390-1352 ne) of an illness..lS. I.. 1.l/f)'ttlla. cats ~tnd baboons.m Sea during the third millennium m:.. 51'\'\I-J.lOl'lll.\titanni'.was probably known to the Egyptians as N'ahrin. a people whose language is unrelated to other main groups. Howcvcr the location or this burial.\lIi/tt1l1tielll's (Paris. Re-':lIc !Ji/lile e/ flJian. \\'hen the sacred bull died it was u~lIall\' buried with great ceremony and a new buU.hu/(·p (Cliro. The is (fIITetimi/!J six 11l~!(h-n'lidjigllrt:s.ttur-god Ra-yrL·\1. like the Apis.m stale developed in the area of the Tigris and Euphrates ri"crs some time before 1500 Be.. The campaigns of TIlLT\lOSE 111 (J-I. The countn. "'ere constructed at \R\\ \'\T. Ramcsside burials of lVlncvis hulls are known from Arab e1-Tawil. while the Assyrians rclerred to it as Hanigalbat".253-7.fjllc 3(1 (197~). 159-7-J. 132-10.). This people scem to have originalcd around r-he C1spi. \' '". about 2-J. cltlrly indicated that J\lonru was being o\'ershadowed by another Theban deity. is unknown.. the Nlnc\'is was one of the fe\\ di\ inc beings recognized by Akhenaten (1352-1336 Be). 1-1. when f<lur of the kings held the 'hinh name' \11'::'orTLIlOTEl' ('Monlu is content').lrt . 'I-Iurri e .lshshukanni. which is usually el11ployed to refer to a Roman mcasure or c'lpacity.lwy.j.~TANNJ MONTU Mitanni One of Egypt's most powerful riyals in "estern Asia. which has [cntati\Tly been idcmificd with the site ofTell cI-Fakhariych in 'Tllrkcy. 165-7. Such allhmces probably sought to Om-ict the threat from the Hittite empire. possibly close to Akhen. REDFORD. 1990). M. That friendl~ relations between Egypt and ~ii(<. Guo . elRock-cut cemetery of the First Intermediate Period (2181-2055 BC).\CI. C. UN SIO. on two occ<. so also the mother of the i\lncvis bull was rc\'ercd in the guise of the cow-goddess Hcs. KI."". The names of the Miranniall rulers suggest that they were TndoEuropc'1I1s. were regarded <1S physical manifestations of1\lontll. n:(~1l (~r'l'11lI11ll(}Si' 1//. The hisLOrian I'J. 1/. I:. His two consorts wcrc the goddcsses Tjcncnyet and Ra'tt. 1Y93). \Vcstcndorr (Wie. the . \\IL. were slaughtered and mummified in large numbers <IS votive offerings. His cult is lint attested at various sites in the Theban rcgion. -1-1. \IEIH\II. markings was appointed in its place. of the Ninevite goddess Ishtar (the Nlesopota111ian namc for /\S'li\RTI':) LO Egypt.\ Incris bull bcclme subsumed into that of the cre. la /u11lbe tI~ 11lHt/~F i'/ Itt lombt' tit: Sibd. in Classical .I tall cylindrical comainer.lnd \V. D.'\rmam. and was ovcrthro\\"ll by the IIITITI'ES and ASS'Rt\'\1S around 1370 m:. "--\R ... such as ibises. I·:). km south or Luxor. CoXTE.lt..\l\£ and C. the Mnevis bull "'. . Bec.!Jidt is slum".

