This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Animal Welfare and Protection
Dobrobit in zaščita živali
Angleško-slovenski glosar Diplomsko delo
Mentor: prof. dr. Rastislav Šuštaršič Somentor: prof. dr. Dušan Gabrovšek
Študijski program: Angleški jezik in književnost Španski jezik in književnost
TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstracts .............................................................................................................4 Povzetek .............................................................................................................5 Introduction .........................................................................................................6 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ SECTION I Theory
1. Terminology and Terminography ....................................................................7 2. Lexicology, Lexicography and Specialized Lexicography ...............................8 2.1. Basic Concepts in Lexicography ............................................................10 2.2. LGP and LSP .........................................................................................11 3. Terminography versus Specialized Lexicography.........................................11 4. Compiling a Glossary....................................................................................12 4.1. User Profile.............................................................................................12 4.2. Dictionary's Functions ............................................................................13 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ SECTION II Glossary
Glossary of Animal Welfare and Protection – Theoretical Considerations ........15 1. Theoretical considerations ............................................................................15 1.1. User Profile.............................................................................................16 1.2. Animal Welfare and Protection ...............................................................17 1.3. Speciesism in Language ........................................................................21 1.4. Common Misuse of Certain Animal-protection Terms ............................23 2. Planning a Glossary......................................................................................25 2.1. Systematic Classification of Lemmata ....................................................25 2.2. Material for the Glossary ........................................................................25 2.3. Lemma Selection....................................................................................26 2.4. Equivalent Selection ...............................................................................27 2.5. Linguistic and Encyclopedic Information.................................................27 2.6. Sample Glossary Entry...........................................................................29 3. English-Slovene Glossary .............................................................................30 4. Slovene-English Word List ............................................................................57 5. Analysis ........................................................................................................64 Conclusions ......................................................................................................66 Bibliography ......................................................................................................67 2
Zahvala Spomladi leta 2012 končno zaključujem svojo drugo študijsko smer in s tem še drugo diplomsko delo. Ob tem čutim zadovoljstvo, ponos, malo negotovosti, predvsem pa veliko mero hvaležnosti do vseh, ki so mi v letih študija tako ali drugače stali ob strani. Iskrena zahvala gre mojima mentorjema, ki sta bila zelo velikodušna s svojim znanjem in izkušnjami, predvsem pa potrpežljiva, kar res cenim. Iz srca se zahvaljujem svoji družini, ker kljub mojim nešteto dejavnostim ni obupala nad mojo drugo diplomo, je bo pa zato toliko bolj vesela! Hvala vsem prijateljicam in prijateljem, brez katerih morda ne bi prišla tako daleč, če pa bi, pa pot gotovo ne bi bila tako prijetna in poučna. Ne smem pozabiti na izjemno prijaznost članov skupine Veganska iniciativa, ki so dokazali, da jim boj za boljšo prihodnost nečloveških živali res pomeni vse in so mi zato tudi takoj priskočili na pomoč pri ustvarjanju tega glosarja. We are all Earthlings. Make the connection.
ANIMAL WELFARE AND PROTECTION: English-Slovene Glossary Abstracts The thesis focuses on compiling an English-Slovene glossary of animal welfare and protection-related expressions. The glossary provides Slovene equivalents to English terms plus their definitions in English. It is bidirectional, thus the English-Slovene word list is followed by a reverse word list, which makes the glossary multifunctional. An emphasis is given to the problems of speciesism in language and to their possible solutions. The glossary also features a brief review of the history and development of the concept of animal rights as well. The central section of the thesis is the glossary. However, it is preceded by a theoretical section, in which the basics of lexicology, lexicography, terminography and specialized lexicography are explained. These theoretical observations facilitate the understanding of the glossary and the process of its compilation. KEY WORDS: English-Slovene glossary, animal welfare, animal protection, speciesism in language, specialized lexicography
Povzetek Osrednji del diplomskega dela predstavlja angleško-slovenski glosar, ki vključuje izraze s področja dobrobiti in zaščite živali. Glosar vsebuje slovenske ustreznice angleških izrazov, poleg tega pa tudi razlago vseh izrazov v angleščini. Glosar je dvosmerni, saj je angleško-slovenski seznam besed dopolnjen še z obratnim, slovensko-angleškim seznamom, kar glosarju zviša uporabno vrednost. Poseben poudarek je namenjen problematiki takoimenovanega 'speciesizma' v jeziku in tudi možnosti odprave s tem povezanih problemov. V okviru glosarja sta na kratko predstavljena tudi zgodovina in razvoj pojmovanja pravic živali. Čeprav glavni del diplomskega dela predstavlja glosar, je le-temu v začetnem, teoretičnem delu dodana razlaga osnovnih pojmov s področja leksikologije, leksikografije, terminografije in strokovne leksikografije. Te teoretične osnove olajšajo razumevanje glosarja in proces njegovega nastajanja. KLJUČNE BESEDE: angleško-slovenski glosar, dobrobit živali, zaščita živali, speciesizem v jeziku, strokovna leksikografija
Collins English Dictionary (2007) defines glossary as "an alphabetical list of terms peculiar to a field of knowledge with definitions or explanations". This is what I will strive to create in the present thesis. I will compose a glossary of terms related to animal welfare and protection. However, it will not be a mere list of terms and their corresponding definitions, which in my case will both be provided in English, because the glossary will be bilingual. Thus original English entry words will be given corresponding Slovene equivalents, because my intention is to make this practical work useful to Slovene users, regardless of whether they are only interested in this subject field and just want to solve any vocabulary-related problems, or whether they are translators who seek for an accurate Slovene term when translating animal protection texts from English. For greater usefulness, a reverse Slovene-English word list will be added, as well as a contemporary animalist and abolitionist view of the topic that the glossary covers. As to the structure of the thesis, the first section will present theoretical concepts and definitions, necessary for understanding of the basics of the lexicographical work I am undertaking. After the theoretical part the central, practical part of the thesis will follow, that is the glossary and all its preliminary commentaries that describe the user profile, purpose, and thematic field of the glossary, as well as the process of compiling it. My selection of the theme for the glossary was based on the fact that Slovene is a minor language and that therefore it often lacks adequate expressions in fields that are well developed abroad but still in their early stages in Slovenia. The field of animal welfare and protection is also such, therefore I believe I can make a noticeable contribution to the development of the animal rights movement in Slovenia by collecting a considerable number of animal rightsrelated terms in English and by finding their corresponding Slovene equivalents.
1. Terminology and Terminography Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies says of terminology that it is "concerned with the naming of concepts in specialized domains of knowledge" (286), though it does not provide an answer to the question whether it is a discipline in its own right or not. In fact this is not really vital regarding the purpose of the present thesis, but the theorists agree that it deals with the creation, collection, explanation and presentation of terms. Apart from being one, terminology also has very close ties to other areas of applied linguistics, such as specialized translation, especially because one of the most widely practiced applications of terminology is in the domain of translation (ibid. 286). To understand terminology it is important to understand three key notions associated with it: these are concept, definition and term. These three elements provide the foundation for a theory of terminology. Concepts are "units of thought that are used to organize our knowledge of the world around us" (ibid. 287). We understand concepts in relation to other concepts, because they form a structured system. Every concept needs a definition, and the definition is a bridge between the concept and the term that designates it. Its terminological definition has to be detailed enough so that it differentiates the concept and its corresponding term from other concept-term units. And finally, terms are the linguistic designations assigned to concepts. Terminology deals with different specialized domains of knowledge, so terms are used to refer to concepts that constitute knowledge in a particular domain. In an ideal system each term should be designated to a clearly defined concept and the chosen term should represent the concept effectively (ibid. 286). There are various theoretical approaches to terminology, but for the sake of the work I am planning to do it is more important to present the objectives of terminology than its theoretical branches. The primary objective of terminology is standardization, which usually involves selecting one term from many competing terms and consists of two steps: first, the concept is fixed and then its designation becomes standardized. The criteria for preferring one term to 7
another are usually economy, transparency and appropriateness of a certain term, and terminology itself also strives for precisely defined concept-term units, devoid of ambiguity (ibid. 287). In terminology, theory and application are strongly related; moreover, terminology is important especially for its applications. Another name for applied terminology is terminography, sometimes also referred to as terminology work, and it is "a group of practices concerned with the collection, description, processing and presentation of concepts and terms in a specialized field" (ibid. 288). Terminologists are usually those who do systematic research of a domain in order to compile bi- or multilingual resources, such as glossaries. Sometimes translators themselves undertake some terminographic activity, especially when they encounter a particular terminological problem when translating (ibid. 288). To create a glossary, terminographers must first create a specialized corpus, that is a collection of texts that meet certain criteria, for example topic, period, language, etc. Once a corpus is established, a list of candidate terms taken from the texts in the corpus has to be made and arranged, usually alphabetically. When this terminological research is completed, the information has to be presented in a form that is accessible and handy for the users. Such gathered information is nowadays often provided in electronic form (i.e. in term banks), though it is still possible to prepare printed glossaries. Recently, electronic term banks have become strongly preferred to printed glossaries, because they are more dynamic and can be more frequently updated. However, since specialized subject fields are constantly expanding and evolving, it is practically impossible for any term bank to guarantee exhaustive up-to-date coverage of the language used to describe these fields (ibid. 289).
2. Lexicology, Lexicography and Specialized Lexicography When defining the terms lexicology and lexicography, it is enough to look them up in various dictionaries and the difference between them is immediately evident. Collins English Dictionary, for example, provides the following concise definitions: lexicology is "the study of the overall structure and history of the 8
vocabulary of a language" and lexicography is "the process or profession of writing or compiling dictionaries". It is not very difficult to see that the relationship between lexicology and lexicography is analogous to that between terminology and terminography; thus, lexicography could also be called applied lexicology. Bergenholtz and Tarp define lexicography simply as "the compilation of dictionaries" (30) and they state that only in recent years scholarly contributions in the field of lexicography have increased, but they remain skeptical whether they are relevant to lexicographers and of any practical value, because their level of abstraction is usually very high (ibid. 30). In addition to the general lexicographical theory and practice there is also specialized lexicography. Specialized lexicography describes existing terms, suggests a preferences for specific terms, standardizes lexicographical definitions and proposes new terms, all this according to the terminology of a specific subject field. According to Bergenholtz and Kaufmann this description could be easily given to terminography as well, so I will briefly return to the question of synonymy between terminography and specialized lexicography in Chapter 3 (91). In the context of the thesis, lexicography, which in fact will be specialized lexicography, will be my main occupation. Bergenholtz and Tarp believe that excellent dictionaries, or in my case glossaries, can be compiled by amateur lexicographers. They even provide an example of a dictionary that was created by a bank employee who managed to determine the actual user needs by drawing on his personal experience. However, Bergenholtz and Tarp admit that this dictionary could have been improved if the bank employee in question had had some prior knowledge of basic lexicographical principles. Since I was a student with little prior knowledge of lexicography and no experience in lexicographical work, I found it indispensable to become familiar with some of the most central terms of lexicographical terminology, which are explained below.
