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Transmission Line Input Impedance

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11/30/2012

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Transmission Line Input Impedance
Consider a lossless line, length , terminated with a load ZL.
I(z)
+ -

IL

V (z)

Z0 , β

+ -

VL

ZL

z = −

z = 0

Let’s determine the input impedance of this line! Q: Just what do you mean by input impedance? A: The input impedance is simply the line impedance seen at the beginning ( z = − ) of the transmission line, i.e.:

Zin = Z ( z = − ) =

V (z = − ) I (z = − )

Note Zin equal to neither the load impedance ZL nor the characteristic impedance Z0 !

Zin ≠ Z L
Jim Stiles

and

Zin ≠ Z 0
Dept. of EECS

The Univ. of Kansas

1/26/2005 Transmission Line Input Impedance. of Kansas Dept. we first must determine the voltage and current at the beginning of the transmission line ( z = − ).doc 2/9 To determine exactly what Zin is. of EECS . we get: Zin = (ZL + Z0 ) e + j β Z0 (ZL + Z0 ) e + j β + (ZL − Z 0 ) e − j β − (ZL − Z 0 ) e − j β ⎛ Z L (e + j β + e − j β = Z0 ⎜ ⎜ Z L (e + j β + e − j β ⎝ ) + Z (e ) − Z (e 0 0 +j β +j β − e −j β − e −j β )⎞ ⎟ )⎟ ⎠ Now. V ( z = − ) = V0+ ⎡e + j β + Γ L e − j β ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ V0+ + j β ⎡e − ΓL e − j β ⎤ I( z = − ) = ⎣ ⎦ Z0 Therefore: V (z = − Zin = I (z = − ) = Z ⎛ e +jβ 0 ⎜ +jβ ) ⎝e + ΓL e − j β ⎞ ⎟ − ΓL e − j β ⎠ We can explicitly write Zin in terms of load ZL using the previously determined relationship: ΓL = ZL − Z0 ZL + Z0 Combining these two expressions. recall Euler’s equations: e + j β = cos β + j sin β e − j β = cos β − j sin β Jim Stiles The Univ.

1/26/2005 Transmission Line Input Impedance. we find that: β = meaning that: cos β = cos π = −1 Jim Stiles 2π λ =π λ 2 and sin β = sin π = 0 Dept. You should commit these results to memory! 1. we can likewise write the input impedance without the complex exponentials: Zin = Z 0 ⎜ ⎛ Z L cos β + j Z 0 sin β ⎞ ⎟ Z 0 cos β + j Z L sin β ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ Z + j Z 0 tan β ⎞ = Z0 ⎜ L ⎟ Z 0 + j Z L tan β ⎠ ⎝ impedance can be radically different from the load impedance ZL ! Note that depending on the values of β . =λ 2 If the length of the transmission line is exactly one-half wavelength ( = λ 2 ). of Kansas . the input Special Cases Now let’s look at the Zin for some important load impedances and line lengths. of EECS The Univ.doc 3/9 Using Euler’s relationships. Z 0 and .

1/26/2005 Transmission Line Input Impedance. the input impedance is equal to the load impedance. regardless of Z0 or β. Zin = Z L Z0. β ZL = λ 2 2. if the transmission line is precisely one-half wavelength long. of Kansas Dept. =λ 4 If the length of the transmission line is exactly one-quarter wavelength ( = λ 4 ).doc 4/9 and therefore: Zin = Z 0 ⎜ ⎛ Z L cos β + j Z 0 sin β ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ Z 0 cos β + j Z L sin β ⎠ ⎛ Z ( − 1) + j Z L (0) ⎞ = Z0 ⎜ L ⎟ Z 0 ( − 1) + j Z L (0) ⎠ ⎝ = ZL In other words. we find that: β = meaning that: cos β = cos π 2 = 0 2π λ π = λ 4 2 and sin β = sin π 2 = 1 Jim Stiles The Univ. of EECS .

