Revolt of 1857

Viceroy Lord Aukland Lord Hardinge/ Lord Dalhousie Lord Dalhousie Lord Dalhousie Lord Canning Date / Place 1838-42 1845-49 Event First Afghan War Punjab Wars Points to Remember British Suffered Losses British Suffered Losses

1854-1856 1855-57 1857

Crimean Wars Santhal Rebellion Revolt of 1857

British Suffered Losses British Suffered Losses Economic  Peasants – heavy taxation/money lender high rates  Artisans – loss of patronage/ Indian handicraft discouraged vs British goods /no development of modern industries  Zamindars – quo warranto/ loss of land/ cant beg, work Political  EIC greedy policy of self aggrandizement & broken oaths  Policies of ‘Effective Control’, ‘Subsidiary Alliance’, ‘Doctrine of Lapse’  Mughal Prince Faqiruddin’succesor had to renounce title post his death in 1856 Socio Religious  Racial overtones/ Superiority Complex  Christian missionaries – proselytisation  Social reforms  Religious Disability Act 1876,  Tax mosque and temple lands Discontent among Sepoys  Restrictions on wearing caste and religious symbols  General Service Enlistment Act 1856 – Bengal Army recruits to serve anywhere – undertaking  Emoluments discrimination  No foreign service allowance when serving in Singh & Punjab  Annexation of Awadh  Rumor of bones in atta and cartridge of new Enfield Rifles (Greece containing

cow and pig fat) Feb, 1857 / Berhampur March 1857 / Barrackpore May 1857 / Awadh April 24, 1857 / Meerut 19th Native Infantry broke into Mutiny 34th Native Infantry – Mangal Pandey shot at a Sergeant Major 7th Awadh Regiment defied its officers 3rd Native Cavalry – 9 men refused to accept greased cartridge 3rd Native Cavalry 3rd Native Cavalry Local Infantry killed own European Officers Disbanded in March 1857 April 6 – Mangal Pandey executed May – Regisment disbanded May - Disbanded

May 9, 1857 / Meerut May 10, 1857/ Meerut May Delhi


June 27, 1857 / Kanpur

Nana Saheb Expelled the English from Kanpur and declared himself Peshwa

June 4, 1857 / Lucknow

Begam Hazrat Mahal took reigns

85 dismissed and sentenced to 10 years rigorous imprisonment Sepoys released comrades/killed officers/unfurled revolt banner  Simon Faser Killed  Lt. Willoughby put some resistance but was overcome  Bahadur Shah Zafar was proclaimed Emperor of India  General Bakth Khan led the revolt of the soldiers in Bareilley  He ran the court with 10 members – 6 from army and 4 from civilian – in the name of the emperor  Delhi captured in Sep 20, 1857  John Nicholson, leader of siege, wonded and dead  Lt. Landon – Butchered princes on spot at point blank  Emperor exiled to Rangoon in 1862  By 1859 – Bakth Khan dead  Nana Saheb, adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II was refused official titles  Sir Hugh Wheeler surrendered  Sir Colin Campbell occupied Kanpur in Dec 6, 1857  Nana Saheb escaped to Nepal  Tantia escaped into jungles. Captured and killed in April 1858  By 1859 – Rao Sahib (bro of Nana) dead  Son Birjis Qadir declared Nawab  Sir Henry Lawrence and some europeans lake shelter in the residency. Sir Henry killed

Lucknow recovered Begam forced to hide in Nepal He was a descendent of a former ruler of Rohilakhand Not enthusiastic about the pension By 1859 – Khan Bahadur dead Zamindar of Jagdishpur Britishers had taken his land Native of Madras Had moved to Faizabad By 1859 – Maulvi dead Lord Dalhousi had refused to allow her adopted son to ascend to the throne after the death of Raja Gangadhar Rao She was assisted by Tantia Tope an associate of Nana Saheb after the loss of Kanpur Marched towards Gwalior Gwalior captured in June 1858 Jhanshi captured by Sir Hugh Rose Colonel Neill put to death all suspected rebels and disorderly sepoys Great Britain took over Government of India from East India Company 1858-1905 Skipped: Revolutionary Terrorism (92) Political Associations before INC 1836/Bengal 1840’s/Bengal    1843/Bengal Bangabhasa Prakasika Sabha The Zamindari Association or Landholder’s Society The British Bengal India Society Founded by raja Ram Mohan Roy in Bengal Founded to safeguard the rights of the landholders  Collection and dissemination of information to people of british india . 1858 Brigadier Inglish held on against heavy odds Attempts by Sir Henry Havelock & Sir james Outram has no success Sir Colin Campbell evacuated the Europeans with Gorkha Regiment March 1858.                   Lord Canning announced “Queens Proclamation”  Bareilly Khan Bahadur Bihar Faizabad Kunwar Singh Maulvi Ahmadullah Jhansi Rani Laxmi Bai Banaras Lord Canning Nov 1.

administrative and economic unification Western thoughts and education Role of press and literature – in 1887 there were 169 vernacular newspapers Rediscovery of India’s past Progressive character of socio religious reform movements Growth of middle class intelligentsia 1851/Bengal Zamindari Association & British Bengal India Society merged 1853 1866/London Charter Act East India Association Poona Sarvajanik Sabha Indian League Indian Association of Calcutta   1867/Bombay        1875/Bengal 1876/Bengal Madras Mahajan Sabha 1885/Bombay Bombay Presidency Association Factors in growth of Modern Nationalism 1884/Madras          . P Anandacharalu Badruddin Tyabji. abkari & stamp duty 6 additional members included in governor general’s council Dadabhai Naroji – to discuss Indian Question with influential public in London to promote India’s welfare Mahadeo Govind Ranade Serving bridge between government and people Sisir Kumar Ghosh – Simulate sense of nationalism and political education Superseded Indian League Surendranath Banerjea and Anand Mohan Ghosh Discontented by pro landlord and conservative policies of British India Association Create public opinion on political questions/unify Indian people on political programme M Viragaraghavchari.K T Telang Understanding of contradictions in Indian and colonial interests – economic exploitation Political. B Subramaniya Aiyar. PherozshahMehta.    Employ lawful and peaceful means to secure rights British India Association formed after merger Sent recommendation for Charter of Company – separate legislature of popular character/reduction in salaries/abolition of salt duty.