2.1. Basic Concepts in Lexicography Lemma, its plural is lemmata, is "the lexicographical term for what is popularly referred to as entry word or headword" (Bergenholtz and Kaufmann 15). A dictionary article is headed by the lemma, so it directs the user to the required article. There is a tradition of lemmatizing nouns in the singular, verbs in the infinitive and gradable adjectives in the neutral form (ibid. 15). Equivalent is a term that refers to the translation of the entry word or other source-language expression into the target language. Equivalents can therefore only be found in bi- or multilingual dictionaries (ibid. 15). Macrostructure of the dictionary refers to "the arrangement of the stock of lemmata in the word list" (ibid. 15). It can be systematic, i.e. classified and arranged according to a system, or it can be alphabetic. In the second case the arrangement of entry words is strictly alphabetic. There is also the microstructure of the dictionary and it refers to "the arrangement of the information provided in the individual dictionary articles" (ibid. 15). A dictionary doesn’t exist without the outside matter, which comprises all dictionary components outside the word list, i.e. preface, user's guide, encyclopedic section, etc. Regarding the structure, another very important element of a dictionary is the cross-reference structure. It refers to the arrangement of indicators that direct the user within the dictionary for additional or supplementary information. These cross-references give the user a more comprehensive view of the dictionary, because they can be article-internal cross-references, cross-references to other articles, cross-references from the word list to the outside matter and references to dictionary-external literature (ibid. 16).
2.2. LGP and LSP Before proceeding to a more detailed overview of the characteristics of specialized lexicography, it is important to explain what acronyms LGP and LSP stand for. They stand for language for general purposes and language for special purposes, and these are two categories between which most linguists make a basic distinction. However, they are not uniform as to the type of relationship between LSP and LGP. Some claim that both languages may be seen as synonymous, because, to a greater or lesser extent, all LSP languages use the general-language system. Others take the opposite view, claiming that LGP is a subset of LSP, because all general-language expressions are also found in special language. However, from a communicative point of view, LGP and LSP are used in completely different situations, LSP being the language used by experts communicating within their area of expertise. LGP and LSP are therefore equal, yet distinct phenomena. The last possibility is to discard LGP as a phenomenon in its own right, assuming that each usage belong to a specific situation. This would mean that every language variety is an LSP (Bergenholtz and Tarp 16-19).
3. Terminography versus Specialized Lexicography Tarp states on many different occasions that there exists a strong "discussion on the similarities and differences existing or not existing between specialized lexicography and terminology" (Tarp 9). He believes that the differences between the two concepts are artificial contradictions between these two traditions which, after all, deal with the same subject field, i.e. the so-called Language of Special Purpose, or to be more accurate, the preparation and elaboration of reference books or tools to facilitate the production, reception and translation of LSP-texts or to provide knowledge of special subjects (Tarp 10).
To him LSP-lexicography and terminology are two interrelated and to a certain point integrated traditions with the same subject field as mentioned above. However, he is not the only linguist who questions the differences between these two traditions. Bergenholtz and Kaufmann investigate profoundly the arguments put forward by terminologists and terminographers in favour of a clear distinction between terminography and LSP lexicography. Some of these arguments are that terminology deals only with LSP language, only uses experts as informants, prepares dictionaries for experts and not for laypeople, is only synchronic, has no polysemy, prefers a systematic macrostructure to an alphabetic macrostructure, etc. Bergenholtz and Kaufmann see these arguments as "an effort to present terminography as something really unique, although almost all of them can be also applied to LSP lexicography (91-95). They conclude by stating: Since both objects, methods, and aims are largely identical for terminography and LSP lexicography, we believe that this is a typical example of two disciplines competing for the same resources and the same impact (Bergenholtz and Kaufmann 96).
4. Compiling a Glossary Already at the stage of planning a glossary it is vital to consider which users and functions the dictionary is intended to serve. Here are included also the text types for which the dictionary is intended to be a help in connection with reception, production and translation problems. Thus, the corpus should be composed of texts that correspond with these texts (Bergenholtz and Tarp 19). 4.1. User Profile Every dictionary or glossary is compiled with a determined type of user in mind. The user profile has to be established before starting to compile a dictionary. It is important to establish the target user native language, because it influences many characteristics of a dictionary, for example the choice of explication language (Bergenholtz and Tarp 20). 12
Another very important factor is deciding on the intended users' level of encyclopedic knowledge, because it differs greatly between an expert and a layperson and consequently influences the amount of encyclopedic information that should be included in the dictionary. Apart from this, in bilingual dictionaries it is very important to take into account the intended users' foreign-language competence. By combining these two factors four main user types can be established, and they are represented in the following table (Bergenholtz and Tarp 21):
The dictionary target group can consist of one or more of these user types. In any case it is virtually impossible to get a homogeneous target group, although it is important to try to approach this goal. Having established these premises, a lexicographer proceeds to establishing dictionary's functions (Bergenholtz and Tarp 22).
4.2. Dictionary's Functions There are various communicative functions which a dictionary is intended to fulfill, and all these functions must be adapted to the intended users' competence level in each of the following categories: native-language competence, foreign-language competence and encyclopedic competence. Observations concerning the user needs condition the functions that dictionary will have and therefore the information that will be included in it. Individual dictionary functions are: native-language reception, native-language production, foreign-language reception, foreign-language production, translation into foreign language and translation from foreign language (Bergenholtz and Tarp 22-24). 13
According to the functions that a certain dictionary has to fulfill, it has to contain more linguistic and less encyclopedic information or vice versa. For example, monolingual dictionaries obviously don’t need translation equivalents, but will most likely have an encyclopedic note, note on orthography and usage information; on the other hand, translational dictionaries will have a translation equivalent, information about its word class, orthography, collocations, usage information, irregularities, etc. When it comes to LSP dictionaries it is also important to make a distinction between culture-dependent and cultureindependent subject areas that the dictionary might cover. Culture-dependent subjects need a more detailed explanation, regardless of the target users, who may be experts or laymen (ibid. 25-26). The last important thing to mention in this place is that according to the amount of encyclopedic and/or linguistic information that a dictionary provides, dictionaries can be traditionally divided in three categories: language dictionaries, encyclopedias and encyclopedic dictionaries. Bergenholtz and Kaufmann explain the differences as following: Language dictionaries provide information about the language and only about the subject field in as far as this is necessary to the correct usage or understanding of linguistic expressions. Encyclopedias, however, provide information about things or about a subject and only about the language in as far as this is necessary to the understanding of the subject matter. Finally, there are encyclopedic dictionaries that aim at being both language dictionaries and encyclopedias (96). Specialized bilingual dictionaries, which are usually multifunctional, tend to be closest to encyclopedic dictionaries.
Glossary of Animal Welfare and Protection – Theoretical Considerations In the second, practical part of my thesis I will first define and briefly present the thematic field that my glossary deals with. Then I will also define the circumstances that have led me to select the glossary entries, which texts I have analyzed, the expected target user encyclopedic knowledge and their knowledge of English and, last but not least, what the very purpose of compiling the following glossary actually is.
1. Theoretical Considerations The following glossary is bilingual with English entries and Slovene equivalents. In some cases I haven't been able to find Slovene equivalents due to their nonexistence in our language, so I have striven to find their most concise descriptive definitions in Slovene. I have also decided to add an explanation of all terms in English, since this allows much clearer understanding of a term than only its Slovene translation. The glossary's principal purpose is to provide help in decoding of English texts. In addition, the glossary is followed by a reverse Slovene-English word list of all the terms, which have been compiled and arranged with a purpose of enhancing the usefulness of the glossary, because it makes the glossary bidirectional and does not only serve to decipher English texts but can also be used as an aid when translating Slovene texts to English or, to some extent, in text production, i.e. when writing an original text in English. The problematic field of animal welfare and protection that the glossary intends to cover is more or less a universal theme, especially in terms of the philosophy behind it, but less universal in terms of certain practices of treatment of animals that are more culture-dependent, such as bullfights, for example. The purpose of this glossary is to contribute to the non-violent fight for better living conditions of the non-human animals that share our world, although only linguistically. For 15
this reason I have tried to take into account the widest selection of animal protection-related terms and cover this really heterogeneous field that in the end converges at the point where desired positive changes can be made, that is in the field of animal rights. The glossary entries were gathered while reading online articles and glossaries dealing with any of the various fields concerning animal welfare and protection. Since animal protection is not a proper scientific field, it is more than obvious that the following glossary is basically an attempt to provide a useful translation tool that will be of help when translating animal protection-related texts to Slovene, but as I do not want it to be merely a translational dictionary, it shall also serve to standardize expressions that sometimes have incorrect usage. The Slovene terms that were eventually chosen had been selected after consultation with a group of experts and semi-experts who deal on a daily basis with texts similar to those that I used as the source of English terms.
1.1. User Profile With such a diverse thematic field as animal protection it is really difficult to establish a homogeneous target user group, let alone attempt to select the glossary entries that would faithfully meet the established target user needs. Since animal protection and welfare are both fields that are wide and hard to delimit, my intention is to offer a selection of terms that would satisfy the needs and curiosity of a user who is not very familiar with the semantic fields in question and wants to understand diverse texts dealing with the subject and, at the same time, to learn certain relevant English and Slovene terms. The target users of this glossary are people whose mother tongue is Slovene. The expected encyclopedic knowledge of the target users ranges from low to high, since in the first place the intended users are interested lay people who want to get a deeper insight into the field of animal protection, animal rights, animal welfare, etc., and such users will turn to this glossary when they encounter an unknown word or phrase. These are the people who are not 16
proficient enough in English to fully understand original English texts and at the same time do not have sufficient encyclopedic knowledge of the field in Slovene to overcome the lexical problems by relying just on this knowledge. They will mostly satisfy their needs by finding the appropriate Slovene equivalent. Those users with a slightly higher encyclopedic knowledge of the theme will turn to the glossary when in doubt about the appropriate Slovene equivalent of a term they might encounter in English texts, and they will also make use of the English definition to learn some further details. On the other hand, the intended users are also semi-experts, such as translators, who in spite of their professionalism can face problems because searching for a specific target language equivalent can be time-consuming if they are not thoroughly familiar with the thematic field of the text. Translators will probably also find it useful to refer to the reverse Slovene-English word list when translating from Slovene to English. In case they need some additional information about a certain term, they can look up its definition in the EnglishSlovene part of the glossary. The expected linguistic knowledge of English of the target users is intermediate to high. Users with intermediate level of English will be able to get a complete idea about a term when they combine the Slovene equivalent and the English definition, whereas for the proficient users the definition alone should be sufficient when they want to expand their general knowledge and are not only searching for a Slovene equivalent.
1.2. Animal Welfare and Protection The title of my thesis comprises many thematic subfields that concern the welfare and protection of animals in general. Therefore it is quite a challenge to present the theme briefly, but I am going to do it, basing the following quick review of it on Steven M. Wise's Encyclopædia Britannica article "Animal rights".
