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It is the yield value how much yarn is obtained from 100kg cotton In the production economics of a spinning mill,

, yarn realisation plays a significant role. Even an 1% improvement in yarn realisation would lead to a saving of Rs 20 lakhs per year for a 30000 spindle mill manufacturing 40s yarn. Yarn realisation (YR) is largely governed by the level of trash in cotton, expected yarn quality and type of machinery.

Achievable yarn realisation can be obtained using the following formulae:

Blow room Amount of waste extracted in blow room is mostly determined by the trash level in cotton. Cleaning efficiency 50-60% considered to be quite satisfactory. Lint in waste is no more than 40% - 50% Cards Waste extracted is usually in the range of 4% to 7% The combined cleaning efficiency in the range of 90% to 98%

Combers noil extraction up to 16% for every 1% increase in comber waste, yarn lea strength will increase by 1% and evenness is expected to improve by 0.15 U%. Yarn waste 0.5-0.8% in cone winding A high yarn waste indicates poor machinery condition and maintenance, and inappropriate work practices of operatives. Factors such as vibrating spindles, spindles out of center, soft cops, oil stain on yarn, improperly built cop bottom, yarn left over in cops during winding and operatives using excess length while piecing, leads to high yarn waste.

Should not be more than 0.5%. Invisible loss in a spinning mill occurs due to a number of factors such as short fibers (fluff) escaping from the departments, improper accounting of wastes produced, weighment errors in cotton purchased and wastes sold, excess give away of yarn and inaccuracies in the estimates of stock held in process.

Scope for improving yarn realisation and reducing wastes

The following 4 steps would be helpful to improve yarn realisation.
Step 1: Calculate actual yarn realisation and different categories of wastes Step 2: Using the formulae given in this article, estimate the expected yarn realisation for the existing working conditions. Step 3: Compare the actual yarn realisation with the expected value and actual wastes with norms. Step 4: Analyse the causes for deviation and initiate corrective action. Create awareness among the workers and technical staff about the importance of waste control. Good supervision and proper maintenance of machinery would help to reduce the waste.