\

=
i
po
f p i
n
p
q
kT
ln
,
 
5


.

\

=
i
no
n i f
n
n
q
kT
ln
,
 
  ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
x N x N x n x p
q
dx
d
dx
d
A D
+
+ = =
c
 X
0 = =
dx
d
qn J
fn
n n

0 = =
dx
d
qp J
fp
p p

AbruptJunction:BuiltInPotential


.

\

=


.

\

=


.

\

=
po
no
no
po
i
D A
bi
n
n
q
kT
p
p
q
kT
n
N N
q
kT
ln ln ln
2

**assumesfullyionizeddonorsandacceptors
p
po
=holedensityonpside(majoritycarriers)~N
A
p
no
=holedensityonnside (minoritycarriers)~n
i
2
/N
D
n
no
=electrondensityonnside(majoritycarriers)~N
D
n
po
=electrondensityonpside (minoritycarriers)~n
i
2
/N
A
Atequilibrium:
7
AbruptJunction:DepletionApproximation

max

i
(x)
i
(x
p
)
@X
max
} }
=
n
x
D
dx
qN
d
0 0
c
Xt
X
  ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
x N x N x n x p
q
dx
d
dx
d
A D
+
+ = =
c
 X
c c
p A
n D
x qN
x qN
= =
max
X
2
) (
max
max
d
x
x
W
dx x
n
p
X
X = =
}

( )
D A
D A
d
N qN
N N
W
max
2  c +
=
app bi
V =  
max
8
} }
=
0 0
p
x
A
dx
qN
d
c
Xt
X
Example
Consider an abrupt silicon pn junction diode with 10
16
cm
3
donors on the n
side and 4 x 10
18
cm
3
acceptors on the pside. Find (a) the builtin potential,
(b) the depletion region width, (c) the depletion region width on either side of
the junction, and (d) the electric field at the junction.
9
OneSidedJunction
10
OneSidedJunctionBuiltInPotential


.

\

+ ~
i
A
g
bi
n
N
kT
q
E
ln
2

BuiltInPotentialforn
+
:
11
OneSidedJunctionDepletionRegionWidth
( )
p p n
A
app bi
d
x x x
qN
V
W ~ + =
=
 c 2
depletionlayerwidth:
depletionlayercapacitance:
d
d
d
W dV
dQ
C
c
=
12
LinearlyGradedJunction
ax
q
dx
d
dx
d
i
c c

= = =
X
2
2
}
2 /
2 /
max
W
W
xdx
qa
c
X
c c

12 2
3
2 /
2 /
2
max
qaW
dx x
qa
W
W
= =
}
3 / 1
max
12
(
=
qa
W
c
@X
max
q
E
i
i
= 
13
LinearlyGradedJunctionBuiltInPotential


.

\

~
i
bi
n
aW
q
kT
2
ln
2

BuiltInPotential:
14
Biasedpn Junction
V
app
>0 V
app
=0
Equilibrium ForwardBias ReverseBias
V
app
<0
V
app
V
app
+
+
_
_
W
d
W
d
W
d

bi
V
app

bi

bi
V
app
q
bi
q(
bi
V
app
)
q(
bi
V
app
)
15
QuasiFermiPotentials


.

\

+ =
i
i p
n
p
q
kT
ln  


.

\

=
i
i n
n
n
q
kT
ln  
dx
d
qn J
n
n n

=
dx
d
qp J
p
p p

=
( )
(
=
kT
q
n np
n p
i
 
exp
2
16
Currentsinapn Junction
Generationrecombination
currentsinspacechargeregionare
usuallynegligible.
electroncurrentleavingnside=
electroncurrententeringpside
holecurrentleavingpside=hole
currententeringnside
Onlyneedtoconsiderminority
carrierconcentrationsand
currents.
p n total
J J J + =
17
InjectedMinorityCarriersinapn Junction:ForwardBias


.

\

=


.

\

=
po
no
no
po
bi
n
n
q
kT
p
p
q
kT
ln ln 

.

\

=
kT
q
n n
bi
no po

exp

.

\

=
kT
q
p p
bi
po no

exp
( )


.

\


.

\

=


.

\

=
kT
qV
kT
q
n
kT
V q
n n
app
bi
no
app bi
no p
exp exp exp




.

\

=
kT
qV
n n
app
po p
exp


.

\

=
kT
qV
p p
app
no n
exp
e injectedfromthensidetothepside:
holesinjectedfromthepsidetothenside:
18
InjectedMinorityCarriersinapn Junction:ReverseBias
x
p
x
n


.

\

=
kT
qV
n n
app
po p
exp


.

\

=
kT
qV
p p
app
no n
exp
V
app
<0
19
MinorityCarrierDistribution
p p
p
G R
x
J
q t
p
+
c
c
=
c
c 1
dx
dp
qD qp J
p p p
+ = X
(Assumegenerationinbulkregionsisnegligible.)
ContinuityEquations:
p
no n
p
n
p p
x
J
q t
p
t
c
c
=
c
c 1
anduse
p
no n n
p
n
p p n
n
p p
x
p
D
x
p
x
p
t
p
t
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
2
2
X
X
0
2
2
=
c
c
=
c
c
p
n n
p
n
p
x
p
D
t
p
t
Forholesinnregion:
 
( )
p
p
app
no no n n
L W
L x W
kT
qV
p p p p
/ sinh
/ ) ( sinh
1 exp
(

.

\

= = A
p p p
D L t =
0
2 2
2
=
c
c
p
no n n
L
p p
x
p
p p
L x L x
no n
Be Ae p p
/ /
+ =


.