Wise defines animal rights as moral or legal entitlements attributed to nonhuman animals, usually because of the complexity of their cognitive, emotional, and social lives or their capacity to experience physical or emotional pain or pleasure (Wise, par. 1). This is, of course, a contemporary view of the topic, but the road to this conclusion was long and winding, and in fact the application of this concept is still far from being thoroughly brought to life. The concept of animal rights has a historical, philosophical, legal, religious, scientific, and ethical background. It is usually based on the relationship between animals and human beings and the question of proper treatment of animals is actually a very old dilemma. Ancient Greeks and Romans dealt with this question within the debate on human morality. The Pythagoreans and the Neoplatonists respected animals because they supported the idea of transmigration of souls between human and animal bodies, but Aristotle claimed that animals were created only to serve the human race and his view prevailed and first survived in the Stoic perception of the world and later within the idea of the Great Chain of Being. The Great Chain of Being was a hierarchical system of beings, arranged from the barely living and merely sentient to the rational and spiritual. The basic idea was that those higher in the chain were superior to the lower beings, so among corporeal beings the humans held the highest position. This powerful idea of non-equality of beings dominated the scientific, religious and philosophical thinking until the middle of the 19th century. This attitude remained so powerful because Christian theology strongly embraced it and it also found its way into Roman law, and eventually into common law. During all those centuries animal welfare was practically not addressed in philosophical debates nor taken into account in legal regulation, but the changes slowly started to show in the final decades of the 20th century (Wise, pars. 2-4). 18
To understand the animals' legal situation it is necessary to go back to the 3rd or 4th century, when Roman jurists declared nonhuman animals as lower animals and therefore they were categorized as legal things, and legal things do not have rights of their own. Legal things can become legal persons, as it happened when the human slaves were freed. Similar moves towards the general welfare of nonhuman animals were made in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, when reformers in Britain and the United States protested against child labour, abusive punishment in schools and the cruel treatment of animals. However, these measures were still far from protecting the general welfare of animals and much further from giving them legal rights. Even nowadays animal-welfare laws, such as the federal Animal Welfare Act from 1966, only regulate what humans are allowed to do to animals in agriculture, biomedical research, entertainment, etc. (Wise, pars. 5-9). The modern animal-rights movements try to alter the traditional legal status of animals as legal things and their fundamental principle is that "many non-human animals have basic interests that deserve recognition, consideration, and protection. /…/ These basic interests give the animals that have them both moral and legal rights" (Wise, par. 10). The first social reform movement in this field was initiated by philosophers, among them the most important were Peter Singer (Animal Liberation, 1972) and Tom Regan, but they and many more encountered resistance, especially among some religious authors, although with basically unconvincing theological arguments. As philosophers catalyzed the modern animal-rights movement, many physicians, writers, scientists, academics, lawyers, theologians, psychologists, nurses, veterinarians and other professionals joined them in the effort of promoting animal rights. Consequently many organizations were established with the intention to educate the general public about the exploitation of animals (Wise, par. 13). At the beginning of the 21st century the interest in changing the legal status of animals keeps increasing, since legal arguments on the subject are getting
constantly revised and are also powerfully assisted by sophisticated scientific investigations into the cognitive, emotional, and social capacities of animals. Simultaneously, innumerable abuses of animals in modern society, resulting in billions of victims of factory farms, laboratories, etc., have spawned numerous animal-rights groups. Some groups are interested in local animal-protection issues, while others are large organizations, sometimes with even international influence, such as PETA (People for Ethical Treatment of Animals). Members of these organizations present demands for the regulation and reform of the animals' legal status, since they still remain invisible to civil law, for any law does not directly protect them as long as their personhood is not recognized. The goal of animal rightists is to achieve exactly the personhood for nonhuman animals too and considering the efforts that are currently being made in this direction, the end of the legal thinghood of nonhuman animals may be just a few years away (Wise, pars. 14-15). In Slovenia, the number of animal-protection groups and organizations is slowly increasing and certain individual groups are getting stronger and are developing a much more organized strategy of improving the current status of all animals. There are many groups dedicated to the welfare of only dogs or cats, some groups that deal with only a specific field of animal protection (groups against fur farms), and there are some animal shelters, although they are not all humane shelters or so-called sanctuaries, which offer animals protection for the rest of their lives. One of the Slovenian groups that try to address the general problematic status of animals in Slovenia is Veganska iniciativa (the Vegan Initiative). They see themselves as an informal group of people who promote harmless lifestyle and plant-based diet. I've decided to mention this very group in the first place because they really keep the group's informative website up to date on a daily basis and with their articles they tackle all the fields of animal rights-related issues, and in the second place because its members revised the Slovene equivalent selection of my glossary and advised me on which improvements to make in the glossary in order to make it more accurate and user-friendly. 20
1.3. Speciesism in Language Fighting for animal rights is currently vital on many different levels, since there are philosophical debates concerning this issue and consequently legal questions are raised on this topic; civilians often show their discontent at public gatherings, objecting to the status that animals are given by the law, etc. Such rallies are normally propelled and supported by animal-rights organizations and groups. These very same groups sometimes also try to make a more holistic change in people's attitude towards non-human animals, and one of such groups in Slovenia is the above-mentioned Veganska iniciativa group, whose members willingly helped me with the revision of my glossary and who have also broadened my horizons regarding the problem of speciesism in language. They have acquainted me with the book Speciesism (2001), written by Joan Dunayer, who really thoroughly approaches this type of discrimination, defined by her as "a failure, in attitude or practice, to accord any nonhuman being equal consideration and respect" (Dunayer 34). In this book she provides the definition and description of the concept, classification of different types of speciesists and, most importantly, she tackles the question of speciesism in our everyday language. Dunayer developed the idea of this problematic field in her other book Animal Equality: Language and Liberation (2002). This aspect presents an especially intriguing question within the topic of my thesis and also exactly at this point the interests of Veganska iniciativa and my linguistic interests coincide, since we both focus on solutions to the speciesist prejudice, which is apparently very common in our everyday use of language. Members of Veganska iniciativa have shared with me their word list, entitled "Avoiding Speciesist Terms", which was originally composed by Joan Dunayer herself, but the Slovene animal rightists within this group decided to provide acceptable non-speciesist equivalents also for the Slovene language. They find it important to draw attention to the omnipresent speciesism also in terms of everyday vocabulary that needs to be revised, because it is probably the least obvious and the least conscious practice of this discrimination, but at the same time this subconscious use of speciesist expressions may be the root of all the injustices inflicted upon nonhuman animals. 21
The original purpose of my glossary was not to point out any particular nonspeciesist variants of certain terms' equivalents in Slovene and my intention was to keep the glossary uninfluenced by personal ethical choices, so I decided to search for those Slovene equivalents that are standardized from a traditional, speciesist point of view. However, it is legitimate, if not almost necessary, to address the non-speciesist point of view that concerns the thematic field of the glossary, although only briefly. To do so I will include in this place the word list that was composed by the Veganska iniciativa members. It was reproduced and adapted to Slovene with Joan Dunayer's permission. The original word list consists of the speciesist terms and their non-speciesist equivalents in English. In the following word list the same pairs of Slovene terms are added. Avoiding Speciesist Terms
Terms to avoid
animal agriculture animal experimentation, animal research, biomedical research animals (excluding humans) beef pork poultry veal broiler chicken beef producer circus animal companion animal dairy/milk cow euthanize (a healthy animal) even (as in "Even insects feel." experimenter, researcher, scientist (who harms animals) fur industry game animals it (in reference to an animal)
food-industry enslavement and slaughter vivisection
Izrazi, ki se jim je treba izogibati
živinoreja, živinorejska industrija poskusi na živalih, biomedicinski poskusi živali (ljudje niso vključeni) govedina svinjina perutnina teletina pitanec govedorejec cirkuška žival hišni ljubljenček krava mlekarica evtanazirati (zdravo žival) celo (kot v primeru "Celo žuželke čutijo.") raziskovalec, znanstvenik (ki izvaja poskuse na živalih) krznarska industrija divjad V slovenščini s tem ni težav.
prehrambena industrija, ki zasužnji živali in jih kolje vivisekcija
non-human animals, other animals, nonhumans cow flesh pig flesh bird flesh calf flesh chicken reared for slaughter cattle enslaver circus captive non-human companion enslaved cow/cow enslaved for her milk kill, murder also, as well, including, too vivisector
nečloveške živali, druge živali meso krav meso prašičev meso ptic meso telet piščanec, rejen za zakol zasužnjevalec krav cirkuški ujetnik živalski spremljevalec/prijatelj krava, izkoriščana za mleko ubiti tudi, vključno z vivisektor
pelt industry hunted animals he (male)/she (female)
kožuharska industrija lovne živali
lab animal laying hen leather overfishing owner (in a legal context or in reference to someone who may not love or adequately care for a non-human they legally own) poultry (in reference to living birds) purebred shelter (that kills healthy animals) wild animals zoo animal
vivisected animal enslaved hen/ hen enslaved for her eggs cow skin fishing, decimating a fish population guardian
laboratorijska žival kokoš nesnica usnje prekomeren ribolov lastnik (uporablja se le, ko gre za pravno vprašanje lastništva živali) perutnina
žival, uporabljena v vivisekciji kokoš, izkoriščana za jajca kravja koža iztrebljanje ribje populacije skrbnik
birds/chickens/ ducks/geese enslaved for food inbred adoption-and-killing facility free-living animals zoo captive
čistokrven zavetišče (ki ubija zdrave živali) divje živali žival v živalskem vrtu
kokoši/piščanci/ race/gosi, zasužnjeni za prehrano incesten, izrojen nehumano zavetišče prostoživeče živali, živali v divjini ujetnik v živalskem vtu
1.4. Common Misuse of Certain Animal-protection Terms When it comes to a certain expression that is problematic from the animal rightists' point of view, as in the cases from the above table, users only have to choose another, non-speciesist term and the problem is solved. However, there are still some other expressions, usually widely known and used, but very frequently misused or used in wrong contexts. To provide a clear understanding of the vocabulary this glossary deals with and to make sure that the following words are used properly, I further on draw attention to some particular and very common mistakes and discuss them, as the Humane Myth group website 1 proposes.
Humane myth is a general idea propagated by the animal-using industry and also by some animal-protection organizations, which state that it is possible to use and kill animals humanely, although the manner that they refer to can hardly be described as respectful, compassionate or humane. Abolitionists, who call for the total elimination of all kinds of animal use, believe that many expressions used in animal-advocacy campaigns in fact support this humane
All the explanations of the misuse of certain term in the chapter 1.4. are taken from respective articles that can be found on http://www.humanemyth.org/.
myth and are therefore misleading. Some of these expressions are animal welfare, animal protection, cruelty-free, happy meat, humane slaughter and suffering. Regarding the terms animal protection, animal welfare and cruelty-free the abolitionists warn that in public they are frequently abused in order to mislead. Welfare itself is not an abolitionist concept, because it refers to the work carried out with the intent of improving the health and well-being of animals, regardless of what their final destiny is. The abolitionists try to end cruelty and exploitation, while welfarists only try to provide better living conditions for the animals that are used in any of the animal-using industries. In similar context the expressions animal protection and cruelty-free are commonly misused, because animal advocates often refer to their work as animal protection although the animals for which they are striving to provide better living conditions are still killed in the end. On the other hand there are animal-using industries that claim their animal products are produced with methods causing less pain to the animals and therefore call them cruelty-free products. This is clearly a misuse of the term, since cruelty is nevertheless present, only reduced. In the same way the concept of reducing suffering is misused, because suffering is a mental experience of physical and emotional pain and therefore cannot be objectively measured. The use of the concept of suffering presented as something objective, which can be minimized, serves to rationalize it and consequently makes it less uncomfortable for people to live with. There is no special need to emphasize that humane slaughter is an oxymoron as well, following the twisted logic of the above-mentioned expressions. Happy meat is a slightly different idea, usually used to denominate the meat marketed as having come from humanely raised animals, meaning that they are sustainably raised and grass-fed. It is obviously a euphemistic term, sometimes interchanged with the expression humane meat, which is similarly oxymoronic, because something that is dead cannot be happy or humane. For this obvious illogicality animal rightists often use the expression happy meat as derogatory and ironic, since they believe no slaughtered animal is happy, regardless of how it is treated before its death. 24
Pescatarian, flexitarian, beegan
These terms describe people who do not fully accept vegan or vegetarian philosophy, but they do practice some modification of them. They are mostly diet-descriptive denominations and do not reflect a holistic vegan philosophy, as many users of these words may mistakenly believe.
2. Planning a Glossary 2.1. Systematic Classification of Lemmata My main dilemma when deciding about the organization of the glossary was whether I should group the selected entries into the five different subfields related to animal protection into which animal protection groups usually divide the fields of animal exploitation issues. These five subfields are: animals used for food, animals used for clothing, animals used for experimentation, animals used for entertainment and companion animals. This is the division the PETA website offers, and in this way the issues are presented also in the movie Earthlings2, which was the inspiration for the present glossary in the first place. However, there are entries that may belong to more than one field at a time and as the glossary is supposed to be user-friendly and therefore not confusing, in the end I decided for an alphabetical classification without any subdivisions of the glossary.
