rt on Summer training rep diesel locomotive works Varanasi

Introduction
It is a production unit owned by Indian railways , for which it manufactures diesel-electric locomotive and its spares parts.  To meet the increased transportation needs of the Indian railways it was established in collaboration with M\s ALCO( American Locomotive Company), USA.  Founded in 1961, the D.L.W. rolled out its first locomotive three year later, on January 3, 1964. It manufactures locomotives which are variants based on the original ALCO design dating to 1960s and the GM EMD design of the 1990s.  has evolved into an integrated dieselIt electric locomotive manufacturing plant, capable of building all components of the locomotive in-house, including the engines, super structures, and

fabricated bogies and under frames.

 Diesel-electric locomotive were introduced to exploit their versatility, maintenance requirements and cost effectiveness as compared to steam engine.  got its first ISO certification in 1997 and ISO-9001 and ISO-14001 in December 2002.  with technology transfer agreement from manufacturers such as GM-EMD, DLW today produces advance locomotives having output range from 2600 to 4000 hp.  It has supplied locomotives to other countries such as Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Tanzania and Vietnam etc.  Diesel-electric locomotive were introduced

to exploit their versatility, maintenance requirements and cost effectiveness as compared to steam engine.

the operating environment is much more attractive.  .  Steam locomotives require intensive maintenance. being much quieter.  The thermal efficiency of steam was considerably less than that of Diesel engines. lubrication and cleaning before. making them ideal for switching/shunting duties in yards. fully weatherproof and without the dirt and heat that is an inevitable part of operating a steam locomotive.steam Diesel’s advantages over They can safely be operated by one person. during and after use.

 The pressure created by the combustion of the fuel drives the piston downward.PRINCIPLE OF DIESEL ENGINE When the piston is at the top of its travel.  The air in the cylinder is raised to about 500600 psi which raises the temperature inside to about 1000 0 F.  Diesel fuel is sprayed into the cylinder by the injector and immediately ignites because of the heat and pressure inside the cylinder. the cylinder contains a charge of highly compressed air. This is the  .

.“power stroke”.

As the piston nears the bottom of its stroke. it uncovers the air intake ports. This is the ”compression stroke”.  . all of the exhaust valves open.  The exhaust valves close and the piston starts travelling back upward. relieving the pressure  As the piston bottoms out. Pressurized air fills the cylinder. re-covering the intake ports and compressing the fresh charge of air. forcing out the remainder of the exhaust gases. Exhaust gases rush out of the cylinder.

there may simply be an exhaust outlet and fuel inlet instead of a valve system. cooling systems: Combustion generates a great dea of heat. Its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the . Cooling systems usually employ air or liquid (usually water) cooling. 4. Piston: It is located in a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings. both chemical and noise pollution. and some of this transfers to the walls of the engine.engine Components in diesel 1. 2. Valves: For a two-stroke engine. Exhaust systems: The exhaust system frequently contains devices to control pollution. 3.

5. In two-stroke engines the piston also acts as a valve by covering and uncovering ports in the cylinder wall. This means that the linear motion of a piston must be converted into rotation.crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod. . Crank shaft: Most reciprocating internal combustion engines end up turning a shaft. This is typically achieved by a crankshaft.

. 7. Starter systems: All internal combustion engines require some form of system to get them into operation. Lubrication Systems: Internal combustions engine Require lubrication in operation that moving parts slide smoothly over each other.6. friction. Insufficient lubrication subjects the parts of the engine to metal-tometal contact. heat build-up etc. Most piston engines use a starter motor powered by the same battery as runs the rest of the electric systems.

the diesel engine drives an electrical Generator or alternator whose output provides power to the traction motors.Diesel-electric locomotive  In a diesel-electric locomotive. two stroke ) The main generator or alternator Traction motor  Control system consisting of the engine governor  Electrical or electronic component to control or modify the electrical supply to the traction motions  Inverters  . The important components of dieselelectric propulsion are : Diesel engine ( 16 cylinder . There is no mechanical connection between the engine and the wheels.

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Alternating voltage may be generated by rotating a coil in the magnetic field or by rotating a magnetic field within a stationary coil. • The speed at which the coil or magnetic field rotates. The speed corresponding to a particular frequency is called the synchronous speed for that frequency. Rpm at 50 Hz Rpm at 60 Hz 2 4 3000 1500 3600 1800 . The value of the voltage generated depends on • The number of turns in the coil. • Strength of the field. Synchronous Speed The output frequency of an alternator depends on the number of poles and the rotational speed.

6 8 10 1000 750 600 1200 900 720 .

