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UFC Welding Design Procedures and Inspectionsb

UFC Welding Design Procedures and Inspectionsb

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UFC 3-320-01A 1 March 2005

UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC)

WELDING – DESIGN PROCEDURES AND INSPECTIONS

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED

UFC 3-320-01A 1 March 2005

UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC) WELDING – DESIGN PROCEDURES AND INSPECTIONS Any copyrighted material included in this UFC is identified at its point of use. Use of the copyrighted material apart from this UFC must have the permission of the copyright holder.

U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS (Preparing Activity) NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER SUPPORT AGENCY

Record of Changes (changes are indicated by \1\ ... /1/) Change No. Date Location

This UFC supersedes TI 809-26, dated 1 March 2000. The format of this UFC does not conform to UFC 1-300-01; however, the format will be adjusted to conform at the next revision. The body of this UFC is the previous TI 809-26, dated 1 March 2000.

1

TI 809-26 1 March 2000

Technical Instructions

Welding Design Procedures And Inspections

Headquarters US Army Corps of Engineers Engineering and Construction Division Directorate of Military Programs Washington, DC 20314-1000

CEMP-E

TI 809-26 1 March 2000

TECHNICAL INSTRUCTIONS

WELDING - DESIGN PROCEDURES AND INSPECTIONS

Any copyrighted material included in this document is identified at its point of use. Use of the copyrighted material apart from this document must have the permission of the copyright holder.

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Record of Changes (changes indicated \1\.../1/) No. Date Location

This Technical Instruction supersedes TM 5-805-7, Welding Design, Procedures and Inspection dated 20 May 1985

CEMP-E
WELDING - DESIGN PROCEDURES AND INSPECTIONS Table of Contents

TI 809-26 1 March 2000

Page CHAPTER 1. GENERAL Paragraph 1. 2. 3. 2. PURPOSE AND SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPLICABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1

CHAPTER 2. APPLICABLE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS Paragraph 1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 a. Specification Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 b. Specification Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 c. New Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 d. Preferred Design Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 e. Standards Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2. USACE AND OTHER MILITARY DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 a. TI 809-01 Load Assumptions for Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 b. TI 809-02 Structural Design Criteria for Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 c. TI 809-04 Seismic Design for Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 d. TI 809-05 Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation for Buildings . . . . . . . . 2-2 e. TI 809-07 Design of Cold-Formed Load Bearing Steel Systems and Masonry Veneer / Steel Stud Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 f. TI 809-30 Metal Building Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 g. TM 5-809-6 Structural Design Criteria for Structures Other than Buildings 2-2 3. AISC SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 a. Metric Load and Resistance Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 b. Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 c. Specification for Structural Steel Buildings - Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 d. Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 e. Code of Standard Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 f. Manual of Steel Construction, LRFD, Metric Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 g. Manual of Steel Construction, LRFD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 h. Manual of Steel Construction, ASD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 4. AWS SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 a. D1.1 Structural Welding Code - Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 b. D1.3 Structural Welding Code - Sheet Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 c. D1.4 Structural Welding Code - Reinforcing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 d. A2.4 Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing and Nondestructive Testing 2-4 e. A5-series Filler Metal Related Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 5. FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 i

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carbon Equivalency . . APPLICATION OF HEAT FOR WELDING . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . .Interim Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FEMA 302 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for new Buildings and Other Structures . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . FEMA 267 Replacement . . Unlisted Steels . AWS Approved Steels . . . . . . . . . . f. . . . . .Heating and Thermal Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matching Filler Metals for Non-qualified Steels . . . . Cambering Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-6 3-6 3-6 3-6 CHAPTER 4. . AIR CARBON ARC GOUGING . . . . . . . AWS Prequalified Steels . . . . . . 2-5 c. . . . . . . . . Edge Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Postheat (PWHT) . . . WELDING AND RELATED PROCESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matching Filler Metals for Prequalified Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AISC Approved Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . Cooling Rate Control . . . . . . . . . Interpass Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preheat for Non-prequalified Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oxyfuel Cutting . . WELDING PROCESSES AND MATERIALS Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FEMA 273 NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings 2-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FEMA 267 & 267B Steel Moment Frame Structures . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . d. Preheat for Sheet Steel to Structural Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . Plasma Arc Cutting . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . PROPERTY ENHANCEMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . Maximum Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-6 4-8 4-8 . . . . . 2. 2-5 b. . . . c. Chemical Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AISC AND AWS LISTED STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . a. . . . a. . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THERMAL CUTTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPLICATION OF HEAT FOR STRAIGHTENING AND CAMBERING . . . . . . . . . . . . . WELDABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . . . . . e. . . . . . . . . . . . . Preheat for Prequalified Applications . . c. . . . . . . . . . . Process . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Weld Heat-Affected Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Finishing . . . . . . . . . 2-5 CHAPTER 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STRUCTURAL STEELS Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . b. Yield to Ultimate Strength Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . d. . . . .

. . . 5-7 k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Available Design Aids . . . Joint Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Improved Through-thickness Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AVAILABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . . 4-10 c. . . . . . . . . . . Access . . . . . . . . DESIGN FOR CYCLICALLY LOADED STRUCTURES (FATIGUE) . . . . 4-10 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weld Tabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brittle Fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Materials Concerns and Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. . . . . . . . 5-6 i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Sequence and Distortion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HIGH SEISMIC APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stresses / Design Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lamellar Tearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fatigue Life Enhancement . . General . . Toughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . High-seismic Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13 iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8 m. . . . . . . . . 5-12 b. . . . . . . . . . . . Qualified Joint Details . Minimum / Maximum Weld Sizes . . . . . 4-10 a. . . . . . . 5-6 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11 5. . 5-1 c. 5-11 a. 5-4 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 f. . . . Availability of Materials. . . . . . . . . . 5-9 a. . . . . . . . . . GENERAL . . . . Weld Access Holes . Backing Bars . . . . . . . 4-13 CHAPTER 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fatigue Design Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normalizing . . . . . . . 5-11 d. . . . . . . . . . 5-3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stress Ranges . . . . . . . . Maximum Fillet Weld Size . 5-6 g. . . . . 5-9 4. . . . . . . Effective Weld Size / Throat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GOOD DESIGN PRACTICE . . . . . 5-2 d. . . . . . . Fatigue Applications . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 f. . . . . . High Stress / Strain / Restraint Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DESIGN FOR WELDING Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8 l. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . Joint Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Latest Guidance . 5-9 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 4. . . . . . . . . . . Prequalified Joint Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fine Grain Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 f. . . . . . . . . 5-6 h. . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 j. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 g. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment and Personnel . . . . . SELECTION OF STRUCTURAL STEELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE AND SERVICE APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cold Weather Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 a. 5-10 c. . . 5-1 a. . . . . . . . . . . Distortion . . . . . Engineer’s Responsibility . . Reentrant Corners . . . . . . . . DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WELDED JOINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 e. . . . . . . . . . Killed Steel . . 5-12 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heavy Section Joint Provisions . . 5-1 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. WELDING TO OLDER STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e. . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WELDING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . 2. . . . . . . . iv 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-2 8-2 8-2 8-2 8-2 8-3 8-3 8-3 8-3 8-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FCAW-S Deposits . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel Classification . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STUD WELDING Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . WPS Qualification Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HAZARDOUS MATERIALS . . . PRE-PRODUCTION TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . Other Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WPS Prequalification Limits . . . b. . . . . . . . . d. . . . . . . . Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . QUALITY ASSURANCE AND INSPECTION Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-2 CHAPTER 8. . . . INSPECTOR QUALIFICATIONS . . Qualification Testing by Others . . a. . . . . . . . . Inspection Enhancements . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . STRENGTH REDUCTION EFFECTS AND OTHER CONCERNS WHEN WELDING UNDER LOAD . . . d. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13 f. AISC Requirements . . . . 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-2 CHAPTER 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guidance for Engineering Review of Procedures Submitted by Contractors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Direction and Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DETERMINING WELDABILITY OF EXISTING STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . STUD WELDING PROCESS . GENERAL . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . Qualification Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . g. . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . WELDING TO EXISTING STRUCTURES Paragraph 1. . . . . . 5. . Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Welding and Visual Inspection . . . . . . . . f. 5-13 CHAPTER 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSPECTION . . . . . . . AWS Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elevated Temperature Effects . . . . . WELDING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carbon Equivalency . . . . . 5. . . . . REVIEWING AND APPROVING WELDING PROCEDURES . STUD BASE QUALIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Joint Detail Modifications and Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . Contractor Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . WPS Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTERMIXING WELD PROCESSES AND FILLER METALS . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineer’s Responsibility for Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . STAINLESS STEEL . . . . . . . . 8-12 c. . . . . . . . . Electrocution . . . . . . . . . . . . CAST IRON . . . . . . . . . SAFETY & ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER WELDING SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d. . . 8-13 CHAPTER 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fumes and Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nondestructive Testing Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eye Protection . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . During Welding . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . WELD QUALITY . . . . . . . INSPECTION CATEGORIES AND TASKS . . . . . . D1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 b. . . . . . . . 8-13 e. . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 CHAPTER 10. . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . TUBULAR STRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASME . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8 e. . . . . . 8-5 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AWWA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. . . Weld Discontinuities . . . . . . . Confined Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 7. . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER GOVERNING SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . API . . . . . . . Laminations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 a. . 8-13 c. . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prior to Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NDT Personnel Qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BRIDGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WROUGHT IRON . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-2 10-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 d. . . . . . . . SHEET STEEL WELDING . . 8-5 b. . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . After Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mill Defects . . . . . 2. . . . . . . Burn Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REINFORCING STEEL . . Pre-project Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8 f. . 8-13 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mislocated Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALUMINUM . . . Alternate Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . Root Opening Corrections . 8-4 5. . a. . . . . Fire . . . . .1 Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REPAIRS TO BASE METAL AND WELDS . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAFETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NDT Acceptance Criteria . CAST STEEL . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages. . . . . . . . C-29 ELECTROSLAG WELDING (ESW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages. Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . Specification and Certification . . . ENERGY CONSUMPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Method Description . . . . . C-29 b. . . . . . . . . . . . C-31 a. . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . . . . . A-1 APPENDIX B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-15 a. . . . . . . . . . C-33 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-31 ELECTROGAS WELDING (EGW) . . . . . . . . . . . . C-21 b. C-33 2. . . . . . . WELDING PROCESSES Paragraph 1. . . C-1 b. . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . C-1 a. . . . . . . . Advantages. . . . . . . . Filler Metal Designation. BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . C-29 a. . . . . . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 7. . . . Method Description . . . . . . Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VISUAL TESTING (VT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages. . . C-33 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . C-3 FLUX CORED ARC WELDING (FCAW) . . . . . . . . . . . C-31 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-22 c. . . . . . . . Advantages. . . . . . . C-15 b. Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages and Disadvantages . Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specification and Certification . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 g. . . . . . . . . . . . C-16 SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-9 GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW . . . . . . . . C-31 b. . . . Specification and Certification . . . . . . . . APPENDIX D. . . . . . . . . . . . . vi D-1 D-1 D-1 D-3 D-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REFERENCES . . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . . . . . C-33 a. . . . . Specification and Certification . . C-21 a. . . . . . Filler Metal Designation . . . . Advantages. . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . Further Guidance . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specification and Certification . . C-1 c. . . . . . . . . . . Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . . . . . C-8 b. . . C-29 c. . . . . PENETRANT TESTING (PT) . . . . . . . . . 10-3 APPENDIX A. . C-23 GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-15 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1 APPENDIX C. . . . . . . Advantages. . . . . . . . . C-8 c. . . . . . . Specification and Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) . . . . C-8 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . D-10 a. . . . RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING (RT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Method Description . . . D-7 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-12 vii . Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. . . . . . D-5 4. . . . Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . Method Description . . . . . . ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) . OTHER METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-10 6. . . . . D-10 b. . . D-5 b. . . . . . . . . MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-7 a. . D-5 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Method Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-7 b. . D-3 3. Advantages and Disadvantages . . . .

3. or the welding of materials other than structural steel. used or intended for sheltering persons or property. Appendix A contains a list of references pertaining to this document. and does not include underwater. or cryogenic applications. piping. 4. standards and materials. A building is defined as any structure. and the design and specification of welded details. A bibliography of publications that provides additional information and background data is in Appendix B. 1-1 . REFERENCES. The scope of this document is welding for general building construction for military applications. 2. PURPOSE AND SCOPE.CEMP-E CHAPTER 1 GENERAL TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. These instructions are applicable to all USACE elements having military construction responsibilities. guidance on the application of codes and industry standards. inspection and quality. bridges. This document provides criteria and guidance for the design and specification of welded structural components and systems in accordance with current technology. use of technical manuals. fully or partially enclosed. APPLICABILITY. This includes information on design approaches. sheet steels. BIBLIOGRAPHY.

Within AWS standards. as listed. and the varying dates of adoption and publication.12000 Structural Welding Code . steel and wood is presented in this TI document. Those values established as of the date of this document have been adopted. There are also specific exceptions one code may take with another. the filler metal specifications are being revised for metrication. Buildings are categorized according to occupancy. Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD).1. a. all loadings are based upon ASCE 7-95. TI 809-01 Load Assumptions for Buildings. Building design and welding design are governed by a variety of specifications and standards. but is not required. Others may change with the publication of the D1. and for building systems constructed of concrete. Conflicts may arise between codes as new research and methods are adopted in one code before another. and technical manuals developed by the Army. USACE AND OTHER MILITARY DOCUMENTS.Steel. or cited by reference. The AWS D1. and new standards that may be published. c. The first method is Allowable Stress Design (ASD). with independent dimensional units and values. 2. listing those exceptions in AISC Specification section J1. Specification Cycles. are based on national building codes. The American Institute of Steel Construction provides two methodologies for the design of steel-framed buildings. b. which provides adequate strength based upon service load conditions. masonry. LRFD uses load factors and load combinations applied to service loads. Except as designated within the document. Navy. may not be listed in the codes for periods of several years because of the adoption and printing cycles. New Materials. industry standards. and Air Force. for suitable application. It may be necessary to take exceptions to various code provisions. and resistance (strength reduction) factors applied to the nominal resistance of the component to achieve a design strength. or to expand the code provisions through the use of the project specifications. TI 809-02 Structural Design Criteria for Buildings. New steels and welding materials. a.2. to resolve conflicting issues and to permit new materials. Users of this document should evaluate the various standards listed. The use of the LRFD method is preferred over the use of the ASD method. e. All loads are assumed to have the same variability. Because of the varying focus of each standard or specification. General structural design guidance for buildings. is a more modern probabilistic approach also known as limit states design. b. This document provides minimum snow and wind loads plus frost penetration data to be used in the design and construction of buildings and other structures. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. Preferred Design Methodology. GENERAL. The second method. the standards and specifications are in a constant cycle of revision. Specification Conflicts. The design requirements provided herein. adopted by the industry. Standards Evaluation.1 code is also being fully metricated for the year 2000. as the AISC Specification does with AWS D1. 2-1 . Both methods are in current practice.CEMP-E CHAPTER 2 APPLICABLE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. d.

but does not provide specific details for welded connections in those systems. Navy. Revise as needed. and Air Force facilities are indicated. This document provides guidance in the interpretation and implementation of the FEMA 302 provisions for the Life Safety performance objective for all buildings. and takes exception to certain provisions of that edition. AISC SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS. The LRFD Specification contains provisions regarding welding design and application. will be published by AISC in early 2000. 2-2 . covering and accessories. Metric Load and Resistance Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. Section J contains design provisions. and Section M contains limited supplemental information regarding quality and inspection. Paragraph 5. g. e. Supplemental information to help engineers interpret and apply code provisions. Cold-formed steel members are generally of a thickness that welding is governed by AWS D1.1-92. is based upon AWS D1. d. The Metric LRFD Specification contains provisions regarding welding design and application. only the units differ.Sheet Steel. b. This document provides qualified designers with the criteria and guidance for the performance-based seismic analysis and design of new military buildings. TI 809-07 Design of Cold-Formed Load Bearing Steel Systems and Masonry Veneer / Steel Stud Walls. The Metric LRFD Specification. TM 5-809-6 Structural Design Criteria for Structures Other Than Buildings. It is anticipated that a new LRFD Specification. This document is intended to provide qualified designers with the necessary criteria and guidance for the performance-based seismic analysis and design of new military buildings. This document will become TI 809-03.Steel. rather than AWS D1. Requirements unique to Army. and meet serviceability and strength performance objectives is also included in the TI. containing both SI and US Customary Units within one document. This document provides design guidance on the use of cold-formed steel systems for both loadbearing and nonload-bearing applications. Section J contains design provisions. 3. Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings.i addresses welding for manufacturers not AISC certified in Category MB. f. TI 809-05 Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation for Buildings. TI 809-04 Seismic Design for Buildings. a. published in 1994.1 Structural Welding Code .3 Structural Welding Code . and the non-structural systems and components in those buildings. and the nonstructural systems and components in the buildings. including primary and secondary framing. These types of structures were previously referred to as pre-engineered buildings. The principles and concepts of these two specifications (metric and customary) are identical. and it provides criteria for the design and analysis of buildings with enhanced performance objectives. and Section M contains limited supplemental information regarding quality and inspection. This document provides guidance on the use of Metal Building Systems.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Instructions necessary to provide serviceable buildings and to assure load path integrity and continuity is included. This metric specification is a dimensional conversion of the December 1. The primary basis for this document is the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures (FEMA 302). and therefore are not covered by TI 809-26. 1993 customary units edition. defined as a complete integrated set of mutually dependent components and assemblies that form a building. TI 809-30 Metal Building Systems. c. Chapter 7 includes discussion of structural steel framing systems.

Manual of Steel Construction. design examples. The Manual contains welding design aids in Volume II . published in 1989. Section J contains design provisions. h. 2nd Edition.3 is applicable to welded joints. Design examples are contained within Chapter 9 for Simple Shear and PR Moment Connections.50g (SD1 >= 0. Fabrication in Section 6.1-92. f. Part I. e. Chapter 4. and have been substantially revised in subsequent editions of AWS D1. The ASD Specification.1-88. The AISC Code of Standard Practice defines practices adopted as commonly accepted standards of the structural steel fabricating industry. and is in two volumes. The Manual contains welding design aids in Volume II . and Quality Control in Section 8. the trade practices of the document govern the fabrication and erection of structural steel. and Chapter 11 for Connections for Tension and Compression. These structures include all buildings with an SDS >= 0.1-92. LRFD. The Seismic Provisions document cites AWS D1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. Materials are discussed in Section 5. Metric Conversion. as well as the AISC Specifications themselves.1-96 as the reference welding standard. Chapter 10 for Fully Restrained (FR) Moment Connections. Chapter 8 includes prequalified joint details. The ASD Specification contains provisions regarding welding design and application. and takes exception to certain provisions of AWS D1. and takes exception to certain provisions of that edition. Manual of Steel Construction.1. Code of Standard Practice. will be published by AISC in early 2000. and Chapter 11 for Connections for Tension and Compression. and general information regarding welding. and have been substantially revised in subsequent editions of AWS D1.133g). The AISC Manual of Steel Construction contains informational tables and design aids. as well as the AISC Specifications themselves. One is cautioned that the welded prequalified joint tables are based upon AWS D1. Erection in Section 7.Connections. and Seismic Use Group III when SDS >= 0. The AISC Manual of Steel Construction contains informational tables and design aids.20g). Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings. See TI 809-04. is based upon the use of AWS D1. This AISC document addresses the design and construction of structural steel and composite steel / reinforced concrete building systems in seismic regions. AWS welding symbols. tables for eccentrically loaded fillet welds. When using LRFD. ASD. c. The provisions are for the members and connections that comprise the Seismic Force Resisting System (SFRS) in buildings that are classified as Seismic Design Category D or higher in FEMA 302. published in 1993. Chapter 10 for Fully Restrained (FR) Moment Connections.Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design. containing both SI and US Customary Units within one document. One is cautioned that the welded prequalified joint tables are based upon AWS D1. filler metal toughness requirements. Specification for Structural Steel Buildings . containing provisions regarding Welding Procedure Specification approvals. is based upon AWS D1. d. Publication of an updated or new ASD Specification is not being planned by AISC. It is applicable for use in either LRFD or ASD.1. is applicable. It is anticipated that a new LRFD Specification. design examples.Connections. the Manual of Steel Construction. g. Manual of Steel Construction.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 The LRFD Specification. Design examples are contained within Chapter 9 for Simple Shear and PR Moment Connections. Chapter 8 includes prequalified joint details. and Section M contains limited supplemental information regarding quality and inspection. AWS welding symbols. tables for eccentrically loaded fillet welds. and special concerns for discontinuities in SFRS members. and general information regarding welding.33g (SD1 >= 0. Section 7. The AISC Manual of Steel Construction contains informational 2-3 . LRFD. Within the document.1-92.1. In the absence of other contract documents.

8 mm (3/16 in.3 Code is applicable when welding sheet steels to other sheet steels. The symbols and use specified in this document supersedes symbols that may be shown in other AWS and industry documents. D1.2 mm (1/8 in. the use of AWS D1. (5) Technique. ANSI/AWS A2.1 Structural Welding Code .4 Structural Welding Code . e. moisture content.1 is also required for the structural steel. as applicable. A5-series Filler Metal Related Specifications. markings. and design examples. and (7) Inspection. as applicable. Chapter 3 contains design examples for Simple Shear Connections. certifications. packaging.3. Welding of reinforcing steel to reinforcing steel. The D1.4 Standard Symbols for Welding. for given general types of electrodes and given welding processes. including prequalified joint details. With the latter application. AWS welding symbols. Arc spot. and shielding gases. of minimum specified yield strength not greater than 690 MPa (100 ksi). (7) Stud Welding. Part B covers Brazing Symbols.) in thickness or greater. as well as the AISC Specifications themselves. Volume II .) in nominal thickness. plus annexes. arc seam. c.4 covers the welding of reinforcing steel. D1.4 follows a different organizational structure than AWS D1. The D1. ductility. ANSI/AWS D1.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 tables and design aids. (3) Prequalification. or when welding to other thicker structural members. Brazing and Nondestructive Testing. is covered. and the astested mechanical properties (strength. usability. 3. in even years. and Chapter 6 contains Column Connections. Part A of the document covers Welding Symbols. The D1. and reinforcing steel to other carbon and low-alloy steels. AWS SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS. (2) Design of Welded Connections.1 is also required for the structural steel. (5) Fabrication.Reinforcing Steel. and includes the following sections: (1) General Provisions. fluxes. the use of AWS D1. as used in concrete construction. It is updated biannually. ANSI/AWS D1.1 and D1.3 Code contents are similar to AWS D1. (6) Inspection. (3) Structural Details. except Sections 7 and 8 are not included. and (8) Strengthening and Repair. a. D1. It is not applicable to pressure vessel or pressure piping applications. 4. With the latter application. The 9th Edition of the Manual contains welding design aids in Part 4 . The 9th Edition ASD Manual is supplemented by a separate book. storage. (6) Qualification. One is cautioned that the welded prequalified joint tables are based upon AWS D1. ANSI/AWS A5-series documents establish the requirements for electrodes.1 contains eight sections: (1) General Requirements. as well as examples of their use. tables for eccentrically loaded fillet welds. (2) Allowable Stresses.1 Code is limited to carbon and low-alloy steels.1. chemical composition of the electrode. The A52-4 . (4) Workmanship. as they may be incorrect or outdated in the other documents. A2. ANSI/AWS D1. An Appendix or Annex is provided to explain the provisions and provide additional information.Connections. Chapter 2 contains general information regarding welding. including cold-formed members that are equal to or less than 4.1-88. plus commentary.1.1 contains the requirements for fabricating and erecting welded steel structures.3 covers arc welding of sheet and strip steels.Connections. b.Steel.Sheet Steel. D1. and have been substantially revised in subsequent editions of AWS D1. The requirements include. and Part C covers Nondestructive Examination Symbols. (4) Qualification. and toughness) and soundness of weld metal. and arc plug welds are included in the Code.4 contains standards for the application of welding symbols on structural design and detail drawings.3 Structural Welding Code . d. D1. Chapter 4 contains Moment Connections. It also contains both mandatory and nonmandatory annexes.

piers and wharves. The Interim Guidelines. FEMA 273 provides guidelines for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings constructed of steel or cast iron. Guideline recommendations are provided based upon research conducted under the SAC Joint Venture. concrete structures. replacing FEMA 267A. electrical distribution structures. of TI 809-26. and are subject to significant inelastic demands from strong earthquake ground motion. 5. mechanical and electrical components. and designing. Included are provisions for foundations. agricultural structures. FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 series specifications applicable to structural steel are listed in Appendix A . including foundations and architectural. FEMA 273 NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings. post-earthquake evaluation and inspection of existing buildings. c. The Guidelines include information regarding the pre-earthquake evaluation and inspection of existing buildings. composite structures. published in 1995. seismic isolation. FEMA 267 and 267B Steel Moment Frame Structures . and several other structures. based upon the results of the SAC Joint Venture Phase 2 project. tanks and vessels. These will supersede FEMA 267 and issued advisories.References. FEMA 267 Replacement. with limited information regarding specific details for welding or inspection.Interim Guidelines. steel structures. related building components. FEMA 302 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. The document is oriented toward structural analysis procedures. was published in mid-1999. are applicable to steel moment-resisting frame structures incorporating fully restrained connections in which the girder flanges are welded to the columns. retrofitting existing damaged and undamaged buildings. wood and light metal. and nonbuilding structures such as racks. repairing damaged buildings. (2) Post-Earthquake Evaluation and Repair Criteria for Welded Moment-Resisting Steel Frame Construction. d. Phase 1 project. (3) Seismic Evaluation and Upgrade Criteria for Existing Steel Moment-Resisting Frame Construction. and (5) Recommended Specifications for Moment-Resisting Steel Frame Buildings. FEMA 267A was published as an additional advisory to FEMA 267. a. and structures in areas of low seismicity. Not included in the provisions are certain classes of one-and two-family residential structures. constructing and inspecting new buildings. b. A series of five new documents are planned for publication in early 2000. FEMA 302 provides minimum design criteria for the design and construction of structures to resist earthquake motions. The documents will be as follows: (1) Seismic Design Criteria for New MomentResisting Steel Frame Construction. A second advisory. concrete. 2-5 . masonry. based upon information available as of August 1996. stacks and chimneys. masonry structures. FEMA 267B. and (4) Quality Assurance Guidelines for Moment-Resisting Steel Frame Construction. towers.

whether for straightening. Also. WELDING AND RELATED PROCESSES. reducing porosity and other discontinuities. Preheat also aids in the removal of surface moisture and organic compounds. embrittling the steel. General . and the mechanical properties typically have been degraded with reduced ductility and toughness. but with increased strength. Recently. a. the use of low-hydrogen electrodes is encouraged. it is adequate to simply require compliance with the codes. the steel remains at an elevated temperature longer.CEMP-E CHAPTER 3 WELDING PROCESSES AND MATERIALS TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. then subsequently been trapped within the metallurgical structure. also embrittling the steel and increasing the risk of cracking. If the steel is manufactured using heat treatment processes. 2. hydrogen from the welding operation will have migrated into the hot HAZ. such as 3-1 . When preheat above approximately 300oC (550oF) is used. thickness and temperature. Conversely.Heating and Thermal Cutting. The HAZ is typically about 3 mm (1/8 in. The application of heat. and heataffected zones. The HAZ will also contain higher levels of hydrogen. from the surface to be welded. For further guidance in the use and selection of welding processes and materials. (1) High Cooling Rates. The heat-affected zone (HAZ) is the portion of steel immediately adjacent to the weld that has been metallurgically modified by the heat of the welding. The use of “matching” prequalified filler metals is encouraged.Welding. The microstructure has been changed. General . a very low cooling rate can detrimentally affect toughness because of grain growth. General . at rates dependent upon initial hydrogen levels. (2) Low Cooling Rates. may have a significant effect upon the mechanical properties of the steel. Should any limitations in the use of heat be needed beyond those specified in the codes. When SMAW is performed. a. prepared by the Engineer. inspection. Preheat is used primarily to slow the cooling rate of the heat-affected zone (HAZ). or welding. cutting. increasing the rate and time of hydrogen diffusion and reducing the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking. primarily depending upon welding heat input. and procedures is vital to achieving the strength and quality necessary for adequate performance in the structure. materials. Because preheating slows the cooling rate. c. The contract documents. APPLICATION OF HEAT FOR WELDING. Cooling Rate Control. A high cooling rate may cause a hard. should specify any special requirements for materials. or testing beyond that required by the codes and standards.) thick for common size welds. The hydrogen will eventually migrate out the HAZ. b. martensitic HAZ microstructure with a higher risk of cracking during cooling. d. The proper selection of welding processes. see Appendix C. if present. weld metal properties may be degraded as well. the use of specified toughness levels for filler metals in specific seismic building applications has been added to standard practice. Preheating may also reduce residual stresses and improve the toughness of the completed joint. weld.Weld Heat-Affected Zone. Project Specifications. The contractor may be allowed the full choice of welding processes and materials. the contract documents prepared by the Engineer should so state. In most cases.

This is permitted as prequalified only for AWS Group I steels. Seismic applications with routine building structures is not considered appropriate for requiring higher levels of preheat and interpass temperatures. so caution is advised. higher preheats are required to allow additional time for hydrogen to escape from the heat-affected zone. Weldability tests have been conducted to document that the steel may be welded without preheat. Such testing may not always adequately replicate restraint conditions.1 Table 3. AWS D1. and steel compositions low in carbon and other alloys.3.2. Additional guidance for these situations may be found in AWS D1. 3-2 .5 provide recommended values. The Guide considers hydrogen level. Conversely. a thermo-mechanically controlled processed (TMCP) steel that has low carbon and alloy levels. When lower preheat values are calculated. steel composition. with suggestions in Table 3-2 for non-prequalified steels. Because of the higher diffusible hydrogen present when non-low hydrogen electrodes are used.1 Table 3. the AWS D1. With any non-prequalified steel. and an electrode classified as H8 (tested under ANSI/AWS A4. When steels of different categories are joined. For these conditions. but is not recommended practice. it is advisable to use these values. and AWS D1. higher welding heat input. and restraint and allows for calculation of the estimated preheat necessary to avoid cold cracking. consideration for higher preheat and interpass temperature requirements may be made for critical applications where fracture would result in a catastrophic collapse. (2) Category D is applicable to A913 steel.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 quenched and tempered steels. b.2 should suffice. Increased preheat temperatures may be necessary in situations involving higher restraint.1 Annex XI. (3) Users are cautioned that the use of these minimum preheat tables may not be sufficient to avoid cracking in all cases.5 Bridge Welding Code Tables 12. or with steel compositions at the upper end of their respective specification. lower welding heat input. A summary of this table is provided as Table 3-1.1. For quenched and tempered steels.4 and 12. higher hydrogen levels. provided maximum preheat levels are not exceeded. Paragraph 1b. See Appendix C. a competent welding advisor should be consulted. the preheat can be reduced because of the reduced hydrogen levels present. use the higher preheat required for their respective thicknesses. provided the steel temperature is above 0oC (32oF). too high a preheat may affect steel properties by retempering the steel. Guideline on Alternative Methods for Determining Preheat. When higher preheats are calculated. (1) Category A is applicable when non-low hydrogen SMAW electrodes are used. low hydrogen levels. Preheat for Prequalified Applications. 12. (4) Although not required for building applications under AWS D1.1 Code requires the WPS to be qualified using the lower preheat value.3 for 8 mL or less of diffusible hydrogen per 100 g of deposited weld metal) or lower is used. preheat and interpass temperatures above 230oC (450oF) should be avoided. The basic values for minimum preheat temperatures for prequalified structural steels are provided in AWS D1. When low-hydrogen SMAW electrodes are used. preheats lower than those tabulated may be adequate for conditions of low restraint.

) (1-1/2 to 2-1/2 in. grade B (round) A500.) over 38. grades A and B (rectangular) A501 (round) A618. or FCAW. GMAW or SAW 3 to 19 mm (incl.) thick and under A913. grade 36 Round and Rectangular Sections A53.) (1/8 to 3/4 in.) over 63. grades 42 and 50 A588.) (1-1/2 to 2-1/2 in. grades lb.1 Category Structural Steel Material Thickness of Thickest Part at Point of Welding 3 to 19 mm (incl.5 mm (incl.) (3/4 to 1-1/2 in. grade 42 A709.1 mm (incl. grades A and B (round) A500.) (1/8 to 3/4 in.) Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperature 0oC (32oF)1 66oC (150oF) 107oC (225oF) 150oC (300oF) A When using SMAW with other than lowhydrogen electrodes Shapes and Plates A36 A529. grades 36. Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperatures for AISC-Approved Structural Steels Prequalified under AWS D1.1 mm (incl.) over 63.) over 19 to 38.) over 19 to 38. grade 42 A709.5 mm (incl. II.1 to 63. 100 mm (4 in. 50 & 50W A572. grades A and B (round) A500. grade 50 A992.) (3/4 to 1-1/2 in.) 0oC (32oF)1 10oC (50oF) 66oC (150oF) 107oC (225oF) 3-3 . & III (round) B When using SMAW with low-hydrogen electrodes. grade B (round) A500.5 mm (2-1/2 in. grades A and B (rectangular) A501 (round) Shapes and Plates A36 A529. grade 50 (shapes only) Round and Rectangular Sections A53.1 to 63.5 mm (2-1/2 in.) over 38.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 3-1.

with electrodes of class H8 or lower 1 Shapes and Plates A913. and 65 all thicknesses 0oC (32oF)1 . and 230oC (450oF) for thickness greater than 40 mm (1-1/2 inches). 60. grades 60 and 65 A709. or FCAW. or FCAW. 3-4 .) Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperature 10oC (50oF) 66oC (150oF) 107oC (225oF) 150oC (300oF) Category Structural Steel C When using SMAW with lowhydrogen electrodes.) (3/4 to 1-1/2 in. GMAW or SAW.) Shapes and Plates A572.) over 38. Grades 50. must be raised to and maintained at a minimum temperature of 21oC (70oF) prior to and during welding.) over 63. GMAW or SAW D When using SMAW with lowhydrogen electrodes. 2 .) (1-1/2 to 2-1/2 in.Maximum preheat and interpass temperature of 200oC (400oF) for thicknesses up to 40 mm (1-1/2 inches) inclusive.1 mm (incl. the steel.5 mm (incl. grades 702 A913.1 to 63.If the steel is below 0oC (32oF). grades 60 and 65 over 19 to 38.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Material Thickness of Thickest Part at Point of Welding 3 to 19 mm (incl.) (1/8 to 3/4 in.5 mm (2-1/2 in. in the vicinity of welding. grade 70W2 A852.

hydrogen levels. Preheat for Non-prequalified Applications. Table 3-2 provides suggested values for common structural steels not currently listed in AWS D1. and experience.1. grade 46 A283 (plates) NPQ-A Round and Rectangular Sections A500. and III (round) A847 NPQ-B same as Table 3-1. preheat must be provided to the structural steel element. all grades A529.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 3-2.1. d. Preheat for Sheet Steel to Structural Steel. (Seek advice of competent welding consultant prior to use of this Table. When the structural steel element is of a grade or thickness requiring preheat under the provisions of AWS D1. Category B c. over 4" thick Round and Rectangular Sections A500. Suggested Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperatures for AISCApproved Structural Steels Not Prequalified under AWS D1. restraint. The sheet steel itself need not be preheated.1. II.) Catego ry Structural Steel Shapes and Plates A529. grade C (rectangular) A618. Category A Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperature Shapes and Plates A242. grades 50 and 55 A588. Other steels should be evaluated by a competent welding consultant.1 Annex XI is suggested. The use of AWS D1. grades Ib. 3-5 . grade C (round) same as Table 3-1. Preheat requirements for non-prequalified steels and applications may be determined using rational engineering judgement considering material composition. with suitable qualification testing to be performed to verify the analytical results.

Cambering a beam with positive camber requires heat to be applied to the bottom flange of the beam. but may be used in some cases when conditions of high restraint. The PWHT described in AWS D1. 3-6 . APPLICATION OF HEAT FOR STRAIGHTENING AND CAMBERING. Cooling time may be necessary for larger multi-pass welds on thinner materials or smaller members. THERMAL CUTTING. and plasma arc cutting. Thermal cutting is used in steel fabrication to cut material to size and to perform edge preparation for groove welding. 4. b. Under the difficult conditions mentioned. The joint may be allowed to cool below the prescribed interpass temperature. It is not required by specification. postheating is not necessary to avoid cold cracking. (1) Thicker materials may absorb enough heat from the weld region that it is necessary to reapply heat to the weld region prior to resuming welding of the joint. It is recommended to first apply a V-heat to the web.1 Section 5. Minimum and maximum interpass temperatures are typically the same as the minimum and maximum preheat temperatures. c. and to 590oC (1100oF) for quenched and tempered steels. (2) With maximum interpass temperature considerations. Interpass temperature is the temperature maintained during welding. The temperature to which the steel may be heated as a part of the straightening or cambering process is limited to 650oC (1200oF) for most structural steels. 3. it may be adequate to slow cooling rates through the use of insulating blankets applied immediately after completion of welding. Interpass Temperature. The method is commonly called “flame shrinking”. poor weldability steels. and also to camber or curve members when desired.8. Maximum Temperatures. (3) When necessary to shut down welding operations on a joint prior to joint completion. but may vary in specific WPSs. also commonly called flame cutting or burning.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 e. the manufacturer’s recommendations for maximum temperatures should be followed. not cracking control. Principle. It is recommended that accelerated cooling using water mist not be used until the temperature of the steel has dropped below approximately 300oC (600oF). when proper attention is applied to preheat and interpass temperatures. starting with a point near the top. it may be necessary to pause welding operations to allow the steel to cool to below the maximum interpass temperature before resuming welding. and adequate control of hydrogen levels is maintained. but must be reheated to the required preheat / interpass temperature before resumption of welding of the joint. and poor hydrogen control exist. f. Postheat (PWHT).26. a. Heat applied from a heating torch may be used to straighten curved or distorted members. to soften the web and minimize web crippling that may occur if only the flange is heated. because the heat is applied to the part of the member that needs to become shorter. See AWS D1. In most cases. For TMCP steels. Thermal cutting is generally grouped into two categories oxyfuel gas cutting. until completion of the weld joint. it should be verified that adequate welding has been completed to sustain any currently applied or anticipated loadings until completion of the joint. is for the purpose of stress relief. but the use of forced air is acceptable. Accelerated cooling using water should not be permitted.2. Cambering Procedure. Postheating is the continued application of heat following completion of the weld joint.1 Section 5.

acetylene. only this function is performed using an electric arc. Limitations are also placed on the depth and sharpness of gouges and notches. A plastic sample. The fuel gas used in oxyfuel cutting may be natural gas.1 Section 5. leaving a cut edge.) thick or less. The air provides continued rapid oxidation. PAC generates considerable fume and noise. b. and is usually performed manually. is typically used for visual comparison in lieu of physical measurement of surface roughness. The force of the oxygen stream blows away the molten steel. propylene. AISC. in Section M2.4.1. Oxygen Cutting Surface Roughness Gauge. however. or other proprietary fuel gases. propane. Oxyfuel Cutting. a.3. AWS C4. and mixtures of nitrogen/oxygen and argon/hydrogen. which is quickly followed by the focused application of compressed air from the electrode holder. the electrode is a carbon electrode covered with a copper sheath. Following ACAG. light grinding of the ACAG surface is suggested. as well as less distortion. to remove unacceptable discontinuities from weld deposits. Gases used for PAC include nitrogen. With plasma arc cutting. MPS. as measured using ANSI/ASME B46. which itself creates additional heat to allow the process to continue. and therefore a water table and water shroud is typically used to minimize these undesirable environmental effects. oxygen. the steel is heated with a torch to its ignition temperature.15. c. Plasma Arc Cutting. takes a minor exception to AWS D1. Limits are placed on surface roughness. then exposed to a stream of oxygen from the same torch. Waviness and Lay). The electrode creates a controlled arc. melting the steel. Surface Texture (Surface Roughness. Plasma arc cutting (PAC) is sometimes used in shop fabrication.1-G. and is generally limited to steels 25 mm (1 in. AIR CARBON ARC GOUGING. If not welded. 5. within the cutting torch. With oxyfuel gas cutting (OFC). see ANSI/AWS C5.and U-grooves). Edge Quality. The process appears similar to SMAW.2. the joint should be thoroughly cleaned by wire brushing. the area of steel heated by the process is less. Surface Finishing. resulting in less steel metallurgically affected by the heat of cutting.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. For complete information.1 quality criteria. The oxygen causes rapid oxidation. or “burning” to occur. Grinding of surfaces prior to welding is not required. Recommended Practices for Air Carbon Arc Gouging and Cutting. The quality of thermally cut edges is governed by AWS D1. The molten steel is then removed by the high velocity stream of plasma (ionized gas) created by the arc itself. with an electrode holder and a single electrode. 3-7 . argon. air. and to remove temporary attachments such as backing bars or lifting lugs. as well as removes the molten steel from the area. It may also be used to remove entire welds when structural repairs or modifications are necessary. the steel is heated to the point of melting. b. Process. Similar to oxyfuel cutting. Air carbon arc gouging (ACAG) is commonly used to perform edge preparation for groove joints (especially J.

1 Code.added in AISC Hollow Structural Sections (1997) 4 . Prequalified steels have been determined to be generally weldable when using the AWS D1. For building-type structures. and should also be considered for application in structures. AISC AND AWS LISTED STRUCTURAL STEELS. Structural steels currently accepted by AISC in the LRFD Specification.1. AWS D1. the AISC lists approved steels in Section A3. New structural steel specifications have been developed and approved since publication. AWS Prequalified Steels. Additional steels are listed in the AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings because of a more recent publication date.1 lists prequalified steels in Table 3. because certain strength levels are less weldable.CEMP-E CHAPTER 4 STRUCTURAL STEELS TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1.approved for next specification b. only certain strength levels or grades are considered prequalified. are as follows: Shapes and Plates A36 A242 A2831 A514 A529 A572 A588 A709 A852 A9132 A9924 (wide flange shapes only) Rounds and Rectangular Sections A53 A500 A501 A618 A8473 Sheet and Strip A570 A606 A607 1 2 . and other approved steels in Annex M. AISC Approved Steels. This situation may be because certain grades have compositional levels outside the range considered readily weldable. or pending acceptance as noted.added in AISC Seismic Provisions (1997) -added in AISC LRFD Supplement (1998) 3 . or because certain steels or grades recently came into production and inadequate information was known about their weldability at 4-1 .1 of the Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. a. such as ASTM A992. For some steel specifications.

E70XX A5. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 c. E70C-XC. but Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs) must be qualified prior to use in welding these steels.29: E6XTX-X1.18: ER70S-X. E70C-X1XX SAW A5. grade 42 A709. grades A and B (rectangular) A501 (round) 4-2 .1 Table 3. -14. grade 36 I Round and Rectangular Sections A53.CEMP-E the time of printing. grades A and B (round) A500. These steels are generally quenched and tempered steels.1 AWS Grou p Structural Steel Prequalified “Matching” Filler Metal SMAW A5. -3. E7XT-XM (Except -2. The steels listed in Annex M are approved for use. d.1: E60XX. -2M.20: E6XT-X. Matching Filler Metals for Prequalified Steels. -13. Table 4-1 provides a summary of structural steels that are both approved by AISC and listed by AWS as prequalified. E6XT-XM E7XT-X. F7XX-ECXXX A5.23: F7XX-EXXX-X1. grade B (round) A500.5: E70XX-X1 FCAW A5. F7XXECXXX1 Shapes and Plates A36 A529. ductility. F6XX-ECXXX F7XX-EXXX. Table 4-1. -10.17: F6XX-EXXX. E7XTX-X1M GMAW A5. and toughness. which are sensitive to temperature changes from welding operations that may affect their strength. For joint designs requiring “matching” filler metal. -GS) A5. AISC-Approved Structural Steels Prequalified under AWS D1. AWS Approved Steels. E6XTX-X1M E7XTX-X1.28: ER70S-X1XX. the “matching” filler metal for the given welding process is provided. E70CXM (Except -GS(X)) A5. They are also generally more sensitive to diffusible hydrogen and are at higher risk of hydrogen-assisted HAZ cracking.

grade 50 Round and Rectangular Sections A618. grades 50 and 50W A913.5: E70XX-X1. E70CXM (Except -GS(X)) A5.23: F7XX-EXXX-X1.17: F7XX-EXXX. grades 42 and 50 A588.29: E8XTX-X1.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 SMAW A5. grades 60 and 65 FCAW A5.23: F8XX-EXXX-X1. low hydrogen Shapes and Plates A572.1: E70XX. -14.28: ER80S-X1XX. E7XTX-X1M GMAW A5. grades Ib. E8XTX-X1M GMAW A5. and III (round) FCAW A5.) thick and under A709. E80C-X1XX SAW A5. E70C-X1XX SAW A5. E70C-XC. low hydrogen Shapes and Plates A572.29: E7XTX-X1. 100 mm (4 in.18: ER70S-X. -10. -13.28: ER70S-X1XX. F7XXECXXX1 SMAW A5. -2M. F8XXECXXX1 II III 4-3 . II.20: E7XT-X. -GS) A5. grades 60 and 65 A913.5: E80XX-X1. low hydrogen A5. -3. F7XX-ECXXX A5. E7XT-XM (Except -2.

B4L.1. but not listed as prequalified by AWS D1. B5L. grade 50 steel. grade 70W A852. B9 e. B6L. B4. 4-4 . B8L. grade 70 FCAW A5.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 SMAW A5. B7L.28: ER90S-X1XX. E9XT-X1M GMAW A5. B6.23: F9XX-EXXX-X1. Table 4-2 provides “matching” filler metal information for structural steels approved by AISC. B7. F9XXECXXX1 IV 1 .29: E9XTX-X1. B3L. Matching Filler Metals for Non-prequalified Steels. B5.5: E90XX-X1. B8. low hydrogen E9018M Shapes and Plates A709. the advice of a competent welding consultant should be used prior to welding these steels.except alloy groups B3. A992 steel is a new steel specification which is essentially a more restricted A572. E90C-X1XX SAW A5. Quenched and tempered steels are not listed in this table. With the exception of A992.

1 Table 3.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 4-2. Weldability may be evaluated using methods such as carbon equivalency. Other steels may warrant CVN testing or other mill documentation of typical toughness properties. Lehigh Restraint Cracking Test.) A992. all grades A529. grade D (plates) Round and Rectangular Sections A500. grade C (round) Shapes and Plates A242. The Tekken and Lehigh methods simulate restraint that may be present in the actual joint. Category I NPQII same as Table 4-1. the performance of WPS qualification testing. For seismic applications.1 must be evaluated for their weldability. See Appendix B. Stout and Doty. Weldability of Steels. over 100 mm (4 in. grade 46 A283. tensile strength. Category II f. Unlisted Steels. (1) Steels not listed as approved by AISC must be evaluated for structural properties such as yield strength. (W shapes only) Round and Rectangular Sections A500. for further information on these tests. an assumed minimum level of toughness is assumed inherent with the steels listed in AISC Seismic Provisions.1 Grou p Suggested “Matching” Filler Metal (Not Prequalified) Structural Steel Shapes and Plates A529. grade C (rectangular) A618. or the Varestraint Test. AISC-Approved Structural Steels Not Prequalified under AWS D1. II. grades Ib. and III (round) A847 NPQ-I same as Table 4-1. grades 50 and 55 A588. (2) Steels not listed as prequalified by AWS D1. 4-5 . AISC design specifications assume adequate strength and ductility. ductility and toughness. or physical testing such as the Tekken test.

and sometimes postheat are necessary to avoid cold cracking. reducing the detrimental effects of sulfur. Most steels contain some copper. (1) Carbon (C) is the most common element for increasing the strength of steel. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. When specified to achieve atmospheric corrosion resistance.40% or lower.). Generally.CEMP-E 2. With high levels of sulfur. (4) Sulfur (S) reduces ductility. Where nickel is reported as a part of steel composition. Phosphorous tends to segregate in steel./ft. therefore creating weaker areas. increasing the formation of undesirable martensite with rapid HAZ cooling. WELDABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEELS. better hydrogen control. (5) Silicon (Si) is a deoxidizer used to improve the soundness of the steel.50% does not reduce weldability. A steel such as A36 does not place limits on Mn content for shapes up to 634 kg/m (426 lb. but some steel specifications have much lower limits. (2) Manganese (Mn) is an alloying element that increases strength and hardenability.). but to a lesser extent than carbon. Silicon of up to 0. such as in weathering steels. Phosphorous is typically limited to 0.25% and 0. (7) Nickel (Ni) is an alloying element used to improve toughness and ductility. however. and is commonly used to “kill” steel. Carbon increases the hardenability of the steel. increasing the risk of lamellar tearing when high through-thickness weld shrinkage strains are created. One of the principal benefits of manganese is that it combines with undesirable sulphur to form manganese sulfide (MnS). Manganese is used to form MnS to reduce this tendency. but copper over 0.05%. copper up to 1. Typical steel specifications limit sulfur to 0. thereby increasing the risk of lamellar tearing. (6) Copper (Cu) is added to improve the corrosion resistance of the steel. but other undesirable elements may be present in the scrap materials used to make the steel. Typical steel specifications limit carbon below 0. The chemical composition of the steel affects weldability and other mechanical properties. whether specified or not. but high levels of carbon reduce weldability. particularly in the transverse direction. Higher sulfur levels will form iron sulfide (FeS) along the grain boundaries.04% to minimize the risk of weld and HAZ cracking. flattened by the rolling operation.50%. Larger quantities of phosphorous reduce ductility and toughness. It has relatively little detrimental effect upon weldability. Manganese limits are typically in the order of 1. it is generally limited to a maximum value between 0. Chemical Composition. Several elements are purposefully added in the production of structural steel. a minimum copper content of 0. inclusive. Carbon and other elements that increase hardenability increase the risk of “cold” cracking. numerous large MnS inclusions may be present. or for plates and bars up to 20 mm (3/4 in. A minimum Mn:S ratio of 5:1 to 10:1 is recommended.27%. increasing the risk of hot cracking. (3) Phosphorous (P) is an alloying element that increases the strength and brittleness of steel.20% is required. and also reduces toughness and weldability. 4-6 . Higher preheats and higher heat input welding procedures may be needed when welding a steel with relatively high carbon contents.40% is considered acceptable for most steels. It increases both strength and hardness.50% may affect mechanical properties in heattreated steels. and therefore higher preheat and interpass temperatures. while still increasing strength and hardenability.

If the CE from this equation is below 0. The weldability of a steel can be estimated from its composition.07% and 0.15%. may be present in steel from the scrap material melted for steel-making. Carbon Equivalency.40. the use of preheat and low-hydrogen electrodes is generally necessary.40 and 0. phosphorous. b. For values between 0.Mo/50.35% or lower is considered a steel with good weldability 4-7 . applicable for steels with C greater than 0. and may adversely affect weldability and cause “hot” cracking. and copper. Carbon equivalent values above 0. and AWS D1. the material is considered readily weldable.10%. (2) Another common carbon equivalent equation is: CE = C + Mn/6 + Cr/10 + Ni/20 + Cu/40 . (9) Molybdenum (Mo) is an alloying element which greatly increases hardenability and helps maintain strength and minimize creep at higher temperature. vanadium is generally limited to a maximum value between 0. (1) The following equation is used in AWS D1.55. The most significant element affecting weldability is carbon. Other low-melting point elements that create a risk of hot cracking include sulfur. (3) The Dearden and O’Neill equation.06% and 0. The effects of other elements can be estimated by equating them to an additional amount of carbon. When molybdenum is reported as a part of steel composition. is similar: CE = C + Cr/5 + Mo/5 + V/5 + Mn/6 + Ni/15 + Cu/15 A CE of 0. it may be necessary to use low heat input welding procedures to minimize dilution effects.2 guidance for the given steel strength should be adequate.1 Annex XI.1 Table 3. CE = C + Mn/6 + Cr/5 + Mo/5 +V/5 + Ni/15 + Cu/15 + Si/6 Where C = carbon content (%) Mn = manganese content (%) Cr = chromium content (%) Mo = molybdenum content (%) V = vanadium content (%) Ni = nickel content (%) Cu = copper content (%) Si = silicon content (%) A carbon equivalent of less than 0. it is generally limited to a maximum value between 0. (10) So-called “tramp” elements such as tin (Sn). using a calculation system termed the carbon equivalent (CE). They have a low melting point.48 generally assures good weldability. Weldability may be reduced by vanadium.V/10 .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (8) Vanadium (V) is an alloying element used for increasing strength and hardenability. When welding with high levels of these elements. lead (Pb). There are numerous carbon equivalent equations available and in use. The total alloy content has the same effect on weldability as an equivalent amount of carbon. When vanadium is reported as a part of steel composition.55 indicate a high risk that cracks may develop unless special precautions are implemented.12%. regardless of thickness. and zinc (Zn).

0.07% and 0. CE = C + 5B + V/10 + Mo/15 + Mn/20 + Cu/20 + Cr /20 + Si/30 + Ni/60 Where B = boron content (%) A CE of 0.35% or lower is considered a steel with good weldability.25 * tanh [ 20 (C.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (4) For steels with C between 0.26%. (5) The Yurioka equation may also used to calculate CE for steel with C between 0.02% and 0.12) ] 4-8 . The Ito-Bessyo equation is also termed the composition-characterizing parameter.22%. Pcm.75 + 0. the Ito and Bessyo equation may be used. as follows: CE = C + A(C) * {5B + Si/24 + Mn/6 + Cu/15 + Ni/20 + Cr/5 + Mo/5 + Nb/5 + V/5} Where Nb = niobium content (%) A(C) = 0.

CEMP-E

TI 809-26 1 March 2000
Table 4-3. Chemical Requirements for Sample Structural Steels (heat analysis, %, maximum, unless range is provided)

(Refer to ASTM specifications for complete information, including applicable thickness ranges, grades, types, combinations of elements, etc.)

Steel

Compositio n C Mn P S Si Cu V Co Ni Cr Mo

A36 (shapes)

A572 grade 50 (shapes) Type 1 0.23 1.35 0.04 0.05 0.40 #

A572 grade 50 (shapes) Type 2 0.23 1.35 0.04 0.05 0.40 # 0.01-0.15

A992

A588, grade B

A852

0.26 --0.04 0.05 0.40 # -----------

0.23 0.50-1.50 0.035 0.045 0.40 0.60 0.11 0.05 0.45 0.35 0.15

0.20 0.75-1.35 0.04 0.05 0.15-0.50 0.20-0.40 0.01-0.10 --0.50 0.40-0.70 ---

0.19 0.80-1.35 0.035 0.04 0.20-0.65 0.20-0.40 0.02-0.10 --0.50 0.40-0.70 ---

0.0050.05 -------

---------

Shapes composition limits are listed for sections up to 634 kg/m (426 plf). # minimum 0.20% when specified

3. PROPERTY ENHANCEMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL STEELS. a. Yield to Ultimate Strength Ratio. AISC design equations assume some margin in structural steel from the point of yielding to the point of fracture to allow for the redistribution of stress. Some structural steels have been produced with Fy:Fu ratios as high as 0.95, considerably higher than that considered by 4-9

CEMP-E
AISC in developing design methodologies.

TI 809-26 1 March 2000

(1) ASTM A572, grade 50, manufactured to the supplemental requirements of AISC Technical Bulletin #3, provides a requirement for a maximum Fy:Fu ratio of 0.85. This same value is a requirement for ASTM A992 steels. Although not considered critical in low-seismic applications, this requirement is advisable for members in the lateral load resisting systems in high-seismic applications. (2) Structural steels providing this maximum Fy:Fu ratio are readily available from mill sources. Such a requirement can be met by special mill order requirements, the specification of A572, grade 50 meeting AISC Technical Bulletin #3, the specification of A992 shapes, or through the review of mill test reports of existing steels in inventory that are traceable to the mill heat number. There is currently no premium in steel mill cost to specify such properties, but some minor delays may be encountered in purchasing until the inventory of such materials is predominant. b. Killed Steel. Killed steel has been processed to remove or bind the oxygen that saturates the molten steel prior to solidification. ASTM A6 / A6M defines killed steel as “steel deoxidized, either by addition of strong deoxidizing agents or by vacuum treatment, to reduce the oxygen content to such a level that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification.” Semi-killed steel is incompletely deoxidized, and may also be specified. (1) The benefit of killing is to reduce the number of gas pockets present in the steel, which can adversely affect the mechanical properties of the steel, including ductility and toughness, as well as reduce the number of oxide-type inclusions in the steel. (2) Most mills provide some form of deoxidation, in the form of semi-killed steel, as a part of routine production practices. AISC does not require killed steel for any specific applications. (3) Most commonly, killing is done using additions of silicon, but may also be done with aluminum or manganese. Killed steels often have silicon levels in the range of 0.10% to 0.30%, but may be higher. (4) Project requirements for killed steel should be considered when using wide-flange sections in Groups 4 or 5, and plates when over 50 mm (2 inches) in thickness, in tension applications, which have special AISC requirements for toughness in AISC Specification section A3.1c. ASTM A992 requires the steel to be killed. (5) Specifying killed or semi-killed steel may carry a slight cost premium, except in the case of A992 steel. Because killed steel is typically a cost-premium mill order item, the inventory of killed structural steels available at steel service centers and in steel fabricating plants is less than that of regular steels. Mill orders typically require longer production lead times than service center or stock items. c. Fine Grain Practice. Fine grain practice is the method of achieving Fine Austenitic Grain Size, defined by ASTM A6 / A6M as grain size number 5 or higher, measured using test methods prescribed by ASTM E112. Aluminum is typically used to achieve fine grain practice, which binds oxygen and nitrogen. When aluminum content is above 0.20%, by heat analysis, the steel is considered fine-grained, without the need for testing. (1) Fine grain practice is beneficial in improving ductility and toughness. Consideration of requirements for fine grain practice should be made when using wide-flange sections in Groups 4 or 5, and plates when over 50 mm (2 inches) in thickness, in tension applications, which have special AISC 4-10

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requirements for toughness in AISC Specification section A3.1c. When specifying steel to fine grain practice, ASTM Supplementary Requirement S91 should be consulted for the specific steel grade. (2) Because fine grain practice is typically a cost-premium mill order item, the inventory of structural steels available at steel service centers and in steel fabricating plants manufactured to fine grain practice is less than that of regular structural steel. Mill orders typically require longer production lead times than service center or stock items. d. Toughness. Steel toughness, also commonly referred to as “notch toughness”, is the resistance to brittle crack initiation and propagation. For this resistance, the steel must have sufficient plastic ductility to redistribute stresses at the root of a notch to the surrounding material. Toughness may be measured using a variety of methods, but the steel industry standard is the Charpy V-Notch (CVN) method, as prescribed by ASTM A370. CVN testing is an added charge by the steel producer, and steel with CVN testing is not routinely ordered by steel service centers or steel fabricators for inventory. Therefore, steels with CVN testing are generally available only through mill order, which typically requires longer production lead times than service center or stock items. e. Improved Through-thickness Properties. For certain high-restraint applications subject to the risk of lamellar tearing, steels with improved through-thickness properties may be specified. The most common method of improving through-thickness properties, to reduce the risk of lamellar tearing, is through the specification of low-sulfur or controlled sulfur-inclusion steels. By reducing the sulfur content, the number and size of manganese sulfide (MnS) inclusions is reduced. Typically, low-sulfur steels in plate form can be ordered to 0.005% sulfur, at a cost premium and with longer lead time. Most steel specifications permit maximum sulfur in amounts between 0.30% to 0.50%. Shapes are not routinely available with substantially reduced sulfur levels, and would be available only at substantial cost premium and considerable delay. However, a mill may be able to select heats of steel with particularly lower levels of sulfur for rolling specific sections. It is also possible to specify through-thickness tensile testing using reduction of area as the governing criteria, but this is rarely necessary. f. Normalizing. Normalizing is defined in ASTM A6 / A6M as “a heat treating process in which a steel plate is reheated to a uniform temperature above the critical temperature and then cooled in air to below the transformation range.” In practice, steel is heated to approximately 900oC to 930oC (1650oF to 1700oF). The benefits include refined grain size and uniformity, improved ductility and improved toughness. Few building applications warrant the need for normalized steel. The specification of normalized steel is a mill order item only, an added expense with added time for delivery from the steel mill. Normalized steel is not routinely available from steel service centers or stocked by fabricators.

