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1. C. Fraser Brockington. A Short History of Public Health. Second edition; J.
& A. Churchill Ltd, London 1966
2. Ebid. Occupational Medicine in the Time of the Pharos; presented in The
21st International Congress of the History of Medicine, Cairo 26th Dec. 84
- 1st Jan. 85
3. Ibrahim Gamil Badran et al. History of the Scientific Movement in Modern
Egypt; Medical Sciences; Medicine and Health in the 19th and 20th
Centuries. Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, 1995.
4. Amina Sabri Murad. Synopsis from the History of Ancient Medicine. ElNasr El-Hadesa Bookshop, Cairo, 1966
5. Mohamed Abdel-Hamid Bayoni. Pharos and Modern Medicine. Dar ElMaaref 1985.
6. Suliman Hazin. The university tree in Egypt, a historical analytical vision.
Cairo University Press, Cairo, 1985.
7. Margret Stacey. The Sociology of Health and Healing. The academic
division of Unwin Hyman Ltd, London, UK.

8. Studies in the political history of Egypt since the Mamluks time (Fawzy
Girgis 1955)
9. Description of Egypt. G. Chaproll. "Studies in the Habits and Traditions of
Egptian People." Translated by: Zoheir El-Shaeib, 1976.
10. Laverne Knke. Lives at Risk; Public Health at the 19th Century Egypt. The
American University in Cairo Press, 1990.
11. Amira Azhary Sonbol. The Creation of a Medical Profession in Egypt,
1800-1922. Syracuse University Press 1991.
12. Mohamed El-Mangoury. Glimpses from the History of Medical
Renaissance in Egypt from Mohamed Ali Pasha Todate. Journal of Union
of the Faculty of Medicine; First issue, April 1938.
13. Health policies, A statements of Dr. Abdoh Mahmoud Salam the Ministry
of Health to the National Assembly 22 of December 1969. Alakhbar Press.

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Other References
1. WHO, UNICEF. Primary Health Care, Alma Ata. 1978.
2. Managerial Process for National Health Development. Guiding Principles.
1981.
3. MOH, Strategy for Health for all by the year 2000. ARE, 1989.
4. El Zanaty F., Kumar N., Berman. P. The Egyptian Household Health care
utilization and expenditure survey. (Results from the first round).1995.
5. A New Egyptian Health Care Model for the 21st Century. Egypt Health
Sector Reform. 1998.
6. Health Care Finance in Egypt. MOH, Cost Recovery for Health Project,
1993.
7. Egypt Health Sector Reform Program. Draft Document. 1997, MOHP.
8. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness- IMIC- Information 2000.
WHO, Geneva.
9. Health and Survival Situational Analysis of health services and its impact
on child health. Document prepared by Dr. Nagwa Khallaf.
10. Renewal of the health for all strategy Derek Yach. World Health
Forum. Volume 17, Number 4, 1996. WHO, Geneva.
11. National Adolescents strategy. Population and family planning sector,
MOHP, 2001.
12. Adolescence and state policy in Egypt. Halla E. Shafey. Population
Council, 1998.

13. Transitions to Adulthood. A national survey of Egyptian Adolescents.


Population Council, AUC, HIPH. Alexandria University and public health
department, Assuit University, 1999.
14. Progress in child and Adolescent health and development. WHO, Geneva,
1999.
15. National Maternal Mortality Study. HM/HC Project, MOHP & JSI, 2000.
16. Assessment of the concepts of the curricula of medical and nursing
colleges of Egyptian universities (on family health concept and approach).
Report on the study. Conducted by the Egyptian Association of
Community Medicine, 1999.

