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04/16/2013

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Design Realization lecture 20

John Canny 10/30/03

Last time
 Real-time programming

This time
 Mechanics – Physics and Motors

v in m/s. m in kg.Review of physics  Newton’s law for translation: F=ma F in Newtons. m in kg. a in m/s2.  Acceleration a = dv / dt  Kinetic energy E = ½ m v2 E in Joules. .

. momentum is conserved.Physics of translation  Momentum p = m v and so F = dp / dt  In the absence of force.  Momentum conservation implies energy conservation.

 in radians/sec. not necessarily diagonal. x I  which is usually non-zero.Physics of rotation  Rotation is more complex.  in radians/sec2. Euler’s equation: T=I + xI T (torque) in N-m. and the object wobbles.  changes with time. So  is non-zero. then I  = . I in kg-m2.  = d / dt  I is a 3x3 matrix. .  If T = 0.

the angular momentum is conserved: q = I  .Physics of rotation  Angular momentum is q = I   The rotation equation simplifies to T = dq / dt because dq/dt = I d/dt + dI/dt  = I  +  x I   So even though an object wobbles when there is no external force.

. kinetic energy of rotation is conserved.Physics of rotation  Kinetic energy of rotation is ½ T I   In the absence of external torque.  But angular momentum conservation does not imply energy conservation.

Work  Work done by a force = F x (Joules) where x is the distance (m) through which the force acts.  Work done by a torque = T  (Joules) .

 Power of a torque = T  (Watts).Power  Power is rate of doing work.  Power often expressed in horsepower = 746 Watts .  Power of a force = F v (Watts).

Motors  Motors come in several flavors:      DC motors Stepper motors (AC) induction motors (AC) Single-phase motors (AC) Synchronous motors  The first two are highly controllable. . But we quickly review the others. and usually what you would use in an application.

3-phase AC  Three or four wires that carry the same voltage at 3 equally-spaced phases:  Single phase AC requires two wires (only 1/3 the current or power of 3-phase). .

cheap. high torque.AC induction Motors  Induction motors – simple. high-power.  Induction motors are brushless (no contacts between moving and fixed parts). simplest are 3-phase. Hi reliability.  Efficiency high: 50-95 % .  Speed up to 7200 rpm: speed ~ 7200 / # “poles” of the motor.

 Single-phase motors use a variety of tricks to start. .  Efficiency lower: 25-60%  Often very low starting torque. Household appliances.Single-phase AC Motors  Single-phase (induction) motors – operate from normal AC current (one phase). then transition to induction motor behavior.

E. turntable motors.  Efficiency ?? .Synchronous AC Motors  Designed to turn in synchronization with the AC frequency.  Low to very high power.g.

DC Motors  DC motor types:  DC Brush motor  “DC” Brushless motor  Stepper motor .

 As the rotor moves. which keeps the magnets pulling the right way. . the polarity changes.DC Brush Motors  A “commutator” brings current to the moving element (the rotor). most common DC motor. DEMO  Highly controllable.

DC Brush Motors  At fixed load. torque is proportional to current. speed of rotation is proportional to applied voltage.  To first order.  Changing polarity reverses rotation.  Load curve:  Motors which approximate this ideal well are called DC servo motors. .

stator coils are controlled by electronic switching. DEMO  Speed can be controlled accurately by the electronics.DC Brushless Motors  Really an AC motor with electronic commutation. .  Permanent magnet rotor.  Torque is often constant over the speed range.

 Very low speed / high angular precision is possible without reduction gearing by using many rotor teeth.  Can also “microstep” by activating both coils at once. moving the stator in small “steps”.Stepper Motors  Sequence of (3 or more) poles is activated in turn. .

 In principle easy: activate poles as A B C D A… or A D C B A…Steps are fixed size. so no need to sense the angle! (open loop control).Driving Stepper Motors  Note: signals to the stepper motor are binary. on-off values (not PWM). .

driver electronics must simulate inertia of the motor.e. acceleration and possibly jerk must be bounded. .Driving Stepper Motors  But in practice.  i. otherwise motor will not keep up and will start missing steps (causing position errors).

2 V Holding torque: 0.Stepper Motor example         From Sherline CNC milling machine: Step angle: 1.8° Voltage: 3.6 Kg.32 lb (0.02° /step.) Length: 2. 3W .13" (54 mm) Power output = 3W  Precision stepper motor: 0.97 N-m Rotor inertia: 250 g-cm2 Weight: 1. 1 rpm.

4 lbs Forward or reverse (brushed) Many DC motors of all sizes available new and surplus for < \$10 .DC Motor example          V = 12 volts Max Current = 4 A Max Power Out = 25 W Max efficiency = 74% Max speed = 3500 rpm Max torque = 1.4 N-m Weight = 1.

5 to 4.000 rpm  0.DC Motors – micro sizes  From Micromo:  Conventional (brush) DC motor: 6mm x 15mm  13.15 W  V from 1.5 V .11 m Nm  Power 0.

Brushless DC Motors  From Micromo:  Brushless DC motor: 16mm x 28mm  65.000 rpm  50 m Nm  Power 11 W  V = 12 V .

DC Motors – gearing  Gearing allows you to trade off speed vs. but increases torque by n. .  An n:1 reduction gearing decreases speed by n. torque.  Ratios from 10:1 to many 1000s :1 are available in compact “gearheads” that attach to motors.

.50%)  Gears decrease precision (due to backlash).  Reduction gear train is normally not backdriveable (can’t use for “force control”).DC Motors – gearing  But gears cost efficiency (20% .

DC torque motors  Some high-end motors are available for direct drive servo or force applications (no gears).  Typically have large diameter vs. and use rare-earth magnetic material. . high precision (with servo-ing).  Cost \$100’s (but maybe less as surplus). length. and moderate torque.  They have low speed (a few rpm).

They provide position sensing.Sensors  Shaft encoders can be fitted to almost any DC motor.  Strain gauges can be used to sense force directly. . Or DC brush motor current can be used to estimate force.  Many motor families offer integrated encoders.

Linear movement  There are several ways to produce linear movement from rotation:  Rotary to linear gearing: .

stages move (must be attached to linear bearing to stop from rotating). . good precision  Motor drives shaft.Linear movement  Ball screws: low linear speed.

.Linear movement  Belt drive: attach moving stage to a toothed belt:  Used in inkjet printers and some large XY robots.

True Linear movement        There are some true linear magnetic drives. BEI-Kimco voice coils: Up to 1” travel 100 lbf > 10 g acceleration 6 lbs weight 500 Hz corner frequency. .  Used for precision vibration control.

expensive.Summary  AC motors are good for inexpensive high-power applications where fine control isnt needed. “servo” motor. torque  DC brushless: speed/toque depend on electronics  Stepper: simple control signals.  DC motors provide a range of performance:  DC brush: versatile. lower power  Direct-drive (torque) motors. . high speed. variable speed/accuracy without gearing. or voice coils. lower torque  Linear actuation via drives.

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