Single Carrier FDMA

May18,2008
HyungG.Myung(hgmyung@ieee.org)
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
1
Outline Outline Outline Outline
Introduction and Background
SC-FDMA Implementation in 3GPP LTE
Peak Power Characteristics of SC-FDMA Signals
Summary and Conclusions
Uplink Resource Scheduling in SC-FDMA Systems
Overview of SC-FDMA
Introduction and Background
Overview of SC-FDMA
SC-FDMA Implementation in 3GPP LTE
Peak Power Characteristics of SC-FDMA Signals
Uplink Resource Scheduling in SC-FDMA Systems
Summary and Conclusions
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
3
3GPP Evolution 3GPP Evolution 3GPP Evolution 3GPP Evolution
UMTS/WCDMA
HSDPA
HSUPA
HSPA+
LTE
R99
R5
R6
R7
IntroductionandBackground
R8
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
4
Key Features of LTE Key Features of LTE Key Features of LTE Key Features of LTE
• Multiple access scheme
– DL: OFDMA with CP.
– UL: Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) with CP.
• Adaptive modulation and coding
– DL modulations: QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM
– UL modulations: QPSK and 16QAM
– Rel-6 Turbo code: Coding rate of 1/3, two 8-state constituent
encoders, and a contention-free internal interleaver.
• Advanced MIMO spatial multiplexing techniques
– (2 or 4)x(2 or 4) downlink and uplink supported.
• Multi-layer transmission with up to four streams.
– Multi-user MIMO also supported.
• ARQ within RLC sublayer and Hybrid ARQ within MAC sublayer.
IntroductionandBackground
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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Broadband Multipath Channel Broadband Multipath Channel Broadband Multipath Channel Broadband Multipath Channel
• Demand for higher data rate is leading to utilization of wider
transmission bandwidth.
Up to 20 MHz LTE, UMB, WiMAX 3.5~4G
5 MHz cdma2000
5 MHz WCDMA
3G
1.25 MHz IS-95 (CDMA)
200 kHz GSM
2G
Transmission bandwidth Standard
IntroductionandBackground
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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Broadband Multipath Channel Broadband Multipath Channel Broadband Multipath Channel Broadband Multipath Channel
• Multi-path channel causes:
– Inter-symbol interference (ISI) and fading in the time domain.
– Frequency-selectivity in the frequency domain.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time [
µ
sec]
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

[
l
i
n
e
a
r
]
3GPP 6-Tap Typical Urban (TU6) Channel Delay Profile
0 1 2 3 4 5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Frequency [MHz]
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

G
a
i
n

[
l
i
n
e
a
r
]
Frequency Response of 3GPP TU6 Channel in 5MHz Band
IntroductionandBackground
- cont.
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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Frequency Domain Equalization Frequency Domain Equalization Frequency Domain Equalization Frequency Domain Equalization
• For broadband multi-path channels, conventional time
domain equalizers are impractical because of complexity.
– Very long channel impulse response in the time domain.
– Prohibitively large tap size for time domain filter.
• Using discrete Fourier transform (DFT), equalization can be
done in the frequency domain.
• Because the DFT size does not grow linearly with the length of
the channel response, the complexity of FDE is lower than that
of the equivalent time domain equalizer for broadband
channel.
IntroductionandBackground
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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FDE FDE FDE FDE
h
x
y
1
*
y h x
x h y

