FENTEK • MARINE FENDERING SYSTEMS

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Marine
Fendering
Systems

FENTEK Marine Systems GmbH
Langenstücken 36a
D-22393 Hamburg
Germany
Tel: +49 40 600 4650
Fax: +49 40 601 7217
e-mail: germany@fentek.net
FENTEK UK
Malmesbury, England
Tel: +44 1666 827660
Fax: +44 1666 822273
e-mail: uk@fentek.net

FENTEK Spain
Izarra (Alava), Spain
Tel: +34 945 437090
Fax: +34 945 437050
e-mail: spain@fentek.net

FENTEK France
Paris, France
Tel: +33 1 4139 2256
Fax: +33 1 4139 2257
e-mail: france@fentek.net

FENTEK Asia
FENTEK Australia
FENTEK Americas
Jurong, Singapore
Brisbane, Australia
Williamsburg, USA
Tel: +65 6268 8005
Tel: +61 7 3866 7444
Tel: +1 757 564 1780
Fax: +65 6268 6629
Fax: +61 7 3263 4912
Fax: +1 757 564 1781
e-mail: singapore@fentek.net e-mail: australia@fentek.net e-mail: americas@fentek.net

ISSUE 08/02

www.fentek.net

MD
(t)
590,000
475,000
420,000
365,000
335,000
305,000
277,000
246,000
217,000
186,000
156,000
125,000
102,000
90,000
78,000

dwt
(t)
50,000
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
5,000
3,000

MD
(t)
66,000
54,000
42,000
29,000
15,000
8,000
4,900

LOA
(m)
415
380
365
350
340
330
320
310
300
285
270
250
235
225
217

LBP
(m)
392
358
345
330
321
312
303
294
285
270
255
236
223
213
206

B
(m)
73.0
68.0
65.5
63.0
61.0
59.0
57.0
55.0
52.5
49.5
46.5
43.0
40.0
38.0
36.0

D
(m)
24.0
23.0
22.0
21.0
20.5
19.9
19.3
18.5
17.7
16.9
16.0
15.1
14.0
13.5
13.0

C O N TA I N E R S H I P S ( PA N A M A X )
F
(m)
14.5
13.5
12.6
11.7
11.2
10.7
10.2
9.5
8.8
8.2
7.5
6.8
6.0
5.6
5.3

CB
--0.838
0.828
0.824
0.816
0.814
0.812
0.811
0.802
0.799
0.803
0.802
0.796
0.797
0.804
0.789

P R O D U C T A N D C H E M I C A L TA N K E R S
LOA
(m)
210
200
188
174
145
110
90

LBP
(m)
200
190
178
165
137
104
85

B
(m)
32.2
30.0
28.0
24.5
19.0
15.0
13.0

D
(m)
12.6
11.8
10.8
9.8
7.8
7.0
6.0

F
(m)
5.0
4.5
3.9
3.2
2.2
1.8
1.3

CB
--0.793
0.783
0.761
0.714
0.721
0.715
0.721

dwt
(t)
60,000
55,000
50,000
45,000
40,000
35,000
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000

MD
(t)
83,000
75,500
68,000
61,000
54,000
47,500
40,500
33,500
27,000
20,000
13,500

LOA
(m)
290
278
267
255
237
222
210
195
174
152
130

dwt
(t)
50,000
45,000
40,000
35,000
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000

MD
(t)
87,500
81,000
72,000
63,000
54,000
45,000
36,000
27,500
18,400
9,500

LOA
(m)
287
275
260
245
231
216
197
177
153
121

dwt
(t)
40,000
35,000
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
2,500