4. .. 6.The relation between speed and frequency is given by N = 120f / P Where f is the frequency in Hz (cycles per second) P is the number of poles (2. Coefficient of traction: The coefficient of traction is defined as the usable force for traction divided by the weight on the running gear (wheels..) and N is the rotational speed in revolutions per minute (RPM) Traction Traction refers to the maximum frictional force that can be produced between surfaces without slipping.

e.tracks etc) i. . Usable Traction = coefficient of Traction x Weigh As the coefficient of traction refers to two surfaces which are not slipping relative to one another it is the same as Coefficient of static friction.

• Macroscopic and microscopic shape .Factors affecting tractive coefficient • Traction between two surfaces depends on several factors including: • Material composition of each surface. • Normal force pressing contact surfaces together. as it allows for more energetic acceleration (including cornering and braking) without wheel • Slippage. • . • Relative motion of tractive surfaces In the design of wheeled or tracked vehicles. high traction between wheel and ground is more desirable than low traction. • Contaminants at the material boundary including lubricants andadhesives.

is designed to prevent loss of traction of the driven road wheels. also known as Anti-Slip Regulation (ASR). and therefore the control of the vehicle.Traction control system Attraction control system (TCS). . if the vehicle is fitted with drive by wire throttle. when excessive throttle is applied by the driver. • • The intervention can consist of one or more of the following: • Retard or suppress the spark to one or more cylinders • Reduce fuel supply to one or more cylinders • Brake one or more wheels • Close the throttle.

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the .Bogie A bogie is a wheeled wagon or trolley. In mechanics terms. attached to avehicle. a bogie is chassis or framework carrying wheels. Usually the train floor is at a level above the bogies. but the floor of car may be lowerbetween bogies .

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A device which performs the opposite function (converting DC to AC) is known as an inverter. a process known as rectification. Rectifiers are of two types: a) Half wave rectifier b) Full wave rectifier .Rectifiers A rectifiers an electrical device that converts AC to DC. Rectifiers have many uses including as components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals.

Indian broad gauge Y.Narrow gauge (2.Classification of locomotives The classification syntaxes: Locos.Meter gauge Z.5 ft) N.DC electric (can run under DC traction only) A. except the older steam ones. This code is of the form “ [ gauge ][ power ][load ][ series ][ sub type ][ suffix ] ” The first letter (gauge) W.narrow gauge (2 ft) The second letter (motive power) C. have classification codes that identify them.AC electric (can run under AC traction only) .

Both DC and AC (can run under both AC and DC tractions).Battery electric locomotive (rare) . 'CA' is considered a single letter B.CA.

The Third letter (load Type) G-goods P-passenger M-mixed traffic. both goods and passengerS-Used for shunting U-Electric multiple units (E.M.U. Example for the series letter ‘3’ means that the locomotive has power over 3000 hp but less than 4000 hp. For ex: ‘A’ for 100 hp. an optional letter or number that indicates some smaller variations inthe basic model.) R-Railcars THE fourth letter (series) The series digit identifies the horsepower range of the locomotive. The fifth letter (subtype) .

.‘B’ for 200 hp and so on……..

Exchange equipment and terminations of local loops are connected by jumper wires at the MDF.  .   Termination point within the local exchange .  The fuse is attached on the back side of the tag block for the safety.Main distribution frame It is a signal distribution frame for connecting equipment to cables and subscriber carrier equipment. As when w thundering or vibrations occurs the fuse gets blow off making the circuit break and thus e can prevent further damage .

It is a simple machine which is now an 2. NC machine 3. .Electric maintenance shop Types of machines 1. Conventional machines 2. Numerical control machine: Numerical control is defined as a system in which the actions of the machines are controlled by the insertion of the numerical data. Conventional machine: old technique. CNC machines 1. In other words number controls the action.

Machine 3. The tape serves like a guide for the machine movement and other machines related functions.Elements of numeric control 1. the tape information is preserved in the memory. The tape thus prepared is fed through thecontrol unit tape reader. Tape reader unit The manufacturing information on the drawing is converted into punchedholes on a paper tape. The preparation of the tape can be on manual flux writer or by a post processor. Control unit 2. Axis drive unit 4. . For the control units with memory. Operators control unit 5.

Continuous path system: In this system the control instructs the machine to Make movements like 2 or 3 axis at a time. The machine operations are possible at specified positions. 3. 2.Classification of numeric Control 1. Straight line System: In this system the control can command a path operation in a single axis at a time. Point to Point system: This feature is only useful for drilling and boring Operations. The .

Machine may be directed to make helical or circular Path. .