national movement  Politicize/ politically educate  Establish a headquarters for the movement  Promote friendliness amongst nationalists  Develop anti-colonial nationalist ideology  Formulate and present popular demand to the government .Dec 1885/ 88) Bombay Conferences of Indian National Conference Indian national Congress Ripon had sought to abolish “judicial disqualification based on race” allowing Indian judges to try British offenders  Ripon had to modify the bill and it was enacted in a severe compromised state in 1884  Surendranath Banerjea and Anand Mohan Ghosh – architects of Indian national Conference  A O Hume mobilized intellectuals and conducted the first session of the Indian national Congress.  First session attended by 72 delegates  Presided by Womesh Chandra Bonnerjea  Hereafter congress met in December every year Aims of Congress:  Found democratic.  Lytton (7680) 1876 Reduction of Maximum age limit from 21 to 19 Grand Delhi durbar when country was severe grip of famine Vernacular Press Act Arms Act Ilbert bill controversy   Impact of contemporary movements world wide Reactionary policies and racial arrogance 1877 1878 1878 1883    Ripon (8084) 1883/1885 Dufferin(84. Hume convinced Dufferin. ‘Safety Valve’ theory – platform for intellectuals to release discontent.

 1887 Fallout with British India Government    1890 Kadambini Ganguly first woman to graduate from Calcutta College Session of INC in London  Develop and nurture feeling of nationalhood and unity Congress increasingly critical of colonial Rule Dufferin – stick to social questions “Sedatious Bramhins” . unofficial team present 5/25 average  Budget could be discussed / Could not be vetoed or amended  Questions could be asked / Supplimentaries not allowed  Naroji/Gokhle/Tilak .disguise official measures as being passed by a representative body/wealthy loyalists selected (exceptions Syed Ahmad Khan. Rashbheri Ghosh)  1885-92 demands – expansion of council/ more powers to council (control on finance) – power to veto or amend budget Indian Council’s Act 1892  Imperial legislative council of governor general to have 10-16 (instead of 610) members / Officials retained majority  Some members to be indirectly elected (element of election) / Reformed council met 13 days/ year. Kristodas Pal.Dinshaw Wacha  Indian Council’s Act of 1861 toothless . K L Nulkar. Duffer – “factory of sedition” Addressed INC par 1890       To be held in 1892 Postponed due to british elections in 1891 Plan of setting up a British Committee of INC in London in 1899 Dadabhai Naroji was the anchor Contribution of Moderates Economic Critique 1892 Constitutional Reform 1904/1905/1906 Self Government like Canada and Australia ‘Drain Theory’ – Dadabhai Naroji. V N mandalik. R C Dutt.

Boer War (1899-1902) where british faced reverses. Turkey. thought. Persia Reaction to westernization – Swami Vivekananda/ Bankim Chandra Chatterjee/ Dayanand Saraswati Dissatisfaction with moderates – Pray/ Petition/ Protest Reactionary Policies of Curzon Criticized Killed 90 lakhs Bubonic Plague in Dacca             1892 1896/1900 1897 Indian Council Act Severe famine Tilak Arrested/ Nathu Brothers deported Repressive Laws Calcutta Corporation Act Official Secrets Act Indian Universities Act 1898 1899 1904 1904 IPC 124A augmented with 156A Number of members in Calcutta cooperation reduced . association. Aurobindo appealed to national character Growth of education International influence –Progress of Japan post 1868. free press 1905-1918 Skipped: New forces. Italy defeated by Ethopia (1896). China. Japan’s Victory over Russia (1905) Nationalist movements in – Ireland. Russia. revolutionary forces Why Militant Nationalism Grew     Recognition of true nature of British Rule Growth of Self Confidence –Tilak.Administrative Reforms        Defence of Civil Rights Indianisation of services Separate judicial and executive Critique – Tyrannical Bureaucracy & time consuming judiciary Critique aggressive foreign policy – Afghan wars/ Burma wars Increase in expenditure on welfare Better treatment of labor abroad Speech . Bipin. Egypt.

1906/Calcutta INC session under Dadabhai Naroji      Proclamation fo Swadeshi Movement – Boycott Manchester Cloth/ Lanchester Salt Bath in Ganga/ Sing Bande Mataram/ fast/ Peaceful Demonstration Surendranath & Anand Mohan addressed huge gatherings Tilak – Poona Bombay. Syde Haider Raza – Delhi. 1905 / Benaras INC session under Gokhle    Dec. 1905 Partition of Bengal announced ignoring public opinion Boycott Resolution Passed in Calcutta Townhall Partition came into force    Dec.1905 Oct 16. Prithvishchandra Ray. Chidambaram Pillai .colleges etc Council reforms had been announced – moderates didn’t want that screwed Extremists thought this was an . K K mitra 3P Method July 1905 Aug 7.Madras Condemn partion of Bengal and Curzon’s policies Support Swadeshi Movement Tilak/ Rai/ Bipin/ Aurobindo – wanted to take the movement outside Bengal and make it a full fledged national movement in line with attaining swaraj.Swadeshi and Boycott Movement December 1903 Govt. But moderate were not willing to go that far and were in favor of constitutional methods Extremists wanted Tilak as president but Naroji proposed Swaraj or self government declared to be goal of congress Embolden by this the extremist called for passive resistance – boycott of school. Eastern Half (18/24) Muslim Surendranath Banerjea. Lala Lajpat Rai & Ajit Singh – Punjab. decision to partition Bengal      1903-1905     Government announce decision to partion Bengal Bengal (78 million people) – difficult to admin Bengal – Nerve Center of nationalism to be weakened On language (17 million Bengali and 37 million Oriya Hindi) – 42/54 Hindu (Western Half).