like AmLIn. The 1I1lJ1111J~J' is.-cnry days are up.lIld and relied on natural presen·. first all they draw out the hrains through the nostrils with"ln iron hook. and as techniqucs became morc sophistic'lrcd so more of Ihe actual body was retained. He states: There arc those who aTe established in Ihis profession and who practise the eraf!. c.l1s in liquid form. 1/.l hurial chamber. DE L \ R{xtu:. painled in imitation of I he real thing. 1.: of mummification was the 'O\'crseer of the mystcrics' (he.ttion.600 BC (?}. reducing the body to skin and bone. which is pr:lctiscd on the bodies 01" the poor. 19X6) . he evenlually became fused with the sun-god as lVlol1IU-Ra.:n anointcd wilh gum. having seen the effcct on Predynastic corpses. iVlummificatlon was therefore dedicated 1:0 the prevention of decay. So great is its strengrh that il brings away mummification The prcsen'ation of the body was an essential parr uf ancienr Egypti. or When the)' have removed what they can this way they nush our the remainder with drugs. The third mel hod of embalming. \rt-:R'ER. Those for whom the second and less cxpensi\·c way has been chosen arc tre:Hcd as follows: rhe embalmers lill their syringes with cedar oil which they inject into the abdomen.1n funerary pral:ticc. propped upriglll 3gainst a wall. After they h. they .'c been inlcrred in simple graves in thc s.MOURNI:--IG MUMMIFICATIO:\ retained a considerable degree of importance as a personification of the morc aggrcssi\·c aspects of the kingship. The best method of" embalming: is said to be lhal which W<lS practised on one whose l1amc I call1lot Illcnlion in this come.H..65/11.I\'C done this the embalmers give back the body withoul furrhcr ado. 26th DY1UlSty.-124E BIsso. although the techniquc would ha. and so mummify it. It has often been statcd thal the practice grew from obscrving that thc hOf.lEFS the mOst parr instead of glut. G. since it . and. obsidi. dry sand prescfYcd thosc bodies buried in it. and it is probably best LO assullle th:ll the pr.as to the body that the" -\ . LEGRAI1\.th llfigure ofthe sky----goddess Nut ora the brc(lst.:tice evolved simply to prcserve the image of the body. If the bod~ had decayed or was unrecognizable the /at would go hungry.107-23. And when the beu-ers have agreed a price and dcp:lrtcd.·idently took some pride in their work.". they wash Ihe corpse :1I1d wrap it from head 1. OSIRIS]. The second method they demonSITatc is somewhat inferior ami costs less. and wcre morc highly organized than I--lerodotus implies.·ity.heearlil'sl alll'Sfflfio1lS /0 fht' t'/1I1 of/ht' OM Kil/gdollJ (Ann Arbor. which lhe Egyptians lISC for mourning see FLi'\ER \RY BEI. rinsing it with palm wine ami pounded spices.1l1 bladel through which they extraCt all the internal organs. and that.:J' seshtll) who lOok the part of the jackal-god \ 'UBIS.0 10(' in bandages of the tlnt'st tint. When a corpse is brought to them they show Ihe bearers wouden models of mummies. K. 'NUles sur Ie dicu \lomou" JJI f-lO 12 (1912). (.1I (J beat! IIellillg decorated m. 'Notes sur Ie dicu 'Iunton'. BIF-/040(1941).:. Ami \\ hen they han done this they cover the corpse wilh natron for se\cnty days.. 190 . It should be remembered that fur most of Egyptian history the poorest people must ha.R()DOTLS (cASO Be) provides the best-literary account of the mUIllmification process.. The Greek historian IIF. Alief Ihe se. In the best treatment.]-/lICE23 (1986). and the afterlife be jeopardized./ilmished mith (J gilt 1I1l1sk alld corered. E. The third is cheapest of all. mummil~\ I-he corpse for seventy days then gi\'c it back to be taken aW:Iy.. is this: I he embalmers wash OUI dle abdomen with OJ purge. His assistant CojJin alld mrapped IIJll"IIII~jicd bO{~)1 (!/ lret/lOreru.e.:l !"i. neither cuning the flesh nOr cxtTacting the internal organs bur introducing I he oil through lhe anus which is lhen Slopped up. particularly in the conquest of neighbouring lands during the New Kingdom. while the actual body decayed :I\\'ay beneath. stemming fi'om the distant" past when only ro~'<1lty and the highest nobility wcrc cmbalmcd. 