= ∗
∴ =
1
Y H X
X H Y

= ⋅
∴ = ⋅
Time domain
Frequency domain
Fourier
transform
Channel
- cont.
IntroductionandBackground
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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• In DFT, frequency domain multiplication is equivalent to time domain
circular convolution.
• Cyclic prefix (CP) longer than the channel response length is
needed to convert linear convolution to circular convolution.
FDE FDE FDE FDE
CP Symbols
- cont.
IntroductionandBackground
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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FDE FDE FDE FDE
• Most of the time domain equalization techniques can be
implemented in the frequency domain.
– MMSE equalizer, DFE, turbo equalizer, and so on.
• References
– M. V. Clark, “Adaptive Frequency-Domain Equalization and
Diversity Combining for Broadband Wireless Communications,”
IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 8, Oct. 1998
– M. Tüchler et al., “Linear Time and Frequency Domain Turbo
Equalization,” Proc. IEEE 53rd Veh. Technol. Conf. (VTC), vol. 2,
May 2001
– F. Pancaldi et al., “Block Channel Equalization in the Frequency
Domain,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 53, no. 3, Mar. 2005
- cont.
IntroductionandBackground
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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Single Carrier with FDE Single Carrier with FDE Single Carrier with FDE Single Carrier with FDE
Channel
N-
point
IDFT
Equalization
N-
point
DFT
SC/FDE
OFDM
Detect
Remove
CP
{ }
n
x
Add
CP/
PS
* CP: Cyclic Prefix, PS: Pulse Shaping
Channel Equalization
N-
point
DFT
Detect
Remove
CP
N-
point
IDFT
Add
CP/
PS
{ }
n
x
IntroductionandBackground
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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SC/FDE SC/FDE SC/FDE SC/FDE
• SC/FDE delivers performance similar to OFDM with essentially
the same overall complexity, even for long channel delay.
• SC/FDE has advantage over OFDM in terms of:
– Low PAPR.
– Robustness to spectral null.
– Less sensitivity to carrier frequency offset.
• Disadvantage to OFDM is that channel-adaptive subcarrier bit
and power loading is not possible.
- cont.
IntroductionandBackground
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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SC/FDE SC/FDE SC/FDE SC/FDE
• References
– H. Sari et al., “Transmission Techniques for Digital Terrestrial TV
Broadcasting,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 33, no. 2, Feb. 1995, pp.
100-109.
– D. Falconer et al., “Frequency Domain Equalization for Single-
Carrier Broadband Wireless Systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40,
no. 4, Apr. 2002, pp. 58-66.
• Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) is an extension of SC/FDE to
accommodate multiple-user access.
- cont.
IntroductionandBackground
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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CDMA with FDE CDMA with FDE CDMA with FDE CDMA with FDE
• Instead of a RAKE receiver, use frequency domain
equalization for channel equalization.
• Reference
– F. Adachi et al., “Broadband CDMA Techniques,” IEEE Wireless
Comm., vol. 12, no. 2, Apr. 2005, pp. 8-18.
Spreading Channel
M-
point
IDFT
Equalization
M-
point
DFT
Detect
Remove
CP
{ }
n
x
Add
CP/
PS
De-
spreading
IntroductionandBackground
Introduction and Background
Overview of SC-FDMA
SC-FDMA Implementation in 3GPP LTE
Peak Power Characteristics of SC-FDMA Signals
Uplink Resource Scheduling in SC-FDMA Systems
Summary and Conclusions
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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Single Carrier FDMA Single Carrier FDMA Single Carrier FDMA Single Carrier FDMA
• SC-FDMA is a new multiple access technique.
– Utilizes single carrier modulation, DFT-spread orthogonal
frequency multiplexing, and frequency domain equalization.
• It has similar structure and performance to OFDMA.
• SC-FDMA is currently adopted as the uplink multiple access
scheme in 3GPP LTE.
– A variant of SC-FDMA using code spreading is used in 3GPP2
UMB uplink.
– 802.16m also considering it for uplink.
OverviewofSC-FDMA
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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TX & RX Structure of SC TX & RX Structure of SC TX & RX Structure of SC TX & RX Structure of SC- -- -FDMA FDMA FDMA FDMA
Subcarrier
Mapping
Channel
N-
point
IDFT
Subcarrier
De-mapping/
Equalization
M-
point
DFT
Detect
Remove
CP
N-
point
DFT
M-
point
IDFT
Add CP
/ PS
DAC
/ RF
RF
/ ADC
SC-FDMA:
OFDMA:
+
* N < M
* S-to-P: Serial-to-Parallel
* P-to-S: Parallel-to-Serial
P
-
t
o
-
S
S
-
t
o
-
P
S
-
t
o
-
P
P
-
t
o
-
S
OverviewofSC-FDMA
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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Why Why Why Why “Single Carrier Single Carrier Single Carrier Single Carrier” “FDMA FDMA FDMA FDMA”? ?? ?
Subcarrier
Mapping
N-
point
DFT
M-
point
IDFT
Add CP
/ PS
DAC
/ RF
Time
domain
Frequency
domain
Time
domain
“FDMA”
“Single
Carrier”
P
-
t
o
-
S
: Sequential transmission of the
symbols over a single frequency carrier.
: User multiplexing in the frequency domain.
OverviewofSC-FDMA
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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Subcarrier Mapping Subcarrier Mapping Subcarrier Mapping Subcarrier Mapping
• Two ways to map subcarriers; distributed and localized.
• Distributed mapping scheme for (total # of subcarriers) =
(data block size) × (bandwidth spreading factor) is called
Interleaved FDMA (IFDMA).
Distributed Localized
0
X
1 N
X

