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Published by: Ajayi Adebayo Ebenezer-Success on Sep 29, 2012
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MT 302

Differential Distillation
To verify the Rayleigh’s equation for a differential distillation in a binary system

In the case of a differential distillation, the vapour at any time is in equilibrium with the liquid from which it rises but changes continuously in the composition. Thus, the mathematical approach used must be differential. Assume that L mol of liquid in the still of composition x mol fraction A and that an amount dD mol of distillate is vaporized, of mol fraction y∗ in equilibrium with the liquid. Material Balance The rate of depletion of liquid is equal to the rate of distillate output. The instantaneous rate of depletion of a component in the liquid is therefore, In - out = accumulation 0 − dD = dL Taking balance on more volatile component, 0 − y∗ dD = d(Lx) 0 − y∗ dD = xdL + Ldx y∗ dL = xdL + Ldx Therefore rearrangement gives,



(3) (4)

dL = L

xF xW


dx −x


This equation can be integrated to get the following form which is called the Rayleigh’s Equation, ln F = W
xF xW


dx −x


MT 302-1

W and xw can be obtained by material balance. 5 can be solved analytically (provided the relationship between y∗ and x is available) or graphically (calculating the area under the curve for the plot of 1/(y∗ − x) vs x. F = moles of feed of composition xF . W = moles of residual liquid of composition xW . MT 302-2 . F = D+W (7) F xF = DxD + W xW (8) The integral in eqn.where.

. . 4. Observations and Calculations Data from the literature 1.. Moelcular weights of A and B. After approximately 30 ml of the distillate has been collected. Fill 3/4th (approx. eta2b . This procedure should be repeated for collecting 8 distillate samples. When the mixture starts boiling. Measure the refractive indices (RI) of the samples collected in the test-tubes (η1t . Prepare a calibration plot of mole fraction (x) vs. Densities of A and B. Weigh the samples collected in the conical flasks (w1 .. The mixture is weighed (w) before charging in the distillation flask.... Vapour liquid equilibrium data for A and B at atmospheric pressure. Start heating at a slow rate. w2 . 5.. 2.1: Schematic of the setup Procedure 1. 2. w12 ). Refractive indices of A and B. MT 302-3 .0. collect the distillate in a weighed 50 ml flask. η2t . of tagged stoppered conical flasks. 3. Weigh 8 nos.Apparatus Figure MT 302. refractive index (h) of pure components A and B. η12b ).η12t ). 300 ml) volume of the distillation flask with a mixture of A and B of known composition (xF ). 3. Measure the RI of the bulk from each of the flasks (eta1b . remove the flask and collect next 8 to 10 drops of the distillate in tagged test-tube and then put another flask for the collection of the distillate.. Start the flow of water through the condenser. 6.. 4.

5. 3.8 0.1 0. 2.3 0.Calibration data for mole fraction vs. Complete the following Table. Calculate W (amount of residue still left in the flask) and xW (composition of residue) using Eqn.0 RI Calculations 1. Calculate x (liquid phase composition in equilibrium with y∗ ) using Raoult’s law.) 4.9 1.4 0.6 0. MT 302-4 . 7 and 8 for each fraction.5 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Mole fraction of A 0 0.2 0.7 0. Calculate y∗ (vapor phase composition) for each sample (from Refractive index of 8 drops collected.N. RI S. Calculate D (amount of distillate) (from weighed 30 ml sample) and xD (distillate composition) (from refractive index of 30 ml sample) for each sample.

9. Calculate ln(F/W) = ln(F/W)1 + ln(F/W)2 + . 6. + ln(F/W)8 7.S. Plot 1/(y∗ − x) vs x and measure the area under the curve. 8. Now verify Eqn.N. Calculate % Error = ln(F/W) − xF xw dx/(y∗ − x) × 100 ln(F/W) MT 302-5 ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 F xF D xD W xW y∗ x ln(F/W)i 1/(y∗ − x) 6.

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