1--49.. Somc support for this is found in thc fact that mummies from rhe Old Kingdom (2686-2181 or. 7.lkc all incisioll in the nank wirh a sh~lrp Ethiopian sront:: [i.. the embalmers :lrc left to begin their work. This is the most costly method of preparing rhe dead. Embalmers e.lin. I-laving indicated the differences.lsk by which method Ihe corpse is to be prepared. 'Monlll and the "f~llcon ships" ofthc Eigllleelllh Dynasr)·'. Finally they hand over rhe body to the rehtrivl's who place it in . all the internal org-J. This seems an inadequate and flawed exphlOiltion.. Tn charge.u20N5). Nextlhe~ m.fmmAkhmim. 1\'10reo\'cr lhe natron cats away the flesh.e.-c becn well past its peak by the time he observed ir.t \\ooden coOin in the shape 01':1 man bclore shutting it up in:. but for no longcr.Yould return in order LO lind sustenance. 'rhe overscers held priestly tilles.. at the end of which they a 110\\ rhe nil which had been injected lO escape. Then Ihey mummify rhe bod~ for the prescribed number of d:lys. all except fra"kincensc. TlreXlJlli1'[oIl1lf:/rolll.) seem tn have had their form and features preservcd in plastcr and p'lint. and stitch it up ag. lhe Egyptians sought to improve upon nature. They thell dean OUl Ihe body ca.

As these titles indicate. which would hirer be covered by an cmbalming plate. Aftcr some forty days the temporary stuffing would be removed (although it contained pari of the deceased and was therefore retained for the burial). Packets of natron might also be inserted into the body C<1Vil~ during this period. c.j\~OPIC J \RS or parcels. During this time up to 75 per cent of [)lC body weight would be lost. dccorarcd on the exterior wilh the images of the four so's OF IIORLS. atron would then be piled orcr the corpse ro desicC<lte it. it is dear that the natron was moundcd ovcr the body."isceration was not always practised. \Vhen the viscera were rcmovcd.m daged and placed in C.·.. which wcre placed with the budy or. returned to the bo... It was the 'Iecror priest' (hel]' lu:b) who rC.1 technical process but also a ritualized one. In the 21st Dynasty (1069-945 BC). In thc first" method deseribed by Herodotus the body would be eviscerated."auld be \\"ilshed in '\TH01\. the whole act seeking to repeat the stages in the making of the original mummy. and Ihe brain was usually discarded. This was achicved by making an incision in the left flank. but" experimental work has shown that dry natron is morc cffectire.ld the magicli spells.. From the discO\·ery of a wooden embalming lable at Thebes.M-UMMIFICATION MUMMIFICATION was the (seal-hearer of the god' (lteJl!m11J "dja). Until quite rccently scholars belicved that the body was placcd in a liquid natron solmion. a tiLle formerly borne by priests of Osiris. that of Osiris. and the body cavity was packed with bags of clean natron. Shord~ after death a body would be taken to a tenl known as the ibm or 'Place or Purificarion' where it .n·. to assist in the dehydration process.h· ca. where rhe actual mummific<ll ion took placc. mummification was 110t only . Together these men O\"CI"saw the 'handagcrs' (me/JIm) who undertook most of the actual evisceration and band3ging. and from the travenine embalming rabIes of the :\PIS bulls . hO\\"evcr.. resin-soaked bandages and various aromatics in such a way as to give the body a more natural shape.It 1\ lcmphis. except for the heart and kidneys. Prior to the :'\l ew Kingdom (1550-1069 Be). solution} before being taken to ~1I1oth­ cr area enclosing a further tent and known as the 'I-louse of Beauty' (pa lIt'ji'r). b. rinsed. \Vax figures of the latter were also frequently includcd in the visccral packages. thcy wcre dricd. in the Third Intermediate Period (1069-7-17 BC). \Vc know from two papyri of the first ccntur~ _\1) describing (the ritual of embalming' (copied from carlier sources) that "cry specific rituals accompanied c\'cry stage of the \\·ork. subcutaneous + 191 .