\

=
kT
qV
p p
app
no n
exp ) 0 (
no n
p W p = ) (
Use whereL
n
istheminoritycarrierelectrondiffusionlength
hassolutionsoftheform
steadystate
Useboundaryconditions: and
shift coordinate system
n p
spacechargeregion
0 W
20
TotalCurrent
Thetotalcurrentflowingthroughthepn diodeisthesumoftheelectroncurrenton
thepsideandtheholecurrentonthenside.
( )  
( )
p p p D
app i p
p
L W L N
kT qV n qD
J
/ tanh
1 exp
2
=
( )  
( )
n n n A
app i n
n
L W L N
kT qV n qD
J
/ tanh
1 exp
2
=
( ) ( )
( )   1 exp
/ tanh / tanh
2
2
(
(
+ = + = kT qV
L W L N
n qD
L W L N
n qD
J J J
app
n n n A
i n
p p p D
i p
n p total
ForW >> L
p
orL
n
:
( )   1 exp
2
2
(
(
+ = kT qV
L N
n qD
L N
n qD
J
app
n A
i n
p D
i p
total
22
LongBaseandShortBaseDiodes(1)
( )   1 exp ) 0 (
2
= kT qV
L N
n qD
J
app
p D
i p
p
p D
i p
p
L N
n qD
J
2
) 0 ( =
( )   1 exp ) 0 (
2
= kT qV
W N
n qD
J
app
D
i p
p
W N
n qD
J
D
i p
p
2
) 0 ( =
( )  
( )
( )  
( )
p p D
app i p
p p
app po p
p
L W L N
kT qV n qD
L W L
kT qV n qD
J
/ tanh
1 exp
/ tanh
1 exp
) 0 (
2
=
LongBase:W>>L
p
ForwardBias:
CurrentincreasesexponentiallywithV
app
.
ReverseBias:
theholesonthensidewithinadiffusion
lengthofthedepletionregionboundary
diffusetowardsthedepletionregion.
ShortBase:W<<L
p
ForwardBias:
ReverseBias:
CurrentsincreaseasWdecreases!
23
LongBaseandShortBaseDiodes(2)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
e
x
c
e
s
s
h
o
l
e
d
e
n
s
i
t
y
shortbase
behavior
longbase
behavior
24
MinorityCarrierDiffusionLengthandLifetime
ForSilicon
25
Review Questions
1. What are 3 devices that use pn junctions?
2. What two processes are balanced to form the depletion region in equilibrium?
3. Describe the Fermi energy of a pn junction in equilibrium.
4. What is the depletion approximation?
5. What is the work function? What is the electron affinity?
6. What is the builtin voltage in a pn junction in terms of carrier concentrations?
7. How are carrier density, electric field, and builtin voltage related?
8. The depletion region and the potential drop within a pn junction are mostly in
the ______________ doped region.
9. When a pn junction is forward biased is the energy barrier increased or
decreased? Is the depletion region width increased or decreased?
8. When a pn junction is reverse biased is the energy barrier increased or
decreased? Is the depletion region width increased or decreased?
9. Does more current flow in a pn junction in forward or reverse bias?
10. Which has a higher current density a longbase or shortbase diode?
11. What is the difference between the quasiFermi potentials in a biased pn
junction?
12. What does steadystate mean?
26
EquationsandConstants


.

\

=


.

\

=


.

\

=
po
no
no
po
i
D A
bi
n
n
q
kT
p
p
q
kT
n
N N
q
kT
ln ln ln
2

c

D i
qN
dx
d
=
2
2
c

A i
qN
dx
d
=
2
2
c c

p A
n D
x
i
x qN
x qN
dx
d
= =
=0
max
X
( )
2 2
max
max
max
d
p n
W
x x
X
X
=
+
= 
( )
D A
D A
d
N qN
N N
W
max
2  c +
=
app bi
V = 
max
Forabruptjunction(atequil.):
c
 qax
dx
d
i
=
2
2
c

8
2
0
max
qaW
dx
d
x
i
=
=
X
d
W
max max
3
2
X = 
3 / 1
max
12
(
=
qa
W
d
c
(
=
i
n
aW
q
kT
2
ln
2
max

Forlinearjunction(atequil.):
( )
(
=
kT
q
n np
n p
i
 
exp
2
n p app
V   =


.

\

=
kT
qV
n n
app
po p
exp


.

\

=
kT
qV
p p
app
no n
exp
p p p
D L t =
 
( )
p
p
app
no no n n
L W
L x W
kT
qV
p p p p
/ sinh
/ ) ( sinh
1 exp
(

.

\

= = A
( ) ( )
( )   1 exp
/ tanh / tanh
2
2
(
(
+ = + = kT qV
L W L N
n qD
L W L N
n qD
J J J
app
n n n A
i n
p p p D
i p
n p total
Abruptjunction(atnonequil.):
( )   1 exp ) 0 (
2
= kT qV
W N
n qD
J
app
D
i p
p
W N
n qD
J
D
i p
p
2
) 0 ( =
( )   1 exp ) 0 (
2
= kT qV
L N
n qD
J
app
p D
i p
p
p D
i p
p
L N
n qD
J
2
) 0 ( =
LongBase:W>>L
p
ShortBase:W<<L
p
C vac
E E = _
F vac
E E = u
n D p A
x N x N =
d
d
d
W dV
dQ
C
c
=
2 / 2 / W x W for s s
n
x x for s s 0
0 s s x x for
p
27