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:
1. Berman, Peter. 1995. The Financing of Health Services in Egypt, DDMData for Decision Making. Egypt: Strategies for Health Sector, Change,
Harvard University, USAID.
2. Des Rochers. 1996. Health Care Financing, Egypts. World Banks Health
Sector Reconnaissance Mission.
3. Human Research Center for AID Egypt. 1996. "Social Vulnerability and
Health Reform Abt Associates, University Research Cooperation.
4. Institute National Planning (INP). 1996. Human Development Report, Egypt.
5. Kemprecos, L. 1993. Health Care Financing in Egypt, Cost Recovery For
Health Project, Cambridge Consulting Cooperation.
6. Nassar, H. 1995. Health and Development. INP Egypt Human
Development Background Paper.


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126

139

144

161

166

44

49

55

58

61

64

10

12

13

13

1321

1510

1527

1515

1699

1776

1277

1365

1455

1343

1443

1540

28

30

30

31

31

26

196

238

271

294

330

401

300

277

284

263

245

293

536

506

512

576

542

541

271

296

294

262

272

280

186

234

280

316

348

369

1103

1179

1184

1223

1340

1437

1639

1714

1767

1810

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1992

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99

99

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143

56

89

110

212

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129.8

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160

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65

86

69

116

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) :(-
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85.1

1996

1998

127.2

1996

41.3

1996

161.7

1998

98.6

1998

3.9

84.5

1997

530.4

1997

677.6

1997

202

1996

233

1996

..

..

25

1996

56

1996

48

1992

45

1992

385

1998

613

1998

18.6

1998

116

1998

60.5

1998

193.2

1996

744.9

1996

18.9

1996

68.6

1996

13.2

1995

90.1

1995

2.2

1995

136.1

1997

291.2

1997

33.4

1997

421

1998

821

1998

62.5

1998

32.2

1998

6.2

1998

166

1997

330

1997

..

..

16

1997

21

1997

56.3

1996

471.8

1996

17.8

1996

70

1997

286

1997

..

..

13

1997

17

1997

164

1993

497

1989

43.3

1989

39.8

1992

58.2

1992

279

1995

972

1996

59.8

1996

).(WHOSIS

$% "& '(")   .2


. )
(
) :(-


) (


) (


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23.3

6.7

1.66

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25.8

5.9

1.99

31.6

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30.4

4.2

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45

21

2.4

40

17

2.3

31

10

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28

27

26

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1.9

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1970
27

1997
20

2001
20

1970
7

1997
6

2001
6

1970
2

1997
1.4

2001
1.4

35

20

19

11

2.4

1.3

1.2

48

34

34

18

19

10

1.2

0.2

0.1

40

24

18

14

2.6

1.8

1.1

38

30

25

14

15

2.4

2.2

31

15

13

2.2

0.9

0.7

52

37

35

17

11

13

3.5

2.6

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40

26

24

17

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1.8

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9,837.4

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26,755

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23,509

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457.2

17,380

251.1

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173.3

11,367

595.5

7,625

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6,363

125.9

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98.7

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1990
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1998
5.7

1990
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1990
..

2000
..

..

3.6

4.6

5.7

0.9

1.0

..

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..

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7.6

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12.2

8.0

..

..

3.8

3.7

1.8

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3.7

2.8

3.3

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6.8

6.7

4.9

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..

..

..

..

3.4

3.5

2.5

..

12.3

4.0

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4.6

7.4

7.5

..

..

12.8

11.6

..

..

4.7

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2.9

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1.8

10.5

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2.3

2.2

2.1

2.7

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11.6

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4.8

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3.5

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141

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54

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282

235

175

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71

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111

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122

127

54

18

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35

21

22

21

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85

44

34

29

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115

90

60

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254

201

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52

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88.9

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320

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220

260

95

60

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24

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570

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75

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130

23

230

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56

62

61

60.3

61

64

66.7

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66

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67

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77.9

84.7

78.5

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78.7

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73.5

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68.4

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66.5

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69.8

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75.8

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42.7

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51.5

61.9

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64.3

69.6

68.4

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76.6

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7.7

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10.8

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6.5

8.9

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