Computerized numerically Controlled machine In CNC the control system further energized with a mini computer or a post processor. the travel limits.  CNC machines have the ability to edit or alter the existing program in no . it also gives a feedback to the operator about the current position and distance to be travelled etc.  the control unit stores the programmed information of the work piece. collisions zones and the diagnostic information etc.

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CONCLUSION DLW manufactures that thing which pulls more than half portion of the transport. DLW is not only a manufacturing company. . theater etc. DLW also provide other facilities like low cost canteen. I suggest you to take part in summer training in DLW Varanasi. It provides more trainers (expert engineers) to guide us. ambulance. it also provide good environment to learn more than aspect. Any student can easily take their summer training from DLW Varanasi.

An extremely important function for the reduction of the maintenance cost and to keep the good operational condition of equipment. Objective of preventive maintenance . Preventive maintenance Also termed as “planned maintenance” or “systematic maintenance” . Due to gradual wear and tear of the parts of the machine which can be prevented by regular inspection known as preventive maintenance.Breakdown maintenance Break down of machine can occur due to the following two reasons: Due to unpredictable failure of component which cannot be prevented.

Electric repair shop Meter section Calibration of meter is done and the fault in the meter .   To keep the machine in proper condition so as to maintain the quality of the product.  To ensure the safety of the workers.  To achieve the above objectives with most economical combination.  To keep the plant at the maximum production efficiency.To obtain maximum availability of the plant by avoiding break down and by reducing shut down period to a maximum.

Calibration . The device with the known or assigned correctness is called the standard.is detected. Calibration is a comparison between measurements-on of known magnitude or correctness made or set with one device and another measurement made in as similar a way as possible with a second device. The second device is the unit under test (UUT). test instrument (TI).

3. low-cost. . low maintenance and 4. 2. direct connection to an AC power source .Overhauling section Induction motor The most common motors used in industrial motion control systems. Simple and rugged design. Advantage of AC induction motor: 1. as well as in main powered home appliances.

and the synchronous speed is Ns = 120f /p. the no of poles p.BASIC CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATING PRINCIPLE An AC induction motor has a fixed outer portion.s) .  the rotating magnetic field is created naturally in the stator because of the nature of the supply. called the stator and a rotor that spins inside with a carefully engineered air gap between the Two. Formula: the relation between supply frequency f.  Rotor speed: Nr = Ns (1 . A synchronous motor always runs at synchronous spee . where s is the slip.

with 0% slip. .

TORQUE-SPEED CURVES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS .

• . • They produce medium to high degrees of starting torque. drill presses. • These motors are self-starting. • Classified either as squirrel cage or wound- rotor motors. also printing equipment. compressors.THREE-PHASE AC INDUCTION MOTOR • Widely used in industrial and commercial applications. farm equipment etc. pumps. conveyors. lathes. Applications include grinders.

. Fork lift truck 2.Transport section  In transport section there are basically two types of machine are used for transportation purpose of the different jobs from one shop to other. Cranes Fork lift truck Fork lift is a powered Industrial truck used to lift and transport materials .  Different machines used are 1.

Cranes General characteristics Used to move loads over variable (horizontal and vertical) paths within a .A crane is a lifting machine. wire ropes or chains and sheave as. that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them Horizontally . generally equipped with a winder (also called a wire rope drum).

restricted area  Used when there is insufficient (or intermittent) flow volume such that the use of a conveyor cannot be justified Provide more flexibility in movement than conveyors .

Water testing .Engine testing Types of testing Lubricating oil testing  Lubrication is done for better performance of the engine parts.  For rotating parts checking is done by seeing the returning path of the oil i.  RR40 is used as lubricating oil. checking not only the forward path but also the returning path.  testing is done by checking the circulation of lubricant oil.e.

Load testing characteristics General  Installed 3100 hp  Power input to traction under site condition2750 hp  Gauge 1676 mm  Locomotive weight  Nominal axel load Principle dimension 123000 kg 20500 kg .Water acts as a coolant for moving part of the engine because constant movement or rotation causes various parts to heat up and water working as coolant cooled down the concerned part. If there is any abnormal sound then the engine is again tested for lubrication so that any flaw which is there can be removed. For load testing electrical load is provided to the engine.

    Wheel diameter 1092 mm Maximum starting tractive effort37884 kg Fuel tank capacity 6000 liters Max speed 100 km/hr .

BHEL TA10102DW  Traction motor . 4 strokes  Fuel efficient  Transmission system AC-DC  Electronic excitation control  Traction alternator .BHEL TM4907 AZ .Basic features Diesel engine Model 16 cylinder ALCO251C.roller suspension bearings Electrical . DLW built  Medium speed.

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