4. SELECTION OF STRUCTURAL STEELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE AND SERVICE APPLICATIONS. a. High-seismic Applications. The AISC Seismic Provisions, Section 6.3, require steel in the Seismic Force Resisting System to have a minimum toughness of 27J at 21oC (20 ft.-lb. at 70oF), applicable to ASTM Group 4 and 5 shapes, Group 3 shapes with flanges 38 mm (1-1/2 in.) or thicker, and to plates in built-up members 38 mm (1-1/2 in.) or thicker. Studies indicate that a large percentage of domestically produced structural steel sections lighter or thinner than those mentioned in the previous paragraph will have a CVN toughness of at least 27J at 21oC (20 ft.-lb. at 70oF), and therefore it does not appear that CVN testing need be conducted to verify the toughness of all members. It is recommended that manufacturer’s accumulated data be used to verify that the steel routinely produced by that mill meets the indicated toughness levels. Specification of steel toughness levels, or the specification of A709 4-11

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steels, is currently considered unnecessary for ordinary building-type applications.

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b. Fatigue Applications. Toughness requirements should be considered for applications involving fatigue. As a guide, the toughness values specified in ASTM A709 / A709M, Table S1.1 and S1.2, summarized and adapted in Table 4-4, may be used for redundant fatigue applications. Modifications to this table are suggested for steels that have yield strengths 103 MPa (15 ksi) or more above the minimum specified yield strengths, for all but A36 steels. See the ASTM A709 / A709M specification for appropriate changes to the testing temperatures for these cases. For nonredundant fatigue applications, see ASTM A709 / A709M, Table S1.3 for guidance. The required CVN toughness and testing temperature may be specified directly in the specifications for the project, to be placed on the mill order. Alternatively, a given ASTM A709 / A709M steel and temperature zone may be specified.

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Table 4-4. Toughness Guidelines for Structural Steel in Fatigue Applications, Redundant Applications.
Minimum Service Temperature Zone 1 -18oC (0oF) 20J @ 21oC (15 ft-lbf @ 70oF) 20J @ 21oC (15 ft-lbf @ 70oF) 20J @ 21oC (15 ft-lbf @ 70oF) 20J @ 21oC (20 ft-lbf @ 70oF) 27J @ 10oC (20 ft-lbf @ 50oF) 27J @ 10oC (20 ft-lbf @ 50oF) 34J @ 10oC (25 ft-lbf @ 50oF) 34J @ -1oC (25 ft-lbf @ 30oF) 34J @ -1oC (25 ft-lbf @ 30oF) 48J @ -1oC (35 ft-lbf @ 30oF) Zone 2 -34oC (-30oF) 20J @ 4oC (15 ft-lbf @ 40oF) 20J @ 4oC (15 ft-lbf @ 40oF) 20J @ 4oC (15 ft-lbf @ 40oF) 20J @ 4oC (20 ft-lbf @ 40oF) 27J @ -7oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27J @ -7oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 34J @ -7oC (25 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 34J @ -18oC (25 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 34J @ -18oC (25 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 48J @ -18oC (35 ft-lbf @ 0oF) Zone 3 -51oC (-60oF) 20J @ -12oC (15 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 20J @ -12oC (15 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 20J @ -12oC (15 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 20J @ -12oC (20 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 27J @ -23oC (20 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 27J @ -23oC (20 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 34J @ -23oC (25 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 34J @ -34oC (25 ft-lbf @ 30oF) 34J @ -34oC (25 ft-lbf @ 30oF) 48J @ -34oC (35 ft-lbf @ 30oF)

Steel

Thickness

Applicatio n bolted or welded bolted or welded bolted

A36

to 100 mm (4 in.), incl. to 50 mm (2 in.), incl. over 50 to 100 mm (2 in to 4 in.) over 50 to 100 mm (2 in to 4 in.) to 65 mm (21/2 in.), incl. over 65 mm to 100 mm (21/2 in to 4 in.) over 65 mm to 100 mm (21/2 in to 4 in.) to 65 mm (21/2 in.), incl. over 65 mm to 100 mm (21/2 in to 4 in.) over 65 mm to 100 mm (21/2 in to 4 in.)

A572, gr 50 A588 “

welded

A852

bolted or welded bolted

welded

A514

bolted or welded bolted

welded

4-13

including availability as either steel service center stock or in mill order quantities only. to reduce the risk of lamellar tearing.” and peening. A709 (grades 36 and 50). although higher strength structural steels present additional welding difficulties and should not be specified unless necessary for weight savings.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 c. include A992 and A709 (grades 100.015%. weld bead placement selection. 100W). high-ductility filler metals. 100. Generally. and limitations on nitrogen may be considered. Steels that require killing. A242.e. published by AISC. Nitrogen has a significant effect upon CVN transition temperatures. creating through-thickness shrinkage stresses and strains. is through the specification of low-sulfur or controlled sulfur-inclusion steels. compared to conventional carbon steels such as A36 steel. A992. the use of preheat and/or postheat. plates and bars in various steel specifications. The most common method of improving through-thickness properties. There is no specific through-thickness at which lamellar tearing will or will not occur. High Stress / Strain / Restraint Applications. 5. in the January and July issues. which also improves toughness. The AISC Manual of Steel Construction. d. and A913 (grades 60. grades and strengths. welding procedure controls. “buttering. AVAILABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEELS. 4-14 . However. Type 4 steel has a limit on nitrogen of 0. steels with improved through-thickness properties may also be specified. consideration should be made for the risk of lamellar tearing. High-strength low alloy (HSLA) steels that are manufactured using fine grain practice have improved toughness at low temperature. AISC-approved steels requiring production to fine-grain practice are A588. Fine-grain practice can optionally be specified using ASTM Supplemental Requirement S91 for A36. This list is updated semi-annually in Modern Steel Construction magazine. A572. stresses or strains that will induce tearing. it is generally more cost effective to specify a type of steel with inherently good fracture toughness. with the exception of A913. 70W. 65 and 70). Steel toughness requirements should be considered for major loadcarrying components of structures exposed to extreme cold environments. sequencing. but the higher strength grades should be avoided because of other welding difficulties. All AISC-approved structural steels are available from domestic steel mills. When structural components in a low-temperature environment are not subject to significant impact loads or fatigue conditions. the use of low-strength. and avoid a requirement for specific CVN toughness at a reference temperature. Lamellar tearing is a separation or tearing of the steel on planes parallel to the rolled surface of the member. nor specific values for weld size. and Table 1-5 provides similar information for round and rectangular sections. Cold Weather Applications. and A913 (grade 50). 100W). Table 13 lists the producers of specific structural shapes. Table 1-1. Table 1-4 provides similar information for round and rectangular sections. It is not available for A529. When welded joints are made to the side of a member. A709 (grades 50W. A852.012%. See 3. unless nitrogen binders are added. A572. A992 steels place a limit on nitrogen of 0. lamellar tearing is avoided through using one or more of the following techniques: improved design or redesign of the joint. provides general information regarding availability of shapes. or A283 steels.

The Engineer must review and approve the final details selected by the contractor. b. vee. welding processes. the appropriate AWS designation. and groove angle should be used based upon economics. if desired or necessary. personnel qualified to inspect the welding. one should consider the availability of the structural steel. the electrode should be positioned so that the angle between the part and the electrode is not less than 30o. welding personnel qualified in out-ofposition welding. groove type (single. The following items should be considered to permit welding operations to be made with adequate quality: (1) Welding personnel must have direct visual access to the root of the weld. including connections between elements in built-up members. but generally it is best to allow the fabricator or erector to select the specific welding detail to be used for a particular joint. U). bevel. placed in beam and girder webs when splicing flanges or making beam-tocolumn moment connections. filler metals. Larger access holes may be warranted based upon the welding process and type of welding equipment used.1 Figure 5. (3) Weld access holes. Access should be checked at the design stage when welding in highly confined spaces or with closely spaced parts. or specify a Partial Joint Penetration (PJP) groove weld and state the required throat. When the availability of any of the above is in question. Smaller angles may cause a lack of fusion along the weld / base metal interface. Equipment and Personnel.CEMP-E CHAPTER 5 DESIGN FOR WELDING TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. The Engineer is responsible for the analysis and design of the connection. alternative joint designs should be investigated. or nondestructive testing. filler metals. welders qualified for specific processes. and joint designs. Access. 5-1 . (2) Access should be adequate so that the welding electrode can be positioned at the proper angle for proper penetration and fusion. Availability of Materials. In the selection of base metals. availability of equipment and personnel. 2. This may effectively be done through the use of AWS welding symbols. and NDT equipment and personnel necessary to perform NDT as required. Critical structural steel connections must be completely detailed and shown on the contract drawings.2. All passes must be visually monitored by the welder during welding. personnel qualified to perform such welding. The Engineer may prescribe connection details. it may be adequate for the Engineer to specify a Complete Joint Penetration (CJP) groove weld. Minimum access hole sizes are specified in AWS D1. a. GOOD DESIGN PRACTICE. and ease of welding operations. Certain welded joint designs may require notch-tough filler materials. enclosures for field welding. double. welding equipment. J. The fabricator and erector are typically in the best position to select which process. GENERAL. For instance. distortion control. Generally. and when necessary for prequalified groove welds. a. must be of adequate size to permit the weld to be placed by reaching through the access hole with the electrode. Engineer’s Responsibility.

preferably using joints prequalified under AWS D1.1 Figures 3. contributing to lack of penetration at the root and lack of fusion along the joint sidewalls. d. Access to the root is also easier to achieve because of the balance and the wider groove angle used. (2) For most applications. increasing cost and construction time.4 and 4.1 should be used. plug welds or slot welds. There is added expense in joint preparation for groove welds that is not required with fillet welds. For guidance in the selection of groove details that provide sufficient access. Welding in other than the flat or horizontal positions increases welding time approximately four-fold. 2 for fillet welds. or removal of a portion of the root pass area by backgouging followed by backwelding until the joint is complete. or a combination groove weld with reinforcing fillets. fewer passes. fillet welding is generally less expensive than groove welding. and in either the flat or horizontal positions when making fillet welds. Less distortion may also be incurred because of the reduced weld volume. partial joint penetration (PJP) groove welds are more economical than complete joint penetration (CJP) groove welds. Bevel-groove welds are generally more difficult to weld. rather than just the amount of welding needed to carry the load.3 for groove welds. depending upon groove angle. the prequalified groove weld details in AWS D1.5 for fillet welds.) deeper. on average. and Figures 4. Proper joint design. This makes visual inspection and some forms of NDT more difficult. there may be offsetting cost savings with groove welds because of decreased weld volume. Provided CJP groove welds are not required by Code for the given application or for fatigue and seismic applications. see AWS D1. and they typically do not have the smooth appearance of welds performed in the flat or horizontal positions. and cost-effectiveness. (3) In butt joints.4 should be reviewed. more welding is required to join the entire thickness of material. Position. Although personnel may be previously qualified by test to weld out-of-position. c. or 3 mm (1/8 in. welding process and position. a welder may not have recently used the special techniques and procedures for welding in these positions. PJP groove welds should be considered for tensionand shear-carrying joints when full strength of the connected members is not required. especially when the unbeveled face is vertical. PJP groove welds are prepared to a required depth of chamfer. limited distortion. Figure 4.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (4) Narrow root openings and narrow groove angles inhibit access to the joint root.1 in Figure 4. Fewer welding personnel are qualified by test to perform welding out-of-position.1 Figure 4.3 and 3.1 for groove welds and in Figure 4. The following items should be considered in selecting or evaluating joint selection: (1) For butt joints. and therefore less labor and materials. Above this size. are easier to weld. 5-2 . until the fillet size reaches approximately 16 to 20 mm (5/8 to 3/4 in. It is preferred to weld in the flat position when making groove welds. Welding positions are defined in AWS D1. by Code. and for compression splices such as column splices. because they are balanced and usually have a downhand position on each groove face. (4) For tee joints. V-groove welds. should be considered. and lack of fusion on the unbeveled face may result. usually the required effective throat. In this case. close visual observation of the welder during the first few out-of-position passes is especially important. and requalification testing may be necessary.). The quality of out-of-position welds is more difficult to maintain. Joint Selection. CJP groove welds require the use of either backing bars.6 for tubular joints. To assist in interpreting the positions given. V-groove welds are preferred over bevel-groove welds. In addition. and therefore may have lost some of the skill necessary to perform quality out-of-position welding. PJP groove welding. which may need to be removed in certain types of joints. however.

or U-groove joint. when other groove details are used. Alternate details may be selected with reduced or wider root openings. so even more weld metal must be saved to recover these costs. qualification testing of the joint detail is not required to verify the suitability of the detail. The use of prequalified groove weld details does not guarantee that welding problems will not occur. There are also higher initial joint preparation costs to prepare a J. Generally.and U-groove joints should be considered. qualification testing is required. The details may not always be the best detail.1 Section 4. e.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (5) Square groove welds have limited application for structural steel. When angular distortion or shrinkage strains must be minimized. See AWS D1.and U-groove welds may be more economical than bevel.1 Section 3 for these limits.3 and 3. Double-sided welds balance weld shrinkage about the center of the part’s cross-section. g. The wider root initially requires more weld metal. reduced or wider groove angles. provide root opening. Excessively wide groove angles contribute to added angular distortion. However. and WPS selection. J. When one side will be welded in its entirety before proceeding to weld the opposite side. presetting of parts. lack of fusion. Distortion. Minimum 5-3 . When square groove welds are used. and other information for the effective detailing of groove welds. the use of minimum groove angles. and higher costs because of the additional material and labor used. groove angle. The prequalified groove weld details in AWS D1. (7) Root opening widths should be generous but not excessive. very wide roots contribute to root pass cracking and root HAZ cracking from weld shrinkage. without causing excessive angular distortion.1 Figure 3. as prescribed in AWS D1.and V-groove welds. narrower root openings and groove angles increase the risk of incomplete penetration at the root and lack of fusion along the groove faces.and V-groove welds. increased risk of shrinkage cracking. f. Qualified Joint Details.). These problems may be minimized through the use of suitable WPSs. (6) For thick materials. or other revised details. and Figure 3. cost-effective or easier-to-weld details may be used. is required in such cases to verify the ability of the WPS to provide the penetration and quality necessary. and adequate access to the groove faces for complete fusion. and other more efficient. However. Angular distortion can be minimized through the use of double-sided welding. but the narrower groove angle reduces the total weld volume below that of bevel. and trapped slag at the root. the first side groove depth should be approximately 35-40% of the total groove depth of both welds. When the part can be frequently rotated for welding on opposite sides. Narrow root openings contribute to lack of penetration. J. They are better suited for thin materials. Prequalified Joint Details. The completed first side weld restrains the second side weld from shrinking as much as the unrestrained first-side weld.4 for Complete Penetration Joint (CJP) groove welds. provided other prequalification provisions of the Code are also met. J. When the joint details as shown are used. Wider root openings allow for complete penetration to the bottom of the joint preparation. increased risk of lamellar tearing in T-joints. root face. For PJP groove welds.4. generally starting at thicknesses of 50 mm (2 in.or U-groove welds. tolerances. the root opening must be closely controlled and the Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) closely developed and followed. Groove weld details may be used other than those shown as prequalified in AWS D1.3 for Partial Joint Penetration (PJP) groove welds. Root openings and groove angles are considered adequate for the welding processes and positions noted. a balanced groove detail can be used. thickness limits. Qualification testing. The reduced groove angle minimizes the differential in weld width from top to bottom of the joint.1 Figures 3. the required depth of preparation is provided to achieve the desired effective throat. (8) Groove angles should be the minimum angle that will provide adequate access for penetration to the root.

AISC places no limit on the undermatching strength. without consideration of the resistance factor phi.-lbf @ +40oF).CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 groove angles and J-and U-groove details reduce the difference in weld width between the root and the face of the weld. (2) Should the CJP groove weld be used in a T-joint or corner joint loaded in tension transverse to its axis.1. Overmatching is not permitted in AWS D1. the measurement of leg size is ineffective. AISC LRFD Specification Table J2. with a phi of 0.1 Section 2. Alternatively.1. the AWS D1.9.5 of the LRFD Specification. also called effective throat. Weld design strength (when using LRFD) is provided in AISC Table J2. Effective Weld Size / Throat. (1) For welds other than CJP groove welds loaded in transverse tension. Part A provides the details for the calculation of effective weld size. b. The following information is in terms of LRFD.3. the AWS D1. and therefore reduce the weld shrinkage. 3. and effective weld length. 5-4 . AISC provides similar information in Table J2.1 Code requires the use of matching filler metal. Allowable Stresses / Design Strengths. similarly loaded. and also overmatching filler metal to the extent of one weld strength classification. Note [d] requires the use of filler metal with a designated CVN toughness of 27J @ +4oC (20 ft.1 Table 2. the effective size is specified in terms of weld leg. is provided in AWS D1. (3) For CJP groove welds in transverse compression. AWS provides the required depth of preparation for PJP groove welds in D1. or in AISC Table J2. AISC permits the use of undermatching for the same conditions. nominally 70 MPa (10 ksi) more. Both AWS and AISC tables are similarly structured. with a phi of 0. (1) Complete Joint Penetration (CJP) groove welds have an effective throat equal to the thickness of the thinner part joined. Allowable weld stress.1 Code requires the use of either matching filler metal or a filler metal one strength classification less. Figure 3. (2) For CJP groove welds that carry transverse tensile stress. See AWS D1. and the throat must be measured as the shortest distance from the root to the weld face.1 for matching filler metals. the weld must be designed as a PJP groove weld. AWS D1. with minor differences in certain sections. (3) For flat and convex fillet welds. Should the fillet weld be concave. but the effective throat is the shortest distance from the root to a straight line drawn between the two weld toes. with the backing bar remaining in place. The strength of the weld is treated the same as the strength of the base metal. nominally 70 MPa (10 ksi) less.3. when using ASD. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WELDED JOINTS. (2) Partial Joint Penetration (PJP) groove welds must have their size specified in the design.5 of the ASD Specification. see the appropriate specification.5.1 Table 3. If ASD is used. Matching filler metal provides a weld with at least the strength of the base metal in such an application.1.9.1 Code permits the use of matching filler metal or a filler metal of lower strength. and then be detailed to provide the throat required.60 times the classification strength of the filler metal. (4) CJP groove welds in shear may carry 0. the AWS D1. as the base metal will be the weaker of the two materials. a. The strength of the weld is treated the same as the strength of the base metal.

5 times the ASD values. The maximum effective length is 180 times the leg size.5. with a phi of 0. There is no need to check the shear stress in the base metal along the diagrammatic leg of the fillet weld.45 times the classification strength of the filler metal. For angles other than transverse. (11) For transversely loaded fillets welds. only AWS provides design values.50 times the classification strength of the filler metal. based upon Allowable Stress Design (ASD). PJP groove welds are categorized into joints designed to bear and joints not designed to bear. (13) When a fillet weld is loaded longitudinally along its axis. only for the shear transferred between the web and flange. and AISC LRFD Specification Appendix J2. girder web-to-flange welds need not be designed for the axial force from bending. are generally 1.1.14.14. there is a maximum effective length of 100 times the leg size before a reduction factor must be implemented. allowable shear stress increases are also permitted when using the instantaneous center of rotation approach for the analysis of the weld group. permit a 50% increase in the allowable shear stress on the weld. with a phi of 0. and is loaded from its end.5. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (5) CJP groove welds and other welds carrying tension or compression parallel to the axis of the weld need not be designed for the tensile or compressive stress. AWS D1. for joints designed to bear. are used for loading other than parallel to the weld axis.CEMP-E with a phi of 0. the leg of the fillet weld is not a failure plane that needs checked. and the base metal stress may not exceed 0. (10) Fillet welds may be stressed to 0. with a phi of 0.4. the weld stress need not be checked. AISC. as above. with a reduction coefficient Beta of 0. LRFD values. (9) PJP groove welds in shear may be stressed to 0. (6) PJP groove welds in transverse tension are permitted to carry 0.60 times the classification strength of the filler metal. considering the factor phi. because it is based upon new construction. Under AWS D1. AISC LRFD Specification Table J2. (8) For joints not designed to bear. provides design values only for the joint designed to bear application. only for any shear forces that may be transferred between the connected parts. as the base metal will govern the strength of the joint. as in a splice plate or brace member.60 times the classification strength of the filler metal. using the effective size (throat) of the groove weld for the check of the base metal stress.75.8. (14) Plug and slot welds may be stressed to 0.75.9. (12) When fillet weld strength increases. because of penetration and HAZ hardening.60 times the classification strength of the filler metal. Research indicates that. Longer fillet welds loaded in such a manner must be analyzed using a reduction coefficient Beta from AISC LRFD Specification equation J2-1. The weld stress may not exceed 0.1 Section 2. applied to the throat of the groove weld. Note [h] requires the use of CVN toughness as above. 5-5 . with a phi of 0.4 and 2. Design values for typical weld groups are provided in the AISC Manual. For eccentrically loaded fillet weld groups. The stress on the base metal is also limited to the minimum specified yield strength of the base metal.60 times the minimum specified yield strength of the base metal. Under AISC.8. As an example.6. an increase is also permitted based upon an equation. with a phi of 0.90. (7) PJP groove welds in compression are currently treated differently by AWS and AISC. which would apply when the weld is 300 times the leg size in length.

with no notches.1 and AISC codes.) in thickness.8.17. h. but does not provide weld size reductions based upon the use of low hydrogen electrodes or preheat. but may also be used in other joints where interferences exist. to verify that the steel has the capacity to carry the load delivered to or from the weld.4 provides minimum prequalified PJP groove weld sizes. Weld access holes provide access for welding equipment to reach the weld region. making it difficult to verify adequate leg size and throat. This is especially applicable to situations using fillet welds on opposite sides of thin beam and girder webs.1 Section 5. AISC Table J2. The maximum fillet weld size that should be specified. with a phi of 0. Available Design Aids. d.1 Table 5. and quality. the Code requires a check of the base metal in shear.8. which acts as an efficient heat sink. with a minimum radius of 25 mm (1 in. are available. and Table 3. Weld Access Holes.5. A maximum fillet weld size is established for lap joints where a fillet weld is placed along the edge of a part. is 2 mm (1/16 in.) less than the thickness of the part. welding and quality requirements apply for applications using ASTM Group 4 and 5 shapes. Minimum Weld Size. Plug and slot welds may be designed only for shear forces along the base of the hole or slot.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 with a phi of 0. when the part is 6 mm (1/4 in. Access holes also serve to separate weld shrinkage stresses when fully welded joints are made in both the member web and flange. There is no need to check the stress in the base metal along the base of the plug or slot. Bibliography.). special material. See Appendix B.4. with a higher risk of cracking. This check is applied to the thickness of the material. not the weld/steel interface. Typical reentrant corners in buildings are found at openings for piping and ductwork in beam webs.75. provides minimum fillet weld sizes. Small welds provide little heat input to the thick base metal. They also provide access for weld cleaning and inspection. special provisions regarding surface quality and inspection apply. c. See AWS D1. martensitic heat-affected zone (HAZ). Typically. the specified fillet weld size may equal the thickness of the part. For lap joints where the part receiving the fillet weld along its edge is less than 6 mm (1/4 in. Design aids for welded connections. and for built-up sections 5-6 . When weld access holes are used in heavy sections or high-seismic applications.1 Section 2. Reentrant Corners. not for shear along the walls of the hole or slot. Reentrant corners are internal cuts in members. f. e.6 for minimum access types. dimensions.1 Table 5.3 provides minimum fillet weld sizes similar to AWS D1. Heavy Section Joint Provisions. therefore reducing the cooling rate. reducing the interference from the member itself.1 Section 5. with potentially high levels of trapped hydrogen.60 times the minimum specified yield strength of the base metal. in the form of tables and software. (15) With shear stress in any type weld. The rapid cooling creates a hard. Maximum Fillet Weld Size. This is to protect the edge of the part from melting under the arc. See AWS D1. or when making welded flange connections in beam-tocolumn joints. See AWS D1. and reduce the risk of HAZ cracking to acceptable levels. Reentrant corners must be smooth. limiting the base metal stress to 0. and AISC LRFD Specification Section J1. The basis of these tables is the need to slow the cooling rate when welding on thicker materials. Larger welds are made with higher welding heat input.75. weld access holes are provided in beam and girder webs when splicing flanges. Minimum weld sizes are incorporated into both the AWS D1. AWS D1. as an example.16. g. Under the AISC LRFD Specification. Grinding of reentrant corners and tangency is not required. and therefore the weld region cools very rapidly. Beam copes and weld access holes are treated separately by the code.) or more in thickness.

thickness. Optionally. Backing Bars. but possible for some types of joints for shop fabrication. the assembly tolerances are typically enlarged to allow variations of 8 mm (5/16 in. Both codes apply these provisions only when the materials are used with welded tensile splices. (2) Welding personnel qualified to weld using backing are also qualified to weld without backing. If a welder is qualified without backing.5 for weld tab and backing bar removal requirements. The purpose of a weld tab is to allow the weld to be started or stopped beyond the edge of the material being joined.) in thickness. difficult to achieve with structural steel sections in either the shop or field. ceramic or flux. it may be recommended or necessary to remove the backing bar after use. Assembly tolerances without backing are typically within 3 mm (1/8 in. ground to bright metal. greatly increasing the risk of weld cracking. AWS D1.) in thickness. compared to joints without backing. (3) The minimum backing thicknesses provided in AWS D1. This adds cost to the operation. J2.2. In some joints. and therefore AISC LRFD Specification provisions should be used.8 for preheat requirements. requiring the testing of the WPS with these materials.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 using plates over 50 mm (2 in. and similar terms in the industry.10.1 Table 3. but PT or MT of the cut surface is still required. particularly with Submerged Arc Welding (SAW). AWS D1. (1) Steel backing is used almost universally in steel construction. but very high heat input procedures. then the welder may also weld with backing. of these provisions. Welding is more easily performed with backing to support the root pass. and inspected using either Penetrant Testing (PT) or Magnetic Particle Testing (MT). See AISC LRFD Figure CJ1. J1. and J1. and removal.1 Section 5. minimum preheat and interpass temperature of 175oC (350oF) must be used.3 are generally suitable to reduce the risk of melting thru the backing bar. j. nonstandard location in the material.2 for dimensional and fabrication requirements for weld access holes.1c for materials requirements. groove welded 5-7 . The special provisions listed do not apply when the joint carries only compression. If the joint is not backgouged and backwelded. The use of backing materials other than steel is generally considered nonprequalified.). See AISC section A3. Weld Tabs. but have also been applied to connections such as beam-to-column connections where the flanges are direct-welded for moment resistance. eliminating concerns for melt-through and repair. i. The AISC ASD Specification does not contain the latest joint details. higher than that required by AWS D1. With backing. but not all.1 Section 5. For joint welding. may require thicker backing. particularly when rewelding and / or finishing of the removed area is necessary. or when bolted slices are used. Weld tabs are also referred to as “extension bars”.10.1 provisions apply for ASTM Group 4 and 5 shapes and for built-up sections with a web plate over 38 mm (1-1/2 in. Those applications that require subsequent backing removal are sometimes done with nonfusible backing materials such as copper. as the arc may strike the copper and melt copper into the weld. such as column splices. Weld access holes must be preheated to 65oC (150oF) prior to thermal cutting. splicing. particularly in fatigue and seismic applications.1 code provisions contain most. then the welder must be qualified to weld without backing. Joint assembly tolerances are greater when backing bars are used. The special material requirements include a minimum CVN toughness taken from a specific. “run-off tabs”.6 for access hole requirements. weld access holes may be made by drilling and saw-cutting. Weld tabs and backing bars must be removed after completion of the joint. Extreme caution should be used with copper backing. Backing bars are used to close and support the root pass of groove welds when made from one side of the joint. (4) AWS D1. provided the weld is backgouged and backwelded. includes provisions for backing materials.). Weld tabs are typically used in butt joint member splices.

Lamellar Tearing. (1) There is no specific through-thickness at which lamellar tearing will or will not occur. (1) After welding is completed. welding from the center of the member’s length. sequencing. For SAW. removal is required. Welding Sequence and Distortion Control. The inclusions that initiate lamellar tearing are generally not reliably detected using any form of NDT. Because the completed joint is more highly restrained than the original joint. the stress type. nor specific values for weld size. l. Parts can be preset in a skewed position so that. rather than numerous small passes. removal should be considered when splicing members over 25 mm (1 in. stresses or strains that will induce tearing. and at the ends of built-up member welds such as girder web-to-flange welds. particularly in fatigue and high-seismic applications. These inclusions serve as initiation points for tearing. resulting in unintended sweep. camber. provides information on the use and removal requirements for weld tabs. with no assurance that a tear will not form beneath the repair weld. The use of intermittent welding. Lamellar tearing is a step-like crack in the base metal. generally parallel to the rolled surface. For other applications. Tabs also allow the welding arc to stabilize prior to welding the main material. without starts and stops or build-out regions along the edges.1 Section 5. or for low-stress tensile splices. removal is required at transverse groove welds in moment-resisting joints. k. it may be recommended or necessary to remove the weld tab after use. “buttering. the completed member will be approximately straight. This is because thicker members typically have less toughness than thinner members. oriented parallel to the steel surface. weld bead placement selection. (2) AWS D1. Repair may involve complete removal of the existing weld and 5-8 .1 Commentary C2. Distortion may also occur along the length of a member. Steels with improved through-thickness properties may also be specified. For compression joints such as column splices. the use of preheat and/or postheat.1. or twist.” and peening. The use of weld tabs places the inherent weld discontinuities made when starting or stopping a weld within the tab. In high seismic regions.31. generally sulfur-based. the tabs support the flux deposit at the edge of the workpiece. which may be detectable using straight-beam ultrasonic testing prior to welding. to reduce the risk of lamellar tearing. weld tabs in statically loaded structures should be allowed to remain in place. and overwelding in some locations may also be used to reduce longitudinal distortion. In some joints. application. Removal is required in most fatigue applications. Generally. The most common method for improving through-thickness properties. Large inclusions constitute laminations.3. lamellar tearing is avoided by using one or more of the following techniques: improved design or redesign of the joint. is the specification of low-sulfur or controlled sulfur-inclusion steels. AWS D1. dispersed. Weld tabs allow the welding of the full width of the joint. when weld shrinkage occurs. The steel is somewhat weakened by the presence of very small. This occurs because welding is not balanced about the center of gravity of the member cross-section. (2) Should lamellar tears be detected. welding procedure controls. repair of joints that have torn is difficult and expensive. WPSs that use large passes. and outside the major stress flow of the spliced material. the weld tabs may need to be removed. In heavy section tensile splices. the use of low-strength.) in thickness when the members are subjected to high tensile stresses at the splice. and the implications of potential failure in service should be considered. nonmetallic inclusions. high-ductility filler metals. and the low toughness may allow a crack or other discontinuity in the weld tab to propagate into the primary weld.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 direct-welded flange joints in beam-to-column moment connections. generally cause less angular distortion. provides guidance on these methods. planar-shaped. caused by weld shrinkage stresses applied to the steel in the through-thickness direction.

primarily a function of its geometry. Notches. generally in the range of 20. The details and stress categories are classified by: 5-9 . unusual materials. Several design codes are now replacing the design S-N curves with the equations used to generate the plotted curves. as the material may have undergone considerable straining and deformation prior to fracture. Not all fractures are brittle. and are commonly plotted on a logarithmic scale as a straight line. The fatigue life of a component. However. There are several details that fall within each class. (1) Traditional fatigue design is based upon high-cycle fatigue. The fatigue strength of a welded component is a combination of a stress range and a number of cycles (N) that causes failure of the component. Many joint designs assume the ability to deform and redistribute stress throughout the connection. 4. at the low endurance limit. At the upper left end of the straight line. Standard design and detailing practices are typically adequate for building structures. and toughness in materials selection. such as seismicallyloaded structures. the high-endurance range. a. sufficient length of base material should be provided in the assumed area of plastic yielding to allow this to occur. Care should be taken to avoid transversely loaded sharp notches and joint transitions. Backing bars should be removed in some applications because the notch inherent at the root pass between backing bar and steel may initiate a crack in the weld. and fatigue applications may require more care in the selection and construction of connections and their details. Brittle fracture is a failure that occurs in the steel or weld without appreciable deformation or energy absorption. whether inadvertent or inherent in the design. particularly in areas such as weld toes. so that brittle fracture will not occur. At the lower right end of the curve. Those with similar fatigue life characteristics are grouped together into a Stress Category. the ultimate material strength is exceeded and failure occurs from static stress. In welded joints. HAZ or base metal. low-cycle fatigue may also occur in cases of extreme stress and strain.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 affected base metal. The design S-N curves used to design structural members have been established approximately 25% below the mean failure values. General. Brittle Fracture. such as seismic events or unanticipated out-of-plane bending from applied stresses or distortion. fatigue life is generally not affected by applied stress level or the strength of the material. Reinforcement. Sufficient ductility should be provided in joint design and detailing. Each detail has a specific description that defines the geometry. and the fatigue strength of the detail. The fatigue life of a welded joint is affected by the stress range at the location of crack initiation. should be considered in lieu of repair or replacement. also called the endurance limit. is the number of cycles to failure. Stress range does not require stress reversal. and notches that would serve as crack initiators should be avoided in this area. cold temperature environments. m.000 cycles and up. only a variation in stress. (3) The fatigue strength of different welded details varies according to the severity of the stress concentration effect. identified as Classes A through F. with subcategories for special cases. high seismic risk. the stress ranges are generally too low to initiate crack propagation. DESIGN FOR CYCLICALLY LOADED STRUCTURES (FATIGUE). if appropriate for the application. greatly increase the risk of brittle fracture. Where it is assumed that plastic behavior will be required to provide ductility and energy absorption. Notch-tough materials reduce the risk of brittle fracture. The stress range is the total range between the maximum and minimum applied stresses. (2) The S-N curves used for fatigue design provides an assumed relationship between fatigue life and stress range. Extreme loading conditions. Applications that may experience low-cycle fatigue require design and detailing specific to the application that exceed the general fatigue design provisions of the codes.000 cycles to 100.

must be prohibited. grinding should be in the direction of stress.) from the edges of plates. weld length. groove-welded attachments. Further divisions of these general categories are provided using general descriptions. rolled section base metal. and plug and slot welds. grinding requirements. fabrication requirements (ground flush.5:1. weld toe).) short of the end of the attachment. and not all methods are necessary. backing removed. Joints should be placed in low stress areas. C.). A bolted assembly may be appropriate and more cost-effective in some applications. When grinding is appropriate. Categories B. radius of transition. Groove-welded butt joints have better fatigue life than lap or tee joints made with fillet welds. Avoid attachments to members subject to fatigue loading. at the highest stress range. For critical details. The detail category should be evaluated carefully to verify that the actual detail realistically matches the standard detail. Category F behavior is sufficiently different to use a different slope. Unauthorized attachments. weld type). by attachment length. with no welding. stud welds. If a detail is highly sensitive to weld discontinuities. with reduced permitted stress ranges for a given fatigue life demand. governing dimensions (attachment dimensions. provide for in-service inspection. fillet-welded attachments.CEMP-E • • • • • TI 809-26 1 March 2000 form of the member (plate base metal. Illustrative examples are typically provided by the codes to assist in the interpretation of these divisions. Fatigue Design Details. Not all methods of fatigue life improvement are contained in the Codes. notch-like corners. and in some cases. Transitions between members of differing thicknesses or widths should be made with a slope of at least 2.1 Section 8. (1) Stress Category A is limited to plain material. provided this will not have any other detrimental effect on the structure. with progressively more cycles and lower stress ranges for the endurance limit in other categories. and member yield strength. often made by field or maintenance personnel or other trades. weld. groove welds. and NDT requirements should be specified. 5-10 . but radiused transitions are expensive and may not substantially improve fatigue life. Welds on the edges of flanges should be avoided. The endurance limit is also reached soonest. (4) Careful design and fabrication can reduce the risk of failure by fatigue. NDT requirements. location of anticipated crack initiation (base metal. • • • • • • • • • Grinding groove welds flush in the direction of the applied stress may improve the Stress Category. when possible. Attachment welds should be kept at least 12 mm (1/2 in. such as a transversely loaded CJP groove weld with reinforcement removed. for Category A details. may be cost-effective in extending fatigue life. inspection. D and E follow the same line slope. Fillet welds should be stopped about 12 mm (1/2 in. appropriate quality. Intermittent stitch welds should be avoided. • • • • • • b.). Fatigue details are identified as plain material. etc. fillet welds. built-up members. radius. Smooth shapes and transitions are important. Avoid reentrant. Fatigue life enhancement techniques such as those found in AWS D1. Parts should be aligned to minimize or eliminate eccentricity and minimize secondary bending stresses. and inspection requirements (ultrasonic or radiographic testing). etc.

This line. AISC and AASHTO specifications are the most current and comprehensive. (3) AASHTO and AWS provide fatigue design curves for both redundant and nonredundant structures. the design must be established to keep the stress range below that permitted.). Any of these enhancement processes typically double the fatigue life of the treated joint. HIGH SEISMIC APPLICATIONS. This includes. but induces residual compressive stresses around the slag line to prevent the introduction of the tensile stresses necessary for crack propagation. With plain material. however. Fatigue design begins with the sizing of the member and the connection for the maximum applied static load. where failure of the welded component would result in collapse of the structure. Some joints may be changed from PJP groove or fillet welds to CJP groove welds. c.5. fatigue life may be extended. Recommendations for the design of welded connections in high seismic regions are undergoing substantial revision as of the date of this document. then checked for the applied stress range. Fatigue life of welded joints. Burr grinding of the weld toe. Another alternative is the use of fatigue life enhancement details to improve fatigue life. so fatigue life is spent in both crack initiation and crack propagation. as described in AWS D1. Latest Guidance. Should the size become excessive. for the better fatigue categories. requires the use of the AWS D1. other improved details may be considered. grinding of the surface and NDT to improve the fatigue design category. Generally. Inspection of the weld should be performed prior to implementing fatigue life enhancement techniques. AISC does not address nonredundant applications. for some groove details. as other areas of the welded joint may now fail before the weld toe. and all are based upon the same principles and research data. As a specification for building construction. may also be used to remove the slag line. including bolted details. so there may be minor differences between codes. Fracture Control Plan for Nonredundant Structures. Stress ranges at the lower number of cycles.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (2) Various design codes may be used for fatigue design. Allowable Stress Ranges. and AISC uses tabular values based upon the S-N curves. By applying fatigue life enhancement techniques. Caution should be used when extending fatigue life expectations. At the toe of every weld. a. therefore. Users are advised to seek the latest 5-11 . Adjustments are then made to increase the component or connection size as needed. begins with an initial crack. and fatigue life is limited to crack propagation. The AASHTO code. 5. Performing both toe grinding and hammer peening will provide additional benefits. a microscopic slag intrusion line is present. Fatigue life enhancement details are not to be used to increase allowable stress ranges. with any required inspection for surface discontinuities repeated following the work. to a depth of approximately 1 mm (1/32 in. are often limited by the static stress applied. All three organizations are currently changing to equationbased design. d. Section 12. but special provisions for nonredundant structures are not required. achieving typically triple the fatigue life of the untreated weld toe. The process of TIG dressing can be used to remelt the weld toe area to a limited depth. The AWS nonredundant structure fatigue provisions are based upon bridge principles. with the exception of welds made using Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding with no filler metal. Occasional revisions to these provisions and details are made by the various code organizations.1 provisions are limited to welded details. AWS D1. Fatigue Life Enhancement. acts as a small crack. in which localized mechanical compressive stresses are induced into the weld toe area. melting out and removing the microscopic slag intrusion line. does not remove the slag line. Toe peening. for fatigue purposes. AASHTO and AWS currently use S-N curves.1 Section 8. and often the type of detail needed to make the component or connection is established. Because the number of cycles is usually established for the application. there is no pre-existing crack.

3b.85.2 for Seismic Design Categories. emergency shelters. pending further study. These applications include all buildings located in areas with 1 second spectral response accelerations (SD1) of 0. rescue and police stations.50g. tested using welding procedures representative of the range of production WPSs. Additional requirements for toughness at service temperature.33g or higher.) or thicker. require steel in the Seismic Force Resisting System to have a minimum toughness of 27J at 21oC (20 ft.3. Reduced toughness in these region may increase the risk of crack initiation from welding in the area. It is recommended that manufacturer’s accumulated data be used to verify that the steel routinely produced by that mill meets the indicated toughness levels. See TI 809-04. at the intersection of the web and the radius between web and flange.) or thicker. Seismic Use Group III structures are essential facilities that are required for post-earthquake recovery and those containing substantial quantities of hazardous substances. (5) There are concerns for the performance of rolled steel sections in the vicinity of the K-line. and water treatment facilities needed to provide water pressure for fire suppression. Improved materials and details should be used for building structures classified as Seismic Categories D. 5-12 . c. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. air traffic control towers. or SDS of 0.20g or higher. section 7. or short period response accelerations (SDS) of 0. and need not be specified or checked. grade 50 manufactured to AISC Technical Bulletin #3. particularly stiffeners (continuity plates) and doubler plates. Group 3 shapes with flanges 38 mm (1-1/2 in. including but not limited to: fire. Materials Concerns and Specifications. and buildings of Seismic Use Group III in areas with SD1 of 0. (2) Studies indicate that a large percentage of domestically produced structural steel sections lighter or thinner than those mentioned in the previous paragraph will have a CVN toughness of at least 27J at 21oC (20 ft. Specification of steel toughness levels. require filler metals in the Seismic Force Resisting System to have a minimum toughness of 27J at -29oC (20 ft. Special compositional. Applicability. (6) Current studies indicate that through-thickness toughness properties or applied stress on the column face is not a limiting factor. materials toughness and other mechanical property requirements may be necessary for the steel and filer metal used in seismic applications: (1) The AISC Seismic Provisions. and Section 4. and a more controlled chemistry for weldability and properties.CEMP-E guidance from FEMA and AISC documents. Studies have identified a reduced toughness in this region caused by cold-working during rotary straightening at the steel mill. Table 4-1 for Seismic Use Groups. applicable to ASTM Group 4 and 5 shapes. are also recommended in the latest FEMA Guidelines.-lbf at -20oF). Section 6. emergency operations centers.133g or higher. and to plates in built-up members 38 mm (1-1/2 in. E and F. 1 should be followed.-lbf at 70oF). or the specification of A709 steels. emergency vehicle garages. is currently considered unnecessary for building-type applications. and therefore it does not appear that CVN testing need be conducted to verify the toughness of all members. designated medical facilities providing emergency medical treatment. These specifications have provisions for a maximum ratio of Fy to Fu of 0. AISC Technical Advisory No. hospitals.-lbf at 70oF). designated communications towers. (4) The AISC Seismic Provisions. (3) It is also recommended that structural steel shapes used in high seismic applications be specified as either ASTM A992 or A572.

(5) use of partially or fully welded web connections.) in thickness. For Reduced Beam Section (RBS) system connections. When using T-joints. with the thickness of the tee “flange” exceeding 40 mm (1-1/2 in. Bibliography. e. The exact requirements for access hole provisions and web welding depend upon the type of connection used and the design application. shall be tested using approved nondestructive testing methods conforming to AWS D1. and placement of a reinforcing fillet. (3) removal and finishing of weld tabs. ultrasonic testing should be performed after completion and cooling of the weld to check for lamellar tearing. See (e) below. improved and reinforced details are recommended for conventional-type connections. Joint Selection. (4) control of profile and quality of the access hole. as follows: “All complete joint penetration and partial joint penetration groove welded joints that are subjected to net tensile forces as part of the Seismic Force Resisting Systems . whether Special Moment resisting Frame (SMRF) or Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMRF). Continuous inspection of all welding performed on CJP and PJP groove welds that are a part of the Seismic Force Resisting System is necessary. The Engineer may allow periodic inspections when appropriate. Joint Detail Modifications and Enhancements. Several limitations have been found in the cover-plated and ribbed details. current AISC guidelines should be followed. (2) improved quality of the weld access hole.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 d. 5-13 . Inspection Enhancements. also called the “dogbone” system. and further investigation of the latest recommendations should be made prior to use.). Current recommendations include the following modifications to the previous standard beam-to-column connection: (1) removal of bottom flange backing bar. f. Radiographic testing may be used in some cases using butt joints. backgouging of the root. See Appendix D.” Such testing should include ultrasonic testing of welds in T-joints and butt joints over 8 mm (5/16 in. Enhanced quality. Several types of details may be used to achieve satisfactory moment connection performance in high seismic applications... AISC Seismic Provisions require NDT for certain joints in high seismic applications.1.

GENERAL. Stud bases are qualified by the manufacturer for application on bare steel in the flat position only. a tension test method may be used. The weld arc and molten pool is protected with the use of a flux tip on the base of the stud.1 Annex IX. Occasionally. threaded studs may be used for special connections where bolting is not practical. The stud welding gun draws the stud away from the steel. for complete information.1 Section 7. 2.1. The purpose of most shear connectors is to integrally connect steel and concrete materials so that they act as a single unit in resisting load. PRE-PRODUCTION TESTING. For the Type B studs used in composite construction. installation may begin. This testing requires two studs to be welded. studs applied to curved surfaces. Studs may be welded either directly to the structural steel or through metal decking. Qualification procedures for this application are provided in AWS D1. including studs applied through metal decking. then plunges the stud into the molten pool and terminates the current flow. or qualification testing by the contractor for the applications listed. 4.CEMP-E CHAPTER 6 STUD WELDING TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1.1 for procedure qualification. plus the use of a ceramic ferrule to contain the molten pool.7. See AWS D1. 3.4. Alternatively. Stud welding for building applications is generally for shear connectors in composite beams. and therefore is treated separately by AWS D1. After stud base qualification by the manufacturer. or studs welded to steels not listed as Group I or II in AWS D1.6. studs welded in vertical or overhead positions. See AWS D1. the contractor must perform qualification testing. STUD BASE QUALIFICATION. pre-production testing is required at the start of each day or shift to verify the setup of the equipment. personnel qualification. STUD WELDING PROCESS. See AWS C5. such as embedment plates or inaccessible connections. The arc stud welding process is used for structural studs. A DCEN (straight) current is used to create an arc between the stud base and the steel. However. For all other applications.1 Table 3. on the 6-1 . and is conducive to a suitable convenient load test. creating the arc. Stud welding is a fully automated process with controlled arc length and arc time. WELDING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION. Recommended Practice for Stud Welding. The welding operator conducting the two pre-production tests at the start of the day or work shift is qualified for performing stud welding that day or shift. allows a brief period for the melting of the steel and stud base. rather than the capacitor discharge stud welding process. but may also include shear connector applications for composite columns and frames.4. ten (10) specimens must pass a 90o bend test using representative material and application. 5.1 Section 7. and inspection.

visually inspected.1. current. all stud welds are visually inspected for flash about the entire perimeter of the stud base. INSPECTION. if desired. For composite construction. See AWS D1. then production welding may begin. Should the stud weld not fracture.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 work if desired.1 Section 7. even if full flash is apparent. The inspector may 15o bend test any stud.8. 6. or gun lift and plunge. The pre-production test must be repeated whenever there are changes to the following items: voltage. Following the application of studs and the removal of the ferrules. the stud need not be bent back to the original position. time. 6-2 . Those with missing flash may be repaired. the stud is accepted and may be left in place in the bent condition when used in composite construction. If the stud weld passes the visual and bend testing. or tested using a bend test applied approximately 15o in the direction opposite the missing flash.7. See AWS D1.1 Section 7. then bent approximately 30o.

then observing and characterizing the color and nature of the sparks off the steel. the greater the need for higher preheat and interpass temperatures. The laboratory analysis report should list the quantities of each of the elements in the selected carbon equivalent equation. All welding to existing structures should be performed with low-hydrogen SMAW electrodes or with other wire-fed welding processes. and its supporting Commentary. (2) Other methods. Carbon Equivalency. provides applicable code provisions. These include weldability of the existing steel.CEMP-E CHAPTER 7 WELDING TO EXISTING STRUCTURES TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. FCAW-S Deposits. Investigation. and the welding to existing weld deposits of unknown origin or made with FCAW-S electrodes. GENERAL. Investigation of weldability is generally warranted for buildings constructed prior to 1945. specific instructions. When welding to reinforce existing structures. (1) The most reliable method to establish chemical composition for determining carbon equivalent values is to remove samples from various members at selected no. if possible. include spark testing and weld sample tests. 2. in some cases.1 Section 8. Minimum preheat and interpass temperatures can be determined from AWS D1. The poorer the weldability of steel. and observing the nature of the fracture. the reduction of strength to existing members when being heated or welded. 4. although less reliable. although only optical emission spectrography systems currently provide sufficient accuracy for measuring carbon content. Self-shielded Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW-S) weld deposits contain 7-1 .1 Annex XI. then destructively using a sledge hammer to break off the samples. AWS D1.or low-stress locations. even if the percentage reported is zero. Portable spectrographs may also be used. b. DETERMINING WELDABILITY OF EXISTING STRUCTURAL STEELS. although structural steels were not manufactured specifically for welding properties until A373 and A36 came into use in the early 1960’s. and the greater the importance of low-hydrogen welding. a. Other than load analysis of the structure to design the connections. 3. or from technical literature. WELDING TO OLDER STRUCTURAL STEELS. INTERMIXING WELD PROCESSES AND FILLER METALS. several welding issues arise. Spark testing applies a grinding wheel at approximately 5000 rpm to the steel. several areas require investigation and. a. Weld sample tests include welding small test plates to the steel. The weldability of steels between these periods is generally considered sufficiently weldable. then analyzed spectrographically for composition.

Recent research indicates that this problem may not be limited to non-FCAW-S weld deposits on top of FCAW-S. As a general guide. carbon and other alloying elements. When welding transverse to the load. 6. further investigation of the weld deposit is warranted. additional caution is needed. or other reasons. or requiring subsequent welding using appropriate FCAW-S should be considered. root pass welding selection. b. a.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 aluminum. Other weld deposits. used in numerous coating systems and galvanizing. an investigation into the composition of the coating is warranted. design assuming reduced mechanical properties. there is the potential for reduced properties. c. When weld processes that use consumables with significantly different metallurgical systems are mixed with FCAW-S deposits. particularly ductility and toughness. and a distance of approximately 100 mm (4 in. the affected area is typically small compared to the area of the unaffected steel.) trailing the weld puddle. Other Processes. but localized temperatures near the weld region will exceed these temperatures for brief periods. An aluminum content in the range of 1% is indicative of FCAW-S. b. typically a carbon-manganese-silicon metallurgical system. When welding on steel having existing coatings. It may be necessary to stagger welding operations. nitrogen. When welding parallel to the applied stress. steel during welding.) to the side of a weld. When it is suspected that existing weld deposits that will receive subsequent welding were made using FCAW-S. STRENGTH REDUCTION EFFECTS AND OTHER CONCERNS WHEN WELDING UNDER LOAD. produces noxious fumes. Elevated Temperature Effects. At approximately 300oC to 400oC (600oF to 800oF). Some older structures may contain lead-based paints that must be removed using special hazardous materials precautions. 7-2 . This is the result of the liberation of nitrogen and aluminum that were previously chemically combined as Al-N in the FCAW-S deposit. Steel further from the weld region will remain at temperatures that will not significantly reduce the steel’s properties. When welding under load. consideration should be made for the temporarily reduced strength of localized areas of the steel. Welding Direction and Sequence. or use lower heat input procedures. Low-admixture welding procedures. 5. Multiple weld processes in a single weld joint may also occur in new construction because of tack welding. which can embrittle the steel or weld deposit. use shorter sections of weld and then allow cooling. will exceed these temperatures approximately 25 mm (1 in. Fy and E are reduced approximately 20%. within the weld region. unless all coatings in the vicinity of the welding are removed prior to welding. Preheat temperatures at this level are rarely used. Investigation. do not contain the amount of aluminum necessary in order to preclude the formation of free nitrogen. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Elevated temperatures in steel reduce both the yield strength (Fy) and the modulus of elasticity (E). Zinc.

whether qualified or prequalified.1. the WPS specifies the welding materials to be used (electrode. which is the designated responsibility of the Contractor. Prequalified WPSs need not be tested using the tests prescribed in AWS D1. travel speed. and position of welding. Weld procedures are written by the contractor responsible for the welding.3. All WPSs. AISC Requirements. AWS D1. such as for thick and highly restrained joints. shielding gas flow rate. the welding process must be prequalified (SMAW. minimum (and sometimes maximum) preheat and interpass temperatures. This includes the use of the prequalified groove weld details in AWS Figures 3.3. type of weld. GMAW except short-circuiting transfer. location and number of passes. Based upon the application. or SAW). WPS Contents. In some cases. In the AISC Seismic Provisions. The WPS also provides information necessary for inspection duties. AWS Requirements. b. GENERAL. thickness of material to be joined.1 Section 3. 2. electrode diameter. the welding parameters for the weld to be made. size of weld. but requires only “Fabrication / Erection Inspection”. d. must be in writing. FCAW. Welding procedures are used to specify. These requirements should be a part of the contract documents. The Engineer is assigned the responsibility in AWS D1. The purpose of the Engineer’s approval of the WPS is so that it can be verified that the qualification testing is representative of the actual welding conditions. for the welder and inspector. and that filler metals with the required toughness have been selected by the contractor. The Engineer is responsible for establishing and specifying the requirements of the Quality Control and Quality Assurance programs for the project. and minimum 8-1 . for welds that are part of the Seismic Force Resisting System. the Engineer must approve the welding procedures. “Verification Inspection” is the prerogative of the Owner. Section 7.1. flux. verified by the contractor’s experience and testing as desired. the Engineer is made responsible for the review and approval of all WPSs. To be prequalified. WPS Prequalification Limits. The contractor may develop WPSs based upon manufacturer’s recommended operating parameters.CEMP-E CHAPTER 8 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND INSPECTION TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1.1. current (amperage) or wire feed speed. whether prequalified or qualified by test.1 Section 6. REVIEWING AND APPROVING WELDING PROCEDURES.1 Section 4. to review and approve WPSs that are qualified.4. minimum prequalified PJP groove weld size in AWS Table 3. under AWS D1. and must be reviewed by the inspector. voltage.1.1 Section 4. and welding parameters meet the provisions of AWS Table 3. c. any specific welding inspection operations to be performed by personnel other than the Contractor must be fully detailed and placed in the contract documents. Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs) are written based upon the steel to be welded.7.1 requires inspection of welding. shielding gas). This is primarily to ensure that WPSs are developed for the welds critical to building performance.1 requires the use of and inspection of WPSs. Prequalified WPSs need not be approved by the Engineer under D1. The inspector should review the WPS for general conformity to the welding code and applicability to the joint to be welded.4. type of joint. the weld details must meet all the requirements of AWS D1.3 and 3. Therefore. AWS D1. and other pertinent information specific to the weld to be made. a.

the contractor should submit all applicable manufacturer data sheets and operating recommendations for the filler material to be used. Documentation of the WPS used and test results must be documented in the form of Procedure Qualification Records (PQRs). it is often difficult to verify FCAW procedures through calculation because of the variations between specific electrode types. welding operators. Personnel Classification. Tack welders may only place tack welds to assemble pieces. and made available for inspection by the inspector. For review of WPSs.8. When WPSs. f. particularly when CVN toughness is required. and minimum preheat and interpass temperatures must be provided per AWS Table 3. The use of thicker plates and NDT. and the use of restraint devices.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 fillet weld size in AWS Table 5. (3) Caution should be used when reviewing WPSs for thick materials and highly restrained joints. and specify polarity. WELDING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION. The 25 mm (1 in. as these final adjustments are made by experience.2. other WPS testing methods may be used as appropriate. However. and that the responsibility for the suitability of the WPS. remains with the contractor. joints. Guidance for Engineering Review of Procedures Submitted by Contractors. and the resultant weld quality and properties.XX filler metal specifications for information regarding the use and limitations of the filler metal. WPS Qualification Requirements.1. (2) Calculations such as heat input and deposition rates are helpful in determining if WPSs should produce a reasonable quality weld of the size specified. 8-2 . The middle of the provided ranges are often good starting points. but contractors often tend to work near the high end of the ranges provided to maximize deposition rates and reduce welding time. (4) A checklist should be prepared to verify that all welded joints on the project have written WPSs.) test plate thicknesses specified in AWS D1. Qualified WPSs must be referenced to the applicable PQR.1 Section 3. nor is restraint developed in the welding of standard WPS test specimens. per AWS Table 3. do not adequately represent the heat sink capabilities of thicker sections (affecting cooling rates). 3. e. to travel at selected speeds. but do not provide specific travel speeds or adjustments necessary to achieve a particular weld size. Welders manipulate the electrode by hand. with the finish welds to be performed by qualified welders or welding operators. (5) Approval of the WPS should be taken as review only. for manual or semi-automatic welding. filler metal selection. manufacturer’s operating recommendations provide a range of welding parameters such as voltage and current (amperage) or wire feed speed. PQRs must be in writing.1 Section 4. Welding operators set up automatic welding equipment with wire-fed welding processes. “Matching” filler metals must be used. a. Alternately. should be specified as appropriate for critical welding. such as mechanized SAW. and tack welders. (1) Generally. See references in Appendix B.1 Section 4. manipulating and controlling the arc. Welding personnel are classified into three categories: welders. the WPS to be used for the joint must be qualified by testing prescribed in AWS D1. Calculation should not be used to determine optimum operating characteristics for welding. Critical joints should be reviewed to verify that the proper welding materials have been designated for the joint. It may also be necessary to consult the AWS A5. or other details do not meet the prequalification requirements of AWS D1.