2.2. Material for the Glossary When I started to search for the expressions and phrases suitable for a glossary that is supposed to cover the heterogeneous field of animal welfare and protection, I first went back to the movie Earthlings, which approaches the issues of animal exploitation systematically, dividing it into five more narrow areas. Regarding the user profile established beforehand, I already selected possible glossary entries while watching the movie. The next step was searching through many websites that feature glossaries related to any of the
The movie Earthlings can be accessed at http://www.earthlings.com/.
subfields of animal exploitation, and the key words that led me to these pages had been taken from the movie or had been at least inspired by it. I also kept on broadening my horizons with every new webpage I discovered and carefully read through, and all these pages usually led me to other pages with similar content. Apart from all these compiled web glossaries the definitive source of lemmata in the end became the PETA website, since this organization's approach to the topic of my glossary is the most exhaustive and one of the most updated sources on the topic as well. Internet search results show that there exist numerous books on the topic, the majority of them in English, but unfortunately they are not available in Slovene libraries or bookshops, so I decided to base my search for suitable glossary entries solely on the internet sources, which can undoubtedly be less reliable, but are certainly among the most frequently updated.
2.3. Lemma Selection When the material for the glossary was finally compiled in one document, I first arranged the selected lexical items alphabetically and then started rereading the word list, immediately eliminating the expressions or phrases I found too general or really too distant from any of the subfields I had initially wanted to divide my glossary into. The hardest part of the lemma selection was how to decide which terms and phrases responded to the established target user needs. Specific monosemic terms were included automatically, but I also included frequent non-LSP terms and expressions, many of them for their frequent use in animal protection texts and others for the specific use they have within this field. In cases of these glossary entries I only provided the English definition that refers to the use in the texts I analyzed, because only this definition is relevant for the intended users of the glossary. Finally, I also included some expressions that the experts who revised the glossary pointed out as important but missing. 26
2.4. Equivalent Selection With those glossary entries that are quite widespread in everyday use in Slovene I didn't have any specific problems because usually they are already part of the LGP dictionaries that I used. Thus, I was able to find the corresponding definitions in English and the proper Slovene equivalents in the respective LGP dictionaries. When I came across a word or phrase with multiple meanings, I chose the meaning that was relevant within the semantic field of this glossary. In some cases there are various, usually two equally acceptable Slovene equivalents. The Slovene equivalents that I couldn't find in LGP dictionaries were relatively easy to find on websites of different animal protection groups or in specialized articles, also accessible on the Web. When there were various possible solutions to a lexical problem in Slovene, I consulted experts (a veterinarian, a hunter and the Veganska iniciativa members) to find the best or the most commonly used expression. In some cases we wanted to avoid a descriptive translation for words or phrases that do not have a common Slovene equivalent yet, so we agreed upon an expression to be used with some specific meaning within the field of animal welfare and protection.
2.5. Linguistic and Encyclopedic Information A typical function of a glossary is to provide accurate lexical meanings and not exhaustive linguistic information, so I also focused on gathering relevant target language equivalents in the first place, and on adding a clear enough definition of the lexical unit in English in the second. In some articles the encyclopedic information is more detailed than in others, in order to clarify those expressions that are less common or refer to more complex concepts. All encyclopedic information is given in English, because many definitions of the terms that this glossary includes are much more elaborate in English than in Slovene and therefore they can present a more detailed and informative description to a user with a relatively good level of English. 27
My choice to provide only English definitions of the terms is based on the assumption that the users who want to acquire more knowledge about the entry word are those with a higher level of English and to them an English definition will be more useful than a Slovene one. It should also be noted that for many of the included terms exhaustive Slovene definitions are hard or impossible to find. However, it is very important that definitions are included because a number of entry words in the glossary also belong to the general language and therefore they need a definition that explains their special meaning within the field of animal welfare and protection. The sources of English definitions are various. Many of them can be found in general monolingual dictionaries. I have striven to include definitions that are clear, and I have even expanded some of them in order to satisfy the users' curiosity and needs and to eliminate any possible doubts regarding the meanings of the terms. When I took entry words from online dictionaries or glossaries 3 that I had found on animal rights-related websites, I usually also took their definitions from these websites, although I also tried to expand them when I believed that this was necessary to make a certain definition more userfriendly. In a few cases I was not able to find clear-cut definitions of certain terms, neither in online nor in printed dictionaries. In such cases I carefully reread the texts that feature any of the terms in question and then I selected the most important and adequate pieces of information about the term and put them together to form a comprehensive definition for the glossary entry. The only purely linguistic pieces of information within the glossary are crossreferences among synonyms and information about the entry words' word classes.
These glossaries and other online sources of entry words are cited in the bibliography under Online Sources of Glossary Entries.
2.6. Sample Glossary Entry abolition n. ukinitev, odprava
The act of abolishing or the state of being abolished; annulment. Abolitionist animal advocates fight for total cessation of animal use and property status.
The headword is followed by n. which carries the information about the word class of the entry. In this case it is a noun. Abolition is translated into Slovene by "ukinitev" or "odprava". Then an explanation in English is provided. Since the term "abolition" can have a more general meaning, a further explanation of it within the field of animal protection is given. Synonyms are also included in the glossary; the symbol > is followed by the synonym in bold under whose entry the user can find the corresponding definition in English and the Slovene equivalent. Some glossary entries are equipped with a picture or photography that facilitate the understanding of a term.
3. English-Slovene Glossary abattoir n. > slaughterhouse klavnica
abolition n. ukinitev, odprava The act of abolishing or the state of being abolished; annulment. Animal advocates fight for total cessation of animal use and property status. action alert n. poziv k ukrepanju A message that an organization sends via email or publishes on websites to mobilize people, often members of their group and supports of a specific point of view, calling on them to respond to a problem in need of immediate action. altered adj. kastriran A euphemistic word for > castrated or > neutered ammonia burn n. kemična opeklina A painful eye condition, especially among chickens, caused by exposure to unhealthy and unclean living space. animal advocacy n. zagovorništvo pravic živali Promotion and defense of the interests of animals in general. It includes work for animal rights and animal welfare. animal advocate n. zagovornik/-ica pravic živali A person who promotes and defends the interests of animals and works for animal rights and animal welfare. borec/-rka za pravice živali, aktivist/-tka A person who claims animal rights on behalf of animals. animal activist n. animal guardian n. skrbnik/-ica živali A person who is responsible for the care and management of an animal by watching over it, protecting it and providing for all its necessities. animal husbandry n. živinoreja The branch of agriculture concerned with the care and breeding of domestic animals such as cattle, hogs, sheep, and horses. See also > animal science animalist n. See > animal advocate zagovornik/-ica pravic živali
animal protection n. zaščita živali Any type of work carried out with the intent to spare animals from harm or death.
animal rightist n. See > animal advocate
zagovornik/-ica pravic živali
animal rights n. pravice živali The rights of nonhuman animals to be protected from exploitation and abuse by humans, defending the position that they have rights and inherent value independent of their usefulness to humans. animal sanctuary n. zatočišče za živali A facility where animals are brought to live and be protected for the rest of their lives. animal science n. živinoznanost Study of biology of animals that are under the control of men, these are both domestic and companion animals. Particular emphasis is given to the study of animal growth, reproduction and nutrition, and how the knowledge about them, techniques and technology can be employed by the animal-using farming to maximize profits and minimize losses. See also > animal husbandry animal shelter n. zavetišče za živali An establishment that provides temporary housing and care for homeless animals. animal-tested adj. testiran na živalih Usually of drugs or cosmetics that went through a series of tests carried out on animals in order to determine the presence of a substance or to ascertain its properties and therefore confirm if the drug is safe to be used by humans. animal testing n. testiranje na živalih An examination of the characteristics of something, usually of drugs or cosmetics, by applying them to the animals and observe the reaction. animal trafficker n. prekupčevalec z živalmi A person who trades animals on a mass scale, but usually illegally or with improper documents, etc. animal-using industry n. dejavnost, ki izkorišča živali Any business that uses and kills animals. The term is used especially to refer to the food industry and clothing industry, but also to medical, psychological, pharmaceutical and weapons testing experiments, and to entertainment, including circuses, sport hunting, rodeos and zoos. animal welfare n. dobrobit živali Health, happiness and well-being of animals. ankus n. kavelj (za slone) A metal stick, usually with a curved sharp ending, used for goading elephants.
anxiety-induced psychosis n. tesnobna psihoza A severe mental disorder of caged animals, characterized by deranged and insane behavior, pacing, aggressiveness, etc., caused by a prolonged exposure to reduced living space and fear of being harmed. aquarium n. akvarij 1 A tank, bowl, or pool in which aquatic animals and plants are kept for pleasure, study, or exhibition. 2 A building housing a collection of aquatic life, as for exhibition. artificial insemination n. umetna oploditev Introduction of spermatozoa into the vagina or uterus by means other than sexual union. assembly line n. tekoči trak A sequence of machines, tools, operations, workers, etc., in a factory slaughterhouse, arranged so that at each stage a further process is carried out. astrakhan n. astrahan, perzijsko krzno A fur, usually black or grey, made of the closely curled wool of lambs that were killed as newborns or while still in their mothers' wombs. > karakul or > broadtail balaclava n. balaklava, podkapa A close-fitting hood that covers the ears and neck, often used by animals rightists to protect their anonymity.
bark softening n. prerez glasilk A euphemistic term for > debarking or > devocalization basic rights n. temeljne pravice Rights and freedoms that are fundamental and to which everyone is entitled by the Constitution, among them the right to life and liberty. battery cage n. baterijska kletka A large group of cages for intensive rearing of poultry. beef farming n. govedoreja The rearing of various bovine animals, especially cows, which are then killed for food. began n. vegetarijanec, ki izmed živalskih izdelkov uživa le med A vegetarian who eats honey but no other animal products. 32
black fax n. črni faks A fax transmission, consisting of one or more pages entirely filled with uniform black tone, with which the sender intends to consume the recipient's fax machine ink and in such way show protest against the recipient or their actions. to bleed v. izkrvaviti To let an animal die by bleeding. bloat n. napihnjenost, timpanija An abnormal distention of the abdomen in cattle, sheep, etc., caused by accumulation of gas in the stomach. to bludgeon v. tepsti s palico To hit or knock down with or as with a bludgeon, which is a stout heavy club, typically thicker at one end. boxcar n. pokriti tovorni vagon A closed railway freight van. to brand v. ožigosati To label, burn or mark with a brand. branded adj. ožigosan Marked or burnt with a brand. breeder n. rejec/-jka; vzreditelj/-jica A person who breeds animals. broadtail n. astrahan > astrakhan or > karakul broiler chicken pitanec, brojler, gojeni piščanec za prehrano A young tender chicken raised for flesh and suitable for roasting. bucking strap n. > flank strap bočni pas
bullfight n. bikoborba A traditional Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American spectacle in which a matador, assisted by banderilleros and mounted picadors, baits and usually kills a bull in a bullring. bullring n. An arena for bullfighting. bikoborska arena
cage-free adj. iz talne reje Not bred in a cage: usually of chickens. cage madness n. obnorelost zaradi zaprtja v kletko The condition of being insane because of being kept in a cage for a long time. 33
cagemate n. žival, ki sobiva v kletki An animal that shares the same cage as another. cage trap n. > live trap živolovka
canned hunting n. lov v oborah A hunt for animals that have been raised on game ranches until they are mature enough to be killed for trophy collections. captive adj. ujet Held under restriction or control; confined. pištola za omamljanje s penetrirnim klinom A device used for stunning animals prior to slaughter, which functions on a principle of a forceful strike on the forehead using a bolt to induce unconsciousness. captive bolt gun n.