such that Z L = 0 . the input impedance is inversely proportional to the load impedance. The input impedance at beginning of the λ 4 transmission line is therefore: Zin (Z ) = ZL 0 2 (Z ) = 0 2 0 =∞ line transforms a short-circuit into an open-circuit—and vice versa! Zin = ∞ ! This is an open circuit! The quarter-wave transmission Zin = ∞ Z0 .1/26/2005 Transmission Line Input Impedance. Think about what this means! Say the load impedance is a short circuit. of EECS The Univ. of Kansas .doc 5/9 and therefore: ⎛ Z L cos β + j Z 0 sin β ⎞ Zin = Z 0 ⎜ ⎟ Z 0 cos β + j Z L sin β ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ Z (0) + j Z 0 (1) ⎞ = Z0 ⎜ L ⎟ Z 0 (0) + j Z L (1) ⎠ ⎝ (Z ) = ZL 0 2 In other words. β ZL=0 = λ Jim Stiles 4 Dept. if the transmission line is precisely one-quarter wavelength long.

if the load impedance is equal to the transmission line characteristic impedance. we find that the input impedance becomes: Zin = Z 0 ⎜ ⎛ Z L cos β + j Z 0 sin β ⎞ ⎟ Z 0 cos β + j Z L sin β ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ Z cos β + j Z 0 sin β ⎞ = Z0 ⎜ 0 ⎟ Z 0 cos β + j Z 0 sin β ⎠ ⎝ = Z0 In other words. the resistive component is zero). Zin = Z 0 Z0 . of EECS .e. β ZL=Z0 4.doc 6/9 3. Z L = j X L If the load is purely reactive (i. the input impedance is: Jim Stiles The Univ.. the input impedance will be likewise be equal to Z0 regardless of the transmission line length .1/26/2005 Transmission Line Input Impedance. Z L = Z 0 If the load is numerically equal to the characteristic impedance of the transmission line (a real value). of Kansas Dept.

if the load is purely reactive. regardless of the line length . the input impedance will be complex (both resistive and reactive components). β ZL=jXL Note that the opposite is not true: even if the load is purely resistive (ZL = R). of EECS . of Kansas Dept.doc 7/9 Zin = Z 0 ⎜ ⎛ Z L cos β + j Z 0 sin β ⎞ ⎟ Z 0 cos β + j Z L sin β ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ j X L cos β + j Z 0 sin β ⎞ = Z0 ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ Z 0 cos β + j X L sin β ⎠ ⎛ X cos β + Z 0 sin β ⎞ = j Z0 ⎜ L ⎟ Z 0 cos β − X L sin β ⎠ ⎝ In other words. Q: Why is this? A: Jim Stiles The Univ. Z in = j X in Z0 . then the input impedance will likewise be purely reactive.1/26/2005 Transmission Line Input Impedance.

Jim Stiles The Univ.doc 8/9 5.1/26/2005 Transmission Line Input Impedance. 312. we assumed that the signal frequency ω is relatively low. 412)! In those courses.. 212. of EECS . the input impedance Zin will always be equal to the load impedance Z L . such that the signal wavelength λ is very large ( λ ). λ If the transmission line is electrically small—its length is small with respect to signal wavelength λ --we find that: β = and thus: cos β = cos 0 = 1 and 2π λ = 2π λ ≈0 sin β = sin 0 = 0 so that the input impedance is: Zin = Z 0 ⎜ ⎛ Z L cos β + j Z 0 sin β ⎞ ⎟ Z 0 cos β + j Z L sin β ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ Z (1) + j Z L (0) ⎞ = Z0 ⎜ L ⎟ ⎝ Z 0 (1) + j Z L (0) ⎠ = ZL In other words. if the transmission line length is much smaller than a wavelength.g. This is the assumption we used in all previous circuits courses (e. of Kansas Dept. EECS 211.

of EECS .1/26/2005 Transmission Line Input Impedance.doc 9/9 Note also for this case ( the electrically short transmission line). our “wire” behaves exactly as it did in EECS 211 ! Jim Stiles The Univ. of Kansas Dept. the voltage and current at each end of the transmission line are approximately the same! V (z = − ) ≈ V (z = 0) If and I(z = − ) ≈ I (z = 0) if λ λ .

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