GTAW. Vertical (3) and Overhead (4) welding positions are considered separately. unless the person has used the process during that time period. Vertical and Overhead. FCAW-S (self-shielded) and FCAW-G (gas-shielded) are considered the same process for performance qualification testing. Visual welding inspection personnel should be qualified under AWS D1.SMAW. Welders are also qualified by position . for the contractor to rely upon qualification testing performed by others. ESW.4 mm (1 in.4 and 4. requiring retesting. with the Engineer’s approval. Such testing may include independent testing laboratories. Contractor Responsibilities.1 Section 4.1 are: (1) current or previous certification as an AWS Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) in accordance with the provisions of AWS QC1. the qualification period expires. industry associations and unions. Standard for AWS Certification of Welding Inspectors.1 Section 6. For the third case.1. The basis of qualification. provided the inspector remains active in the inspection of welded 8-3 . Qualification Testing by Others. Welding personnel qualified using 25. require a written resume detailing training and experience in welding inspection. Additional position classifications apply for tubular construction.) thick plate or thicker are qualified for twice the test plate thickness. thicknesses and positions qualified. is competent to perform inspection work. it is acceptable. or EGW. must be specified in the project documents. or both.1 Figures 4. are also qualified for Flat (1) and Horizontal (2) welding. or (3) an engineer or technician who. inspection and testing. and the AWS Certified Welder program.1 Table 4.2. However. Should the welder consistently produce poor quality welds.8 provides complete information regarding the cross-over of welding performance qualifications tests and the welding products. and 4. The Engineer should review the basis and suitability of such programs prior to waiver of contractor-based qualification.6. The witnessing of performance testing is not required. c. Performance qualification expires six (6) months following testing.5 mm (3/8 in. Welding position is not a factor in maintaining welding personnel qualification. in metals fabrication. and require a written and hands-on examination prior to approval of the inspector. d.4. respectively. Qualification Testing. and are further identified in AWS D1. Welding personnel qualified for groove welding in a given position and process are also qualified for fillet welding in the same position and process. Those who qualify using 9. Should a person not use the process within six months. 4. Part C. Certification of Welding Inspectors. All performance qualification tests must be fully documented in writing.) thick plate are qualified for unlimited thicknesses of material. 2.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. AWS D1. SAW. Although standard practice is to require contractor-based qualification testing of welding personnel. testing using groove welds or fillet welds. All welding personnel must demonstrate their skill by performing specific performance qualification tests prescribed by AWS D1. Acceptable qualification bases under D1. General Welding and Visual Inspectors. the welder’s qualification can be revoked. welding vocational schools. FCAW. The contractor is responsible for the qualification of all welding personnel. even though the certification may have expired. by training or experience. GMAW. (1) The qualification of an previously certified inspector remains in effect indefinitely.Flat. Welders are qualified by process . 3. for example Vertical (3). the Engineer should establish minimum levels of training and experience. INSPECTOR QUALIFICATIONS a. Horizontal. or (2) current or previous qualification by the Canadian Welding Bureau (CWB) to the requirements of the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) Standard W178. if beyond these provisions. Welding personnel are further classified by type of weld. There should be records documenting the use of various processes by the contractor. Welding personnel qualified for more difficult positions. These are designated on welding personnel qualification records as positions 1.

or the API 1104 Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities code. and Certified Senior Welding Inspectors. destructive testing.4. terms. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. however.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 steel fabrication. the AWS Certified Welding Inspector may not have the background or expertise in other areas of steel construction such as general fabrication and erection. The Senior Certified Welding Inspector is a new program offered by the AWS. NDT Personnel Qualification. A CAWI has passed the same accreditation examination as the CWI. Although assumed to be competent to inspect welded construction.1. ANSI/ASNT CP-189.6 requires that nondestructive testing be performed by NDT Level II technicians.1 code because of publication schedules.1. or unless there is a specific reason to question the inspector's ability. Certification of all levels of NDT personnel is the responsibility of the employer of the NDT technician.1 Section 6. records. or ASNT Recommended Practice No.1 Structural Welding Code. governs the requirements and testing of such inspectors. Nondestructive testing personnel should be qualified under the American Society for Nondestructive Testing. in the field of welding inspection. It is suggested that the certification of NDT personnel should be administered by an ASNT Certified Level III in the specific area on NDT. SNT-TC-1A. Standard for AWS Certification of Welding Inspectors. Inc. and metal decks. nondestructive testing. as modified by the employer's written practice. (4) Although AWS D1. Personnel certifications must be maintained on file by the employer and a copy should be carried by the technician.1 does not recognize the AWS Certified Associate Welding Inspector as qualified to perform the work solely based upon this certification. and welding inspection experience may be in any area of welding.1 Section 6.1. (2) AWS D1. A SCWI should be considered the equivalent of a CWI. It is permitted to take the AWS examinations using either the AWS D1. symbols. reports. the AWS D1. and additional education and training relative to these areas may be needed. safety and responsibilities. the employer should supplement such certification testing with a review of the technician’s experience and skill levels. ANSI/AWS QC1-96. The CWI examination tests the inspector’s knowledge of welding processes.1 Section 6. (5) All welding inspectors must have adequate visual acuity. bolted connections. It should also be verified that the AWS Certified Welding Inspector has tested. as the Level III may not perform actual testing 8-4 . (2) The American Welding Society offers certification to welding inspectors in the form of Certified Welding Inspectors. or in accordance with Sections 4. ASNT Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel. 5 and 6 of ANSI/ASNT CP-189. A CAWI could be acceptable under condition “c” as listed in AWS D1. See AWS D1.4. Certified Associate Welding Inspectors.1 allows inspector qualification without the CWI certification under AWS QC1 criteria. steel bar joists.4.. including experience level. Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing.14. b. and this recent certification option has not been included in the AWS D1. welding procedures. but has less experience. definitions. or by Level I technicians only when working under the direct supervision of a Level II. it is recommended that the welding inspection personnel for critical welding be AWS QC1 certified (or previously certified) by experience and written examination. Inspection by a Level III technician is not recognized. 7 and 8 of ASNT SNT-TC-1A. (3) AWS D1. documented by vision testing performed within the past three years. or is familiar with. Employers may rely upon outside training and testing for NDT personnel for certification. welder qualification. (1) Certification of NDT personnel should be based on demonstration of satisfactory qualification in accordance with Sections 6. with two years minimum experience rather than five years.

by time period: pre-project inspection for general welding operations. except in the case of Fracture Critical Members. (1) Personnel. General. not used the process for which the person was qualified. welding personnel qualifications. or by a Level III certified by ASNT. have been passed. and to interpret. apply to the various NDT Levels: • NDT Level I . unless the Engineer accepts other forms of qualification. (3) The following definitions. NDT test reports. The inspector assigned responsibility for the welding of the project should review and understand the applicable portions of the project specifications. the status of all joints not accepted. such as mock-ups. inspection prior to welding a particular joint. Under Section 12. and inspection of the completed joint. INSPECTION CATEGORIES AND TASKS. • NDT Level III . current and complete. specific NDT. 5. The scheduling of this inspection should be well before welding is scheduled to begin. The NDT Level I shall be able to follow approved nondestructive testing procedures and shall receive the necessary guidance or supervision from a certified NDT Level II or NDT Level III individual.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 regularly enough to maintain the special skills required to set up or to conduct the tests. Pre-project Inspection.16. a. welding operator and tack welder qualification records are available. and that any required special supplemental qualification tests. welding operator or tack welder who has. • NDT Level II . The inspector’s duties can be assigned or placed into four general categories. b.An NDT Level I individual shall have the skills to properly perform specific calibrations. and verify the accuracy of procedures. welding operators and tack welders. Requalification is required for any welder. from ANSI / ASNT CP-189. accepted parts. Each person performing welding should have a unique identification 8-5 . welding procedures. inspection during welding of the joint. to interpret codes. The individual shall also have general familiarity with the other NDT methods.2. and document results in accordance with procedures approved by an NDT Level III.5-96 requires similar qualification. to conduct tests. The NDT Level III shall be capable of conducting or directing the training and examining of NDT personnel in the methods for which the NDT Level III is qualified. AWS D1. testing of Fracture Critical Members must be done by either a qualified Level II under the supervision of a qualified Level III. standards. evaluate. A record should be kept of all welders. and with prior written approval of the NDT Level III. and specifications. designate the particular technique to be used. and other such information as may be required. for a period of six months. The inspector should participate in a pre-project meeting with the contractor to discuss the quality control and quality assurance requirements for the project. The inspector should verify that all applicable welder.1. perform specific interpretations and evaluations for acceptance or rejection and document the results. as appropriate. the contract design drawings. A pre-project inspection should be conducted of the fabricator’s and erector’s facilities and operations to verify the adequacy of their welding operations. The NDT Level II shall be able to organize and report nondestructive test results.An NDT Level III individual shall have the skills and knowledge to establish techniques.An NDT Level II individual shall have the skills and knowledge to set up and calibrate equipment. allowing time for necessary corrections and improvements by the contractor before welding begins. The Level II shall be thoroughly familiar with the scope and limitations of the method to which certified and should be capable of directing the work of trainees and NDT Level I personnel. and the shop or erection drawings for the project.

Welding leads should be inspected for worn or missing insulation. research indicates that certain FCAW electrodes may warrant protected storage or limited atmospheric exposure times. WPSs should be available at welding work stations and used by all welding personnel. Qualified WPSs must be approved by the Engineer. moisture. For high seismic applications. Ammeters should be available for verifying the current (amperage) near the arc. 8-6 . including lot number. but will verify that the contractor’s personnel understand and routinely perform these inspections as a part of their welding operations. c. (4) Materials Controls. rather than at the machine. (1) Pre-project review. as appropriate. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (2) Equipment. See AWS D1. or inadequate connectors.1 Section 4.CEMP-E mark or die stamp to identify his or her welds. Such controls and limitations should be based upon manufacturer’s test data and recommendations. but there is no specific requirements for such in AWS D1.11 and 6. The contractor should have all necessary welding consumable drying and storage equipment. and free of significant amounts of loose or thick scale. PQRs should be referenced and available for review for any non-prequalified WPSs. The contractor should have an operating system to verify that all materials in inventory have proper certification papers on file. See AWS D1. See AWS D1. rust. perform any physical inspections prior to welding to verify the contractor personnel’s work. Prior to the actual start of welding on the project.2. it should be verified that all non-compliance revealed during pre-project inspection has been rectified. grease. The manufacturer’s identification labels. when desired. may be placed in drying or storage ovens. No materials other than electrodes or fluxes. The inspector should verify that all applicable welding Procedure Qualification Records (PQRs) and Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs) are available. The contractor’s quality control system should be used to confirm that the proper welding consumables are selected.1 Section 4.1.3.1. Prior to Welding. (5) Materials Storage. with functioning gauges necessary for following the WPS for the selected process.1. Part C. Electrodes and fluxes should be stored in their original. and free from significant surface discontinuities such as cracks or seams. with an ongoing system in place to confirm compliance. The Engineer’s approval should be verified.1 Section 5. current and accurate.1 mandated storage requirements. Welding personnel should be familiar with the SMAW electrode and SAW flux storage and exposure limitations of AWS D1. uniform. Periodic checks should be performed by the contractor to verify the accuracy of gauges and other operating components of welding machines.1. item c(1) below should be performed. per AWS D1. It is not anticipated that the inspector physically perform these inspections at each individual joint.15 for complete base metal preparation requirements. The inspector may. Inspections at least annually are recommended. Records of equipment inspections and calibrations should be maintained. See AISC Seismic Provisions Section 7. Prior to the beginning of actual welding on the project. See AWS D1. (3) WPSs. (2) Base metal quality. All welding equipment should be in proper operating condition. or other harmful foreign materials.1 Section 5. The proper operating temperatures should be verified on a regular basis as a part of the contractor’s quality control program.3 for storage requirements. All other inspection items should be performed prior to beginning the welding of each joint. should remain on the packaging. all WPSs must be approved by the Engineer.1 Sections 5. In addition to AWS D1. slag. manufacturersealed containers until ready for placement in storage ovens or use. This may be done through observation of welding operations and informal inquiries of welding personnel. Steel joints to be welded must be smooth.3a.

The inspector should verify compliance of the welding consumables selected (electrode.1 Table 3. then the temperature verification is taken a distance equal to the material thickness. (7) Wind speed. or with temperature-indicating crayons. See AWS D1. including preheat when required.1 Table 3.3 and 3. the maximum wind speed is not specified by AWS D1.) away from the joint. (5) Steel temperature.2. (9) Preheat. the leg size of the weld must be increased by an amount equal to the gap. with heating as necessary. it is advisable to heat the steel to higher temperatures and apply the heat over a wider area.2 if prequalified.22. (6) Ambient temperature.).2. Steels of thicknesses requiring preheat. For Partial Joint Penetration (PJP) groove welds. Preheat temperatures as specified in the WPS must be provided and checked for compliance with AWS D1.2. see AWS D1. Welding is not permitted when the ambient (air) temperature is below 18oC (0oF). For welding in extreme cold environments. Higher preheat temperatures may be specified.) in thickness.1. or when toughness requirements apply. TMCP. and used only in the permitted positions and within the welding parameters specified by the manufacturer and in the WPS.1 Section 5. unless corrective measure are taken.6 mm (1/16 in. and EGW) may not be performed in winds exceeding 8 km per hour (5 mph).1 Section 5. flux and shielding gas) with the project requirements and the WPS.) from the joint. the temperature of the steel should be measured a distance 75 mm (3 in.) or less in thickness.22. or other special steels. as Category C steels. For other groove dimension tolerances applicable to other groove welds.1.) are permitted only for steels over 76 mm (3 in. as wind above this speed blows away the necessary shielding gas and contributes to poor weld quality and poor mechanical properties. Fillet welded joints must be fitup with a maximum gap of 1. Gaps over 5 mm (3/16 in. but not to exceed 5 mm (3/16 in. Tack welds must be made using appropriate WPSs.1 Table 3. Temperatures may be checked with surface temperature thermometers.1 Section 5. and ESW). See AWS D1. when suitable backing is placed in the root of the joint. Cracks in 8-7 . sometimes required for quenched and tempered. including preheat. may be used to satisfy this requirement and provide adequate protection and warmth for the welders and welding equipment. It may also be necessary to verify that the preheat temperature does not exceed any maximum values specified in the WPS.4. When steel temperatures are below these minimum temperatures. For prequalified steels listed in AWS D1. Gas-shielded welding processes (FCAW-G. but should be limited to a maximum of 30 to 40 km per hour (20 to 25 mph). within any specified limitations.).1 Figures 3.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (3) Fillet weld fitup. GTAW. assembly tolerances are provided in AWS D1.12 for welding environment provisions. FCAW-S. It should be verified that the WPS is appropriate for the joint. Tack welds should be visually inspected prior to being welded over by the finish weld. For gaps exceeding 1. per AWS D1.1 Section 5. The temperature of the steel at the joint prior to the initiation of welding must not be below 0oC (32oF). Verification of preheat temperature should be taken 75 mm (3 in. (10) Tack welds.2. Prequalified groove welds must be assembled within the “as fit-up” tolerance specified for the joint in AWS D1.). (4) Groove weld fitup. SAW. Note 1.22. If the steel is thicker. require higher temperatures. it is necessary to heat the steel in the vicinity of the joint to at least 21oC (70oF). provided the thickest material joined is 75 mm (3 in. the minimum steel temperature at the joint is 10oC (50oF). close-range focused infrared devices. (8) WPS. For selfshielded welding processes (SMAW. or when welding personnel are exposed to inclement environmental conditions.1 Table 3.4.1. Protective covering or enclosures. and the fillet leg size is increased. GMAW.6 mm (1/16 in. The selected electrodes should be taken only from proper storage. After heating. See AWS D1.

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tack welds are likely to propagate into the main weld. Slag that has not been removed will likely result in slag inclusions in the completed weld. d. During Welding. Observation of welding techniques and performance for each welder should be done periodically during welding operations to verify that the applicable requirements of the WPS and the AWS D1.1 Code are met. Each pass should be visually inspected by the welder for conformance to AWS D1.1 Table 6.1 provisions for cracks, fusion and porosity prior to placement of subsequent passes. To avoid trapped slag, penetration and fusion discontinuities, each weld bead profile should be in substantial conformance with the requirements of Table 6.1. (1) WPS compliance. The inspector should verify that the welding is performed following the appropriate Welding Procedure Specification (WPS). If desired, proper current (amperage) and voltage for the welding operation may be verified using a hand held calibrated amp and volt meter. Because of welding lead losses, measurement should as near the arc as practical. Welds not executed in conformance with the WPS may be considered rejectable, and should be referred to a knowledgeable welding consultant and the Engineer for review. (2) Interpass temperatures. Interpass temperatures as specified in the WPS must be provided and checked with compliance with AWS D1.1 Table 3.2 if a prequalified groove weld joint. Higher preheat temperatures may be specified. It may also be necessary to verify that the interpass temperature does not exceed any maximum values specified in the WPS, sometimes specified for quenched and tempered, TMCP, or other special steels, or when toughness requirements apply. Verification of interpass temperature should be taken 75 mm (3 in.) from the joint, provided the thickest material joined is 75 mm (3 in.) or less in thickness. Temperatures may be checked with surface temperature thermometers, close-range focused infrared devices, or with temperature-indicating crayons. (3) Consumables control. Exposure of SMAW electrodes and SAW fluxes must meet the time limitations of AWS D1.1 Section 5.3. See AWS D1.1 Table 5.1 for SMAW electrode exposure limits. SAW fluxes may require drying, special handling, recycling, and removal of exposed flux from opened packages. Although not limited by AWS D1.1, research indicates that some FCAW electrodes may absorb moisture in the order of 50% of the “as-manufactured” moisture content. When extra-low hydrogen welding electrodes are required for critical welding applications, and FCAW wires removed from the manufacturer’s packaging will not be consumed within a few days, special storage conditions limiting exposure times, repackaging unused FCAW wire in closed moisture-resistant packing overnight, or the use of storage ovens, may be appropriate. AWS D1.5 Bridge Welding Code, Section 12 provisions for Fracture Critical Nonredundant Members should be considered for guidance in special cases. (4) Cleaning. Completed weld passes must be cleaned of all slag prior to placement of the next pass. Removal of debris by brushing is required. Wire brushing of the completed weld is recommended, but not required. Slag that has not been removed will likely result in slag inclusions in the completed weld. See AWS D1.1 Section 5.30. e. After Welding. After completion of the weld, full compliance with the AWS D1.1 provisions should be verified. If required or specified, NDT is to be performed. Upon completion of inspection of the weld, piece, or project, as appropriate, proper documentation of the acceptance of the welding should be prepared and submitted to the designated parties. (1) Measurement. The work should be visually inspected for conformance with the Visual Inspection Acceptance Criteria prescribed in AWS D1.1 Table 6.1. These provisions prohibit cracks and lack of fusion, and permit limited amounts of undercut, porosity, and weld size underrun. Weld profile 8-8

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tolerances are provided in AWS D1.1 Figure 5.4, and Section 5.24. Size and contour of welds should be measured with suitable gauges. Craters are accepted in certain circumstances. Other weld acceptance criteria that is verified visually include arc strikes (AWS D1.1 Section 5.29), and weld cleaning (Section 5.30). Visual inspection may be aided by a strong light, magnifiers, or other devices that may be helpful. (2) Tolerances. The tolerances for the completed member, including cross-section, depth, camber, sweep, straightness, flatness, flange warpage and tilt, stiffener fit, and bearing surface fit, are prescribed in AWS D1.1 Section 5.23. (3) Records. The Inspector should mark the welds, joints, or members, as appropriate, that have been inspected and accepted using a distinguishing mark or die stamp. Alternatively, records indicating the specific welds inspected by each person may be maintained. The accepted, rejected and repaired items should be documented in a written report, distributed to the designated recipients in a timely manner. f. Nondestructive Testing Methods. AWS D1.1 does not require NDT for statically-loaded building structures, but NDT is required by both AISC and AWS D1.1 for certain fatigue detail categories for cyclically-loaded structures. AISC Seismic Provisions require NDT for certain joints in high seismic applications, as follows: “All complete joint penetration and partial joint penetration groove welded joints that are subjected to net tensile forces as part of the Seismic Force Resisting Systems ... shall be tested using approved nondestructive testing methods conforming to AWS D1.1.” Such testing should include ultrasonic testing of welds in T-joints and butt joints over 8 mm (5/16 in.) in thickness. Radiographic testing may be used in some cases using butt joints. When using T-joints, with the thickness of the tee “flange” exceeding 40 mm (1-1/2 in.), ultrasonic testing should be performed after completion and cooling to check for lamellar tearing. (1) The specific types of NDT, and the applicable acceptance criteria, must be specified in the contract documents. NDT symbols should be used to specify locations and types of NDT. See AWS A2.4 Part C. (2) The contractor is responsible for performing any required NDT, unless specifically designated to be performed by another party. (3) Because of the risk of delayed hydrogen cracking, a delay period of 24 to 48 hours should be considered prior to performing NDT for final acceptance for higher strength steels. See AWS D1.1 Table 6.1 (5). The AWS D1.5 Bridge Welding Code Section 12.16.4 requires a longer delay period for Fracture Critical Members, depending upon weld size and steel strength. (4) Tables 8-1 and 8-2 provide general guidance for the selection of NDT method(s). For complete information, see Appendix D.

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Table 8-1. Applicable Inspection Methods for Various Discontinuities and Joint Types

Application D i s c o n t i n u i t y J o i n t s

Inspection Method

VT A1 U U U A O A1 A1,3

PT A1 U U U O A A1 A1,3

MT O2 O2 U U O A A2 A2,3

UT O A A A O O A A

RT A A O A A U O U

Porosity Slag Inclusions Incomplete Fusion Inadequate Joint Penetration Undercut Overlap Cracks Laminations

Butt Corner T Lap

A A A A

A A A A

A A A A

A A A O

A O O U

Notes: A - Applicable O - Marginal applicability, depending upon material thickness, discontinuity size, orientation, and location. U - Generally not applicable. Surface only Surface and slightly subsurface only 3 Weld preparation or edge of base metal
1 2

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Table 8-2. Guidelines for Selecting Inspection Techniques
VT PT Fluorescent or visible penetration liquids and developers; ultraviolet light for fluorescent dyes Discontinuities open to the surface only MT Wet or dry iron particles, or fluorescent; special power source; ultraviolet light for fluorescent particles Surface and near surface discontinuities: cracks; porosity; slag UT Ultrasonic units and probes; reference patterns RT X-ray or gamma-ray; film processing and viewing equipment

E q u i p t m e n t D e t e c t i o n

Pocket magnifier, flashlight, weld gauges, scale, etc.

Weld preparation, fitup, cleanliness, roughness, spatter, undercut, overlap, weld contour and size Easy to use; fast; inexpensive; usable at all stages of production

Can locate all internal discontinuiti es located by other methods, as well as small discontinuiti es Extremely sensitive; complex weldments restrict usage

Most internal discontinuiti es; limited by direction of discontinuity

A d v a n t a g e s

Detects small surface imperfections; easy application; inexpensive; low cost

Detects discontinuities not visible to the naked eye; useful for checking edges before welding; no size limitations Surface roughness may distort magnetic field; not permanent

Provides permanent record of surface and internal discontinuiti es

L i m i t a t i o n s

For surface conditions only; dependent on subjective opinion of inspector

Timeconsuming; not permanent

Highly skilled interpreter required; not permanent

Usually not suitable for fillet weld or T-joint inspection; film exposure and processing critical; slow and expensive

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Indications may be misleading on poorly prepared or cleaned surfaces Test from two perpendicular directions to detect any indications parallel to one set of magnetic lines Radiation hazards

C o m m e n t s

Most universally used inspection method

8-12

1 (2) Table 6. WELD QUALITY.2 6. The first approach is valuable because it reduces the time and expense of inspection. but does not reduce inspection expense. and reduces the potential detrimental effects to the existing base metal. in lieu of AWS D1.1 criteria. based upon the quality readily achievable by a qualified welder.5. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. The Engineer is given the responsibility of determining and specifying the appropriate weld quality acceptance criteria. D1.5. 5. This criteria may be applied as the inspection criteria for the project.24 Table 6. with some consideration for the effect of surface and near-surface notches upon performance.1 6.1 (8) 5. concavity. and eliminates needless repairs.8.1 (3) Table 6.CEMP-E 6.1 Visual Acceptance Criteria. the acceptance criteria to be used is the same as that for visual inspection. The following table provides the specification reference location for various forms of weld discontinuities: Weld Discontinuity Crack Fusion Weld Craters Weld Profile (convexity. analysis. or experimental evidence to establish alternate acceptance criteria. underfill) Undercut Porosity Arc Strike Surface Slag Spatter Length Location AWS D1. reducing the risk of creating additional discontinuities while performing repairs. reinforcement) Weld Size (underrun.1 (1) Table 6. See AWS D1.30 5. and magnetic particle testing (MT) are specified. b.1 (4).1 quality criteria is a workmanship standard.1 Section C6. The Engineer may use experience. When penetrant testing (PT).29 5.1 (7) Table 6. AWS D1.1 (6). lack of penetration. overlap. The second approach is also valuable.1 c.1 References Table 6.1 Table 6. For ultrasonic 8-13 .30. Engineer’s Responsibility for Acceptance Criteria. 6. or may be used to establish when repair or replacement of a weld is required for a given discontinuity or situation. Nondestructive testing acceptance criteria is based upon achievable quality and the ability of the method to detect discontinuities of given size and location. NDT Acceptance Criteria.5.

7. ASTM A6 Section 9. c. The Engineer may base alternate weld quality acceptance criteria on experience. increasing distortion and increasing the risk of lamellar tearing in T-joints.13. Root Opening Corrections. Weld Discontinuities. the steel may be considered rejectable. Alternate Acceptance Criteria. An alternative to repair of this type would be to use split-layer techniques for the root pass. Sources of information to assist in the development of alternate acceptance criteria are provided in Appendix B. experimental results. structural analysis. REPAIRS TO BASE METAL AND WELDS. Laminations. Such a repair does not reduce volume or cost. such as straight-beam ultrasonic testing.1 Section 6. For radiographic testing (RT). Shallow laminations need not be repaired. plus the requirements of AWS D1.26. For undersized welds. Narrow root openings contribute to trapped slag. Repairs for narrow root openings may be done by grinding. Should it be necessary to cut the materials apart. The size or type of internal discontinuity considered rejectable is not defined by specification. This is typically done by grinding.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 testing (UT). Mill Defects. and environmental factors. the undercut portion should be filled using an approved repair procedure. if refitting the parts is not feasible. to limits specified in ASTM A6 Section 9. the unacceptable portion must be completely removed and replaced. excessive reinforcement.1 Section 5. should unacceptable internal discontinuities be discovered in the steel. For welds with unacceptable convexity. AWS D1. b. Repair of wide root openings entails facing the groove with weld metal until the required root opening is achieved. or fracture mechanics analysis considering material properties and behavior. For cracks. See AWS D1. the weld should have the excess weld metal removed. Subsurface inspection for laminations and other defects. chipping. the visual inspection criteria is applicable. poor penetration and lack of fusion near the root.12. or overlap. then crack removal should begin approximately 50 mm (2 in. requires only visual inspection by the mill of the completed product for defects in workmanship. plus the requirements of AWS D1. would be performed only when specified in the mill order.1.) from the end of the crack and work toward the center of the crack. as well as increasing cost. The end of the crack should be located using PT or MT. Root openings that are too wide are significant in that they increase the weld volume. air carbon arc gouging. but longer and deeper laminations will need either removal by grinding or welding to close the lamination prior to welding the joint.15. A root pass placed across a wide root opening may develop shrinkage cracks in the HAZ or in the throat of the weld. All exposed laminations must be explored for depth. lack of fusion.1 Section 5. the visual inspection criteria is applicable. 8-14 . The mill is permitted to perform removal and repairs to the surface using various means such as grinding and welding. at extra cost. Bibliography. When internal laminations in the steel are discovered during fabrication. d.1 Section 6. Some craters may be acceptable if outside the required effective length of weld.1. the Engineer must be notified. but may be done by gouging. Starting within the crack may cause the crack to grow during removal. the weld should be filled to the required size. a. For excessive undercut. and subsequently control bead placement to minimize shrinkage and distortion effects. Laminations at welded joints may serve as sources of porosity and as crack initiation points. During fabrication. and excessive porosity. Additional caution should be used when repairing cracks. but controls distortion and through-thickness strains in T-joints. Root openings that are too narrow must be increased in width to the required root opening. provides procedures for the investigation and repair of the exposed laminations. including craters. d. service and fracture loads and strengths.

5. When holes have been mislocated.1 Section 5.26. it is best to either leave the hole unfilled or to place a bolt in the hole. It is difficult to fill a hole by welding. if required elsewhere on the project for groove welds. NDT may be necessary after welding. then weld using stringer passes. 8-15 . When the hole must be filled. See AWS D1. Mislocated Holes. NDT is required for repair welds for holes in cyclically loaded members.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 e. generally when a new hole must be placed near or adjacent to the misplaced hole. a special repair procedure should be followed to elongate the hole.

6. For the welding of material handling equipment. These documents apply to the specific requirements of tube-to-tube applications. SHEET STEEL WELDING.2 mm (1/8 in. 4. 3.TUBULAR STRUCTURES.3 Structural Welding Code . For welding reinforcing steel. 5.) thick. such as preheat requirements. AWS D1. 9-1 .Stainless Steel. ALUMINUM. fabric. may be welded under either AWS D1. also referred to as hollow structural sections.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 CHAPTER 9 OTHER WELDING SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS 1. metal inserts and connections in reinforced concrete construction. It also applies to other overhead material handling machinery and equipment that supports and transports loads.8 mm (3/16 in. For the welding of structural aluminum alloys. refer to ANSI/AWS D1. but less than or equal to 4. refer to ANSI/AWS D14. refer to ANSI/AWS D1. REINFORCING STEEL.6 Structural Welding Code . clad materials. castings and forgings of stainless steels. powerhouse and nuclear facilities.5 Bridge Welding Code. tubular members.1 tubular provisions and the AISC Connections Manual for Hollow Structural Sections. if applicable. and the AISI Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members for general design provisions.and cold-rolled sheets and plate. including the Fracture Control Plan for nonredundant bridge members. For reinforcing steel welded to structural steel. but are also applicable to tube-to-plate applications. BRIDGES.4 Structural Welding Code Reinforcing Steel. 2. CAST STEEL.Sheet Steel. refer to the ANSI/AASHTO/AWS D1. It is not applicable to pressure vessels or pressure piping with pressures exceeding 104 kPa (15 psig). based upon the structural steel must also be met.Aluminum. 7.3 or AWS D1. refer to ANSI/AWS D1. This code includes welding of hot. For welding of stainless steels. shapes. but any applicable provisions.2 mm (1/8 in. including mats. MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT.Bibliography. STAINLESS STEEL.4 must be met for the weld. This specification applies to the welding of all principal structural weldments and all primary welds used in the manufacture of cranes for industrial. Sheet steels equal to or greater than 3.) thick. 8. For the welding of highway bridges designed for vehicular traffic.1 Specification for Welding Industrial and Mill Cranes and Other Material Handling Equipment. refer to ANSI/AWS D1. See Appendix B . For the welding of tubular members. mill. refer to ANSI/AWS D1.2 Structural Welding Code .) in thickness.1. For welding steel materials less than 3.

refer to the API RP 2A series documents. refer to ANSI/ASME BPVC.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 9. See Appendix B . For the welding of pressure vessels. 11. For the welding of water tanks. b. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms. OTHER GOVERNING SPECIFICATIONS a. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. ASME. refer to API Standard 1104. Planning. refer to AWWA Manual M42. For the welding of storage tanks. Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities. AWWA. 10. Shop Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids. WROUGHT IRON. For the welding of offshore structures. See Appendix B .Bibliography. API. CAST IRON.Bibliography. or API 12F. Steel Water Storage Tanks . Welding and Brazing Qualifications. refer to API 12D Field Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids. For the welding of pipelines. c. 9-2 . Section 9.

a. GENERAL. test all fuel gas and shielding gas lines for leaks. fires. A confined space could be a tank.) from the welding or cutting operation provide suitable fire-resistant shielding around the work area or combustible material fire extinguishing equipment should be accessible to welding personnel trained fire watch personnel should be used if the operations are performed near combustible materials. Refer to applicable governing documents for complete information. tied off and held by a worker stationed outside the space. and arc gouging operations produce molten metal that may cause burns. 2. risking a fire in nearby flammable materials. Welding. The fuel gases used pose no hazard. Confined Spaces. 10-1 . Oxygen for oxyfuel cutting is not flammable by itself. that does not allow for adequate ventilation for the removal of hazardous gases or fumes resulting from the work. the welder must wear an approved safety harness equipped with a rope or lifeline. thermal cutting. sparks and spatter often travel a considerable distance. The following provisions should not be considered all-inclusive. molten steel. During operations. SAFETY. The following safety guidelines should be considered: • • • • • move the object to receive the work away from combustible materials move the combustible materials at least 15 m (50 ft. Work in confined spaces requires additional safety precautions. etc. inspect all electrical cables and connections. if only a small opening is available for entry. (i. Fire. helium. but will contribute to more intense fires if pure oxygen is available. provided they are handled and stored in a safe and proper manner.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 CHAPTER 10 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 1.where the available oxygen is too low). Proper filters and cover plates must be worn to protect the eyes from sparks and the rays of the arc. pit. complete. carbon dioxide or nitrogen which will not support life. or exclusive. no compressed gas cylinders or welding power sources may be placed inside the space. test the atmosphere in the space before and during the work. c. The arc produced from welding or air carbon arc gouging may burn the eyes. Certain welding processes use gases such as argon.The following additional safety guidelines should be considered: • • • • • • • • • remove flammable or hazardous materials from the space. provide adequate ventilation air to the space. electrical power must be disconnected and all gas valves closed when work is suspended for any substantial period of time. Eye Protection. Deaths and severe injuries due to lack of oxygen have occurred where the concentration of these gases becomes too high.e. cutting torches must not be lit or extinguished within the space.. SMAW electrode stubs are very hot and could cause a fire if carelessly thrown on wood or paper products. or explosion. Poor quality or poorly maintained electrical connections can cause overheating or sparking and subsequent ignition. b.

• In some cases. cobalt. and workpiece (or ground) are considered electrically “hot” when the welder is on. calcium. • Do not breathe the fumes. and have special health hazards. Fumes may also cause symptoms such as nausea. silicon (which is amorphous in welding fumes). sparks. See ANSI / AWS Z49. fume effects range from irritation of eyes. current level. • Use enough ventilation or exhaust at the arc. electrode reel (for wire-fed processes). copper. The electrode. magnesium. • Follow the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists recommendations for threshold limit values (TLVs) for fumes and gases. slag. Cutting and Allied Processes. and 10-2 . headache. require special attention. f. Further Guidance. as a minimum: • Keep the head out of the fumes. and titantium. the base metal and any coatings present on the base metal. The compounds in the fume such as oxides and fluorides of aluminum. and dizziness. (3) Some specific fume components such as chromium. gases are produced during the welding process or may be produced by the effects of process radiation on the surrounding environment. The amount and composition of these fumes and gases depend upon the composition of the filler metal and base material. use air sampling to determine the need for corrective measures. (5) The following safety guidelines should be considered. except that excessive iron may cause siderosis (iron deposits in the lungs). Fumes are solid particles that originate from welding consumables. or both. Protect the skin against radiation and hot particles. hole-free gloves are necessary. welding process. In addition to shielding gases that may be used. The work piece and welding equipment must be grounded. These parts must not be touched with bare skin or wet clothing. and metal. (1) Many welding. . cutting and allied processes produce fumes and gases that may be harmful. Their effects are submerged in the overall effects which may be expected from nuisance dusts. do not have individual effects. fluorides. manganese. Fumes and Gases. g. • Use mechanical ventilation when necessary to improve air quality. skin and respiratory system to more severe complications and may occur immediately or at some later time. (2) Most welding fumes from carbon steel and low alloy steel electrodes do not require any attention to limits for any specific compound or compounds. • Follow OSHA guidelines for permissible exposure limits (PELs) for various fumes. Electrocution. Arc burn may be more severe than sunburn. Burn protection.1 Safety in Welding. electrodes. potassium. they are listed on the product label and in the MSDS. (4) Depending on material involved. e. natural air movement provides enough ventilation and fresh air. arc length and other factors. When these are present at levels of concern. • If engineering controls are not feasible. • Where ventilation is questionable. Suitable flame-resistant clothing must be worn as protection from sparks and arc rays. Molten metal.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 d. Their health hazards are discussed in the MSDS. use an approved respirator. Dry. and nickel are present in some electrodes. and hot material can cause severe burns if precautionary measures are not used. to keep fumes and gases from the breathing zone and general area. iron. sodium.

ESW and EGW draws more current to provide the higher deposition rates achievable and desired. The total power consumption difference between processes for a given joint configuration is negligible. Shop welding operations are almost always electrically powered. SMAW. Power requirements depend more upon electrode diameter than welding process. and SAW. the minimum weld size and minimum groove cross-sectional area adequate to carry the load should be specified. 10-3 . ENERGY CONSUMPTION. FCAW and GMAW welding equipment draws essentially the same current ranges. The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for each product used also provides essential information. 3.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 the Bibliography in Appendix B for further general information. Some field welding equipment is directly engine driven. To save energy. Field operations may be electrically powered or powered by generators.

February 1998 NONGOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS American Institute of Steel Construction One East Wacker Drive. 1998) (new specification to be issued in early 2000) Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. Interim Guidelines Advisory No. January 30. Structural Engineering. Department of the Army TM 5-809-6. Suite 3100 Chicago. Modification and Design of Steel Moment Frames.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 APPENDIX A REFERENCES GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS United States Army Corps of Engineers TI 800-01. and FiberReinforced Composites. 1. Structural Engineering. Load Assumptions for Buildings TI 809-02. August 1995 FEMA 267B. 1993 (Supplement No. Design of Cold-Formed Load Bearing Steel Systems and Masonry Veneer / Steel Stud Walls TI 809-30. 1998) A-1 . 2 FEMA 273. Composite Structures. Design Criteria TI 809-01. General Requirements MIL-HDBK-1002/3. IL 60601-2001 www. Structural Design Criteria for Buildings TI 809-04. Steel Structures MIL-HDBK-1002/6. Structural Plastics. December 1. Interim Guidelines: Evaluation. Repair. Aluminum Structures. Seismic Design for Buildings TI 809-05. Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation for Buildings TI 809-07. Structural Design Criteria for Structures Other Than Buildings (to become TI 809-6) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) FEMA 267.aisc. 1. Metal Building Systems MIL-HDBK-1002/1. December 1. 1994 (Supplement No.org Metric Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings. October 1997 FEMA 302. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. January 30.

25/A5.20-95. Nondestructive Testing American Welding Society 550 NW LeJeune Road Miami.org ANSI/AWS D1. ASD/LRFD.23/A5.26/A5. 1997 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken. Bridge Welding Code ANSI/AWS D1.17M-97.03. 1994 Manual of Steel Construction. 1999) Specification for Load and Resistance Factor Design of Single-Angle Members. 1992 Metric Conversion of the 2nd Edition Manual of Steel Construction. Load and Resistance Factor Design.astm. Structural Welding Code . June 1. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5.5-96. 1999 Manual of Steel Construction. Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Electrogas Welding ANSI/AWS A5.Stainless Steel ANSI/AWS A2. Railway Volume 3. Allowable Stress Design. 9th Edition.25M-97. 2nd Edition.Steel ANSI/AWS D1. Standard Welding Terms and Definitions ANSI/AWS A5.4-98. Structural Welding Code .28-96.Sheet Steel ANSI/AWS D1. Volumes I and II. Structural Welding Code . Brazing. Steel . Volumes I and II. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5.org Annual Book of Standards Volume 1. 1.5-96. FL 33126 www.Reinforcing Steel ANSI/AASHTO/AWS D1. 2nd Edition. June 10.3-98.04. April 15. Structural Welding Code . Reinforcing. 1997 Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges.1-98. Volume II Connections. February 15. PA 19428 www.18-93.1-91.23M-97. 1993 Specification for the Design of Steel Hollow Structural Sections. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (new specification to be issued in early 2000) Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design). 1997 (Supplement No.6-98. 1992 Hollow Structural Sections Connections Manual.4-98. Standard Symbols for Welding.aws.26M-97. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5. Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5. 1989 Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings. Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Electroslag Welding ANSI/AWS A5. and Nondestructive Testing ANSI/AWS A3. April 15. Load and Resistance Factor Design. 1989 Manual of Steel Construction.17/A5. Specification for Low–Alloy Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5.0-94. Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc A-2 .Structural. Pressure Vessel. December 1.

Safety in Welding. Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing. ASNT Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel Recommended Practice No.32M-97.org ANSI/ASNT CP-189-1995. Cutting and Allied Processes American Society for Nondestructive Testing. SNT-TC-1A.29-98.32/A5. Specification for Welding Shielding Gases ANSI/AWS Z49.asnt. Inc.1:1999. 1995 A-3 . OH 43228-0518 www.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Welding ANSI/AWS A5. Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5. PO Box 28518 Columbus.

Anchorage. 1997 American Society for Nondestructive Testing Nondestructive Testing Handbook Volume 2: Liquid Penetrant Tests. 1993 ASM Metals Handbook. Experimental Investigation of Dogbone Moment Connections (Engelhart. No 4. Ultimate Strength Considerations for Seismic Design of the Reduced Beam Section (Internal Plastic Hinge) (Iwankiw). 2nd Ed.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 APPENDIX B BIBLIOGRAPHY Welding Cracks Investigation Report. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms API Standard 1104. 1997 Load and Resistance Factor Design of Simple Shear Connections. 2nd Ed. 1991 Volume 8: Visual and Optical Testing. 1st Qtr 1997 Engineering and Quality Criteria for Steel Structures. Steels. 1996 ASM Specialty Handbook: Cast Irons. 1995 Weld Integrity and Performance. 1990 ASM Handbook. et al). 2nd Ed. 2nd Ed. 1996 Steel Castings Handbook. Planning. Volume 1: Properties and Selection: Irons. and High-Performance Alloys. 1990 Engineering and Quality Criteria for Steel Structures.. December 1996 American Institute of Steel Construction Allowable Stress Design of Simple Shear Connections. 6th Ed. Elmendorf Air Force Base Hospital. Volume 6: Welding. 4th Edition. 2nd Ed. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 1982 Volume 3: Radiography and Radiation Testing. Alaska. Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities. Shop Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids (1994) API RP 2A series documents. 2nd Ed. 1998 ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels. 1993 American Society of Mechanical Engineers ANSI/ASME BPVC. 1985 Volume 6: Magnetic Particle Testing. 4th Qtr 1998 Engineering Journal. Steel Special Moment Resisting Frames.. 1997 Engineering Journal. Field Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids (1994) API 12F. 1989 Volume 7: Ultrasonic Testing. (1994) American Society for Metals ASM Handbook. 18th Ed. Section 9. 1990 American Petroleum Institute API 12D. Vol 34. Brazing and Soldering. Welding and Brazing Qualifications (1998) American Water Works Association AWWA Manual M42 Steel Water Storage Tanks (1998) B-1 . Vol 35. No 1. 4th Edition.

Part 2. ANSI/AWS B1.4-93 Specification for Underwater Welding. 1985 Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA 288. March 1997 FEMA 303.6-93 Specification for Welding Industrial and Mill Cranes and Other Material Handling Equipment. Materials and Applications. Materials and Applications. Welding Technology.10-86 Guide for Visual Inspection of Welds. Guidance on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in structures BS 7910: pending (1999). Draft for Development. 8th Edition Volume 1. 1991 Volume 3. IIW Guidance on Assessment of the Fitness for Purpose of Welded Structures. 1998 Welding Inspection. 1980 Welding Metallurgy. ANSI/AWS C5. Part 1. George E. Linnert. 1987 Volume 2. Welding Processes. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. 4th Edition. Moment Connections and Frame Systems Behavior. Welding.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 American Welding Society Guide for Nondestructive Inspection of Welds. 1994 Welding of Cast Iron. AWS C4. ANSI/AWS D3.11-88 Guide for Welding Iron Castings.1-97 Welding Handbook. Fundamentals of Weld Discontinuities and their Significance (Lundin). 1996 Volume 4. February 1998 Alternate Weld Quality Acceptance Criteria British Standards Institution BS PD-6493:1991. Fracture Mechanics. 1990 Welding Research Council WRC Bulletin 295.2-89 Oxygen Cutting Surface Roughness Gauge. Guidance on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in structures Electric Power Research Institute NP-5380. Background Reports: Metallurgy.1-G Recommended Practices for Air Carbon Arc Gouging and Cutting. ANSI/AWS C5. ANSI/AWS D11. Fundamentals. AWS D14. Volume 1. 1984 Design Aids for Welded Connections American Institute of Steel Construction AISC Manual of Steel Construction (ASD and LRFD versions) Allowable Stress Design of Simple Shear Connections (1990) CONXPRT (software) B-2 . Visual Weld Acceptance Criteria International Institute of Welding IIW / IIS-SST-1157-90. ANSI/AWS B1.3-91 Recommended Practices for Stud Welding.

Inc.. M. Inc. MI. Fumes and Gases in the Welding Environment National Fire Protection Association Standard for Fire Prevention in Use of Cutting and Welding Processes: NFPA 51B.) StruCad (AceCad Software. and Johnson.) StrucPro (Eagle Point) Canadian Welding Bureau Weld IT (software) Safety and Health American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLV (R) ) for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents in the Workroom Environment American Welding Society. A. HI. Inc. Q.1450. Quintana. M.ASD Moment Connections Steel Detailing Software Packages with Connection Design CDS CompuSTEEL (Barasel Corp. Q. Inc..) SDS/2 (Design Data. National Fire Protection Association. AWS Annual Convention. and Johnson. M. A. M.) CVSpro8 (CadVantage. Maui. 1998 B-3 .LRFD Simple Shear Connections Module II .) DESCON (Omnitech Associates) DETAIL (MacroSoft) fabriCAD (Research Engineers. Proceedings. A. M. Quintana. Order No. 869-029-00222-5 Intermixed Weld Metal The Effects of Intermixed Weld Metal on Mechanical Properties – Part 1.) Steelcad (Steelcad International.ASD Simple Shear Connections Module I . Parts 1901.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Load and Resistance Design of Simple Shear Connections (1990) Module I .1 to 1910. Welding Journal. Q. Title 29. and Johnson. Inc. Labor. March 1999 The Effects of Intermixed Weld Metal on Mechanical Properties – Part 2. Chapter XV11. Proceedings.. 1994 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations. AWS Conference on Welded Construction in Seismic Areas. 1998 The Effects of Intermixed Weld Metal on Mechanical Properties – Part 3. Detroit. M. Quintana.

Welding Research Council. D.... R. Miller. W. 2nd Ed. New Orleans. FHWA-IF-99-004. 1994 Reviewing and Approving Welding Procedure Specifications. K. M. B. Miller. T. D. and Rolfe. Welding Filler Metals. 2nd Ed. D. Report No. October 1998 Lincoln Electric Company. 4th Ed. 1998 What Every Engineer Should Know about Welding Procedures.. Federal Highway Administration... Barsom.Theory and Design. 3rd Ed. August 1999 Other References and Textbooks Cast Publishing Metals Blue Book. The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding. 1976 Metals & How to Weld Them. 1998 Metals Red Book. 1953 B-4 . 1962 The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding. Welding Journal. 1990 Modern Welding Technology. 13th Ed. 1994 Tubular Steel Structures . US Dept. 1966 Design of Weldments. H.. 2nd Ed. 1998 Metals Black Book. and Doty. of Transportation.. J. 13th Edition. Prentice-Hall. AISC National Steel Construction Conference. 1997 Weldability of Steels. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation Design of Welded Structures. 1998 Fracture and Fatigue Control in Structures. Cary. Proceedings. / James F. Prentice-Hall. S. 1987 Lincoln Electric Co. D. April. Ferrous Metals.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Welding Procedures Heat-Straightening Repairs of Damaged Steel Bridges – A Technical Guide and Manual of Practice. K. LA. Nonferrous Metals. Stout.

1 also provides the strength of electrode required for these steels to provide the “matching” strength for the base metal. See AWS D1. larger electrodes are typically operated using AC. melting both.1 Table 3. also called “straight” polarity) or DCEP (DC Electrode Positive. Filler metal specification AWS A5. DC-. and are designed to be extremely low in moisture. deoxidize the molten weld puddle.1 Table 3. Specification and Certification. AC electrodes may also operate using either DCEN (DC Electrode Negative. typically those with a diameter of less than 4. is a mixture of base metal and electrode materials. The Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) process is commonly known as “stick” welding. shield the molten weld puddle from atmospheric gases. (2) Low hydrogen electrodes have coatings of inorganic materials that are very low in hydrogen. low hydrogen electrodes are prescribed to offer additional assurance against hydrogen induced cracking. a. Filler Metal Designation. adding specific alloys to the weld composition. (2) SMAW may be operated using either DC (direct current) or AC (alternating current) polarity. and in some cases. DC is used for smaller diameter electrodes. hydrogen and oxygen.1 lists specific steels and grades where the use of low hydrogen electrodes is required for the prequalification of SMAW Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs). Some coatings contain metallic powders.2 provides one series of minimum preheat and interpass temperatures for “non-low hydrogen electrodes”. SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW). and completed weld. (1) Generally. The molten weld pool. including A572 grade 50. This implies a similarity in expected maximum levels of diffusible hydrogen. Generally. flux the molten puddle of impurities. An electric arc is produced between the tip of the electrode and the base metal. Process Principles. under the arc. The coating is of various materials designed to provide arc stability. AWS D1. AWS A5. SMAW electrodes should be of the low hydrogen type. Electrodes used on AC must be designed specifically to operate in this mode. DC+. (1) The core of the electrode is steel. coating moisture levels of 2 to 4%. For prequalified WPSs. when welding on structural steels with a minimum specified yield strength equal to or exceeding 485 MPa (50 ksi). To eliminate undesirable arc blow conditions. and another series of values for SMAW with low hydrogen electrodes and all FCAW. SAW and GMAW. either DC polarity. also called “reverse” polarity). For Group II steels.). Table 3. low hydrogen electrodes are required. by design. including A36 steel. where the current changes direction 120 times per second on 60 Hertz power.5 similarly covers the low-alloy steel electrodes for SMAW. Group I steels. C-1 . and higher strength groups. This hydrogen can then enter into the weld deposit and may lead to unacceptable weld and heat affected zone cracking under certain conditions. and is performed as “manual” welding. b. For most structural steel fabrication today.8 mm (3/16 in. and cover the solidifying weld to improve bead profile. may be welded with non-low hydrogen electrodes. Water (H2O) will break down into its components.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 APPENDIX C WELDING PROCESSES 1. (3) The term “low hydrogen” was initially used to separate those SMAW electrodes capable of depositing weld metal with low levels of diffusible hydrogen from non-low hydrogen electrodes such as E6010 and E6012 that contain.1 provides the requirements for carbon steel covered electrodes used with SMAW.

1 SMAW low hydrogen electrode classifications include E7015. Most standard low hydrogen electrodes must deposit weld metal with a maximum of 16 mL per 100 g of diffusible hydrogen under test conditions.5 low-alloy steel SMAW electrode specification. E7018. A5. extra-low hydrogen levels should not be specified unless necessary. Some electrodes carry the “-W” designation.1 is the inclusion of a suffix letter and number indicating the alloy content. However. 6 or 8. These designators are a part of the standard AWS classification system and consist of the letter H followed by a single or double digit. but these definitions are unrelated to AWS usage and specifications. and high hydrogen (15-20). (6) Optional supplemental designators may be used to indicate the maximum level of hydrogen that may be present in the test weld deposit. An E7028 electrode contains approximately 50% iron powder in the coating. E7028. However. 6 or 8. an E8018-C3 nickel steel electrode.1 for welding on structural steels with minimum specified yield strength of 485 MPa (50 ksi) or greater. high notch toughness weld metal from electrodes with good operating characteristics may not be available with the lowest hydrogen designations. Also. indicating the presence of alloys capable of giving the weld atmospheric corrosion resistance for exposed weathering applications. The E7015 electrodes operate using DCEP only.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 When SMAW low hydrogen electrodes are used. AWS D1. the “2" would indicate that this electrode is suitable for flat position welding and. low hydrogen carbon steel SMAW electrodes are identified with the last “X” number in the designator EXXXX as a 5. E7048 electrodes are similar to E7018 electrodes in composition. E7018M. Low hydrogen low-alloy SMAW electrodes are similarly identified with the last “X” number in the designator EXXXX-Y as a 5. (5) In the AWS A5. the horizontal position.1. See Table C-1. A “-C1" electrode nominally contains 2. In filler metal specification AWS A5. as well as on the electrode package. The most significant difference in nomenclature from A5. with suffix “-C3". except for vertical welding in the upward progression. The E7018 electrodes operate using AC or DCEP. See Table C-2. See Table C-3 for specific data on these low hydrogen C-2 . (7) While “low-hydrogen” electrodes are required by AWS D1.1 have minimum specified notch toughnesses of 27 J @ -20oC (20 ft-lbf at 0°F) or better. and E7048. There is generally a cost premium associated with the lower diffusible hydrogen electrodes. manufacturers may optionally list an H8 or H4 designation if their particular SMAW electrodes are capable of delivering these extra low levels of diffusible hydrogen. the required levels of preheat are lower. For example “E7018H8" indicates that the deposit contains a maximum diffusible hydrogen content of 8 mL per 100 g of deposited weld metal. low hydrogen (5-10). for fillet welds only. and have been tested for absorbed moisture and diffusible hydrogen. E7018M electrodes may be used only with DCEP.5% nickel. E7016 electrodes operate using either AC or DCEP. and may be used in any position. (4) SMAW electrodes are classified based on a four or five digit number that follows the letter E (for electrode). offering economic and time-saving advantages to the contractor. enabling it to deposit metal at even higher rates. a similar format is used to identify SMAW electrodes. indicates the electrode nominally contains 1% nickel. and include approximately 25% iron powder in their coatings to increase their deposition rate. As an example.1 and the AWS A5 filler metal specifications do not currently define “low hydrogen. medium hydrogen (10-15). (8) All low hydrogen electrodes listed in AWS A5. The electrode classification is imprinted on the coating near the end of the electrode.” International Institute of Welding (IIW) documents classify electrodes for diffusible hydrogen as follows: very low hydrogen (0-5 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal). and some electrodes with very low diffusible hydrogen levels may have poor notch toughness. E7016. as the nomenclature shows. AC or DCEP. E7048 electrodes are specifically designed for good welding in the vertical downward progression.

portable. (12) Once low hydrogen SMAW electrodes are removed from their hermetically sealed container. For the notch toughness levels of higher strength electrodes. it begins to pick up moisture. Disadvantages and Limitations. AWS D1. see AWS A5. For electrodes exceeding 550 MPa (80 ksi). fabrication of miscellaneous components. and is relatively tolerant of welding technique. and easy to maintain welding equipment.5. removing the slag to allow restarting the weld. because of the fixed length electrode. it may not be possible to complete the weld without stopping. but these are not classified as low hydrogen electrodes. These heated ovens must maintain the electrodes at a minimum temperature of 120oC (250°F). or baking. For long welds. in the range of 260oC to 430oC (500 to 800°F). or from the baking oven.) in a single pass in the common horizontal position. (11) Low hydrogen SMAW electrodes typically are supplied in hermetically sealed metal containers. before use. Higher strength electrodes. AWS D1. There are electrode classifications that have no required notch toughness (such as E6012. (10) Electrodes providing a given level of notch toughness are listed in Table C-5. E6014. It can be used in areas with difficult access. Gas shielding is not required. The electrode manufacturer’s guidelines should be followed to ensure a baking procedure that eliminates retained moisture. as listed with operating limitations and uses in Table C-4. up through 550 MPa (80 ksi). and is more costly than the other structural welding processes of FCAW. When SMAW electrodes are received in damaged containers or in non-hermetically sealed containers. Once the electrode has been exposed to the atmosphere.1 requires that the electrodes be baked prior to use. but is commonly used for tack welding. are limited to very short periods. and these recommendations may vary from AWS D1. low-alloy SMAW electrodes. C-3 . and wind. (2) Smaller prequalified weld bead sizes. to avoid the pickup of moisture from the atmosphere. inexpensive. and repair welding. E6013. maximum 8 mm (5/16 in. used to join high strength steels which are particularly susceptible to hydrogen assisted cracking. also called a “rod oven” or “storage oven”. Generally SMAW has a lower deposition rate and is less efficient. welding procedure variations. There is no direct correlation between the low hydrogen limits of various electrodes and notch toughness requirements. Advantages.1 Table 5. requires more passes for large welds. with additional cleaning time required for slag removal. see AWS A5. E7024). they may be used without any preconditioning. to remove any residual moisture picked up from exposure to the atmosphere. SMAW is seldom used as the principal process for structural welding.1 provisions. (1) SMAW has the benefit of requiring relatively simple. When supplied in undamaged containers. Holding ovens for low hydrogen electrodes are required unless hermetically sealed containers are used to provide dry electrodes when needed. GMAW and SAW. c.1 limits the exposure time of various electrode classifications. and using additional electrodes. (9) Low hydrogen. they should be placed in a holding oven.5. SMAW is capable of depositing high quality welds.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 electrodes.

indicates electrode has lower moisture content and meets absorbed moisture test requirements (note: E7018M must meet more stringent requirements. AWS A5. V. V-down.1. OH) 2 = F.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-1.1 HZ R E XX Electrode Minimum tensile strength in units of 1 ksi (7 MPa) 60 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 70 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) Generally. meets special Military specifications. H. but the H4 designation is not used) If present. average CVN of 27 J @ -46oC ( 20 ft-lbf @ -50oF) for E7018-1. titania 5 = low hydrogen sodium 6 = low hydrogen potassium 7 = high iron oxide. OH Type of covering 0 = high cellulose sodium (E6010) 0 = high iron oxide (E6020) 1 = high cellulose potassium 2 = high titania sodium 3 = high titania potassium 4 = iron powder. but may be additionally limited by electrode diameter and class 1 = all positions (F.1 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes for SMAW E XX YY M . iron powder 8 = low hydrogen potassium. iron powder If present. but the R designation is not used) Y Y M -1 HZ R C-4 . iron powder (except E7018M) 9 = iron oxide titania potassium If present. and covering is low hydrogen. welding positions permitted for use. indicates improved notch toughness (see AWS A5. H. Table 3) for E7016-1. average CVN of 27 J @ -18oC ( 20 ft-lbf @ -0oF) Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal (note: E7018M meets H4 requirements. H-fillets 4 = F. average CVN of 27 J @ -46oC ( 20 ft-lbf @ -50oF) for E7024-1.

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-2. AWS A5. iron powder Y Y M X# Alloy A B C D G P W type carbon-molybdenum steel chromium-molybdenum steel nickel steel manganese-molybdenum steel general low-alloy steel for pipeline use weathering steel HZ Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal (note: EXX18M meets H4 requirements. H-fillets Type of covering 0 = high cellulose sodium (except E7020) 0 = high iron oxide (E7020) 1 = high cellulose potassium 2 = high titania sodium 3 = high titania potassium 4 = iron powder. and covering is low hydrogen.X# HZ R E XX Electrode Minimum tensile strength in units of 1 ksi (7 MPa) 70 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 80 = 80 ksi (550 MPa) 90 = 90 ksi (620 MPa) 100 = 100 ksi (690 MPa) 110 = 110 ksi (760 MPa) 120 = 120 ksi (830 MPa) Generally. meets special Military specifications. H. V. iron powder 8 = low hydrogen potassium. titania 5 = low hydrogen sodium 6 = low hydrogen potassium 7 = high iron oxide. but the H4 designation is not used) If present.5 Classification System for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for SMAW E XX YY M . iron powder (except EXX18M) 9 = iron oxide titania potassium If present. OH) 2 = F. indicates electrode has lower moisture content and meets absorbed moisture test requirements R C-5 . welding positions permitted for use. but may be additionally limited by electrode diameter and class 1 = all positions (F.