caretaker n. skrbnik A person who takes care of an animal. carnism n. karnizem A belief system or ideology that condition people to eat certain animals. It is essentially the opposite of vegetarianism or veganism. Carnists, the people who live in meat-eating cultures, view eating animals as a given, rather than a choice. cashmere n. kašmir A fine soft wool from goats of the Kashmir area. to castrate v. kastrirati, skopiti To remove the testicles or ovaries of an animal. castration n. kastracija, skopitev The removal of the testicles or ovaries of an animal. catch-and-release fishing n. izpuščanje ujetih rib nazaj v vodo A practice of recreational fishing in which after capture the fish are unhooked and returned to the water. 34
cattle prod n. električna palica A hand-held device used to make cattle or other livestock move by striking or poking them or sending through them a high-voltage electric shock. > electric prod to chain v. prikleniti To confine, tie, or make fast with or as with a chain. choke chain n. zatezna veriga A chain that tightens like a noose when pulled, usually used for chaining bovine animals in the stables. choke collar n. zatezna ovratnica A chain collar that tightens like a noose when the leash is pulled, used to train or control dogs.
circus n. cirkus A travelling company of entertainers such as acrobats, clowns, trapeze artists, and trained animals. clothing industry n. oblačilna industrija The light industry producing garments. to club v. potolči s palico To beat with or as with a club. cockfight n. petelinji boj A fighting event between two gamecocks fitted with sharp metal spurs. cockpit n. arena za petelinje boje The round or square enclosure where the cockfights take place. comb n. greben, roža The fleshy deeply serrated outgrowth on the top of the heads of certain birds, especially the domestic fowl.
commodification n. komodifikacija, poblagovljenje The act of turning into a commodity. 35
to commodify n. komodificirati, poblagoviti To treat a living being inappropriately as if it can be acquired or marketed as other commodities in order to make a profit. companion animal n. An animal kept as a pet. > pet confinement n. ujetništvo The act of confining or the state of being confined. conibear trap n. skopec A body gripping trap that lures an animal with a bait into the correct position and it is triggered when the animal touches the wire triggering mechanism. It closes on the neck or torso of the animal and usually fractures its spinal column. conscience n. vest The sense of right and wrong that governs a person's thoughts and actions. conscientious objection n. ugovor vesti An act of refusing to participate in a certain type of activity for reasons of conscience. crate n. zaboj, ograjen prostor A fairly large container, usually made of wooden slats, wickerwork or wires. See also > wire crate and > wooden crate to cripple v. pohabiti To make a cripple of; to disable. cruelty-free adj. razvit brez mučenja živali Of a cosmetic or other product, developed without being tested on animals. to cull v. odbrati, ubiti, odstreliti To take out (an animal, especially an inferior one) from a herd; to reduce the size of a herd or flock by killing a proportion of its members. dairy cow n. mlekarica, molznica A cow used for production of milk and milk products. dairy farming n. mlečna živinoreja The business of owning or operating a farm that produces milk and milk products. debarking n. prerez glasilk A euphemistic term for > devocalization hišni ljubljenček, živalski spremljevalec
to debeak v. debikirati To remove part of the beak of poultry to reduce the risk of such habits as feather picking or cannibalism. to declaw v. odstraniti kremplje To remove the claws from an animal. to defeather v. oskubiti perje To remove the feathers from an animal, usually poultry. dehairing tank n. > scalding tank bazen za skubljenje/odstranitev dlak
to dehorn v. odstraniti rogove To remove or prevent the growth of the horns of cattle, sheep or goats. demonstration n. demonstracija, protest A manifestation of grievances, support, or protest by public rallies, parades, etc. den hunting n. jamarjenje Hunting of animals when they are in their dens, usually when hibernating. > denning denning n. > den hunting jamarjenje
to desnood v. odstraniti bradelj To remove the snood of a turkey to reduce the risk of cannibalism. See also > snood devocalization n. prerez glasilk A surgical procedure applied to dogs in which tissue is removed from the animal's vocal cords in order to permanently reduce the volume of their vocalization, i.e. barking. > debarking or > bark softening direct action n. neposredna akcija Action such as strikes or civil disobedience, employed by organized groups to obtain demands from an employer, government, etc. to dismember v. razkosati To remove the limbs or members of an animal; to cut in pieces. dissection n. raztelešenje The act of cutting open and examining the structure of a dead animal. dock n. štrcelj The stump of a tail left after cutting it off.
to dock v. kupirati rep To remove the tail or part of the tail of an animal by cutting through the bone. dog fight n. pasji boj An illegal organized fight between dogs, arranged for spectator entertainment and betting. dogsled racing n. dirke s sanmi s pasjo vprego A competition of speed among sleighs drawn by dogs. down n. puh The soft fine feathers with free barbs that cover the body of a bird and prevent loss of heat. In the adult they lie beneath and between the contour feathers. downer n. izčrpana žival An animal that is destined to be slaughtered and is already too sick or too injured to walk. Draize test n. Draizov test A test to determine a degree to which a substance such as a cosmetic or pharmaceutical irritates human tissues and during which a small amount of the substance is applied directly in the eye of a rabbit, and the rabbit is then monitored. to dump v. To get rid of an animal. ear clipping n. > ear cropping zavreči kupiranje uhljev
ear cropping n. kupiranje uhljev The intentional removal of a part of an animal's ears by cutting them off. > ear clipping earthling n. zemljan/-nka An inhabitant of the earth. electric prod n. > cattle prod električna palica
to electrocute v. ubiti z električnim tokom To kill as a result of an electric shock. elephant goad n. > ankus kavelj (za slone)
empathy n. sočutje The power of understanding and imaginatively entering into another being's feelings. 38
to enclose v. zapreti To close; to surround with or as if with a fence. > to pen ethical vegetarian n. etični vegetarijanec Someone who doesn't eat meat because of the conviction that such way of life contributes to a better treatment of animals and environment. to euthanize or to euthanise v. evtanazirati, uspavati To kill an animal painlessly, especially to relieve suffering from an incurable disease. exhaustion n. izčrpanost, izmučenost Extreme tiredness; fatigue. to exploit v. izkoriščati To take advantage of somebody or something, especially unethically or unjustly for one's own ends. exposure injury n. poškodba zaradi izpostavljenosti The injury that is a consequence of the lack of shelter from the weather, especially the cold. factory farm n. industrijska kmetija A farm in which animals are bred and fattened using modern industrial methods. factory trawler n. ribiška ladja za predelavo rib A large fishing boat that processes the fish that are caught. fake fur n. > faux fur or > fun fur umetno krzno
to fatten v. rediti, pitati To cause an animal to become fat by feeding it. faux fur n. umetno krzno A material made of synthetic fibers designed to resemble fur, usually as a piece of clothing. > fake fur and > fun fur feather-pecking n. puljenje perja A behavioural problem amongst domestic hens or other poultry that consists of one bird's repeated pecking at the feathers of another. feedlot n. pitališče, živinska ograda An area or building where livestock are fattened rapidly for market. feral adj. podivjan Of animals, existing in a wild state, especially after being domestic. 39
fishing n. ribolov The occupation of catching fish. flank strap n. bočni pas A strap, fastened behind the widest part of the rodeo bull's or rodeo horse's abdomen, which is used to encourage the animal to kick out straighter and higher when it bucks. > bucking strap
fleece n. runo, ovčje krzno The coat of wool that covers the body of a sheep or similar animal and consists of a mass of crinkly hairs. flexitarian n. fleksitarijanec A person who eats a predominantly vegetarian diet, but who eats meat or fish occasionally, making exceptions for social, pragmatic, cultural, or nutritional reasons. It is a more recent coined expression for > semi-vegetarian infestacija rane z jajčeci muh ali ličinkami The infestation of wounded sheep by blowflies or maggots. food animal n. žival za prehrano An animal raised for its meat. foothold trap n. stopalka A trap made of two jaws and a spring, and a trigger in the middle, which is usually a round pan. When an animal steps on the trigger the trap closes around the foot, preventing the animal from escaping. flystrike n.
forced moulting n. prisilna menjava perja The practice of starving hens in order to force them to moult simultaneously, which is achieved by withdrawal of feed for a week or two. This has the effect of allowing the hen's reproductive tracts to rejuvenate and after a molt, the hen's production rate usually rises and egg quality is improved. > induced moulting to force-feed v. pitati na silo To force an animal to eat or swallow food. 40
to foster v. vzgajati To rear under the care of someone. free-range adj. v prosti reji Kept or produced in natural, not intensive conditions. frostbite n. ozebline Destruction of tissues, especially those of the fingers, ears, toes and nose, by freezing, characterized by tingling, blister formation, and gangrene. fruitarian n. fruktarijanec, sadni vegetarijanec A person who eats only fruit. fun fur n. > faux fur or > fake fur umetno krzno
fur n. kožuh; krzno 1. The dense coat of fine silky hairs on such mammals as the cat, seal, or mink. 2. The dressed skin of certain fur-bearing animals, with the hair left on. furbearer n. kožuhar An animal whose skin is covered with fur, especially fur that is commercially valuable. fur farm n. farma za vzrejo živali za krzno A farm where animals are bred or raised for their fur. game n. divjad Wild animals, birds, or fish hunted for food or sport. gas chamber n. plinska celica An airtight room into which poison gas is introduced to kill animals. gestation crate n. kotitveni boks, prasilišče A small metal enclosure used in intensive pig farming, in which a female breeding pig is confined during pregnancy. to gore v. nabosti Of an animal, such as a bull, to pierce or stab with a horn or tusk. greenwashing n. zeleno zavajanje A superficial or insincere display of concern for the environment shown by an organization intended to mislead, cover up and hide harmful activities behind the guise of environmentalism and conservation. to gut v. odstraniti drobovje To remove the intestines or entrails of an animal.
hakapik n. hakapik Metal-hook-tipped club used in the seal slaughter.