27~31.1 ((I1fJribllliou 10 llit' ""1Il()' II[ 1II/1111mdimlifJlI ill {Jucit'lIl Egypl /IIi/it special rt}iTel/t"l' 10 lite mel/Sf/res adopled during lite 21.ess is known about the mummification of animals. tNotes on late Libyan F.l'pu f1udt'//1/t' (Paris.(ol" /lIIIIIMiug Ihe. \VE:-.· (London. J Il\RRIS . 1976). cymb'lls and bell._JlIIIIIS 1'1 . C. L101'd (London. n(l-s. A wide variety of instrulllenrs wcre played. 192 .'c again.I . E. 1894). although research into the mummification of cats :tnd ibises has recently been undertaken. 1901).:ingdot11 (1550-1069 m:). homc-to.' T. Cosmetics were sometimes added.n-e been at Khclllenu (III:R. Tell el. N\\ 1I.. I')). in ordcr to gi. li"ICI:: 4 (1993). See also :\. 51IEI:I'O'. QL_UGEBELR. sistra. Thc earliest Egyptian aCrophone \\-as the flute.·n and destination of the dcceased. In the cheaper methods cyisceration \\ as undertakcn through the anus. 'Human . Pesflllan (Leidell. and E. SI'E:'\C1~R. they were usually idcntified by tags made of wood.1tuary indicale that. In the C. /Jal.nk texts in Grcd.(anc. 15 siidl'.128-30. OPI:'1:-.md R. if the de~th occuITcd away from homc. llehold.HI(il'ly pre~'ell/l'd 10] GI1~JIII CrUft/h.111quets during the :'\cw f.lSC of poorer indi. has so far been 10c./III}/iqlle~'l't biliugllcJ (l~ L.-god :\ I ihos. <l crocodile with . \r. a lion with <l lyre. were particubrIy associat-ed with religious worship.\\U". Llclrn:.).... I': B\I{·\'ITE and B.I. The chordophones consisted of tluce types: rhc harp (an indigenous Egyptian instrumcnl) allll thc lute and lyre (both Asiatic imporr~).mmce of hein~ co.'\. W.. In the Old Kingdom..5 (1970)..md IJ\'\\.J.'\.111 \-ray alllls of/ht' rr~)'(l11I11/1I1mil's(Chic. b~ck to their village). and one of the embalming spells concludes with the assurance: 'You willli. OF Till: I)!': \1 l. . 1992). thus adding to the already darkened colour of the skin. 1980). 'The 1993 field season of the BerkclcyTeU e1-.1t- R. 1956).eontopolis (to the west of the mJin ruins). and the \\hole \\-as then bandaged.\G~. 51'1:. E DLR·"I) and R.therc "-as alread~ il tcmple at Tarclllu in thc 181h Drnasry (1550-1295 Ile).g'pt'.. double 'oboes' and trumpets or hugles (mostly connected . 1906) A.·idu<1ls.Iletli"dl (Ht'mde(/plJh~.E.-81. 'Catalogw. mCll1branophone~.. P\KTRII)G[.~luqdam project: prcliminar~· report l . gi"ing such yital information as the name.. \I~ Or tombstones in the graycs thcmseh-es. G. a l11ilitar~ instrument that was sometimes used in religious processions. or E. SIIORE. (\\'.'\0:R and 1\.'cd to return as a star. 'fhe site is usually assumed 1. although some bear mOre elaborate inscriptions ranging from thc cosr of transport 1. 198-201.s: /I jourllq into ('/l'mi~)1 (London. A.~rE.ETS being wrapped among the layers in the appropriate pl<lces dictated by their function. 'I'he bandaging fOOl. and it is from their word for this . lilrCI11U. you will lire for e. The emire process ~ from death to burial usuall~ took sc\'cnl'y days.IlERG. the openings lO the skull wcre packed. 