Low Hydrogen AWS A5. H4 E7016-1 AC. V-down. DCEP 0.1 4. V. V.3 0. H8.6 H16.4 H16.6 H16. H8. OH DCEP 0. V. H4 E7018-1 F. H-fillets F. H. OH F. H4 E7018M F. H. H4 Electro de E7015 Position Current CVN Toughness 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 68 J @ -29oC (50 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27 J @ -46oC (20 ft-lbf @ 50oF) 27 J @ -46oC (20 ft-lbf @ 50oF) F. V. H. H4 1 . H8. H. V.6 H16.no H designation used for E7018M C-6 . OH AC. H.6 H16. H. H8.0 1 E7028 E7048 F. OH AC. DCEP 0.1 Carbon Steel Electrodes for SMAW [to 480 MPa (70 ksi)] Moisture Content Limit (as received ) 0. OH DCEP E7016 F. H4 H16.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-3.6 Available Diffusible Hydrogen Limits H16. DCEP 0. H8. DCEP 0. H4 E7018 F. H8. OH AC. H. DCEP 0. DCEP AC. H8. OH AC. V.

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Table C-4. Low Hydrogen AWS A5.5 Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for SMAW [to 550 MPa (80 ksi)] Moisture Content Limit (as received) 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.2
2 2 2

Electrode E7015-X E7016-X E7018-X E8015-X E8016-X E8018-X
1 1 1 1

Position F, H, V, OH F, H, V, OH F, H, V, OH F, H, V, OH F, H, V, OH F, H, V, OH

Current DCEP AC, DCEP AC, DCEP DCEP AC, DCEP AC, DCEP

Available Diffusible Hydrogen Limits H16, H8, H4 H16, H8, H4 H16, H8, H4 H16, H8, H4 H16, H8, H4 H16, H8, H4

- B3, B3L, B4L, B5, B6, B7, B7L, B8, B8L, and B9 series electrodes not prequalified under AWS D1.1 2 - E70XX-XR and E70XX-X-HZR series Limit on Moisture Content (as received) = 0.3 Table C-5. Toughness Values for Low Hydrogen A5.5 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes [to 550 MPa (80 ksi)] CVN Toughness 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) 27 J @ -51oC (20 ft-lbf @ -60oF) 27 J @ -60oC (20 ft-lbf @ -75oF) 27 J @ -73oC (20 ft-lbf @ 100oF) 27 J @ -100oC (20 ft-lbf @ 150oF) Electrodes E7018-W1 E8018-W2 E8016-C3, E8018-C3, E8018-NM1 E7018-C3L E8016-C4, E8016-D3, E8018-C4, E8018-D1, E8018-D3 E8016-C1, E8018-C1 E7015-C1L, E7016-C1L, E7018-C2L E8016-C2, E8018-C2 E7015-C2L, E7016-C2L, E7018-C2L

C-7

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2. FLUX CORED ARC WELDING (FCAW). a. Process Principles. Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) is an arc welding process that uses a continuous tubular electrode fed from a coil or spool into a welding “gun”. The electrode core contains alloy additions, deoxidizers and flux materials. The heat of the arc causes the base metal, tubular electrode wire and core materials to melt. The flux materials bind impurities, rise to the top of the molten weld, and protect the cooling weld from atmospheric nitrogen or oxygen. Shielding of the exposed arc is provided either by the decomposition of the core in self-shielded electrodes, designated FCAW-S, or by an externally supplied gas or gas mixture, designated FCAW-G. (1) With FCAW-G, carbon dioxide (CO2) or a mixture of argon (Ar) of 75 to 90% and of CO2 10 to 25% is used in addition to the gas provided by the flux core. The shielding gas selection may affect the mechanical properties (yield and tensile strength, elongation, and notch toughness) of the weld. Carbon dioxide, as a reactive gas, may cause some of the alloys in the electrode to become oxidized, and therefore less alloy is transferred to the weld deposit. When an inert gas such as argon is substituted for CO2, alloy transfer typically increases. With more alloy in the weld deposit, higher yield and tensile strengths and reduced ductility is expected. The notch toughness of the weld deposit may increase or decrease, depending on the alloys affected. (2) The power source is usually the constant voltage type, using either direct current electrode positive or electrode negative polarity. A separate wire feeder sends wire into the welding gun at a preset rate. The Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) provides the appropriate voltage, wire feed speed, electrode extension, and travel speed. For a given wire feed speed and electrode extension, a specific current (amperage) will be provided. As the wire feed speed is increased, the current is likewise increased. The WPS should, preferably, state the wire feed speed to be used because electrode extension, polarity and electrode diameter also affect current. Shorter electrical stickout results in higher current for a given wire feed speed. If current is used in the WPS, an inaccurate electrode extension may go undetected. (3) FCAW is most commonly used as “semiautomatic”, wire fed but with the welding gun manipulated by the welder. It may also be used as automatic, but the intensity of arc rays from the high current arc, and the significant volume of smoke generated, make Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) more desirable for automatic welding. b. Filler Metal Designation, Specification and Certification. FCAW electrodes are specified in AWS filler metal specifications AWS A5.20 and A5.29. AWS A5.20 is applicable to carbon steel electrodes, and AWS A5.29 is applicable to low alloy steel electrodes. The classification and identification system used for these two specifications is summarized in Tables C-6 and C-7. (1) All FCAW electrodes are considered low hydrogen. Self-shielded FCAW electrodes are limited to 550 MPa (80 ksi) tensile strength of less, but higher strengths are available from gas-shielded FCAW electrodes. AWS A5.20 electrodes EXXT-2, -3, -10, -13, -14, and -GS electrodes are not permitted by AWS D1.1 because they are limited to single pass welds. AWS A5.20 electrodes EXXT-3, EXXT-11, and EXXT-14 are for limited thickness applications only, and the manufacturer’s recommendations should be consulted. (2) Tables C-8 and C-9 provide additional information regarding electrode limitations, usage and toughness properties for electrodes permitted by AWS D1.1 for classification strengths of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and lower. For higher strength and other electrodes, the AWS A5.20 and A5.29 specifications should be consulted. C-8

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c. Advantages, Disadvantages and Limitations. The Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) process offers several advantages over Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), but also has a few disadvantages and limitations (1) The FCAW electrode is continuous, eliminating the numerous starts and stops necessary with SMAW on longer and larger welds. (2) Increased deposition rates are possible with FCAW because the current can be higher than with SMAW. SMAW currents are limited by rod heating and coating breakdown concerns. With FCAW, the electrode is passed through a contact tip usually 20 to 25 mm (3/4 to 1 in.) from the end of the electrode, minimizing the buildup of heat from electrical resistance. This electrode extension distance, commonly called “stickout,” varies for each WPS, and may be considerably higher. Both factors provide FCAW an economic advantage over SMAW. (3) The number of arc starts and stops, a potential source of weld discontinuities, is also reduced. (4) The equipment required for FCAW is more expensive and complicated than SMAW, and more difficult to maintain. This increased cost is offset by the higher productivity levels achieved using FCAW compared to SMAW. (5) FCAW electrode wires do not need heated holding ovens for ordinary applications, but caution should be used when FCAW wires are exposed to the elements for extended periods of time. For critical welds requiring very low hydrogen deposits, more restrictive storage requirements may be warranted. (6) FCAW is capable of all-position welding when using small diameter electrodes. Large diameter electrodes, using higher electrical currents, are restricted to the flat and horizontal positions. (7) There are several advantages to using FCAW-S (self-shielded) rather than FCAW-G (gasshielded). The FCAW-S welding gun assembly does not require a gas nozzle, also called a gas cup, therefore access into smaller areas is possible, significant when welding in tight locations such as weld access holes in beam-to-column connections. The welder is also better able to see the arc and weld puddle because the gas cup is not present. (8) A second advantage to FCAW-S over FCAW-G is its ability to make quality welds under field conditions involving wind. For FCAW-G, it is necessary to erect protective shielding from wind to maintain the shielding gas around the molten weld puddle. Such shielding may be expensive, timeconsuming, require additional ventilation for the welder, and constitute a fire hazard. FCAW-S eliminates the handling of high pressure gas cylinders, theft of cylinders, protection of gas distribution hosing under field conditions, and the cost of the shielding gas. For shop fabrication, wind is less of a problem than under field conditions. However, drafts from doorways and windows, fans used to cool personnel and provide ventilation, and welding fume exhaust equipment can create unacceptable wind speeds that degrade weld quality. (9) FCAW-G “operator appeal” is usually higher than with FCAW-S because of better arc control and less fume generation. FCAW-G is less sensitive to variations in electrode extension and arc voltage than FCAW-S. The range of suitable applications for a single size and classification of FCAW-G electrodes is generally broader than for FCAW-S electrodes. (10) FCAW-S procedures must be closely controlled to ensure the required level of weld quality and mechanical properties. Because of the high deposition rates possible, travel speeds and technique C-9

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must be monitored to ensure that excessively large bead sizes are not produced. Large bead size, because of the high heat input and excessively slow cooling rates, may reduce notch toughness, reduce weld soundness, decrease heat affected zone toughness, and decrease the weld metal yield and tensile strengths.

C-10

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Table C-6. AWS A5.20 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes for FCAW EXXT-XMJHZ E X Electrode Minimum Tensile Strength in units of 10 ksi (69 MPa) 6 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) Position of welding permitted 0 = flat and horizontal position only 1 = all positions Tubular electrode

X

T X M J HZ

Type of electrode, numbered 1-14, or letter G or GS If used, electrode has been classified using 75-80% Ar, with balance CO2 If used, electrode has toughness of 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) If not used, electrode has toughness as listed in A5.20, Table 1 Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal

C-11

29 Classification System for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for FCAW EXXTX-X#M E X Electrode Minimum Tensile Strength in units of 10 ksi (69 MPa) 6 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 8 = 80 ksi (550 MPa) 9 = 90 ksi (620 MPa) 10 = 100 ksi (690 MPa) 11 = 110 ksi (760 MPa) 12 = 120 ksi (830 MPa) Position of welding permitted 0 = flat and horizontal position only 1 = all positions Tubular electrode Type of electrode. numbered 1. 5. with balance CO2 C-12 . electrode has been classified using 75-80% Ar.gas-shielded 4 & 8 . or 8 1 & 5 .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-7. 4. AWS A5.self-shielded X T X X# Alloy A B C D K W type carbon-molybdenum steel chromium-molybdenum steel nickel steel manganese-molybdenum steel other alloy steels weathering steel M If used.

E7XT-9J) have minimum CVN Toughness of 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20o . OH E70T-9 F. V-up. for 60 ksi or 70 ksi tensile strength. H F. H. H F.CEMP-E Table C-8. DCEN 2 75-80% Ar . H.27 J @ -18 C = 20 ft-lbf @ 0o C = 20 ft-lbf @ -20 F a . H F.May be either 6 or 7. H E70T-1M E71T-1 F. V-up. OH E70T-4 E70T-5 F. H. V-up. H. H self self CO CO2 not specified F. H E71T-9 E71T-9M b b TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Position Testing Shielding Gasd CO 75-80% Ar .CO self 2 DCEP DCEP 27 J @ -29o 27 J @ -29oC DCEP.CO CO2 C 27 J @ -29 o F. OH E70T-8 F. DCEN self DCEN self self self 2 27 J @ -29 C none specified none specified DCEN o C 27 J @ -29 C DCEP 27 J @ -29o 27 J @ -290C DCEP 2 75-80% Ar . OH F. AWS A5. H. Multipass Only] Electrode F. OH F. H.g.CO2 2 Current CVN Toughnessc 27 J @ -18oC DCEP DCEP C 27 J @ -18o 27 J @ -18oC 75-80% Ar . H. V-up or V-dn. V-dn. OH F.CO CO2 C 27 J @ -29 o DCEP. not specified DCEP none specified none specified 27 J @ -29oC DCEP not specified not specified C E71T-12 EXa0T-G EXa o Note . H E71T-5 E71T-5M F. H.20 Carbon Steel Electrodes for FCAW [to 480 MPa (70 ksi). OH F. b . V-up. V-up.electrodes with “J” at the end of the designator (e. H F. H E70T-7 F. V-up.

C-14 .CEMP-E d TI 809-26 1 March 2000 .Electrodes classified using the shielding gas listed shall not be used with any other shielding gas mixture without first consulting the manufacturer.

H. H. OH F. H F. H F.CEMP-E 1 March 2000 Table C-9. OH F. OH F. V. H F. H. Multipass Only] Electrode E61T8-K6 E70T4-K2 E70T5-A1 E71T8-K2 E71T8-K6 E71T8-Ni1 E71T8-Ni2 E80T1-A1 E81T1-A1 E80T1-B1 E81T1-B1 E81T1-B2 E80T1-B2H E80T1-K2 E80T1-Ni1 E81T1-Ni1 E80T1-Ni2 E81T1-Ni2 E80T1-W E80T5-B2 E80T5-B2L E80T5-Ni1 E80T5-Ni2 E80T5-Ni3 E80T5-K1 E80T5-K2 d Permitted Positions F. V. H. H. V. V. V. AWS A5. H F. OH F. H. H F. H F. V. V. H F. OH F. H. H F. H. OH F.29 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for FCAW [to 550 MPa (80 ksi). OH F. V. H F. H F. V. H F. V. H F. OH F. H F. H Testing Shielding Gasd self self CO2 self self self self CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 Current DCEN DCEP DCEP DCEN DCEN DCEN DCEN DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP Minimum CVN Toughness 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) none specified none specified none specified none specified none specified none specified 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) none specified none specified 27 J @ -51oC (20 ft-lbf @ -60oF) 27 J @ -60oC (20 ft-lbf @ -76oF) 27 J @ -73oC (20 ft-lbf @ -100oF) 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) . C-15 . H F. OH F. H F. OH F. H. H.Electrodes classified using the shielding gas listed shall not be used with any other shielding gas mixture without first consulting the manufacturer.

Weld appearance and quality are generally good. (1) Classification testing is usually performed using specific welding procedures that use CO2 shielding gas. Because of the high concentration of CO2. The classification systems used for GMAW electrodes in AWS A5. Filler Metal Designation. but can be used out of position. C-16 . but may have poor appearance with relatively high levels of spatter. This mode of transfer can result in deep penetration. rather than a spray. resulting in very high current flowing through the electrode. plus a pulsing peak current applied at a rate proportional to the wire feed speed. extinguishing the arc. also called short arc. Carbon dioxide. All GMAW-S welding procedures must be qualified by test. causing it to heat and melt.28 for low alloy steel electrodes. abbreviated GMAW-S. The arc in spray transfer is continuously maintained. GMAW electrodes are classified under AWS A5. GMAW uses a solid or metal cored electrode. all smaller in diameter than the electrode diameter. is suitable for welding only on thin gauge materials. or both. and lack of slag to hold the molten metal in place. The shielding used for spray arc transfer is composed of at least 80% argon. pulsed arc transfer. significant fusion problems such as cold lap may result. With structural steel.18 and A5. This cycle occurs up to 200 times per second. creating a characteristic buzzing sound. the short circuiting mode of transfer.CEMP-E 3. the lower level of heat generated. is ejected from the electrode toward the work. Process Principles. and therefore transfer modes. puddle fluidity. b. usually between 100 and 400 times per second. (1) Spray arc transfer uses high wire feed speeds and relatively high voltages.18 for carbon steel electrodes. the arc ejects large globular pieces of molten steel from the end of the electrode. globular transfer. globular transfer may be selected in place of spray transfer. slag. GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW). Because of the intensity of the arc. Each pulse of current ejects a single droplet of metal from the electrode. The arc is maintained by the lower background current. GMAW is commonly applied in one of four ways: spray arc transfer. commonly referred to as “MIG” (Metal Inert Gas) welding. but other gases. Pulsed arc transfer can be used out-of-position. and 95% argon with 5% oxygen. Short circuiting transfer provides a low deposition rate. (3) Pulsed arc transfer uses a background current that is continuously applied to the electrode. may be referred to as “MAG” (Metal Active Gas) welding. is not. A fine spray of molten drops. It is not as productive as spray transfer for welding in the flat and horizontal positions. and AWS A5. The Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW ) process. and subsequently leaves little.1. The shielding gas used for GMAW may be carbon dioxide (CO2). may be specified. the arc is briefly reestablished. The small diameter electrode is fed at a moderate wire feed speed using relatively low voltage. Pulsed arc transfer GMAW equipment is somewhat more complex and costly than standard GMAW equipment. if any. and short arc transfer. and uses the same equipment. therefore promoting globular transfer. As the electrode melts. shorting the electrical circuit. spray arc is limited to the flat and horizontal position.28 are summarized in Tables C-10 and C-11. with better quality than short-circuiting mode. While GMAW is considered prequalified by AWS D1. Specification and Certification. (2) Globular transfer results when high concentrations of carbon dioxide are used. It is also limited to the flat and horizontal positions. and should not be used for structural steel. (4) Short circuiting transfer. resulting in high quality welds with good appearance. Because of the lower cost of CO2 shielding gas. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. and increased welder comfort. with the balance made up of either carbon dioxide or oxygen. Typical mixtures are 90% argon with 10% CO2. is very similar to gas-shielded flux cored arc welding (FCAW-G). or a mixture of argon (Ar) and either CO2 or small levels of oxygen (O). as an active gas rather than inert gas. The electrode contacts the workpiece.

(5) GMAW “operator appeal” is usually high because of good arc control and little fume generation. Weld appearance is typically very good. (8) The equipment required for GMAW is more expensive and complicated than SMAW. With GMAW. are now listed in both A5. are less likely to cold lap. For field work. and more difficult to maintain.” varies for each WPS. Such shielding may be expensive. is also reduced. Disadvantages and Limitations. previously classified as FCAW electrodes. and other surface contaminants. and constitute a fire hazard.18 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes for GMAW C-17 . However. Both factors provide GMAW an economic advantage over SMAW. Metal cored electrodes require less current to obtain the same deposition rates. GMAW electrode wires are available in the lowest diffusible hydrogen category. commonly called “stickout. and is limited to welding on relatively clean materials. with a tubular electrode. (3) Properties and usage for GMAW electrodes. H2. mill scale must be removed by blast cleaning or power wire brushing prior to welding. This increased cost is offset by the higher productivity levels achieved using GMAW compared to SMAW. minimizing the buildup of heat from electrical resistance. the electrode is passed through a contact tip usually 20 to 25 mm (3/4 to 1 in. up to 550 MPa (80 ksi). For shop fabrication. drafts from doorways and windows.18 and A5. For critical welds requiring very low hydrogen deposits. timeconsuming. and may be considerably higher. Advantages. Metal cored electrodes typically provide higher deposition rates because higher currents may be used than with solid wire electrodes. This electrode extension distance. GMAW with metal cored electrodes is similar to FCAW. Table C-10.28. wind is less of a problem than under field conditions. For higher strength electrodes. eliminating the numerous starts and stops necessary with SMAW on longer and larger welds. require additional ventilation for the welder. but also has some disadvantages and limitations. rust. (4) GMAW electrode wires do not need heated holding ovens. see AWS A5. (2) Increased deposition rates are possible with GMAW because the current can be higher than with SMAW. and when used out-ofposition. and the weld is essentially free of slag. Commonly. it is often necessary to erect protective shielding from wind to maintain the shielding gas around the molten weld puddle. and welding fume exhaust equipment can create unacceptable wind speeds that degrade weld quality. GMAW is intolerant of high levels of mill scale. fans used to cool personnel and provide ventilation. The Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process offers several advantages over Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW). SMAW currents are limited by rod heating and coating breakdown concerns. The consistency of mechanical properties is typically better with metal cored electrodes than with solid wire electrodes. are summarized in Tables C-12 and C-13.28. (3) The number of arc starts and stops. (1) The GMAW electrode is continuous. c. a potential source of weld discontinuities. have better tolerance for mill scale and rust. (6) Because no flux is involved. AWS A5.) from the end of the electrode. (7) GMAW is also seriously affected by wind because of the removal of the shielding gas from around the weld puddle. but the core contains metallic powders (alloy) rather than flux materials.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (2) Metal cored electrodes.

X Y N HZ E R XX S or C X composite wire G = unspecified composition Shielding gas used for classification testing C = CO2 M = 75-80% Ar.CEMP-E 1 March 2000 E XX C . balance CO2 N HZ applications H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H2 = maximum 2 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal If used. designates that electrode may also be used as filler rod Minimum Tensile Strength in units of 1 ksi (7 MPa) S = Solid wire C-18 .

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-11. designates that electrode may also be used as filler rod for GTAW Minimum Tensile Strength in units of 1 ksi (7 MPa) 70 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 80 = 80 ksi (550 MPa) 90 = 90 ksi (620 MPa) 100 = 100 ksi (690 MPa) 110 = 110 ksi (760 MPa) 120 = 120 ksi (830 MPa) S = Solid wire C = Composite (metal cored) wire S or C XXX Chemical composition of solid wire.XXX HZ E R XX Electrode If used.XXX HZ E XX C . or of weld deposit of composite wire A = carbon-molybdenum steel B = chromium-molybdenum steel Ni = nickel steel D = manganese-molybdenum steel 1 = other alloy steels G = not specified Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H2 = maximum 2 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal HZ C-19 .28 Classification System for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for GMAW ER XX S . AWS A5.

and is not prequalified.All above electrodes optionally available as H16. Note . balance CO2 CO2 75-80% Ar.Electrodes classified using the shielding gas listed shall not be used with any other shielding gas mixture without first consulting the manufacturer. and H4 for diffusible hydrogen requirements. balance CO2 as agreed Polarity DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP CVN Toughness 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) not required not required 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) as agreed DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) as agreed . C-20 . Note .E70C-GS(X) electrode is limited to single pass applications.18 Carbon Steel Electrodes for GMAW [480 MPa (70 ksi) only] Electrode ER70S-2 ER70S-3 ER70S-4 ER70S-5 ER70S-6 ER70S-7 ER70S-G E70C-3C E70C-3M E70C-6C E70C-6M E70C-G(X) d Testing Shielding Gasd CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 as agreed CO2 75-80% Ar.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-12. AWS A5. H8.

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-13.B3. B3L.All above electrodes optionally available as H16.Electrodes classified using the shielding gas listed shall not be used with any other shielding gas mixture without first consulting the manufacturer. C-21 . B8 and B9 classification electrodes are not prequalified Note . H8. Multipass Only] Electrode ER70S-A1 ER70S-B2L E70C-B2L E70C-Ni2 Testing Shielding Gasd Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Polarity DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP CVN Toughness not required not required not required 27 J @ -62oC (20 ft-lbf @ -80oF) ER80S-B2 ER80S-Ni1 ER80S-Ni2 ER80S-Ni3 ER80S-D2 E80C-B2 E80C-Ni1 E80C-Ni2 E80C-Ni3 d Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 CO2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP not required 27 J @ -46oC (20 ft-lbf @ -50oF) 27 J @ -62oC (20 ft-lbf @ -80oF) 27 J @ -73oC (20 ft-lbf @ -100oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) not required 27 J @ -46oC (20 ft-lbf @ -50oF) 27 J @ -62oC (20 ft-lbf @ -80oF) 27 J @ -73oC (20 ft-lbf @ -100oF) . AWS A5. B6. H4 and H2 for diffusible hydrogen requirements. Note .28 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for GMAW [to 550 MPa (80 ksi).

(2) Flux feed may be by gravity flow through a nozzle from a small hopper atop the welding gun. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) uses a blanket of fusible granular material called flux to shield the arc and molten metal. The weld metal.CEMP-E 4. as well as AWS D1. C-22 . the arc length is self-adjusting. may become contaminated with moisture from the atmosphere. the tip of which is submerged in the flux. When not in use. surrounded by a layer of unfused flux. Upon cooling and removal of any unmelted flux for reuse. spatter. Flux may also be applied in advance of the welding operation. Fluxes in open or damaged bags. With drooping voltage. The electrode is continuously fed from a coil or spool to the welding gun. it may be recovered for future use. (6) Flux must be stored so that it remains dry. For heat input calculation purposes. Since the arc is completely covered by flux. the lighter molten flux rises above the molten metal in the form of a slag. the heat of the arc melts some of the flux along with the steel and the tip of the electrode. or in flux hoppers. Parallel electrode SAW uses two electrodes connected electrically in parallel to the same power supply.1 Section 5. preceded by a flux deposition system. and multiple beads can be placed when using separate power supplies for each bead. The slag then freezes over the newly solidified weld metal. In semiautomatic welding. To minimize the potential interaction of magnetic fields between the two electrodes. similar to the action in FCAW. the total for the two electrodes is used.3 regarding storage and usage of the flux must be followed. usually equipped with a flux-feeding device. along the joint by hand. (7) Because unmelted flux does not undergo chemical changes. or fully mechanized. having a higher melting (freezing) point. Both electrodes are fed by means of a single electrode feeder. the welder moves the gun. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. flux hoppers should be covered or otherwise protected from the atmosphere. or it may be through a nozzle tube connected to an air-pressurized flux tank. a voltage sensitive relay adjusts the wire feed speed to maintain the desired arc voltage. thus generating additional heat. it is not visible and the weld is made without the flash. Welding currents typically range from 500 to 1000 amperes. sparks and smoke common for the open-arc processes. The arc is struck between the workpiece and a bare wire or composite electrode. Flux recovery systems range from vacuum recovery systems to sweeping with brooms and pans. although semiautomatic operation is often used. Many fully mechanized systems are equipped with vacuum devices to pick up the flux unfused after welding for reuse. SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW). As the electrode progresses along the joint. (1) The process is typically operated automatic. ahead of the arc. (5) DC and AC welding machines of both conventional drooping voltage type or constant potential type can be used for SAW. so exposure should be limited. Multiple electrode SAW uses at least two separate power supplies and two separate wire drives to feed two electrodes independently. solidifies while the slag above it is still molten. The tip of the electrode and the welding zone are always shielded by molten flux. With constant potential voltage. from a hopper run along the joint. continuing to protect the metal from contamination while it is very hot and reactive with atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. the slag is removed from the weld. typical SAW setups have the lead electrode operating on DC current while the trail electrode is operating AC. The guidelines of the flux manufacturer.3. which travels at a preset speed along the joint. (4) Several electrodes may be used in series or parallel. Process Principles. (3) During welding. The molten slag is a good conductor and provides an additional path for the current.

Bonded fluxes may segregate during use and reuse. Because the product is baked at low temperature. the classification system integrates both materials. Flux-electrode combinations classified in the post weld stress relieved condition may not exhibit notch toughness when used in the as-welded condition. Because SAW is dependent upon both components. condition. Bonded fluxes tend to break down during recycling and increase the percentage of fines. (1) The classification systems for SAW are summarized in Tables C-14 and C-15 for AWS A5. (5) Bonded fluxes are made by combining all required chemical ingredients with a binder and baking the product at low temperature to form hard granules. For structural work. the flux-electrode classification may be established. Fused fluxes are nonhygroscopic. (3) Fluxes are manufactured using one of four basic processes. because of the variety of alloys that may be involved. Low alloy steel SAW electrodes and fluxes classified under AWS A5. which must meet specific compositional and mechanical property requirements. Some loss of fine particulate matter may also occur with flux recovery.23 materials. which is seldom stress relieved. meaning they will not absorb water. therefore care is needed. active or alloy fluxes. except that the binder is a ceramic material that requires baking at higher temperatures.23 for low alloy steel electrodes and fluxes. dirt. therefore investigation into weld metal properties is warranted whenever the weld will be used differently than the filler metal classification condition. scale of other contaminants may occur. are classified under AWS A5. (6) Agglomerated fluxes are similar to bonded fluxes in their method of manufacture. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) filler materials. (2) Because the submerged arc welding process is frequently used for pressure vessel fabrication where assemblies are stress relieved.23 have a more complex classification system.17 for carbon steel electrodes and fluxes. and then heating the mixture in a furnace until completely melted. Specimens are extracted from the weld deposit to obtain the mechanical properties of the flux-electrode combination. and later ground to the sizes required for welding. When this is done. a “P” is placed in the designation rather than an “A”. Specification and Certification. Fused fluxes with the required chemical composition generally give the best low hydrogen welding performance. but may be contaminated by moisture or other products that adhere to the outside of particles. Fused fluxes may have less than desired amounts of deoxidizer and ferro-alloy ingredients because of losses that occur from the high temperatures during the manufacturing process. This may limit deoxidizer or C-23 . flux and electrode. Fused flux performance can be impeded by loss of fines during recycling. the electrodes and fluxes. then broken up and screened for size. A glass-like fused product is formed as the liquid is cooled to ambient temperature.17 materials. and because the composition of both the electrode and the resultant weld metal must be specified. or stress relieved. (4) Fused fluxes are made by blending deoxidizing and alloying ingredients. the “A” classification is commonly used. Filler Metal Designation. and gases may be produced in the molten slag during welding.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Flux contamination through contact with oil. therefore blending reclaimed flux with new flux is required. and are further classified as neutral. as necessary. After an electrode and flux combination is selected and a test plate welded. moisture. based upon their performance characteristics during welding. many submerged arc materials have been classified for the post weld heat treated. deoxidizer content or alloying elements that can be added as ferroalloys or as elemental metals are not a problem as with fused fluxes. b. Fused fluxes are not subject to chemical segregation during reuse because the complete composition is in each particle and cannot be separated. Bonded fluxes contain chemically bonded moisture and can absorb moisture as well. and Table C-16 for AWS A5. and AWS A5.

provide a low-cost method of producing corrosion resistant weld metal for joining weathering steels. concentrating heat in the welding zone and preventing rapid escape of heat. manganese and silicon content.23 filler metal specifications. and a uniform bead appearance reducing cleaning and surface preparation costs. Very high currents can be used in submerged arc and deep penetration. reducing distortion. therefore welding with active with low levels of manganese and silicon. primarily the voltage that determines arc length. properly used with carbon steel electrodes. Continued recycling of (11) Alloy fluxes contain alloys intended to improve the strength or corrosion resistance of the weld metal. Disadvantages and Limitations. Deep penetration allows the High travel speeds reduce the total heat input into the joint. or both. C-24 . Unlike active in the alloy content. c. The slag above the molten weld puddle acts as an insulating blanket. Where all mill scale and other contaminants are removed prior to welding.17 and A5. The covered arc allows SAW to be operated without the need for extensive shielding to protect the operators from the high intensity arc created by the high protection. and will have the attributes of their components. Advantages. the weld metal (10) Active fluxes have small additions of manganese and silicon. active fluxes are often used in making single pass fillet welds. are subject to segregation. a change in arc voltage will are more resistant to porosity and cracking than welds made with neutral fluxes. the surface contamination tolerance of active fluxes is not needed. Active fluxes intended for single pass fillet welding should not be combine with the same elements in the electrode to produce weld metal with unacceptable properties. Agglomerated fluxes are generally considered (7) Mechanically mixed fluxes can be a mixture of any flux type in any desired proportion. With active fluxes. and the composition of the weld metal is highly dependent upon the alloy content of the mechanical properties of the weld. description and limitations of theses fluxes is provided in the Annexes to the AWS A5. (1) SAW welds generally have good ductility and toughness. The chemistry may build to unacceptable levels in larger multipass welds. For both active and alloy fluxes. is relatively unaffected by changes in welding procedure variables.TI 809-26 ferro-alloy content due to high temperature losses. Alloy fluxes. to help offset the effects of welding though mill scale and light coatings of rust. or both.

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (2) The SAW process does not allow the operator to observe the molten weld puddle. When SAW is performed semi-automatically. the operator must acquire and practice a technique to produce good welds without reliance upon arc and weld bead appearance. C-25 . forcing reliance on the appearance of the slag blanket to indicate the quality of the weld bead.

indicates nominal carbon content in nominal carbon). and 15. 11.17 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for SAW [US Customary Units] FSXXX-ECXXX-HZ Flux (virgin flux if not followed by S) S X Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 ksi (70 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) X A = tested as-welded P = tested after postweld heat treatment Temperature in F at or above the impact strength meets or exceeds 20 ft-lbf (27 J) Z = no impact strength test required 0 = tested at 0o C) 2 = tested at -20oF (-29o F (-40oC) 5 = tested at -50o C) 6 = tested at -60oF (-51o F (-62oC) Electrode C specified in A5.25 .17. Manganese (Mn) content. Table 1.17.12. X HZ H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H2 = maximum 2 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal C-26 .20 high) G = chemistry not specified Number that makes up a part of the electrode classification system.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-14.30 low to 2. % weight L = low Mn (0. AWS A5. 13. 14.0. 1. indicating chemistry in A5.60) H = high Mn (varies by classification. ECG does not have a specified chemistry. Either type must be tested with a specific flux. Generally.

25 .50 high) H = high Mn (varies by classification. Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 MPa (1.20 high) G = chemistry not specified Number that makes up a part of the electrode classification system. indicates nominal carbon content in hundredths of a percent.17. and 15. AWS A5. flux is from crushed slag or blend of crushed slag and virgin flux. 0.17. K indicates that the electrode was made from silicon-killed steel.30 low to 2.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-15.0. 1.80 low to 1. 11. Manganese (Mn) content.08% nominal carbon). 13.12.60) M = medium Mn (varies by classification. 14.17 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for SAW [SI (Metric) Units] FSXXX-ECXXX-HZ F S X Flux (virgin flux if not followed by S) If present. electrode is Composite electrode. Either type must be tested with a specific flux. indicating chemistry in A5. ECG does not have a specified chemistry.45 ksi) 43 = 430 MPa (62 ksi) 48 = 480 MPa (70 ksi) Test condition of plates A = tested as-welded P = tested after postweld heat treatment Temperature in oC at or above the impact strength meets or exceeds 27 J (20 ft-lbf) Z = no impact requirements 0 = tested at 0oC ( 32oF) 2 = tested at -20oC ( -4oF) 3 = tested at -30oC (-22oF) 4 = tested at -40oC (-40oF) 5 = tested at -50oC (-58oF) 6 = tested at -60oC (-76oF) X X E C Electrode If present. X X X - . Listed classification numbers: 8 (indicating 0. Generally. Table 1. Electrode EC1 meets a chemistry specified in A5. % weight L = low Mn (0.

CEMP-E
HZ Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H2 = maximum 2 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal

TI 809-26 1 March 2000

C-28

CEMP-E 1 March 2000
Table C-16. AWS A5.23 Classification System for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for SAW [US Customary Units]
F Flux Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 ksi (70 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 9 = 90 ksi (620 MPa) 10 = 100 ksi (690 MPa) Test condition of plates A = tested as-welded X Temperature in o Z = no impact strength test required F ( -18oC) 2 = tested at -20o C) 4 = tested at -40oF ( -40o F ( -46oC) 6 = tested at -60o C) 8 = tested at -80oF ( -62o F ( -73oC) o 15 = tested at -150 C)

E C X If present, electrode is Composite electrode with composition per AWS A5.23 Chemical composition of electrode (Table 1) or weld metal (Table 2) M = carbon steel, medium Mn solid electrode (EM12K) A = carbon-molybdenum weld metal
1

Ni = nickel M = military W = weathering XX N X above Number (and letter, if needed) that makes up a part of the electrode classification Indicates that the electrode is intended for the core belt region of nuclear reactor

C-29

CEMP-E
N HZ

TI 809-26 1 March 2000
Indicates that the weld metal is intended for the core belt region of nuclear reactor vessels, with limited chemistry for phosphorous, vanadium, and copper. Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal

1

- B3, B4, B5, B6, B6H, B8 are not prequalified in AWS D1.1

C-30

TI 809-26
5. a. Process Principles. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), also frequently called TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding, is done using the heat of an arc between a non-consumable tungsten electrode and external shielding gas or gas mixture. Direct current electrode negative (DCEN) (straight) polarity is used to produce a deep, narrow penetration when welding thicker materials. Direct current electrode positive metals. Alternating current (AC) is generally used for welding aluminum and magnesium alloys. A high frequency oscillator is usually incorporated into GTAW power supplies to initiate the arc. This reduces tungsten to the base metal. The process may be performed manually, but may also be used as automatic. The tungsten electrode in the welding “torch” gets very hot under high duty cycles, therefore deposition rate through the use a continuous filler metal, supplied with current from a separate power source, to preheat the wire using resistance heating.

welding torch are classified in AWS A5.12, Specification for Tungsten and Tungsten Alloy Electrodes for . The filler metal used, if any, is rod classified for GMAW in AWS A5.18 or A5.28, with a designation ER at the beginning. Tungsten electrodes are summarized in Table C-17.

spatter, with excellent arc control that is very beneficial for root passes. It can be used on material thicknesses that range from thin sheet metals up to maximum of about 10 mm (3/8 in.). However, welding processes. Gas shielding is also critical, and wind speeds over 8 km per hour (5 mph) cause quality and mechanical property degradation. GTAW, as an unfluxed welding process, also requires very

C-31

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TI 809-26 1 March 2000

Table C-17. AWS A5.12 Classification System for Tungsten Electrodes for GTAW EWX-X E W X-X Electrode Tungsten Letter (and optionally -number) describing type of tungsten electrode P = pure tungsten Ce = tungsten-cesium alloy La = tungsten-lanthanum alloy Th = tungsten-thorium alloy Zr = tungsten-zirconium alloy G = general, not specified

C-32

deposition rates.1 qualification testing following AWS D1.1 vertical require special setups and procedures. ESW is not prequalified under AWS D1. although ESW has been performed at angles to 45 degrees. Process Principles. Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for . an arc is struck in a sump at the bottom of the joint. Time and expense is also saved in the avoidance of joint preparation. Shielding of the arc and weld pool is provided by the addition of flux into the joint as welding progresses.) per hour. with no edge preparation generally required. offering considerable cost and time savings for vertical welding of thick steels. (2) ESW can be used for joints over 12 mm (1/2 in. Both the starting sump and finishing run-off tab are removed after completion of welding. can leave major discontinuities in the joint that are difficult may cause low toughness properties. in the range of 20 kg (40 lb. The classification system is summarized in Table C-18. Electroslag Welding (ESW) is used for welding thick sections. C-33 . but the fed electrode wire and adjacent base metal melts from the heat generated by the high electrical resistance of the slag. The plates to be joined are positioned 40 mm (3/4 to 1-1/2 in.CEMP-E 1 March 2000 a.). depending on welding equipment and material thickness. but generally does not become the most including the number of joints to be welded. Electrode wires may be either solid or composite.) in thickness. for short to moderate lengths. Water-cooled copper shoes are placed on each side of the joint. specified in AWS A5. distortion upon completion. typically 50 mm to 500 mm (2 to 20 in. The weld proceeds as more electrode is fed weld termination. (1) ESW.25. underneath a deposit The arc is extinguished by the slag. as well as make ultrasonic testing more difficult. forming used. if interrupted during welding. To start the weld.) thick.

25 Classification System for Electrodes and Fluxes for ESW FESXX-XXX FES X Flux for Electroslag Welding Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 ksi (70 MPa) 6 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) Temperature in oF at or above the impact strength meets or exceeds 15 ft-lbf (20 J) Z = no impact strength test required 0 = tested at 0oF (-18oC) 2 = tested at -20oF (-29oC) X XXX Electrode classification used (EM5K-EW. AWS A5. for example).25 C-34 . see AWS A5.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-18.

Angles beyond 10 to 15 degrees from vertical may require special setups and procedures. typically 50 mm to 500 mm (2 to 20 in. EGW is not prequalified under AWS .). the shielding gas may or may not be necessary. of requiring protection of the joint from wind over 8 km per hour (5 mph). therefore qualification testing following AWS Section 4 is required. economical choice until a thickness of around 50 mm (2 in. Filler materials. Electrogas Welding (EGW) provides very high vertical welding of thick steels. For solid wires. for short to opening gap at the joint is generally set to approximately 22 mm (7/8 in. disadvantage. When flux cored wires are used. depending upon the weld pool and allows the welding arc to stabilize before reaching the actual joint. and subsequent slow cooling.) in thickness. The arc is maintained. if interrupted during welding. The large grain size from the substantial heat input. depending on welding equipment and material thickness. The joint is also free from angular (1) EGW. a. with no edge preparation generally required. and interpass cleaning.TI 809-26 7.) is welded. electrodes and fluxes Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Electrogas Welding classification system is summarized in Table C-19. can leave major discontinuities in the joint that are difficult to access and repair. or an argon-CO2 mix. Disadvantages and Limitations. C-35 . c. Electrogas Welding (EGW) is very similar to Electroslag Welding (ESW). b. The weld Both the starting sump and finishing run-off tab are removed after completion of welding. Process Principles. and the fed electrode wire and adjacent base metal melts from the heat generated by the arc. preheating and interpass temperature control. Time and expense is also saved in the avoidance of joint preparation. Specification and Certification. depending upon several factors including the number of joints to be welded. Filler Metal Designation. composite (cored) wire. and is used for welding thick sections. The electrode is either a solid wire. Advantages. or a flux cored wire designed for EGW. compared to ESW. Water-cooled copper current electrode negative (DCEN) currents of 500 to 700 amperes are commonly used.

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-19. see AWS A5.26 Classification System for Electrodes for EGW EGXXX-XXX EG X Electrogas Welding Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 ksi (70 MPa) 6 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 8 = 80 ksi (550 MPa) Temperature in oF at or above the impact strength meets or exceeds 20 ft-lbf (27 J) Z = no impact strength test required 0 = tested at 0oF (-18oC) 2 = tested at -20oF (-29oC) S = solid wire T = tubular wire X X XXX Electrode classification used. AWS A5.26 C-36 .

per unit length of weld. seams and laminations at exposed edges. excessive convexity. and other enhancements. toe cracks. VISUAL TESTING (VT). arc strikes. surrounding heat-affected zone (HAZ). and the measurement of root openings. Visual inspection.TI 809-26 APPENDIX D 1. slag inclusions. incomplete fusion. the use of magnifying devices to further investigate the (2) Visual inspection includes the measurement of the work. When surface discontinuities such as cracks are suspected. Method Description. which may include the smoothness of thermally cut edges. and if the inspected item fails to meet visual criteria. incomplete penetration. undercut. undersized welds. a. convexity and such as weld gauges are required. more extensive nondestructive testing should not be conducted until the visual criteria is satisfied. Such instruments tend to distort the perception of the inspector. D-1 . Advantages and Disadvantages. (4) The cost of visual inspection is usually less. but they may provide indication (2) Visual inspection cannot reveal subsurface discontinuities such as cracks. that the other methods of rather than simple verification measurements and recording of unsatisfactory workmanship. weld size. buried laminations or lamellar tearing. as a form of nondestructive testing. See Table D-1. b. groove angles. overlap. Not all listed discontinuities are structurally significant. is the visual observation the first nondestructive testing method applied.

Visual Inspection Most Applicable Microcracks Shrinkage Cavity Undercut Excessive Reinforcement Excessive Convexity Excessive Penetration Misalignment Burn-Through Underfilled Groove Irregular Bead Root Concavity Poor Restart Miscellaneous Surface Discontinuities (Spatter. > 50 mm (> 2 in.2 in.) Joint Geometry Applicable Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Surface Pore Crater Pipe Incomplete Penetration Overlap TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Least Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Transverse Cracks Radiating Cracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity Elongated Cavity “Worm Hole” Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Incomplete Fusion (Root) D i s c o n t i n u i t y Lap.2 .6 .0.) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove Lap. 16 .6 in.) Lap. 6-15 mm (0.) One-Side Only Access Single-V Groove D-2 . < 6 mm (< 0.CEMP-E Table D-1.2 in.50 mm (0. etc.) Lap.

but require a darkened area for testing. Advantages and Disadvantages. or other surface-breaking discontinuities. or incomplete penetration. Flourescent methods are usually more sensitive. See Table D-2. allowed to remain on the surface for a specified dwell time to penetrate cracks. usually white. such as toe cracks. Weld spatter can also make surface removal of the penetrant more difficult. (4) PT can be performed relatively quickly. and other surface discontinuities. This leaves a visible contrasting indication in the developer. with no specialized equipment required unless an ultraviolet light is used. visible under ultraviolet light.CEMP-E 2. such as buried cracks. slag inclusions. unless special high-temperature PT materials are used. so waiting time is sometimes necessary with PT that would not be required with magnetic particle testing. depending upon the penetrant used and the required dwell time. and then is carefully removed. (2) Testing materials are small. (4) A disadvantage with some penetrants and developers is the safe handling and disposal of used liquids and cleaning rags. and also surface-breaking piping porosity. portable. b. and inexpensive. lack of fusion. (10 PT is ineffective for any discontinuity below the surface. which is then removed for closer visual examination of the area providing indications. and especially economical when compared to radiographic testing. crater cracks. The penetrant is applied to the surface. PENETRANT TESTING (PT). usually red. also called dye penetrant or liquid penetrant testing. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. Penetrant testing. Method Description. A developer is then applied to the surface. One method of penetrant testing uses a visible dye. which contrasts with the developer. can sometimes provide false indications of weld toe cracks when cleaning is not thoroughly performed. (3) A relatively short period of training is necessary for technicians who will be performing PT. (6) Rough surface conditions. The second method uses a flourescent dye. pores. (1) Penetrant testing is relatively economical compared to ultrasonic testing. which draws the penetrant out of the discontinuities. D-3 . (7) PT cannot be performed when the surface remains hot. (9) PT is especially effective with small surface-breaking cracks. laminations along exposed edges and joint preparations. (8) Existing coatings should be removed prior to PT because the coating may bridge narrow cracks. (5) Cleaning after inspection to remove residual penetrant and developer prior to weld repairs or the application of coating systems can sometime be difficult and time-consuming. and irregular profile conditions such as undercut and overlap. is the use of a liquid penetrating dye to detect discontinuities at the surface of a weld or base metal. preventing the entry of the penetrant.

6 in.) Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Transverse Cracks Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity Shinkage Cavity Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Incomplete Fusion (Root) Incomplete Penetration Undercut Burn-Through Lap.2 in. etc.0.) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Least Applicable Microcracks Elongated Cavity “Worm Hole” Joint Geometry Lap.50 mm (0.) Lap. 6-15 mm (0. Penetrant Testing Most Applicable D i s c o n t i n u i t y Radiating Cracks Surface Pore\ Crater Pipe Overlap Miscellaneous Surface Discontinuities (Spatter.) Lap.CEMP-E Table D-2. > 50 mm (> 2 in. 16 .) One-Side Only Access Single-V Groove D-4 .2 .2 in.6 . < 6 mm (< 0.

but considerably less than UT or RT. compared to PT. and incomplete penetration D-5 . and the type of particles used. compared with ultrasonic or radiographic equipment.CEMP-E 3. Particles attracted to discontinuities remain on the surface at the discontinuity. (3) A source of electric power is necessary. The MT technician then evaluates the location and nature of the indicating particles. which directly magnetize the steel through direct contact with the steel and the induction of current flow in the steel. Magnetic particle testing uses the relationship between electricity and magnetism to induce magnetic fields in the steel. then removed with gentle dusting or application of air. (8) Existing coatings may reduce the effectiveness of MT. After the area has been magnetized. removal of magnetic particles is quick and thorough. commonly in the form of iron powder colored for better visibility. Although opinions vary as to the maximum depth that can be effectively inspected using MT. or with a yoke. Inspection with AC is generally limited to surface-breaking and very near-surface discontinuities.) is generally considered the deepest discontinuity that can be detected under good conditions. (10) MT is effective for detecting surface-breaking discontinuities such as cracks and laminations. attracted to the magnetic poles. (5) More training is necessary for MT. (7) After inspection. (9)The depth of inspectability depends upon the equipment. are dusted onto the magnetized surface. (4) Inspection costs are generally equal to or slightly more than PT. MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT). A permanent record of detected discontinuities can be made with the use of transparent adhesive tape or photography. but substantially less than that required for UT or RT. Cracks and other discontinuities on or near the surface disturb the lines of magnetic force. slag inclusions. selection of current. incomplete fusion. essentially acting as poles of a magnet. attracting the magnetic particles. Advantages and Disadvantages. (1) The magnetic fields can be induced using either prods. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. laminations. Tight lines are indicative of surface cracks or other discontinuities. It is also effective for cracks. (2) The equipment is relatively inexpensive. Method Description. (2) MT equipment may be operated either DC (rectified AC) or AC. which does not transfer electrical current but provides magnetic flux between the two elements of the yoke. not delaying repairs or affecting coating application. 8 mm (5/16 in. (1) MT is relatively fast and economical. Subsurface cracks and slag inclusions would show a broader indication. and is considered more effective for surface discontinuities because the particles are more mobile. b. DC provides higher magnetization levels which allows for inspection for discontinuities somewhat below the surface. Magnetic particles. the particles are applied. (6) MT can be performed effectively while the joint is still warm from welding or postheating.

6 .2 .) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove Least Applicable Microcracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity Elongated Cavity “Worm Hole” Burn-Through Miscellaneous Surface Discontinuities (Spatter.) Lap. Magnetic Particle Testing Most Applicable D i s c o n t i n u i t y Lap.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 if slightly below the surface. See Table D-3. 6-15 mm (0. etc.2 in. Rounded discontinuities such as porosity do not disturb the magnetic flux lines sufficiently to be effectively detected.) Joint Geometry Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Transverse Cracks Radiating Cracks Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Surface Pore Shrinkage Cavity Crater Pipe Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Incomplete Fusion (Root) Incomplete Penetration Undercut Overlap Lap. < 6 mm (< 0.6 in.50 mm (0.0.) Lap.2 in. Table D-3. 16 .) One-Side Only Access Single-V Groove D-6 . > 50 mm (> 2 in.

can be determined by close evaluation of the reflected signals. ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT). (1) Ultrasonic testing is a highly sensitive method of NDT. including calibration. and weld acceptance criteria. it is less capable of directly sizing discontinuities or determining discontinuity height without the use of advanced techniques. or the opposite face of the steel. with experienced and qualified UT technicians tested in the use of the procedures. Ultrasonic testing requires specialized equipment to produce and receive precise ultrasonic waves induced into the steel using piezoelectric materials. the location. then use computer software systems to produce representative two-dimensional images. recording and printing display screen images with input data. (3) Although capable of locating discontinuities and measuring discontinuity length. but is available and sometimes used for very complex and critical inspections. Advantages and Disadvantages. b. (1) AWS D1.1 Section 6. The vibration is introduced into the steel at a known angle. and can be incorporated into project inspection through the use of AWS D1. Report forms.) to 200 mm (8 in. Locations of discontinuities can be determined using the display screen scale and simple geometry. discontinuity lengths and locations for weld discontinuities. Such provisions are necessary when using miniature transducers. Annex K requires the use of written UT procedures specific to the application. or scanning angles other than those prescribed. Very sophisticated automated UT equipment can record the transducer location and the corresponding reflections. either of which reflects energy back to the transducer unit or another receiving transducer. Part F provides the UT inspection procedures. Method Description. The vibration is transmitted into the steel from the transducer using a liquid couplant. (2) More expensive and sophisticated UT equipment can be operated in digital mode.1 provisions are applicable for thickness ranges from 8 mm (5/16 in. and is capable of detecting discontinuity in welds and base metal in a wide variety of joint applications and thicknesses. which converts electrical energy into vibration energy. The unit sends electric pulses into the piezoelectric crystal. more complex inspection methods can be used to locate.1 Annex K provisions. scanning methods. (2) AWS D1. (3) Even with conventional equipment. if any. alternate frequencies. The vibration pulse travels through the steel until it strikes a discontinuity. depending upon the design of the transducer. These techniques include tip diffraction and time-of-flight techniques.CEMP-E 4. including reflected signal strength. generally hand written. and transducer angles. unless located in specific regions such as along edges. The speed of travel of the vibration in steel is also known.) Both thinner and thicker materials may be examined and evaluated using UT. Such equipment is rarely used in normal construction inspection applications. from various directions. of the inspected area and discontinuities. relative size and nature of the discontinuity. evaluate and size weld discontinuities. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. with a known frequency and waveform. scanning faces. Using a system of calibration and measurements. Small reflections are generally ignored. and also provides for alternate acceptance criteria in lieu of the tables found in Section 6. but Annex K must be used for technique and acceptance. D-7 .1. Part F of AWS D1. are prepared by the UT technician. recording weld discontinuities and other material discontinuities that exceed the acceptance criteria specified.

the cost of RT equipment. it is difficult to distinguish between the unfused root face and discontinuities near the root. depending upon the quality of the weld to be inspected. Smooth surfaces. and sometimes exceeds. discontinuities which are generally most detrimental to joint performance when oriented transverse to the direction of loading. but such rounded discontinuities are rarely detrimental to joint performance. slag lines. When backing bars remain in place. It is ineffective for fillet welds unless very large. A good quality weld will provide few responses. UT is the best method for detection of the most serious weld discontinuties in a wide variety of thicknesses and joints. With partial joint penetration groove welds. A difficult configuration. are necessary to evaluate the entire depth of many welds unless the weld face is ground flush. not as accurate or as reliable as first-leg inspections. The cost of more sophisticated UT units capable of computer-generated imaging approaches. D-8 . (6) The cost of the equipment is considerably more that MT. of UT inspection can vary greatly.). also providing a weak response. or lack of penetration or fusion at the root. would redirect a signal and provide a weak response unless oriented perpendicular to the pulse. Rounded and cylindrical discontinuities such as porosity disperse the signal. and considerably less than RT. Laminations and lamellar tears are also easily detected. will require numerous time-consuming evaluations and recording of test data. the interference of the web with inspection of the bottom flange makes direct evaluation of the area beneath the weld access hole difficult. and therefore cost. and therefore reflect signals even when not exactly perpendicular to the direction of the pulse. The time. it is difficult to distinguish between the backing bar interface and cracks. or a poor quality weld. (7) UT indications are difficult to interpret in certain geometric applications. In welded beam-to-column moment connections. such as unfused root faces. requiring little evaluation time. and then only for the root area for fillet welds above approximately 18 mm (3/4 in. (8) UT is best suited for planar discontinuities such as cracks and lack of fusion. but also much less than RT. See Table D-4. These discontinuities tend to be irregular with rough surfaces.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (4) A primary disadvantage of ultrasonic testing is that it is highly dependent upon the skill of the UT technician. (9) The cost of ultrasonic testing is considerably more than PT or MT. Discontinuities located just below the weld or material surface are also difficult to detect. However. Slag inclusions are irregular and provide easily identifiable responses. Second-leg inspections.

0.2 in. 16 .) Lap.2 .CEMP-E Table D-4. 6-15 mm (0.) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove D-9 .6 in.2 in.) Lap.50 mm (0. < 6 mm (< 0.6 .) One-Side Only Access Single-V Groove D i s c o n t i n u i t y Joint Geometry Lap. Ultrasonic Testing Most Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Applicable Transverse Cracks Radiating Cracks Elongated Cavity Solid Inclusion Slag or Flux Inclusion Oxide Inclusion Metallic Inclusion Incomplete Fusion (Root) Incomplete Penetration Burn-Through Irregular Bead Poor Restart TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Least Applicable Microcracks Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity “Worm Hole” Surface Pore Shrinkage Cavity Crater Pipe Undercut Excessive Reinforcement Excessive Convexity Excessive Penetration Overlap Misalignment Underfilled Groove Root Concavity Lap. > 50 mm (> 2 in.

As a consequence. Real-time radiography uses a fluoroscope to receive radiation. Because they are usually volumetric in cross-section. (8) RT is a potential radiation hazard to personnel.CEMP-E 5. (9) The cost of radiographic equipment. (4) To be detected. The two types of radiation sources commonly used in weld inspection are x-ray machines and radioactive isotopes. Because of the constantly changing thickness for the exposure. and related licensing is higher than any other NDT process. typically.) of steel.1. (1) RT can detect subsurface porosity. RT is not effective when testing fillet welds or groove welds in tee or corner joints. Advantages and Disadvantages. The film provides a permanent record of the inspection. (10) There is usually a significant waiting time between the testing process and the availability of results. (1) X-rays are produced by portable units capable of radiographing relatively thin objects. some scattered. (7) RT is generally unaffected by grain structure. an imperfection must be oriented roughly parallel to the radiation beam. a 400 kV unit to 75 mm (3 in. Radiographic Testing (RT) uses a radioactive source and. See Table D-5.) of steel. Image Quality Indicators (IQIs) are used to verify the quality and sensitivity of the image. and strict safety regulations must be monitored and enforced. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. voids. and aid in characterizing and locating discontinuities for repair. (3) RT is limited to butt joint applications by AWS D1. and some transmitted through the weld onto the film. Most conventional RT techniques involve exposures that record a permanent image on film. A large 2000 kV X-ray unit is capable of penetrating approximately 200 mm (8 in. a film imaging process similar to X-ray film. (6) The radiographic images provide a permanent record for future review. discontinuities such as porosity or slag are readily detected. slag. safety programs. and a 200 kV unit to 25 mm (1 in. The three most common RT isotopes are cobalt 60. some radiation is absorbed. (5) The limitations on RT sensitivity are such that discontinuities smaller than about 1½ percent of the metal thickness may not be detected. cracks. facilities. and lack of fusion. Cobalt 60 can effectively penetrate up to approximately 230 mm (9 in.). When a weld is exposed to penetrating radiation. and iridium 192. D-10 . Method Description. cesium 137.) of steel. b.) of steel. RT may miss laminations and cracks parallel to the film surface. and iridium 192 to 75 mm (3 in. (2) Radioisotopes are used to emit gamma radiation. cesium 137 to 100 mm (4 in. particularly helpful with ESW and EGW welds.). then presents an on-screen image for evaluation. irregularities. although other image recording methods are also used. (2) Accessibility to both sides of the weld is required. RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING (RT).

2 in.6 .) Lap.6 in.2 in. < 6 mm (< 0. 6-15 mm (0.50 mm (0.0. Radiographic Testing Most Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Transverse Cracks Radiating Cracks Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity Elongated Cavity “Worm Hole” Solid Inclusion Slag or Flux Inclusion Oxide Inclusion Metallic Inclusion Incomplete Fusion (Root) Incomplete Penetration Lap.) Single-V Groove D-11 . > 50 mm (> 2 in.) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove Applicable Surface Pore Shrinkage Cavity Crater Pipe Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Undercut Excessive Reinforcement Excessive Convexity Excessive Penetration Burn-Through Underfilled Groove Root Concavity Miscellaneous Surface Discontinuities (Spatter. 16 .2 . etc.) Lap.) TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Least Applicable Microcracks Overlap D i s c o n t i n u i t y Joint Geometry Lap.CEMP-E Table D-5.

TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Because of severe limitations in applicability.CEMP-E 6. the use of eddy current. acoustic emission. OTHER METHODS. or other methods not mentioned above is discouraged. D-12 .

TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Technical Instructions Welding Design Procedures And Inspections Headquarters US Army Corps of Engineers Engineering and Construction Division Directorate of Military Programs Washington. DC 20314-1000 .

Procedures and Inspection dated 20 May 1985 ..CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 TECHNICAL INSTRUCTIONS WELDING . Approved for public release. Use of the copyrighted material apart from this document must have the permission of the copyright holder. Date Location This Technical Instruction supersedes TM 5-805-7./1/) No..DESIGN PROCEDURES AND INSPECTIONS Any copyrighted material included in this document is identified at its point of use. Record of Changes (changes indicated \1\. Welding Design. distribution is unlimited.