1
X
Zeros
Zeros
0
X
ɶ
1 M
X

ɶ
Zeros
0
X
Zeros
1
X
2
X
1 N
X

0
X
ɶ
1 M
X

ɶ
Zeros
OverviewofSC-FDMA
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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Subcarrier Mapping Subcarrier Mapping Subcarrier Mapping Subcarrier Mapping
• Data block size (N) = 4, Number of users (Q) = 3, Number of
subcarriers (M) = 12.
subcarriers
Terminal 1
Terminal 2
Terminal 3
subcarriers
Distributed Mode Localized Mode
- cont.
OverviewofSC-FDMA
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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Subcarrier Mapping Subcarrier Mapping Subcarrier Mapping Subcarrier Mapping
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
X
0
X
1
X
2
X
3
frequency
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
X
0
X
1
X
2
X
3
{ }
:
k
X X
0
X
1
X
2
X
3
{ }
:
n
x
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
DFT
2
1
0
, 4
N
j nk
N
k n
n
X x e N
π


=
| |
= =
|
\ ¹

{ }
IFDMA l
X
,
~
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
X
0
X
1
X
2
X
3
{ }
DFDMA l
X
,
~
{ }
LFDMA l
X
,
~
Current
implementation
in 3GPP LTE
- cont.
OverviewofSC-FDMA
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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Time Domain Representation Time Domain Representation Time Domain Representation Time Domain Representation
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
{ }
n
x
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
* * * * * * * *
x
0
x
2
x
0
x
2
time
* * * * * * * *
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
{ }
, m IFDMA
Q x ⋅
ɶ
{ }
, m DFDMA
Q x ⋅
ɶ
{ }
, m LFDMA
Q x ⋅
ɶ
3
, ,
0
* , : complex weight
k m k k m
k
c x c
=
= ⋅

OverviewofSC-FDMA
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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Amplitude of SC Amplitude of SC Amplitude of SC Amplitude of SC- -- -FDMA Symbols FDMA Symbols FDMA Symbols FDMA Symbols
10 20 30 40 50 60
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Symbol
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

[
l
i
n
e
a
r
]