198-1) C. t 1 lumm~-Iags rrom the Ashmol~lIl \ Museum. some fifteen days.1111I1Jllllt. acrophoncs anti cordophones.v. S'IlTI . D.s or in Oludonr ceremonies. 199.. AluJl/llIil's.-c sen·cd as cheap STEI. 19M4) 1J.ei/ (T. t the end of the process the deceased was renewed.\ lummy labels were inscrihed with shon i. The idiophones. PRIEI)\I-\. 1-10. TROY.. Lconlopolis) L.h.f{mlJ Muqdam.\IIERG. P. and artificial eyes \\ere often added. 'I'he depiction of mU"iicians on such late Predynastic artef:lcts as ceremonial palettes and stone '·csscls indicates the importance accorded to music e"en in prehistoric times. material.. i\~ IRel. MUSICAL Il\STRUME"ITS p'lcking \Y. 1978).1I1d diyine l11ummificltion'. C. The Arabs mistook this bhtckening for the effects bitumen. 2nd ed.'cssels of thc mid fourth millennium Be) to the harps and lutes th.\. Turin) depicting . E. .lh:u'10L'\I'. A. T'hc eastern sector of the sire of the ancienr tOWI1 ofTafcmu is still dominated by the remains of the temple of the local I.J.OREWS. 11. ed. or Kaisa:::. 1986). Oxford" GIE.1Ild E.J.111 the army). on the mlll1ll11~ of the 215£Dynasty priestess HClluttawy (wife of the chief" priest of Anulll. although it has recentl~ been argued Ihat the capital at this rimc may actually h. Paifltl U1 Egypt (1100-650 lJe). 'The I11CIllbranophones included the tambourine. uSllall~ played hy girls at banquel.. L. . and placing of such amulets is described in I he IIOOh. but there were also douhle 'clarinets'. T/}(' Third 1IlII'nlll'ililllt.In ass \yith a large archcJ harp.\10POI.)..lrgc settlement site in the central Delta. This was attempted. it appears rhat the labels might cyen ha.0 shorr fUllerary pra~'crs.. Pinudjcm 1). cd at I.I Jagl1a) (Londoll. r\ . ranging fi'om pairs of simple ivory clappers (probably already depictcd on Prcd~11astic pottery ..IS marked by the performance both music .OERSO" .llu1IImiflldikt'//t'lI tll'r riiIllJ:w'/u!n . \\ILI. 1(. music. ~. Perhaps the beST indication of the ancient Egyptians' sheer enjo~ ment of music is to he f(>lInd in a 'satirical' papyrus (!\ I LISCO Fgizio. . much as Herodotus states. you arc young 'lgain for ever..Illlfllllll/)/{f . The whole body waS then coated in resin. KrrclIE:'\. J.. whose checks cracked as the skin shrank and dried.'cnth Lowcr Egyptian was capital nomc (pro.-er.trminstcr.. 13+-'52.lt \yere frequently played at b. During the Ptolemaic period Taremu becamc known as Leonlopolis Clion city') and the c1e. d/~"c/lSe {{lid alltiell/ culiurt'S (Cambridge. '1"hc brain cayity was also filled with resin or linen. when corpses were regularly being transported from the homc \'0 the cemetery (and somcfimcs. The type.. AgypJisrht' flllt! griahiJdll' E(!!.l/miml imlnl1lU!1I1S (London. which was prubabl~ the power-base of the 23rd Dynast) (818-715 lie). age. Boswinkcl :.232-59.ucd with it. J. IIICK_\U"'\. [gyptiaJl mll11ll11il'S (Aylesbur~. or mummy label (Grcek (lIbllI) During the Greco-Roman period. F. A. and the period of mummification coincided with the time during which the star was im isihle. ':\lumm~ labels: an oriemation'. and occasionall~ stone. or demotic (or occJsionally in both languages).lo. F. R.0 have incorporated thc royal cemetery of the 2Jnll)ynas.1~w.' 16'{ (win!'cr 1994). and the bod~ desiccated.l hlle and a monkcy with a double tohoe'. although surYi. The importance of music in ancient Egypt i"i attested b~ thc large number of instrllll1Cnl~ in muscum collections. 1980). The htrge-scalc remoyal and re-liSC of relief blocks from the temple has made the building difficult to date precisely. ~nd also the drum.155-204..mJ P. a pcriod of time probably connected with the phases of the dog star Sirius (sec SOTIIIC netJ':). the deceased was belie. somewhat m-crenthusiastically.MUMMIFICATION MUSIC.1'1 0/1//1' hOl(J' (Cairo.'e the body its final life-like appearance.CIIIUl1lll'lI f/llf.IS \I. musical instruments A great dcal of Egypt-ian religiuus and secular celebration W.JE J 72 (1986). Tlluch of it from old clothing.J. 'llthough many hm"c lhc appc. 'Creating a g:t)(]: the l11ummification ritual'. In [let bitumen is rarc1~ t<>und un mummies.cipzig.( tit' IIIl1siqUt' dtllls I'Eg. 130'/\\'\1. A. mother of OSORh:O:-' III (777-7-+9 Be). 11 AD\\IS. 5Pll·~G1:J.· des ttiqucucs dc l110mies dUl\luscc du LOLJ\Tc\ CRII'1::1.-ing stelae and sL. B. I99. A demotic papyrus in Vienna records the procedures thai accompanied mummification of the Apis bull. Anciellt Egyprian mllsical instruments consisted of four basic types: idiophones.-ince). Tl'XIt'S griYS.lS sometimes lIsed to model the Illusculature or arms and legs and fill out the facC'.111/I/sl.G OF TilE \\OLTII CERE. . including CL1Ppers.\)_ Only the tomb of Queen "Kama(ma). Fun's nlpharfwlts: n!)'oI1l11111111Iit's lind ndTillsfmm fl1lfienJ nll'IIt'. cd.thaI I-he word 'mummy' derives. COCKIILR'\. S'lillit's il1 p/uJr(wllir rdigioll allli . .2 (1974). and used many metres of linen. Egyptiaf/1I1I1mmil'J (London.

U<X1k OF TIlE DE \0. 'ThcC1L1S s:lCrcd animal orrhc guddess 1\lur'. EgYPliaf} 110'llls (London.~ (/1/(/ . A":is\I \"\\. s/wming. 191)0)_ 193 .\R\ TE\TS.1':'\ \I':R. She usually also held a long 1'.EK.E.'xikul/ dcr /i.l. the eye ofRc'. Ono and W. senlto terrorize thc peoples of the earth.ER. . arc largely encapsulated in divine \lltriburcs' (such :IS epithets and iconographic fc:uurcs) or such genres as IIY\I.. TEVEI.II(fUllo the deities illlI/ flud KhouSli. 1989)./hl1a/t 11lllJitill1lS singing ([1ll1 playing rarifJ/IS imlrummts (lUll'S.h and the 7fdt' (If J."e (~r l10rus lIlId Sl'. (E 13798/) C. {/ double abot' rlud (/ !u/1/bourilll'). Sekhmcl.../ \liilldfCI/ /98_11(1. Mut Vulture-goddcl-is who lIsurped the role of Amaunct in the Thchan Tnl·\!) as consort of !\1\'!U:"J .~T MYCERINUS Mycerinus set' \lE'kILR. 1(82). hmre. . 3-9. Kir/g. T'herc arc. r.WFS and OSIRIS).E.