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 FOREWORD These technical instructions (TI) provide design and construction criteria and apply to all U.ccb. Hard copies of these instructions produced by the user from the electronic media should be checked against the current electronic version prior to use to assure that the latest instructions are used. NW.mil/technifo/index. technical content of TI is the responsibility of the HQUSACE element of the discipline involved. TI are distributed only in electronic media through the TECHINFO Internet site http://www. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) commands having military construction responsibilities.army. TI will be used for all Army projects and for projects executed for other military services or work for other customers where appropriate. with rationale for the changes. DC 20314-1000. ATTN: CEMP-ET. updated. BERANEK. Chief. CEMP-ET is responsible for administration of the TI system. TI are effective upon issuance. FOR THE COMMANDER: DWIGHT A.S.usace. Engineering and Construction Division Directorate of Military Programs . Recommended changes to TI.hnd. Washington.E. TI are living documents and will be periodically reviewed. 20 Massachusetts Ave. should be sent to HQUSACE. P. and made available to users as part of the HQUSACE responsibility for technical criteria and policy for new military construction.org/html/home/..htm and the Construction Criteria Base (CCB) system maintained by the National Institute of Building Sciences at Internet site http://www.

. . . . . . . . . . GENERAL Paragraph 1. . . . . 2-1 2. 2-3 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY . 2-1 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . TI 809-05 Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation for Buildings . . . . . . TI 809-07 Design of Cold-Formed Load Bearing Steel Systems and Masonry Veneer / Steel Stud Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A2. . . . . . . ASD . . . . . . . . D1. . . . . . . . USACE AND OTHER MILITARY DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . .Steel . . . . . . . . APPLICABLE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS Paragraph 1. . . . . D1. . 2-4 4. . . 2-3 e. . . . . . . . New Materials . . . . . . .1 Structural Welding Code . . 2-1 e. . . . TM 5-809-6 Structural Design Criteria for Structures Other than Buildings 2-2 3. . . . . . 2-2 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 h. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manual of Steel Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Code of Standard Practice . . . . . . . Metric Load and Resistance Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 c. . . 2-2 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 c. Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brazing and Nondestructive Testing 2-4 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manual of Steel Construction. . Metric Conversion . Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings . . . . . 2-3 g. . . . . . 2-1 c. . .Reinforcing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . TI 809-02 Structural Design Criteria for Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standards Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TI 809-04 Seismic Design for Buildings . Manual of Steel Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 5. . . . 2-1 d. . . . TI 809-30 Metal Building Systems . . . . 2-4 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 d. . . . . . Specification Cycles . . . . . . . . . .CEMP-E WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. APPLICABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 f. . 2. TI 809-01 Load Assumptions for Buildings . . . . . 2-1 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AWS SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS . . D1. . . . . . . . LRFD . . 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 CHAPTER 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 d. . . . Specification Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . .4 Standard Symbols for Welding. . .Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LRFD. . . 2. Specification for Structural Steel Buildings . . . . . PURPOSE AND SCOPE .4 Structural Welding Code . . . 2-2 g. . . . .Sheet Steel . . . . Preferred Design Methodology . . . . .DESIGN PROCEDURES AND INSPECTIONS Table of Contents TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Page CHAPTER 1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 a. . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 b. . . . . . .3 Structural Welding Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AISC SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 c. . . . . . . . . A5-series Filler Metal Related Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 a. . . . 2-5 i . . .

. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . Plasma Arc Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FEMA 302 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for new Buildings and Other Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preheat for Non-prequalified Applications . . . . . . . . . . ii 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-6 4-8 4-8 . . . . . . . . . . . f. . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oxyfuel Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FEMA 267 Replacement . . . . . . . . d. . . . . . . . . . . . . APPLICATION OF HEAT FOR WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Heating and Thermal Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carbon Equivalency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . Matching Filler Metals for Non-qualified Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STRUCTURAL STEELS Paragraph 1. . . . Matching Filler Metals for Prequalified Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical Composition . . . . . . . AWS Approved Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . Maximum Temperatures . . . . WELDABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . .Weld Heat-Affected Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f. . . . . Preheat for Sheet Steel to Structural Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 CHAPTER 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Postheat (PWHT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Finishing . Preheat for Prequalified Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . Yield to Ultimate Strength Ratio . APPLICATION OF HEAT FOR STRAIGHTENING AND CAMBERING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 c. . . . . . . . . b. . . b. . . . d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d. . . . . . c. . . . . . Cooling Rate Control . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-6 3-6 3-6 3-6 CHAPTER 4. . . . . . . . . . AISC AND AWS LISTED STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . e. . . . . . . . . . . . . AISC Approved Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AIR CARBON ARC GOUGING . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unlisted Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 b. . . . . . . . . PROPERTY ENHANCEMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . . . . . . Cambering Procedure . WELDING AND RELATED PROCESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . THERMAL CUTTING . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FEMA 273 NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings 2-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . Interpass Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WELDING PROCESSES AND MATERIALS Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . Edge Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Interim Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . FEMA 267 & 267B Steel Moment Frame Structures .Welding . . . . . . . . . d. . . . . . . . . . . . . Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. . . . . . . . . b. . a. . . . . . b. . . . . . AWS Prequalified Steels . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13 CHAPTER 5. . . . HIGH SEISMIC APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brittle Fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . Latest Guidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cold Weather Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GOOD DESIGN PRACTICE . . . . . . . . . . Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DESIGN FOR WELDING Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 a. . . . . . Allowable Stresses / Design Strengths . . . 5-8 l. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heavy Section Joint Provisions . 5-10 c. . . . . . . . . . . . Fatigue Life Enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . . DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WELDED JOINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8 m. . . . 5-6 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Killed Steel . . . 5-1 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Materials Concerns and Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Joint Selection . . . . . . . Backing Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 a. . . Distortion . . Welding Sequence and Distortion Control . Lamellar Tearing . . . . . . . . . . Weld Access Holes . . . . . . . . . 5-6 g. . . . . . . . . . . . GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12 d. . . . . . . . Joint Selection . . . . . . Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 c. . . . . 5-1 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 c. . . . . . . 5-3 f. . . . . . . . . . . Reentrant Corners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Available Design Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fatigue Design Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 c. . . Fatigue Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stress Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Toughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Improved Through-thickness Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualified Joint Details . . . . . . . . . 5-11 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. . . 5-6 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 2. . . . . . . . Prequalified Joint Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Fillet Weld Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineer’s Responsibility . . . Equipment and Personnel . . . . . . . 5-2 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High Stress / Strain / Restraint Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 e. . . . . . 5-12 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DESIGN FOR CYCLICALLY LOADED STRUCTURES (FATIGUE) . . . . . . 4-13 5. . 5-12 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . 5-11 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SELECTION OF STRUCTURAL STEELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE AND SERVICE APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fine Grain Practice . . . . . . 5-6 h. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 g. . . Minimum / Maximum Weld Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12 d. . . . . . . 5-1 c. . . Normalizing . . . . . . . 5-9 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . Effective Weld Size / Throat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 i. . 5-13 iii . . . . . . . . . . . . Availability of Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . AVAILABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 j. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 f. . . . . . . . 4-10 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 b. . . . . . . Weld Tabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 d. . . . . . . . High-seismic Applications . . .

. . . . b. . . . . . Other Processes . . . . . . GENERAL . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . Joint Detail Modifications and Enhancements . . . . . . . . AWS Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . STUD WELDING PROCESS . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carbon Equivalency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRE-PRODUCTION TESTING . . . . Qualification Testing by Others . . . . . . . . . . . Inspection Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . STRENGTH REDUCTION EFFECTS AND OTHER CONCERNS WHEN WELDING UNDER LOAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WPS Qualification Requirements . . . . . . . . . . STUD BASE QUALIFICATION . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-2 CHAPTER 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . Guidance for Engineering Review of Procedures Submitted by Contractors . . . . . . . . d. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g. . . . 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-2 CHAPTER 7. . . . WPS Prequalification Limits . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REVIEWING AND APPROVING WELDING PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Direction and Sequence . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . DETERMINING WELDABILITY OF EXISTING STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSPECTION . . WPS Contents . QUALITY ASSURANCE AND INSPECTION Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Welding and Visual Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . 2. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . AISC Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STUD WELDING Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Investigation . . . . . . . Contractor Responsibilities . . GENERAL . . . . . . . . f. . Elevated Temperature Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WELDING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-2 8-2 8-2 8-2 8-2 8-3 8-3 8-3 8-3 8-3 . . . . c. . . . . . . . WELDING TO OLDER STRUCTURAL STEELS . . . . . . . . . Personnel Classification . . . . INSPECTOR QUALIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. WELDING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . 5-13 f. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Qualification Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13 CHAPTER 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FCAW-S Deposits . . . . . . . . a. . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . INTERMIXING WELD PROCESSES AND FILLER METALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . 2. . . . WELDING TO EXISTING STRUCTURES Paragraph 1. . . . . . d. . . . . . . . . . . Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8 f. . . . . . . 8-5 c. . Fumes and Gases . . v 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-2 10-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8 e. . . . Laminations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STAINLESS STEEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mislocated Holes . . . 6. . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. CAST IRON . . . Burn Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BRIDGES . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineer’s Responsibility for Acceptance Criteria . MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER WELDING SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS Paragraph 1.1 Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . Weld Discontinuities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . REINFORCING STEEL . . NDT Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . SAFETY . . OTHER GOVERNING SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . AWWA . . . 8-4 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13 CHAPTER 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WROUGHT IRON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAFETY & ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13 c. . . . . . 8. . . . . 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 CHAPTER 10. . . . Prior to Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NDT Personnel Qualification . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSPECTION CATEGORIES AND TASKS . . . . . . . . . . 8-9 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . REPAIRS TO BASE METAL AND WELDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TUBULAR STRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHEET STEEL WELDING . . Root Opening Corrections . . . . . . . Mill Defects . 8-13 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Confined Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D1. Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . After Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WELD QUALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13 e. Electrocution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . During Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALUMINUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAST STEEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . Nondestructive Testing Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternate Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . 8-5 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6 d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . Pre-project Inspection . . . . . . Eye Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASME . . . . . 4. . . . . 8-12 7. . . . . . . . . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . Process Principles . . C-15 a. . . . . C-8 a. . . . . . . . . . Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS Paragraph 1. . . . . . . . . 10-3 APPENDIX A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-29 ELECTROSLAG WELDING (ESW) . . . . . . . . . Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . . . . . . Specification and Certification . . . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages. . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 3. A-1 APPENDIX B. . . . . . . . . . PENETRANT TESTING (PT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-31 a. . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Method Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . REFERENCES . . Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 g. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filler Metal Designation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specification and Certification . . . . . . C-31 ELECTROGAS WELDING (EGW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-31 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-29 b. . Advantages. C-16 SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW) . . . . . . . . C-21 a. . . . . Specification and Certification . . . . Advantages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . C-29 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1 c. . . . . . . . . . . . WELDING PROCESSES Paragraph 1. C-9 GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. . . . . . . . . . . C-23 GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW) . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX D. . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Guidance . . . . . . . . . Advantages. . . Advantages. . . . . . 6 7. . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi D-1 D-1 D-1 D-3 D-3 . . . . . . C-3 FLUX CORED ARC WELDING (FCAW) . . . . . . . . Filler Metal Designation. . . . . C-29 a. . . C-33 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specification and Certification . . . . . C-33 2. . . . . . . C-21 b. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-22 c. C-15 c. . . . . . . . . . . . C-15 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-33 a. . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VISUAL TESTING (VT) . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . C-8 b. . . . . . . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . Method Description . . . . . . . . . . Specification and Certification . . . . . Advantages. . . Disadvantages and Limitations . . . . Specification and Certification . . . Process Principles . . . . . . . . . C-8 c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-31 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENERGY CONSUMPTION . . . . . . C-33 c. . . . . Filler Metal Designation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1 APPENDIX C. . . . . . C-1 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Principles . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-12 vii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . . . D-3 3. . Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Method Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Method Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-10 6. . . . . . . . D-10 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . . D-10 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-7 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5 a. . . . . Advantages and Disadvantages . ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) . . D-5 b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-7 5. . . . . . . . . . . D-7 a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5 4. . . . . . . . . . . MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER METHODS . . . . . Method Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. . . . . . . . . . . RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING (RT) . . .

and the design and specification of welded details. bridges. fully or partially enclosed. inspection and quality. standards and materials. A bibliography of publications that provides additional information and background data is in Appendix B. A building is defined as any structure. Appendix A contains a list of references pertaining to this document. use of technical manuals. used or intended for sheltering persons or property. APPLICABILITY. This includes information on design approaches. This document provides criteria and guidance for the design and specification of welded structural components and systems in accordance with current technology. 1-1 . sheet steels. The scope of this document is welding for general building construction for military applications. guidance on the application of codes and industry standards. or the welding of materials other than structural steel. 4. 3. or cryogenic applications. and does not include underwater. piping. BIBLIOGRAPHY.CEMP-E CHAPTER 1 GENERAL TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE. REFERENCES. 2. These instructions are applicable to all USACE elements having military construction responsibilities.

General structural design guidance for buildings. c. It may be necessary to take exceptions to various code provisions. the filler metal specifications are being revised for metrication. Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). 2-1 . is a more modern probabilistic approach also known as limit states design. and new standards that may be published. which provides adequate strength based upon service load conditions. industry standards. and resistance (strength reduction) factors applied to the nominal resistance of the component to achieve a design strength.1 code is also being fully metricated for the year 2000. may not be listed in the codes for periods of several years because of the adoption and printing cycles. or cited by reference. 2. The second method.CEMP-E CHAPTER 2 APPLICABLE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. or to expand the code provisions through the use of the project specifications. to resolve conflicting issues and to permit new materials. The first method is Allowable Stress Design (ASD).Steel. the standards and specifications are in a constant cycle of revision. a. Navy. and technical manuals developed by the Army. Specification Cycles. The AWS D1. USACE AND OTHER MILITARY DOCUMENTS. as the AISC Specification does with AWS D1. steel and wood is presented in this TI document. masonry. Preferred Design Methodology. Except as designated within the document. TI 809-02 Structural Design Criteria for Buildings. and the varying dates of adoption and publication. and for building systems constructed of concrete. for suitable application. Users of this document should evaluate the various standards listed. Conflicts may arise between codes as new research and methods are adopted in one code before another. The use of the LRFD method is preferred over the use of the ASD method. The American Institute of Steel Construction provides two methodologies for the design of steel-framed buildings. This document provides minimum snow and wind loads plus frost penetration data to be used in the design and construction of buildings and other structures. TI 809-01 Load Assumptions for Buildings. b. LRFD uses load factors and load combinations applied to service loads. with independent dimensional units and values.1. Those values established as of the date of this document have been adopted. Because of the varying focus of each standard or specification. All loads are assumed to have the same variability. e. Both methods are in current practice. as listed. Within AWS standards. GENERAL. New steels and welding materials. b. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. adopted by the industry. are based on national building codes. listing those exceptions in AISC Specification section J1. Building design and welding design are governed by a variety of specifications and standards. New Materials. and Air Force. There are also specific exceptions one code may take with another. Others may change with the publication of the D1. Standards Evaluation. Specification Conflicts. Buildings are categorized according to occupancy. The design requirements provided herein. a. d. but is not required.12000 Structural Welding Code .2. all loadings are based upon ASCE 7-95.

c. Metric Load and Resistance Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. will be published by AISC in early 2000. containing both SI and US Customary Units within one document. The LRFD Specification contains provisions regarding welding design and application. g. but does not provide specific details for welded connections in those systems. and it provides criteria for the design and analysis of buildings with enhanced performance objectives. and Section M contains limited supplemental information regarding quality and inspection. Navy. This document provides design guidance on the use of cold-formed steel systems for both loadbearing and nonload-bearing applications. and meet serviceability and strength performance objectives is also included in the TI. and therefore are not covered by TI 809-26. a. TI 809-30 Metal Building Systems. 2-2 .Sheet Steel. rather than AWS D1. Section J contains design provisions. b. covering and accessories. Section J contains design provisions. defined as a complete integrated set of mutually dependent components and assemblies that form a building. It is anticipated that a new LRFD Specification. Revise as needed. The principles and concepts of these two specifications (metric and customary) are identical. is based upon AWS D1. TI 809-05 Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation for Buildings. These types of structures were previously referred to as pre-engineered buildings. This document provides qualified designers with the criteria and guidance for the performance-based seismic analysis and design of new military buildings. AISC SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS. This metric specification is a dimensional conversion of the December 1. This document provides guidance in the interpretation and implementation of the FEMA 302 provisions for the Life Safety performance objective for all buildings. and the nonstructural systems and components in the buildings. Supplemental information to help engineers interpret and apply code provisions. f. The Metric LRFD Specification. d.i addresses welding for manufacturers not AISC certified in Category MB. TI 809-07 Design of Cold-Formed Load Bearing Steel Systems and Masonry Veneer / Steel Stud Walls. This document provides guidance on the use of Metal Building Systems.1-92. only the units differ. This document will become TI 809-03. Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. This document is intended to provide qualified designers with the necessary criteria and guidance for the performance-based seismic analysis and design of new military buildings. and Air Force facilities are indicated. including primary and secondary framing. published in 1994. and Section M contains limited supplemental information regarding quality and inspection. The Metric LRFD Specification contains provisions regarding welding design and application. e.3 Structural Welding Code . TI 809-04 Seismic Design for Buildings. TM 5-809-6 Structural Design Criteria for Structures Other Than Buildings. 3. 1993 customary units edition.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Instructions necessary to provide serviceable buildings and to assure load path integrity and continuity is included.Steel. The primary basis for this document is the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures (FEMA 302). and the non-structural systems and components in those buildings. Chapter 7 includes discussion of structural steel framing systems. Cold-formed steel members are generally of a thickness that welding is governed by AWS D1. Paragraph 5. Requirements unique to Army.1 Structural Welding Code . and takes exception to certain provisions of that edition.

Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings. LRFD. Chapter 10 for Fully Restrained (FR) Moment Connections. and Seismic Use Group III when SDS >= 0. d. filler metal toughness requirements. Design examples are contained within Chapter 9 for Simple Shear and PR Moment Connections. Chapter 8 includes prequalified joint details. See TI 809-04. Part I. and have been substantially revised in subsequent editions of AWS D1. tables for eccentrically loaded fillet welds. The Manual contains welding design aids in Volume II . The provisions are for the members and connections that comprise the Seismic Force Resisting System (SFRS) in buildings that are classified as Seismic Design Category D or higher in FEMA 302. Design examples are contained within Chapter 9 for Simple Shear and PR Moment Connections. will be published by AISC in early 2000. containing provisions regarding Welding Procedure Specification approvals. ASD.1-96 as the reference welding standard. is applicable. The ASD Specification. design examples. It is applicable for use in either LRFD or ASD.1-92. e. The ASD Specification contains provisions regarding welding design and application. AWS welding symbols. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. The AISC Manual of Steel Construction contains informational tables and design aids. and special concerns for discontinuities in SFRS members. and Quality Control in Section 8. Section 7. These structures include all buildings with an SDS >= 0. Section J contains design provisions.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 The LRFD Specification. and takes exception to certain provisions of that edition. It is anticipated that a new LRFD Specification. Manual of Steel Construction.1-92. and general information regarding welding. and Section M contains limited supplemental information regarding quality and inspection. c. Fabrication in Section 6.1.1. Chapter 10 for Fully Restrained (FR) Moment Connections. as well as the AISC Specifications themselves.3 is applicable to welded joints. is based upon AWS D1. Within the document.Connections. LRFD. The AISC Manual of Steel Construction contains informational 2-3 . g. The Seismic Provisions document cites AWS D1. and have been substantially revised in subsequent editions of AWS D1. h. The AISC Code of Standard Practice defines practices adopted as commonly accepted standards of the structural steel fabricating industry. Specification for Structural Steel Buildings . AWS welding symbols. Manual of Steel Construction. One is cautioned that the welded prequalified joint tables are based upon AWS D1. The Manual contains welding design aids in Volume II .1-88. published in 1989.33g (SD1 >= 0. Manual of Steel Construction. and is in two volumes. containing both SI and US Customary Units within one document. This AISC document addresses the design and construction of structural steel and composite steel / reinforced concrete building systems in seismic regions. and general information regarding welding.133g). In the absence of other contract documents. One is cautioned that the welded prequalified joint tables are based upon AWS D1.Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design. When using LRFD. Code of Standard Practice. Erection in Section 7. published in 1993. and takes exception to certain provisions of AWS D1.50g (SD1 >= 0. Chapter 8 includes prequalified joint details.Connections. and Chapter 11 for Connections for Tension and Compression. design examples. Publication of an updated or new ASD Specification is not being planned by AISC. Materials are discussed in Section 5. The AISC Manual of Steel Construction contains informational tables and design aids. Chapter 4. Metric Conversion. the Manual of Steel Construction. is based upon the use of AWS D1.1-92. the trade practices of the document govern the fabrication and erection of structural steel. as well as the AISC Specifications themselves. tables for eccentrically loaded fillet welds. 2nd Edition.20g).1. and Chapter 11 for Connections for Tension and Compression. f.

packaging. and Chapter 6 contains Column Connections. 3. (5) Fabrication.4 contains standards for the application of welding symbols on structural design and detail drawings. and (8) Strengthening and Repair. c. D1. and the astested mechanical properties (strength. except Sections 7 and 8 are not included. and design examples. and reinforcing steel to other carbon and low-alloy steels. The 9th Edition of the Manual contains welding design aids in Part 4 . 4. (4) Workmanship. for given general types of electrodes and given welding processes. or when welding to other thicker structural members. in even years. With the latter application. and Part C covers Nondestructive Examination Symbols. The D1. chemical composition of the electrode. e. (2) Allowable Stresses. Welding of reinforcing steel to reinforcing steel. and have been substantially revised in subsequent editions of AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code . storage. Part A of the document covers Welding Symbols.4 Structural Welding Code .2 mm (1/8 in. Brazing and Nondestructive Testing.Connections. as well as the AISC Specifications themselves. D1. Chapter 2 contains general information regarding welding. Volume II . A5-series Filler Metal Related Specifications.Steel. The D1.4 covers the welding of reinforcing steel.1. a. (2) Design of Welded Connections. Chapter 4 contains Moment Connections. and includes the following sections: (1) General Provisions. The requirements include.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 tables and design aids. It also contains both mandatory and nonmandatory annexes. b. of minimum specified yield strength not greater than 690 MPa (100 ksi).3 covers arc welding of sheet and strip steels.1 Code is limited to carbon and low-alloy steels. moisture content.4 Standard Symbols for Welding. as used in concrete construction. including prequalified joint details. (4) Qualification. ANSI/AWS D1. ANSI/AWS A2.) in nominal thickness. and (7) Inspection.8 mm (3/16 in. AWS SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS. The symbols and use specified in this document supersedes symbols that may be shown in other AWS and industry documents. (3) Structural Details. and shielding gases. (5) Technique. plus commentary.1 contains the requirements for fabricating and erecting welded steel structures. as they may be incorrect or outdated in the other documents. A2. ANSI/AWS D1. Chapter 3 contains design examples for Simple Shear Connections.3 Structural Welding Code . Part B covers Brazing Symbols. (6) Inspection. With the latter application. D1. usability. It is not applicable to pressure vessel or pressure piping applications. D1. as well as examples of their use. tables for eccentrically loaded fillet welds. It is updated biannually. certifications. markings. The A52-4 .3.1-88. d.Sheet Steel. (6) Qualification. (3) Prequalification. fluxes. plus annexes. arc seam. The 9th Edition ASD Manual is supplemented by a separate book.3 Code is applicable when welding sheet steels to other sheet steels. (7) Stud Welding.1 is also required for the structural steel. One is cautioned that the welded prequalified joint tables are based upon AWS D1. as applicable. AWS welding symbols. the use of AWS D1.) in thickness or greater. An Appendix or Annex is provided to explain the provisions and provide additional information. D1. and arc plug welds are included in the Code. the use of AWS D1. ductility.1 is also required for the structural steel.Reinforcing Steel. as applicable. Arc spot.1 contains eight sections: (1) General Requirements. The D1. and toughness) and soundness of weld metal. ANSI/AWS D1.1 and D1.4 follows a different organizational structure than AWS D1.1. including cold-formed members that are equal to or less than 4.Connections.3 Code contents are similar to AWS D1. is covered. ANSI/AWS A5-series documents establish the requirements for electrodes.

A second advisory. masonry. Not included in the provisions are certain classes of one-and two-family residential structures. FEMA 267 Replacement. stacks and chimneys. concrete. mechanical and electrical components. wood and light metal. based upon the results of the SAC Joint Venture Phase 2 project. constructing and inspecting new buildings. A series of five new documents are planned for publication in early 2000. 2-5 . FEMA 267 and 267B Steel Moment Frame Structures . and (4) Quality Assurance Guidelines for Moment-Resisting Steel Frame Construction. d. FEMA 302 provides minimum design criteria for the design and construction of structures to resist earthquake motions. replacing FEMA 267A.References. related building components. based upon information available as of August 1996. (2) Post-Earthquake Evaluation and Repair Criteria for Welded Moment-Resisting Steel Frame Construction. FEMA 267B. and several other structures. post-earthquake evaluation and inspection of existing buildings. tanks and vessels. The Guidelines include information regarding the pre-earthquake evaluation and inspection of existing buildings. Phase 1 project. 5. and structures in areas of low seismicity. was published in mid-1999. Included are provisions for foundations. agricultural structures. masonry structures.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 series specifications applicable to structural steel are listed in Appendix A . including foundations and architectural. and (5) Recommended Specifications for Moment-Resisting Steel Frame Buildings.Interim Guidelines. FEMA 267A was published as an additional advisory to FEMA 267. piers and wharves. c. concrete structures. retrofitting existing damaged and undamaged buildings. steel structures. FEMA 302 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. and nonbuilding structures such as racks. seismic isolation. electrical distribution structures. with limited information regarding specific details for welding or inspection. FEMA 273 provides guidelines for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings constructed of steel or cast iron. (3) Seismic Evaluation and Upgrade Criteria for Existing Steel Moment-Resisting Frame Construction. are applicable to steel moment-resisting frame structures incorporating fully restrained connections in which the girder flanges are welded to the columns. Guideline recommendations are provided based upon research conducted under the SAC Joint Venture. b. The documents will be as follows: (1) Seismic Design Criteria for New MomentResisting Steel Frame Construction. These will supersede FEMA 267 and issued advisories. The Interim Guidelines. and designing. and are subject to significant inelastic demands from strong earthquake ground motion. FEMA 273 NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings. of TI 809-26. composite structures. a. FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY. published in 1995. repairing damaged buildings. The document is oriented toward structural analysis procedures. towers.

a. but with increased strength.Welding. at rates dependent upon initial hydrogen levels. it is adequate to simply require compliance with the codes. inspection. The contractor may be allowed the full choice of welding processes and materials.Weld Heat-Affected Zone. or testing beyond that required by the codes and standards. General . and heataffected zones. the use of low-hydrogen electrodes is encouraged. increasing the rate and time of hydrogen diffusion and reducing the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking. reducing porosity and other discontinuities. 2. Project Specifications. The use of “matching” prequalified filler metals is encouraged. General . and procedures is vital to achieving the strength and quality necessary for adequate performance in the structure. the steel remains at an elevated temperature longer. also embrittling the steel and increasing the risk of cracking. A high cooling rate may cause a hard. The HAZ is typically about 3 mm (1/8 in. Conversely. Should any limitations in the use of heat be needed beyond those specified in the codes. The microstructure has been changed. Because preheating slows the cooling rate. may have a significant effect upon the mechanical properties of the steel. and the mechanical properties typically have been degraded with reduced ductility and toughness. see Appendix C. For further guidance in the use and selection of welding processes and materials. When preheat above approximately 300oC (550oF) is used. Cooling Rate Control. a. the use of specified toughness levels for filler metals in specific seismic building applications has been added to standard practice. The heat-affected zone (HAZ) is the portion of steel immediately adjacent to the weld that has been metallurgically modified by the heat of the welding. (2) Low Cooling Rates. WELDING AND RELATED PROCESSES. The HAZ will also contain higher levels of hydrogen. Recently. (1) High Cooling Rates. from the surface to be welded. In most cases. General . Preheat is used primarily to slow the cooling rate of the heat-affected zone (HAZ). martensitic HAZ microstructure with a higher risk of cracking during cooling. Also. If the steel is manufactured using heat treatment processes. When SMAW is performed. weld metal properties may be degraded as well. the contract documents prepared by the Engineer should so state. such as 3-1 . The proper selection of welding processes. embrittling the steel. a very low cooling rate can detrimentally affect toughness because of grain growth. hydrogen from the welding operation will have migrated into the hot HAZ.) thick for common size welds. d. c. prepared by the Engineer. then subsequently been trapped within the metallurgical structure. The application of heat. cutting. materials. or welding. APPLICATION OF HEAT FOR WELDING. Preheat also aids in the removal of surface moisture and organic compounds. The contract documents. The hydrogen will eventually migrate out the HAZ. whether for straightening. thickness and temperature. weld. Preheating may also reduce residual stresses and improve the toughness of the completed joint. should specify any special requirements for materials. primarily depending upon welding heat input.Heating and Thermal Cutting.CEMP-E CHAPTER 3 WELDING PROCESSES AND MATERIALS TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. b. if present.

2 should suffice. and an electrode classified as H8 (tested under ANSI/AWS A4. so caution is advised. higher welding heat input. (4) Although not required for building applications under AWS D1. This is permitted as prequalified only for AWS Group I steels.3 for 8 mL or less of diffusible hydrogen per 100 g of deposited weld metal) or lower is used. steel composition. A summary of this table is provided as Table 3-1. provided maximum preheat levels are not exceeded. With any non-prequalified steel.3. Weldability tests have been conducted to document that the steel may be welded without preheat. it is advisable to use these values. AWS D1. preheats lower than those tabulated may be adequate for conditions of low restraint.5 provide recommended values. with suggestions in Table 3-2 for non-prequalified steels. Because of the higher diffusible hydrogen present when non-low hydrogen electrodes are used. (2) Category D is applicable to A913 steel. (3) Users are cautioned that the use of these minimum preheat tables may not be sufficient to avoid cracking in all cases. and steel compositions low in carbon and other alloys. 12. lower welding heat input. Preheat for Prequalified Applications. When low-hydrogen SMAW electrodes are used.1 Table 3. The basic values for minimum preheat temperatures for prequalified structural steels are provided in AWS D1. but is not recommended practice. preheat and interpass temperatures above 230oC (450oF) should be avoided. When steels of different categories are joined.1 Table 3. a competent welding advisor should be consulted. provided the steel temperature is above 0oC (32oF).1 Code requires the WPS to be qualified using the lower preheat value. a thermo-mechanically controlled processed (TMCP) steel that has low carbon and alloy levels. Such testing may not always adequately replicate restraint conditions. the AWS D1.1 Annex XI. higher preheats are required to allow additional time for hydrogen to escape from the heat-affected zone. use the higher preheat required for their respective thicknesses.1. For quenched and tempered steels. and AWS D1. Seismic applications with routine building structures is not considered appropriate for requiring higher levels of preheat and interpass temperatures. and restraint and allows for calculation of the estimated preheat necessary to avoid cold cracking. When higher preheats are calculated. Additional guidance for these situations may be found in AWS D1. 3-2 . the preheat can be reduced because of the reduced hydrogen levels present. For these conditions. Guideline on Alternative Methods for Determining Preheat. higher hydrogen levels. See Appendix C. Increased preheat temperatures may be necessary in situations involving higher restraint. b. low hydrogen levels.5 Bridge Welding Code Tables 12. consideration for higher preheat and interpass temperature requirements may be made for critical applications where fracture would result in a catastrophic collapse.4 and 12. Paragraph 1b.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 quenched and tempered steels. When lower preheat values are calculated. (1) Category A is applicable when non-low hydrogen SMAW electrodes are used. too high a preheat may affect steel properties by retempering the steel. or with steel compositions at the upper end of their respective specification. Conversely.2. The Guide considers hydrogen level.

) 0oC (32oF)1 10oC (50oF) 66oC (150oF) 107oC (225oF) 3-3 . Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperatures for AISC-Approved Structural Steels Prequalified under AWS D1.) (3/4 to 1-1/2 in. 50 & 50W A572. grades 36.) over 38. 100 mm (4 in.1 Category Structural Steel Material Thickness of Thickest Part at Point of Welding 3 to 19 mm (incl. GMAW or SAW 3 to 19 mm (incl.) (3/4 to 1-1/2 in. grades A and B (rectangular) A501 (round) Shapes and Plates A36 A529. grades lb. grades A and B (rectangular) A501 (round) A618. II.) Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperature 0oC (32oF)1 66oC (150oF) 107oC (225oF) 150oC (300oF) A When using SMAW with other than lowhydrogen electrodes Shapes and Plates A36 A529.1 mm (incl.1 to 63.) (1/8 to 3/4 in. or FCAW. grade 50 (shapes only) Round and Rectangular Sections A53.5 mm (incl. grade 42 A709. grades A and B (round) A500.) over 63.5 mm (2-1/2 in.) (1-1/2 to 2-1/2 in.5 mm (incl. & III (round) B When using SMAW with low-hydrogen electrodes.5 mm (2-1/2 in.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 3-1.) over 19 to 38.1 mm (incl.) (1-1/2 to 2-1/2 in.) over 19 to 38.) over 63. grades 42 and 50 A588. grade 50 A992. grades A and B (round) A500.) over 38. grade 42 A709. grade B (round) A500.) (1/8 to 3/4 in.1 to 63. grade 36 Round and Rectangular Sections A53. grade B (round) A500.) thick and under A913.

grades 60 and 65 over 19 to 38. 60.) over 63. the steel.5 mm (incl.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Material Thickness of Thickest Part at Point of Welding 3 to 19 mm (incl. must be raised to and maintained at a minimum temperature of 21oC (70oF) prior to and during welding. in the vicinity of welding. 3-4 .5 mm (2-1/2 in. GMAW or SAW D When using SMAW with lowhydrogen electrodes.1 mm (incl. with electrodes of class H8 or lower 1 Shapes and Plates A913. grades 702 A913. and 65 all thicknesses 0oC (32oF)1 .) (1/8 to 3/4 in. or FCAW. and 230oC (450oF) for thickness greater than 40 mm (1-1/2 inches).) (3/4 to 1-1/2 in.) Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperature 10oC (50oF) 66oC (150oF) 107oC (225oF) 150oC (300oF) Category Structural Steel C When using SMAW with lowhydrogen electrodes.Maximum preheat and interpass temperature of 200oC (400oF) for thicknesses up to 40 mm (1-1/2 inches) inclusive.1 to 63. grade 70W2 A852. 2 . grades 60 and 65 A709. or FCAW. Grades 50.If the steel is below 0oC (32oF).) Shapes and Plates A572.) over 38. GMAW or SAW.) (1-1/2 to 2-1/2 in.

over 4" thick Round and Rectangular Sections A500. II. When the structural steel element is of a grade or thickness requiring preheat under the provisions of AWS D1. Other steels should be evaluated by a competent welding consultant. preheat must be provided to the structural steel element.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 3-2. Preheat for Sheet Steel to Structural Steel. grades 50 and 55 A588. and III (round) A847 NPQ-B same as Table 3-1. The use of AWS D1. The sheet steel itself need not be preheated.1 Annex XI is suggested.) Catego ry Structural Steel Shapes and Plates A529. Table 3-2 provides suggested values for common structural steels not currently listed in AWS D1. grade C (rectangular) A618. Suggested Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperatures for AISCApproved Structural Steels Not Prequalified under AWS D1. hydrogen levels. and experience.1. (Seek advice of competent welding consultant prior to use of this Table. d. 3-5 .1. grade 46 A283 (plates) NPQ-A Round and Rectangular Sections A500. restraint. grade C (round) same as Table 3-1. grades Ib. all grades A529. Preheat requirements for non-prequalified steels and applications may be determined using rational engineering judgement considering material composition. Preheat for Non-prequalified Applications. with suitable qualification testing to be performed to verify the analytical results.1. Category B c. Category A Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperature Shapes and Plates A242.

For TMCP steels. starting with a point near the top. (1) Thicker materials may absorb enough heat from the weld region that it is necessary to reapply heat to the weld region prior to resuming welding of the joint. f. Thermal cutting is generally grouped into two categories oxyfuel gas cutting. Principle. and adequate control of hydrogen levels is maintained. until completion of the weld joint. APPLICATION OF HEAT FOR STRAIGHTENING AND CAMBERING. 3. but must be reheated to the required preheat / interpass temperature before resumption of welding of the joint. also commonly called flame cutting or burning. but may vary in specific WPSs. Interpass Temperature. Cambering a beam with positive camber requires heat to be applied to the bottom flange of the beam. 4.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 e. Postheat (PWHT). Interpass temperature is the temperature maintained during welding. it may be necessary to pause welding operations to allow the steel to cool to below the maximum interpass temperature before resuming welding. It is recommended to first apply a V-heat to the web.26. postheating is not necessary to avoid cold cracking. and also to camber or curve members when desired. poor weldability steels. it should be verified that adequate welding has been completed to sustain any currently applied or anticipated loadings until completion of the joint. but the use of forced air is acceptable. because the heat is applied to the part of the member that needs to become shorter. In most cases. and poor hydrogen control exist. The method is commonly called “flame shrinking”. Maximum Temperatures. Minimum and maximum interpass temperatures are typically the same as the minimum and maximum preheat temperatures. It is not required by specification. but may be used in some cases when conditions of high restraint. the manufacturer’s recommendations for maximum temperatures should be followed. (2) With maximum interpass temperature considerations. b. Postheating is the continued application of heat following completion of the weld joint. Heat applied from a heating torch may be used to straighten curved or distorted members. 3-6 . THERMAL CUTTING. (3) When necessary to shut down welding operations on a joint prior to joint completion. when proper attention is applied to preheat and interpass temperatures. The PWHT described in AWS D1.1 Section 5. a. to soften the web and minimize web crippling that may occur if only the flange is heated. It is recommended that accelerated cooling using water mist not be used until the temperature of the steel has dropped below approximately 300oC (600oF). Thermal cutting is used in steel fabrication to cut material to size and to perform edge preparation for groove welding. The joint may be allowed to cool below the prescribed interpass temperature.8.2. Cambering Procedure.1 Section 5. and plasma arc cutting. Cooling time may be necessary for larger multi-pass welds on thinner materials or smaller members. is for the purpose of stress relief. c. The temperature to which the steel may be heated as a part of the straightening or cambering process is limited to 650oC (1200oF) for most structural steels. not cracking control. Accelerated cooling using water should not be permitted. Under the difficult conditions mentioned. See AWS D1. and to 590oC (1100oF) for quenched and tempered steels. it may be adequate to slow cooling rates through the use of insulating blankets applied immediately after completion of welding.

which is quickly followed by the focused application of compressed air from the electrode holder. The oxygen causes rapid oxidation. Limitations are also placed on the depth and sharpness of gouges and notches. Recommended Practices for Air Carbon Arc Gouging and Cutting.4. 5. c. Oxygen Cutting Surface Roughness Gauge. The air provides continued rapid oxidation. leaving a cut edge. propylene. b. The quality of thermally cut edges is governed by AWS D1. oxygen. Limits are placed on surface roughness. propane. or “burning” to occur. A plastic sample. Oxyfuel Cutting. and is usually performed manually. acetylene. Surface Texture (Surface Roughness. which itself creates additional heat to allow the process to continue. It may also be used to remove entire welds when structural repairs or modifications are necessary. AISC.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. the electrode is a carbon electrode covered with a copper sheath. AIR CARBON ARC GOUGING.1 Section 5. Air carbon arc gouging (ACAG) is commonly used to perform edge preparation for groove joints (especially J.2. Similar to oxyfuel cutting. MPS. within the cutting torch.1.15. Gases used for PAC include nitrogen. then exposed to a stream of oxygen from the same torch. The fuel gas used in oxyfuel cutting may be natural gas. With oxyfuel gas cutting (OFC).1 quality criteria. and to remove temporary attachments such as backing bars or lifting lugs. AWS C4. to remove unacceptable discontinuities from weld deposits. Following ACAG. PAC generates considerable fume and noise. If not welded. melting the steel. is typically used for visual comparison in lieu of physical measurement of surface roughness. Waviness and Lay). With plasma arc cutting.and U-grooves). or other proprietary fuel gases. Grinding of surfaces prior to welding is not required. For complete information. takes a minor exception to AWS D1. The process appears similar to SMAW. Surface Finishing. The force of the oxygen stream blows away the molten steel. 3-7 . the area of steel heated by the process is less. as measured using ANSI/ASME B46.1-G. Plasma arc cutting (PAC) is sometimes used in shop fabrication. as well as less distortion.3. a. only this function is performed using an electric arc. Edge Quality. with an electrode holder and a single electrode. and is generally limited to steels 25 mm (1 in. however. see ANSI/AWS C5. and therefore a water table and water shroud is typically used to minimize these undesirable environmental effects. b. light grinding of the ACAG surface is suggested. air. Process. Plasma Arc Cutting. the steel is heated with a torch to its ignition temperature. argon. resulting in less steel metallurgically affected by the heat of cutting. The electrode creates a controlled arc.) thick or less. as well as removes the molten steel from the area. and mixtures of nitrogen/oxygen and argon/hydrogen. the joint should be thoroughly cleaned by wire brushing. The molten steel is then removed by the high velocity stream of plasma (ionized gas) created by the arc itself. in Section M2. the steel is heated to the point of melting.

AWS Prequalified Steels.1 of the Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. For some steel specifications. such as ASTM A992. and should also be considered for application in structures. AISC AND AWS LISTED STRUCTURAL STEELS. New structural steel specifications have been developed and approved since publication. Prequalified steels have been determined to be generally weldable when using the AWS D1.1 Code. or because certain steels or grades recently came into production and inadequate information was known about their weldability at 4-1 .added in AISC Hollow Structural Sections (1997) 4 . For building-type structures. or pending acceptance as noted.approved for next specification b. Structural steels currently accepted by AISC in the LRFD Specification. because certain strength levels are less weldable. AISC Approved Steels.1 lists prequalified steels in Table 3. only certain strength levels or grades are considered prequalified. the AISC lists approved steels in Section A3.1. AWS D1. a. Additional steels are listed in the AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings because of a more recent publication date. and other approved steels in Annex M. This situation may be because certain grades have compositional levels outside the range considered readily weldable. are as follows: Shapes and Plates A36 A242 A2831 A514 A529 A572 A588 A709 A852 A9132 A9924 (wide flange shapes only) Rounds and Rectangular Sections A53 A500 A501 A618 A8473 Sheet and Strip A570 A606 A607 1 2 .CEMP-E CHAPTER 4 STRUCTURAL STEELS TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1.added in AISC Seismic Provisions (1997) -added in AISC LRFD Supplement (1998) 3 .

E6XT-XM E7XT-X. E7XTX-X1M GMAW A5. AISC-Approved Structural Steels Prequalified under AWS D1. F7XXECXXX1 Shapes and Plates A36 A529. Table 4-1.23: F7XX-EXXX-X1. grade B (round) A500. which are sensitive to temperature changes from welding operations that may affect their strength. -3. E70XX A5. They are also generally more sensitive to diffusible hydrogen and are at higher risk of hydrogen-assisted HAZ cracking. Matching Filler Metals for Prequalified Steels. grade 42 A709. and toughness. -10.17: F6XX-EXXX.1 AWS Grou p Structural Steel Prequalified “Matching” Filler Metal SMAW A5. but Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs) must be qualified prior to use in welding these steels. grades A and B (rectangular) A501 (round) 4-2 . grades A and B (round) A500.18: ER70S-X. Table 4-1 provides a summary of structural steels that are both approved by AISC and listed by AWS as prequalified. F6XX-ECXXX F7XX-EXXX. ductility. F7XX-ECXXX A5. AWS Approved Steels.28: ER70S-X1XX. grade 36 I Round and Rectangular Sections A53. E7XT-XM (Except -2.20: E6XT-X. E70CXM (Except -GS(X)) A5.5: E70XX-X1 FCAW A5. -2M. -13.CEMP-E the time of printing.1: E60XX. d.1 Table 3. the “matching” filler metal for the given welding process is provided. -14. -GS) A5. E6XTX-X1M E7XTX-X1. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 c. These steels are generally quenched and tempered steels.29: E6XTX-X1. E70C-XC. E70C-X1XX SAW A5. The steels listed in Annex M are approved for use. For joint designs requiring “matching” filler metal.

F8XXECXXX1 II III 4-3 .23: F8XX-EXXX-X1. E70CXM (Except -GS(X)) A5.29: E8XTX-X1. grade 50 Round and Rectangular Sections A618. -3. grades 50 and 50W A913.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 SMAW A5.5: E80XX-X1. grades 60 and 65 FCAW A5. -13.18: ER70S-X. -2M.23: F7XX-EXXX-X1. E80C-X1XX SAW A5. -14. -10. E70C-X1XX SAW A5.17: F7XX-EXXX. grades 42 and 50 A588. low hydrogen Shapes and Plates A572. grades 60 and 65 A913.29: E7XTX-X1. E70C-XC.) thick and under A709. E8XTX-X1M GMAW A5. E7XTX-X1M GMAW A5. 100 mm (4 in. and III (round) FCAW A5. II. F7XXECXXX1 SMAW A5. low hydrogen A5. -GS) A5.1: E70XX. F7XX-ECXXX A5.28: ER80S-X1XX.5: E70XX-X1. low hydrogen Shapes and Plates A572. E7XT-XM (Except -2.28: ER70S-X1XX.20: E7XT-X. grades Ib.

but not listed as prequalified by AWS D1. 4-4 . B4L. B6L. E90C-X1XX SAW A5. B8. B5L. B9 e. B5. Quenched and tempered steels are not listed in this table. B3L. the advice of a competent welding consultant should be used prior to welding these steels. E9XT-X1M GMAW A5.5: E90XX-X1. F9XXECXXX1 IV 1 .29: E9XTX-X1. B4.28: ER90S-X1XX. B7L. With the exception of A992. low hydrogen E9018M Shapes and Plates A709.23: F9XX-EXXX-X1. B8L. grade 70 FCAW A5. A992 steel is a new steel specification which is essentially a more restricted A572.except alloy groups B3. B7.1. grade 50 steel. Table 4-2 provides “matching” filler metal information for structural steels approved by AISC. B6. Matching Filler Metals for Non-prequalified Steels.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 SMAW A5. grade 70W A852.

The Tekken and Lehigh methods simulate restraint that may be present in the actual joint. II. (2) Steels not listed as prequalified by AWS D1. or physical testing such as the Tekken test. grades 50 and 55 A588. Stout and Doty. all grades A529. an assumed minimum level of toughness is assumed inherent with the steels listed in AISC Seismic Provisions. grades Ib. AISC-Approved Structural Steels Not Prequalified under AWS D1.) A992. or the Varestraint Test.1 must be evaluated for their weldability. AISC design specifications assume adequate strength and ductility. Unlisted Steels. Weldability may be evaluated using methods such as carbon equivalency. 4-5 . Other steels may warrant CVN testing or other mill documentation of typical toughness properties. Category II f. tensile strength.1 Grou p Suggested “Matching” Filler Metal (Not Prequalified) Structural Steel Shapes and Plates A529. (1) Steels not listed as approved by AISC must be evaluated for structural properties such as yield strength.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 4-2. grade C (rectangular) A618. Lehigh Restraint Cracking Test. grade D (plates) Round and Rectangular Sections A500. Weldability of Steels. Category I NPQII same as Table 4-1. for further information on these tests. grade 46 A283. grade C (round) Shapes and Plates A242. over 100 mm (4 in. the performance of WPS qualification testing. For seismic applications. (W shapes only) Round and Rectangular Sections A500. and III (round) A847 NPQ-I same as Table 4-1. See Appendix B. ductility and toughness.1 Table 3.

When specified to achieve atmospheric corrosion resistance. A steel such as A36 does not place limits on Mn content for shapes up to 634 kg/m (426 lb. and also reduces toughness and weldability. Larger quantities of phosphorous reduce ductility and toughness. but copper over 0. Higher sulfur levels will form iron sulfide (FeS) along the grain boundaries. numerous large MnS inclusions may be present. but some steel specifications have much lower limits.05%. Carbon and other elements that increase hardenability increase the risk of “cold” cracking.). The chemical composition of the steel affects weldability and other mechanical properties. Chemical Composition. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. or for plates and bars up to 20 mm (3/4 in. With high levels of sulfur. (1) Carbon (C) is the most common element for increasing the strength of steel. but high levels of carbon reduce weldability.CEMP-E 2. copper up to 1.40% or lower. (5) Silicon (Si) is a deoxidizer used to improve the soundness of the steel. WELDABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEELS. Most steels contain some copper. Where nickel is reported as a part of steel composition. (3) Phosphorous (P) is an alloying element that increases the strength and brittleness of steel. inclusive. while still increasing strength and hardenability. and sometimes postheat are necessary to avoid cold cracking. Manganese limits are typically in the order of 1. (6) Copper (Cu) is added to improve the corrosion resistance of the steel. therefore creating weaker areas. particularly in the transverse direction. flattened by the rolling operation./ft. however. Silicon of up to 0.50% does not reduce weldability. thereby increasing the risk of lamellar tearing. Typical steel specifications limit sulfur to 0.20% is required.40% is considered acceptable for most steels. Manganese is used to form MnS to reduce this tendency.27%. Generally. better hydrogen control.25% and 0. increasing the formation of undesirable martensite with rapid HAZ cooling. whether specified or not. a minimum copper content of 0. increasing the risk of hot cracking.50%. 4-6 . and therefore higher preheat and interpass temperatures. One of the principal benefits of manganese is that it combines with undesirable sulphur to form manganese sulfide (MnS). Higher preheats and higher heat input welding procedures may be needed when welding a steel with relatively high carbon contents. increasing the risk of lamellar tearing when high through-thickness weld shrinkage strains are created. such as in weathering steels. A minimum Mn:S ratio of 5:1 to 10:1 is recommended. (2) Manganese (Mn) is an alloying element that increases strength and hardenability. reducing the detrimental effects of sulfur. it is generally limited to a maximum value between 0. It increases both strength and hardness. Phosphorous tends to segregate in steel. Carbon increases the hardenability of the steel.). (4) Sulfur (S) reduces ductility. Phosphorous is typically limited to 0. and is commonly used to “kill” steel. (7) Nickel (Ni) is an alloying element used to improve toughness and ductility.04% to minimize the risk of weld and HAZ cracking. It has relatively little detrimental effect upon weldability. but other undesirable elements may be present in the scrap materials used to make the steel. Several elements are purposefully added in the production of structural steel.50% may affect mechanical properties in heattreated steels. Typical steel specifications limit carbon below 0. but to a lesser extent than carbon.

Carbon Equivalency. Carbon equivalent values above 0. the use of preheat and low-hydrogen electrodes is generally necessary. it is generally limited to a maximum value between 0. (3) The Dearden and O’Neill equation.35% or lower is considered a steel with good weldability 4-7 . and zinc (Zn). applicable for steels with C greater than 0. (2) Another common carbon equivalent equation is: CE = C + Mn/6 + Cr/10 + Ni/20 + Cu/40 .Mo/50. and AWS D1. The most significant element affecting weldability is carbon.40. b.06% and 0.2 guidance for the given steel strength should be adequate. When welding with high levels of these elements. the material is considered readily weldable. using a calculation system termed the carbon equivalent (CE).CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (8) Vanadium (V) is an alloying element used for increasing strength and hardenability.10%. CE = C + Mn/6 + Cr/5 + Mo/5 +V/5 + Ni/15 + Cu/15 + Si/6 Where C = carbon content (%) Mn = manganese content (%) Cr = chromium content (%) Mo = molybdenum content (%) V = vanadium content (%) Ni = nickel content (%) Cu = copper content (%) Si = silicon content (%) A carbon equivalent of less than 0. (9) Molybdenum (Mo) is an alloying element which greatly increases hardenability and helps maintain strength and minimize creep at higher temperature. it may be necessary to use low heat input welding procedures to minimize dilution effects. Weldability may be reduced by vanadium. (1) The following equation is used in AWS D1. and may adversely affect weldability and cause “hot” cracking. For values between 0.1 Table 3.48 generally assures good weldability. is similar: CE = C + Cr/5 + Mo/5 + V/5 + Mn/6 + Ni/15 + Cu/15 A CE of 0.55 indicate a high risk that cracks may develop unless special precautions are implemented.12%.55. When vanadium is reported as a part of steel composition. phosphorous. They have a low melting point. regardless of thickness. If the CE from this equation is below 0. There are numerous carbon equivalent equations available and in use. The weldability of a steel can be estimated from its composition. lead (Pb). (10) So-called “tramp” elements such as tin (Sn). When molybdenum is reported as a part of steel composition.V/10 . The effects of other elements can be estimated by equating them to an additional amount of carbon.07% and 0. vanadium is generally limited to a maximum value between 0.1 Annex XI. and copper. may be present in steel from the scrap material melted for steel-making. The total alloy content has the same effect on weldability as an equivalent amount of carbon.15%. Other low-melting point elements that create a risk of hot cracking include sulfur.40 and 0.

22%.12) ] 4-8 .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (4) For steels with C between 0.35% or lower is considered a steel with good weldability. CE = C + 5B + V/10 + Mo/15 + Mn/20 + Cu/20 + Cr /20 + Si/30 + Ni/60 Where B = boron content (%) A CE of 0. the Ito and Bessyo equation may be used. Pcm. (5) The Yurioka equation may also used to calculate CE for steel with C between 0. The Ito-Bessyo equation is also termed the composition-characterizing parameter. as follows: CE = C + A(C) * {5B + Si/24 + Mn/6 + Cu/15 + Ni/20 + Cr/5 + Mo/5 + Nb/5 + V/5} Where Nb = niobium content (%) A(C) = 0.07% and 0.25 * tanh [ 20 (C.0.02% and 0.75 + 0.26%.

50 0.20 0.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 4-3.75-1. # minimum 0.70 --- 0.04 0.23 1.20-0.80-1.40-0.05 0.40 0.10 --0.10 --0. considerably higher than that considered by 4-9 . %.20-0.01-0.40-0.40 0.70 --- 0.35 0. grade B A852 0. types.23 0.60 0.40 0. Some structural steels have been produced with Fy:Fu ratios as high as 0.15 A992 A588.35 0.01-0.05 ------- --------- Shapes composition limits are listed for sections up to 634 kg/m (426 plf).50 0. Chemical Requirements for Sample Structural Steels (heat analysis.04 0.50 0.40 # ----------- 0.40 # 0.035 0.95. Yield to Ultimate Strength Ratio.23 1.35 0.02-0.19 0.50 0.35 0. etc.26 --0.04 0.20-0.65 0. a.50-1.11 0.20% when specified 3.05 0.45 0. unless range is provided) (Refer to ASTM specifications for complete information.) Steel Compositio n C Mn P S Si Cu V Co Ni Cr Mo A36 (shapes) A572 grade 50 (shapes) Type 1 0.15-0.05 0. grades. PROPERTY ENHANCEMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL STEELS.035 0.05 0.04 0. combinations of elements.40 # A572 grade 50 (shapes) Type 2 0. maximum. including applicable thickness ranges.04 0. AISC design equations assume some margin in structural steel from the point of yielding to the point of fracture to allow for the redistribution of stress.05 0.0050.35 0.045 0.15 0.

Such a requirement can be met by special mill order requirements. Fine grain practice is the method of achieving Fine Austenitic Grain Size. This same value is a requirement for ASTM A992 steels. c. and plates when over 50 mm (2 inches) in thickness. Mill orders typically require longer production lead times than service center or stock items. in tension applications. Consideration of requirements for fine grain practice should be made when using wide-flange sections in Groups 4 or 5. There is currently no premium in steel mill cost to specify such properties. (1) The benefit of killing is to reduce the number of gas pockets present in the steel.1c. which can adversely affect the mechanical properties of the steel. which have special AISC 4-10 . Although not considered critical in low-seismic applications. When aluminum content is above 0. Fine Grain Practice. measured using test methods prescribed by ASTM E112. the specification of A572. (3) Most commonly. (4) Project requirements for killed steel should be considered when using wide-flange sections in Groups 4 or 5. but some minor delays may be encountered in purchasing until the inventory of such materials is predominant. Because killed steel is typically a cost-premium mill order item. either by addition of strong deoxidizing agents or by vacuum treatment.85. the steel is considered fine-grained. and may also be specified.CEMP-E AISC in developing design methodologies. manufactured to the supplemental requirements of AISC Technical Bulletin #3. by heat analysis. as well as reduce the number of oxide-type inclusions in the steel. this requirement is advisable for members in the lateral load resisting systems in high-seismic applications. AISC does not require killed steel for any specific applications.30%. except in the case of A992 steel. without the need for testing. (1) Fine grain practice is beneficial in improving ductility and toughness. the specification of A992 shapes. (2) Most mills provide some form of deoxidation. but may also be done with aluminum or manganese.” Semi-killed steel is incompletely deoxidized. in tension applications. defined by ASTM A6 / A6M as grain size number 5 or higher. (5) Specifying killed or semi-killed steel may carry a slight cost premium. grade 50 meeting AISC Technical Bulletin #3. ASTM A6 / A6M defines killed steel as “steel deoxidized. including ductility and toughness. as a part of routine production practices. grade 50. Killed steels often have silicon levels in the range of 0. Killed Steel. killing is done using additions of silicon. the inventory of killed structural steels available at steel service centers and in steel fabricating plants is less than that of regular steels. Killed steel has been processed to remove or bind the oxygen that saturates the molten steel prior to solidification. in the form of semi-killed steel. or through the review of mill test reports of existing steels in inventory that are traceable to the mill heat number. Aluminum is typically used to achieve fine grain practice.10% to 0. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (1) ASTM A572. and plates when over 50 mm (2 inches) in thickness. which have special AISC requirements for toughness in AISC Specification section A3. ASTM A992 requires the steel to be killed. but may be higher.20%. b. to reduce the oxygen content to such a level that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification. which binds oxygen and nitrogen. (2) Structural steels providing this maximum Fy:Fu ratio are readily available from mill sources. provides a requirement for a maximum Fy:Fu ratio of 0.

