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Outline

Reading: M&K- 4.2, 5.3; T&N: 2.2, A4


Diode (p-n junction) in Equilibrium
Overview of Fabrication
Abrupt Junction and Depletion Approximation
One-sided Junction
Linear Junction
Diode in Non-Equilibrium (Biased)
Quasi-Fermi Potentials
Currents
Injected Minority Carriers
Minority Carrier Distribution
Long-Base and Short-Base
1
pn Junction(Diode)
2
FabricatingaJunctionUsingDiffusionorImplantation
3
Typicalpn JunctionDopingProfiles
AbruptJunction
shallowdiffusion
or
lowenergyionimplantation
LinearJunction
deepdiffusion
or
highenergyionimplantation
4
AbruptJunctionatEquilibrium
qu
sn
qu
sp
qX
E
vac
E
fp
E
fn
E
C
E
V
ptype
ntype
E
vac
E
f
E
C
E
V
ptype ntype
E
i
ptype ntype
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
i
po
f p i
n
p
q
kT
ln
,
| |
5
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
i
no
n i f
n
n
q
kT
ln
,
| |
| | ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
x N x N x n x p
q
dx
d
dx
d
A D
+
+ = =
c
| X
0 = =
dx
d
qn J
fn
n n
|
0 = =
dx
d
qp J
fp
p p
|

AbruptJunction:BuiltInPotential
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
po
no
no
po
i
D A
bi
n
n
q
kT
p
p
q
kT
n
N N
q
kT
ln ln ln
2
|
**assumesfullyionizeddonorsandacceptors
p
po
=holedensityonpside(majoritycarriers)~N
A
p
no
=holedensityonnside (minoritycarriers)~n
i
2
/N
D
n
no
=electrondensityonnside(majoritycarriers)~N
D
n
po
=electrondensityonpside (minoritycarriers)~n
i
2
/N
A
Atequilibrium:
7
AbruptJunction:DepletionApproximation
|
max
|
i
(x)|
i
(x
p
)
@X
max
} }
=
n
x
D
dx
qN
d
0 0
c
Xt
X
| | ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
x N x N x n x p
q
dx
d
dx
d
A D
+
+ = =
c
| X
c c
p A
n D
x qN
x qN
= =
max
X
2
) (
max
max
d
x
x
W
dx x
n
p
X
X = =
}

|
( )
D A
D A
d
N qN
N N
W
max
2 | c +
=
app bi
V = | |
max
8
} }

=
0 0
p
x
A
dx
qN
d
c
Xt
X
Example
Consider an abrupt silicon p-n junction diode with 10
16
cm
-3
donors on the n-
side and 4 x 10
18
cm
-3
acceptors on the p-side. Find (a) the built-in potential,
(b) the depletion region width, (c) the depletion region width on either side of
the junction, and (d) the electric field at the junction.
9
OneSidedJunction
10
OneSidedJunctionBuiltInPotential
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ~
i
A
g
bi
n
N
kT
q
E
ln
2
|
BuiltInPotentialforn
+
:
11
OneSidedJunctionDepletionRegionWidth
( )
p p n
A
app bi
d
x x x
qN
V
W ~ + =

=
| c 2
depletionlayerwidth:
depletionlayercapacitance:
d
d
d
W dV
dQ
C
c
=
12
LinearlyGradedJunction
ax
q
dx
d
dx
d
i
c c
|
= = =
X
2
2
}


2 /
2 /
max
W
W
xdx
qa
c
X
c c
|
12 2
3
2 /
2 /
2
max
qaW
dx x
qa
W
W
= =
}

3 / 1
max
12
(

=
qa
W
c|
@X
max
q
E
i
i
= |
13
LinearlyGradedJunctionBuiltInPotential
|
|
.
|

\
|
~
i
bi
n
aW
q
kT
2
ln
2
|
BuiltInPotential:
14
Biasedpn Junction
V
app
>0 V
app
=0
Equilibrium ForwardBias ReverseBias
V
app
<0
V
app
V
app
+
+
_
_
W
d
W
d
W
d
|
bi
-V
app
|
bi
|
bi
-V
app
q|
bi
q(|
bi
-V
app
)
q(|
bi
-V
app
)
15
QuasiFermiPotentials
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
i
i p
n
p
q
kT
ln | |
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
i
i n
n
n
q
kT
ln | |
dx
d
qn J
n
n n
|
=
dx
d
qp J
p
p p
|
=
( )
(