6 british capitalists. Waqar-ul-Mulk & Mohsinul-Mulk Government’s “rallying them”.  Imperial Legislative Council – 68 total – 32 non official – 5 nominated / 27 elected – 8 muslims.Dec. representation in excess of . non elected majority retained. Non official majority introduced. Carrot and Stick strategy Extremists repressed moderately to scare the moderates/ moderates placated with concessions/ Extremists subdued 1907 Al India Muslim League Formed Government Strategy   1907 1908 1908 Seditious Meetings Act Indian Newspapers (Incitement of Offence) Act Tilak sent to Mandalay for 6 Years    1909 Morley – Minto Reforms Biping Pal and Aurobindo retire from active politics  Lala Lajpat Rai leaves for abroad  Tilak Back in 1914  1906 – Shimla Delegation by Aga Khan for separate electorates for Muslims. 2 landlords (reserved). 1907/ Surat INC session under Rashberi Ghosh    opportunity which could not be missed Extremists wanted this to be held in Nagpur but it was held in Surat so that Tilak doesn’t become president Anti Congress body under Nawab Salimullah (reactionary element) encouraged. 13 general electorate  Elected members indirectly elected – Local Body – Electoral college – Provincial Legislature – Central Legislature  Besides separate electorates for muslims. This group took over Muslim League.  Clonial self government as demanded by congress is not for india – Morley  Aimed at using Moderates vs Extremists and Muslims vs nationalism The Reforms:  Members in Imperial & Provincial Legislative Councils increased.

Jamadar Abdul gani. ask supplementary. Lala hardayal. G D Kumar. leaders arrested – depoeted & killed. vote separate items of the budget but not the whole. Kartar Singh Saraba.1915    . Income qualification lowers than hindus. People refuse to alight in Calcutta – 22 people die in police action. Bhupendranath Datta – help of German under ‘Zimmerman Plan’ Punjabi Muslim 5th Light Infantry 36th Sikh Battalion Jamadar Chisty Khan. 1915 Armed revold by Ghadarites in Ferozpur. Sachin Sanyal Foiled by Treachery Regiment disbanded. strength. 45 hanged Rashberi Bose fled to Japan Sachin Sanyal transported for life Virendranath Chattopadhayay. 1915 1915 Feb 15. Rawalpindi Defense India Act Berlin Committee for Indian Independence Mutiny in Singapore       March. Power of legislature increased – recommendations (which may not be accepted). Lahore. Raghubar Dayal Gupta left for India Bengal revolutionaries contacted – Rashberi Bose. Jamadar Daud Khan Revolutionaries 1913 Ghadr established    Sep 1914 Komagata Maru    Feb 21. 1910 June 1914 1914 Indian Press Act Tilak Back First World War      Moderates supported as a matter of duty Extremists supported in the hope that retain would repay with gratitude of self government Revolutionaries – opportunity to overthrow with Japanese or German support Ramdas Puri. Sohan Singh Bakhna. Taraknath Das. Lala Hardayal reached in 1911 ‘Swadesh Sevak Sangh’ – Vancouver & ‘United India House’ – Seattle Ship carrying 370 Punjabi Muslim & Sikh from Singapore to Vancouver returned by Canadian Authorities.

Central Province.Aug 1914 Bengal & Punjab Revolutionaries   Home Rule League         December. CP Ramaswamy . main work done by B W Wadia. 1915 Annie Besant has launched a campaign to demand self government for India INC Session  Rashberi Ghosh & Sachin Sanyal with Ghaderites Bengal groups were organized by Jatin Mukherji Organized on the lines of Irish Home Rule Leagues Annie Besant and Tilak were the pioneers Section of nationalist felt that popular pressure was needed to attain concessions Moderates disillusioned with MorleyMinto War time miseries – high tax. Berar Swaraj. 1916 Annie’ Home Rule League   Extremists decided to be admitted to congress Annie Besant’s Home Rule League not approved Congress agrees on educative propaganda and local level congress committees Annie Besant puts condition that if the congress does not implement its recommendations. she was free to set up her league Maharashtra (Excluding Bombay). Tilak and Besant decide to revive political activity on their own Campaign through News papers New India and Commonwealth     April. Karnata. 1914 INC session  1915 Dec. Linguistic States. education in vernacular Rest of India (Including Bombay) George Arundale – secretary. 1916 Tilak’s Home Rule League   Sep. high prices – people ready for aggressive action Inter imperialist war & propaganda exposed supremacy myth Tilak had toned down stand – ready to assume leadership Both Tilak and Annie Besant realized that a unity of Moderates and Extremists was imperative for the movement to succeed Failure to reach Moderate-Extremists rapproachment.

