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By: Supreet Ahluwalia Joshi
As the reliance on technology continues to expand in offices, the role of the office professional has greatly evolved. Office automation & organizational restructuring have led secretaries & administrative assistants to assume responsibilities once reserved for managerial & professional staff. All these facts have thus raised the importance of use of internet.
Evolution of Technology
Internet: Greatest impact
ECONOMIC- TECHNOLOGY VISION
Competitive Knowledge Economy
T ETI MP IV
IET SOC E
Knowledge Products & Services
L OW G ED
IET OC ES
IT based Economy
TY CIE O NS
T MA OR
Change in the functions of administrative staff:
Besides performing traditional functions, now the administrative staff has started assisting in training & orientation for new staff, conduct research on the internet, & operate & troubleshoot new office technologies, communication link between office, sales officers, vendors & clients, they are also required to maintain public relations.
The style of working has changed – many new trends have come.• As the size has increased so data back up. flexi hours. also it is required by the administrative staff to be abreast with new technologies related to his work. job sharing etc. . compiling with keeping international standards in mind has to be done.home work. which has made manual data keeping quite difficult.. maintenance.
The functions of the administrative staff On the basis of following factors we can judge the functions performed & the linkage with the net: • KNOWLEDGE: there has to be the basic knowledge of general & standard clerical functions. working knowledge of policies & procedures in all areas & comprehensive detailed knowledge. .
transfers. solve complex operational problems related to staffing. budget. These instructions are provided & anything not covered by the specific guidelines is referred to supervisor. they have authority to act on day to day operational decisions. but are supposed to work with general guidelines. . PROBLEM-SOLVING & DECISION MAKING: they are suppose to solve routine problems of a repetitive nature. space etc. they are responsible for data accuracy & for identifying discrepencies & make corrections & resolve problems by performing qualitative review of individual cases. equipment. ACCOUNTING: prepare wide variety of accounting forms. regular use of judgment & discretion to solve operational problems where answer is not apparent.• • • INDEPENDENCE: they have to work under general supervision.
oversee preparation of payroll forms for complex payroll – e. sick leave & compensatory hours & reflect balances on employee time sheets.• FISCAL ADMINISTRATION/ CONTRACTS & GRANTS: they are suppose to do routine posting. • PAYROLL: after verifying information they are suppose to do the simple tabulations. maintain & report current vacation.g. Compile information & type forms. • PROPOSAL PREPARATION: gather data & information from diverse sources. shift differential. overtime. process routine payroll actions. Calculate. prepare status reports. they assist in preparing budget for contract & grant proposals. apply rules. multiple contracts etc. do the photocopy & assemble material. monitor expenses. they are even suppose to supervise highly complex payroll & benefits activity. do projections & recommendations. billing. . regulations.
• PURCHASING: order & shelf routine suppliies. explain. provides benefit information. prepare purchase order/requisition. basic processing of routine forms for travel. perform order entry.• PERSONNEL: conduct new employee orientation. resolving personnel processing problems. purchasing etc. interpret & apply personnel policies & procedures. . recommending & implementing administrative changes for the unit/department. typing forms. identify substitutes for supplies & low value equipment. follw up to assure delivery. research & recommend vendors/prices/equipment. may obtain sourcing & pricing information.
supervise & train staff. • INFORMATION SYSTEMS: simple data entry. review. word etc. resolve simple software/hardware problems. • WORD PROCESSING/TYPING: prepare software package to prepare table & compile data. • REPORTS: prepare reports & statistics based on information compiled from various sources. update & maintain WEB pages using knowledge of HTML. rank & prioritize applications. prepare report based on knowledge/research of relevant topic/professional field may require subject matter knowledge.• EMPLOYEE SERVICES: provide baisc information to all employees. operate software packages such as excel. participate in evaluation program. refer to appropriate resources. manipulate web to obtain information. develop formulae for spreadsheets. . set up routine computer procedures. & give recommendations. coordinate employee recruitment. determine report format.
• RECEPTION/PUBLIC CONTACT: refer calls. provide routine information. greet visitors. verify meeting dates schedule meetings. • OFFICE MANAGEMENT: may provide supervision to lower staff. conferences etc. training equipment. make & cancel appointments. may act as a safety & facility coordinator . make & cancel appointments. arranging rooms for meetings. explain departmental policies/procedures. answer inquiries. schedule rooms. arrange for routine audio visual. • FILING/MAIL DISTRIBUTION: Filing data & performing simple screening of mail & send out dated materials according to predetermined instructions. refreshment request etc.• SCHEDULING & COORDINATION: maintain routine calendar.