The benefits include refined grain size and uniformity. but the steel industry standard is the Charpy V-Notch (CVN) method. e. at a cost premium and with longer lead time. or the specification of A709 4-11 . Few building applications warrant the need for normalized steel. Most steel specifications permit maximum sulfur in amounts between 0.) or thicker. By reducing the sulfur content. a mill may be able to select heats of steel with particularly lower levels of sulfur for rolling specific sections. Shapes are not routinely available with substantially reduced sulfur levels. a. require steel in the Seismic Force Resisting System to have a minimum toughness of 27J at 21oC (20 ft. f. The AISC Seismic Provisions. The most common method of improving through-thickness properties. Improved Through-thickness Properties. Normalizing is defined in ASTM A6 / A6M as “a heat treating process in which a steel plate is reheated to a uniform temperature above the critical temperature and then cooled in air to below the transformation range. and steel with CVN testing is not routinely ordered by steel service centers or steel fabricators for inventory. steels with CVN testing are generally available only through mill order. Typically. as prescribed by ASTM A370. When specifying steel to fine grain practice. to reduce the risk of lamellar tearing.-lb. low-sulfur steels in plate form can be ordered to 0. the inventory of structural steels available at steel service centers and in steel fabricating plants manufactured to fine grain practice is less than that of regular structural steel. Toughness. It is also possible to specify through-thickness tensile testing using reduction of area as the governing criteria.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 requirements for toughness in AISC Specification section A3. and would be available only at substantial cost premium and considerable delay.” In practice. is the resistance to brittle crack initiation and propagation. Group 3 shapes with flanges 38 mm (1-1/2 in. Normalized steel is not routinely available from steel service centers or stocked by fabricators.3. d. Specification of steel toughness levels.30% to 0.005% sulfur.) or thicker. but this is rarely necessary. Toughness may be measured using a variety of methods. Section 6. Studies indicate that a large percentage of domestically produced structural steel sections lighter or thinner than those mentioned in the previous paragraph will have a CVN toughness of at least 27J at 21oC (20 ft.50%.-lb. steels with improved through-thickness properties may be specified. the steel must have sufficient plastic ductility to redistribute stresses at the root of a notch to the surrounding material. For certain high-restraint applications subject to the risk of lamellar tearing. Steel toughness. and therefore it does not appear that CVN testing need be conducted to verify the toughness of all members. Normalizing. SELECTION OF STRUCTURAL STEELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE AND SERVICE APPLICATIONS. an added expense with added time for delivery from the steel mill. 4. at 70oF). improved ductility and improved toughness. However. also commonly referred to as “notch toughness”. applicable to ASTM Group 4 and 5 shapes. CVN testing is an added charge by the steel producer. ASTM Supplementary Requirement S91 should be consulted for the specific steel grade. It is recommended that manufacturer’s accumulated data be used to verify that the steel routinely produced by that mill meets the indicated toughness levels. the number and size of manganese sulfide (MnS) inclusions is reduced. steel is heated to approximately 900oC to 930oC (1650oF to 1700oF). and to plates in built-up members 38 mm (1-1/2 in. Therefore. is through the specification of low-sulfur or controlled sulfur-inclusion steels. For this resistance. High-seismic Applications. (2) Because fine grain practice is typically a cost-premium mill order item. which typically requires longer production lead times than service center or stock items.1c. Mill orders typically require longer production lead times than service center or stock items. The specification of normalized steel is a mill order item only. at 70oF).

Fatigue Applications. The required CVN toughness and testing temperature may be specified directly in the specifications for the project. 4-12 . For nonredundant fatigue applications. Modifications to this table are suggested for steels that have yield strengths 103 MPa (15 ksi) or more above the minimum specified yield strengths. Table S1. See the ASTM A709 / A709M specification for appropriate changes to the testing temperatures for these cases.2. a given ASTM A709 / A709M steel and temperature zone may be specified.3 for guidance. for all but A36 steels. Table S1. the toughness values specified in ASTM A709 / A709M.CEMP-E steels.1 and S1. Toughness requirements should be considered for applications involving fatigue. see ASTM A709 / A709M. As a guide. summarized and adapted in Table 4-4. to be placed on the mill order. Alternatively. is currently considered unnecessary for ordinary building-type applications. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. may be used for redundant fatigue applications.

incl. Toughness Guidelines for Structural Steel in Fatigue Applications. Minimum Service Temperature Zone 1 -18oC (0oF) 20J @ 21oC (15 ft-lbf @ 70oF) 20J @ 21oC (15 ft-lbf @ 70oF) 20J @ 21oC (15 ft-lbf @ 70oF) 20J @ 21oC (20 ft-lbf @ 70oF) 27J @ 10oC (20 ft-lbf @ 50oF) 27J @ 10oC (20 ft-lbf @ 50oF) 34J @ 10oC (25 ft-lbf @ 50oF) 34J @ -1oC (25 ft-lbf @ 30oF) 34J @ -1oC (25 ft-lbf @ 30oF) 48J @ -1oC (35 ft-lbf @ 30oF) Zone 2 -34oC (-30oF) 20J @ 4oC (15 ft-lbf @ 40oF) 20J @ 4oC (15 ft-lbf @ 40oF) 20J @ 4oC (15 ft-lbf @ 40oF) 20J @ 4oC (20 ft-lbf @ 40oF) 27J @ -7oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27J @ -7oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 34J @ -7oC (25 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 34J @ -18oC (25 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 34J @ -18oC (25 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 48J @ -18oC (35 ft-lbf @ 0oF) Zone 3 -51oC (-60oF) 20J @ -12oC (15 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 20J @ -12oC (15 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 20J @ -12oC (15 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 20J @ -12oC (20 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 27J @ -23oC (20 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 27J @ -23oC (20 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 34J @ -23oC (25 ft-lbf @ 10oF) 34J @ -34oC (25 ft-lbf @ 30oF) 34J @ -34oC (25 ft-lbf @ 30oF) 48J @ -34oC (35 ft-lbf @ 30oF) Steel Thickness Applicatio n bolted or welded bolted or welded bolted A36 to 100 mm (4 in.).) over 65 mm to 100 mm (21/2 in to 4 in.) to 65 mm (21/2 in. over 50 to 100 mm (2 in to 4 in.) over 50 to 100 mm (2 in to 4 in. incl. incl. over 65 mm to 100 mm (21/2 in to 4 in. gr 50 A588 “ “ welded A852 bolted or welded bolted “ “ welded A514 bolted or welded bolted “ “ welded 4-13 .). over 65 mm to 100 mm (21/2 in to 4 in.). incl. Redundant Applications.) to 65 mm (21/2 in.) over 65 mm to 100 mm (21/2 in to 4 in.) A572. to 50 mm (2 in.).CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 4-4.

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 c. high-ductility filler metals. unless nitrogen binders are added. stresses or strains that will induce tearing. A709 (grades 50W.” and peening. although higher strength structural steels present additional welding difficulties and should not be specified unless necessary for weight savings. A992. and Table 1-5 provides similar information for round and rectangular sections. steels with improved through-thickness properties may also be specified. including availability as either steel service center stock or in mill order quantities only. to reduce the risk of lamellar tearing. grades and strengths. welding procedure controls. sequencing. 100W). Generally. The most common method of improving through-thickness properties. Fine-grain practice can optionally be specified using ASTM Supplemental Requirement S91 for A36. plates and bars in various steel specifications.015%. Steels that require killing. Nitrogen has a significant effect upon CVN transition temperatures. Table 13 lists the producers of specific structural shapes. the use of low-strength. weld bead placement selection.e. There is no specific through-thickness at which lamellar tearing will or will not occur. and avoid a requirement for specific CVN toughness at a reference temperature. “buttering. 4-14 . provides general information regarding availability of shapes. include A992 and A709 (grades 100. A992 steels place a limit on nitrogen of 0. 100W). Type 4 steel has a limit on nitrogen of 0. Cold Weather Applications. and limitations on nitrogen may be considered. Lamellar tearing is a separation or tearing of the steel on planes parallel to the rolled surface of the member. 5. The AISC Manual of Steel Construction. lamellar tearing is avoided through using one or more of the following techniques: improved design or redesign of the joint. consideration should be made for the risk of lamellar tearing. Table 1-1. A852. A572. 100. 65 and 70). the use of preheat and/or postheat. d. However. AVAILABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEELS.012%. compared to conventional carbon steels such as A36 steel. 70W. creating through-thickness shrinkage stresses and strains. is through the specification of low-sulfur or controlled sulfur-inclusion steels. but the higher strength grades should be avoided because of other welding difficulties. and A913 (grades 60. or A283 steels. High Stress / Strain / Restraint Applications. Steel toughness requirements should be considered for major loadcarrying components of structures exposed to extreme cold environments. nor specific values for weld size. A242. it is generally more cost effective to specify a type of steel with inherently good fracture toughness. This list is updated semi-annually in Modern Steel Construction magazine. published by AISC. When welded joints are made to the side of a member. When structural components in a low-temperature environment are not subject to significant impact loads or fatigue conditions. with the exception of A913. See 3. AISC-approved steels requiring production to fine-grain practice are A588. A709 (grades 36 and 50). It is not available for A529. and A913 (grade 50). Table 1-4 provides similar information for round and rectangular sections. All AISC-approved structural steels are available from domestic steel mills. which also improves toughness. in the January and July issues. A572. High-strength low alloy (HSLA) steels that are manufactured using fine grain practice have improved toughness at low temperature.

a. U). placed in beam and girder webs when splicing flanges or making beam-tocolumn moment connections. one should consider the availability of the structural steel. but generally it is best to allow the fabricator or erector to select the specific welding detail to be used for a particular joint. filler metals.CEMP-E CHAPTER 5 DESIGN FOR WELDING TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. Critical structural steel connections must be completely detailed and shown on the contract drawings. 2. Engineer’s Responsibility. and groove angle should be used based upon economics. J. Access should be checked at the design stage when welding in highly confined spaces or with closely spaced parts. In the selection of base metals. must be of adequate size to permit the weld to be placed by reaching through the access hole with the electrode. and ease of welding operations. Access.2. and joint designs. and NDT equipment and personnel necessary to perform NDT as required. alternative joint designs should be investigated. or nondestructive testing. The fabricator and erector are typically in the best position to select which process. personnel qualified to perform such welding. it may be adequate for the Engineer to specify a Complete Joint Penetration (CJP) groove weld. Generally. This may effectively be done through the use of AWS welding symbols. if desired or necessary. Availability of Materials. welding processes. groove type (single. welders qualified for specific processes. (3) Weld access holes. b. Larger access holes may be warranted based upon the welding process and type of welding equipment used. 5-1 . double. GOOD DESIGN PRACTICE. Minimum access hole sizes are specified in AWS D1. When the availability of any of the above is in question. personnel qualified to inspect the welding. bevel. Smaller angles may cause a lack of fusion along the weld / base metal interface. GENERAL. enclosures for field welding. (2) Access should be adequate so that the welding electrode can be positioned at the proper angle for proper penetration and fusion. The Engineer is responsible for the analysis and design of the connection. a.1 Figure 5. the appropriate AWS designation. The Engineer may prescribe connection details. availability of equipment and personnel. the electrode should be positioned so that the angle between the part and the electrode is not less than 30o. distortion control. filler metals. welding personnel qualified in out-ofposition welding. vee. including connections between elements in built-up members. Certain welded joint designs may require notch-tough filler materials. and when necessary for prequalified groove welds. Equipment and Personnel. The Engineer must review and approve the final details selected by the contractor. welding equipment. The following items should be considered to permit welding operations to be made with adequate quality: (1) Welding personnel must have direct visual access to the root of the weld. For instance. All passes must be visually monitored by the welder during welding. or specify a Partial Joint Penetration (PJP) groove weld and state the required throat.

welding process and position. see AWS D1. V-groove welds are preferred over bevel-groove welds.3 for groove welds. Joint Selection. and lack of fusion on the unbeveled face may result. depending upon groove angle. and Figures 4. and cost-effectiveness. contributing to lack of penetration at the root and lack of fusion along the joint sidewalls. PJP groove welds are prepared to a required depth of chamfer. especially when the unbeveled face is vertical. and therefore may have lost some of the skill necessary to perform quality out-of-position welding. the prequalified groove weld details in AWS D1. which may need to be removed in certain types of joints. or 3 mm (1/8 in. Although personnel may be previously qualified by test to weld out-of-position. Provided CJP groove welds are not required by Code for the given application or for fatigue and seismic applications. and they typically do not have the smooth appearance of welds performed in the flat or horizontal positions.). preferably using joints prequalified under AWS D1. 2 for fillet welds. Less distortion may also be incurred because of the reduced weld volume. Access to the root is also easier to achieve because of the balance and the wider groove angle used. because they are balanced and usually have a downhand position on each groove face.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (4) Narrow root openings and narrow groove angles inhibit access to the joint root. Bevel-groove welds are generally more difficult to weld. are easier to weld. The following items should be considered in selecting or evaluating joint selection: (1) For butt joints. (4) For tee joints. In this case. increasing cost and construction time. or a combination groove weld with reinforcing fillets. on average. a welder may not have recently used the special techniques and procedures for welding in these positions.1 in Figure 4. In addition. and in either the flat or horizontal positions when making fillet welds. c.6 for tubular joints.) deeper. limited distortion.1 Figure 4. PJP groove welds should be considered for tensionand shear-carrying joints when full strength of the connected members is not required. and for compression splices such as column splices. plug welds or slot welds. It is preferred to weld in the flat position when making groove welds. usually the required effective throat.3 and 3. and therefore less labor and materials.4 should be reviewed. Figure 4. fewer passes. Position. 5-2 . This makes visual inspection and some forms of NDT more difficult.1 should be used.1 Figures 3. more welding is required to join the entire thickness of material. however. should be considered. Fewer welding personnel are qualified by test to perform welding out-of-position. There is added expense in joint preparation for groove welds that is not required with fillet welds. Welding positions are defined in AWS D1. PJP groove welding. The quality of out-of-position welds is more difficult to maintain. Above this size. or removal of a portion of the root pass area by backgouging followed by backwelding until the joint is complete. To assist in interpreting the positions given. V-groove welds. (2) For most applications. (3) In butt joints. partial joint penetration (PJP) groove welds are more economical than complete joint penetration (CJP) groove welds. For guidance in the selection of groove details that provide sufficient access. Proper joint design. and requalification testing may be necessary. CJP groove welds require the use of either backing bars.1 for groove welds and in Figure 4.4 and 4. there may be offsetting cost savings with groove welds because of decreased weld volume. d. Welding in other than the flat or horizontal positions increases welding time approximately four-fold. close visual observation of the welder during the first few out-of-position passes is especially important. fillet welding is generally less expensive than groove welding.5 for fillet welds. rather than just the amount of welding needed to carry the load. by Code. until the fillet size reaches approximately 16 to 20 mm (5/8 to 3/4 in.

Excessively wide groove angles contribute to added angular distortion. However. increased risk of lamellar tearing in T-joints. Double-sided welds balance weld shrinkage about the center of the part’s cross-section. very wide roots contribute to root pass cracking and root HAZ cracking from weld shrinkage. J. Alternate details may be selected with reduced or wider root openings. narrower root openings and groove angles increase the risk of incomplete penetration at the root and lack of fusion along the groove faces. Qualified Joint Details. and trapped slag at the root. For PJP groove welds.1 Figure 3. qualification testing of the joint detail is not required to verify the suitability of the detail.and V-groove welds. and higher costs because of the additional material and labor used.).3 for Partial Joint Penetration (PJP) groove welds. a balanced groove detail can be used. but the narrower groove angle reduces the total weld volume below that of bevel. See AWS D1.or U-groove welds. f. Minimum 5-3 . Distortion. groove angle. Qualification testing. as prescribed in AWS D1.3 and 3.1 Figures 3. J. provided other prequalification provisions of the Code are also met. when other groove details are used. The completed first side weld restrains the second side weld from shrinking as much as the unrestrained first-side weld. Prequalified Joint Details.4. and other information for the effective detailing of groove welds. e. g. and adequate access to the groove faces for complete fusion. There are also higher initial joint preparation costs to prepare a J. Generally. and WPS selection. cost-effective or easier-to-weld details may be used. Angular distortion can be minimized through the use of double-sided welding. the required depth of preparation is provided to achieve the desired effective throat. (6) For thick materials. tolerances.and U-groove joints should be considered. and other more efficient. the use of minimum groove angles. When the joint details as shown are used. reduced or wider groove angles.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (5) Square groove welds have limited application for structural steel. Groove weld details may be used other than those shown as prequalified in AWS D1. The prequalified groove weld details in AWS D1. When square groove welds are used. The details may not always be the best detail. the root opening must be closely controlled and the Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) closely developed and followed. thickness limits. The reduced groove angle minimizes the differential in weld width from top to bottom of the joint. the first side groove depth should be approximately 35-40% of the total groove depth of both welds. increased risk of shrinkage cracking. (7) Root opening widths should be generous but not excessive. presetting of parts. However. Wider root openings allow for complete penetration to the bottom of the joint preparation.and U-groove welds may be more economical than bevel. provide root opening. Narrow root openings contribute to lack of penetration.4 for Complete Penetration Joint (CJP) groove welds. is required in such cases to verify the ability of the WPS to provide the penetration and quality necessary. without causing excessive angular distortion. The wider root initially requires more weld metal.1 Section 4. lack of fusion. When one side will be welded in its entirety before proceeding to weld the opposite side.1 Section 3 for these limits. They are better suited for thin materials. (8) Groove angles should be the minimum angle that will provide adequate access for penetration to the root.and V-groove welds. and Figure 3. When angular distortion or shrinkage strains must be minimized. J. so even more weld metal must be saved to recover these costs. or other revised details.or U-groove joint. qualification testing is required. generally starting at thicknesses of 50 mm (2 in. root face. These problems may be minimized through the use of suitable WPSs. When the part can be frequently rotated for welding on opposite sides. Root openings and groove angles are considered adequate for the welding processes and positions noted. The use of prequalified groove weld details does not guarantee that welding problems will not occur.

and also overmatching filler metal to the extent of one weld strength classification. also called effective throat. Alternatively. and the throat must be measured as the shortest distance from the root to the weld face. nominally 70 MPa (10 ksi) more. 5-4 . Effective Weld Size / Throat. see the appropriate specification. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WELDED JOINTS. when using ASD. (2) Should the CJP groove weld be used in a T-joint or corner joint loaded in tension transverse to its axis.1 Code requires the use of matching filler metal. See AWS D1.9. Overmatching is not permitted in AWS D1. the AWS D1. and therefore reduce the weld shrinkage.5 of the LRFD Specification. the AWS D1. a. Both AWS and AISC tables are similarly structured. Part A provides the details for the calculation of effective weld size. and effective weld length. (3) For flat and convex fillet welds. AWS D1. and then be detailed to provide the throat required. 3. with a phi of 0. Allowable weld stress. as the base metal will be the weaker of the two materials. with a phi of 0.5. Figure 3. Note [d] requires the use of filler metal with a designated CVN toughness of 27J @ +4oC (20 ft. with minor differences in certain sections. The following information is in terms of LRFD. is provided in AWS D1. If ASD is used.1 Table 2. The strength of the weld is treated the same as the strength of the base metal. (2) Partial Joint Penetration (PJP) groove welds must have their size specified in the design. Weld design strength (when using LRFD) is provided in AISC Table J2. Matching filler metal provides a weld with at least the strength of the base metal in such an application. the AWS D1. AISC provides similar information in Table J2.1 Code requires the use of either matching filler metal or a filler metal one strength classification less. without consideration of the resistance factor phi. (2) For CJP groove welds that carry transverse tensile stress.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 groove angles and J-and U-groove details reduce the difference in weld width between the root and the face of the weld. AISC permits the use of undermatching for the same conditions. similarly loaded.1 Table 3.1 Section 2. (3) For CJP groove welds in transverse compression.1. but the effective throat is the shortest distance from the root to a straight line drawn between the two weld toes.1 Code permits the use of matching filler metal or a filler metal of lower strength. AISC LRFD Specification Table J2. the effective size is specified in terms of weld leg. (1) Complete Joint Penetration (CJP) groove welds have an effective throat equal to the thickness of the thinner part joined.5 of the ASD Specification. b. nominally 70 MPa (10 ksi) less.9. or in AISC Table J2.60 times the classification strength of the filler metal.1 for matching filler metals. Allowable Stresses / Design Strengths. Should the fillet weld be concave.1.3. (1) For welds other than CJP groove welds loaded in transverse tension. the weld must be designed as a PJP groove weld. AWS provides the required depth of preparation for PJP groove welds in D1. the measurement of leg size is ineffective. The strength of the weld is treated the same as the strength of the base metal. AISC places no limit on the undermatching strength. (4) CJP groove welds in shear may carry 0.3. with the backing bar remaining in place.1.-lbf @ +40oF).

75. with a phi of 0. with a reduction coefficient Beta of 0. as above. Longer fillet welds loaded in such a manner must be analyzed using a reduction coefficient Beta from AISC LRFD Specification equation J2-1. AISC LRFD Specification Table J2. Design values for typical weld groups are provided in the AISC Manual. using the effective size (throat) of the groove weld for the check of the base metal stress. only for any shear forces that may be transferred between the connected parts. Under AISC. and AISC LRFD Specification Appendix J2.75. (8) For joints not designed to bear. AWS D1. with a phi of 0.14. Research indicates that. (10) Fillet welds may be stressed to 0.1. (6) PJP groove welds in transverse tension are permitted to carry 0. applied to the throat of the groove weld. (11) For transversely loaded fillets welds.9. (7) PJP groove welds in compression are currently treated differently by AWS and AISC. with a phi of 0.60 times the classification strength of the filler metal. there is a maximum effective length of 100 times the leg size before a reduction factor must be implemented.5 times the ASD values. as in a splice plate or brace member. Under AWS D1. considering the factor phi.1 Section 2. because of penetration and HAZ hardening.60 times the classification strength of the filler metal. are used for loading other than parallel to the weld axis.8. the weld stress need not be checked. are generally 1.90. the leg of the fillet weld is not a failure plane that needs checked. The weld stress may not exceed 0. (13) When a fillet weld is loaded longitudinally along its axis. and is loaded from its end. because it is based upon new construction. as the base metal will govern the strength of the joint.5. based upon Allowable Stress Design (ASD).14. For angles other than transverse.50 times the classification strength of the filler metal. Note [h] requires the use of CVN toughness as above. for joints designed to bear.6. The maximum effective length is 180 times the leg size. (12) When fillet weld strength increases. and the base metal stress may not exceed 0. only AWS provides design values. permit a 50% increase in the allowable shear stress on the weld. For eccentrically loaded fillet weld groups. only for the shear transferred between the web and flange. PJP groove welds are categorized into joints designed to bear and joints not designed to bear. allowable shear stress increases are also permitted when using the instantaneous center of rotation approach for the analysis of the weld group.4.45 times the classification strength of the filler metal. which would apply when the weld is 300 times the leg size in length. (14) Plug and slot welds may be stressed to 0. The stress on the base metal is also limited to the minimum specified yield strength of the base metal.4 and 2. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (5) CJP groove welds and other welds carrying tension or compression parallel to the axis of the weld need not be designed for the tensile or compressive stress. 5-5 . AISC.5.CEMP-E with a phi of 0. girder web-to-flange welds need not be designed for the axial force from bending.60 times the minimum specified yield strength of the base metal. There is no need to check the shear stress in the base metal along the diagrammatic leg of the fillet weld. with a phi of 0. an increase is also permitted based upon an equation.8.60 times the classification strength of the filler metal. LRFD values. with a phi of 0. provides design values only for the joint designed to bear application. As an example. (9) PJP groove welds in shear may be stressed to 0.

and for built-up sections 5-6 .75. Reentrant corners must be smooth.4.16. as an example. Weld Access Holes. Maximum Fillet Weld Size. Small welds provide little heat input to the thick base metal. Design aids for welded connections. welding and quality requirements apply for applications using ASTM Group 4 and 5 shapes. not for shear along the walls of the hole or slot. not the weld/steel interface. See Appendix B. is 2 mm (1/16 in. Minimum Weld Size.17. Under the AISC LRFD Specification. and AISC LRFD Specification Section J1. reducing the interference from the member itself. Typical reentrant corners in buildings are found at openings for piping and ductwork in beam webs. They also provide access for weld cleaning and inspection. This is to protect the edge of the part from melting under the arc. f.1 Section 5. to verify that the steel has the capacity to carry the load delivered to or from the weld. which acts as an efficient heat sink. This is especially applicable to situations using fillet welds on opposite sides of thin beam and girder webs. and quality. provides minimum fillet weld sizes. The rapid cooling creates a hard. Reentrant corners are internal cuts in members.1 Section 5. AWS D1. The maximum fillet weld size that should be specified. weld access holes are provided in beam and girder webs when splicing flanges. with a minimum radius of 25 mm (1 in. For lap joints where the part receiving the fillet weld along its edge is less than 6 mm (1/4 in.6 for minimum access types.3 provides minimum fillet weld sizes similar to AWS D1. h.8. This check is applied to the thickness of the material.) in thickness. the specified fillet weld size may equal the thickness of the part. Larger welds are made with higher welding heat input. g. See AWS D1. See AWS D1. d. are available. special material.4 provides minimum prequalified PJP groove weld sizes. A maximum fillet weld size is established for lap joints where a fillet weld is placed along the edge of a part. There is no need to check the stress in the base metal along the base of the plug or slot. See AWS D1. limiting the base metal stress to 0. AISC Table J2.) less than the thickness of the part. Beam copes and weld access holes are treated separately by the code. Typically. Weld access holes provide access for welding equipment to reach the weld region. Minimum weld sizes are incorporated into both the AWS D1. the Code requires a check of the base metal in shear. and Table 3.75.8. with potentially high levels of trapped hydrogen.1 Section 2.) or more in thickness. with a higher risk of cracking. but does not provide weld size reductions based upon the use of low hydrogen electrodes or preheat. therefore reducing the cooling rate. special provisions regarding surface quality and inspection apply. When weld access holes are used in heavy sections or high-seismic applications. when the part is 6 mm (1/4 in.5. Available Design Aids. and therefore the weld region cools very rapidly.1 Table 5. in the form of tables and software. e. The basis of these tables is the need to slow the cooling rate when welding on thicker materials. Access holes also serve to separate weld shrinkage stresses when fully welded joints are made in both the member web and flange. dimensions.1 and AISC codes.). martensitic heat-affected zone (HAZ). and reduce the risk of HAZ cracking to acceptable levels. Bibliography.1 Table 5. Grinding of reentrant corners and tangency is not required.60 times the minimum specified yield strength of the base metal. Heavy Section Joint Provisions. (15) With shear stress in any type weld. but may also be used in other joints where interferences exist. or when making welded flange connections in beam-tocolumn joints. with a phi of 0. Reentrant Corners. c.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 with a phi of 0. making it difficult to verify adequate leg size and throat. with no notches. Plug and slot welds may be designed only for shear forces along the base of the hole or slot.

The AISC ASD Specification does not contain the latest joint details. J2. The special provisions listed do not apply when the joint carries only compression. or when bolted slices are used. particularly when rewelding and / or finishing of the removed area is necessary. difficult to achieve with structural steel sections in either the shop or field. particularly in fatigue and seismic applications.2.3 are generally suitable to reduce the risk of melting thru the backing bar. splicing.10.8 for preheat requirements. ceramic or flux. In some joints. as the arc may strike the copper and melt copper into the weld. AWS D1. greatly increasing the risk of weld cracking. and removal. and similar terms in the industry. Weld tabs and backing bars must be removed after completion of the joint. Assembly tolerances without backing are typically within 3 mm (1/8 in.1 code provisions contain most. See AISC section A3.).10. then the welder may also weld with backing. particularly with Submerged Arc Welding (SAW).) in thickness. (1) Steel backing is used almost universally in steel construction. (2) Welding personnel qualified to weld using backing are also qualified to weld without backing.1c for materials requirements. nonstandard location in the material.5 for weld tab and backing bar removal requirements. then the welder must be qualified to weld without backing. ground to bright metal.1 Section 5.1 provisions apply for ASTM Group 4 and 5 shapes and for built-up sections with a web plate over 38 mm (1-1/2 in. thickness.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 using plates over 50 mm (2 in. If a welder is qualified without backing. groove welded 5-7 . Joint assembly tolerances are greater when backing bars are used. (3) The minimum backing thicknesses provided in AWS D1. and therefore AISC LRFD Specification provisions should be used. (4) AWS D1. and J1. Extreme caution should be used with copper backing. The special material requirements include a minimum CVN toughness taken from a specific. requiring the testing of the WPS with these materials. of these provisions. The purpose of a weld tab is to allow the weld to be started or stopped beyond the edge of the material being joined.).6 for access hole requirements. may require thicker backing. but PT or MT of the cut surface is still required. For joint welding. but have also been applied to connections such as beam-to-column connections where the flanges are direct-welded for moment resistance. includes provisions for backing materials. If the joint is not backgouged and backwelded. higher than that required by AWS D1. Weld access holes must be preheated to 65oC (150oF) prior to thermal cutting. the assembly tolerances are typically enlarged to allow variations of 8 mm (5/16 in. “run-off tabs”. Optionally. See AISC LRFD Figure CJ1. Weld tabs are also referred to as “extension bars”.2 for dimensional and fabrication requirements for weld access holes. Backing Bars. Both codes apply these provisions only when the materials are used with welded tensile splices. i. j.1 Section 5. but possible for some types of joints for shop fabrication.1 Table 3. This adds cost to the operation. and inspected using either Penetrant Testing (PT) or Magnetic Particle Testing (MT). J1. Those applications that require subsequent backing removal are sometimes done with nonfusible backing materials such as copper. Welding is more easily performed with backing to support the root pass. AWS D1. compared to joints without backing. weld access holes may be made by drilling and saw-cutting. Weld tabs are typically used in butt joint member splices. eliminating concerns for melt-through and repair. it may be recommended or necessary to remove the backing bar after use. Weld Tabs.) in thickness. but very high heat input procedures. Backing bars are used to close and support the root pass of groove welds when made from one side of the joint. The use of backing materials other than steel is generally considered nonprequalified. such as column splices. minimum preheat and interpass temperature of 175oC (350oF) must be used. but not all. With backing. provided the weld is backgouged and backwelded.

Large inclusions constitute laminations. without starts and stops or build-out regions along the edges. AWS D1. For SAW. Weld tabs allow the welding of the full width of the joint.31. the tabs support the flux deposit at the edge of the workpiece. the use of preheat and/or postheat. (1) There is no specific through-thickness at which lamellar tearing will or will not occur. These inclusions serve as initiation points for tearing. and the low toughness may allow a crack or other discontinuity in the weld tab to propagate into the primary weld. lamellar tearing is avoided by using one or more of the following techniques: improved design or redesign of the joint. WPSs that use large passes. welding from the center of the member’s length. camber. repair of joints that have torn is difficult and expensive. or for low-stress tensile splices. Welding Sequence and Distortion Control.1 Commentary C2. Lamellar tearing is a step-like crack in the base metal. provides guidance on these methods. Generally. (2) AWS D1. provides information on the use and removal requirements for weld tabs. the weld tabs may need to be removed. when weld shrinkage occurs.) in thickness when the members are subjected to high tensile stresses at the splice. or twist. nonmetallic inclusions. generally parallel to the rolled surface. The steel is somewhat weakened by the presence of very small. Steels with improved through-thickness properties may also be specified. and the implications of potential failure in service should be considered. The most common method for improving through-thickness properties. “buttering. is the specification of low-sulfur or controlled sulfur-inclusion steels. Lamellar Tearing. Distortion may also occur along the length of a member. weld tabs in statically loaded structures should be allowed to remain in place. For other applications. with no assurance that a tear will not form beneath the repair weld. dispersed. The use of intermittent welding. particularly in fatigue and high-seismic applications. Because the completed joint is more highly restrained than the original joint. which may be detectable using straight-beam ultrasonic testing prior to welding. removal is required. application. welding procedure controls. This occurs because welding is not balanced about the center of gravity of the member cross-section. rather than numerous small passes. the completed member will be approximately straight. In high seismic regions. Parts can be preset in a skewed position so that. l. k. caused by weld shrinkage stresses applied to the steel in the through-thickness direction.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 direct-welded flange joints in beam-to-column moment connections.3. For compression joints such as column splices. sequencing. Repair may involve complete removal of the existing weld and 5-8 . and outside the major stress flow of the spliced material. and overwelding in some locations may also be used to reduce longitudinal distortion. the stress type. generally cause less angular distortion. it may be recommended or necessary to remove the weld tab after use. (1) After welding is completed. The inclusions that initiate lamellar tearing are generally not reliably detected using any form of NDT. and at the ends of built-up member welds such as girder web-to-flange welds. In heavy section tensile splices. planar-shaped. the use of low-strength. weld bead placement selection. removal should be considered when splicing members over 25 mm (1 in. Removal is required in most fatigue applications. This is because thicker members typically have less toughness than thinner members.” and peening. In some joints. nor specific values for weld size.1. resulting in unintended sweep. removal is required at transverse groove welds in moment-resisting joints. oriented parallel to the steel surface. high-ductility filler metals. to reduce the risk of lamellar tearing. (2) Should lamellar tears be detected. Tabs also allow the welding arc to stabilize prior to welding the main material. stresses or strains that will induce tearing.1 Section 5. generally sulfur-based. The use of weld tabs places the inherent weld discontinuities made when starting or stopping a weld within the tab.

the stress ranges are generally too low to initiate crack propagation. (3) The fatigue strength of different welded details varies according to the severity of the stress concentration effect. The details and stress categories are classified by: 5-9 . and fatigue applications may require more care in the selection and construction of connections and their details. Reinforcement. fatigue life is generally not affected by applied stress level or the strength of the material. low-cycle fatigue may also occur in cases of extreme stress and strain. At the upper left end of the straight line. is the number of cycles to failure. HAZ or base metal. high seismic risk. also called the endurance limit. a. Backing bars should be removed in some applications because the notch inherent at the root pass between backing bar and steel may initiate a crack in the weld. sufficient length of base material should be provided in the assumed area of plastic yielding to allow this to occur. Care should be taken to avoid transversely loaded sharp notches and joint transitions. and are commonly plotted on a logarithmic scale as a straight line. so that brittle fracture will not occur. such as seismicallyloaded structures. However. generally in the range of 20. 4. whether inadvertent or inherent in the design. unusual materials. (2) The S-N curves used for fatigue design provides an assumed relationship between fatigue life and stress range. The fatigue strength of a welded component is a combination of a stress range and a number of cycles (N) that causes failure of the component. at the low endurance limit. There are several details that fall within each class. and the fatigue strength of the detail. Notches. should be considered in lieu of repair or replacement. Notch-tough materials reduce the risk of brittle fracture. the high-endurance range. particularly in areas such as weld toes. General. Brittle Fracture. only a variation in stress. greatly increase the risk of brittle fracture. At the lower right end of the curve. and toughness in materials selection. cold temperature environments. Brittle fracture is a failure that occurs in the steel or weld without appreciable deformation or energy absorption. identified as Classes A through F. Where it is assumed that plastic behavior will be required to provide ductility and energy absorption. as the material may have undergone considerable straining and deformation prior to fracture. Several design codes are now replacing the design S-N curves with the equations used to generate the plotted curves. and notches that would serve as crack initiators should be avoided in this area. DESIGN FOR CYCLICALLY LOADED STRUCTURES (FATIGUE). primarily a function of its geometry. The stress range is the total range between the maximum and minimum applied stresses. m.000 cycles to 100. In welded joints. The design S-N curves used to design structural members have been established approximately 25% below the mean failure values. Not all fractures are brittle. (1) Traditional fatigue design is based upon high-cycle fatigue. such as seismic events or unanticipated out-of-plane bending from applied stresses or distortion. The fatigue life of a component. Each detail has a specific description that defines the geometry.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 affected base metal. the ultimate material strength is exceeded and failure occurs from static stress. Stress range does not require stress reversal. if appropriate for the application. Applications that may experience low-cycle fatigue require design and detailing specific to the application that exceed the general fatigue design provisions of the codes. Those with similar fatigue life characteristics are grouped together into a Stress Category.000 cycles and up. with subcategories for special cases. Many joint designs assume the ability to deform and redistribute stress throughout the connection. Standard design and detailing practices are typically adequate for building structures. Extreme loading conditions. The fatigue life of a welded joint is affected by the stress range at the location of crack initiation. Sufficient ductility should be provided in joint design and detailing.

NDT requirements. Further divisions of these general categories are provided using general descriptions. Smooth shapes and transitions are important. weld type). provide for in-service inspection. Transitions between members of differing thicknesses or widths should be made with a slope of at least 2. Intermittent stitch welds should be avoided. Welds on the edges of flanges should be avoided. (4) Careful design and fabrication can reduce the risk of failure by fatigue. Groove-welded butt joints have better fatigue life than lap or tee joints made with fillet welds. stud welds.1 Section 8. provided this will not have any other detrimental effect on the structure.) from the edges of plates. groove-welded attachments. at the highest stress range. 5-10 . C. when possible. weld length. rolled section base metal. often made by field or maintenance personnel or other trades. and plug and slot welds. Fatigue details are identified as plain material. radius of transition. location of anticipated crack initiation (base metal. Fatigue Design Details. When grinding is appropriate. Attachment welds should be kept at least 12 mm (1/2 in. for Category A details. Unauthorized attachments. inspection. The detail category should be evaluated carefully to verify that the actual detail realistically matches the standard detail. must be prohibited. The endurance limit is also reached soonest. Fillet welds should be stopped about 12 mm (1/2 in. and NDT requirements should be specified. backing removed. such as a transversely loaded CJP groove weld with reinforcement removed. notch-like corners. A bolted assembly may be appropriate and more cost-effective in some applications. and inspection requirements (ultrasonic or radiographic testing).). by attachment length. Not all methods of fatigue life improvement are contained in the Codes. weld toe). weld. Categories B. fillet welds. etc. grinding should be in the direction of stress. and member yield strength.CEMP-E • • • • • TI 809-26 1 March 2000 form of the member (plate base metal. radius.5:1. groove welds. fillet-welded attachments. Avoid attachments to members subject to fatigue loading. but radiused transitions are expensive and may not substantially improve fatigue life. with no welding. appropriate quality. For critical details. • • • • • • b. D and E follow the same line slope. Parts should be aligned to minimize or eliminate eccentricity and minimize secondary bending stresses. Joints should be placed in low stress areas. • • • • • • • • • Grinding groove welds flush in the direction of the applied stress may improve the Stress Category. and not all methods are necessary. (1) Stress Category A is limited to plain material.). fabrication requirements (ground flush. Category F behavior is sufficiently different to use a different slope. built-up members. Illustrative examples are typically provided by the codes to assist in the interpretation of these divisions. may be cost-effective in extending fatigue life.) short of the end of the attachment. If a detail is highly sensitive to weld discontinuities. Avoid reentrant. with reduced permitted stress ranges for a given fatigue life demand. governing dimensions (attachment dimensions. with progressively more cycles and lower stress ranges for the endurance limit in other categories. Fatigue life enhancement techniques such as those found in AWS D1. and in some cases. etc. grinding requirements.

HIGH SEISMIC APPLICATIONS. where failure of the welded component would result in collapse of the structure. Fatigue life enhancement details are not to be used to increase allowable stress ranges. d. The AWS nonredundant structure fatigue provisions are based upon bridge principles.1 provisions are limited to welded details. The AASHTO code. Allowable Stress Ranges. melting out and removing the microscopic slag intrusion line. and fatigue life is limited to crack propagation. AISC and AASHTO specifications are the most current and comprehensive. fatigue life may be extended. as other areas of the welded joint may now fail before the weld toe. Occasional revisions to these provisions and details are made by the various code organizations. Burr grinding of the weld toe. c. acts as a small crack. may also be used to remove the slag line. for some groove details. for fatigue purposes. Recommendations for the design of welded connections in high seismic regions are undergoing substantial revision as of the date of this document. and often the type of detail needed to make the component or connection is established. Fracture Control Plan for Nonredundant Structures. and all are based upon the same principles and research data. Toe peening. The process of TIG dressing can be used to remelt the weld toe area to a limited depth. achieving typically triple the fatigue life of the untreated weld toe. are often limited by the static stress applied. Users are advised to seek the latest 5-11 . for the better fatigue categories. Section 12. the design must be established to keep the stress range below that permitted. so there may be minor differences between codes. Fatigue Life Enhancement. then checked for the applied stress range. At the toe of every weld. but special provisions for nonredundant structures are not required. does not remove the slag line.5. to a depth of approximately 1 mm (1/32 in. and AISC uses tabular values based upon the S-N curves. Fatigue design begins with the sizing of the member and the connection for the maximum applied static load. Adjustments are then made to increase the component or connection size as needed. begins with an initial crack. Because the number of cycles is usually established for the application. (3) AASHTO and AWS provide fatigue design curves for both redundant and nonredundant structures. With plain material. therefore. Fatigue life of welded joints. By applying fatigue life enhancement techniques. Performing both toe grinding and hammer peening will provide additional benefits. Another alternative is the use of fatigue life enhancement details to improve fatigue life. with the exception of welds made using Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding with no filler metal. AISC does not address nonredundant applications. Some joints may be changed from PJP groove or fillet welds to CJP groove welds. as described in AWS D1. Caution should be used when extending fatigue life expectations. but induces residual compressive stresses around the slag line to prevent the introduction of the tensile stresses necessary for crack propagation.1 Section 8. including bolted details. Any of these enhancement processes typically double the fatigue life of the treated joint. in which localized mechanical compressive stresses are induced into the weld toe area.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (2) Various design codes may be used for fatigue design. This includes. All three organizations are currently changing to equationbased design. so fatigue life is spent in both crack initiation and crack propagation. there is no pre-existing crack. other improved details may be considered. Generally. AASHTO and AWS currently use S-N curves. This line. Should the size become excessive. Latest Guidance. a. AWS D1. however. grinding of the surface and NDT to improve the fatigue design category. Inspection of the weld should be performed prior to implementing fatigue life enhancement techniques. Stress ranges at the lower number of cycles. a microscopic slag intrusion line is present. requires the use of the AWS D1. with any required inspection for surface discontinuities repeated following the work. 5.). As a specification for building construction.

) or thicker. designated communications towers. section 7. (3) It is also recommended that structural steel shapes used in high seismic applications be specified as either ASTM A992 or A572. is currently considered unnecessary for building-type applications. These specifications have provisions for a maximum ratio of Fy to Fu of 0. hospitals. and to plates in built-up members 38 mm (1-1/2 in. tested using welding procedures representative of the range of production WPSs. AISC Technical Advisory No. Reduced toughness in these region may increase the risk of crack initiation from welding in the area. or the specification of A709 steels. are also recommended in the latest FEMA Guidelines. materials toughness and other mechanical property requirements may be necessary for the steel and filer metal used in seismic applications: (1) The AISC Seismic Provisions. emergency shelters. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b.-lbf at 70oF).85. and Section 4. 5-12 .33g or higher. Studies have identified a reduced toughness in this region caused by cold-working during rotary straightening at the steel mill. emergency vehicle garages. and a more controlled chemistry for weldability and properties. including but not limited to: fire. or short period response accelerations (SDS) of 0.CEMP-E guidance from FEMA and AISC documents.20g or higher. or SDS of 0. 1 should be followed. designated medical facilities providing emergency medical treatment. See TI 809-04. require filler metals in the Seismic Force Resisting System to have a minimum toughness of 27J at -29oC (20 ft.-lbf at -20oF). and therefore it does not appear that CVN testing need be conducted to verify the toughness of all members. Seismic Use Group III structures are essential facilities that are required for post-earthquake recovery and those containing substantial quantities of hazardous substances. particularly stiffeners (continuity plates) and doubler plates.) or thicker. air traffic control towers. Applicability. and need not be specified or checked.3.50g. emergency operations centers.3b. These applications include all buildings located in areas with 1 second spectral response accelerations (SD1) of 0. Group 3 shapes with flanges 38 mm (1-1/2 in. Section 6. Special compositional.-lbf at 70oF).133g or higher. c. grade 50 manufactured to AISC Technical Bulletin #3. It is recommended that manufacturer’s accumulated data be used to verify that the steel routinely produced by that mill meets the indicated toughness levels. Improved materials and details should be used for building structures classified as Seismic Categories D. (5) There are concerns for the performance of rolled steel sections in the vicinity of the K-line. and buildings of Seismic Use Group III in areas with SD1 of 0. E and F. Materials Concerns and Specifications.2 for Seismic Design Categories. pending further study. rescue and police stations. applicable to ASTM Group 4 and 5 shapes. Additional requirements for toughness at service temperature. Table 4-1 for Seismic Use Groups. and water treatment facilities needed to provide water pressure for fire suppression. (6) Current studies indicate that through-thickness toughness properties or applied stress on the column face is not a limiting factor. at the intersection of the web and the radius between web and flange. Specification of steel toughness levels. (4) The AISC Seismic Provisions. require steel in the Seismic Force Resisting System to have a minimum toughness of 27J at 21oC (20 ft. (2) Studies indicate that a large percentage of domestically produced structural steel sections lighter or thinner than those mentioned in the previous paragraph will have a CVN toughness of at least 27J at 21oC (20 ft.

When using T-joints. improved and reinforced details are recommended for conventional-type connections. as follows: “All complete joint penetration and partial joint penetration groove welded joints that are subjected to net tensile forces as part of the Seismic Force Resisting Systems . Enhanced quality. For Reduced Beam Section (RBS) system connections. (3) removal and finishing of weld tabs. AISC Seismic Provisions require NDT for certain joints in high seismic applications. ultrasonic testing should be performed after completion and cooling of the weld to check for lamellar tearing. Continuous inspection of all welding performed on CJP and PJP groove welds that are a part of the Seismic Force Resisting System is necessary.” Such testing should include ultrasonic testing of welds in T-joints and butt joints over 8 mm (5/16 in. shall be tested using approved nondestructive testing methods conforming to AWS D1. Radiographic testing may be used in some cases using butt joints. See (e) below. with the thickness of the tee “flange” exceeding 40 mm (1-1/2 in. and further investigation of the latest recommendations should be made prior to use. (2) improved quality of the weld access hole. Bibliography. 5-13 . Joint Selection. Joint Detail Modifications and Enhancements. backgouging of the root. f.) in thickness. also called the “dogbone” system. whether Special Moment resisting Frame (SMRF) or Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMRF). and placement of a reinforcing fillet. e.1. Several limitations have been found in the cover-plated and ribbed details. Several types of details may be used to achieve satisfactory moment connection performance in high seismic applications. (4) control of profile and quality of the access hole. See Appendix D. Inspection Enhancements. current AISC guidelines should be followed. The Engineer may allow periodic inspections when appropriate. Current recommendations include the following modifications to the previous standard beam-to-column connection: (1) removal of bottom flange backing bar..CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 d. The exact requirements for access hole provisions and web welding depend upon the type of connection used and the design application. (5) use of partially or fully welded web connections.)..

The weld arc and molten pool is protected with the use of a flux tip on the base of the stud. Studs may be welded either directly to the structural steel or through metal decking. including studs applied through metal decking. but may also include shear connector applications for composite columns and frames. on the 6-1 . See AWS C5. Stud welding is a fully automated process with controlled arc length and arc time. A DCEN (straight) current is used to create an arc between the stud base and the steel. the contractor must perform qualification testing. Stud bases are qualified by the manufacturer for application on bare steel in the flat position only.4. allows a brief period for the melting of the steel and stud base. WELDING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION. studs applied to curved surfaces. creating the arc.1 Table 3.6. GENERAL. STUD BASE QUALIFICATION. for complete information. and therefore is treated separately by AWS D1.1 Section 7. However.7.4. 2. For the Type B studs used in composite construction. Qualification procedures for this application are provided in AWS D1. For all other applications.1 for procedure qualification. and is conducive to a suitable convenient load test.1 Section 7. or studs welded to steels not listed as Group I or II in AWS D1. rather than the capacitor discharge stud welding process. See AWS D1. This testing requires two studs to be welded. 5. PRE-PRODUCTION TESTING. a tension test method may be used. such as embedment plates or inaccessible connections. installation may begin. threaded studs may be used for special connections where bolting is not practical. ten (10) specimens must pass a 90o bend test using representative material and application. The arc stud welding process is used for structural studs. personnel qualification. plus the use of a ceramic ferrule to contain the molten pool. Alternatively. pre-production testing is required at the start of each day or shift to verify the setup of the equipment. STUD WELDING PROCESS. 4.CEMP-E CHAPTER 6 STUD WELDING TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. or qualification testing by the contractor for the applications listed. See AWS D1. After stud base qualification by the manufacturer. The stud welding gun draws the stud away from the steel. studs welded in vertical or overhead positions. Recommended Practice for Stud Welding. The purpose of most shear connectors is to integrally connect steel and concrete materials so that they act as a single unit in resisting load. Stud welding for building applications is generally for shear connectors in composite beams. The welding operator conducting the two pre-production tests at the start of the day or work shift is qualified for performing stud welding that day or shift. then plunges the stud into the molten pool and terminates the current flow.1 Annex IX.1. and inspection. Occasionally. 3.

See AWS D1. Following the application of studs and the removal of the ferrules. 6-2 . Should the stud weld not fracture. For composite construction. visually inspected.1 Section 7. the stud need not be bent back to the original position. if desired. If the stud weld passes the visual and bend testing.1 Section 7.7.8. or tested using a bend test applied approximately 15o in the direction opposite the missing flash. all stud welds are visually inspected for flash about the entire perimeter of the stud base. INSPECTION. The pre-production test must be repeated whenever there are changes to the following items: voltage. time. then bent approximately 30o. current. The inspector may 15o bend test any stud. See AWS D1. or gun lift and plunge. the stud is accepted and may be left in place in the bent condition when used in composite construction. Those with missing flash may be repaired. 6.1. even if full flash is apparent. then production welding may begin.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 work if desired.

The poorer the weldability of steel. (2) Other methods. or from technical literature. INTERMIXING WELD PROCESSES AND FILLER METALS. Other than load analysis of the structure to design the connections.or low-stress locations. 3. a. specific instructions. GENERAL. several welding issues arise. DETERMINING WELDABILITY OF EXISTING STRUCTURAL STEELS. the reduction of strength to existing members when being heated or welded. in some cases. even if the percentage reported is zero. When welding to reinforce existing structures. Carbon Equivalency. and the greater the importance of low-hydrogen welding. The weldability of steels between these periods is generally considered sufficiently weldable. and observing the nature of the fracture. a. Portable spectrographs may also be used. provides applicable code provisions. if possible. although structural steels were not manufactured specifically for welding properties until A373 and A36 came into use in the early 1960’s. Spark testing applies a grinding wheel at approximately 5000 rpm to the steel. WELDING TO OLDER STRUCTURAL STEELS. and its supporting Commentary. although only optical emission spectrography systems currently provide sufficient accuracy for measuring carbon content. The laboratory analysis report should list the quantities of each of the elements in the selected carbon equivalent equation. Investigation. then analyzed spectrographically for composition. All welding to existing structures should be performed with low-hydrogen SMAW electrodes or with other wire-fed welding processes. include spark testing and weld sample tests. Weld sample tests include welding small test plates to the steel. FCAW-S Deposits. These include weldability of the existing steel. (1) The most reliable method to establish chemical composition for determining carbon equivalent values is to remove samples from various members at selected no.CEMP-E CHAPTER 7 WELDING TO EXISTING STRUCTURES TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. 2.1 Section 8. although less reliable. and the welding to existing weld deposits of unknown origin or made with FCAW-S electrodes. b. then observing and characterizing the color and nature of the sparks off the steel. Self-shielded Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW-S) weld deposits contain 7-1 .1 Annex XI. Minimum preheat and interpass temperatures can be determined from AWS D1. several areas require investigation and. the greater the need for higher preheat and interpass temperatures. Investigation of weldability is generally warranted for buildings constructed prior to 1945. then destructively using a sledge hammer to break off the samples. AWS D1. 4.

carbon and other alloying elements. or requiring subsequent welding using appropriate FCAW-S should be considered. Steel further from the weld region will remain at temperatures that will not significantly reduce the steel’s properties. do not contain the amount of aluminum necessary in order to preclude the formation of free nitrogen. When welding parallel to the applied stress. or use lower heat input procedures. Other Processes. When weld processes that use consumables with significantly different metallurgical systems are mixed with FCAW-S deposits. 7-2 . Welding Direction and Sequence. STRENGTH REDUCTION EFFECTS AND OTHER CONCERNS WHEN WELDING UNDER LOAD. It may be necessary to stagger welding operations. or other reasons. unless all coatings in the vicinity of the welding are removed prior to welding. When welding under load. root pass welding selection. which can embrittle the steel or weld deposit. 6. a. and a distance of approximately 100 mm (4 in. but localized temperatures near the weld region will exceed these temperatures for brief periods. design assuming reduced mechanical properties. an investigation into the composition of the coating is warranted. As a general guide. consideration should be made for the temporarily reduced strength of localized areas of the steel. Recent research indicates that this problem may not be limited to non-FCAW-S weld deposits on top of FCAW-S. An aluminum content in the range of 1% is indicative of FCAW-S. produces noxious fumes. This is the result of the liberation of nitrogen and aluminum that were previously chemically combined as Al-N in the FCAW-S deposit. Low-admixture welding procedures. b. b.) to the side of a weld. Some older structures may contain lead-based paints that must be removed using special hazardous materials precautions.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 aluminum. Zinc. Investigation. will exceed these temperatures approximately 25 mm (1 in. there is the potential for reduced properties. When welding on steel having existing coatings.) trailing the weld puddle. When welding transverse to the load. typically a carbon-manganese-silicon metallurgical system. At approximately 300oC to 400oC (600oF to 800oF). additional caution is needed. the affected area is typically small compared to the area of the unaffected steel. c. nitrogen. Elevated Temperature Effects. within the weld region. particularly ductility and toughness. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. further investigation of the weld deposit is warranted. Fy and E are reduced approximately 20%. use shorter sections of weld and then allow cooling. Elevated temperatures in steel reduce both the yield strength (Fy) and the modulus of elasticity (E). When it is suspected that existing weld deposits that will receive subsequent welding were made using FCAW-S. 5. steel during welding. Multiple weld processes in a single weld joint may also occur in new construction because of tack welding. used in numerous coating systems and galvanizing. Preheat temperatures at this level are rarely used. Other weld deposits.

1.CEMP-E CHAPTER 8 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND INSPECTION TI 809-26 1 March 2000 1. Prequalified WPSs need not be approved by the Engineer under D1. for the welder and inspector.1 Section 6. minimum prequalified PJP groove weld size in AWS Table 3.1 requires inspection of welding. thickness of material to be joined. type of joint. b. These requirements should be a part of the contract documents. The Engineer is assigned the responsibility in AWS D1. WPS Contents.1. minimum (and sometimes maximum) preheat and interpass temperatures. AWS D1.4. the welding process must be prequalified (SMAW.7. In the AISC Seismic Provisions.3.1 Section 4. electrode diameter. the Engineer must approve the welding procedures. All WPSs. but requires only “Fabrication / Erection Inspection”. shielding gas). FCAW. voltage.1.1.4. and minimum 8-1 . Section 7. WPS Prequalification Limits. under AWS D1. such as for thick and highly restrained joints. a. and position of welding. to review and approve WPSs that are qualified. shielding gas flow rate. size of weld. and must be reviewed by the inspector.1 Section 4. and other pertinent information specific to the weld to be made. any specific welding inspection operations to be performed by personnel other than the Contractor must be fully detailed and placed in the contract documents. To be prequalified. The Engineer is responsible for establishing and specifying the requirements of the Quality Control and Quality Assurance programs for the project. whether qualified or prequalified. or SAW). This includes the use of the prequalified groove weld details in AWS Figures 3.1 Section 3. the welding parameters for the weld to be made. and that filler metals with the required toughness have been selected by the contractor. Therefore. the WPS specifies the welding materials to be used (electrode. AWS Requirements. Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs) are written based upon the steel to be welded. In some cases. The purpose of the Engineer’s approval of the WPS is so that it can be verified that the qualification testing is representative of the actual welding conditions. GMAW except short-circuiting transfer. d. This is primarily to ensure that WPSs are developed for the welds critical to building performance. AISC Requirements. the Engineer is made responsible for the review and approval of all WPSs. and welding parameters meet the provisions of AWS Table 3. for welds that are part of the Seismic Force Resisting System. The WPS also provides information necessary for inspection duties.3. Prequalified WPSs need not be tested using the tests prescribed in AWS D1. REVIEWING AND APPROVING WELDING PROCEDURES. location and number of passes. must be in writing. Based upon the application. verified by the contractor’s experience and testing as desired. the weld details must meet all the requirements of AWS D1. Weld procedures are written by the contractor responsible for the welding.1 requires the use of and inspection of WPSs. GENERAL. AWS D1. Welding procedures are used to specify. “Verification Inspection” is the prerogative of the Owner. type of weld. c. The inspector should review the WPS for general conformity to the welding code and applicability to the joint to be welded. 2. which is the designated responsibility of the Contractor.3 and 3. flux. current (amperage) or wire feed speed. travel speed. whether prequalified or qualified by test. The contractor may develop WPSs based upon manufacturer’s recommended operating parameters.

(3) Caution should be used when reviewing WPSs for thick materials and highly restrained joints. Welding personnel are classified into three categories: welders. particularly when CVN toughness is required. e. or other details do not meet the prequalification requirements of AWS D1.XX filler metal specifications for information regarding the use and limitations of the filler metal. PQRs must be in writing. (5) Approval of the WPS should be taken as review only. Guidance for Engineering Review of Procedures Submitted by Contractors. The 25 mm (1 in. and that the responsibility for the suitability of the WPS. (1) Generally.8. such as mechanized SAW.1 Section 4. filler metal selection. as these final adjustments are made by experience. with the finish welds to be performed by qualified welders or welding operators. and specify polarity. 8-2 . WELDING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION. it is often difficult to verify FCAW procedures through calculation because of the variations between specific electrode types. (2) Calculations such as heat input and deposition rates are helpful in determining if WPSs should produce a reasonable quality weld of the size specified. When WPSs. See references in Appendix B. and the use of restraint devices. welding operators. Tack welders may only place tack welds to assemble pieces. Documentation of the WPS used and test results must be documented in the form of Procedure Qualification Records (PQRs).1 Section 3. but do not provide specific travel speeds or adjustments necessary to achieve a particular weld size.1. other WPS testing methods may be used as appropriate.) test plate thicknesses specified in AWS D1. Critical joints should be reviewed to verify that the proper welding materials have been designated for the joint. Welding operators set up automatic welding equipment with wire-fed welding processes. to travel at selected speeds. a. and tack welders. 3.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 fillet weld size in AWS Table 5. The use of thicker plates and NDT. remains with the contractor. It may also be necessary to consult the AWS A5. joints. the contractor should submit all applicable manufacturer data sheets and operating recommendations for the filler material to be used. and minimum preheat and interpass temperatures must be provided per AWS Table 3. Calculation should not be used to determine optimum operating characteristics for welding. The middle of the provided ranges are often good starting points. For review of WPSs. and the resultant weld quality and properties.1 Section 4. manufacturer’s operating recommendations provide a range of welding parameters such as voltage and current (amperage) or wire feed speed. should be specified as appropriate for critical welding. and made available for inspection by the inspector. f. “Matching” filler metals must be used. (4) A checklist should be prepared to verify that all welded joints on the project have written WPSs. However. per AWS Table 3. Qualified WPSs must be referenced to the applicable PQR. do not adequately represent the heat sink capabilities of thicker sections (affecting cooling rates).2. Welders manipulate the electrode by hand. WPS Qualification Requirements. nor is restraint developed in the welding of standard WPS test specimens. Personnel Classification. for manual or semi-automatic welding. Alternately. but contractors often tend to work near the high end of the ranges provided to maximize deposition rates and reduce welding time. the WPS to be used for the joint must be qualified by testing prescribed in AWS D1. manipulating and controlling the arc.