Gujarat Went to Aftica for his client Dada . conferences etc Russian Revolution helped Case instituted against Tilak.1917 Montagu Statement  1917 Government Suppression Why it faded 1918-1939 Skipped: Evolution of 2 nation theory(153). Page 169 (other upsurges) 1894 . wadia. annulment of Bengal partition 1911. Anie was unsure – lack of leadership Recognises self governance Dec. relisation that unity imp. Porbandar. Gokhle & pherozshah Mehta had died Lucknow pact congress & Muslim league – Britain refusal to help turkey. rescinded by high court June 1917 – Annie.1915 Gandhi in Africa   Born – Oct 2.1869.1916/Lucknow Session of INC under Ambika Charan Majumdhar     Home rule Program            Aug. increase size of legislature. Muslims and Anglo Indians didn’t join as they felt it was a Hindu majority high caste thing Extremist readmission – pitched by tilak & annie. 50. Arundale arrested – leaqds to nationwide protest Sir S Subramaniya Aiyar renounces knighthood Tilak follows passive resistance Sep 1917 – Annie released Communal riots 1917-18 Lack of effective organization Moderates who had joined after Annie’s arrest pacified by release and Montagu Reforms Tilak had to go out for a case.% Indians Congress League diff identities – milestone in 2 nation theory Aim – self government through political education and discussion through public meetings. outgrow in outlook from Aligarh (Muslim League Calcutta session 1912– self governance for India if doesn’t hurt muslim interest) Joint statement – self governance asap.

Jan 1915 Gandhi Comes to India July. mazhar ul haq. mahadeo desai. Viceroy Lord Hardinge influenced judgements in his favor  Decides to understand things for a year  1917 – champaran – civil disobedience first invited by Rajkumar sukhla to champaran in bihar against the tinkanthia system of indi planters/accompanied by rajendra parsad. j b kriplani  1918 – ahmedabad mill strike – first hunger strike – 35 % increase in wage by owners  1918 – kheda satagrah Gujarat – first non cooperation –peaants asked to withhold revenue/ Britishers challenged as per Revenue Code/ Youngsters like Sardar Patel & Indulal Yagnik be Came followers Provincial: Executive  Dyarchy  “reserved “ & “transferred” list  Sectary and viceroy can interefere in reserved but restricted in transferred Legislative  Expanded – 70% to be elected  Communal & class electorate further consolidated  Women could vote  Legislature could initiate legislation .1918 Montagu Chelmford (Montford) Reforms and Government of India Act 1935 Abdullah  1894 – 1906 – Found Natal Indian Congress and Indian Opinion to unite Indians in Africa  Satyagrah Against “Registration Certificates” -1906  Campaign Against registration of Indian Migrations  Setting up Tolstoy Farm  Campaign against poll tax and invalidation of Indian marriages  Gokhle. narhari parekh.Governor’s assent needed/ he can veto Central: Executive  Provincial & Central lists Legislature: .

1919 Satyagrah Called off Khilafat & Non Cooperatation Early 1919 Khilafat Committee formed All India Khilafat Conference calls for boycotting foreign goods Nov 1919    Feb 1920 Hindu Muslim delegation sent to viceroy to address issues Treaty of Severes with Turkey All party meet approves boycott of schools. Martial law in Punjab & Jallianawala Bagh Massacre Hunter Commission report Turkey Issue with Muslims Ali Brothers (Shaukat Ali. 10 M. colleges etc Tilak dies  May 1920 June 1920    Turkey Dismembered Aug 1. 30 muslims. Azmat Khan. Hasrat Morani Tilak was opposed to alliance on a religious issue with the Muslims as well as to satyagraha as a political movement Some were against some provision of non cooperation like the boycott of councils Gandhi was able to get congress approval Mission abortive April 18. 1919 Satyagrah against Rowlatt Act Declared Satyagrah Launched Jalianawal bagh massacre Page 117  Authorized govt to imprison without trial and conviction in court  Habeus Corpus repealed  First mass satyagrah         Unaware of prohibitory orders Protest against arrest of leaders Saiffudin Kitchlew & Satyapal Tagore renounced knighthood in protest Rowlatt Act. Maulana Azad. 1919 April 13. 1 S. 2 sikh. Muhammad ali).1920 .    Bicameral arrangement Legislative Assembly – 144 – 103 elected – 52 general. 3 Europeans 75% budget still not votable March 1919 Rowlatt Act Feb 1919 April 6. 20 specials Council of State – 60 – 34 elected – 20 G.

UP 22 policemen killed by protesters when they were fired on while they had come to protest in front of the police statio Decides to stop all activity Dec. C courts. 1921 INC session Ahmedabad   Feb 1.1920 Sep. Rajendra Prasad. M A Ansari – continue constructive work Swarajist proposal defeated. Congress Swarajya Khilafat Party    Dec 1923   People rose under Mustafa Kamal Pasha and deprived the sultan of his political power. Swaragists – Motilal Nehru. 1922 INC Gaya Session. 1920 Non Cooperation movement Launched Congress session approved non cooperation till Punjab & Khilafat wrongs corrected INC session Nagpur       Boycott schools. 1922 March.foreign clothes Legislative councils – CR das not in favor Renunciation of govt titles Self govt thrugh constitutional means replaced by swaraj through peaceful and legitimate means CWC setup. 1920 Dec.Aug 31. President & Secretary of the new party Both side consulted with Gandhi Compromise was reached and the Swarajists joined back with the understanding that could entry wuld be allowed to them . colleges. Motilal Nehru and CRDas resigned for presidentship and secretaryship respectively. 1922 INC meets at Bardoli Gandhi arrested and sentenced to 6 years Turkey issue non existant    Gorakhpur. 1922 Nov. provincial congress committees setup Gandhi Under pressure to launch civil disobedience CR Das presides from Jail – Hakim Azmal Khan acting president Political prisoners to be released Press controls to be removed Dec.1922 Feb 5. European style judicial system put in place.1922 Gandhi threatens to launch civil disobedience from Bardoli Chauri Chaura incident     Feb. CR Das. Azmal Khan – wanted to end boycott of council entry No Changers – Vallabhai Patel.