MD
(t)
54,500
48,000
41,000
34,500
28,000
21,500
14,500
7,500
4,000

LOA
(m)
209
199
188
178
166
152
133
105
85

dwt
(t)
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000

MD
(t)
48,000
42,000
35,500
28,500

LOA
(m)
210
205
198
190

LBP
(m)
275
264
253
242
225
211
200
185
165
144
124

B
(m)
32.2
32.2
32.2
32.2
32.2
32.2
30.0
28.5
26.2
23.7
21.2

D
(m)
13.2
12.8
12.5
12.2
11.7
11.1
10.7
10.1
9.2
8.5
7.3

F
(m)
8.6
8.1
7.8
7.5
6.9
6.3
5.9
5.3
4.4
3.8
2.7

CB
--0.693
0.677
0.651
0.626
0.622
0.614
0.615
0.614
0.662
0.673
0.686

D
(m)
12.4
12.0
11.4
10.8
10.2
9.6
9.1
8.4
7.4
6.0

F
(m)
14.8
14.2
13.4
12.6
11.7
10.9
10.2
9.2
7.8
5.8

CB
--0.783
0.783
0.775
0.758
0.737
0.719
0.722
0.726
0.715
0.696

D
(m)
12.5
12.0
11.3
10.7
10.0
9.2
8.0
6.4
5.0

F
(m)
4.5
4.3
4.1
4.0
3.8
3.5
3.2
2.7
2.3

CB
--0.712
0.714
0.714
0.705
0.697
0.696
0.703
0.724
0.750

D
(m)
11.7
10.9
10.0
9.0

F
(m)
13.8
12.7
11.4
10.0

CB
--0.644
0.618
0.591
0.548

FENDER DESIGN

FENDER DESIGN

U L C C & V L C C TA N K E R S
dwt
(t)
500,000
400,000
350,000
300,000
275,000
250,000
225,000
200,000
175,000
150,000
125,000
100,000
80,000
70,000
60,000

FREIGHT RO-RO
LBP
(m)
273
261
247
233
219
205
187
168
145
115

B
(m)
32.2
32.2
32.2
32.2
32.0
31.0
28.6
26.2
23.4
19.3

GENERAL CARGO SHIPS
BULK CARRIERS
dwt
(t)
400,000
350,000
300,000
250,000
200,000
150,000
125,000
100,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
20,000
10,000

MD
(t)
464,000
406,000
350,000
292,000
236,000
179,000
150,000
121,000
98,000
74,000
50,000
26,000
13,000

dwt
(t)
70,000
65,000
60,000
55,000

MD
(t)
100,000
92,000
84,000
76,500

LOA
(m)
375
362
350
335
315
290
275
255
240
220
195
160
130

LBP
(m)
356
344
333
318
300
276
262
242
228
210
185
152
124

B
(m)
62.5
59.0
56.0
52.5
48.5
44.0
41.5
39.0
36.5
33.5
29.0
23.5
18.0

D
(m)
24.0
23.0
21.8
20.5
19.0
17.5
16.5
15.3
14.0
12.8
11.5
9.3
7.5

F
(m)
9.5
9.1
8.6
8.1
7.4
6.8
6.4
5.9
5.4
4.9
4.4
3.5
2.9

CB
--0.848
0.848
0.840
0.832
0.833
0.822
0.816
0.817
0.821
0.802
0.791
0.763
0.758

C O N TA I N E R S H I P S ( P O S T PA N A M A X )

70

LOA
(m)
280
274
268
261

LBP
(m)
266
260
255
248

B
(m)
41.8
41.2
39.8
38.3

D
(m)
13.8
13.5
13.2
12.8

F
(m)
9.2
8.9
8.6
8.1

CB
--0.636
0.621
0.612
0.614

LBP
(m)
199
189
179
169
158
145
127
100
80

B
(m)
30.0
28.9
27.7
26.4
24.8
22.6
19.8
15.8
13.0

CAR CARRIERS
LBP
(m)
193
189
182
175

DEFINITIONS
gross registered tonnage (grt)
The gross internal volumetric capacity of the vessel measured in units of 2.83m3 (100ft3).
deadweight tonnage (dwt)
The total mass of cargo, stores, fuels, crew and reserves with which the vessel is laden when submerged
to the summer loading line. Note that this is not an exact measure of the cargo load.
lightweight tonnage (lwt)
The total mass of the ship, excluding cargo. stores, fuels, crew and reserves. Note that lightweight tonnage
+ deadweight tonnage = displacement tonnage.

B
(m)
32.2
32.2
32.2
32.2

MD = Displacement
LOA = Length Overall
LBP = Length Between Perpendiculars
B = Beam
D = Laden Draft
F = Laden Freeboard

71

grt
(t)
50,000
40,000
35,000
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000

MD
(t)
25,000
21,000
19,000
17,000
15,000
13,000
10,500

LOA
(m)
197
187
182
175
170
164
155

grt
(t)
80,000
70,000
60,000
50,000
40,000
35,000

MD
(t)
44,000
38,000
34,000
29,000
24,000
21,000

LOA
(m)
272
265
252
234
212
192

LBP
(m)
183
174
169
163
158
152
144

B
(m)
30.6
28.7
27.6
26.5
25.3
24.1
22.7

D
(m)
7.1
6.7
6.5
6.3
6.1
5.9
5.6

F
(m)
4.6
4.3
4.2
4.0
3.9
3.7
3.5

CB
--0.613
0.612
0.611
0.609
0.600
0.587
0.559

D
(m)
8.0
7.8
7.6
7.1
6.5
6.3

F
(m)
8.6
8.4
8.1
7.4
6.5
6.2

CB
--0.664
0.656
0.633
0.622
0.621
0.616

CRUISE LINERS
LBP
(m)
231
225
214
199
180
164

B
(m)
35.0
32.2
32.2
32.2
32.2
32.2

GAS CARRIERS
grt
(t)
100,000
70,000
50,000
30,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
7,000
5,000
3,000
2,000
1,000