) thick plate are qualified for unlimited thicknesses of material. AWS D1.1.1 Section 4. 4. d.) thick plate or thicker are qualified for twice the test plate thickness. FCAW-S (self-shielded) and FCAW-G (gas-shielded) are considered the same process for performance qualification testing. Welding personnel qualified for groove welding in a given position and process are also qualified for fillet welding in the same position and process. respectively. Welding personnel qualified for more difficult positions. GTAW. Welding position is not a factor in maintaining welding personnel qualification. with the Engineer’s approval. or (3) an engineer or technician who. Part C. Vertical and Overhead. by training or experience. inspection and testing. Should the welder consistently produce poor quality welds.4. However. General Welding and Visual Inspectors. Such testing may include independent testing laboratories.SMAW. thicknesses and positions qualified.1 Table 4. provided the inspector remains active in the inspection of welded 8-3 .1 are: (1) current or previous certification as an AWS Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) in accordance with the provisions of AWS QC1. All performance qualification tests must be fully documented in writing.1 Figures 4. or both. These are designated on welding personnel qualification records as positions 1. For the third case. Additional position classifications apply for tubular construction. require a written resume detailing training and experience in welding inspection. Vertical (3) and Overhead (4) welding positions are considered separately. industry associations and unions. welding vocational schools. Should a person not use the process within six months. The contractor is responsible for the qualification of all welding personnel. even though the certification may have expired. and are further identified in AWS D1. There should be records documenting the use of various processes by the contractor. in metals fabrication. Welders are qualified by process . or (2) current or previous qualification by the Canadian Welding Bureau (CWB) to the requirements of the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) Standard W178. the Engineer should establish minimum levels of training and experience. (1) The qualification of an previously certified inspector remains in effect indefinitely.5 mm (3/8 in. the qualification period expires. Standard for AWS Certification of Welding Inspectors. 2. The basis of qualification.1 Section 6. INSPECTOR QUALIFICATIONS a. Although standard practice is to require contractor-based qualification testing of welding personnel.6. and require a written and hands-on examination prior to approval of the inspector. it is acceptable. or EGW.8 provides complete information regarding the cross-over of welding performance qualifications tests and the welding products. FCAW. Welding personnel qualified using 25. Visual welding inspection personnel should be qualified under AWS D1. Acceptable qualification bases under D1.2. Certification of Welding Inspectors. testing using groove welds or fillet welds. Performance qualification expires six (6) months following testing. Contractor Responsibilities. c. GMAW.4 and 4. and the AWS Certified Welder program. The witnessing of performance testing is not required. and 4.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 b. The Engineer should review the basis and suitability of such programs prior to waiver of contractor-based qualification.Flat. Those who qualify using 9. for the contractor to rely upon qualification testing performed by others. Welders are also qualified by position . must be specified in the project documents. the welder’s qualification can be revoked. All welding personnel must demonstrate their skill by performing specific performance qualification tests prescribed by AWS D1. 3. requiring retesting. ESW. Welding personnel are further classified by type of weld. for example Vertical (3). are also qualified for Flat (1) and Horizontal (2) welding. Qualification Testing by Others. unless the person has used the process during that time period. Qualification Testing. Horizontal. if beyond these provisions.4 mm (1 in. is competent to perform inspection work. SAW.

4. and metal decks. A SCWI should be considered the equivalent of a CWI. records. as the Level III may not perform actual testing 8-4 . or ASNT Recommended Practice No. and welding inspection experience may be in any area of welding. (2) The American Welding Society offers certification to welding inspectors in the form of Certified Welding Inspectors. safety and responsibilities. b. Although assumed to be competent to inspect welded construction. Nondestructive testing personnel should be qualified under the American Society for Nondestructive Testing. and Certified Senior Welding Inspectors. terms. or is familiar with.6 requires that nondestructive testing be performed by NDT Level II technicians.1. ANSI/ASNT CP-189.1. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. A CAWI has passed the same accreditation examination as the CWI. definitions.1 Section 6. Inc. Certified Associate Welding Inspectors. It is suggested that the certification of NDT personnel should be administered by an ASNT Certified Level III in the specific area on NDT. welding procedures. ANSI/AWS QC1-96. including experience level.1 code because of publication schedules. in the field of welding inspection. but has less experience.1 does not recognize the AWS Certified Associate Welding Inspector as qualified to perform the work solely based upon this certification. and this recent certification option has not been included in the AWS D1. See AWS D1. It should also be verified that the AWS Certified Welding Inspector has tested.14. documented by vision testing performed within the past three years. reports. the AWS D1. nondestructive testing. The Senior Certified Welding Inspector is a new program offered by the AWS. It is permitted to take the AWS examinations using either the AWS D1. 5 and 6 of ANSI/ASNT CP-189. the AWS Certified Welding Inspector may not have the background or expertise in other areas of steel construction such as general fabrication and erection. Personnel certifications must be maintained on file by the employer and a copy should be carried by the technician. destructive testing.1 Section 6. (5) All welding inspectors must have adequate visual acuity. (4) Although AWS D1.1. or by Level I technicians only when working under the direct supervision of a Level II.. welder qualification.1 Structural Welding Code. SNT-TC-1A. as modified by the employer's written practice. and additional education and training relative to these areas may be needed. or in accordance with Sections 4. Certification of all levels of NDT personnel is the responsibility of the employer of the NDT technician. symbols. The CWI examination tests the inspector’s knowledge of welding processes.1 allows inspector qualification without the CWI certification under AWS QC1 criteria. ASNT Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel. it is recommended that the welding inspection personnel for critical welding be AWS QC1 certified (or previously certified) by experience and written examination. Inspection by a Level III technician is not recognized. or unless there is a specific reason to question the inspector's ability. Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing. Employers may rely upon outside training and testing for NDT personnel for certification. bolted connections. 7 and 8 of ASNT SNT-TC-1A.1 Section 6. (2) AWS D1. (1) Certification of NDT personnel should be based on demonstration of satisfactory qualification in accordance with Sections 6.4.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 steel fabrication. (3) AWS D1. or the API 1104 Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities code. with two years minimum experience rather than five years.4. the employer should supplement such certification testing with a review of the technician’s experience and skill levels. NDT Personnel Qualification. Standard for AWS Certification of Welding Inspectors. A CAWI could be acceptable under condition “c” as listed in AWS D1. steel bar joists. governs the requirements and testing of such inspectors. however.

Pre-project Inspection. by time period: pre-project inspection for general welding operations. accepted parts. The NDT Level III shall be capable of conducting or directing the training and examining of NDT personnel in the methods for which the NDT Level III is qualified. or by a Level III certified by ASNT.An NDT Level II individual shall have the skills and knowledge to set up and calibrate equipment. the contract design drawings. The inspector’s duties can be assigned or placed into four general categories. (1) Personnel. standards. NDT test reports. (3) The following definitions. allowing time for necessary corrections and improvements by the contractor before welding begins. to interpret codes. and document results in accordance with procedures approved by an NDT Level III. A record should be kept of all welders. • NDT Level II . Requalification is required for any welder. General.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 regularly enough to maintain the special skills required to set up or to conduct the tests. have been passed. such as mock-ups. Under Section 12. current and complete. and that any required special supplemental qualification tests. b. and verify the accuracy of procedures. welding operators and tack welders. 5. welding operator and tack welder qualification records are available. the status of all joints not accepted. evaluate.16. a. to conduct tests. and specifications. from ANSI / ASNT CP-189. inspection during welding of the joint. and with prior written approval of the NDT Level III. welding personnel qualifications. inspection prior to welding a particular joint. and other such information as may be required. and inspection of the completed joint. Each person performing welding should have a unique identification 8-5 .5-96 requires similar qualification. • NDT Level III . welding procedures. not used the process for which the person was qualified. The individual shall also have general familiarity with the other NDT methods. apply to the various NDT Levels: • NDT Level I .An NDT Level III individual shall have the skills and knowledge to establish techniques.An NDT Level I individual shall have the skills to properly perform specific calibrations. The scheduling of this inspection should be well before welding is scheduled to begin. and the shop or erection drawings for the project.1. The inspector assigned responsibility for the welding of the project should review and understand the applicable portions of the project specifications. AWS D1. unless the Engineer accepts other forms of qualification. INSPECTION CATEGORIES AND TASKS. as appropriate. perform specific interpretations and evaluations for acceptance or rejection and document the results. except in the case of Fracture Critical Members. The inspector should participate in a pre-project meeting with the contractor to discuss the quality control and quality assurance requirements for the project. The inspector should verify that all applicable welder. specific NDT. testing of Fracture Critical Members must be done by either a qualified Level II under the supervision of a qualified Level III. designate the particular technique to be used.2. and to interpret. The Level II shall be thoroughly familiar with the scope and limitations of the method to which certified and should be capable of directing the work of trainees and NDT Level I personnel. A pre-project inspection should be conducted of the fabricator’s and erector’s facilities and operations to verify the adequacy of their welding operations. The NDT Level I shall be able to follow approved nondestructive testing procedures and shall receive the necessary guidance or supervision from a certified NDT Level II or NDT Level III individual. The NDT Level II shall be able to organize and report nondestructive test results. welding operator or tack welder who has. for a period of six months.

15 for complete base metal preparation requirements.1 Section 4. (4) Materials Controls. perform any physical inspections prior to welding to verify the contractor personnel’s work. as appropriate. See AWS D1. rather than at the machine.1. The manufacturer’s identification labels. It is not anticipated that the inspector physically perform these inspections at each individual joint. c. See AWS D1. uniform. Welding personnel should be familiar with the SMAW electrode and SAW flux storage and exposure limitations of AWS D1. research indicates that certain FCAW electrodes may warrant protected storage or limited atmospheric exposure times. but there is no specific requirements for such in AWS D1.3. (1) Pre-project review.3a. or other harmful foreign materials.1. This may be done through observation of welding operations and informal inquiries of welding personnel. Such controls and limitations should be based upon manufacturer’s test data and recommendations.1 Section 5. See AWS D1. item c(1) below should be performed. with an ongoing system in place to confirm compliance. No materials other than electrodes or fluxes. Inspections at least annually are recommended. The Engineer’s approval should be verified. including lot number. Prior to the beginning of actual welding on the project. The inspector may. Periodic checks should be performed by the contractor to verify the accuracy of gauges and other operating components of welding machines.11 and 6.1 Section 4. All other inspection items should be performed prior to beginning the welding of each joint. and free of significant amounts of loose or thick scale.1 Sections 5.3 for storage requirements. The contractor should have all necessary welding consumable drying and storage equipment. See AWS D1. and free from significant surface discontinuities such as cracks or seams. Prior to the actual start of welding on the project. Ammeters should be available for verifying the current (amperage) near the arc.2.1 Section 5. 8-6 . The proper operating temperatures should be verified on a regular basis as a part of the contractor’s quality control program. All welding equipment should be in proper operating condition. (5) Materials Storage. Records of equipment inspections and calibrations should be maintained. with functioning gauges necessary for following the WPS for the selected process. In addition to AWS D1. The contractor’s quality control system should be used to confirm that the proper welding consumables are selected. Steel joints to be welded must be smooth. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (2) Equipment. per AWS D1.1. moisture. grease. Welding leads should be inspected for worn or missing insulation. Prior to Welding. Electrodes and fluxes should be stored in their original. WPSs should be available at welding work stations and used by all welding personnel.1 mandated storage requirements. Part C. (3) WPSs. may be placed in drying or storage ovens. slag. Qualified WPSs must be approved by the Engineer. (2) Base metal quality. all WPSs must be approved by the Engineer. The contractor should have an operating system to verify that all materials in inventory have proper certification papers on file. rust. For high seismic applications. when desired. it should be verified that all non-compliance revealed during pre-project inspection has been rectified.CEMP-E mark or die stamp to identify his or her welds. manufacturersealed containers until ready for placement in storage ovens or use. PQRs should be referenced and available for review for any non-prequalified WPSs.1. current and accurate. should remain on the packaging. The inspector should verify that all applicable welding Procedure Qualification Records (PQRs) and Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs) are available. See AISC Seismic Provisions Section 7. or inadequate connectors. but will verify that the contractor’s personnel understand and routinely perform these inspections as a part of their welding operations.

(5) Steel temperature. Tack welds should be visually inspected prior to being welded over by the finish weld. including preheat.1 Section 5. (8) WPS. the temperature of the steel should be measured a distance 75 mm (3 in. assembly tolerances are provided in AWS D1.2.1 Table 3. Preheat temperatures as specified in the WPS must be provided and checked for compliance with AWS D1. (7) Wind speed. and EGW) may not be performed in winds exceeding 8 km per hour (5 mph). For welding in extreme cold environments. See AWS D1. Fillet welded joints must be fitup with a maximum gap of 1.22. and ESW). Welding is not permitted when the ambient (air) temperature is below 18oC (0oF). but not to exceed 5 mm (3/16 in. Gas-shielded welding processes (FCAW-G. the leg size of the weld must be increased by an amount equal to the gap. may be used to satisfy this requirement and provide adequate protection and warmth for the welders and welding equipment. Protective covering or enclosures. unless corrective measure are taken. Cracks in 8-7 . FCAW-S. Tack welds must be made using appropriate WPSs. For gaps exceeding 1. TMCP. Temperatures may be checked with surface temperature thermometers.1. The temperature of the steel at the joint prior to the initiation of welding must not be below 0oC (32oF). close-range focused infrared devices.1 Figures 3. or other special steels. sometimes required for quenched and tempered. within any specified limitations. it is necessary to heat the steel in the vicinity of the joint to at least 21oC (70oF). After heating. see AWS D1.1 Table 3. but should be limited to a maximum of 30 to 40 km per hour (20 to 25 mph). See AWS D1.6 mm (1/16 in. and the fillet leg size is increased.) away from the joint.) in thickness.1. Verification of preheat temperature should be taken 75 mm (3 in. require higher temperatures. when suitable backing is placed in the root of the joint. See AWS D1. or with temperature-indicating crayons. Steels of thicknesses requiring preheat.22.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (3) Fillet weld fitup. per AWS D1. and used only in the permitted positions and within the welding parameters specified by the manufacturer and in the WPS. it is advisable to heat the steel to higher temperatures and apply the heat over a wider area. as wind above this speed blows away the necessary shielding gas and contributes to poor weld quality and poor mechanical properties.4.1 Table 3.1 Section 5. provided the thickest material joined is 75 mm (3 in.2 if prequalified. Gaps over 5 mm (3/16 in.1. GTAW. including preheat when required.). or when toughness requirements apply. with heating as necessary. It should be verified that the WPS is appropriate for the joint.1 Section 5. The selected electrodes should be taken only from proper storage.1 Section 5.6 mm (1/16 in.) are permitted only for steels over 76 mm (3 in.) or less in thickness.12 for welding environment provisions. GMAW. The inspector should verify compliance of the welding consumables selected (electrode.2.3 and 3.2. as Category C steels.1 Table 3. then the temperature verification is taken a distance equal to the material thickness.). Prequalified groove welds must be assembled within the “as fit-up” tolerance specified for the joint in AWS D1. Note 1. (4) Groove weld fitup. flux and shielding gas) with the project requirements and the WPS.2. For Partial Joint Penetration (PJP) groove welds. (6) Ambient temperature.). the minimum steel temperature at the joint is 10oC (50oF). Higher preheat temperatures may be specified.) from the joint. the maximum wind speed is not specified by AWS D1. or when welding personnel are exposed to inclement environmental conditions. (9) Preheat. When steel temperatures are below these minimum temperatures. For other groove dimension tolerances applicable to other groove welds.22. It may also be necessary to verify that the preheat temperature does not exceed any maximum values specified in the WPS.4. (10) Tack welds. For selfshielded welding processes (SMAW. SAW. For prequalified steels listed in AWS D1. If the steel is thicker.

(1) Measurement. If desired. After completion of the weld. (2) Interpass temperatures.30. proper documentation of the acceptance of the welding should be prepared and submitted to the designated parties.1 provisions should be verified. proper current (amperage) and voltage for the welding operation may be verified using a hand held calibrated amp and volt meter. provided the thickest material joined is 75 mm (3 in. as appropriate.) from the joint. Upon completion of inspection of the weld. or project. SAW fluxes may require drying.1 Table 6. research indicates that some FCAW electrodes may absorb moisture in the order of 50% of the “as-manufactured” moisture content. Because of welding lead losses. penetration and fusion discontinuities. sometimes specified for quenched and tempered.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 tack welds are likely to propagate into the main weld. When extra-low hydrogen welding electrodes are required for critical welding applications. Completed weld passes must be cleaned of all slag prior to placement of the next pass. repackaging unused FCAW wire in closed moisture-resistant packing overnight. The work should be visually inspected for conformance with the Visual Inspection Acceptance Criteria prescribed in AWS D1. Observation of welding techniques and performance for each welder should be done periodically during welding operations to verify that the applicable requirements of the WPS and the AWS D1.5 Bridge Welding Code. or when toughness requirements apply. or other special steels. and should be referred to a knowledgeable welding consultant and the Engineer for review. NDT is to be performed. See AWS D1. Interpass temperatures as specified in the WPS must be provided and checked with compliance with AWS D1.1 provisions for cracks.) or less in thickness. After Welding. Higher preheat temperatures may be specified. and permit limited amounts of undercut. (3) Consumables control. and FCAW wires removed from the manufacturer’s packaging will not be consumed within a few days. or the use of storage ovens. TMCP. close-range focused infrared devices. fusion and porosity prior to placement of subsequent passes. Temperatures may be checked with surface temperature thermometers. Weld profile 8-8 . special storage conditions limiting exposure times. Verification of interpass temperature should be taken 75 mm (3 in. If required or specified.1 Section 5. and weld size underrun. Although not limited by AWS D1. d. Slag that has not been removed will likely result in slag inclusions in the completed weld. each weld bead profile should be in substantial conformance with the requirements of Table 6. recycling. and removal of exposed flux from opened packages. piece. porosity. It may also be necessary to verify that the interpass temperature does not exceed any maximum values specified in the WPS. These provisions prohibit cracks and lack of fusion. Welds not executed in conformance with the WPS may be considered rejectable. To avoid trapped slag. Wire brushing of the completed weld is recommended. Section 12 provisions for Fracture Critical Nonredundant Members should be considered for guidance in special cases. may be appropriate. Slag that has not been removed will likely result in slag inclusions in the completed weld.2 if a prequalified groove weld joint.1 Section 5. or with temperature-indicating crayons. During Welding. (4) Cleaning. Removal of debris by brushing is required. AWS D1. measurement should as near the arc as practical.1 for SMAW electrode exposure limits. e.1. (1) WPS compliance. Each pass should be visually inspected by the welder for conformance to AWS D1. The inspector should verify that the welding is performed following the appropriate Welding Procedure Specification (WPS).1 Code are met.1. full compliance with the AWS D1.1 Table 6.1 Table 3. special handling.1 Table 5. See AWS D1. Exposure of SMAW electrodes and SAW fluxes must meet the time limitations of AWS D1.1. but not required.3.

Visual inspection may be aided by a strong light. 8-9 . (3) Because of the risk of delayed hydrogen cracking. (2) Tolerances. and the applicable acceptance criteria. The Inspector should mark the welds. The AWS D1.. shall be tested using approved nondestructive testing methods conforming to AWS D1. and bearing surface fit. (2) The contractor is responsible for performing any required NDT.29). NDT symbols should be used to specify locations and types of NDT. joints.. Size and contour of welds should be measured with suitable gauges. flange warpage and tilt. but NDT is required by both AISC and AWS D1. When using T-joints.) in thickness. are prescribed in AWS D1. as follows: “All complete joint penetration and partial joint penetration groove welded joints that are subjected to net tensile forces as part of the Seismic Force Resisting Systems .1 Table 6.5 Bridge Welding Code Section 12.1. AWS D1. f.30). (3) Records.1 Section 5.” Such testing should include ultrasonic testing of welds in T-joints and butt joints over 8 mm (5/16 in.4 Part C. or members. stiffener fit. sweep.16. Alternatively. flatness. unless specifically designated to be performed by another party.1 for certain fatigue detail categories for cyclically-loaded structures. Nondestructive Testing Methods.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 tolerances are provided in AWS D1.). For complete information. Radiographic testing may be used in some cases using butt joints.23.1 Section 5. depending upon weld size and steel strength. must be specified in the contract documents. and weld cleaning (Section 5. See AWS A2. as appropriate.1 Figure 5. distributed to the designated recipients in a timely manner. ultrasonic testing should be performed after completion and cooling to check for lamellar tearing. straightness.4 requires a longer delay period for Fracture Critical Members. that have been inspected and accepted using a distinguishing mark or die stamp. camber. Craters are accepted in certain circumstances. See AWS D1. The tolerances for the completed member. and Section 5.4. including cross-section. Other weld acceptance criteria that is verified visually include arc strikes (AWS D1. AISC Seismic Provisions require NDT for certain joints in high seismic applications.24. The accepted.1 (5). depth. or other devices that may be helpful. with the thickness of the tee “flange” exceeding 40 mm (1-1/2 in.1 does not require NDT for statically-loaded building structures. (1) The specific types of NDT. records indicating the specific welds inspected by each person may be maintained. rejected and repaired items should be documented in a written report. (4) Tables 8-1 and 8-2 provide general guidance for the selection of NDT method(s). see Appendix D. a delay period of 24 to 48 hours should be considered prior to performing NDT for final acceptance for higher strength steels. magnifiers.

U . orientation. Applicable Inspection Methods for Various Discontinuities and Joint Types Application D i s c o n t i n u i t y J o i n t s Inspection Method VT A1 U U U A O A1 A1.3 MT O2 O2 U U O A A2 A2.3 UT O A A A O O A A RT A A O A A U O U Porosity Slag Inclusions Incomplete Fusion Inadequate Joint Penetration Undercut Overlap Cracks Laminations Butt Corner T Lap A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A O A O O U Notes: A .Applicable O . and location.3 PT A1 U U U O A A1 A1. depending upon material thickness. discontinuity size. Surface only Surface and slightly subsurface only 3 Weld preparation or edge of base metal 1 2 8-10 .Marginal applicability.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 8-1.Generally not applicable.

Weld preparation. reference patterns RT X-ray or gamma-ray. no size limitations Surface roughness may distort magnetic field. fast. cleanliness. limited by direction of discontinuity A d v a n t a g e s Detects small surface imperfections. Guidelines for Selecting Inspection Techniques VT PT Fluorescent or visible penetration liquids and developers. inexpensive. or fluorescent. not permanent Usually not suitable for fillet weld or T-joint inspection. ultraviolet light for fluorescent dyes Discontinuities open to the surface only MT Wet or dry iron particles. weld gauges.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table 8-2. easy application. usable at all stages of production Can locate all internal discontinuiti es located by other methods. porosity. useful for checking edges before welding. not permanent Highly skilled interpreter required. undercut. fitup. film processing and viewing equipment E q u i p t m e n t D e t e c t i o n Pocket magnifier. low cost Detects discontinuities not visible to the naked eye. ultraviolet light for fluorescent particles Surface and near surface discontinuities: cracks. overlap. special power source. scale. complex weldments restrict usage Most internal discontinuiti es. film exposure and processing critical. roughness. slag UT Ultrasonic units and probes. spatter. inexpensive. not permanent Provides permanent record of surface and internal discontinuiti es L i m i t a t i o n s For surface conditions only. etc. weld contour and size Easy to use. dependent on subjective opinion of inspector Timeconsuming. as well as small discontinuiti es Extremely sensitive. flashlight. slow and expensive 8-11 .

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Indications may be misleading on poorly prepared or cleaned surfaces Test from two perpendicular directions to detect any indications parallel to one set of magnetic lines Radiation hazards C o m m e n t s Most universally used inspection method 8-12 .

1 (7) Table 6. 5. with some consideration for the effect of surface and near-surface notches upon performance. and reduces the potential detrimental effects to the existing base metal.30 5. the acceptance criteria to be used is the same as that for visual inspection.CEMP-E 6.8.1 (4). b. For ultrasonic 8-13 .30. but does not reduce inspection expense. Engineer’s Responsibility for Acceptance Criteria. When penetrant testing (PT).1 (1) Table 6. The following table provides the specification reference location for various forms of weld discontinuities: Weld Discontinuity Crack Fusion Weld Craters Weld Profile (convexity.1 (8) 5. The second approach is also valuable. WELD QUALITY.1 References Table 6. based upon the quality readily achievable by a qualified welder. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. reinforcement) Weld Size (underrun. and eliminates needless repairs. This criteria may be applied as the inspection criteria for the project.5.1 (2) Table 6. The Engineer may use experience. in lieu of AWS D1. reducing the risk of creating additional discontinuities while performing repairs. The Engineer is given the responsibility of determining and specifying the appropriate weld quality acceptance criteria. concavity. The first approach is valuable because it reduces the time and expense of inspection.1 Visual Acceptance Criteria.1 (6). Nondestructive testing acceptance criteria is based upon achievable quality and the ability of the method to detect discontinuities of given size and location. See AWS D1. or may be used to establish when repair or replacement of a weld is required for a given discontinuity or situation.24 Table 6. underfill) Undercut Porosity Arc Strike Surface Slag Spatter Length Location AWS D1. overlap.29 5. NDT Acceptance Criteria.1 Table 6.5.1 quality criteria is a workmanship standard.1 (3) Table 6.5. D1. analysis. AWS D1. or experimental evidence to establish alternate acceptance criteria.1 criteria.1 Section C6.1 6. and magnetic particle testing (MT) are specified.1 c.2 6. lack of penetration. 6.

the unacceptable portion must be completely removed and replaced. AWS D1.1. The Engineer may base alternate weld quality acceptance criteria on experience. but may be done by gouging. For welds with unacceptable convexity. All exposed laminations must be explored for depth. 8-14 . then crack removal should begin approximately 50 mm (2 in. lack of fusion. poor penetration and lack of fusion near the root. Sources of information to assist in the development of alternate acceptance criteria are provided in Appendix B. the steel may be considered rejectable. Alternate Acceptance Criteria.1 Section 6.26. Starting within the crack may cause the crack to grow during removal. Root Opening Corrections.15. ASTM A6 Section 9. Additional caution should be used when repairing cracks.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 testing (UT).1 Section 5. The mill is permitted to perform removal and repairs to the surface using various means such as grinding and welding. Repairs for narrow root openings may be done by grinding. provides procedures for the investigation and repair of the exposed laminations. Should it be necessary to cut the materials apart. Laminations. Root openings that are too wide are significant in that they increase the weld volume. and subsequently control bead placement to minimize shrinkage and distortion effects. experimental results. Laminations at welded joints may serve as sources of porosity and as crack initiation points. plus the requirements of AWS D1. Shallow laminations need not be repaired. Such a repair does not reduce volume or cost. Mill Defects. d. Subsurface inspection for laminations and other defects. plus the requirements of AWS D1.13. and environmental factors. structural analysis. For undersized welds. 7. Narrow root openings contribute to trapped slag. the Engineer must be notified. An alternative to repair of this type would be to use split-layer techniques for the root pass. For excessive undercut.12. if refitting the parts is not feasible. or fracture mechanics analysis considering material properties and behavior. When internal laminations in the steel are discovered during fabrication. the weld should have the excess weld metal removed. including craters. REPAIRS TO BASE METAL AND WELDS. service and fracture loads and strengths. at extra cost. For radiographic testing (RT). d. would be performed only when specified in the mill order.1. b. Root openings that are too narrow must be increased in width to the required root opening. See AWS D1. but controls distortion and through-thickness strains in T-joints.) from the end of the crack and work toward the center of the crack. Bibliography. The end of the crack should be located using PT or MT. the visual inspection criteria is applicable. the undercut portion should be filled using an approved repair procedure. or overlap. should unacceptable internal discontinuities be discovered in the steel. During fabrication. such as straight-beam ultrasonic testing. air carbon arc gouging. requires only visual inspection by the mill of the completed product for defects in workmanship. excessive reinforcement.1 Section 6. a. to limits specified in ASTM A6 Section 9. A root pass placed across a wide root opening may develop shrinkage cracks in the HAZ or in the throat of the weld. increasing distortion and increasing the risk of lamellar tearing in T-joints. and excessive porosity. c. as well as increasing cost. the visual inspection criteria is applicable. This is typically done by grinding. the weld should be filled to the required size. Some craters may be acceptable if outside the required effective length of weld. Repair of wide root openings entails facing the groove with weld metal until the required root opening is achieved. but longer and deeper laminations will need either removal by grinding or welding to close the lamination prior to welding the joint. The size or type of internal discontinuity considered rejectable is not defined by specification. For cracks.1 Section 5. Weld Discontinuities. chipping.

1 Section 5.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 e. if required elsewhere on the project for groove welds. NDT is required for repair welds for holes in cyclically loaded members. a special repair procedure should be followed to elongate the hole. it is best to either leave the hole unfilled or to place a bolt in the hole. generally when a new hole must be placed near or adjacent to the misplaced hole. Mislocated Holes. It is difficult to fill a hole by welding. then weld using stringer passes. See AWS D1.26. When holes have been mislocated.5. 8-15 . When the hole must be filled. NDT may be necessary after welding.

mill. may be welded under either AWS D1. based upon the structural steel must also be met. fabric. It also applies to other overhead material handling machinery and equipment that supports and transports loads. For reinforcing steel welded to structural steel. These documents apply to the specific requirements of tube-to-tube applications. For welding steel materials less than 3.3 Structural Welding Code . 3. refer to ANSI/AWS D1.1 tubular provisions and the AISC Connections Manual for Hollow Structural Sections. AWS D1. For the welding of structural aluminum alloys.2 Structural Welding Code .and cold-rolled sheets and plate. refer to ANSI/AWS D1. For the welding of highway bridges designed for vehicular traffic. For welding of stainless steels.4 must be met for the weld. if applicable. including the Fracture Control Plan for nonredundant bridge members. 6. This code includes welding of hot.5 Bridge Welding Code.4 Structural Welding Code Reinforcing Steel. STAINLESS STEEL. For welding reinforcing steel. powerhouse and nuclear facilities.) thick. such as preheat requirements.Bibliography. including mats.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 CHAPTER 9 OTHER WELDING SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS 1. It is not applicable to pressure vessels or pressure piping with pressures exceeding 104 kPa (15 psig).Stainless Steel.2 mm (1/8 in. See Appendix B . SHEET STEEL WELDING. MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT. refer to ANSI/AWS D1. For the welding of material handling equipment. clad materials.8 mm (3/16 in. ALUMINUM. This specification applies to the welding of all principal structural weldments and all primary welds used in the manufacture of cranes for industrial. also referred to as hollow structural sections. 5. but less than or equal to 4.) in thickness.1.Aluminum. For the welding of tubular members. refer to ANSI/AWS D1.3 or AWS D1. 4. castings and forgings of stainless steels. REINFORCING STEEL.TUBULAR STRUCTURES. Sheet steels equal to or greater than 3. shapes. 2. CAST STEEL. but any applicable provisions.) thick.2 mm (1/8 in. metal inserts and connections in reinforced concrete construction. refer to ANSI/AWS D1. tubular members.1 Specification for Welding Industrial and Mill Cranes and Other Material Handling Equipment. refer to the ANSI/AASHTO/AWS D1.6 Structural Welding Code . 7. BRIDGES. but are also applicable to tube-to-plate applications. refer to ANSI/AWS D14. 8.Sheet Steel. 9-1 . and the AISI Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members for general design provisions.

Shop Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 10. refer to AWWA Manual M42. refer to ANSI/ASME BPVC. CAST IRON. For the welding of pressure vessels. For the welding of pipelines. or API 12F. API. Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities. b. refer to API Standard 1104. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms. refer to the API RP 2A series documents. OTHER GOVERNING SPECIFICATIONS a. 9-2 . refer to API 12D Field Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids. Section 9. See Appendix B . ASME. For the welding of water tanks. See Appendix B .Bibliography. Steel Water Storage Tanks . WROUGHT IRON. For the welding of storage tanks. Planning.Bibliography. Welding and Brazing Qualifications. For the welding of offshore structures. c. AWWA.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 9. 11.

Welding. Confined Spaces. helium. but will contribute to more intense fires if pure oxygen is available. Proper filters and cover plates must be worn to protect the eyes from sparks and the rays of the arc. pit. Certain welding processes use gases such as argon. SAFETY. molten steel. test all fuel gas and shielding gas lines for leaks. the welder must wear an approved safety harness equipped with a rope or lifeline. no compressed gas cylinders or welding power sources may be placed inside the space. electrical power must be disconnected and all gas valves closed when work is suspended for any substantial period of time.. or explosion. The following safety guidelines should be considered: • • • • • move the object to receive the work away from combustible materials move the combustible materials at least 15 m (50 ft. Oxygen for oxyfuel cutting is not flammable by itself. fires. etc. sparks and spatter often travel a considerable distance. c. a. that does not allow for adequate ventilation for the removal of hazardous gases or fumes resulting from the work. provided they are handled and stored in a safe and proper manner. Refer to applicable governing documents for complete information. Fire. test the atmosphere in the space before and during the work.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 CHAPTER 10 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 1. 10-1 . The fuel gases used pose no hazard. risking a fire in nearby flammable materials. b.where the available oxygen is too low). Poor quality or poorly maintained electrical connections can cause overheating or sparking and subsequent ignition. 2.) from the welding or cutting operation provide suitable fire-resistant shielding around the work area or combustible material fire extinguishing equipment should be accessible to welding personnel trained fire watch personnel should be used if the operations are performed near combustible materials. The arc produced from welding or air carbon arc gouging may burn the eyes. Work in confined spaces requires additional safety precautions. Eye Protection. complete.The following additional safety guidelines should be considered: • • • • • • • • • remove flammable or hazardous materials from the space. A confined space could be a tank. inspect all electrical cables and connections. SMAW electrode stubs are very hot and could cause a fire if carelessly thrown on wood or paper products. The following provisions should not be considered all-inclusive. GENERAL. (i. Deaths and severe injuries due to lack of oxygen have occurred where the concentration of these gases becomes too high. cutting torches must not be lit or extinguished within the space. provide adequate ventilation air to the space. thermal cutting.e. During operations. if only a small opening is available for entry. tied off and held by a worker stationed outside the space. carbon dioxide or nitrogen which will not support life. or exclusive. and arc gouging operations produce molten metal that may cause burns.

natural air movement provides enough ventilation and fresh air. and nickel are present in some electrodes. and dizziness. f. gases are produced during the welding process or may be produced by the effects of process radiation on the surrounding environment. • In some cases. The electrode. fume effects range from irritation of eyes. iron. headache. • Where ventilation is questionable. use an approved respirator. In addition to shielding gases that may be used. Protect the skin against radiation and hot particles. (3) Some specific fume components such as chromium. and hot material can cause severe burns if precautionary measures are not used. and have special health hazards. calcium. sparks. g. and metal. (5) The following safety guidelines should be considered. hole-free gloves are necessary. (1) Many welding. Molten metal. Burn protection. electrode reel (for wire-fed processes). e. . skin and respiratory system to more severe complications and may occur immediately or at some later time. and titantium. they are listed on the product label and in the MSDS. the base metal and any coatings present on the base metal. Electrocution. sodium. • Follow OSHA guidelines for permissible exposure limits (PELs) for various fumes. Fumes may also cause symptoms such as nausea. require special attention.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 d. When these are present at levels of concern. cutting and allied processes produce fumes and gases that may be harmful. Fumes and Gases. These parts must not be touched with bare skin or wet clothing. Arc burn may be more severe than sunburn. • If engineering controls are not feasible. • Do not breathe the fumes. copper. Their health hazards are discussed in the MSDS. Cutting and Allied Processes. electrodes. slag. current level. manganese. arc length and other factors. welding process. cobalt. or both. potassium. Dry. magnesium. use air sampling to determine the need for corrective measures. and workpiece (or ground) are considered electrically “hot” when the welder is on. • Use mechanical ventilation when necessary to improve air quality. Suitable flame-resistant clothing must be worn as protection from sparks and arc rays. The amount and composition of these fumes and gases depend upon the composition of the filler metal and base material.1 Safety in Welding. Further Guidance. See ANSI / AWS Z49. as a minimum: • Keep the head out of the fumes. The compounds in the fume such as oxides and fluorides of aluminum. to keep fumes and gases from the breathing zone and general area. • Follow the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists recommendations for threshold limit values (TLVs) for fumes and gases. except that excessive iron may cause siderosis (iron deposits in the lungs). fluorides. silicon (which is amorphous in welding fumes). Fumes are solid particles that originate from welding consumables. do not have individual effects. (4) Depending on material involved. and 10-2 . (2) Most welding fumes from carbon steel and low alloy steel electrodes do not require any attention to limits for any specific compound or compounds. The work piece and welding equipment must be grounded. • Use enough ventilation or exhaust at the arc. Their effects are submerged in the overall effects which may be expected from nuisance dusts.

FCAW and GMAW welding equipment draws essentially the same current ranges. ESW and EGW draws more current to provide the higher deposition rates achievable and desired. SMAW.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 the Bibliography in Appendix B for further general information. 10-3 . To save energy. The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for each product used also provides essential information. Field operations may be electrically powered or powered by generators. ENERGY CONSUMPTION. 3. Some field welding equipment is directly engine driven. The total power consumption difference between processes for a given joint configuration is negligible. the minimum weld size and minimum groove cross-sectional area adequate to carry the load should be specified. and SAW. Power requirements depend more upon electrode diameter than welding process. Shop welding operations are almost always electrically powered.

Steel Structures MIL-HDBK-1002/6. Metal Building Systems MIL-HDBK-1002/1. August 1995 FEMA 267B. January 30. Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation for Buildings TI 809-07.org Metric Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 APPENDIX A REFERENCES GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS United States Army Corps of Engineers TI 800-01. Modification and Design of Steel Moment Frames. and FiberReinforced Composites. 1998) A-1 . Repair. 1998) (new specification to be issued in early 2000) Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. Aluminum Structures. Design of Cold-Formed Load Bearing Steel Systems and Masonry Veneer / Steel Stud Walls TI 809-30. Structural Plastics. Structural Design Criteria for Buildings TI 809-04. Load Assumptions for Buildings TI 809-02. Structural Engineering. Department of the Army TM 5-809-6. General Requirements MIL-HDBK-1002/3. 1993 (Supplement No. December 1. NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings. Seismic Design for Buildings TI 809-05. Interim Guidelines: Evaluation. 1994 (Supplement No. Suite 3100 Chicago. Interim Guidelines Advisory No. February 1998 NONGOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS American Institute of Steel Construction One East Wacker Drive. Structural Design Criteria for Structures Other Than Buildings (to become TI 809-6) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) FEMA 267. Design Criteria TI 809-01.aisc. 2 FEMA 273. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. January 30. 1. 1. October 1997 FEMA 302. IL 60601-2001 www. December 1. Composite Structures. Structural Engineering.

FL 33126 www.28-96. 1993 Specification for the Design of Steel Hollow Structural Sections.3-98. Standard Welding Terms and Definitions ANSI/AWS A5.17M-97. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5.Structural. June 10. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5. 2nd Edition. 1997 Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges. December 1. PA 19428 www. Allowable Stress Design. Steel .26M-97.org Annual Book of Standards Volume 1. Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc A-2 .Steel ANSI/AWS D1. Railway Volume 3.4-98. Nondestructive Testing American Welding Society 550 NW LeJeune Road Miami. 1999 Manual of Steel Construction.25M-97.6-98. 1. Standard Symbols for Welding. Structural Welding Code . Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Electroslag Welding ANSI/AWS A5.5-96.04.Sheet Steel ANSI/AWS D1. and Nondestructive Testing ANSI/AWS A3. 1994 Manual of Steel Construction.20-95.25/A5. Brazing. Volume II Connections.03.1-91.1-98.Stainless Steel ANSI/AWS A2. Structural Welding Code . Structural Welding Code . 1999) Specification for Load and Resistance Factor Design of Single-Angle Members.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (new specification to be issued in early 2000) Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design). Reinforcing. June 1.23M-97. 1997 (Supplement No.Reinforcing Steel ANSI/AASHTO/AWS D1. Load and Resistance Factor Design. Bridge Welding Code ANSI/AWS D1.4-98. 2nd Edition.23/A5. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5. 1989 Manual of Steel Construction.18-93.astm. April 15. Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Electrogas Welding ANSI/AWS A5. 1992 Metric Conversion of the 2nd Edition Manual of Steel Construction. Load and Resistance Factor Design. 1989 Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings.26/A5.17/A5. Structural Welding Code . 9th Edition.0-94. Volumes I and II. Pressure Vessel. Specification for Low–Alloy Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5.aws. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5. 1992 Hollow Structural Sections Connections Manual. ASD/LRFD. Volumes I and II. February 15. April 15.org ANSI/AWS D1.5-96. Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5. 1997 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken.

29-98. 1995 A-3 . Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding ANSI/AWS A5.32M-97. SNT-TC-1A. Inc. Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing.org ANSI/ASNT CP-189-1995. Safety in Welding.1:1999. Cutting and Allied Processes American Society for Nondestructive Testing.asnt. Specification for Welding Shielding Gases ANSI/AWS Z49.32/A5. PO Box 28518 Columbus. OH 43228-0518 www. ASNT Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel Recommended Practice No.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Welding ANSI/AWS A5.

et al). Steel Special Moment Resisting Frames.. 2nd Ed. Welding and Brazing Qualifications (1998) American Water Works Association AWWA Manual M42 Steel Water Storage Tanks (1998) B-1 . 2nd Ed. Ultimate Strength Considerations for Seismic Design of the Reduced Beam Section (Internal Plastic Hinge) (Iwankiw). 1998 ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels. 4th Qtr 1998 Engineering Journal. Brazing and Soldering. 1995 Weld Integrity and Performance. 1990 Engineering and Quality Criteria for Steel Structures. 1993 ASM Metals Handbook. Elmendorf Air Force Base Hospital. Steels. 1996 ASM Specialty Handbook: Cast Irons. 1982 Volume 3: Radiography and Radiation Testing. Planning. 18th Ed. 1997 American Society for Nondestructive Testing Nondestructive Testing Handbook Volume 2: Liquid Penetrant Tests. 1997 Engineering Journal. 1990 ASM Handbook. No 1. and High-Performance Alloys. 1996 Steel Castings Handbook. Vol 35. 1985 Volume 6: Magnetic Particle Testing. 4th Edition. Volume 1: Properties and Selection: Irons. Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities. Field Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids (1994) API 12F. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms API Standard 1104. 1st Qtr 1997 Engineering and Quality Criteria for Steel Structures. 1991 Volume 8: Visual and Optical Testing. Section 9. (1994) American Society for Metals ASM Handbook. Volume 6: Welding. 2nd Ed. Alaska. 2nd Ed. 1989 Volume 7: Ultrasonic Testing. 1990 American Petroleum Institute API 12D.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 APPENDIX B BIBLIOGRAPHY Welding Cracks Investigation Report.. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. No 4. December 1996 American Institute of Steel Construction Allowable Stress Design of Simple Shear Connections. 1997 Load and Resistance Factor Design of Simple Shear Connections. Vol 34. Experimental Investigation of Dogbone Moment Connections (Engelhart. 2nd Ed. Anchorage. 1993 American Society of Mechanical Engineers ANSI/ASME BPVC. 6th Ed. 4th Edition. 2nd Ed. Shop Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids (1994) API RP 2A series documents.

February 1998 Alternate Weld Quality Acceptance Criteria British Standards Institution BS PD-6493:1991.4-93 Specification for Underwater Welding. Linnert. 1991 Volume 3. March 1997 FEMA 303. 1987 Volume 2. Part 1.2-89 Oxygen Cutting Surface Roughness Gauge. Visual Weld Acceptance Criteria International Institute of Welding IIW / IIS-SST-1157-90. George E. 1985 Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA 288. Guidance on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in structures Electric Power Research Institute NP-5380. 1998 Welding Inspection. 8th Edition Volume 1. Fundamentals. Draft for Development. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. ANSI/AWS B1. IIW Guidance on Assessment of the Fitness for Purpose of Welded Structures.10-86 Guide for Visual Inspection of Welds. Volume 1. ANSI/AWS C5. 1990 Welding Research Council WRC Bulletin 295. 1994 Welding of Cast Iron.11-88 Guide for Welding Iron Castings. ANSI/AWS D3.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 American Welding Society Guide for Nondestructive Inspection of Welds. Materials and Applications.1-G Recommended Practices for Air Carbon Arc Gouging and Cutting. ANSI/AWS C5. Fracture Mechanics. Welding Technology. ANSI/AWS B1. Background Reports: Metallurgy. 1980 Welding Metallurgy. ANSI/AWS D11. Welding. Part 2. Welding Processes. Guidance on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in structures BS 7910: pending (1999). 1996 Volume 4.3-91 Recommended Practices for Stud Welding. AWS C4. Moment Connections and Frame Systems Behavior.6-93 Specification for Welding Industrial and Mill Cranes and Other Material Handling Equipment. 1984 Design Aids for Welded Connections American Institute of Steel Construction AISC Manual of Steel Construction (ASD and LRFD versions) Allowable Stress Design of Simple Shear Connections (1990) CONXPRT (software) B-2 . Materials and Applications. AWS D14. Fundamentals of Weld Discontinuities and their Significance (Lundin). 4th Edition.1-97 Welding Handbook.

National Fire Protection Association. AWS Annual Convention. Q. March 1999 The Effects of Intermixed Weld Metal on Mechanical Properties – Part 2. M. 1994 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations.) DESCON (Omnitech Associates) DETAIL (MacroSoft) fabriCAD (Research Engineers. Fumes and Gases in the Welding Environment National Fire Protection Association Standard for Fire Prevention in Use of Cutting and Welding Processes: NFPA 51B.) StrucPro (Eagle Point) Canadian Welding Bureau Weld IT (software) Safety and Health American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLV (R) ) for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents in the Workroom Environment American Welding Society. 1998 B-3 .. M. Quintana. Quintana. Detroit. Chapter XV11.ASD Moment Connections Steel Detailing Software Packages with Connection Design CDS CompuSTEEL (Barasel Corp. Quintana. and Johnson.ASD Simple Shear Connections Module I . M. HI. 1998 The Effects of Intermixed Weld Metal on Mechanical Properties – Part 3. Maui. MI.) Steelcad (Steelcad International. Proceedings. M. Q.1 to 1910. Inc. and Johnson. A. Inc. Labor. A. Title 29. Parts 1901. M. Proceedings. Q. 869-029-00222-5 Intermixed Weld Metal The Effects of Intermixed Weld Metal on Mechanical Properties – Part 1.) SDS/2 (Design Data. Inc.. AWS Conference on Welded Construction in Seismic Areas.1450. Order No. and Johnson. Inc.LRFD Simple Shear Connections Module II . M. A.) StruCad (AceCad Software.) CVSpro8 (CadVantage.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Load and Resistance Design of Simple Shear Connections (1990) Module I . Inc. Welding Journal..

.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Welding Procedures Heat-Straightening Repairs of Damaged Steel Bridges – A Technical Guide and Manual of Practice. 2nd Ed.. Ferrous Metals. 1994 Tubular Steel Structures . Cary. D. FHWA-IF-99-004. Welding Research Council. H.. Barsom. October 1998 Lincoln Electric Company.. The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding. 13th Ed.Theory and Design. 1997 Weldability of Steels. 1998 What Every Engineer Should Know about Welding Procedures. Welding Filler Metals. Prentice-Hall. Welding Journal. April. LA. T. / James F. 1998 Metals Black Book. and Doty. 4th Ed.. 1990 Modern Welding Technology. Nonferrous Metals. 1998 Fracture and Fatigue Control in Structures.. D. 1994 Reviewing and Approving Welding Procedure Specifications. 3rd Ed. 1962 The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding. M. Report No. Proceedings. B. 1987 Lincoln Electric Co. AISC National Steel Construction Conference. Stout. 1966 Design of Weldments.. D. D. 1953 B-4 . 1976 Metals & How to Weld Them. Prentice-Hall. 1998 Metals Red Book. Federal Highway Administration. R. 13th Edition. August 1999 Other References and Textbooks Cast Publishing Metals Blue Book. Miller. of Transportation. W. New Orleans. S. K. 2nd Ed. US Dept. Miller. 2nd Ed. J.. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation Design of Welded Structures. K. and Rolfe.

1 Table 3. (1) The core of the electrode is steel. For prequalified WPSs. SAW and GMAW. and another series of values for SMAW with low hydrogen electrodes and all FCAW.1 also provides the strength of electrode required for these steels to provide the “matching” strength for the base metal. where the current changes direction 120 times per second on 60 Hertz power. larger electrodes are typically operated using AC.8 mm (3/16 in. b. Filler Metal Designation. and is performed as “manual” welding. coating moisture levels of 2 to 4%. For Group II steels. Electrodes used on AC must be designed specifically to operate in this mode. AC electrodes may also operate using either DCEN (DC Electrode Negative. SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW). Process Principles. and cover the solidifying weld to improve bead profile.). Water (H2O) will break down into its components. DC is used for smaller diameter electrodes. SMAW electrodes should be of the low hydrogen type. deoxidize the molten weld puddle. also called “reverse” polarity).1 lists specific steels and grades where the use of low hydrogen electrodes is required for the prequalification of SMAW Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs). when welding on structural steels with a minimum specified yield strength equal to or exceeding 485 MPa (50 ksi). For most structural steel fabrication today. Filler metal specification AWS A5. a. shield the molten weld puddle from atmospheric gases. The coating is of various materials designed to provide arc stability. (2) SMAW may be operated using either DC (direct current) or AC (alternating current) polarity. may be welded with non-low hydrogen electrodes. low hydrogen electrodes are prescribed to offer additional assurance against hydrogen induced cracking. and completed weld. including A36 steel. DC+. Group I steels.1 Table 3. and higher strength groups. and are designed to be extremely low in moisture. See AWS D1. (1) Generally. melting both. This implies a similarity in expected maximum levels of diffusible hydrogen. To eliminate undesirable arc blow conditions. (2) Low hydrogen electrodes have coatings of inorganic materials that are very low in hydrogen. adding specific alloys to the weld composition. Generally. The molten weld pool. either DC polarity.1 provides the requirements for carbon steel covered electrodes used with SMAW. by design. hydrogen and oxygen.2 provides one series of minimum preheat and interpass temperatures for “non-low hydrogen electrodes”. including A572 grade 50. DC-. AWS D1. also called “straight” polarity) or DCEP (DC Electrode Positive. (3) The term “low hydrogen” was initially used to separate those SMAW electrodes capable of depositing weld metal with low levels of diffusible hydrogen from non-low hydrogen electrodes such as E6010 and E6012 that contain. This hydrogen can then enter into the weld deposit and may lead to unacceptable weld and heat affected zone cracking under certain conditions. An electric arc is produced between the tip of the electrode and the base metal. typically those with a diameter of less than 4.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 APPENDIX C WELDING PROCESSES 1. and in some cases. is a mixture of base metal and electrode materials. Table 3. C-1 . Specification and Certification. flux the molten puddle of impurities. Some coatings contain metallic powders. under the arc. The Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) process is commonly known as “stick” welding.5 similarly covers the low-alloy steel electrodes for SMAW. AWS A5. low hydrogen electrodes are required.

1 have minimum specified notch toughnesses of 27 J @ -20oC (20 ft-lbf at 0°F) or better. E7018.” International Institute of Welding (IIW) documents classify electrodes for diffusible hydrogen as follows: very low hydrogen (0-5 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal). high notch toughness weld metal from electrodes with good operating characteristics may not be available with the lowest hydrogen designations. enabling it to deposit metal at even higher rates. However.1 and the AWS A5 filler metal specifications do not currently define “low hydrogen. For example “E7018H8" indicates that the deposit contains a maximum diffusible hydrogen content of 8 mL per 100 g of deposited weld metal. with suffix “-C3". as the nomenclature shows. E7018M electrodes may be used only with DCEP. AC or DCEP. medium hydrogen (10-15). There is generally a cost premium associated with the lower diffusible hydrogen electrodes. indicates the electrode nominally contains 1% nickel. See Table C-1. but these definitions are unrelated to AWS usage and specifications. The E7018 electrodes operate using AC or DCEP. E7016 electrodes operate using either AC or DCEP. the required levels of preheat are lower. (5) In the AWS A5.1 for welding on structural steels with minimum specified yield strength of 485 MPa (50 ksi) or greater. The E7015 electrodes operate using DCEP only. (7) While “low-hydrogen” electrodes are required by AWS D1. In filler metal specification AWS A5. 6 or 8. See Table C-2. Also. A “-C1" electrode nominally contains 2. The most significant difference in nomenclature from A5. E7018M. low hydrogen carbon steel SMAW electrodes are identified with the last “X” number in the designator EXXXX as a 5. 6 or 8.1 is the inclusion of a suffix letter and number indicating the alloy content.5% nickel. and some electrodes with very low diffusible hydrogen levels may have poor notch toughness. and include approximately 25% iron powder in their coatings to increase their deposition rate. the “2" would indicate that this electrode is suitable for flat position welding and. an E8018-C3 nickel steel electrode. offering economic and time-saving advantages to the contractor. AWS D1.1.5 low-alloy steel SMAW electrode specification. (4) SMAW electrodes are classified based on a four or five digit number that follows the letter E (for electrode). indicating the presence of alloys capable of giving the weld atmospheric corrosion resistance for exposed weathering applications. the horizontal position. and have been tested for absorbed moisture and diffusible hydrogen. (8) All low hydrogen electrodes listed in AWS A5. These designators are a part of the standard AWS classification system and consist of the letter H followed by a single or double digit. (6) Optional supplemental designators may be used to indicate the maximum level of hydrogen that may be present in the test weld deposit. E7016. As an example. low hydrogen (5-10).CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 When SMAW low hydrogen electrodes are used. The electrode classification is imprinted on the coating near the end of the electrode. a similar format is used to identify SMAW electrodes. An E7028 electrode contains approximately 50% iron powder in the coating. E7028. E7048 electrodes are similar to E7018 electrodes in composition. for fillet welds only. as well as on the electrode package. Some electrodes carry the “-W” designation. and may be used in any position. A5. and high hydrogen (15-20).1 SMAW low hydrogen electrode classifications include E7015. except for vertical welding in the upward progression. extra-low hydrogen levels should not be specified unless necessary. Low hydrogen low-alloy SMAW electrodes are similarly identified with the last “X” number in the designator EXXXX-Y as a 5. However. Most standard low hydrogen electrodes must deposit weld metal with a maximum of 16 mL per 100 g of diffusible hydrogen under test conditions. and E7048. See Table C-3 for specific data on these low hydrogen C-2 . E7048 electrodes are specifically designed for good welding in the vertical downward progression. manufacturers may optionally list an H8 or H4 designation if their particular SMAW electrodes are capable of delivering these extra low levels of diffusible hydrogen.

Gas shielding is not required. they should be placed in a holding oven. before use. because of the fixed length electrode. When supplied in undamaged containers. or from the baking oven. AWS D1. Once the electrode has been exposed to the atmosphere. welding procedure variations. SMAW is capable of depositing high quality welds. (11) Low hydrogen SMAW electrodes typically are supplied in hermetically sealed metal containers. used to join high strength steels which are particularly susceptible to hydrogen assisted cracking. There is no direct correlation between the low hydrogen limits of various electrodes and notch toughness requirements. but these are not classified as low hydrogen electrodes. it may not be possible to complete the weld without stopping.1 requires that the electrodes be baked prior to use. maximum 8 mm (5/16 in. E6014. (9) Low hydrogen. or baking. and is relatively tolerant of welding technique. as listed with operating limitations and uses in Table C-4.5. It can be used in areas with difficult access.1 Table 5. see AWS A5. C-3 . The electrode manufacturer’s guidelines should be followed to ensure a baking procedure that eliminates retained moisture. removing the slag to allow restarting the weld. and is more costly than the other structural welding processes of FCAW. are limited to very short periods. c.1 provisions. For long welds.5. to avoid the pickup of moisture from the atmosphere. Advantages. it begins to pick up moisture. E7024). There are electrode classifications that have no required notch toughness (such as E6012. in the range of 260oC to 430oC (500 to 800°F). Generally SMAW has a lower deposition rate and is less efficient. Higher strength electrodes. AWS D1. they may be used without any preconditioning. (12) Once low hydrogen SMAW electrodes are removed from their hermetically sealed container. Disadvantages and Limitations. and using additional electrodes. SMAW is seldom used as the principal process for structural welding. inexpensive. up through 550 MPa (80 ksi). but is commonly used for tack welding. see AWS A5. low-alloy SMAW electrodes. Holding ovens for low hydrogen electrodes are required unless hermetically sealed containers are used to provide dry electrodes when needed. also called a “rod oven” or “storage oven”.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 electrodes. These heated ovens must maintain the electrodes at a minimum temperature of 120oC (250°F). and wind. requires more passes for large welds. fabrication of miscellaneous components. and easy to maintain welding equipment. For electrodes exceeding 550 MPa (80 ksi). and these recommendations may vary from AWS D1. (2) Smaller prequalified weld bead sizes. to remove any residual moisture picked up from exposure to the atmosphere. with additional cleaning time required for slag removal. (1) SMAW has the benefit of requiring relatively simple.) in a single pass in the common horizontal position. GMAW and SAW.1 limits the exposure time of various electrode classifications. When SMAW electrodes are received in damaged containers or in non-hermetically sealed containers. and repair welding. E6013. For the notch toughness levels of higher strength electrodes. (10) Electrodes providing a given level of notch toughness are listed in Table C-5. portable.

titania 5 = low hydrogen sodium 6 = low hydrogen potassium 7 = high iron oxide. and covering is low hydrogen. Table 3) for E7016-1. H. V. but may be additionally limited by electrode diameter and class 1 = all positions (F. iron powder If present. but the H4 designation is not used) If present. iron powder (except E7018M) 9 = iron oxide titania potassium If present. average CVN of 27 J @ -46oC ( 20 ft-lbf @ -50oF) for E7024-1. meets special Military specifications. H. average CVN of 27 J @ -18oC ( 20 ft-lbf @ -0oF) Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal (note: E7018M meets H4 requirements. OH Type of covering 0 = high cellulose sodium (E6010) 0 = high iron oxide (E6020) 1 = high cellulose potassium 2 = high titania sodium 3 = high titania potassium 4 = iron powder.1 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes for SMAW E XX YY M . iron powder 8 = low hydrogen potassium.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-1. H-fillets 4 = F. welding positions permitted for use.1. but the R designation is not used) Y Y M -1 HZ R C-4 . indicates electrode has lower moisture content and meets absorbed moisture test requirements (note: E7018M must meet more stringent requirements. indicates improved notch toughness (see AWS A5. average CVN of 27 J @ -46oC ( 20 ft-lbf @ -50oF) for E7018-1. AWS A5.1 HZ R E XX Electrode Minimum tensile strength in units of 1 ksi (7 MPa) 60 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 70 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) Generally. V-down. OH) 2 = F.

iron powder Y Y M X# Alloy A B C D G P W type carbon-molybdenum steel chromium-molybdenum steel nickel steel manganese-molybdenum steel general low-alloy steel for pipeline use weathering steel HZ Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal (note: EXX18M meets H4 requirements. indicates electrode has lower moisture content and meets absorbed moisture test requirements R C-5 . titania 5 = low hydrogen sodium 6 = low hydrogen potassium 7 = high iron oxide. iron powder 8 = low hydrogen potassium. and covering is low hydrogen. but the H4 designation is not used) If present. meets special Military specifications. but may be additionally limited by electrode diameter and class 1 = all positions (F. V. OH) 2 = F.X# HZ R E XX Electrode Minimum tensile strength in units of 1 ksi (7 MPa) 70 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 80 = 80 ksi (550 MPa) 90 = 90 ksi (620 MPa) 100 = 100 ksi (690 MPa) 110 = 110 ksi (760 MPa) 120 = 120 ksi (830 MPa) Generally. AWS A5. iron powder (except EXX18M) 9 = iron oxide titania potassium If present. welding positions permitted for use. H. H-fillets Type of covering 0 = high cellulose sodium (except E7020) 0 = high iron oxide (E7020) 1 = high cellulose potassium 2 = high titania sodium 3 = high titania potassium 4 = iron powder.5 Classification System for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for SMAW E XX YY M .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-2.