1928/ dies in Nov 1928 Birkinhead challenges Indian Politicians to come up with an agreed constitution acceptable to everyone Motilal Nehru Finished by Aug 1928 Consensus on majority except – “dominion status” or “complete independence”  Dec. Swarajist Achievement Swarajist Achievement Whether India was ready for Further consti tutional reforms and on what lines Constitutional reforms were due in 1929.Nov 1923 1924 Elections Communal Riots and division of swarajists on communal lines      1925 1928 Nov 8. NC Kelkar – stay in office and further hindu interests. Non Resposivists – Motilal Nehru advocated not staying in office and mass civil disobedience – withdrew from legislature in 1926 Responsivists went to elections and did badly – 1926.1927 Vithal Bhai Patel – Speaker of central Legislative Assembly Public Safety Bill Defeated 7 member Indian Statutory Commission appointed under Chairmanship of John Simon     Swarajists won 42/141 elected seats Split amongst Swarajists – responsivists and non-responsivists. These guys joined Hindu Mahasabha.Managed By Nehru Nehru & Subhash emerged as new leaders Nehru and GB Pant Beaten Lala Lajpat Rai Beaten –Oct. Madan Mohan Malviya.1927 INC session under MA Ansari   Feb 3. furher weakened by death of C R Das in 1925 Responsivists – Lala Lajpat Rai. Resigned post Lahore session for Civil Disobediance Movement. conservative party did not want to leave the question of India to labour party Appointed by conservative secretary of state Lord Birkenhead Boycott the commission at every stage and in every form Complete Independence was declared as the Goal . 1928 Simon landed in India     Feb 1928 All Party Conference – Sub Committee to draft constitution    .

Dec 1927 Dec 1928 Delhi Proposals by Muslim League All Party Meet Dec 1928 INC session. adopt complete independence as the goal and launch civil disobedience          1929 1929 May.1929 Meerat Conspiracy Bombing by Bhagat Singh and B K Dutt Labour government under Ramsay McD comes to power Irwin’s Statement Nov 2.1930 fixed as the first Independence Day  .1929 Irvin Rejects Delhi Menifesto INC session in Lahore under Nehru Dec 31.1929 Dec . 2 years grace period be given to government to accept the demand.1929 Oct. Calcutta Page 160  Hindu Mahasabha opposes  Some concessions made my Nehru  Jinnah proposes Amendments to the updated Nehru report and gives his 14 point demands  Nehru and Congress reject ‘Dominion Status’ as goal and setup “Independence for India League”  Subhash & Nehru reject “Dominion Status”  Gandhi and Motilal Nehru reason that the consensus over dominion status has been built over years. reduced to 1 year  If government doesn’t accept.1929 Tricolor hoisted at banks of River Ravi Nehru declared president due to Gandhi’s backing – 15/18 congress provincial committee had opposed Nehru Decisions  RTC to be boycotted  Complete independence declared to be aim of congress  Civil disobedience to be launched  Jan 26. 1929 Delhi Manifesto Page 164 – Montagu Statetement – non committal dominion status (in time) RTC after Simon Submits Report Purpose of RTC to formulate scheme for Dominion Status Congress to have Majority Dec 23.

1931 – Bhagat Singh. 1931 March. 1930 Feb 1930 March 12. Rajguru and Sukhdev hanged Gandhi showed black flags on his way to .April 6. 1931 To Endorse Gandhi Irwin pact   Irwin agreed to . 1930 July 1930 Gandhi’s 11 Demands No reply from govt – Gandhi authorized to launch Civil Disobediance Movement Dandi March Nehru Arrested Gandhi Arrested Viceroy suggested RTC and reiterated goal of dominion status Motilal and Jawaharlal Nehru taken to Yeravada Jail to Gandhi to discuss possibility of settlement. Nehru Gandhi Reiterate Round Table Conference Page 166 Page 166      Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi When he announced raids on Darshana Salt Works Tej Bahadur Sapru / M R Jayakar to explore possibilities of peace August 1930    Right of secession from Britain Complete national government with control over finance and defense Independent tribunal to settle britain’s financial claims Talks broke     Jan 25.Jan 26.Page 174 Gandhi agreed to – suspend civil disobedience movement and participate in 2nd RTC March 23. 1930 amongst Inqalab Zindabad Civil Disobediance Launched   Public Meetings all over India Independence Pledge read out Jan 31. 1930 April 1930 May 4.1931 Gandhi and everyone else released unconditionally Delhi Pact/ Gandhi Irwin Pact Signed    Nov – Jan 1930 Congress Boycotted Britain and India as equals Muslim League/ Hindu Mahasabha/ Liberals & Princes attended Everyone reiterated that a discussion was impossible without congress Feb 14.

