By Yashika Vaishnav

A brief history of Indian Constitution
Constitution of India Bill which envisaged freedom of expression and equality before law  1924 Motilal Nehru  1927 Lord Birkenhead,the Secretary of State challenged Indian leaders 'to produce a Constitution which carries behind it a fair measure of general agreement among different sections

free elementary education.The secular character of the State was listed as a fundamental right.freedom of expression to all etc. It envisaged equal rights to men and women regardless of caste. The Nehru Report submitted on 10th August 1928 was in effect an outline of a draft Constitution of India.religion or region.class. .

Congress had to agree to the Cabinet Mission's scheme of the elected provincial assembly members electing the members of Constituent Assembly. Congress won a huge majority of seats in the Constituent assembly  . 1945.

 .  Dr.The first session of the Constituent Assembly was held on December 9. Rajendra Prasad was elected as Chairman. 1946 and was attended by 207 members. The Assembly formed different sub committees dealing with different aspects of the Constitution.

The longest written Constitution of the World became law on January 26 1950.R.B.. After long and painstaking deliberations and several modifications lasting for 166 days in a period of about 3 years the Constituent Assembly approved the draft Constitution on November 26 1949.  The most important Drafting Committee was under the Chairmanship of Dr. .Ambedkar.

 Fundamental Rights.features of Indian constitution A large written constitution  A borrowed constitution.  .  Directive principles of state policy.  Parliamentary form of Govt.  Secularism  Independent & Integrated Judiciary  Fundamental Duties.

 12 schedules.  102 Amendments.A large written constitution One of the best constitutions in the world.  395 articles in 22 parts.  .

S.A U.Drawn from different sources        Parliamentary system Fundamental Rights Judicial Review Post of Vice president Emergency provisions Fundamental duties Directive Principles        United Kingdom U.A Germany Russia Ireland .S.A U.S.

 .PARLIAMENTARY FORM OF GOVT  Parliament President indirectly elected  Rajya sabha indirectly elected  Lok sabha directly elected  Two types of Executive  President is nominal executive.  Prime Minster and his council of ministers as real executive.

Fundamental rights       1. Right of Equality (article14.18) ARTICLE 14: equality before law ARTICLE 15: prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion .caste .sex or place of birth ARTICLE 16: Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment ARTICLE 17: Abolition of untouchability ARTICLE 18: : Abolition of titles .race .

etc Article 20: protection in respect of conviction for offences Article 21: : protection of life and personal liberty Article 21A : RIGHT TO EDUCATION Article 22: protection AGAINST ARREST AND DETENTION IN CERTAIN CASES . 2. Right to freedom(article 19-22)      Article 19:protection of certain right regarding freedom of speech.

Right against exploitation ( 23.24) Article 23 : prohibition of traffic in human beings and force labour Article 24 : : prohibition of employment of children in factories etc .   3.

.practice and propagation of religion Article 26: Freedom to manage religious affairs Article 27:Freedom as to payment of taxesfor promotion of any patrticular religion Article 28: Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions .     4.Right to freedom of religion(25-28) Article 25:freedom of conscience and freeprofession.

   5. CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL RIGHT (29-30) Article 29: protection of interests of minorities . Article 30: Right of minorities to establish and adminiser educational institutions .

mandamus . Right to constitutional remedies ( article 32) The supreme court shall have power to issue directions or order or writs . including writs in the nature of habeas corpus . for the the enforcement of any of the right conferred by this part… .quo warranto and certiorari whichevermay be appropriate . prohibition .  6.

unity and integrity of India.Fundamental Duties  To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions. To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so. To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom. To uphold and protect the sovereignty.    . the National Flag and the National Anthem.

* To protect and improve the natural environment including forests. * To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture. to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women. linguistic and regional or sectional diversities. rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures. lakes. To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious. .

 To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement The Fundamental Duties are considered as the responsibilities which should be performed by each and every civilian of India. . To safeguard public property and to abjure violence. humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.  To develop the scientific temper.

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