OH DCEP 0. H4 E7018 F. Low Hydrogen AWS A5. V. V. DCEP 0.0 1 E7028 E7048 F.6 H16. H4 E7018M F. H8. H. DCEP 0. H4 1 . OH DCEP E7016 F.6 H16.4 H16. H8.1 4. H4 E7018-1 F. OH AC. H4 Electro de E7015 Position Current CVN Toughness 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 68 J @ -29oC (50 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ 20oF) 27 J @ -46oC (20 ft-lbf @ 50oF) 27 J @ -46oC (20 ft-lbf @ 50oF) F. V. DCEP AC. DCEP 0.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-3.6 H16. V.6 H16.6 Available Diffusible Hydrogen Limits H16. H-fillets F. V-down.3 0. OH AC. H. H8. H. H8.no H designation used for E7018M C-6 . H8. H. H8. H. DCEP 0. H4 H16. V. OH AC.1 Carbon Steel Electrodes for SMAW [to 480 MPa (70 ksi)] Moisture Content Limit (as received ) 0. OH AC. H. H8. H4 E7016-1 AC. H. OH F. DCEP 0. V.

H8. H. H8.3 Table C-5. DCEP AC. OH Current DCEP AC. DCEP Available Diffusible Hydrogen Limits H16. V. E8018-C1 E7015-C1L.4 0.1 2 .4 0. H. V. E7016-C2L. H8.5 Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for SMAW [to 550 MPa (80 ksi)] Moisture Content Limit (as received) 0. H8. OH F. B7. H4 H16. H8. V. V. B4L. Low Hydrogen AWS A5. H4 H16. H4 H16.E70XX-XR and E70XX-X-HZR series Limit on Moisture Content (as received) = 0. OH F. H. E7016-C1L.5 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes [to 550 MPa (80 ksi)] CVN Toughness 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) 27 J @ -51oC (20 ft-lbf @ -60oF) 27 J @ -60oC (20 ft-lbf @ -75oF) 27 J @ -73oC (20 ft-lbf @ 100oF) 27 J @ -100oC (20 ft-lbf @ 150oF) Electrodes E7018-W1 E8018-W2 E8016-C3. E7018-C2L C-7 . V. E8018-C2 E7015-C2L. B3L. Toughness Values for Low Hydrogen A5. H. E8018-C3. E8016-D3. OH F.2 0. H4 .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-4.B3. E8018-D3 E8016-C1. OH F. E8018-C4. H8. H4 H16. and B9 series electrodes not prequalified under AWS D1. E8018-NM1 E7018-C3L E8016-C4. H. B5. E7018-C2L E8016-C2. V.4 0. DCEP DCEP AC. H. E8018-D1. DCEP AC. B8. H4 H16. B6.2 2 2 2 Electrode E7015-X E7016-X E7018-X E8015-X E8016-X E8018-X 1 1 1 1 Position F. OH F.2 0. B8L. B7L.

wire feed speed. designated FCAW-G. Self-shielded FCAW electrodes are limited to 550 MPa (80 ksi) tensile strength of less. -13. a. and protect the cooling weld from atmospheric nitrogen or oxygen. With more alloy in the weld deposit. The shielding gas selection may affect the mechanical properties (yield and tensile strength. the current is likewise increased. make Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) more desirable for automatic welding. EXXT-11. usage and toughness properties for electrodes permitted by AWS D1. C-8 . The notch toughness of the weld deposit may increase or decrease. and the manufacturer’s recommendations should be consulted. -10.1 because they are limited to single pass welds. but the intensity of arc rays from the high current arc.29. preferably. state the wire feed speed to be used because electrode extension. rise to the top of the molten weld. b. A separate wire feeder sends wire into the welding gun at a preset rate. Process Principles. (3) FCAW is most commonly used as “semiautomatic”. Shorter electrical stickout results in higher current for a given wire feed speed. The Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) provides the appropriate voltage. a specific current (amperage) will be provided. (2) The power source is usually the constant voltage type. FLUX CORED ARC WELDING (FCAW).20 and A5. The WPS should. carbon dioxide (CO2) or a mixture of argon (Ar) of 75 to 90% and of CO2 10 to 25% is used in addition to the gas provided by the flux core. electrode extension. but higher strengths are available from gas-shielded FCAW electrodes. as a reactive gas. As the wire feed speed is increased. and therefore less alloy is transferred to the weld deposit. depending on the alloys affected. Specification and Certification. wire fed but with the welding gun manipulated by the welder.1 for classification strengths of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and lower. and the significant volume of smoke generated. -14.29 specifications should be consulted. an inaccurate electrode extension may go undetected.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 2. the AWS A5. For higher strength and other electrodes. For a given wire feed speed and electrode extension.20 and A5. and -GS electrodes are not permitted by AWS D1. The electrode core contains alloy additions. (2) Tables C-8 and C-9 provide additional information regarding electrode limitations. It may also be used as automatic. Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) is an arc welding process that uses a continuous tubular electrode fed from a coil or spool into a welding “gun”. (1) All FCAW electrodes are considered low hydrogen. AWS A5. higher yield and tensile strengths and reduced ductility is expected. The classification and identification system used for these two specifications is summarized in Tables C-6 and C-7.20 electrodes EXXT-2. AWS A5. (1) With FCAW-G.20 is applicable to carbon steel electrodes. AWS A5. The flux materials bind impurities. When an inert gas such as argon is substituted for CO2. polarity and electrode diameter also affect current.29 is applicable to low alloy steel electrodes. alloy transfer typically increases. If current is used in the WPS. and notch toughness) of the weld. and EXXT-14 are for limited thickness applications only. deoxidizers and flux materials. -3. Shielding of the exposed arc is provided either by the decomposition of the core in self-shielded electrodes. designated FCAW-S. The heat of the arc causes the base metal. using either direct current electrode positive or electrode negative polarity. tubular electrode wire and core materials to melt. or by an externally supplied gas or gas mixture.20 electrodes EXXT-3. and travel speed. Filler Metal Designation. Carbon dioxide. may cause some of the alloys in the electrode to become oxidized. and AWS A5. elongation. FCAW electrodes are specified in AWS filler metal specifications AWS A5.

but caution should be used when FCAW wires are exposed to the elements for extended periods of time. and may be considerably higher. (2) Increased deposition rates are possible with FCAW because the current can be higher than with SMAW. fans used to cool personnel and provide ventilation. and welding fume exhaust equipment can create unacceptable wind speeds that degrade weld quality. therefore access into smaller areas is possible. (4) The equipment required for FCAW is more expensive and complicated than SMAW. The welder is also better able to see the arc and weld puddle because the gas cup is not present. and the cost of the shielding gas. (7) There are several advantages to using FCAW-S (self-shielded) rather than FCAW-G (gasshielded). (6) FCAW is capable of all-position welding when using small diameter electrodes. are restricted to the flat and horizontal positions. wind is less of a problem than under field conditions. The range of suitable applications for a single size and classification of FCAW-G electrodes is generally broader than for FCAW-S electrodes. Disadvantages and Limitations. the electrode is passed through a contact tip usually 20 to 25 mm (3/4 to 1 in. (10) FCAW-S procedures must be closely controlled to ensure the required level of weld quality and mechanical properties. For shop fabrication. using higher electrical currents. (3) The number of arc starts and stops. FCAW-G is less sensitive to variations in electrode extension and arc voltage than FCAW-S. a potential source of weld discontinuities. and constitute a fire hazard. theft of cylinders. Because of the high deposition rates possible. timeconsuming.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 c. (8) A second advantage to FCAW-S over FCAW-G is its ability to make quality welds under field conditions involving wind. is also reduced. significant when welding in tight locations such as weld access holes in beam-to-column connections. The Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) process offers several advantages over Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW). (9) FCAW-G “operator appeal” is usually higher than with FCAW-S because of better arc control and less fume generation. protection of gas distribution hosing under field conditions. For critical welds requiring very low hydrogen deposits. commonly called “stickout. SMAW currents are limited by rod heating and coating breakdown concerns. drafts from doorways and windows. (5) FCAW electrode wires do not need heated holding ovens for ordinary applications. it is necessary to erect protective shielding from wind to maintain the shielding gas around the molten weld puddle. Large diameter electrodes. more restrictive storage requirements may be warranted. also called a gas cup. For FCAW-G. but also has a few disadvantages and limitations (1) The FCAW electrode is continuous. However.) from the end of the electrode. Such shielding may be expensive. This electrode extension distance. This increased cost is offset by the higher productivity levels achieved using FCAW compared to SMAW. Advantages. The FCAW-S welding gun assembly does not require a gas nozzle. minimizing the buildup of heat from electrical resistance. require additional ventilation for the welder. eliminating the numerous starts and stops necessary with SMAW on longer and larger welds. FCAW-S eliminates the handling of high pressure gas cylinders.” varies for each WPS. travel speeds and technique C-9 . Both factors provide FCAW an economic advantage over SMAW. and more difficult to maintain. With FCAW.

decrease heat affected zone toughness. and decrease the weld metal yield and tensile strengths. Large bead size. because of the high heat input and excessively slow cooling rates. C-10 .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 must be monitored to ensure that excessively large bead sizes are not produced. reduce weld soundness. may reduce notch toughness.

electrode has toughness as listed in A5. electrode has toughness of 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) If not used.20.20 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes for FCAW EXXT-XMJHZ E X Electrode Minimum Tensile Strength in units of 10 ksi (69 MPa) 6 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) Position of welding permitted 0 = flat and horizontal position only 1 = all positions Tubular electrode X T X M J HZ Type of electrode. with balance CO2 If used. numbered 1-14. AWS A5. Table 1 Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal C-11 . electrode has been classified using 75-80% Ar.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-6. or letter G or GS If used.

4. AWS A5.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-7. 5. numbered 1. electrode has been classified using 75-80% Ar. with balance CO2 C-12 .gas-shielded 4 & 8 .self-shielded X T X X# Alloy A B C D K W type carbon-molybdenum steel chromium-molybdenum steel nickel steel manganese-molybdenum steel other alloy steels weathering steel M If used.29 Classification System for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for FCAW EXXTX-X#M E X Electrode Minimum Tensile Strength in units of 10 ksi (69 MPa) 6 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 8 = 80 ksi (550 MPa) 9 = 90 ksi (620 MPa) 10 = 100 ksi (690 MPa) 11 = 110 ksi (760 MPa) 12 = 120 ksi (830 MPa) Position of welding permitted 0 = flat and horizontal position only 1 = all positions Tubular electrode Type of electrode. or 8 1 & 5 .

V-up. b .CO CO2 C 27 J @ -29 o DCEP. H.27 J @ -18 C = 20 ft-lbf @ 0o C = 20 ft-lbf @ -20 F a . V-up. not specified DCEP none specified none specified 27 J @ -29oC DCEP not specified not specified C E71T-12 EXa0T-G EXa o Note . Multipass Only] Electrode F.g. H. OH F. H. H. V-dn. H. H E70T-7 F. E7XT-9J) have minimum CVN Toughness of 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20o .May be either 6 or 7.CO CO2 C 27 J @ -29 o F. V-up. H F. DCEN 2 75-80% Ar . OH F. OH E70T-9 F. H. H F. AWS A5. H self self CO CO2 not specified F. V-up. OH E70T-4 E70T-5 F.CO2 2 Current CVN Toughnessc 27 J @ -18oC DCEP DCEP C 27 J @ -18o 27 J @ -18oC 75-80% Ar . OH F. H. H F. DCEN self DCEN self self self 2 27 J @ -29 C none specified none specified DCEN o C 27 J @ -29 C DCEP 27 J @ -29o 27 J @ -290C DCEP 2 75-80% Ar . V-up. OH E70T-8 F.CEMP-E Table C-8. H F.20 Carbon Steel Electrodes for FCAW [to 480 MPa (70 ksi). OH F.CO self 2 DCEP DCEP 27 J @ -29o 27 J @ -29oC DCEP. H E71T-5 E71T-5M F. V-up. for 60 ksi or 70 ksi tensile strength.electrodes with “J” at the end of the designator (e. H E71T-9 E71T-9M b b TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Position Testing Shielding Gasd CO 75-80% Ar . H. V-up or V-dn. H E70T-1M E71T-1 F.

Electrodes classified using the shielding gas listed shall not be used with any other shielding gas mixture without first consulting the manufacturer.CEMP-E d TI 809-26 1 March 2000 . C-14 .

V.29 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for FCAW [to 550 MPa (80 ksi). H F. H F. H. H. AWS A5. H F. H F. V. OH F. OH F. C-15 . OH F.Electrodes classified using the shielding gas listed shall not be used with any other shielding gas mixture without first consulting the manufacturer. H F. OH F. H F.CEMP-E 1 March 2000 Table C-9. Multipass Only] Electrode E61T8-K6 E70T4-K2 E70T5-A1 E71T8-K2 E71T8-K6 E71T8-Ni1 E71T8-Ni2 E80T1-A1 E81T1-A1 E80T1-B1 E81T1-B1 E81T1-B2 E80T1-B2H E80T1-K2 E80T1-Ni1 E81T1-Ni1 E80T1-Ni2 E81T1-Ni2 E80T1-W E80T5-B2 E80T5-B2L E80T5-Ni1 E80T5-Ni2 E80T5-Ni3 E80T5-K1 E80T5-K2 d Permitted Positions F. V. H F. H F. H F. H. OH F. H. H F. H. V. OH F. V. V. H. H F. OH F. H. H F. H F. OH F. H Testing Shielding Gasd self self CO2 self self self self CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 Current DCEN DCEP DCEP DCEN DCEN DCEN DCEN DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP Minimum CVN Toughness 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) none specified none specified none specified none specified none specified none specified 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) none specified none specified 27 J @ -51oC (20 ft-lbf @ -60oF) 27 J @ -60oC (20 ft-lbf @ -76oF) 27 J @ -73oC (20 ft-lbf @ -100oF) 27 J @ -40oC (20 ft-lbf @ -40oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) . OH F. H. H. V. H F. H F. V. OH F. V. V. H.

with better quality than short-circuiting mode. GMAW uses a solid or metal cored electrode.CEMP-E 3. The small diameter electrode is fed at a moderate wire feed speed using relatively low voltage.18 for carbon steel electrodes. and therefore transfer modes. It is also limited to the flat and horizontal positions. GMAW electrodes are classified under AWS A5. C-16 . All GMAW-S welding procedures must be qualified by test. globular transfer may be selected in place of spray transfer. This mode of transfer can result in deep penetration. resulting in high quality welds with good appearance. b. the short circuiting mode of transfer. usually between 100 and 400 times per second. Specification and Certification. The arc is maintained by the lower background current. the arc is briefly reestablished. causing it to heat and melt. The shielding used for spray arc transfer is composed of at least 80% argon. (4) Short circuiting transfer. if any. The shielding gas used for GMAW may be carbon dioxide (CO2).28 are summarized in Tables C-10 and C-11. shorting the electrical circuit. Because of the intensity of the arc. slag.28 for low alloy steel electrodes. or both. Short circuiting transfer provides a low deposition rate. commonly referred to as “MIG” (Metal Inert Gas) welding. The Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW ) process. The electrode contacts the workpiece. GMAW is commonly applied in one of four ways: spray arc transfer. and short arc transfer. but other gases. (3) Pulsed arc transfer uses a background current that is continuously applied to the electrode.1. The arc in spray transfer is continuously maintained. plus a pulsing peak current applied at a rate proportional to the wire feed speed. and AWS A5. (2) Globular transfer results when high concentrations of carbon dioxide are used. Typical mixtures are 90% argon with 10% CO2. globular transfer. Because of the high concentration of CO2. with the balance made up of either carbon dioxide or oxygen. and subsequently leaves little. (1) Classification testing is usually performed using specific welding procedures that use CO2 shielding gas. Process Principles. While GMAW is considered prequalified by AWS D1. is ejected from the electrode toward the work. Weld appearance and quality are generally good. may be specified. is not. pulsed arc transfer. and uses the same equipment. is suitable for welding only on thin gauge materials. GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW). With structural steel. Pulsed arc transfer GMAW equipment is somewhat more complex and costly than standard GMAW equipment. As the electrode melts. Filler Metal Designation. the lower level of heat generated. and increased welder comfort. and lack of slag to hold the molten metal in place. or a mixture of argon (Ar) and either CO2 or small levels of oxygen (O). It is not as productive as spray transfer for welding in the flat and horizontal positions. Because of the lower cost of CO2 shielding gas.18 and A5. abbreviated GMAW-S. This cycle occurs up to 200 times per second. and 95% argon with 5% oxygen. is very similar to gas-shielded flux cored arc welding (FCAW-G). rather than a spray. extinguishing the arc. Each pulse of current ejects a single droplet of metal from the electrode. resulting in very high current flowing through the electrode. significant fusion problems such as cold lap may result. and should not be used for structural steel. creating a characteristic buzzing sound. (1) Spray arc transfer uses high wire feed speeds and relatively high voltages. may be referred to as “MAG” (Metal Active Gas) welding. as an active gas rather than inert gas. puddle fluidity. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. Carbon dioxide. therefore promoting globular transfer. The classification systems used for GMAW electrodes in AWS A5. but may have poor appearance with relatively high levels of spatter. but can be used out of position. spray arc is limited to the flat and horizontal position. all smaller in diameter than the electrode diameter. the arc ejects large globular pieces of molten steel from the end of the electrode. A fine spray of molten drops. Pulsed arc transfer can be used out-of-position. also called short arc.

For higher strength electrodes. it is often necessary to erect protective shielding from wind to maintain the shielding gas around the molten weld puddle. and other surface contaminants. Commonly. H2. With GMAW. and is limited to welding on relatively clean materials. and more difficult to maintain. is also reduced. The Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process offers several advantages over Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW). wind is less of a problem than under field conditions. (1) The GMAW electrode is continuous. mill scale must be removed by blast cleaning or power wire brushing prior to welding. and constitute a fire hazard. AWS A5.” varies for each WPS. The consistency of mechanical properties is typically better with metal cored electrodes than with solid wire electrodes. Table C-10. For shop fabrication. (5) GMAW “operator appeal” is usually high because of good arc control and little fume generation. c. (3) Properties and usage for GMAW electrodes.28.) from the end of the electrode. This increased cost is offset by the higher productivity levels achieved using GMAW compared to SMAW. but also has some disadvantages and limitations. and when used out-ofposition. minimizing the buildup of heat from electrical resistance. are now listed in both A5. have better tolerance for mill scale and rust. (3) The number of arc starts and stops. a potential source of weld discontinuities. see AWS A5. However. and may be considerably higher. Metal cored electrodes typically provide higher deposition rates because higher currents may be used than with solid wire electrodes. (7) GMAW is also seriously affected by wind because of the removal of the shielding gas from around the weld puddle. For critical welds requiring very low hydrogen deposits. Weld appearance is typically very good. For field work. the electrode is passed through a contact tip usually 20 to 25 mm (3/4 to 1 in. fans used to cool personnel and provide ventilation. Such shielding may be expensive. SMAW currents are limited by rod heating and coating breakdown concerns. drafts from doorways and windows. with a tubular electrode. and welding fume exhaust equipment can create unacceptable wind speeds that degrade weld quality. (6) Because no flux is involved. previously classified as FCAW electrodes. (8) The equipment required for GMAW is more expensive and complicated than SMAW.28. are less likely to cold lap. up to 550 MPa (80 ksi). timeconsuming. This electrode extension distance. commonly called “stickout. require additional ventilation for the welder. GMAW with metal cored electrodes is similar to FCAW.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (2) Metal cored electrodes.18 and A5. eliminating the numerous starts and stops necessary with SMAW on longer and larger welds. Disadvantages and Limitations. Metal cored electrodes require less current to obtain the same deposition rates. GMAW electrode wires are available in the lowest diffusible hydrogen category. GMAW is intolerant of high levels of mill scale. are summarized in Tables C-12 and C-13. (4) GMAW electrode wires do not need heated holding ovens. Both factors provide GMAW an economic advantage over SMAW. rust. and the weld is essentially free of slag.18 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes for GMAW C-17 . but the core contains metallic powders (alloy) rather than flux materials. (2) Increased deposition rates are possible with GMAW because the current can be higher than with SMAW. Advantages.

CEMP-E 1 March 2000 E XX C . designates that electrode may also be used as filler rod Minimum Tensile Strength in units of 1 ksi (7 MPa) S = Solid wire C-18 .X Y N HZ E R XX S or C X composite wire G = unspecified composition Shielding gas used for classification testing C = CO2 M = 75-80% Ar. balance CO2 N HZ applications H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H2 = maximum 2 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal If used.

28 Classification System for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for GMAW ER XX S .XXX HZ E R XX Electrode If used. or of weld deposit of composite wire A = carbon-molybdenum steel B = chromium-molybdenum steel Ni = nickel steel D = manganese-molybdenum steel 1 = other alloy steels G = not specified Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H2 = maximum 2 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal HZ C-19 . designates that electrode may also be used as filler rod for GTAW Minimum Tensile Strength in units of 1 ksi (7 MPa) 70 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 80 = 80 ksi (550 MPa) 90 = 90 ksi (620 MPa) 100 = 100 ksi (690 MPa) 110 = 110 ksi (760 MPa) 120 = 120 ksi (830 MPa) S = Solid wire C = Composite (metal cored) wire S or C XXX Chemical composition of solid wire. AWS A5.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-11.XXX HZ E XX C .

Note . C-20 . and H4 for diffusible hydrogen requirements. H8.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-12.E70C-GS(X) electrode is limited to single pass applications. and is not prequalified.18 Carbon Steel Electrodes for GMAW [480 MPa (70 ksi) only] Electrode ER70S-2 ER70S-3 ER70S-4 ER70S-5 ER70S-6 ER70S-7 ER70S-G E70C-3C E70C-3M E70C-6C E70C-6M E70C-G(X) d Testing Shielding Gasd CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 as agreed CO2 75-80% Ar. AWS A5. balance CO2 CO2 75-80% Ar.Electrodes classified using the shielding gas listed shall not be used with any other shielding gas mixture without first consulting the manufacturer. balance CO2 as agreed Polarity DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP CVN Toughness 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) not required not required 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) as agreed DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -18oC (20 ft-lbf @ 0oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) as agreed .All above electrodes optionally available as H16. Note .

H8. B3L.28 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for GMAW [to 550 MPa (80 ksi). B6. H4 and H2 for diffusible hydrogen requirements.All above electrodes optionally available as H16. AWS A5. C-21 . Note .CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-13. Multipass Only] Electrode ER70S-A1 ER70S-B2L E70C-B2L E70C-Ni2 Testing Shielding Gasd Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Polarity DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP CVN Toughness not required not required not required 27 J @ -62oC (20 ft-lbf @ -80oF) ER80S-B2 ER80S-Ni1 ER80S-Ni2 ER80S-Ni3 ER80S-D2 E80C-B2 E80C-Ni1 E80C-Ni2 E80C-Ni3 d Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 CO2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 Ar / 1-5% O2 DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP DCEP not required 27 J @ -46oC (20 ft-lbf @ -50oF) 27 J @ -62oC (20 ft-lbf @ -80oF) 27 J @ -73oC (20 ft-lbf @ -100oF) 27 J @ -29oC (20 ft-lbf @ -20oF) not required 27 J @ -46oC (20 ft-lbf @ -50oF) 27 J @ -62oC (20 ft-lbf @ -80oF) 27 J @ -73oC (20 ft-lbf @ -100oF) .B3. B8 and B9 classification electrodes are not prequalified Note .Electrodes classified using the shielding gas listed shall not be used with any other shielding gas mixture without first consulting the manufacturer.

With constant potential voltage. Upon cooling and removal of any unmelted flux for reuse. the lighter molten flux rises above the molten metal in the form of a slag. as well as AWS D1.1 Section 5. or in flux hoppers. spatter. (3) During welding. ahead of the arc. Welding currents typically range from 500 to 1000 amperes. preceded by a flux deposition system. having a higher melting (freezing) point. Fluxes in open or damaged bags. With drooping voltage. and multiple beads can be placed when using separate power supplies for each bead. Many fully mechanized systems are equipped with vacuum devices to pick up the flux unfused after welding for reuse. Multiple electrode SAW uses at least two separate power supplies and two separate wire drives to feed two electrodes independently. The guidelines of the flux manufacturer. The molten slag is a good conductor and provides an additional path for the current. or it may be through a nozzle tube connected to an air-pressurized flux tank. In semiautomatic welding.3. continuing to protect the metal from contamination while it is very hot and reactive with atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. The tip of the electrode and the welding zone are always shielded by molten flux. The arc is struck between the workpiece and a bare wire or composite electrode. typical SAW setups have the lead electrode operating on DC current while the trail electrode is operating AC. Since the arc is completely covered by flux. Both electrodes are fed by means of a single electrode feeder. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) uses a blanket of fusible granular material called flux to shield the arc and molten metal. a voltage sensitive relay adjusts the wire feed speed to maintain the desired arc voltage. Process Principles. (2) Flux feed may be by gravity flow through a nozzle from a small hopper atop the welding gun. flux hoppers should be covered or otherwise protected from the atmosphere. (7) Because unmelted flux does not undergo chemical changes. Flux may also be applied in advance of the welding operation. (6) Flux must be stored so that it remains dry. SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW). from a hopper run along the joint. The weld metal. the heat of the arc melts some of the flux along with the steel and the tip of the electrode. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. similar to the action in FCAW. along the joint by hand. it may be recovered for future use. so exposure should be limited. thus generating additional heat. The slag then freezes over the newly solidified weld metal. (5) DC and AC welding machines of both conventional drooping voltage type or constant potential type can be used for SAW. sparks and smoke common for the open-arc processes. which travels at a preset speed along the joint. or fully mechanized. the slag is removed from the weld. may become contaminated with moisture from the atmosphere.3 regarding storage and usage of the flux must be followed. it is not visible and the weld is made without the flash. Parallel electrode SAW uses two electrodes connected electrically in parallel to the same power supply. the total for the two electrodes is used. the arc length is self-adjusting. C-22 . the tip of which is submerged in the flux. For heat input calculation purposes. Flux recovery systems range from vacuum recovery systems to sweeping with brooms and pans.CEMP-E 4. usually equipped with a flux-feeding device. The electrode is continuously fed from a coil or spool to the welding gun. solidifies while the slag above it is still molten. (4) Several electrodes may be used in series or parallel. To minimize the potential interaction of magnetic fields between the two electrodes. the welder moves the gun. As the electrode progresses along the joint. surrounded by a layer of unfused flux. although semiautomatic operation is often used. (1) The process is typically operated automatic. When not in use.

then broken up and screened for size. For structural work.17 materials. moisture. (6) Agglomerated fluxes are similar to bonded fluxes in their method of manufacture. and Table C-16 for AWS A5. deoxidizer content or alloying elements that can be added as ferroalloys or as elemental metals are not a problem as with fused fluxes. the flux-electrode classification may be established. This may limit deoxidizer or C-23 . Specimens are extracted from the weld deposit to obtain the mechanical properties of the flux-electrode combination. and AWS A5.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Flux contamination through contact with oil. When this is done. condition. Some loss of fine particulate matter may also occur with flux recovery. (3) Fluxes are manufactured using one of four basic processes. except that the binder is a ceramic material that requires baking at higher temperatures.23 have a more complex classification system. Fused fluxes may have less than desired amounts of deoxidizer and ferro-alloy ingredients because of losses that occur from the high temperatures during the manufacturing process. Low alloy steel SAW electrodes and fluxes classified under AWS A5. therefore care is needed. the electrodes and fluxes. Because the product is baked at low temperature. scale of other contaminants may occur. or stress relieved. and then heating the mixture in a furnace until completely melted. Bonded fluxes may segregate during use and reuse. and gases may be produced in the molten slag during welding. are classified under AWS A5. Specification and Certification. a “P” is placed in the designation rather than an “A”. which must meet specific compositional and mechanical property requirements.17 for carbon steel electrodes and fluxes. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) filler materials. as necessary. many submerged arc materials have been classified for the post weld heat treated. Fused flux performance can be impeded by loss of fines during recycling. the classification system integrates both materials. Bonded fluxes tend to break down during recycling and increase the percentage of fines. therefore blending reclaimed flux with new flux is required. Fused fluxes are not subject to chemical segregation during reuse because the complete composition is in each particle and cannot be separated. and later ground to the sizes required for welding. flux and electrode. because of the variety of alloys that may be involved. meaning they will not absorb water. and are further classified as neutral. (2) Because the submerged arc welding process is frequently used for pressure vessel fabrication where assemblies are stress relieved. b. Bonded fluxes contain chemically bonded moisture and can absorb moisture as well. After an electrode and flux combination is selected and a test plate welded. active or alloy fluxes. Filler Metal Designation. A glass-like fused product is formed as the liquid is cooled to ambient temperature. based upon their performance characteristics during welding. which is seldom stress relieved. and because the composition of both the electrode and the resultant weld metal must be specified. (5) Bonded fluxes are made by combining all required chemical ingredients with a binder and baking the product at low temperature to form hard granules. (1) The classification systems for SAW are summarized in Tables C-14 and C-15 for AWS A5. Because SAW is dependent upon both components. but may be contaminated by moisture or other products that adhere to the outside of particles. Fused fluxes are nonhygroscopic. (4) Fused fluxes are made by blending deoxidizing and alloying ingredients. therefore investigation into weld metal properties is warranted whenever the weld will be used differently than the filler metal classification condition. dirt.23 materials.23 for low alloy steel electrodes and fluxes. Fused fluxes with the required chemical composition generally give the best low hydrogen welding performance. the “A” classification is commonly used. Flux-electrode combinations classified in the post weld stress relieved condition may not exhibit notch toughness when used in the as-welded condition.

to help offset the effects of welding though mill scale and light coatings of rust. Active fluxes intended for single pass fillet welding should not be combine with the same elements in the electrode to produce weld metal with unacceptable properties. For both active and alloy fluxes.23 filler metal specifications. primarily the voltage that determines arc length. description and limitations of theses fluxes is provided in the Annexes to the AWS A5. provide a low-cost method of producing corrosion resistant weld metal for joining weathering steels. Continued recycling of (11) Alloy fluxes contain alloys intended to improve the strength or corrosion resistance of the weld metal.TI 809-26 ferro-alloy content due to high temperature losses. The covered arc allows SAW to be operated without the need for extensive shielding to protect the operators from the high intensity arc created by the high protection. C-24 . Very high currents can be used in submerged arc and deep penetration. and a uniform bead appearance reducing cleaning and surface preparation costs. the weld metal (10) Active fluxes have small additions of manganese and silicon. are subject to segregation. or both. manganese and silicon content. Alloy fluxes. or both. (1) SAW welds generally have good ductility and toughness. a change in arc voltage will are more resistant to porosity and cracking than welds made with neutral fluxes. The chemistry may build to unacceptable levels in larger multipass welds. and will have the attributes of their components. Where all mill scale and other contaminants are removed prior to welding. active fluxes are often used in making single pass fillet welds. and the composition of the weld metal is highly dependent upon the alloy content of the mechanical properties of the weld.17 and A5. Unlike active in the alloy content. With active fluxes. Agglomerated fluxes are generally considered (7) Mechanically mixed fluxes can be a mixture of any flux type in any desired proportion. the surface contamination tolerance of active fluxes is not needed. concentrating heat in the welding zone and preventing rapid escape of heat. reducing distortion. Deep penetration allows the High travel speeds reduce the total heat input into the joint. is relatively unaffected by changes in welding procedure variables. therefore welding with active with low levels of manganese and silicon. properly used with carbon steel electrodes. The slag above the molten weld puddle acts as an insulating blanket. Advantages. Disadvantages and Limitations. c.

the operator must acquire and practice a technique to produce good welds without reliance upon arc and weld bead appearance.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (2) The SAW process does not allow the operator to observe the molten weld puddle. When SAW is performed semi-automatically. C-25 . forcing reliance on the appearance of the slag blanket to indicate the quality of the weld bead.

Manganese (Mn) content.60) H = high Mn (varies by classification. 1. and 15.12.0. indicating chemistry in A5. indicates nominal carbon content in nominal carbon).17. ECG does not have a specified chemistry. 13. X HZ H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H2 = maximum 2 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal C-26 . % weight L = low Mn (0. AWS A5.17 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for SAW [US Customary Units] FSXXX-ECXXX-HZ Flux (virgin flux if not followed by S) S X Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 ksi (70 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) X A = tested as-welded P = tested after postweld heat treatment Temperature in F at or above the impact strength meets or exceeds 20 ft-lbf (27 J) Z = no impact strength test required 0 = tested at 0o C) 2 = tested at -20oF (-29o F (-40oC) 5 = tested at -50o C) 6 = tested at -60oF (-51o F (-62oC) Electrode C specified in A5. Either type must be tested with a specific flux.20 high) G = chemistry not specified Number that makes up a part of the electrode classification system.25 .17. Generally.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-14.30 low to 2. 11. 14. Table 1.

and 15. Either type must be tested with a specific flux.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-15.17.08% nominal carbon). Generally. Listed classification numbers: 8 (indicating 0. 14. % weight L = low Mn (0. AWS A5.25 . Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 MPa (1.45 ksi) 43 = 430 MPa (62 ksi) 48 = 480 MPa (70 ksi) Test condition of plates A = tested as-welded P = tested after postweld heat treatment Temperature in oC at or above the impact strength meets or exceeds 27 J (20 ft-lbf) Z = no impact requirements 0 = tested at 0oC ( 32oF) 2 = tested at -20oC ( -4oF) 3 = tested at -30oC (-22oF) 4 = tested at -40oC (-40oF) 5 = tested at -50oC (-58oF) 6 = tested at -60oC (-76oF) X X E C Electrode If present.50 high) H = high Mn (varies by classification.17 Classification System for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for SAW [SI (Metric) Units] FSXXX-ECXXX-HZ F S X Flux (virgin flux if not followed by S) If present.60) M = medium Mn (varies by classification. 13. Manganese (Mn) content.0. electrode is Composite electrode.30 low to 2. 11.80 low to 1.20 high) G = chemistry not specified Number that makes up a part of the electrode classification system.17. Table 1. ECG does not have a specified chemistry. 1. K indicates that the electrode was made from silicon-killed steel. indicates nominal carbon content in hundredths of a percent. flux is from crushed slag or blend of crushed slag and virgin flux. Electrode EC1 meets a chemistry specified in A5. indicating chemistry in A5. 0. X X X - .12.

CEMP-E HZ Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H2 = maximum 2 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal TI 809-26 1 March 2000 C-28 .

medium Mn solid electrode (EM12K) A = carbon-molybdenum weld metal 1 Ni = nickel M = military W = weathering XX N X above Number (and letter. electrode is Composite electrode with composition per AWS A5.CEMP-E 1 March 2000 Table C-16.23 Classification System for Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for SAW [US Customary Units] F Flux Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 ksi (70 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 9 = 90 ksi (620 MPa) 10 = 100 ksi (690 MPa) Test condition of plates A = tested as-welded X Temperature in o Z = no impact strength test required F ( -18oC) 2 = tested at -20o C) 4 = tested at -40oF ( -40o F ( -46oC) 6 = tested at -60o C) 8 = tested at -80oF ( -62o F ( -73oC) o 15 = tested at -150 C) E C X If present. if needed) that makes up a part of the electrode classification Indicates that the electrode is intended for the core belt region of nuclear reactor C-29 . AWS A5.23 Chemical composition of electrode (Table 1) or weld metal (Table 2) M = carbon steel.

B3.1 C-30 . B5. Optional supplemental diffusible hydrogen designator H16 = maximum 16 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H8 = maximum 8 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal H4 = maximum 4 mL / 100 g deposited weld metal 1 .CEMP-E N HZ TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Indicates that the weld metal is intended for the core belt region of nuclear reactor vessels. B6H. and copper. vanadium. B6. with limited chemistry for phosphorous. B4. B8 are not prequalified in AWS D1.

with excellent arc control that is very beneficial for root passes. to preheat the wire using resistance heating. as an unfluxed welding process. narrow penetration when welding thicker materials. Direct current electrode negative (DCEN) (straight) polarity is used to produce a deep. A high frequency oscillator is usually incorporated into GTAW power supplies to initiate the arc. is done using the heat of an arc between a non-consumable tungsten electrode and external shielding gas or gas mixture. is rod classified for GMAW in AWS A5. Gas shielding is also critical. but may also be used as automatic. welding processes. Process Principles. spatter.28. supplied with current from a separate power source. Direct current electrode positive metals. therefore deposition rate through the use a continuous filler metal. welding torch are classified in AWS A5. However. Alternating current (AC) is generally used for welding aluminum and magnesium alloys. Tungsten electrodes are summarized in Table C-17. if any. The filler metal used. a. Specification for Tungsten and Tungsten Alloy Electrodes for . This reduces tungsten to the base metal. also requires very C-31 .). The process may be performed manually. The tungsten electrode in the welding “torch” gets very hot under high duty cycles. with a designation ER at the beginning. It can be used on material thicknesses that range from thin sheet metals up to maximum of about 10 mm (3/8 in.18 or A5.12. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW).TI 809-26 5. also frequently called TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding. GTAW. and wind speeds over 8 km per hour (5 mph) cause quality and mechanical property degradation.

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-17. AWS A5. not specified C-32 .12 Classification System for Tungsten Electrodes for GTAW EWX-X E W X-X Electrode Tungsten Letter (and optionally -number) describing type of tungsten electrode P = pure tungsten Ce = tungsten-cesium alloy La = tungsten-lanthanum alloy Th = tungsten-thorium alloy Zr = tungsten-zirconium alloy G = general.

as well as make ultrasonic testing more difficult. Shielding of the arc and weld pool is provided by the addition of flux into the joint as welding progresses. Both the starting sump and finishing run-off tab are removed after completion of welding. but generally does not become the most including the number of joints to be welded. deposition rates. The classification system is summarized in Table C-18. Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for . The weld proceeds as more electrode is fed weld termination.1 vertical require special setups and procedures.CEMP-E 1 March 2000 a. ESW is not prequalified under AWS D1.1 qualification testing following AWS D1. Time and expense is also saved in the avoidance of joint preparation. (2) ESW can be used for joints over 12 mm (1/2 in. (1) ESW. with no edge preparation generally required. specified in AWS A5. but the fed electrode wire and adjacent base metal melts from the heat generated by the high electrical resistance of the slag. for short to moderate lengths. in the range of 20 kg (40 lb. can leave major discontinuities in the joint that are difficult may cause low toughness properties. The plates to be joined are positioned 40 mm (3/4 to 1-1/2 in. underneath a deposit The arc is extinguished by the slag. Electroslag Welding (ESW) is used for welding thick sections.) thick.25. an arc is struck in a sump at the bottom of the joint.) per hour. Electrode wires may be either solid or composite. offering considerable cost and time savings for vertical welding of thick steels. Water-cooled copper shoes are placed on each side of the joint. typically 50 mm to 500 mm (2 to 20 in. distortion upon completion. depending on welding equipment and material thickness.). although ESW has been performed at angles to 45 degrees. C-33 . forming used. To start the weld. if interrupted during welding. Process Principles.) in thickness.

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-18. for example). AWS A5.25 C-34 .25 Classification System for Electrodes and Fluxes for ESW FESXX-XXX FES X Flux for Electroslag Welding Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 ksi (70 MPa) 6 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) Temperature in oF at or above the impact strength meets or exceeds 15 ft-lbf (20 J) Z = no impact strength test required 0 = tested at 0oF (-18oC) 2 = tested at -20oF (-29oC) X XXX Electrode classification used (EM5K-EW. see AWS A5.

and the fed electrode wire and adjacent base metal melts from the heat generated by the arc. if interrupted during welding. and interpass cleaning. composite (cored) wire. The joint is also free from angular (1) EGW. Process Principles. The arc is maintained. Angles beyond 10 to 15 degrees from vertical may require special setups and procedures. of requiring protection of the joint from wind over 8 km per hour (5 mph). Filler materials. and subsequent slow cooling. C-35 . depending on welding equipment and material thickness. When flux cored wires are used. depending upon several factors including the number of joints to be welded. Filler Metal Designation. typically 50 mm to 500 mm (2 to 20 in.). electrodes and fluxes Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Electrogas Welding classification system is summarized in Table C-19. a. and is used for welding thick sections. compared to ESW. Water-cooled copper current electrode negative (DCEN) currents of 500 to 700 amperes are commonly used.) is welded. c. the shielding gas may or may not be necessary. The electrode is either a solid wire. disadvantage. or an argon-CO2 mix. b. Specification and Certification. depending upon the weld pool and allows the welding arc to stabilize before reaching the actual joint. Time and expense is also saved in the avoidance of joint preparation. For solid wires. The large grain size from the substantial heat input. therefore qualification testing following AWS Section 4 is required. with no edge preparation generally required. preheating and interpass temperature control. Advantages.TI 809-26 7.) in thickness. EGW is not prequalified under AWS . economical choice until a thickness of around 50 mm (2 in. or a flux cored wire designed for EGW. can leave major discontinuities in the joint that are difficult to access and repair. The weld Both the starting sump and finishing run-off tab are removed after completion of welding. Disadvantages and Limitations. Electrogas Welding (EGW) is very similar to Electroslag Welding (ESW). for short to opening gap at the joint is generally set to approximately 22 mm (7/8 in. Electrogas Welding (EGW) provides very high vertical welding of thick steels.

CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Table C-19.26 C-36 . AWS A5. see AWS A5.26 Classification System for Electrodes for EGW EGXXX-XXX EG X Electrogas Welding Minimum tensile strength in units of 10 ksi (70 MPa) 6 = 60 ksi (420 MPa) 7 = 70 ksi (480 MPa) 8 = 80 ksi (550 MPa) Temperature in oF at or above the impact strength meets or exceeds 20 ft-lbf (27 J) Z = no impact strength test required 0 = tested at 0oF (-18oC) 2 = tested at -20oF (-29oC) S = solid wire T = tubular wire X X XXX Electrode classification used.

(4) The cost of visual inspection is usually less. per unit length of weld. incomplete fusion. groove angles. a. and other enhancements. undercut. surrounding heat-affected zone (HAZ). undersized welds. Advantages and Disadvantages. incomplete penetration. Visual inspection. Not all listed discontinuities are structurally significant. When surface discontinuities such as cracks are suspected. Such instruments tend to distort the perception of the inspector. as a form of nondestructive testing. which may include the smoothness of thermally cut edges. convexity and such as weld gauges are required. excessive convexity. weld size. is the visual observation the first nondestructive testing method applied. seams and laminations at exposed edges. overlap. See Table D-1. buried laminations or lamellar tearing.TI 809-26 APPENDIX D 1. the use of magnifying devices to further investigate the (2) Visual inspection includes the measurement of the work. slag inclusions. toe cracks. and if the inspected item fails to meet visual criteria. D-1 . VISUAL TESTING (VT). Method Description. that the other methods of rather than simple verification measurements and recording of unsatisfactory workmanship. and the measurement of root openings. but they may provide indication (2) Visual inspection cannot reveal subsurface discontinuities such as cracks. b. more extensive nondestructive testing should not be conducted until the visual criteria is satisfied. arc strikes.

> 50 mm (> 2 in.2 in.0. etc.6 .) Lap. 16 .2 .CEMP-E Table D-1.) Joint Geometry Applicable Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Surface Pore Crater Pipe Incomplete Penetration Overlap TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Least Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Transverse Cracks Radiating Cracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity Elongated Cavity “Worm Hole” Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Incomplete Fusion (Root) D i s c o n t i n u i t y Lap. 6-15 mm (0.2 in.50 mm (0. < 6 mm (< 0. Visual Inspection Most Applicable Microcracks Shrinkage Cavity Undercut Excessive Reinforcement Excessive Convexity Excessive Penetration Misalignment Burn-Through Underfilled Groove Irregular Bead Root Concavity Poor Restart Miscellaneous Surface Discontinuities (Spatter.) Lap.) One-Side Only Access Single-V Groove D-2 .) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove Lap.6 in.

allowed to remain on the surface for a specified dwell time to penetrate cracks. preventing the entry of the penetrant. can sometimes provide false indications of weld toe cracks when cleaning is not thoroughly performed. See Table D-2. and then is carefully removed. Method Description. crater cracks. PENETRANT TESTING (PT). b. Weld spatter can also make surface removal of the penetrant more difficult. also called dye penetrant or liquid penetrant testing.CEMP-E 2. and also surface-breaking piping porosity. Flourescent methods are usually more sensitive. D-3 . (1) Penetrant testing is relatively economical compared to ultrasonic testing. (7) PT cannot be performed when the surface remains hot. usually red. (2) Testing materials are small. (9) PT is especially effective with small surface-breaking cracks. One method of penetrant testing uses a visible dye. (5) Cleaning after inspection to remove residual penetrant and developer prior to weld repairs or the application of coating systems can sometime be difficult and time-consuming. (4) PT can be performed relatively quickly. is the use of a liquid penetrating dye to detect discontinuities at the surface of a weld or base metal. pores. The penetrant is applied to the surface. such as buried cracks. and inexpensive. portable. or incomplete penetration. unless special high-temperature PT materials are used. laminations along exposed edges and joint preparations. usually white. which is then removed for closer visual examination of the area providing indications. so waiting time is sometimes necessary with PT that would not be required with magnetic particle testing. lack of fusion. which draws the penetrant out of the discontinuities. or other surface-breaking discontinuities. (3) A relatively short period of training is necessary for technicians who will be performing PT. slag inclusions. with no specialized equipment required unless an ultraviolet light is used. and especially economical when compared to radiographic testing. Advantages and Disadvantages. and other surface discontinuities. Penetrant testing. but require a darkened area for testing. (6) Rough surface conditions. (4) A disadvantage with some penetrants and developers is the safe handling and disposal of used liquids and cleaning rags. The second method uses a flourescent dye. (10 PT is ineffective for any discontinuity below the surface. (8) Existing coatings should be removed prior to PT because the coating may bridge narrow cracks. such as toe cracks. which contrasts with the developer. A developer is then applied to the surface. visible under ultraviolet light. depending upon the penetrant used and the required dwell time. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. and irregular profile conditions such as undercut and overlap. This leaves a visible contrasting indication in the developer.

2 . 6-15 mm (0. 16 . < 6 mm (< 0.) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Least Applicable Microcracks Elongated Cavity “Worm Hole” Joint Geometry Lap.6 in.6 . > 50 mm (> 2 in.2 in.) Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Transverse Cracks Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity Shinkage Cavity Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Incomplete Fusion (Root) Incomplete Penetration Undercut Burn-Through Lap.0.CEMP-E Table D-2.) One-Side Only Access Single-V Groove D-4 .) Lap.) Lap.2 in.50 mm (0. etc. Penetrant Testing Most Applicable D i s c o n t i n u i t y Radiating Cracks Surface Pore\ Crater Pipe Overlap Miscellaneous Surface Discontinuities (Spatter.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT). A permanent record of detected discontinuities can be made with the use of transparent adhesive tape or photography. selection of current. After the area has been magnetized. b. Cracks and other discontinuities on or near the surface disturb the lines of magnetic force. which directly magnetize the steel through direct contact with the steel and the induction of current flow in the steel. (9)The depth of inspectability depends upon the equipment.) is generally considered the deepest discontinuity that can be detected under good conditions. laminations. (7) After inspection. incomplete fusion. (6) MT can be performed effectively while the joint is still warm from welding or postheating. Subsurface cracks and slag inclusions would show a broader indication. DC provides higher magnetization levels which allows for inspection for discontinuities somewhat below the surface. (1) MT is relatively fast and economical. It is also effective for cracks. (1) The magnetic fields can be induced using either prods. the particles are applied. (5) More training is necessary for MT. (2) The equipment is relatively inexpensive. and the type of particles used. (10) MT is effective for detecting surface-breaking discontinuities such as cracks and laminations. essentially acting as poles of a magnet. Particles attracted to discontinuities remain on the surface at the discontinuity. or with a yoke. but considerably less than UT or RT. attracting the magnetic particles. Method Description. commonly in the form of iron powder colored for better visibility. Inspection with AC is generally limited to surface-breaking and very near-surface discontinuities. Magnetic particle testing uses the relationship between electricity and magnetism to induce magnetic fields in the steel. (4) Inspection costs are generally equal to or slightly more than PT.CEMP-E 3. The MT technician then evaluates the location and nature of the indicating particles. attracted to the magnetic poles. 8 mm (5/16 in. removal of magnetic particles is quick and thorough. Tight lines are indicative of surface cracks or other discontinuities. Although opinions vary as to the maximum depth that can be effectively inspected using MT. then removed with gentle dusting or application of air. Magnetic particles. and is considered more effective for surface discontinuities because the particles are more mobile. compared with ultrasonic or radiographic equipment. (8) Existing coatings may reduce the effectiveness of MT. not delaying repairs or affecting coating application. (3) A source of electric power is necessary. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. slag inclusions. compared to PT. but substantially less than that required for UT or RT. Advantages and Disadvantages. and incomplete penetration D-5 . (2) MT equipment may be operated either DC (rectified AC) or AC. which does not transfer electrical current but provides magnetic flux between the two elements of the yoke. are dusted onto the magnetized surface.

Magnetic Particle Testing Most Applicable D i s c o n t i n u i t y Lap.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 if slightly below the surface.6 .) One-Side Only Access Single-V Groove D-6 .2 in.) Lap.50 mm (0. > 50 mm (> 2 in.6 in. 16 .2 in. < 6 mm (< 0.) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove Least Applicable Microcracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity Elongated Cavity “Worm Hole” Burn-Through Miscellaneous Surface Discontinuities (Spatter.0. See Table D-3. Rounded discontinuities such as porosity do not disturb the magnetic flux lines sufficiently to be effectively detected.) Joint Geometry Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Transverse Cracks Radiating Cracks Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Surface Pore Shrinkage Cavity Crater Pipe Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Incomplete Fusion (Root) Incomplete Penetration Undercut Overlap Lap. 6-15 mm (0.) Lap. Table D-3. etc.2 .

CEMP-E 4. Annex K requires the use of written UT procedures specific to the application. the location. The vibration is transmitted into the steel from the transducer using a liquid couplant. including calibration.1 Annex K provisions. Using a system of calibration and measurements. The vibration pulse travels through the steel until it strikes a discontinuity. These techniques include tip diffraction and time-of-flight techniques. it is less capable of directly sizing discontinuities or determining discontinuity height without the use of advanced techniques. more complex inspection methods can be used to locate. but is available and sometimes used for very complex and critical inspections.) to 200 mm (8 in. including reflected signal strength. of the inspected area and discontinuities. Such provisions are necessary when using miniature transducers. (3) Even with conventional equipment. or the opposite face of the steel.1. scanning faces. (1) Ultrasonic testing is a highly sensitive method of NDT. scanning methods. with a known frequency and waveform. either of which reflects energy back to the transducer unit or another receiving transducer. relative size and nature of the discontinuity. Such equipment is rarely used in normal construction inspection applications. Ultrasonic testing requires specialized equipment to produce and receive precise ultrasonic waves induced into the steel using piezoelectric materials. discontinuity lengths and locations for weld discontinuities. and weld acceptance criteria. Very sophisticated automated UT equipment can record the transducer location and the corresponding reflections. which converts electrical energy into vibration energy.) Both thinner and thicker materials may be examined and evaluated using UT.1 provisions are applicable for thickness ranges from 8 mm (5/16 in. (1) AWS D1. (3) Although capable of locating discontinuities and measuring discontinuity length. alternate frequencies. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. Method Description. are prepared by the UT technician. Small reflections are generally ignored. unless located in specific regions such as along edges. and can be incorporated into project inspection through the use of AWS D1. ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT). and transducer angles. Advantages and Disadvantages. b. depending upon the design of the transducer. recording weld discontinuities and other material discontinuities that exceed the acceptance criteria specified. and also provides for alternate acceptance criteria in lieu of the tables found in Section 6. Part F provides the UT inspection procedures. then use computer software systems to produce representative two-dimensional images. The speed of travel of the vibration in steel is also known. D-7 . Report forms. The unit sends electric pulses into the piezoelectric crystal. Part F of AWS D1. with experienced and qualified UT technicians tested in the use of the procedures. evaluate and size weld discontinuities. The vibration is introduced into the steel at a known angle. (2) More expensive and sophisticated UT equipment can be operated in digital mode. if any. generally hand written. can be determined by close evaluation of the reflected signals. or scanning angles other than those prescribed. recording and printing display screen images with input data. from various directions. Locations of discontinuities can be determined using the display screen scale and simple geometry. but Annex K must be used for technique and acceptance.1 Section 6. and is capable of detecting discontinuity in welds and base metal in a wide variety of joint applications and thicknesses. (2) AWS D1.

will require numerous time-consuming evaluations and recording of test data. Smooth surfaces. and considerably less than RT. and therefore reflect signals even when not exactly perpendicular to the direction of the pulse. also providing a weak response. depending upon the quality of the weld to be inspected. but also much less than RT. The cost of more sophisticated UT units capable of computer-generated imaging approaches. slag lines. With partial joint penetration groove welds. (6) The cost of the equipment is considerably more that MT. the cost of RT equipment. The time. but such rounded discontinuities are rarely detrimental to joint performance. It is ineffective for fillet welds unless very large. (8) UT is best suited for planar discontinuities such as cracks and lack of fusion. A good quality weld will provide few responses. and sometimes exceeds. would redirect a signal and provide a weak response unless oriented perpendicular to the pulse. Laminations and lamellar tears are also easily detected. Discontinuities located just below the weld or material surface are also difficult to detect. it is difficult to distinguish between the unfused root face and discontinuities near the root. or lack of penetration or fusion at the root. When backing bars remain in place. UT is the best method for detection of the most serious weld discontinuties in a wide variety of thicknesses and joints. discontinuities which are generally most detrimental to joint performance when oriented transverse to the direction of loading. or a poor quality weld. and therefore cost. (7) UT indications are difficult to interpret in certain geometric applications. In welded beam-to-column moment connections. (9) The cost of ultrasonic testing is considerably more than PT or MT. are necessary to evaluate the entire depth of many welds unless the weld face is ground flush. A difficult configuration. Rounded and cylindrical discontinuities such as porosity disperse the signal. not as accurate or as reliable as first-leg inspections. the interference of the web with inspection of the bottom flange makes direct evaluation of the area beneath the weld access hole difficult. such as unfused root faces. However. it is difficult to distinguish between the backing bar interface and cracks.CEMP-E TI 809-26 1 March 2000 (4) A primary disadvantage of ultrasonic testing is that it is highly dependent upon the skill of the UT technician. and then only for the root area for fillet welds above approximately 18 mm (3/4 in. of UT inspection can vary greatly. Second-leg inspections.). D-8 . requiring little evaluation time. These discontinuities tend to be irregular with rough surfaces. Slag inclusions are irregular and provide easily identifiable responses. See Table D-4.

0.2 in. 16 .) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove D-9 .6 in. Ultrasonic Testing Most Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Applicable Transverse Cracks Radiating Cracks Elongated Cavity Solid Inclusion Slag or Flux Inclusion Oxide Inclusion Metallic Inclusion Incomplete Fusion (Root) Incomplete Penetration Burn-Through Irregular Bead Poor Restart TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Least Applicable Microcracks Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity “Worm Hole” Surface Pore Shrinkage Cavity Crater Pipe Undercut Excessive Reinforcement Excessive Convexity Excessive Penetration Overlap Misalignment Underfilled Groove Root Concavity Lap. < 6 mm (< 0.CEMP-E Table D-4. > 50 mm (> 2 in.6 .50 mm (0.2 in.) One-Side Only Access Single-V Groove D i s c o n t i n u i t y Joint Geometry Lap.) Lap.) Lap.2 . 6-15 mm (0.

Cobalt 60 can effectively penetrate up to approximately 230 mm (9 in. some radiation is absorbed. and strict safety regulations must be monitored and enforced.) of steel. (7) RT is generally unaffected by grain structure. When a weld is exposed to penetrating radiation. (3) RT is limited to butt joint applications by AWS D1. facilities. particularly helpful with ESW and EGW welds. although other image recording methods are also used.CEMP-E 5. Real-time radiography uses a fluoroscope to receive radiation. discontinuities such as porosity or slag are readily detected. and iridium 192. (8) RT is a potential radiation hazard to personnel. cesium 137. irregularities. (10) There is usually a significant waiting time between the testing process and the availability of results. and aid in characterizing and locating discontinuities for repair.) of steel. cracks. See Table D-5. (1) RT can detect subsurface porosity. Radiographic Testing (RT) uses a radioactive source and. an imperfection must be oriented roughly parallel to the radiation beam. (4) To be detected. cesium 137 to 100 mm (4 in. RT is not effective when testing fillet welds or groove welds in tee or corner joints. D-10 . b. As a consequence. (6) The radiographic images provide a permanent record for future review.) of steel. The film provides a permanent record of the inspection. (2) Radioisotopes are used to emit gamma radiation. typically. (1) X-rays are produced by portable units capable of radiographing relatively thin objects. and some transmitted through the weld onto the film. The three most common RT isotopes are cobalt 60.). Because of the constantly changing thickness for the exposure.). RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING (RT). a 400 kV unit to 75 mm (3 in. Most conventional RT techniques involve exposures that record a permanent image on film. A large 2000 kV X-ray unit is capable of penetrating approximately 200 mm (8 in. (9) The cost of radiographic equipment. slag. (2) Accessibility to both sides of the weld is required. Method Description. Image Quality Indicators (IQIs) are used to verify the quality and sensitivity of the image.) of steel. and related licensing is higher than any other NDT process. Because they are usually volumetric in cross-section. a film imaging process similar to X-ray film. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 a. The two types of radiation sources commonly used in weld inspection are x-ray machines and radioactive isotopes. RT may miss laminations and cracks parallel to the film surface.1. then presents an on-screen image for evaluation. some scattered. voids. Advantages and Disadvantages. and iridium 192 to 75 mm (3 in. (5) The limitations on RT sensitivity are such that discontinuities smaller than about 1½ percent of the metal thickness may not be detected. and a 200 kV unit to 25 mm (1 in. and lack of fusion. safety programs.

) Lap.2 . etc. < 6 mm (< 0. 16 .0.) Single-V Groove D-11 .2 in.) Lap.CEMP-E Table D-5.6 in.6 .) TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Least Applicable Microcracks Overlap D i s c o n t i n u i t y Joint Geometry Lap.2 in.) Both-Side Access Double-V Groove Applicable Surface Pore Shrinkage Cavity Crater Pipe Incomplete Fusion (Sidewall or Interpass) Undercut Excessive Reinforcement Excessive Convexity Excessive Penetration Burn-Through Underfilled Groove Root Concavity Miscellaneous Surface Discontinuities (Spatter.50 mm (0. Radiographic Testing Most Applicable Longitudinal Cracks Transverse Cracks Radiating Cracks Crater Cracks Group Discontinuous Cracks Branching Cracks Uniform Porosity Linear Porosity Elongated Cavity “Worm Hole” Solid Inclusion Slag or Flux Inclusion Oxide Inclusion Metallic Inclusion Incomplete Fusion (Root) Incomplete Penetration Lap. > 50 mm (> 2 in. 6-15 mm (0.

D-12 .CEMP-E 6. TI 809-26 1 March 2000 Because of severe limitations in applicability. the use of eddy current. OTHER METHODS. acoustic emission. or other methods not mentioned above is discouraged.

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