B C Roy Continue Civil Disobedience – Nehru his opposition to Struggle-TruceStruggle strategy vis Struggle-Victory Strategy Nationalist with apprehension & Britishers were hoping for a split Gandhi goes in favor of council entry August. 1931 Jan 4. Asaf Ali. sympathizers arrested/properties confiscated Press Gagged Depressed classed recognized as minorities and to be given separate electorates Poona Pact signed between Ambedkar and Gandhi in Sep.1932 April 1934 1934-35 Ramsay McD announces Communal Awards Gandhi Indefinite Strike to blackmail Ambedkar Gandhi withdraws the Civil disobedience movement Three perspectives          May 1934 Oct 1934 All India Congress Committee met at Patna to set up a parliamentary committee to fight elections Gandhi resigns from congress   He was in disagreement with parliamentary politics Ppl were perplexed w3ith his obsession for charkha . 1932 Passive resistance all over the country but tempo could not be sustained Masses were not prepared Constructive Work Constitutional Struggle – elections in 1934 – M A Ansari. 1932 Sep 20. S Satyamurty. Dec 1931/London 2nd Round Table Conference   Karanchi Resoluion of National Economic Programme and Fundamental Right Adopted Talks Fail – Page 177 Ramsay Macdonald announces – two muslim majority province etc – Page 177 Dec 31. Bhulabhai Desai.1932 Willington refuses to meet Gandhi Gandhi Arrested       Civil Martial Law imposed Congress organization at all levels banned Leaders.

Third RTC    Socialists including Nehru had issues with Gandhi’s STS strategy Congress captures 45/75 seats 1935 Government of India Act. 1939 Germany attacks Poland Britain attacks Germany   Second world war starts Declares India’s Support India’s Offer to cooperate in War efforts:  After the war. NWFP  Nehru Conceded to S-T-S strategy  Setup under Subhash Bose  Congress resigns 1939-1947 Skipped: Parallen Government (210). Fizapur INC session INC Session 1937 Provincial Elections 1938 Oct 1939 National Planning Committee World War breaks out Congress did not participate Government of India Act 1935 formulated – Separate Electorates based on Communal awards made operational Page 186  Act of 1935 to be Opposed  Socialist led by Nehru – Not to contest provincial elections or swarajist strategy to stall council  Proponents of office acceptance – fight legislature elections and oppose act  Gandhi – opposed but by 1936 became favourable  Congress decides to fight elections  Congress decided to fight elections  Congress manifesto totally rejected Act of 1935  Congress contested 716/1161 seats  It got a majority in all provinces except Bengal. Sindh NWFP.Upsurges (221) Sep 1. a constituent assembly will be convened to determine political structure of free India  Some form of genuinely responsible . Lucknow 1937. Panjab. Assam. Assam. 1935 1936. Single largest party in Bengal. Nov 1934 1932 Central Legislativ Assembly elections Admist struggle of 1932 . INA (216). 3 . 1939 Sep 3.

1940 Linlithgow Statement  March.1939 Linlithgow’ Response    Oct 23. 1940 Pakistan Resolution  August 1940 August Offer by Viceroy    . congress would launch civil disobedience when it was ready or when circumstance precipitates Leftist group (subhash bose) supported an all out mass struggle Muslim League – Geographically contiguous muslim majority areas to become independent states Hitler’s success and fall of Belgium .1940 INC session Ramgarh    March.1939 INC session Wardha     Offer Rejected by Linlithgow Gandhi – unconditional support Subhash – take advantage of situation Nehru – No support even though its democracy vs fascism until India was free Congress – 1) India will not be a party to a war for democracy when its own democracy is denied 2)Govt should declare its war aims 3) if Britain is fighting for democracy it should set india free Tried to use Muslim League & Princes vs congress Did not define war aims Received support from Conservative PM Churchill & Secretary Zetland Rejected viceregal statement as reiteration of imperial policy Refused to supportthe war Asked ministers to resign from legislature (top block ending) “Dominion Status of the Westminster variety is the goal of the british policy I India” Congress was not ready for a mass struggle / mass not ready for struggle/ allies cause just/ hindu muslim unity issue could result in riots So.1939 CWC meeting    Jan 4.government to be setup at center  Sep 10-14. Holland and France prompted Britain to make an offer Dominion status/constituent assembly/expansion of executive council/ veto to minorities Congress – rejected dominion status Oct 17.

1942 Aug 9. Home with Britishers National Defense Council formed Delhi Chalo Vinoba Bhave 1st person followed by Nehru By May 1941 – 25000 convicted of Civil Disobedience Anxious to defend India Overrode Gandhi and Nehru’s objection and CWC decided to go to Allied aid – full independence after war.1942 Gandhi Called for British withdrawal and non violent non cooperation movement against Japanese invasion INC session Gowalia Tank. July 1941 Viceroy’s executive council enlarged Individual Satyagrahas       Dec 1941 Congress leaders released   End of 1940 March 1942 Cripps Mission      League – appreciated veto. Finance. substance of power transferred immediately Gandhi designates Nehru as successor Stafford cripps – left wind labourite and leader of house of commons Reverses suffered by Britain and Japan threat imminent Pressure from Allies Indian nationalists agree to support if substance power transferred immediately Nehru and Maulana Azad – Oficial Negotiators Proposal: Dominion status/ constituent assembly/province not willing could constituate a separate dominion Talks failed (Page 206) July 14. reiterated partition 8/12 given to Indians Defence. 1942       Quit India Resolution ratified Do or Die Public passive resistance. Bombay All senior leaders arrested in a Sweep  Aug 8. Gets violent at places Government suppression severe Usha Sharma – Ran a radio Feb 1943 Gandhi goes on Fast against government .

