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2009 NRL Review

2009 NRL Review

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The 2009 NRL Review contains featured research articles and short stories covering a variety of research areas. In addition to its research articles, the Review also has chapters on NRL's past, present, and future; special awards and recognition; and programs for professional development.

View past NRL Reviews
http://www.nrl.navy.mil/media/publications/nrl-review/
The 2009 NRL Review contains featured research articles and short stories covering a variety of research areas. In addition to its research articles, the Review also has chapters on NRL's past, present, and future; special awards and recognition; and programs for professional development.

View past NRL Reviews
http://www.nrl.navy.mil/media/publications/nrl-review/

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157

The Multifunction Electronic Warfare (MFEW) Advanced Development Model

G.C. Tavik and N.M. Thomas III

160

Transportable Electronic Warfare Module (TEWM)

D.E. Tremper, R.S. Cortesi, J. Heyer, J.Geib, and D. Bay

162

Laser Decoy System for Small Ground Platforms

R. Evans and S. Moroz

information technology and communications

2009 NRL REVIEW 157

ELECTRONICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS

The Multifunction Electronic Warfare (MFEW)
Advanced Development Model

G.C. Tavik1

and N.M. Thomas III2

1

Radar Division

2

INNOLOG

Introduction: In the almost 30 years since the
development of the AN/SLQ-32 Surface Ship Electronic
Warfare (EW) system, the number and sophistication
of radar emitters and antiship missiles have increased
dramatically. The resulting need for improved situ-
ational awareness, combat system coordination, threat
detection and identifcation, and support for future
improvements in electronic countermeasures against
new and emerging threats led the Offce of Naval
Research (ONR) to establish a Technology Transition
Agreement (TTA) in 2004 with the Chief of Naval
Operations (CNO), the program managers for the new
construction DDG 1000, and the Surface EW Improve-
ment Program (SEWIP). This TTA established an ONR
program under the Fleet Force Protection (FFP) Future
Naval Capability (FNC) to develop and demonstrate a
Multifunction Electronic Warfare (MFEW) Advanced
Development Model (ADM), and mature and transi-
tion critical EW system technology to full-scale engi-
neering development.
Based on the TTA and the secret DDG 1000 EW
component specifcations, ONR and NRL established
the following key performance factors (KPFs) to focus
the MFEW development: (1) frequency and spatial
coverage, (2) sensitivity for signal detection, (3) system
response time from signal detection to emitter report-

ing, (4) electromagnetic environment requirements
(for both on- and off-board emitters), (5) signal angle-
of-arrival (AOA) measurement accuracy, (6) antenna
radar cross section (RCS), (7) emitter classifcation
requirements, including false emitter reporting rate,
and (8) performance requirements against specifed
emerging threats.

ONR and NRL initiated the MFEW ADM program
in FY05 by selecting and tasking seven contractors to
study, develop, and propose system architectures for an
MFEW ADM. In addition to the KPF objectives, ONR
required that the design be modular and open; capable
of being scaled to the size and operational require-
ments of multiple platforms; capable of future growth
to perform additional EW functions; and capable of
incorporation into an integrated sensor/communica-
tions system-of-systems under the real-time control of
a Resource Allocation Manager (RAM). Based on these
architecture design efforts, the Northrop Grumman
Corporation (NGC) was selected in September 2005 to
develop the MFEW ADM.

MFEW ADM Design and Fabrication: The MFEW
design is based on a multi-element interferometer
antenna (Fig. 1) combined with a frequency scanning
architecture that uses a set of 16 to 24 wideband (400
MHz) tuners and digital receivers, each followed by a
bank of digital narrowband (~32 MHz) flters and a
corresponding set of detectors. The frequency scanning
process is weighted by a priori estimates of signal con-
centration and known emitter parameters to optimize
system response time while searching all frequency
bands. The narrow bandwidth of the individual detec-

FIGURE 1

MFEW ADM antenna assembly as viewed from inside the above-deck shelter. The antenna elements are
located around the perimeter of the electronics mounting plate, embedded in the deckhouse composite
structure.