=
kT
q
n np
n p
i
| |
exp
2
16
Currentsinapn Junction
Generationrecombination
currentsinspacechargeregionare
usuallynegligible.
electroncurrentleavingnside=
electroncurrententeringpside
holecurrentleavingpside=hole
currententeringnside
Onlyneedtoconsiderminority
carrierconcentrationsand
currents.
p n total
J J J + =
17
InjectedMinorityCarriersinapn Junction:ForwardBias
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
po
no
no
po
bi
n
n
q
kT
p
p
q
kT
ln ln |
|
.
|

\
|
=
kT
q
n n
bi
no po
|
exp
|
.
|

\
|
=
kT
q
p p
bi
po no
|
exp
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
kT
qV
kT
q
n
kT
V q
n n
app
bi
no
app bi
no p
exp exp exp
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
kT
qV
n n
app
po p
exp
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
kT
qV
p p
app
no n
exp
e injectedfromthensidetothepside:
holesinjectedfromthepsidetothenside:
18
InjectedMinorityCarriersinapn Junction:ReverseBias
x
p
x
n
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
kT
qV
n n
app
po p
exp
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
kT
qV
p p
app
no n
exp
V
app
<0
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MinorityCarrierDistribution
p p
p
G R
x
J
q t
p
+
c
c
=
c
c 1
dx
dp
qD qp J
p p p
+ = X
(Assumegenerationinbulkregionsisnegligible.)
ContinuityEquations:
p
no n
p
n
p p
x
J
q t
p
t

c
c
=
c
c 1
anduse
p
no n n
p
n
p p n
n
p p
x
p
D
x
p
x
p
t
p
t

c
c
+
c
c

c
c
=
c
c
2
2
X
X
0
2
2
=
c
c
=
c
c
p
n n
p
n
p
x
p
D
t
p
t
Forholesinnregion:
| |
( )
p
p
app
no no n n
L W
L x W
kT
qV
p p p p
/ sinh
/ ) ( sinh
1 exp

(


|
.
|

\
|
= = A
p p p
D L t =
0
2 2
2
=

c
c
p
no n n
L
p p
x
p
p p
L x L x
no n
Be Ae p p
/ /
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
kT
qV
p p
app
no n
exp ) 0 (
no n
p W p = ) (
Use whereL
n
istheminoritycarrierelectrondiffusionlength
hassolutionsoftheform
steadystate
Useboundaryconditions: and
shift coordinate system
n p
spacechargeregion
0 W
20
TotalCurrent
Thetotalcurrentflowingthroughthepn diodeisthesumoftheelectroncurrenton
thepsideandtheholecurrentonthenside.
( ) | |
( )
p p p D
app i p
p
L W L N
kT qV n qD
J
/ tanh
1 exp
2

=
( ) | |
( )
n n n A
app i n
n
L W L N
kT qV n qD
J
/ tanh
1 exp
2

=
( ) ( )
( ) | | 1 exp
/ tanh / tanh
2
2

(
(

+ = + = kT qV
L W L N
n qD
L W L N
n qD
J J J
app
n n n A
i n
p p p D
i p
n p total
ForW >> L
p
orL
n
:
( ) | | 1 exp
2
2

(
(

+ = kT qV
L N
n qD
L N
n qD
J
app
n A
i n
p D
i p
total
22
LongBaseandShortBaseDiodes(1)
( ) | | 1 exp ) 0 (
2
= kT qV
L N
n qD
J
app
p D
i p
p
p D
i p
p
L N
n qD
J
2
) 0 ( =
( ) | | 1 exp ) 0 (
2
= kT qV
W N
n qD
J
app
D
i p
p
W N
n qD
J
D
i p
p
2
) 0 ( =
( ) | |
( )
( ) | |
( )
p p D
app i p
p p
app po p
p
L W L N
kT qV n qD
L W L
kT qV n qD
J
/ tanh
1 exp
/ tanh
1 exp
) 0 (
2