Understanding Organizational Systems .
Examples of Business Processes Functional Area Business Process Manufacturing and production Assembling the product Checking for quality Producing bills of materials Sales and marketing Identifying customers Making customers aware of the product Selling the product Finance and accounting paying creditors Creating financial statements Managing cash accounts Human resources Hiring employees Evaluating employees' job performance Enrolling employees in benefits plans .
and Distributors •Purchases •Bids Banks •Credit checks •payment authorization •Electronic payments transfer .suppliers.Information Flow in an Organisation Business-to-consumer Business-to-Business Buyer Retailer •Information •Orders •Service and support Manufacturers.
Sellers S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Exchange •Catalogs •Sourcing •Automated purchasing •Processing and fulfillment Buyers B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 .Business-to-Business Linkages Exchange Type of on-line marketplace where multiple buyers can purchase from multiple sellers using a bid-ask system.
Elements of Strategic Management • Long range planning • Responsive management • Innovation V is io n M is s io n S tr a te g ic M a n a g e r ia l O p e r a tio n a l I n fo r m a tio n T e c h n o lo g y .
g. More importantly. . ESS). IT is likely to be critical to the implementation of the strategy.Strategic Decisions • Strategic decisions address questions such as: – – – – What products or services will be provide? Will we focus on providing low cost goods/services? Will we focus on providing unique goods/services? Where will we sell our goods/services? To whom? • IT can assist the strategic decision maker (e.
Using Internet for Administrative duties .
Research and the Internet • The Internet can be a great tool for research. . but finding quality web materials and using them to your advantage in your working can be challenging.
Types of web pages • Informative pages • Personal web pages • Political/interest group pages • Marketing-oriented or “infomercial” pages • Entertainment pages .
.What is a search engine? • A search engine is an Internet tool that locates web pages and sorts them according to specified keywords.
and Snap access the greatest percentage of the World Wide Web--only around 15-16%. • Google.edu . • A collection of search engine links is available at the OWL web site: owl. • Dogpile will search through several search engines at once.english.Types of search engines • Yahoo and Alta Vista are the most useful search engines for beginning searches. Northern Light.purdue.
. products or services. or entertainment.Use search engines to your advantage • Search engines can help you to identify sources that will provide serious information.
. but not necessarily the facts.Identify the web site • Assess the authorship. – some personal sites are used to express individual opinions about issues. • This is important because – many web sources are not checked for accuracy. and purpose of the web site. content.
universal web interface •Low start-up costs Richer.audio.more responsive information environment Reduced information distribution costs .and video •Scalable to larger or smaller computing platforms as requirements change •Easy to use.ORGANIZATION BENEFITS OF INTRANETS •Connectivity: accessible from most computing platforms •Can be tied to internal corporate systems •Can create interactive applications with text.
BEFORE Phone or fax mill Arrange Carrier Negotiate price Schedule shipments S h I p m e n t Fill out bills of lading FIBERMARKET EXCHANGE Bill Customer Reconcile received goods against receiving report AFTER Recovered paper supplier Fibermarket exchange Paper mill .
13 •Infrastructure for electronic business.08$0.Internet technology •Standardised communication architecture. •Unbundling the information from the product. •Direct communication between related parties. •Reduced transaction costs Airline ticket $8$1 Banking $1. .
Finance and Accounting •General ledger reporting •Project costing •Annual reports •Budgeting Human Resources •Corporate policies •Employee Savings plans •Benefits enrollment •On-line training •job postings Corporate Intranet Manufacturing and production •Quality measurements •Maintenance schedules •Design specifications •Machine output •Order tracking Sales and Marketing •Competitor analysis •Price updates •promotional campaigns •Sales presentations •Sales contacts Functional applications of Intranets .
Customers Intranets and Supply Chain Management Suppliers Planning & forecasting Order processing Intranet Accounting Shipping Procurement Production Inventory Distributors Logistics services .
Relevant information is important to the decision maker. Verifiable information can be checked to make sure it is correct. • Secure information is safe from unauthorized users. Timely information is available when needed.Characteristics of Valuable Information • • • • • Accurate information is error free. . Complete information contains all of the important facts. • Accessible information can be obtained by the users who need it.
Usefulness also depends on purpose and context Information comes in different forms .. soft data Ownership is difficult to maintain More is not always better • • • • ..…thus.not all of which can be quantified: hard vs. • Usefulness of information depends on quality and accessibility BUT….