IFDMA
LFDMA
DFDMA
QPSK
OverviewofSC-FDMA
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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SC SC SC SC- -- -FDMA and OFDMA FDMA and OFDMA FDMA and OFDMA FDMA and OFDMA
• Similarities
– Block-based modulation and use of CP.
– Divides the transmission bandwidth into smaller subcarriers.
– Channel inversion/equalization is done in the frequency domain.
– SC-FDMA is regarded as DFT-precoded or DFT-spread OFDMA.
OverviewofSC-FDMA
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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SC SC SC SC- -- -FDMA and OFDMA FDMA and OFDMA FDMA and OFDMA FDMA and OFDMA
• Difference in time domain signal
OFDMA symbol
SC-FDMA symbols*
Input data symbols
* Bandwidth spreading factor : 4
time
- cont.
OverviewofSC-FDMA
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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SC SC SC SC- -- -FDMA and OFDMA FDMA and OFDMA FDMA and OFDMA FDMA and OFDMA
• Different equalization/detection aspects
Subcarrier
De-
mapping
Equalizer
Equalizer
Equalizer
Subcarrier
De-
mapping
Detect
Detect
Detect
Equalizer IDFT Detect SC-FDMA
OFDMA
DFT
DFT
- cont.
OverviewofSC-FDMA
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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SC SC SC SC- -- -FDMA and DS FDMA and DS FDMA and DS FDMA and DS- -- -CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA
• In terms of bandwidth expansion, SC-FDMA is very similar to
DS-CDMA system using orthogonal spreading codes.
– Both spread narrowband data into broader band.
– Time symbols are compressed into “chips” after modulation.
– Spreading gain (processing gain) is achieved.
OverviewofSC-FDMA
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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SC SC SC SC- -- -FDMA and DS FDMA and DS FDMA and DS FDMA and DS- -- -CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA
• Conventional spreading
x
1
x
2
x
3
1 1 1
x
1
x
1
x
1
x
1
x
2
x
2
x
2
x
2
x
3
x
3
x
3
x
3
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Signature Sequence
Data Sequence
× ×× ×
time
x
0
x
0
x
0
x
0
1 1 1 1
x
0
- cont.
OverviewofSC-FDMA
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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SC SC SC SC- -- -FDMA and DS FDMA and DS FDMA and DS FDMA and DS- -- -CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA
• Exchanged spreading
time
1
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
1 1
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
× ×× ×
Data Sequence
Signature Sequence
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
1
IFDMA
- cont.
OverviewofSC-FDMA
*C. Chang, and K. Chen, “Frequency-Domain Approach to Multiuser Detection over Frequency-Selective Slowly Fading
Channels,” IEEE PIMRC 2002, Lisboa, Portugal, Sep., 2002, pp. 1280-1284
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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SC SC SC SC- -- -FDMA and Other Schemes FDMA and Other Schemes FDMA and Other Schemes FDMA and Other Schemes
SC-FDMA
OFDMA
DS-CDMA
/FDE
* DFT-based FDE
* Block-based
processing & CP
* SC transmission:
Low PAPR
* Time-compressed
“chip” symbols
* Time-domain
detection
* Subcarrier mapping:
Frequency-selective
scheduling
OverviewofSC-FDMA
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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SC SC SC SC- -- -FDMA with Code Spreading FDMA with Code Spreading FDMA with Code Spreading FDMA with Code Spreading
Subcarrier
Mapping
Channel
N-
point
IDFT
Subcarrier De-
mapping/
Equalization
M-
point
DFT
Detect
Remove
CP
N-
point
DFT
M-
point
IDFT
Add
CP/
PS
Spreading
De-
spreading
SC-FDMA Modulation SC-FDMA Demodulation
OverviewofSC-FDMA
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
32
SC SC SC SC- -- -FDMA MIMO FDMA MIMO FDMA MIMO FDMA MIMO
Subcarrier
Mapping
MIMO
Channel
N-point
IDFT
Subcarrier
De-mapping
M-point
DFT
Detect
Remove
CP
N-point
DFT
M-point
IDFT
Add CP /
PS
DAC
/ RF
RF
/ ADC
S
p
a
t
i
a
l

M
a
p
p
i
n
g
Subcarrier
Mapping
N-point
DFT
M-point
IDFT
Add CP /
PS
DAC
/ RF
S
p
a
t
i
a
l

C
o
m
b
i
n
i
n
g

/

E
q
u
a
l
i
z
a
t
i
o
n
N-point
IDFT
Subcarrier
De-mapping
M-point
DFT
Detect
Remove
CP
RF
/ ADC
OverviewofSC-FDMA
Introduction and Background
Overview of SC-FDMA
SC-FDMA Implementation in 3GPP LTE
Peak Power Characteristics of SC-FDMA Signals
Uplink Resource Scheduling in SC-FDMA Systems
Summary and Conclusions
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
34
LTE Frame Structure LTE Frame Structure LTE Frame Structure LTE Frame Structure
• Two radio frame structures defined.
– Frame structure type 1 (FS1): FDD.
– Frame structure type 2 (FS2): TDD.
• A radio frame has duration of 10 ms.
• A resource block (RB) spans 12 subcarriers over a slot duration
of 0.5 ms. One subcarrier has bandwidth of 15 kHz, thus 180
kHz per RB.
SC-FDMAImplementationin3GPPLTE
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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LTE Frame Structure Type 1 LTE Frame Structure Type 1 LTE Frame Structure Type 1 LTE Frame Structure Type 1
• FDD frame structure
One subframe = TTI (Transmission Time Interval)
#0 #1 #2 #3 #18 #19
One slot = 0.5 ms
One radio frame = 10 ms
SC-FDMAImplementationin3GPPLTE
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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LTE Frame Structure Type 2 LTE Frame Structure Type 2 LTE Frame Structure Type 2 LTE Frame Structure Type 2
• TDD frame structure
Subframe #0 Subframe #2 Subframe #3 Subframe #4 Subframe #5 Subframe #7 Subframe #8 Subframe #9
DwPTS GP UpPTS DwPTS GP UpPTS
One subframe = 1 ms
One half-frame = 5 ms
One radio frame = 10 ms
One slot = 0.5 ms
SC-FDMAImplementationin3GPPLTE
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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LTE Resource Grid LTE Resource Grid LTE Resource Grid LTE Resource Grid
Slot #0 #19
One radio frame
S
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r

