TA refers to a method of analyzing and understanding interpersonal behavior.  When people interact, there is social transaction in which person responds to another; study of these social transactions between people called transactional Analysis.  It was developed by Eric Berne in year 1950.  a method to improve communication. The theory outlines how we have developed and treat ourselves, how we relate and communicate with others, and offers suggestions and interventions which will enable us to change and grow.

way of thinking and behaving at a time. and how we relate to others.  The Ego State adopted by the person who starts the transaction will affect the way the other person responds.  .  Berne devised the concept of ego states to help explain how we are made up.TRANSACTION Transactions between people can be characterized by the Ego State of the two participants.  Ego states are one person’s feeling.

EGO STATES Parent ego Adult Ego Child Ego .


 These attitudes can be critical and controlling.  Characteristics of person acting with parent ego include:  Protective  Dogmatic  Indispensable    They refer to laws and rules. morals and beliefs. protective and promote growth. judgmental and opinionated or. they can be nurturing.PARENT EGO The Parent ego state expresses one's values. security-giving  Criticizing: comparing to family traditions and ideals in generally negative ways  . reliance on past. Two type of parent ego: Nurturing: permission-giving. alternatively.  The Parent ego state contains 'shoulds' and 'oughts'.

grandmother may have done. we may notice that we are saying things just as our father. we don't want to.PARENT EGO STATE This is a set of feelings. beliefs. even though. For example. consciously. feelings and behaviours from our parents and caretakers. or treat others as we might have been treated. If we live in an extended family then there are more people to learn and take in from. mother. thinking and behaviour that we have copied from our parents and significant others. We do this as we have lived with this person so long that we automatically reproduce certain things that were said to us.  .  As we grow up we take in ideas.

 Ask for information rather than stay scared and rather than make assumptions  .ADULT EGO Ego state is based upon reasoning. seeking and providing information.  Able to see people as they are. rather than what we project onto them.

We ask for information rather than stay scared and rather than make assumptions.  . Taking the best from the past and using it appropriately in the present. When in our Adult we are able to see people as they are.  The Adult ego state is about being spontaneous and aware with the capacity for intimacy. rather than what we project onto them.ADULT EGO STATE The Adult ego state is about direct responses to the here and now. We deal with things that are going on today in ways that are not unhealthily influenced by our past.

CHILD EGO  Characteristics: Creativity  Anxiety  Fear  Hate  Dependency  Non-logical and immediate actions   Types: Natural  Adaptive  Rebellion  .

CHILD EGO STATE  The Child ego state is a set of behaviours. thoughts and feelings which are replayed from our own childhood .

Kinds of transactions  There are basically three kinds of transactions:  Reciprocal/Complementary (the simplest)  Crossed  Duplex/Covert (the most complex)  .

.I don't want to work anymore.I'm about to email it to you. These are also called complementary transactions. (Clearly it will stop at some stage . Example 1: A: "Have you been able to write the report?" (Adult to Adult) B: "Yes .but this psychologically balanced exchange of strokes can continue for some time).RECIPROCAL OR COMPLEMENTARY TRANSACTIONS     A simple. Communication like this can continue indefinitely. what should we go and see?" (Child to Child) Example 3: A: "You should have your room tidy by now!" (Parent to Child) B: "Will you stop hassling me? I'll do it eventually!" (Child to Parent)." (Adult to Adult) Example 2: A: "Would you like to skip this meeting and go watch a film with me instead?" (Child to Child) B: "I'd love to . reciprocal transaction occurs when both partners are addressing the ego state the other is in.

There is however the risk that A will feel aggrieved that B is acting responsibly and not playing their role.CROSSED TRANSACTIONS       Communication failures are typically caused by a 'crossed transaction' where partners address ego states other than that their partner is in. which can continue indefinitely.. Consider the above examples jumbled up a bit." (Adult to Adult) This is a more positive crossed transaction.. you'll get fired." Example 2a: A: "Is your room tidy yet?" (Parent to Child) B: "I'm just going to do it. For instance: A: "If you don't change your attitude. . actually. Example 1a: A: "Have you been able to write that report?" (Adult to Adult) B: "Will you stop hassling me? I'll do it eventually!" (Child to Parent) This is a crossed transaction likely to produce problems in the workplace. A may respond with a Parent to Child transaction. and the conversation will develop into: A: "I can never trust you to do things!" (Parent to Child) B: "Why don't you believe anything I say?" (Adult to Adult) .

" (Adult response to Adult statement). where the explicit social conversation occurs in parallel with an implicit psychological transaction." (Adult words). For instance:  A: "I need you to stay late at the office with me. winking or grinning (Child accepts the hidden motive). body language indicates sexual intent (flirtatious Child) B: "Of course.  .Duplex or Covert transactions  Another class of transaction is the 'duplex' or 'covert' transactions.

BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES WITH DIFFERENT EGO STATES Parent ego Rules and laws Adult Ego Rationality Child Ego Experiencing joy/frustration Wishing/fantasising Impulsive spontaneous testing Do’s and don’ts How to Tradition Teaching Estimation Evaluation Storing data Figuring out .

RELEVANT ASPECTS In the course of action. a person is likely to display all three ego states though one ego state might be dominating  One can observe the ego states of the person by observing not only the words use by the person but also his postures. gestures and facial expressions  .


JOHARI WINDOW  Given by Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingham Information known to self Information known to others Information not known to self Open Blind Information not known to others Hidden Unknown .

•able •accepting •adaptable •bold •brave •calm •caring •cheerful •clever •complex •confident •patient •sensible •dependable •intelligent •powerful •sentimental •dignified •introverted •proud •shy •energetic •kind •quiet •silly •extroverted •knowledgea •reflective •smart •friendly ble •relaxed •spontaneou •giving •logical •religious s •happy •loving •responsive •sympathetic •helpful •mature •searching •tense •idealistic •modest •self•trustworthy •independen •nervous assertive •warm t •observant •self•wise •ingenious •organized conscious •witty .

K.K. You are not O.LIFE POSITIONS You are O.K. I am O.K. I am Not O.K. K. I am O.K. I am not O. you are not O. I am O. you are O. K.K. K. you are O. K.K. you are not O. . I am not O.

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