Technical decision making grid Behavioral Technical Wrong Right Dealing with the right problems the wrong way (purely behavioral) Dealing with the right problems the right way (Synthesis or sociotechnical) Dealing with the Wrong wrong problems the wrong way (no knowledge) Dealing the wrong problems the right way (purely technical) Righ t .
MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES – Using Internet •Unproven Business models •Business Process change Requirements •Channel Conflicts •Legal Issues •Security and Privacy .
Reasons for Increased Reliance on Internet .
Knowledge: a central productive and strategic asset Time-based competition.The Changing Business Environment Business Drivers(Pressures) Globalisation and Strong Competition Management and control in a global marketplace. New products and services. Limited employee knowledge base Transformation of the Enterprise Flattening. Flexibility. Empowerment. Global work groups. Decentralization. Shorter product life Turbulent environment. Global delivery systems Transformation of Industrial Economies Knowledge. Location independence.and information-based economies. Low transaction and coordination costs. Collaborative work and teamwork . Competition in world markets. Productivity.
safety.The Changing Business Environment Business Drivers(Pressures) Changing nature of workforce Powerful customers Technological Pressures Technological innovation and obsolescence Information overload Social responsibility (Equal opportunity. …. health. environmental control.) Government regulation Government deregulation Shrinking budgets and subsidies Ethical issues .
customer service .Organizational Responses Strategic systems Continuous improvement efforts Improved productivity Just-in-time (JIT)operation Total quality management Improved decision making Information & knowledge Innovation Change management.
Organizational Responses Business process reengineering Reducing cycle time and time to market Empowerment of employees Customer focused approach Restructuring and team based structure ERP Business Alliances Electronic Business. Commerce .
and employees are digitally enabled. Business Processes: The unique ways in which organizations coordinate and organize work activities.The Emerging Digital Firm Digital Firm: Organization where nearly all significant business processes and relationships with customers. and key corporate assets are managed through digital means. and knowledge to produce . suppliers. information.
Challenges The Strategic Business Challenge The Globalisation Challenge The Information Architecture Challenge The Information Systems Investment Challenge Control Challenge .
Bringing Efficiency to Work .
Organizations And Information Technology Mediating Factors Environment Culture Structure Standard procedures Business process Politics Management Decisions Chance organizations Information Technology .
such as business reengineering Provides business intelligence Competitive intelligence Sustainable competitive advantage .The Role of IT Create systems that provide strategic advantage Supports strategic changes.
Changing management process – ERP Inter-organizational systems: Information system that automate work flow of information across organizational boundaries Electronic commerce .The New Role of Information Systems in Organizations Widening scope of information systems Data processing -> management control -> decision support-> information as a resource Network revolution Networked enterprise Flattening organizations Separating work from location Reorganizing workflow Increasing flexibility of organization Mass customization: Products can be easily customized with no added cost for small production runs.
. Competitive advantage: what sets the firm apart from the rest of its competitors. quality. speed.. variety. Need to try to "second guess" the competition.Competitive Advantage What makes strategy difficult is that most business environments are competitive. .. level of service. Basis for competition: cost.
COMPETITIVE FORCES MODEL NEW MARKET ENTRANTS SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS & SERVICES THE FIRM TRADITIONAL COMPETITION Bargaining power of SUPPLIERS Bargaining power of CUSTOMERS .
Groupware Capabilities Group writing and commenting Electronic mail distribution Scheduling meetings and appointments Shared files and databases Shared time lines and plans Electronic meetings and conferences Thread: A series of messages in on-line discussions on a specified topic that have been posted as replies to each other. Each message in a thread can be read to see how a discussion has evolved. Groupware: Software that provides functions and services that support the collaborative activities of work groups. Electronic mail (e-mail): The computer-to-computer exchange of messages. Web browser: An easy-to-use software tool for accessing the World Wide Web and the Internet. .
It costs only a few thousand dollars to establish an Internet presence and publish content on the Internet. various organizations and individuals can now distribute information to millions of users. The fact that the Internet is operational at all times makes it the most efficient business machine to date. . 7 days a week You don't need to wait until resources are available to conduct business. Relatively Inexpensive It is relatively inexpensive to publish information on the Internet. such as : Global Audience: Content published on the World Wide Web is immediately available to a global audience of users. Operates 24 hours.ADVANTAGES OF USING THE INTERNET There are many advantages of using the Internet. At a fraction of the cost to publish information by traditional methods. From a consumer's perspective as well as a provider's business can be consummated at any time. Reaching more than 190 countries. This makes the World Wide Web a very cost-effective medium to publish information.