\I'YRUS sceptre symbolizing Upper Egypt. E. She W<1S usually Detail 0/11 .Yfllitlll n'ligioll dedimud /(} ProJi:ssorJ(1ff Z(IIult'l:. F. Ll·. slwmillg 'ht' Rnwall flllpl'mr Tibaim OJfirillg lIjigl/re of/he godde. II. 11. 197-1).ct as a feline goddess closely linked with SE"II\U·. Held.l.T. I J. 1982).ulture hcaddress surmounted by rhe 'white crown' or 'douhle crown' (sec CRO\\ '\s).. cd.\III) ·1·I-:\T5 and REI.EI{. KI'\0SIIIP and life aftcr death (sec FL '\. howc.'IUI. On the basis of these scattered fragments of inform:uion. 1975). II \In. AI:rE~.l'plit'JIS (lJI "-fusii' till LU/lITt: (Paris.. IIJ 1+-. such as the ~r. 1991).\IUI . \. 127-37.17.lpproximatc to thc Classical concept of a narrati'T-stylc myth."FORT. (IC 1398) depicted as a woman wearing a long hrightly Cololl. S. cd. FLi\.1\ II·. had a more aggressive asp(. TE YI'. COFFI:\. 7----+t. 1988) G..1:RAln BEI.M \"''\ICIIE. 11. \Veslcndorf (Wiesbaden.)11U1S()" c. SllIIhcJ ill/~r~. Q!.. /81h 1J.mel 111ot"her of KJ IO:'\S.lyen.·ith iconogr'lphic features linking them with j\llul.66.~(JI/(I. thc reliefs and inscriprions in the ambulatory of the Ptolemaic tempIc of IIORLS .ER-TR \l T. W. 'Dramarischcr Ramc. ed. 1)1-.395-103. H. Sec also . it has praycd possible to reconstruct versions of a .1ti.~i.' I. hmrc. often only distinguishable as ~Iut rather than Isis becausc of the prcscm:e of a crown or an inscription naming the figure. 11. 1(79). She also. 'Towards i1111inimal definition of the goddess ~\lul'. The Iriumph o/J-/rmlS (London.J'Plill" lTt'alifJlf lI((flllffls (r\cw H. 'lsi el 1\ lout des mamJllisi'.l.~hip af/(/Ihi' gluts: (/ sI1U6. 'l\lythos'. It AI./~r alltiml t':~.IGIO'_ Delail ofa[mgmelll nlmllll-pllilllil1gfm11l {/ TheblJllI0mb-dlllpd.Il. I kenna . painted p/as/n:. Sehoske (Hamhurg.].!t.-cr.Ted (sometimes feather-patterned) dress and a .'.7EOL 8/26 (1979-80). -. (Leidcn.m:. 1982).\ \IL '\. E. \1.'. P\ R. and many of the Slatues in her tcmpic at . \\I. uf Near Emf"rJ! religion liS Ihe iUfl'gmlioff oIsorielJ' 1-1. NOD BC. or 'UI:S OF In'. In addition.f/"olll 711('/10. F \llUl:\N.md TEF'\LT ..V. J. 11. The royal women holding the title of GOD'S \\11-"1': OF \\It.ht' SnxIJ S(()1'piollS.-aricty of 'myths' of rhc Pharaonic period. cd.ri~·fJlf da -·i.. wCre aJi portrayed . FR:\~."anYosscl al..'c forms..-er. WeS[endorf" (Wiesbaden. 19-+8).·cre aU daughters of the sun-god.uher th. 1132--40.\. as well as their interactions with humans. TE\TS. L.~llfll(//()gil' 1\. alld Illflllre (Chil:ago.IW.~). also a number of SUr\'iring literary texts that morc c1oscl) . ZIEGI.3 ellJ..L 1.\Jut.plo/(Jgi. Ono and W.\S. RowuII puiu". J.\. Gmesis ill Egypi ~ Iht' fllrilo_WJp/~l. r Jdd...iscumspapyrus" L.~/nlle side n:(ordiug rcpairedjlootl damage. 6/ rill.277-86. cd. Like ISIS and I IAn lOR she essenlially played I'he role of di"lnc moL her to the reigning king. SI/uli" Nasla II. BRU'J. associated wilh such issues as CRI':ATlOl\.\lusj( flllt/1I/tIJicillllS iUlIlIcit'Uf Egypt (London.·cr. 'Die Ycrborg-cnhcil des!\ lythos in Ag~p