(
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
)
OFDM/SC-FDMA symbol (time)
RB
RB sc
N N ×
12
RB
sc
N
=
symb
N
Resource block
Resource element
RB
symb sc
N N = × resource elements
SC-FDMAImplementationin3GPPLTE
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
38
Length of CP Length of CP Length of CP Length of CP
symb
N
6 Extended CP
3 Extended CP (∆f = 7.5 kHz)†
7 Normal CP
Configuration
512 (≈ 16.67 µs) for l = 0, 1, …, 5 Extended CP
1024 (≈ 33.33 µs) for l = 0, 1, 2 Extended CP (∆f = 7.5 kHz) †
160 (≈ 5.21 µs) for l = 0
144 (≈ 4.69 µs) for l = 1, 2, …, 6
Normal CP
CP length N
CP,l
[samples] Configuration
† Only in downlink
SC-FDMAImplementationin3GPPLTE
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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LTE Bandwidth/Resource Configuration LTE Bandwidth/Resource Configuration LTE Bandwidth/Resource Configuration LTE Bandwidth/Resource Configuration
15360 11520 7680 3840 1920 960 Samples per slot
30.72 23.04 15.36 7.68 3.84 1.92 Sample rate [MHz]
2048 1536 1024 512 256 128
IDFT(Tx)/DFT(Rx)
size
1200 900 600 300 180 72
Number of
occupied subcarriers
100 75 50 25 15 6
Number of
resource blocks (N
RB
)
20 15 10 5 3 1.4
Channel
bandwidth [MHz]
*3GPP TS 36.104
SC-FDMAImplementationin3GPPLTE
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
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LTE Bandwidth Configuration LTE Bandwidth Configuration LTE Bandwidth Configuration LTE Bandwidth Configuration
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
time
300
RB
RB sc
N N ×
= 12
RB
sc
N
=
(7.68 MHz)
512
M
=
(4.5 MHz) (180 kHz)
Resource
block
Zeros
Zeros
1 slot
DL or UL symbol
* 5 MHz system with
frame structure type 1
SC-FDMAImplementationin3GPPLTE
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UL Overview UL Overview UL Overview UL Overview
• UL physical channels
– Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
– Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)
– Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
• UL physical signals
– Reference signal (RS)
• Available modulation for data channel
– QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM
• Single user MIMO not supported in current release.
– But it will be addressed in the future release.
– Multi-user collaborative MIMO supported.
SC-FDMAImplementationin3GPPLTE
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
42
UL Resource Block UL Resource Block UL Resource Block UL Resource Block
1 slot (0.5 ms)
Resource
block (RB)
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
Time
One SC-FDMA symbol
S
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
Reference
symbols (RS)
*PUSCH with normal CP
SC-FDMAImplementationin3GPPLTE
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UL Physical Channel Processing UL Physical Channel Processing UL Physical Channel Processing UL Physical Channel Processing
Scrambling
Modulation mapping
Transform precoding
SC-FDMA signal generation
Resource element mapping
SC-FDMA
modulation
DFT-precoding
IDFT operation
SC-FDMAImplementationin3GPPLTE
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SC SC SC SC- -- -FDMA Modulation in LTE UL FDMA Modulation in LTE UL FDMA Modulation in LTE UL FDMA Modulation in LTE UL
Serial-
to-
Parallel
M-
IDFT
N-
DFT
Zeros
{ }
0 1 1
, ,
N
x x x