Because Web pages can be updated immediately with new information. it's often necessary to compile a list of address and mail a questionnaire to many customers. The success of such an attempt is not always guaranteed and can be very costly in terms of mailing the questionnaires and entering responses to a databases and analyzing it. which are often quite costly compared to the World Wide Web. Provide Technical Support You can also use Web site to provide technical support to users. various technical support literature can be immediately modified in light of new findings and developments. in order to fill out various needs of customers or what they would like to see in a future product. you can set up a CGI script to conduct online surveys. On the other hand. Results of such a survey can be automatically updated to a database. . you can use the World Wide Web to automate the whole process. For example. This database can then be used to keep a pulse on various opinions and needs of customers.Product Advertising Online Surveys: Traditional methods of performing surveys are often relatively slow and expensive compared to online surveys conducted on the Internet. This can be accomplished without having to distribute changes to all users affected by any changes using traditional mediums of information distribution. For example.
The World Wide Web is an ideal medium of information distribution because it takes away the time lag associated with publishing content and actually making it available to users Easy Integration with Internal Information Systems Internet information systems deployed on the Internet can be easily integrated with internal information systems managed with office productivity applications such as Microsoft Office. You can easily set up a CGI script to obtain customer feedback about a product or service. it's possible to respond to various customer concerns in a timely manner. • . increasing customer satisfaction and quality of customer service. it's possible to set up online discussion forums on the Web. Because customer feedback submitted by customers can be read immediately. Obtain Customer Feedback The interactive nature of the World Wide Web is ideal for obtaining customer feedback. it's immediately available for browsing by millions of Internet users. Create Online Discussion Forums By using applications such as WebBoard. Immediate Distribution of Information: When information is added to a Web site.
. Because there is virtually no time lag from the time it takes to publish information to making the information available to users. the Web will become the medium of choice for many organizations and individuals to publicize various announcements. With the World Wide Web. you can distribute various announcements to millions of users in a timely manner. the Web is an ideal medium to publicize announcements. As more people discover the virtues of the Web and get connected to the Internet.
basic practice information.Benefits of Using the Internet Communications Tool E-mail on a one to one or one to many basis Discussion groups Transmit documents Should use encryption for business purposes Public Relations/Advertising Tool WWW pages can provide basic firm or practice information Sophisticated sites can provide articles. Can serve as a contact point for clients and potential clients Research Tool The WWW doesn't have "everything" Can have primary source material Can have secondary source material Good source for unique types of information Important to be familiar with search tools and strategies . etc. resource links.
Understand the risks and use measures to minimize your exposure 10. 2.use a “personal firewall". Share security tips and knowledge with other co-workers.Top 10 Security Tips 1. Don't open unknown. Learn about file sharing risks. Back up your computer data. Don't share access to your computers with strangers. Regularly download security protection update 9. unscanned or unexpected email attachments. 6. 7. Check your security on a regular basis. Use protection software "anti-virus software" and keep it up to date. 3. 8. Use hard-to-guess passwords 4. 5. Disconnect from the Internet when not in use. . Protect your computer from Internet intruders -.
: GRADE LEVEL: DATE: DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITIES JOB CHARACTERISTICS: .Form used for JD JOB TITLE: REPORTS TO: SUPERVISES: FUNCTIONS: OCCUPATIONAL CODE NO.: JOB NO.
emotional stability APPEARANCE : neat & clean MENTAL ABILITIES: for e.: good with figures SPECIAL ABILITIES : PREVIOUS WORK EXPERIENCE : SPECIAL KNOWLEDGE OR SKILLS : MATURITY : must be capable of assuming increased responsibility within 2 years OTHER: expect incumbent would be ready for promotion within 3 years. .JOB SPECIFICATION FORM JOB TITLE: EDUCATION: PHYSICAL & HEALTH : good health.g.
the following values should not have to be compromised: 1 2 3 The following constraints must be considered ( minimum salary. size of organization etc) 1 2 3 Specific jobs that would be compatible with the above requirements are: 1 2 3 . geographical preferences.EDUCATION: Schools courses courses academic academic extracurricular i liked i disliked strengths weaknesses activities 1 2 3 SKILLS: 1 2 3 WORK EXPERIENCE: Organization Job degree of Satisfaction what i liked what i disliked why i left 1 2 3 The most important need that I want to satisfy in my career are: These needs can be satisfied in the following general areas: 1 2 3 Whatever job I have.
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