=
LongBase:W>>L
p
ForwardBias:
CurrentincreasesexponentiallywithV
app
.
ReverseBias:
theholesonthensidewithinadiffusion
lengthofthedepletionregionboundary
diffusetowardsthedepletionregion.
ShortBase:W<<L
p
ForwardBias:
ReverseBias:
CurrentsincreaseasWdecreases!
23
LongBaseandShortBaseDiodes(2)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

e
x
c
e
s
s

h
o
l
e

d
e
n
s
i
t
y
shortbase
behavior
longbase
behavior
24
MinorityCarrierDiffusionLengthandLifetime
ForSilicon
25
Review Questions
1. What are 3 devices that use p-n junctions?
2. What two processes are balanced to form the depletion region in equilibrium?
3. Describe the Fermi energy of a p-n junction in equilibrium.
4. What is the depletion approximation?
5. What is the work function? What is the electron affinity?
6. What is the built-in voltage in a p-n junction in terms of carrier concentrations?
7. How are carrier density, electric field, and built-in voltage related?
8. The depletion region and the potential drop within a p-n junction are mostly in
the ______________ doped region.
9. When a p-n junction is forward biased is the energy barrier increased or
decreased? Is the depletion region width increased or decreased?
8. When a p-n junction is reverse biased is the energy barrier increased or
decreased? Is the depletion region width increased or decreased?
9. Does more current flow in a p-n junction in forward or reverse bias?
10. Which has a higher current density a long-base or short-base diode?
11. What is the difference between the quasi-Fermi potentials in a biased p-n
junction?
12. What does steady-state mean?
26
EquationsandConstants
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
po
no
no
po
i
D A
bi
n
n
q
kT
p
p
q
kT
n
N N
q
kT
ln ln ln
2
|
c
|
D i
qN
dx
d
=
2
2
c
|
A i
qN
dx
d
=
2
2
c c
|
p A
n D
x
i
x qN
x qN
dx
d
= =
=0
max
X
( )
2 2
max
max
max
d
p n
W
x x
X
X
=
+
= |
( )
D A
D A
d
N qN
N N
W
max
2 | c +
=
app bi
V =| |
max
Forabruptjunction(atequil.):
c
| qax
dx
d
i
=
2
2
c
|
8
2
0
max
qaW
dx
d
x
i
=
=
X
d
W
max max
3
2
X = |
3 / 1
max
12
(

=
qa
W
d
c|
(

=
i
n
aW
q
kT
2
ln
2
max
|
Forlinearjunction(atequil.):
( )
(


=
kT
q
n np
n p
i
| |
exp
2
n p app
V | | =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
kT
qV
n n
app
po p
exp
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
kT
qV
p p
app
no n
exp
p p p
D L t =
| |
( )
p
p
app
no no n n
L W
L x W
kT
qV
p p p p
/ sinh
/ ) ( sinh
1 exp

(


|
.
|

\
|
= = A
( ) ( )
( ) | | 1 exp
/ tanh / tanh
2
2

(
(

+ = + = kT qV
L W L N
n qD
L W L N
n qD
J J J
app
n n n A
i n
p p p D
i p
n p total
Abruptjunction(atnonequil.):
( ) | | 1 exp ) 0 (
2
= kT qV
W N
n qD
J
app
D
i p
p
W N
n qD
J
D
i p
p
2
) 0 ( =
( ) | | 1 exp ) 0 (
2
= kT qV
L N
n qD
J
app
p D
i p
p
p D
i p
p
L N
n qD
J
2
) 0 ( =
LongBase:W>>L
p
ShortBase:W<<L
p
C vac
E E = _
F vac
E E = u
n D p A
x N x N =
d
d
d
W dV
dQ
C
c
=
2 / 2 / W x W for s s
n
x x for s s 0
0 s s x x for
p
27