Industrial Automation Automation Industrielle Industrielle Automation

Enterprise Manufacturing Execution

Supervision (SCADA) Group Control Individual Control Field Primary technology


Automation Hierarchy Hiérarchie de l'automation Leitsystem-Hierarchie Prof. Dr. H. Kirrmann

EPFL / ABB Research Center, Baden, Switzerland
2012 February, HK

1.4 Contents

1 Introduction 1.1 Automation and its importance


Examples of automated processes
Types of plants and controls 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.3 Open loop and closed loop control Continuous processes Discrete processes Mixed plants


Automation hierarchy


Control system architecture

Industrial Automation

Automation hierarchy 1.4 - 2

Automation System Structure Although applications differ widely. customer relationship. Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1. there is little difference in the overall architecture of their control systems. explosion-proof devices). The biggest distinction is the amount of application know-how embedded in the control system. availability (24hours operation and hot repair) on regulations (e. Why the automation system of a power plant is not sold also for automating a brewery depends largely on small differences (e. Food and Drug Administration) and also tradition.3 .g.g.4 .

order tracking.4 A V T . Statistics.4 .Large control system hierarchy (1) 5 4 3 2 Planning. Finances Production planning. orders. purchase Workflow. resources Supervisory SCADA = Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition administration enterprise (manufacturing) execution Group control Unit control 1 Field Sensors & actors 0 Primary technology Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1.

(*capteurs et moteurs. no processing except measurement correction and built-in protection. production scheduling. human resources.4 . plans enterprise and resources. processing. data transmission . workflow. manage orders Manages execution. optimize. execute operations visualize plants. monitoring and protection) part of a group (closed loop except for maintenance) • Measure: Sampling. quality supervision. long-term planning Set production goals. calibration.Large control system hierarchy (2) Administration Enterprise Manufacturing Supervision Group (Area) Finances. store process data. maintenance. • Control: regulation. Supervise the production and site. resources.5 . documentation. coordinate different sites. Messfühler & Stellglieder) Unit (Cell) Field Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1. log operations. history (open loop) Controls a well-defined part of the plant (closed loop. set-points and parameters • Command: sequencing. except for intervention of an operator) • Coordinate individual subgroups • Adjust set-points and parameters • Command several units as a whole Control (regulation. scaling. protection and interlocking data acquisition (Sensors & Actors*).

Primärtechnik) Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1.Field level the field level is in direct interaction with the plant's hardware (Primary technology.4 .6 .

can be also be peer-to-peer (from group control to group control = distributed control system) Note: "Distributed Control Systems" (DCS) commonly refers to a hardware and software infrastructure to perform Process Automation Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1.7 .Group level unit controllers the group level coordinates the activities of several unit controls the group control is often hierarchical.4 .

the group level has its own man-machine interface for local operation control (here: cement packaging) also for maintenance: console / emergency panel Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1.4 .Local human interface at group level sometimes.8 .

4 .9 .Supervisory level: Man-machine interface control room (mimic wall) 1970s... all instruments were directly wired to the control room Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1. formerly.

Mosaic interface is still in use – with direct wiring Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1.4 .10 .

display the trends (historians) and analyse them .allows communication and data synchronization with other centres Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1.4 . expert system (documentation) . inventory.11 .Supervisory level: SCADA (SCADA = Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) . logbook) . data sheets.displays the current state of the process (visualization) .display the alarms and events (alarm log.display handbooks.

12 .4 .Today’s control rooms beamers replaces the mosaics. Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1. there is no more direct wiring to the plant.

Plant management . allowing to track processes and trace products -> Plant Information Management System (PIMS) .4 . track KPI (key performance indicators) -> Asset Optimisation (AO) Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy the plant and product data for further processing in a secure way (historian).13 .make predictions on the future behaviour of the processes and in particular about the maintenance of the equipment.

Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1.4 ...Engineering workplace The engineering workplace manages the control system. The engineer can configure the networks and devices. load the software.14 . assign authorizations. troubleshoot the control system.. not the plant.

Enterprise Resource Planning Level 3 Manufacturing Operations & Control Dispatching Production. etc.4 ..0 Batch Control Continuous Control Discrete Control Control & Command System Source: ANSI/ISA–95.. Manufacturing Execution System Levels 2.15 .ANSI/ISA 95 standard classification the ANS/ISA standard 95 defines terminology and good practices Level 4 Business Planning & Logistics Plant Production Scheduling Operational Management.1. Detailed Product Scheduling. Reliability Assurance..01–2000 Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1.00.

16 .4 .Example: Power plant Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1.

Example of generic control siemens: Siemens WinCC (Generic) Unternehmensleitebene Enterprise level Betriebsleitebene Production level Prozessleitebene Process level Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1.17 .4 .

18 .Response time and hierarchical level Planning Level MES Execution Level (Manufacturing Execution System) (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) SCADA Supervisory Level DCS (Distributed Control System) Control Level PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) ms seconds hours days weeks month years Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1.4 .

These levels are today under computer control. data are reduced: higher level data are created (e. aid to decisions (expert system) and maintenance. for maintenance or commissioning. Timing requirements are slackened.19 . Historical data are stored SCADA level Presentation of complex data to the human operator. Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1. Processing is trivial (was formerly realized in hardware). Quantity of raw data is very large. except in emergency situations.4 .g. Requires a knowledge database in addition to the plant's database Lower Levels Lowest levels (closest to the plant) are most demanding in response time.Data Quantity & Quality and Hierarchical Level Higher Levels When ascending the control hierarchy. summary information) Processing and decisions becomes more complicated (requires using models).

1s Field Feld. terrain 0.Complexity and Hierarchical level Complexity ERP Reaction Speed months Command level Führungsebene. usine Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1. étage de conduite MES Sys.1s Site Anlage.20 . d'exécution Ausführungssystem days Supervision Prozessleitung Conduite de processus minutes Group Control Gruppenleitung Conduite de groupe seconds Individual Control Einzelleitung. Conduite individuelle 0.4 .

Normally.Operation and Process Data base Consideration of human intervention breaches this hierarchy. refreshed in background. This database is the pivot for logging and simulation.21 . The operator sees the plant through a fast data base. but exceptionally. the operator is only concerned by the supervisory level.4 . knowledge base man-machine communication operator history logging process data base simulation instructor maintenance engineer actualization process data plant Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1. operators (and engineers) want to access data of the lowest levels.

The process database is at the centre (example: Wonderware) Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1.22 .4 .

4 .23 .Process Data Base and Historical Data Base The Process Data Base reflects the latest known state of the plant The Historical Data Base registers the events that happened in the plant (and is therefore a subset of the Process Data Base snapshot) Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1.

24 . data quantity and complexity ? What does SCADA stands for ? What is a group control used for ? What is the role of a Manufacturing Execution System ? What are the three functions of the operator interface ? What is Enterprise Resource Planning ? What is the role of the process database ? Industrial Automation Automation hierarchy 1. the response time.4 .Assessment Describe the levels of a hierarchical control system What is the relationship between hierarchical level.

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