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lec20|Views: 0|Likes: 0

Published by Kuldeep Gola

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/108490970/lec20

04/16/2013

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John Canny 10/30/03

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Mechanics – Physics and Motors

v in m/s. m in kg.Review of physics Newton’s law for translation: F=ma F in Newtons. m in kg. a in m/s2. Acceleration a = dv / dt Kinetic energy E = ½ m v2 E in Joules. .

. momentum is conserved.Physics of translation Momentum p = m v and so F = dp / dt In the absence of force. Momentum conservation implies energy conservation.

in radians/sec. not necessarily diagonal. x I which is usually non-zero.Physics of rotation Rotation is more complex. in radians/sec2. Euler’s equation: T=I + xI T (torque) in N-m. and the object wobbles. changes with time. So is non-zero. then I = . I in kg-m2. = d / dt I is a 3x3 matrix. . If T = 0.

the angular momentum is conserved: q = I .Physics of rotation Angular momentum is q = I The rotation equation simplifies to T = dq / dt because dq/dt = I d/dt + dI/dt = I + x I So even though an object wobbles when there is no external force.

. kinetic energy of rotation is conserved.Physics of rotation Kinetic energy of rotation is ½ T I In the absence of external torque. But angular momentum conservation does not imply energy conservation.

Work Work done by a force = F x (Joules) where x is the distance (m) through which the force acts. Work done by a torque = T (Joules) .

Power of a torque = T (Watts).Power Power is rate of doing work. Power often expressed in horsepower = 746 Watts . Power of a force = F v (Watts).

Motors Motors come in several flavors: DC motors Stepper motors (AC) induction motors (AC) Single-phase motors (AC) Synchronous motors The first two are highly controllable. . But we quickly review the others. and usually what you would use in an application.

3-phase AC Three or four wires that carry the same voltage at 3 equally-spaced phases: Single phase AC requires two wires (only 1/3 the current or power of 3-phase). .

cheap. high torque.AC induction Motors Induction motors – simple. high-power. Induction motors are brushless (no contacts between moving and fixed parts). simplest are 3-phase. Hi reliability. Efficiency high: 50-95 % . Speed up to 7200 rpm: speed ~ 7200 / # “poles” of the motor.

Single-phase motors use a variety of tricks to start. . Efficiency lower: 25-60% Often very low starting torque. Household appliances.Single-phase AC Motors Single-phase (induction) motors – operate from normal AC current (one phase). then transition to induction motor behavior.

E. turntable motors. Efficiency ?? .Synchronous AC Motors Designed to turn in synchronization with the AC frequency. Low to very high power.g.

DC Motors DC motor types: DC Brush motor “DC” Brushless motor Stepper motor .

As the rotor moves. which keeps the magnets pulling the right way. . the polarity changes.DC Brush Motors A “commutator” brings current to the moving element (the rotor). most common DC motor. DEMO Highly controllable.

DC Brush Motors At fixed load. torque is proportional to current. speed of rotation is proportional to applied voltage. To first order. Changing polarity reverses rotation. Load curve: Motors which approximate this ideal well are called DC servo motors. .

stator coils are controlled by electronic switching. DEMO Speed can be controlled accurately by the electronics.DC Brushless Motors Really an AC motor with electronic commutation. . Permanent magnet rotor. Torque is often constant over the speed range.

Very low speed / high angular precision is possible without reduction gearing by using many rotor teeth. Can also “microstep” by activating both coils at once. moving the stator in small “steps”.Stepper Motors Sequence of (3 or more) poles is activated in turn. .

In principle easy: activate poles as A B C D A… or A D C B A…Steps are fixed size. so no need to sense the angle! (open loop control).Driving Stepper Motors Note: signals to the stepper motor are binary. on-off values (not PWM). .

driver electronics must simulate inertia of the motor.e. acceleration and possibly jerk must be bounded. .Driving Stepper Motors But in practice. i. otherwise motor will not keep up and will start missing steps (causing position errors).

2 V Holding torque: 0.Stepper Motor example From Sherline CNC milling machine: Step angle: 1.8° Voltage: 3.6 Kg.32 lb (0.02° /step.) Length: 2. 3W .13" (54 mm) Power output = 3W Precision stepper motor: 0.97 N-m Rotor inertia: 250 g-cm2 Weight: 1. 1 rpm.

4 lbs Forward or reverse (brushed) Many DC motors of all sizes available new and surplus for < $10 .DC Motor example V = 12 volts Max Current = 4 A Max Power Out = 25 W Max efficiency = 74% Max speed = 3500 rpm Max torque = 1.4 N-m Weight = 1.

5 to 4.000 rpm 0.DC Motors – micro sizes From Micromo: Conventional (brush) DC motor: 6mm x 15mm 13.15 W V from 1.5 V .11 m Nm Power 0.

Brushless DC Motors From Micromo: Brushless DC motor: 16mm x 28mm 65.000 rpm 50 m Nm Power 11 W V = 12 V .

DC Motors – gearing Gearing allows you to trade off speed vs. but increases torque by n. . An n:1 reduction gearing decreases speed by n. torque. Ratios from 10:1 to many 1000s :1 are available in compact “gearheads” that attach to motors.

.50%) Gears decrease precision (due to backlash). Reduction gear train is normally not backdriveable (can’t use for “force control”).DC Motors – gearing But gears cost efficiency (20% .

DC torque motors Some high-end motors are available for direct drive servo or force applications (no gears). Typically have large diameter vs. and use rare-earth magnetic material. . high precision (with servo-ing). Cost $100’s (but maybe less as surplus). length. and moderate torque. They have low speed (a few rpm).

They provide position sensing.Sensors Shaft encoders can be fitted to almost any DC motor. Strain gauges can be used to sense force directly. . Or DC brush motor current can be used to estimate force. Many motor families offer integrated encoders.

Linear movement There are several ways to produce linear movement from rotation: Rotary to linear gearing: .

stages move (must be attached to linear bearing to stop from rotating). . good precision Motor drives shaft.Linear movement Ball screws: low linear speed.

.Linear movement Belt drive: attach moving stage to a toothed belt: Used in inkjet printers and some large XY robots.

True Linear movement There are some true linear magnetic drives. BEI-Kimco voice coils: Up to 1” travel 100 lbf > 10 g acceleration 6 lbs weight 500 Hz corner frequency. . Used for precision vibration control.

expensive.Summary AC motors are good for inexpensive high-power applications where fine control isnt needed. “servo” motor. torque DC brushless: speed/toque depend on electronics Stepper: simple control signals. DC motors provide a range of performance: DC brush: versatile. lower power Direct-drive (torque) motors. . high speed. variable speed/accuracy without gearing. or voice coils. lower torque Linear actuation via drives.

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