158

2009 NRL REVIEW

ELECTRONICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS

tion channels maximizes sensitivity while minimizing
the effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI). Pre-
cision direction fnding (PDF) is accomplished with an
array of two orthogonal interferometers made from 14
of the 20 low-RCS dual sinuous receive elements that
form the antenna. Degradation of AOA accuracy due
to multipath signal reception is mitigated by a modifed
version of the multiple signal classifcation (MUSIC)
algorithm.1

The individual digital tuners and receivers
are dynamically allocated between High Probability
of Intercept (HPOI) detection and PDF functions as
required. The quantity of receivers in a system, which
impacts system response time, may be scaled based on
cost/performance factors as required for any particular
ship class or mission.
The MFEW ADM incorporates a data processor
and associated output interfaces based on the Elec-
tronic Surveillance Enhancement (ESE) subsystem,
which was previously developed by NGC for SEWIP
Block 1. The new processor software is designed to
operate with the NRL-developed Advanced Multi-
Function RF Concept (AMRFC) Resource Allocation
Manager,2

and the NGC-developed human machine

interface (HMI).

Test and Demonstration: The MFEW ADM was
fabricated and delivered to the NRL in October 2007
(Fig. 2). NRL installed the system in two CONEX
(Container Express) boxes; one containing the
above-deck assembly, including the interferometer
array embedded in a section of the new DDG 1000
destroyer composite deckhouse material, and the other
containing the below-deck assembly, including the
HMI operator controls and displays. These in turn

were mounted on a ship motion simulator at the NRL
Chesapeake Bay Detachment (CBD) for testing (Fig. 3).
Demonstrations included the detection and tracking of
relevant land-based, shipboard, and airborne emitters
within this maritime environment.
After a fnal demonstration to the TTA sponsors
in May 2008, the system was shipped to San Diego and
installed on the USS Comstock (LSD 45) (Fig. 4) in
preparation for the RIMPAC 2008 multinational feet
exercises off the coast of Hawaii. Comstock and MFEW
actively participated in the TAPA II (Technical Coop-
eration Program Anti-ship Missile Project Arrange-
ment) technology segment of the exercise jointly with
Canada and Australia.

Summary: The MFEW ADM program designed,
built, tested, and demonstrated a critical new EW
capability on a very aggressive schedule. It performs
remarkably well against nearly all of the KPFs, and
the MFEW technology is now being transitioned to
the SEWIP Block 2 acquisition program. The result-
ing upgrade will be installed in various confgurations
throughout the Fleet starting in 2013. Detailed analysis
of the MFEW test data continues in preparation for a
fnal NRL report in 2009.
[Sponsored by ONR]

References

1

R. Schmidt and R. Franks, “Multiple Emitter Location and
Signal Parameter Estimation,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.
34(3), 276–280 (1986).

2

G.C. Tavik, C.L. Hilterbrick, J.B. Evins, J.J. Alter, J.G.
Crnkovich, J.W. deGraaf, W. Habicht II, G.P. Hrin, S.A. Lessin,
D.C. Wu, and S.M. Hagewood, “The Advanced Multifunction
RF Concept,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(3),
1009–1020 (2005).

FIGURE 2

MFEW ADM equipment racks.

Auxilliary
Equipment
Rack

Digital
Processing
Equipment
Rack

Intermediate
Frequency
Equipment
Rack

RF
Converter
Equipment
Rack

RF
Distribution
Equipment
Rack

2009 NRL REVIEW 159

ELECTRONICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS

FIGURE 4

MFEW ADM shelters mounted aboard the USS Comstock (LSD 45) during installation in San Diego.

FIGURE 3

MFEW ADM above-deck shelter (on top of the Ship Motion Simulator) and below-deck shelter (on top
of Building 12) at NRL-CBD. Inset shows the above-deck shelter in motion during testing with airborne
emitters mounted on an NRL Learjet.

