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Ncert 12 Physics 1|Views: 80|Likes: 0

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*All magnetic fields that we know are due to currents (or moving charges)
and due to intrinsic magnetic moments of particles. Here, we shall study
the relation between current and the magnetic field it produces.
It is given by the Biot-Savart’s law. Figure 4.9 shows a finite
conductor XY carrying current *I

element d

element is to be determined at a point P which is at a distance

field d

and inversely proportional to the square of the distance

direction

Thus, in vector notation,

*3
*

Id

d

r

×

∝

**lr
**

**B
**

*0
*

*3
*

*4
*

Id

r

µ ×

=

π

**lr
**

*[4.11(a)]
*

*where *µ*0/4*π* is a constant of proportionality. The above
expression holds when the medium is vacuum.
The magnitude of this field is,
*

*0
*

*2
*

*dsin
*

*d
*

*4
*

Il

r

µ

θ

=

π

**B
**

*[4.11(b)]
*

*where we have used the property of cross-product. Equation [4.11 (a)]
constitutes our basic equation for the magnetic field. The proportionality
constant in SI units has the exact value,
*

*7
*

*0
*

*10Tm/A
*

*4
*

µ

−

=

π

*[4.11(c)]
*

*We call *µ*0 the *permeability *of free space (or vacuum).
The Biot-Savart law for the magnetic field has certain similarities as
well as differences with the Coulomb’s law for the electrostatic field. Some
of these are:
(i)Both are long range, since both depend inversely on the square of
distance from the source to the point of interest. The principle of
superposition applies to both fields. [In this connection, note that
the magnetic field is *linear

field is linear in its source: the electric charge.]

(ii)The electrostatic field is produced by a scalar source, namely, the

electric charge. The magnetic field is produced by a vector source

******The sense of ***dl×r ***is also given by the *Right Hand Screw rule** ***: Look at the plane
containing vectors *

vector. If the movement is anticlockwise, the resultant is towards you. If it is

clockwise, the resultant is away from you.

**FIGURE 4.9*** Illustration of
the Biot-Savart law. The
current element *I

distance

indicates that the

field is perpendicular

to the plane of this

page and directed

into it.

Physics

*144
*

**EXAM
**

**PLE 4.5
**

*(iii)The electrostatic field is along the displacement vector joining the
source and the field point. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the
plane containing the displacement vector *

*(iv)There is an angle dependence in the Biot-Savart law which is not
present in the electrostatic case. In Fig. 4.9, the magnetic field at any
point in the direction of d*

There is an interesting relation between

space;

vacuum:

( )*0
*

*00
*

*0
*

*4
*

*4
*

µ

ε µ ε

= π

π

( )

*7
*

*9
*

*1
*

*10
*

*910
*

−

=

×

*82
*

*2
*

*1
*

*1
*

*(310)
*

c

=

=

×

*We will discuss this connection further in Chapter 8 on the
electromagnetic waves. Since the speed of light in vacuum is constant,
the product *µ

4

*in magnitude.
*

**Example 4.5*** An element
*

*ˆ
*

x

∆ = ∆

**l i*** is placed at the origin and carries
*

*a large current *I = *10 A (Fig. 4.10). What is the magnetic field on the
*y

**FIGURE 4.10
**

**Solution
**

*0
*

*2
*

*dsin
*

*|d|
*

*4
*

Il

r

µ

θ

=

π

**B
**

*[using Eq. (4.11)]
*

*2
*

*d
*

*10m
*

l

x

−

= ∆ =

*, *I = *10 A, *r = *0.5* *m* = y,

*7
*

*0
*

*Tm
*

*/4
*

*10
*

*A
*

µ

−

π =

θ = *90°* ; *sin* θ = *1
*

*7
*

*2
*

*2
*

*10
*

*1010
*

*d
*

*2510
*

−

−

−

× ×

=

×

**B
**

*= 4 × 10–8
*

*T
*

*The direction of the field is in the +*z*-direction. This is so since,
*

*ˆ
*

*ˆ
*

*d
*

x

y

= ∆

**l×
**

**i×j
**

**r
**

( )

*ˆˆ
*

yx

= ∆**i×j
**

*ˆ
*

yx

= ∆**k
**

*We remind you of the following cyclic property of cross-products,
*

*ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆ
;
*

*;
*

× = × = × =

**ijkjkikij
**

*Note that the field is small in magnitude.
*

Moving Charges and

Magnetism

*145
*

*In the next section, we shall use the Biot-Savart law to calculate the
magnetic field due to a circular loop.
*

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