to handfeed v. ročno hraniti To give food to an animal by hand, usually in fixed amounts and at fixed times, rather than use a self-feeding system. happy meat n. srečno meso A term to describe meat that is marketed as having come from humanely raised animals, meaning that they are sustainably raised and grass-fed. hatchery n. valilnica; ribogojnica A place where eggs are hatched under artificial conditions. head bobbing n. pozibavanje z glavo A behavioural problem of enclosed animals that consists of moving a head with a short abrupt movement. heatstroke n. vročinska kap A condition resulting from prolonged exposure to intense heat, characterized by high fever and in severe cases convulsions and coma. hoarder n. zbiratelj/-jica (živali) The person who masses a large number of animals but fails to provide for animals' basic physical and social needs, including food, water, shelter, veterinary care and sanitary living conditions. hog-dog rodeo n. boj med psom in divjo svinjo The event in which one or two frenzied dogs are turned loose in pens to attack wild pigs in front of the onlookers and judges, who rate dogs by how quickly they take down their prey. hogwashing n. humano zavajanje The practice of generating the public appearance of having compassion or concern for the well-being of animals while continuing to kill them for profit. home demo n. protest na domu An organized protest that takes place at a target's home instead of his place of business, usually after midnight and with lots of noise to alarm the whole neighbourhood. homeless adj. Having nowhere to live. brezdomen
hoofed animal n. parkljasta žival, žival s kopiti An animal having horny covering of the end of the foot, such as horses, cows, etc. horse-drawn carriage n. konjska vprega A carriage that is driven by one or more horses that are harnessed to it. humane myth n. mit o humanosti An idea being propagated by the animal-using industry and some animal protection organizations that it is possible to use and kill animals in a manner that is respectful or compassionate or humane, though it can be fairly described as such. hunting n. lov The pursuit and killing or capture of game and wild animals, regarded as a sport. hunt sab n. sabotaža lova; saboter lova Slang for > hunt saboteur or > hunt sabotage. hunt sabotage n. sabotaža lova Any activity aimed at disrupting the lawful activity of sport hunters. > hunt sab hunt saboteur n. saboter lova A person that carries out any activity aimed at disrupting the lawful activity of sport hunters. > hunt sab to impregnate v. > to inseminate oploditi, obrejiti
incrementalism n. inkrementalizem A slow change. In abolitionist movement, examples of incrementalism are abolishing foie gras, seal hunting, dogfighting, etc. induced moulting n. > forced moulting prisilna menjava perja
to inseminate v. oploditi, obrejiti To impregnate a female with semen, so that she conceives. > to impregnate interspecies extrapolation n. ekstrapolacija med vrstami The inference or estimation about how something would affect humans regarding the known effects on non-human animals. in vitro testing n. testiranje in vitro Testing performed outside the living organism in an artificial environment, such as a culture medium. 43
karakul n. astrahan > astrakhan or > broadtail 1. pasja hišica, pesjak 2. psarna 1. A hut-like shelter for a dog. 2. An establishment where dogs are bred, trained, boarded, etc. kennel n. kosher adj. košer Conforming to Jewish religious law, fit for use: especially of food, prepared in accordance with the dietary laws. lacto-ovo-vegetarian n. lakto-ovo-vegetarijanec A vegetarian whose diet includes dairy products and eggs. lacto-vegetarian n. laktovegetarijanec A vegetarian whose diet includes dairy products. land animal n. kopenska žival An animal that lives on land, the solid part of the surface of the earth. laying hen n. kokoš nesnica An adult female of the domestic fowl that is bred to lay eggs. laying warehouse n. hala za rejo kokoši nesnic A large building filled with cages in which laying hens are kept. leafleting n. deljenje letakov The act of standing outdoors in a busy public area and offering animal rights literature or leaflets to the people passing by, usually done by volunteers. leather n. usnje A material consisting of the skin of an animal made smooth and flexible by tanning, removing hair, etc. live trap n. živolovka A trap in a form of a cage designed to catch live animals. > cage trap
locavorism n. lokavorizem The principle of eating only food that is locally produced and not moved long distances to market. 44
macerator n. drobilec, drobilnik A machine used in egg industry into which male chickens are thrown to be minced or crushed to death because they are considered useless to the industry that produces eggs. macrobiotic adj. makrobiotičen Of or relating to macrobiotics. macrobiotics n. makrobiotika A dietary system in which foods are classified according to the principles of Yin and Yang. It advocates diets of whole grains and vegetables grown without chemical additives. to maim v. pohabiti To mutilate, cripple, or disable a part of the body. manure n. gnoj Animal excreta, usually with straw, used to fertilize land. marine park n. vodni park A park that usually consists of oceanarium, sea mammal pools, sea animal exhibitions, attractions for children, etc. mass breeding n. masovna reja Intentional rearing and maintaining of domestic animals for people's use occurring on a large scale. mastitis n. mastitis, vnetje vimena Inflammation of the udder. maternal deprivation n. maternalna deprivacija Separation of an offspring from their mother. meat industry n. mesna industrija Organized activity concerned with the rearing of animals for meat. milker n. mlekarica, molznica > dairy cow or > milking cow milking cow n. > dairy cow or > milker mlekarica, molznica
monkeywrenching n. ekološko sabotiranje Destroying a vehicle or other machine in a way that interferes with its operation in order to sabotage an action that causes animal cruelty, such as cutting the brake lines of seafood delivery trucks, disabling equipment in biomedical laboratories, and smashing computers inside university research facilities.
moral imperative n. moralni imperativ A principle originating inside a person's mind that compels that person to act in a way that they think is ethical or morally right. to moult or US molt v. leviti se; menjati dlako/perje Of birds, mammals, reptiles, and arthropods; to shed feathers, skin, hair, or cuticle. See also > forced moulting mulesing n. mulesing, odstranitev kože v področju anusa ovac Performing the Mules operation on a sheep, which consists of cutting large pieces of wool-bearing skin and flesh from around the backside of a sheep to eliminate the risk of flystrike. musher n. Dogsled driver. voznik pasje vprege
to mutilate v. iznakaziti To deprive of a limb, essential part; to maim; to dismember. neck pole n. cev za pitanje gosi in rac A metal pole that is shoved down a duck's or goose's throat so that they are force-fed through it at foie gras farms. neocarnism n. A revival of > carnism to neuter v. > to castrate neokarnizem kastrirati, skopiti, sterilizirati
non-animal science n. humana znanost The science that does not use and harm animals, especially regarding the experiments. non-human animal n. nečloveška žival A non-speciesist term used to refer to an animal. non-cooperation n. nesodelovanje The policy of refusing to collaborate or cooperate with those engaged in unjust or unethical activities. non-participation n. neudeležba The policy of refusing to take part in activities considered unjust or unethical. non-target animal n. neciljna žival An animal that is inadvertently captured, killed or injured during wildlife damage management, hunting or fishing. The same species may be either a target or a non-target animal, depending on the situation.
open rescue n. javno reševanje The practice of animal protection that intervenes in the process of animal exploitation by entering facilities where animals are used and killed (laboratories, industry farms, etc.), where they take photographs and video to document conditions, and then rescue a small number of animals from the facility. Its goal is to expose the reality of animal exploitation. pacing n. nenehno gibanje, prestopanje A behavioural problem of enclosed animals that consists of never-ending walking along the same path in the enclosure, usually along a line or in circles. ovo-vegetarian n. ovovegetarijanec A vegetarian whose diet includes eggs. pelt n. kožuh, koža z dlako The skin of a fur-bearing animal, such as mink, especially when it has been removed from the carcass. See also > fur to pen v. > to enclose pescetarian n. > pesco-vegetarian zapreti ribovegetarijanec
pesco-vegetarian n. ribovegetarijanec A person who practices a type of vegetarianism, which excludes all meat from one's diet, but permits seafood. > pescetarian pet n. hišni ljubljenček A tame animal kept in a household for companionship, amusement, etc. > companion animal. to pet v. božati, ljubkovati To pat or fondle an animal. pet shop n. > pet store trgovina za male živali
pet store n. trgovina za male živali A retail business that sells different kinds of animals that can be kept as pets. They also sell pet food, supplies, and accessories. > pet shop petting pool n. bazen z živalmi, ki se jih lahko obiskovalci dotaknejo A human-marine mammal interaction program where people are allowed to lean over a pool to touch and/or feed various marine mammals (dolphins, sea lions, beluga whales, orcas, etc.). 47
otroški živalski vrt; del živalskega vrta z udomačenimi živalmi, ki jih obiskovalci lahko božajo A facility that features domestic animals and sometimes wild species that are docile enough for visitors to touch and feed them. petting zoo n. phototoxicity n. fototoksičnost The inflammatory skin reaction caused by exposure to a chemical and subsequent exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet radiation. physical integrity n. telesna integriteta The right of every being to inviolability of the body, based on the principle that claims that each man's actions must be so restrained as not directly to inflict bodily injury, great or small, or any other. pinch collar n. ovratnica z bodicami A collar with a series of chain links with blunted open ends turned towards the dog's neck to prevent the dog from pulling by applying pressure at each point against the dog's neck. > prong collar
plant-based diet n. rastlinska prehrana A general term for an eating pattern dominated by fresh or minimally processed plant foods and decreased consumption of meat, eggs and dairy products, usually none of these. to pluck v. skubiti, puliti perje To pull off feathers from a fowl. poaching n. krivolov The practice of catching game, fish, etc., by trespassing on private or protected property. poacher n. divji lovec/-vka, krivolovec/-vka. A person who illegally hunts game, fish, etc., on someone else's property. pod n. jata A small group of animals, especially seals, whales, or birds. potluck n. kulinarično srečanje In vegan terms, a potluck is a social gathering where each individual brings a dish to share with the group. poultry n. perutnina Domestic fowls collectively. 48
pound n. zavetišče za živali > animal shelter or > shelter pound seizure n. zaseg živali iz zavetišča The seizure of animals from a shelter in which a shelter is required to turn over animals to laboratories upon request. prong collar n. > pinch collar ovratnica z bodicami
puppy mill n. intenzivna masovna psarna A commercial dog breeding facility that is operated with an emphasis upon profits above animal welfare and is often in substandard conditions regarding the well-being of dogs in their care. purebred adj. čistokrven Denoting a pure strain obtained through many generations of controlled breeding for desirable traits. to put down v. uspavati A euphemistic term for > to euthanize to put to sleep v. uspavati A euphemistic term for > to euthanize pyrogenicity n. pirogeničnost The quality or state of being pyrogenic, which means being able to produce fever. racing dog/horse n. dirkalni pes/konj A dog/horse competing in a contest of speed. rape rack n. boks za osemenjevanje The contraptions in which pigs or cows are restrained while they are forcibly inseminated. raw foodism n. presnojedstvo A lifestyle promoting the consumption of uncooked and unprocessed food, but including also raw milk, raw fish and raw meat. See also > raw veganism raw veganism n. presno veganstvo A lifestyle promoting the consumption of uncooked and unprocessed plant foods. regulatory testing n. regulatorno testiranje A regular process of subjecting laboratory animals to a test that is required by law in order to determine whether chemicals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and other products are non-toxic and therefore safe for human use. 49
rooster n. An adult male chicken.
to rope v. uloviti z lasom To catch with a rope or lasso. to run amok or amuck v. pobesneti, podivjati To run about with or as if with frenzied desire to kill. runt n. najmanjša, najslabotnejša žival v leglu An undersized animal, especially the smallest animal of a litter. sameness n. enakost The quality or condition of being the same. sanctuary n. > animal sanctuary zatočišče za živali
to scald v. popariti To subject to or treat with boiling water. scalding tank n. bazen za skubljenje/odstranitev dlak A large, often metallic container for holding boiling hot water in which food animals, such as pigs or chickens, are put in order to remove their hairs or feathers. > dehairing tank seafood n. morska hrana Edible fish or shellfish from the sea. seitan n. sejtan A chewy, protein-rich food made from wheat gluten and used as a meat substitute. to self-mutilate v. samopohabiti se To inflict harm upon someone's own body, in the case of animals as a consequence of unhealthy, stressful and unnatural conditions in which they live. semi-vegetarian n. polvegetarijanec A person who generally avoids meat but sometimes eats it. See also > flexitarian sentience n. čutenje The quality or state of being sentient. sentient n. čuteč Having sense perception not involving intelligence or mental perception; feeling. 50
to sex v. določiti spol To determine if an animal is male or female. to shear v. ostriči To remove fleece or hair by cutting or clipping. shearling n. 1. enkrat ostrižena enoletna ovca 2. strojena koža enoletne ovce 1. A sheep that is one year old and has been shorn once. 2. The skin of such an animal. shelter n. zavetišče za živali > animal shelter or > pound shock collar n. električna ovratnica An electronic training collar that produces a static pulse stimulation at varying degrees of intensity and duration to the dog in case of its disobedience. silk n. svila A fine lustrous fiber produced by certain insect larvae, especially by a silkworm, to make their cocoons. to skin v. To remove skin from. odreti
to slaughter v. zaklati To kill animals, especially for food; to butcher. slaughterhouse n. klavnica A place where animals are butchered. > abattoir snare n. zanka Anchored cable or wire noose set to catch wild animals such as foxes and rabbits. > wire noose
to snare v. ujeti v zanko To trap with or as if with a snare. 51
snood n. bradelj A fleshy wrinkled fold of skin that hangs down over a turkey's beak.