Shimla June 1945-Feb 1946 Upsurges    July 1945 Aug 1945 Sep 1945 Sep 1945 Labor party came to power. Nehru. Katju – Defense of the convicts In redfort of Prem Kumar Sehgal.Mar 23.1943 1943 repression Pakistan Day celebrated by League Famine Rajgopal Chari Formula Desai Liaqat pact           Southwest Bengal – 1. congress. Clement Atlee PM. Tej Bahadur Sapru. Patrick Lawrence Secretary Election to Central & Provincial legislatures announced Constituent Assembly would be convened & Govt would work according to spirits of cripps plan INC Session Bombay    Announced by government   Nov 1945 INA trials  Strong resolution in support of INA Bhulabhai Desai.5 to 3 million dead Page 213 Page 214 Put leaque and congress on equal footing Churchill keen to reach a constitutional solution Lord Wavell sent to negotiate Page 215 League wanted to be representative of all Muslims and congress objected to being designated a Hindu Party Wavell announced a breakthrough – giving the League a Veto – this would have far reaching consequences in the elections of 1945-46 It failed to break constitutional deadlock Negotiations involving govt. muslim league ending in freedom or partition Sporadic localized often militant violances May 1945 June 1945 Europe war ends but Japanese threat on India still there Wavell Plan. Gulbaksh Singh DHillon. Asi Ali.Shah Nawaz .

Bombay 1916– D K karve – he married a widow in 1893. Calcutta Pundit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar – 35 girls’ schools Bengal Charles Wood’s dispatch 1845 – stress on women education Women’s Medical Service – 1914.1804 – tantamount to murder Act 1870 – child to be registered Brahmo Samaj Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar – Hindu Widow Remarriage Act.1956 – discrimination w. Calcutta Missionaries Bethune School – JED Bethune in 1849. Karve Lady Hardinge Medical College. 1856 Widow Remarriage Association – Pundit Vishnu Sashtri. Governor of United Province 1947-49 All India Women’s Conference – 1920 Special Marriage Act. 1916.1947 June 3. training as nurses Indian Women’s University – 1916. became president of Widow Remarriage Association Native Marriage Act/ Civil marriage Act. 1850 Satya Prakash – Karsondas Mulji. 1930 – Marriageable age 18 and 14 for boys and girls Child Marriage Restraint Act. dissolution marriage on special grounds Hindu Succession Act.r. 1891 – prohibit marriageof girls < 12 – B M Malabari Sarda Act.1947 Cabinet Mission Atlee’s Statement Mountbatten Plan India Independence Act       Khan Congress 52/102 Muslim League 30 reserved seats Page 226 Page 233 Page 235 Page 236 Reforms Sati          Raja Ram Mohan Roy Bengal Regulation 1829 Bengal regulation 1795.Election Results May 1946 Feb 20. age increased 18 to 21. 1872 Age of Consent Act. 1852 Indian Women’s University. 1978.1955 –abolished bigamy. 14 to 18 Calcutta Female Juvenile Society 1819.t inheritance abolished Female Infanticide Widow Remarriage Child Marriage     Women Education             Legislative Measures in Free India . Delhi Sarojini Naidu – Congress President 1925. 1954 – intercaste/religious marriages Hindu Marriage Act.1947 June 18.

1961 – amended to included women not covered under ESI Act 1948 Equal Remuneration Act.1935 – special representation Self Respect Movement – EV Ramaswamy Naiker Maharajah of Kolhapur – Encouraged anti – Brahmin movement Sri Narayan Guru & Sahadaran in Kerala Raja Ram Mohan Roy – Gift to Monotheist.1814/Precepts of Jeasus.                                  Caste Brahmo Samajh Hindu adoption and Maintenance Act – enhanced status of women in matters of adoption Maternities Benefits Act.1961 1987 – Act – glorification of sati a cognisible offence 1932-All India Harijan Sangh – Gandhi All India Schedule Caste Federation – Ambedkar Jyotiba Phule All India Depressed Classes Association – other leaders Government of India Act. Calcutta 1825 – Setup Vedanta College 1828 – Brahmo Samaj Found 1833 – Death 1842 – Maharishi Debedranath tagore joined Brahmo Samaj – he was founder of Tatvabodhini sabha 1858 – Kesab Chandra Sen made acharya of Brahmo Samaj 1865 – Kesab dismissed from acharyaship – radical views on caste system and support for inter caste marriage 1866 – Kesab founded Brahmo Samaj of India/ Debendranath – Adi Brahmo Samaj 1878 – Kesab got his 13 year old daughter married to a maharaja – Split and formation of new Sadharan Brahmo Samaj 1863.1956 – Renamed to Immoral Traffic Act. 1976 – no discrimation in payment Factories(Amendment) Act – establishment of crèches where 30 women are employed Supression of Immoral Traffic Act in Women and Girls Act.1820 1818 – Anti Sati movement resulted in Bengal regulation 1829 1817 – Supported David Hare’s efforts to setup Hindu College.Kesab Chandra Sen 1826-31 – Henry Vivian Dorazio Reform Hinduism/ attack Brahmin orthodoxy /darpan.1986 Dowry Prohibition Act. 1832 Gyan Prasarak Mandalis 1848 – organize lecture on scientific topics and popular questions 1849 – one god/break caste rule/women education and widow remarriage Prarthna Sabha Young Bengal Movement Bal Shastri Jambekar Students Literary and Scientific Societies Param Hansa Mandalis . 1809/Atmiya Sabha.