Parallel
-to-
Serial
{ }
0 1 1
, ,
M
x x x

ɶ ɶ ɶ …
Subcarrier
Mapping
s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
0
M
-
1
Zeros
One SC-FDMA
symbol
Localized mapping
with an option of
adaptive scheduling
or random hopping.
SC-FDMAImplementationin3GPPLTE
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
45
UL Reference Signal UL Reference Signal UL Reference Signal UL Reference Signal
• Two types of UL RS
– Demodulation (DM) RS ⇒Narrowband.
– Sounding RS: Used for UL resource scheduling ⇒Broadband.
• RS based on Zadoff-Chu CAZAC (Constant Amplitude Zero
Auto-Correlation) polyphase sequence
– CAZAC sequence: Constant amplitude, zero circular auto-
correlation, flat frequency response, and low circular cross-
correlation between two different sequences.
2
2 , 0,1,2, , 1; for even
2
( 1)
2 , 0,1,2, , 1; for odd
2
k
r k
j qk k L L
L
r k k
j qk k L L
L
e
a
e
π
π
| |
− + = −
|
|
\ ¹
+
| |
− + = −
|
\ ¹
=
¦
¦
´
¦
¹


* r is any integer relatively prime
with L and q is any integer.
B. M. Popovic, “Generalized Chirp-like Polyphase Sequences with Optimal Correlation Properties,”
IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, vol. 38, Jul. 1992, pp. 1406-1409.
SC-FDMAImplementationin3GPPLTE
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UL RS Multiplexing UL RS Multiplexing UL RS Multiplexing UL RS Multiplexing
subcarriers
User 1
User 2
User 3
subcarriers
FDM Pilots CDM Pilots
SC-FDMAImplementationin3GPPLTE
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
47
UL RS Multiplexing UL RS Multiplexing UL RS Multiplexing UL RS Multiplexing
• DM RS
– For SIMO: FDM between different users.
– For SU-MIMO: CDM between RS from each antenna
– For MU-MIMO: CDM between RS from each antenna
• Sounding RS
– CDM when there is only one sounding bandwidth.
– CDM/FDM when there are multiple sounding bandwidths.
- cont.
SC-FDMAImplementationin3GPPLTE
Introduction and Background
Overview of SC-FDMA
SC-FDMA Implementation in 3GPP LTE
Peak Power Characteristics of SC-FDMA Signals
Uplink Resource Scheduling in SC-FDMA Systems
Summary and Conclusions
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
49
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
P
r
(
P
A
P
R
>
P
A
P
R
0
)
PAPR
0
[dB]
CCDF of PAPR: 16-QAM, Rolloff = 0.22, N
fft
= 512, N
occupied
= 128
Dotted lines: no PS
Dashed lines: RRC PS
Solid lines: RC PS
IFDMA
DFDMA
LFDMA
OFDMA
PAPR Characteristics PAPR Characteristics PAPR Characteristics PAPR Characteristics
* Monte Carlo simulations (Number of iterations: > 10
4
)
* Time domain pulse shaping with 8-times oversampling
* N
fft
: number of total subcarriers = FFT size
* N
occupied
: number of occupied subcarriers = data block size
* RC: raised-cosine, RRC: root raised-cosine
* Rolloff factor of 0.22
PeakPowerCharacteristicsofSC-FDMASignals
(a) QPSK (b) 16-QAM
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
P
r
(
P
A
P
R
>
P
A
P
R
0
)
PAPR
0
[dB]
CCDF of PAPR: QPSK, Rolloff = 0.22, N
fft
= 512, N
occupied
= 128
Dotted lines: no PS
Dashed lines: RRC PS
Solid lines: RC PS
IFDMA
DFDMA
LFDMA
OFDMA
*H. G. Myung, J. Lim, and D. J. Goodman, "Peak-to-
Average Power Ratio of Single Carrier FDMA Signals with
Pulse Shaping," IEEE PIMRC ’06, Helsinki, Finland, Sep.
2006
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
50
PAPR Characteristics PAPR Characteristics PAPR Characteristics PAPR Characteristics
• PAPR and different rolloff factors
*α: rolloff factor of raised cosine pulse shaping filter
0 2 4 6 8 10
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
P
r
(
P
A
P
R
>
P
A
P
R
0
)
PAPR
0
[dB]
CCDF of PAPR: QPSK, N
fft
= 256, N
occupied
= 64
Solid lines: without pulse shaping
Dotted lines: with pulse shaping
IFDMA
LFDMA
α
=0.4
α
=0.6
α
=0.2
α
=0
α
=0.8
α
=1
PeakPowerCharacteristicsofSC-FDMASignals
*H. G. Myung, J. Lim, and D. J. Goodman, "Peak-to-
Average Power Ratio of Single Carrier FDMA Signals with
Pulse Shaping," IEEE PIMRC ’06, Helsinki, Finland, Sep.
2006
- cont.
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
51
PAPR of SC PAPR of SC PAPR of SC PAPR of SC- -- -FDMA FDMA FDMA FDMA MIMO MIMO MIMO MIMO