sow stall n. > gestation crate
kotitveni boks, prasilišče
to spay v. (o samici) sterilizirati To remove surgically the ovaries of a female animal. > to sterilize speciesism n. specizem, speciesizem A belief of humans that all other species of animals are inferior and may therefore be used for human benefit without regard to the suffering inflicted. speciesist n. specist, speciesist A person supporting the view of speciesism. spent adj. izčrpan, izmučen Depleted of energy, force, or strength; exhausted. See also > downer spur n. ostroga A spine-like process on the leg of some birds. stall n. boks A compartment for one domestic animal in a barn or shed. starvation n. stradanje The condition of being starved, i.e. deprived of food for a long time. steer n. junec A young ox or bull, especially one castrated before sexual maturity and raised for beef. stereotypic behaviour n. stereotipno vedenje Repetitive behaviours commonly seen in captive animals and likely induced by stress and lack of appropriate stimuli (overgrooming among primates, pacing among tigers, and the swaying of elephants). to sterilize v. > to spay sterilizirati 52
to strangle v. zadaviti To kill by squeezing the throat so as to choke or suffocate. stray adj. potepuški A domestic animal that has wandered away from its place of keeping and is lost. to stun v. omamiti To render senseless, by or as if by a blow. to suffocate v. zadušiti To kill or destroy by preventing access of air or oxygen and therefore preventing respiration. surplus adj. preštevilen Being more than or in excess of what is needed or required. sustainable adj. sonaraven, trajnosten Capable of being continued with minimal long-term effect on the environment. tabling n. promocija The action of setting up an information table filled with brochures, fact sheets, or any type of free literature available for the general public to review and take home. tail docking n. kupiranje repa The act of clipping a dog's tail very short. tannery n. strojarna A place or building where skins and hides are tanned, i.e. converted into leather. target animal n. ciljna žival An animal that is captured or killed on purpose. teeth cutting n. rezanje zob To cut or remove teeth or part of them so that the animals cannot mutilate each other or self-mutilate. thumping n. topotanje A behavioural problem of enclosed animals, consisting of beating or pounding their hoofs on the floor or walls of their enclosure. tofu n. tofu Unfermented soya-bean curd, a food with a soft cheese-like consistency made from soya-bean milk. to trample v. poteptati To beat down with the feet so as to crush, bruise, or destroy. 53
trash kill n. kolateralni ulov Animals captured and killed by hunters or fishermen accidentally and therefore considered worthless to them. See also > non-target species travelling zoo n. potujoči živalski vrt A collection of wild and/or domestic animals travelling around and stopping for exhibitions of the animals. unaltered adj. Opposite of > altered nekastriran
underling n. podrejenec One of lesser rank than another; a subordinate. undernourished adj. podhranjen Not getting adequate food to sustain proper health and growth. utilitarianism n. utilitarizem The belief that the value of a thing or an action is determined by its utility. to vaccinate v. cepiti To treat an animal with a vaccine to protect them against a disease. veg*n or veg*an n. skupen izraz za katerikoli tip vegana ali vegetarijanca An inclusive term referring to the categories of all types of vegetarians and vegans together. vegan n. vegan/-nka A person who refrains from using any animal product whatever for food, clothing, or any other purpose. veganarchism n. veganarhizem Political philosophy and combined praxis of veganism and anarchism, designed to be a means for social revolution. This encompasses viewing the state as unnecessary and harmful to animals, both human and nonhuman, whilst practicing a vegan lifestyle. veganism n. veganstvo A philosophy and lifestyle that prescribes refraining from using any animal product whatever for food, clothing, or any other purpose. vegetarian n. vegetarijanec/-nka One who practices vegetarianism. vegetarianism n. vegetarijanstvo The practice of subsisting on a diet composed primarily or wholly of vegetables, grains, fruits, nuts, and seeds, with or without eggs and dairy products.
veggie n. vegetarijanec/-nka Colloquial version of > vegetarian vet n. > veterinarian veterinarian n. veterinar, živinozdravnik
veterinar/-rka, živinozdravnik/-ica One who practices veterinary medicine. > vet veterinary care n. veterinarska oskrba Attentive assistance or treatment of animals by veterinarians. veterinary medicine n. veterina The branch of medicine that deals with the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases and injuries of animals, especially domestic animals. vivisection n. vivisekcija The act or practice of cutting into or otherwise injuring living animals, especially for the purpose of scientific research. vivisector n. vivisektor One who performs experiments on live animals. welfare n. dobrobit Health, happiness, good living conditions, and well-being in general. welfarism n. načela dobrobiti The movement to reduce or abolish animal suffering, but not use and exploitation. Welfarists are thus concerned with how humans treat animals. See also > abolition whaling n. kitolov The work or industry of hunting and processing whales for food, oil, etc. wire crate n. žičnata kletka A fairly large container made of wire, used for packing, storing, or transporting.
wire noose n. > snare
wooden crate n. lesena kletka, lesen zaboj A fairly large container made of wooden slats, used for packing, storing, or transporting.
wool n. volna The dense, soft, often curly hair forming the coat of sheep and certain other mammals, such as the goat and alpaca, consisting of cylindrical fibers of keratin covered by minute overlapping scales and much valued as a textile fabric. to worm v. razglistiti To cure of intestinal worms. yearling n. enoletna žival An animal that is one year old or has not completed its second year. zoo n. živalski vrt A park or an institution in which living animals are kept and usually exhibited to the public. zoochosis n. zoohoza The condition in animals in which they seem to have lost their minds. They rock, sway or pace endlessly, and even mutilate themselves. zoo-goer n. obiskovalec živalskega vrta A person who visits a zoo. zoonosis n. zoonoza Any infection or disease that is transmitted to man from lower vertebrates.
4. Slovene-English Word List aktivist/-ka akvarij arena za petelinje boje astrahan balaklava baterijska kletka bazen za skubljenje/odstranitev dlak bazen z živalmi, ki se jih obiskovalci lahko dotaknejo bikoborba bikoborska arena bočni pas (rodeo) boj med psom in divjo svinjo boks boks za osemenjevanje borec/-ka za pravice živali božati bradelj brezdomen brojler cepiti cev za pitanje gosi in rac ciljna žival cirkus čistokrven črni faks čuteč čutenje debikirati dejavnost, ki izkorišča živali deljenje letakov demonstracija dirkalni konj/pes dirke s sanmi s pasjo vprego divjad divji lovec/-vka dobrobit (živali) določiti spol Draizov test drobilec, drobilnik ekološko sabotiranje ekstrapolacija med vrstami električna ovratnica električna palica enakost enkrat ostrižena enoletna ovca enoletna žival animal activist, animal advocate aquarium cockpit astrakhan, broadtail, karakul balaclava battery cage dehairing tank, scalding tank petting pool bullfight bullring bucking strap, flank strap hog-dog rodeo stall rape rack animal activist, animal advocate to pet snood homeless broiler chicken to vaccinate neck pole target animal circus purebred black fax sentient sentience to debeak animal-using industry leafleting demonstration racing horse/dog dogsled racing game poacher animal welfare to sex Draize test macerator monkeywrenching interspecies extrapolation shock collar, electric collar cattle prod, electric prod sameness shearling yearling 57
etični vegetarijanec evtanazirati farma za vzrejo živali za krzno fleksitarijanec fototoksičnost fruktarijanec gnoj gojeni piščanec za prehrano govedoreja greben (petelin) hala za rejo kokoši nesnic hakapik hišni ljubljenček humana znanost humano zavajanje industrijska kmetija infestacija rane z jajčeci muh, ličinkami inkrementalizem intenzivna masovna psarna izčrpan izčrpana žival izčrpanost izkoriščati izkrvaviti izmučen izmučenost iznakaziti izpuščanje ujetih rib nazaj v vodo jamarjenje jata javno reševanje junec karnizem kastracija kastriran kastrirati kašmir kavelj (za slone) kemična opeklina kitolov klavnica kokoš nesnica kolateralni ulov komodificirati komodifikacija konjska vprega kopenska žival košer kotitveni boks
ethical vegetarian to euthanise, to euthanize fur farm flexitarian phototoxicity fruitarian manure broiler beef farming comb laying warehouse hakapik companion animal, pet non-animal science hogwashing factory farm flystrike incrementalism puppy mill spent downer exhaustion to exploit to bleed spent exhaustion to mutilate catch-and-release fishing den hunting, denning pod open rescue steer carnism castration altered, castrated, neutered to castrate, to neuter cashmere ankus, elephant goad ammonia burn whaling abattoir, slaughterhouse laying hen trash kill to commodify commodification horse-drawn carriage land animal kosher gestation crate, sow stall 58
kožuh kožuhar krivolov krivolovec/-vka krzno kulinarično srečanje kupiranje repa kupiranje uhljev kupirati rep lakto-ovo-vegetarijanec laktovegetarijanec lesena kletka lesen zaboj leviti se ljubkovati lov lov v oborah makrobiotičen makrobiotika masovna reja mastitis maternalna deprivacija menjati dlako/perje mesna industrija mit o humanosti mlečna živinoreja mlekarica molznica moralni imperativ morska hrana mulesing nabosti načela dobrobiti najmanjša, najslabotnejša žival v leglu napihnjenost neciljna žival nečloveška žival nekastriran nenehno gibanje neokarnizem neposredna akcija nesodelovanje neudeležba obiskovalec živalskega vrta oblačilna industrija obnorelost zaradi zaprtja v kletko obrejiti odbrati odprava
fur, pelt furbearer poaching poacher fur potluck tail docking ear clipping, ear cropping to dock lacto-ovo-vegetarian lacto-vegetarian wooden crate wooden crate to moult, US molt to pet hunting canned hunting macrobiotic macrobiotics mass breeding mastitis maternal deprivation to moult, US molt meat industry humane myth dairy farming dairy cow, milker, milking cow dairy cow, milker, milking cow moral imperative seafood mulesing to gore welfarism runt bloat non-target animal non-human animal unaltered pacing neocarnism direct action non-cooperation non-participation zoo-goer clothing industry cage madness to impregnate, to inseminate to cull abolition 59
odreti odstraniti bradelj odstraniti drobovje odstraniti kremplje odstraniti rogove odstreliti ograjen proctor omamiti oploditi oskubiti perje ostriči ostroga otroški živalski vrt ovčje krzno ovovegetarijanec ovratnica z bodicami ozebline ožigosan ožigosati parkljasta žival pasja hišica pasji boj perutnina perzijsko krzno pesjak petelin petelinji boj pirogeničnost pištola za omamljanje s penetrirnim klinom pitališče pitanec pitati pitati na silo plinska celica pobesneti poblagoviti poblagovljenje podhranjen podivjan podivjati podkapa podrejenec pohabiti pokriti tovorni vagon polvegetarijanec popariti poškodba zaradi izpostavljenosti poteptati
to skin to desnood to gut to declaw to dehorn to cull crate to stun to impregnate, to inseminate to defeather to shear spur petting zoo fleece ovo-vegetarian pinch collar, prong collar frostbite branded to brand hoofed animal kennel dog fight poultry astrakhan, broadtail, karakul kennel rooster cockfight pyrogenicity captive bolt gun feedlot broiler chicken to fatten to force-feed gas chamber to run amok/amuck to commodify commodification undernourished feral to run amok/amuck balaclava underling to cripple, to maim boxcar semi-vegetarian to scald exposure injury to trample 60
potepuški potolči s palico potujoči živalski vrt pozibavanje z glavo poziv k ukrepanju prasilišče pravice živali prekupčevalec z živalmi prerez glasilk presnojedstvo presno veganstvo prestopanje preštevilen prikleniti prisilna menjava perja promocija prosta reja protest protest na domu psarna puh puliti perje puljenje perja rastlinska prehrana razglistiti razkosati raztelešenje razvit in izdelan brez mučenja živali rediti regulatorno testiranje rejec/-jka rezanje zob ribiška ladja za predelavo rib ribogojnica ribolov ribovegetarijanec ročno hraniti roža (petelin) runo sabotaža lova saboter lova sadni vegetarijanec samopohabiti se sejtan skopec skopitev skopiti skrbnik/-ica