Pundit Gurudatt 1920 – In zeal to protect hindu society – shuddi – communal tension 1885 – B M Malabari Parsi – women education. philanthropic and charitable work looking upon all men as veritable menifestations of divine Objective 1 – Ramkrishna Paramhans found Ramkrishna Math Objective 2 – Vivekananda (Narendranath Datta 1862 to 1902) found Ramkrishna Mission.Gulamgin Rationalism and attach on hindu orthodoxy Humanism 1905 – Gopal Krishna Gokhle Train missionaries to serve india by constitutional means 1915 – died / took over by Srinivasa Sashtri Gokhle follower Narayan Manohar Joshi Secure for masses beter conditions of life and job 1920 . Satyadharma. Lala Hansraj.Also found AITUC Objective – 1)band of nmonks to spread universal message of Vedanta 2)lay principles to carry preaching. ramkrishna Social Service League Ramkrishna Mission                Seva Sadan Deva Samaj       Arya Samaj Dharma Sabha Bharat Dharma . Swami Shradhanand.Satyasodhak Samaj Gopalhari Deshmukh ‘Lakahitawadi’ Gopal Ganesh Agarkar Servants of India Society            Jyotiba Phule Sarvajanik. medical and welfare 1887 – Shiv Narayan Agnihotri in Lahore – eternity of soul/supremacy of guru/ need for good action Deva Shastra 1830 – Radha Kant Dab – Orthodox society – status quo in hindu matters Counter Brahmo Samaj Defend Orthodox Hinduism against Arya samajist. later headquarter shifted to Lahore Dayanand Saraswati or Mulsankar (1824 – 83). Received education of Vedanta from blind teacher Swami Virajnanda in Mathura Criticised puranas and hindu orthodoxy Samaj Fixed marriageable age at 25 for boys and 16 for girls Caste system – not by birth but by occupation Inter caste marriages encouraged 1886 – Dayanand Anglo Vedic school established at lahore 1902 – Swami Shraddhanand start Gurukul at Hardwar Dayanand criticized hindu escapist attitude of Maya Encouraged Vedic Study and Vedic Purity – Call for revival of vedic study and not times After death work carried by Lala Lajpat Rai. 1897 1875 – Arya Samaj first unit at Bombay.

SNDP Movement Right of admission to schools/recruitment fo govt services/temple entryand political representation for backward castes 1905 – Anti Brahmin Movement in Mysore CN Muriladhar. P thyagaraj – non Brahmin representation in legislature and jobs E V ramaswamy Naicker – renounce Brahmin religion 1888 – Narayan Guru installed a siva idol in aravippuram in Kerala 1924 – Vaikon Satyagraha – K P Keshava – open temples and roads to untouchables 1931 – Subramaniyam Tirumambu led a group of 16 volumteers to Guruvayur 1936 – Maharaja of Travancore threw open all temples to all hindus 1938 – C Rajgopalchari govt took actions in Madras Founded by M G ranade and Raghunath Rao in 1887 in Madras ‘Pledge Movement’ against child marriage Inter caste marriage.Mahamandala       Radhaswami Movement Sri narayan Guru Dharma Pripalan Movement Vokkaliga Sangha Justics Mvement Self Respect Movement Arravi ppuram Movement Temple entry Movement                            Indian Social Conference Wahabi /Wallimullah Titu Mir Faraizi Movement Ahmadiya Movement mission. theosophists 1902 founded at Varanasi Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya important figure 1861 – Tulsi Ram or Shiv Dayal Saheb founded the movement Believe in one supreme being/supremacy of guru/company of pious people/simple social life 1902 . T M nair. opposed polygamy Shah Walimullah (1702 – 62) – inspired this revivalist approach against western influence on Indian muslims Shah Abdul Aziz / Syed Ahmed Barelvi – carried forward the teachings Darul-ul-harb to Darul-ul-Islam through Jihad Directed against Punjab but post 1849 annexation to british 1870 – fizzled out Mir Nithar Ali – disciple of Syed Ahmed Raebarelvi – founder of Wahabi Movement Organized muslim pesants against hindu landlords and british indigo planters 1931 – killed in action Founded by hazi Shariat Allah Emphasis on Islamic pillars of faith Eradication of social innovations among muslims 1840 – became revolutionary under dudu mian – haji’s son Target hindu landlords and even police 1862 – dudu mian died 1889 – Founded my Mir Gulam Ahmed Muslim version of Brahmo Samaj – humanism and anti jihad .

Naoroji Furdonji. S S Bengalee Rast Goftar – Newspaper Women education/ uplift women/ purdah Singh Sabha founded in 1873 Amritsar– counter proselytisation by Christians and hindus/ modern education to Sikhs (khalsa schools established) Akali movement was an offshoot of Singh Sabha Movement – to make sikh gurudwara free from control of Udasi Mahants 1921 – Non cooperation non violent protests 1922 – Sikh Gurudwara Act – Control of sikh given to sikh masses through the Siromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee Blvatsky. K R Cama.Sir Syed Ahmed Khan & Aligarh Movement      Deoband School      Rahnumai Mazdayasnan Sabha Sikh Reform         Theosophical Movement        1875 – Mohmeddan anglo oriental college. Aligarh Wanted to aligh the teachings of the quaran with modern nationalism Allow govt. annie besat becomes president 1898 – Central Hindu College founded in Calcutta – both hindu and western sciences taught 1916 – benarus hindu university founded . Olcott inspired by Indian cultures 1875 – Theosophical Society founded in US 1882 – Shifted to Adayar Promoted hindu culture etc 1907 – Olcott dies. partonate to simulate growth in Indian Muslims through education and employment opportunities Social reforms in muslim society In his Zeal to promote muslim interest got played up in british hands 1866 – Qasim Nanatovi & Rashid Ahmed Gangohi Moral and religious regenation of muslims – revivalist movement 1888 – issues fatwa against Syed Ahmed’s organization United Patritic Association & Mohammedan Anglo Oriental Association Supported Congress Shibli Numani – Favoured inclusion of English and sciences – founded Nadwatlal Ulema and Darul Ulum in Lucknow in 189496 – believed in cooperation of Hindus and Muslims as a state Parsi reformist movement Dadabhai Naroji.

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