MD
(t)
144,000
105,000
78,000
49,700
34,800
27,000
18,900
13,800
10,200
6,530
4,560
2,480

LOA
(m)
294
263
237
203
179
164
144
129
117
100
88
71

grt
(t)
10,000
7,000
5,000
3,000
2,000
1,000

MD
(t)
8,010
5,830
4,320
2,740
1,910
1,030

LOA
(m)
142
125
112
93
81
64

LBP
(m)
281
251
226
192
169
154
136
121
109
93
82
66

B
(m)
45.8
41.2
37.2
32.0
28.4
26.0
23.1
20.8
18.8
16.1
14.3
11.7

D
(m)
12.3
12.3
12.3
12.3
11.0
10.1
9.0
8.1
7.4
6.4
5.7
4.6

F
(m)
16.9
13.4
10.5
6.7
5.5
4.8
3.9
3.2
2.6
2.0
1.5
1.1

CB
--0.887
0.805
0.736
0.642
0.643
0.651
0.652
0.660
0.656
0.665
0.666
0.681

D
(m)
6.4
5.5
4.8
4.0
3.4
2.6

F
(m)
5.3
4.7
4.2
3.4
2.9
2.3

CB
--0.442
0.458
0.473
0.486
0.507
0.532

The jetty structure will have a large influence on the choice of fendering system, and sometimes vice versa. Structure design will depend
to a large degree on local practice, geology and materials. The right choice of fender, when considered at an early stage, can often have
a significant effect on the overall cost of the berth.
Below are some examples of some typical berth structures and considerations for the fender design:-

OPEN PILE JETTIES

FENDER DESIGN

FENDER DESIGN

STRUCTURES

FERRIES

Open pile construction is an economic means of building simple berths as well as large jetty
structures. Vertical piles are less expensive to drive, but these are more susceptible to loads,
so low reaction fenders are often specified. This is even more relevant to jetties built with
concrete piles.
Fenders are usually installed onto the concrete deck and, if necessary, additional fender
supports are either bracketed off the piles or a local extension to the concrete face is provided.
Lower fender connections direct from the piles may need to incorporate a means of adjustment
to suit piling tolerances.

DOLPHIN
Dolphins are typically used for tanker berths, RoRo terminals and wherever a continuous quay
face is not required. They comprise of vertical and/or raking piles with a heavy concrete cap.
As loads are distributed over a relatively few piles, fender reaction is critical.
Where dolphins are designed as elastic structures (with vertical piles), the spring stiffness of
the structure can be used to good effect to absorb a proportion of the berthing energy.

MONOPILE
Monopile dolphins are perhaps the most economic means of constructing a berth, provided
soil conditions are suitable and installation plant for the large diameter steel tubes is locally
available. As with conventional dolphins, fender reaction is critical.
Monopile structures are often built in remote locations, so fenders need to be fast and simple
to install. Maintenance and repair will be more difficult so these factors need to be carefully
considered early in the design process.

PA S S E N G E R S H I P S
LBP
(m)
128
114
102
86
75
60

B
(m)
21.6
19.8
18.2
16.0
14.4
12.1

MASS STRUCTURE
Mass structures are more common in regions with lower tidal variations and where the large
volumes of construction materials are readily available.
Fender reaction is less important, but as these berths often accommodate a wide range of
vessel classes and sizes, the fenders will need adequate stand-off and sometimes fitted at
closer centres to avoid contact between structure and ship.

FAST FERRIES

72

Type

Name

Catamaran
Monohull
Catamaran
Catamaran
Monohull
Monohull
Catamaran
Catamaran

HSS 1500
Aries
Pacificat
Jonathon Swift
Pegasus One
Super SeaCat
Boomerang
SeaCat

MD
(m)
4000
3800
1825
1400
1275
1250
1230
950

LOA
(m)
125.0
145.0
122.0
86.6
94.5
100.3
82.3
73.7

LBP
(m)
107.50
128.00
96.00
74.10
82.00
88.00
69.60
63.70

B
(m)
40.00
22.00
25.80
24.00
16.00
17.10
23.00
26.00

D
(m)
4.60
4.00
3.90
3.10
2.90
2.70
3.50
3.30

F
(m)
15.10
8.60
11.55
4.20
7.60
8.00
4.00
3.60

SHEET PILE
Sheet pile construction lies somewhere between an open pile and mass structure. Where tidal
variations are small, fenders are generally installed directly to the concrete cope. In large tidal
zones, it may be necessary to attach fenders directly or via brackets to the sheet piles.
Even at accepted piling tolerances, the face for mounting fenders can be far from uniform. It is
more difficult to attach fenders (or brackets) on Z-profile piles as the pile clutch is on the
outpan. Thought should be given to connections near low water as near waterline (or
underwater) welding can be difficult and expensive.

73

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