4 6 8 10 12
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
PAPR
0
[dB]
P
r
(
P
A
P
R
>
P
A
P
R
0
)


SM
SFBC (QPSK)
SFBC (16-QAM)
TxBF
(avr. & quant.)
TxBF
(no avr. & no quant.)
PeakPowerCharacteristicsofSC-FDMASignals
*H. G. Myung, J.-L. Pan, R. Olesen, and D. Grieco, "Peak Power Characteristics of Single Carrier FDMA MIMO
Precoding System", IEEE VTC 2007 Fall, Baltimore, USA, Oct. 2007
Introduction and Background
Overview of SC-FDMA
SC-FDMA Implementation in 3GPP LTE
Peak Power Characteristics of SC-FDMA Signals
Uplink Resource Scheduling in SC-FDMA Systems
Summary and Conclusions
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
53
Channel Channel Channel Channel- -- -Dependent Scheduling (CDS) Dependent Scheduling (CDS) Dependent Scheduling (CDS) Dependent Scheduling (CDS)
• Channel-dependent scheduling
– Assign subcarriers to a user in
excellent channel condition.
• Two subcarrier mapping
schemes have advantages over
each other.
– Distributed: Frequency diversity.
– Localized: Frequency selective
gain with CDS.
Subcarriers
Frequency
User 1
User 2
Channel gain
UplinkResourceSchedulinginSC-FDMASystems
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
54
CDS CDS CDS CDS
*J. Lim, H. G. Myung, K. Oh, and D. J. Goodman, "Proportional Fair Scheduling of Uplink Single-Carrier FDMA
Systems", IEEE PIMRC 2006, Helsinki, Finland, Sep. 2006

4 8 16 32 64 128
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Number of users
A
g
g
r
e
g
a
t
e

t
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

[
M
b
p
s
]


R-LFDMA
S-LFDMA
R-IFDMA
S-IFDMA

4 8 16 32 64 128
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Number of users
A
g
g
r
e
g
a
t
e

t
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

[
M
b
p
s
]


R-LFDMA
S-LFDMA
R-IFDMA
S-IFDMA
Utility: sum of user throughput Utility: sum of logarithm of user throughput
* Capacity based on Shannon’s upper bound.
* Time synchronized uplink data transmission.
* Perfect channel knowledge.
* No feedback delay or error.
UplinkResourceSchedulinginSC-FDMASystems
- cont.
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
55
Uplink SC Uplink SC Uplink SC Uplink SC- -- -FDMA FDMA FDMA FDMA
with Adaptive Modulation and CDS with Adaptive Modulation and CDS with Adaptive Modulation and CDS with Adaptive Modulation and CDS
Channel K
Resource Scheduler
Channel 2
S
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r

M
a
p
p
i
n
g
Channel 1 IDFT
CP /
PS
DFT
C
o
n
s
t
e
l
l
a
t
i
o
n
M
a
p
p
i
n
g
SC-FDMA Receiver
User 1
User 2
User K
Data flow
Control signal flow
Mobile terminals Base station
UplinkResourceSchedulinginSC-FDMASystems
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
56
Simulation Results Simulation Results Simulation Results Simulation Results
• Aggregate throughput vs. feedback delay