stray to club travelling zoo head bobbing action alert gestation crate, sow stall animal rights animal trafficker bark softening, debarking, devocalization raw foodism raw veganism pacing surplus to chain forced moulting, induced moulting tabling free-range breeding demonstration home demo kennel down to pluck feather-pecking plant-based diet to worm to dismember dissection cruelty-free to fatten regulatory testing breeder teeth cutting factory trawler hatchery fishing pescetarian, pesco-vegetarian to handfeed comb fleece hunt sab, hunt sabotage hunt sab, hunt saboteur fruitarian to self-mutilate seitan conibear trap castration to castrate, to neuter caretaker 61
skrbnik/-ica živali skubiti sočutje sonaraven speciesist speciesizem specist specizem srečno meso stereotipno vedenje sterilizirati (samico) stopalka stradanje strojena koža enoletne ovce strojarna svila štrcelj talna reja tekoči trak telesna integriteta temeljne pravice tepsti s palico tesnobna psihoza testiranje in vitro testiranje na živalih testiran na živalih timpanija tofu topotanje trajnosten trgovina za male živali ubiti ubiti z električnim tokom ugovor vesti ujet ujeti v zanko ujetništvo ukinitev uloviti z lasom umetna oploditev umetno krzno ujetništvo usnje uspavati utilitarizem valilnica veganarhizem vegan/-nka
animal guardian to pluck empathy sustainable speciesist speciesism speciesist speciesism happy meat stereotypic behaviour to neuter, to spay, to sterilize foothold trap starvation shearling tannery silk dock cage-free breeding assembly line physical integrity basic rights to bludgeon anxiety-induced psychosis in vitro testing animal testing animal-tested bloat tofu thumping sustainable pet shop, pet store to cull to electrocute conscientious objection captive to snare captivity abolition to rope artificial insemination fake fur, faux fur, fun fur confinement leather to euthanise, to euthanize , to put down, to put to sleep utilitarianism hatchery veganarchism vegan 62
veganstvo vegetarijanec/-nka vegetarijanec, ki izmed živalskih produktov uživa le med vegetarijanstvo vest veterina veterinar/-ka veterinarska oskrba vivisekcija vivisektor vnetje vimena vodni park volna voznik/-ica pasje vprege vročinska kap vzgajati vzreditelj/-jica zaboj zadaviti zadušiti zagovornik/-ica pravic živali zagovorništvo pravic živali zaklati zanka zapreti zaseg živali iz zavetišča zaščita živali zatezna ovratnica zatezna veriga zatočišče za živali zavetišče za živali zavreči zbiratelj/-jica živali zeleno zavajanje zemljan/-nka zoohoza zoonoza žičnata kletka žičnata zanka žival, ki sobiva v kletki živalski spremljevalec živalski vrt žival za prehrano živinoreja živinozdravnik/-ica živinoznanost živinska ograda
veganism vegetarian, veggie beegan vegetarianism conscience veterinary medicine vet, veterinarian veterinary care vivisection vivisector mastitis marine park wool musher heatstroke to foster breeder crate to strangle to suffocate animal advocate, animalist, animal rightist animal advocacy to slaughter snare to enclose, to pen pound seizure animal protection choke collar choke chain animal sanctuary, sanctuary animal shelter, pound, shelter to dump hoarder greenwashing earthling zoochosis zoonosis wire crate wire noose cagemate companion animal zoo food animal animal husbandry vet, veterinarian animal science feedlot 63
cage trap, live trap
5. Analysis The English-Slovene glossary Animal Welfare and Protection has 333 entries in total. At the beginning of the analysis I cannot avoid stating the obvious: I have not been able to find all the Slovene equivalents like I intended, for various reasons. There are English words like veg*n, which cannot function with the Slovene expressions, or beegan, which is based on a word play in English but again cannot be transferred as such to Slovene. In these cases I have provided descriptive definitions and I have put them in italics. There are other examples of English terms that I have translated descriptively, and these are those referring to practices or sports that have no or little tradition in Slovenia, such as rodeo, hog-dog rodeo, dogsled racing, etc. Although it might seem redundant that I have included these and some other terms related to the topics untypical of Slovenia, I have decided to do so because the glossary's function is to provide help in decoding of English texts and an interested layperson can easily come across a text dealing with these very practices and they might need explanations of these terms, probably even more than an explanation of some term that is more present in our sociocultural context. All the Slovene equivalents for which I have finally settled have been revised and approved by the members of Veganska iniciativa. Where we were considering different solutions, we agreed on one together. They have also proposed some additional entry words that they believed were important in the context of my glossary. I would also like to point out the inquiry that the members of Veganska iniciativa made at SAZU (SASA - Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts) about the term speciesism. The question was whether to translate it into Slovene as 64
speciesizem or specizem. Prof. dr. Marko Snoj explained that on one hand the English term could simply be transferred to Slovene as speciesizem, because it has a logical background in the word species, which in Slovene designates an animal or plant category. On the other hand, there is an inflected form of the Latin word that is specie, so we could take the Latin root form of the word speci-, to which then the ending –izem is added, thus forming another Slovene term specizem. In this second way the Italian (specismo) and French (antispécisme) terms are formed, whereas the German language (Speziesismus) and the Czech language (speciesismus) have followed the English pattern. Prof. Snoj concludes that taking into account all these arguments for the time being and till the Acadamey selects one of the options, in Slovene it is possible to use both. It is difficult to keep a dictionary or a glossary up-to-date, especially one in a printed form, but I have tried to include also more recent words that I encountered during my search for lemmata. One of these is the expression locavorism, related to the word locavore, which was chosen as the Oxford Word of the Year in 2007. I am aware that this is just one among many, but at least it is an attempt of presenting the topic as thoroughly as possible, in spite of facing the limitations, such as the lack of experience and proper lexicographical tools.
Conclusions The first and undeniable conclusion that I have drawn while making the glossary has been that the job of compiling a glossary is anything but simple, regardless of how scientific the glossary is. Getting this project done has not been an act, it has been a process. Apart from learning the basics of lexicography, because I had no prior knowledge of theoretical lexicography, the process included an extensive research to acquire lemmata in the first place and then many more hours of research to find adequate Slovene equivalents in the second place. It would have also been virtually impossible to finish such a project by myself, because an extensive field like the topic of this glossary cannot be covered in detail by one person only. I am aware of the fact that in some instances my lexicographical methods were barely scientific, usually due to a lack of reliable animal protection-related texts in Slovene, which can be attributed to the current stage of development of animal rightist movement in Slovenia in comparison with other countries, especially with the United States. Since I am an inexperienced lexicographer, the lemma selection has been an arduous job for me as well. In spite of all the obstacles that I have encountered while working on my glossary I believe I have made a step forward in the direction of improving the lexical accuracy of the future animal protection articles, leaflets or any other texts in Slovene. For as humble as this contribution may seem, I hope that my work and effort have not been in vain and that the glossary will at least be a reminder that also when it comes to social activism the language in which the ideas are expressed must be correct, accurate and comprehensible. Correct translations or original texts play an important, if not the most important role in the mission of spreading the animal rights movement ideas. There is, of course, a lot of space for improvement and expansion of my work, but it is a humble beginning that could serve to other researchers as at least a source of inspiration and a basis for further work in this field.
Bibliography Online Sources of Glossary Entries <http://www.all-creatures.org/articles/act-gloss.html#Vivisection> 20 Nov. 2011. • • <http://www.allelephants.com/allinfo/trumble16.php> Web. 20 Nov. 2011. <http://www.animalfreedom.org/english/opinion/glossary.html> Web. 20 Nov. 2011. • <http://www.animalliberationfront.com/ALF_flow_v2/ARGlossary.htm> Web. 20 Nov. 2011. • <http://animalrights.about.com/od/veganandvegetariandiets/g/> Web. 20 Nov. 2011. • • <http://www.carnism.com/carnism.htm> Web. 20 Apr. 2012. <http://www.consumerfreedom.com/article_detail.cfm/a/152-animalrights-glossary> Web. 20 Nov. 2011. • • • • • <http://www.earthlings.com/> Web. 15. Nov. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_rights> Web. 20 Nov. 2011. <http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/glossary/> Web. 20 Nov. 2011. <http://www.humanemyth.org/glossary/1023.htm> Web. 20 Nov. 2011. <http://lib.colostate.edu/research/agnic/glossary.html> Web. 2011. • <http://www.macmillandictionary.com/thesauruscategory/british/Treating-animals-and-animal-welfare> Web. 20 2011. • <http://www.minnesotahelp.info/Public/taxonomy_glossary.aspx?code=T D-160.050> Web. 20 Nov. 2011. • • <http://www.peta.org/issues/default.aspx> Web. 4 Jan. 2012. <http://www.uni.edu/dor/dining/nutrition/vegglossary.htm> Web. 20 Nov. 2011. • <http://www.vegansoapbox.com/a-basic-vegan-glossary-20-terms/> Web. 20 Nov. 2011. Nov. 20 Nov. Web.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
"Animal Rights." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 7 Apr. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/25760/animal-rights>. Krek, Simon, ed. Veliki angleško-slovenski slovar Oxford (prva in druga knjiga). Ljubljana: DZS, 2005. Print. Grad, Anton; Škerlj, Ružena; Vitrovič, Nada. Veliki angleško-slovenski slovar. Ljubljana: DZS, 1997. Print. Slovar slovenskega knjižnega jezika. Online version. Ljubljana, 2000. Web. Ilustrirani angleški slovar Oxford. Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, 2004. Print. Anderson, Sandra; Black, Duncan, et al. eds. Collins English Dictionary. 9th ed. Glasgow: HarperCollins, 2007. Print. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/ Web. 15 Dec. 2011 – 15 Apr. 2012.
Works Cited • Bergenholtz, Henning, and Kaufmann, Uwe. "Terminography and Lexicography. A Critical Survey of Dictionaries from a Single Specialised Field." Hermes, Journal of Linguistics no. 18 (1997): 91-121. Web. 9 Dec. 2011. • Bergenholtz, Henning, and Tarp, Sven, eds. Manual of Specialised Lexicography: the Preparation of Specialised Dictionaries. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1995. Print. • Dunayer, Joan. Specizam: diskriminacija na osnovi vrste. Čakovec: Dvostruka duga, 2009. Print. • "Terminology." Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. Ed. Mona Baker and Gabriela Saldanha. London: Routledge, 2009. 286-90. Print. • Tarp, Sven. "Introduction to Thematic Section." Hermes, Journal of Linguistics no. 18 (1997): 9-11. Web. 9 Dec. 2011.
IZJAVA O AVTORSTVU Izjavljam, da je diplomsko delo z naslovom Animal Welfare and Protection: English-Slovene Glossary v celoti moje avtorsko delo ter da so uporabljeni viri in literatura navedeni v skladu z mednarodnimi standardi in veljavno zakonodajo. Ljubljana, 14. 5. 2012 Edita Fidler
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?