0 1 2 3 4 5
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Feedback delay [ms]
A
g
g
r
e
g
a
t
e

t
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

[
M
b
p
s
]
mobile speed = 3 km/h (f
D
= 5.6 Hz)


LFDMA: Static
LFDMA: CDS
IFDMA: Static
IFDMA: CDS

0 1 2 3 4 5
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Feedback delay [ms]
A
g
g
r
e
g
a
t
e

t
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

[
M
b
p
s
]
mobile speed = 60 km/h (f
D
= 111 Hz)


LFDMA: Static
LFDMA: CDS
IFDMA: Static
IFDMA: CDS
* Carrier frequency = 2 GHz
* K = 64 total number of users, N = 16 subcarriers
per chunk, Q = 16 total number of chunks
* Utility: sum of user throughput
UplinkResourceSchedulinginSC-FDMASystems
*H. G. Myung, K. Oh, J. Lim, and D. J. Goodman, "Channel-
Dependent Scheduling of an Uplink SC-FDMA System with
Imperfect Channel Information," IEEE WCNC 2008, Las Vegas,
USA, Mar. 2008
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
57
Simulation Results Simulation Results Simulation Results Simulation Results
• Aggregate throughput vs. mobile speed

0 20 (37) 40 (74) 60 (111) 80 (148)
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Mobile speed [km/h] (Doppler [Hz])
A
g
g
r
e
g
a
t
e

t
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

[
M
b
p
s
]
Feedback delay = 3 ms


LFDMA: Static
LFDMA: CDS
IFDMA: Static
IFDMA: CDS
UplinkResourceSchedulinginSC-FDMASystems
- cont.
*H. G. Myung, K. Oh, J. Lim, and D. J. Goodman, "Channel-Dependent Scheduling of an Uplink SC-FDMA System with
Imperfect Channel Information," IEEE WCNC 2008, Las Vegas, USA, Mar. 2008.
Introduction and Background
Overview of SC-FDMA
SC-FDMA Implementation in 3GPP LTE
Peak Power Characteristics of SC-FDMA Signals
Uplink Resource Scheduling in SC-FDMA Systems
Summary and Conclusions
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
59
Summary and Conclusions Summary and Conclusions Summary and Conclusions Summary and Conclusions
• SC-FDMA is a new single carrier multiple access technique
which has similar structure and performance to OFDMA.
– Currently adopted for uplink multiple access scheme for 3GPP
LTE.
• Two types of subcarrier mapping, distributed and localized,
give system design flexibility to accommodate either
frequency diversity or frequency selective gain.
• A salient advantage of SC-FDMA over OFDM/OFDMA is low
PAPR.
– Efficient transmitter and improved cell-edge performance.
• Pulse shaping as well as subcarrier mapping scheme has a
significant impact on PAPR.
SummaryandConclusions
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
60
References and Resources References and Resources References and Resources References and Resources
• H. G. Myung, J. Lim, & D. J. Goodman, “Single Carrier FDMA
for Uplink Wireless Transmission,” IEEE Vehic. Tech. Mag., vol. 1,
no. 3, Sep. 2006
• H. Ekströmet al., “Technical Solutions for the 3G Long-Term
Evolution,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 3, Mar. 2006
• D. Falconer et al., “Frequency Domain Equalization for Single-
Carrier Broadband Wireless Systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.
40, no. 4, Apr. 2002
• H. Sari et al., “Transmission Techniques for Digital Terrestrial TV
Broadcasting,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 33, no. 2, Feb. 1995
SummaryandConclusions
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
61
References and Resources References and Resources References and Resources References and Resources
• LTE Spec
– http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/36-series.htm
• SC-FDMA resource page
– http://hgmyung.googlepages.com/scfdma
• Comprehensive list of SC-FDMA papers
– http://hgmyung.googlepages.com/scfdma2
SummaryandConclusions
- cont.
SingleCarrierFDMA |HyungG.Myung
62
Final Word Final Word Final Word Final Word
SC-FDMA Low PAPR

SummaryandConclusions
Thank you!
May18,2008
HyungG.Myung(hgmyung@ieee.org)

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