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2009 NRL REVIEW

ELECTRONICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS

Transportable Electronic Warfare Module
(TEWM)

D.E. Tremper, R.S. Cortesi, J. Heyer, J. Geib, and
D. Bay

Tactical Electronic Warfare Division

Introduction: Traditionally, the incorporation of
advanced electronic warfare (EW) capabilities, either
as existing payload upgrades or as new system installa-
tions, has required extensive timelines and platform-
specifc integration planning. Research efforts have
often targeted specifc EW applications and operational
environments to facilitate the transition of the technol-
ogy, rather than develop cross-domain functionality.
Often these separate EW systems address the same
threats or frequency bands but are each platform-
centric.

Under an Offce of Naval Research (ONR) funded
Future Naval Capability (FNC) program, research was
performed by the Tactical Electronic Warfare Division
(TEWD) at NRL to develop an advanced EW capability
for use on unmanned platforms. The primary thrusts
were in the areas of antiship missile defense (ASMD)
and countersurveillance. The ASMD and counter-
surveillance missions are not platform-specifc, nor
are they limited to unmanned vehicles. Scientists at
NRL continued to evolve the initial unmanned vehicle
EW concept1

into a platform-independent payload
applicable to both manned and unmanned assets. This
evolution resulted in the Transportable EW Module
(TEWM), a platform-agnostic EW payload, shown in
Fig. 5, which is capable of being rapidly transferred
from vessel to vessel, aircraft, vehicle, or fxed site, or
vice versa.

Development of a common EW core for applica-
tion across a variety of military operations not only
avoids the platform-centric payload approach, it also
allows for distributed EW payloads that can easily be
networked. The TEWM system was designed from the
start to support TEWM-to-TEWM communication
and data sharing. Future network interfaces will allow
TEWM to connect to available communication links
in order to either passively or actively tie into available
situational awareness data streams, as well as coordi-
nate distributed EW operations.

TEWM System Overview: Like its unmanned
vehicle predecessor, the TEWM design incorpo-
rated an electronic support (ES) receiver integrated
with a wideband digital radio frequency memory
(DRFM) based electronic attack (EA) capability.
DRFM-based payloads have the capability to apply
standard noise jamming techniques, as well as generate
high-resolution false targets with realistic amplitude

and Doppler modulation, engage multiple threats
simultaneously, and generate multicomponent wave
forms that combine false targets with obscuration
jamming. DRFM fexibility allowed TEWM to be
designed from the start as an EW hardware core that
supports a variety of potential operations. High-power
transmission is achieved through high-gain antennas
and high-power modules developed for tactical aircraft
and equally applicable to surface use. Electronic com-
ponents are air-cooled, unlike the original unmanned
vehicle payload, which relied on forced convection
cooling.

Although not demonstrated during at-sea proto-
type testing, TEWM and networks of TEWM systems
are designed to be controlled by as few as one Jammer
Control Station (JCS). JCS is a graphical user interface
developed using the NRL SIMDIS visualization tool,
which provides users with a real-time 3D situational
awareness picture, including platform positions and
motions, and payloads’ status and activities, as well as
RF detections and bearings with threat, neutral, and
friendly assignment. As shown in Fig. 6, JCS opera-
tors can specify search and threat parameters, operate
payloads manually, and point and click RF beams for
interrogation or to activate jamming across any net-
worked and available TEWM. Single or multipayload
networked control and coordination can be managed
by a single JCS operator.

RIMPAC 2008 Experimentation: During FY08,
the TEWM system was demonstrated as part of a
large-scale EW experiment during the international
Rim of the Pacifc (RIMPAC) 2008 exercises in July.
RIMPAC is a biannual, international maritime exercise
that takes place in the Pacifc Ocean near Honolulu,
Hawaii, under the direction of the United States Pacifc
Command (PACOM). NRL scientists installed the
TEWM hardware onboard the DDG 93 Chung Hoon, as

FIGURE 5

TEWM being operated by NRL scientists.

2009 NRL REVIEW 161

ELECTRONICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS

shown in Fig. 7, for RIMPAC 2008 in order to demon-
strate the system’s capabilities in ASMD and counter-
surveillance applications. Hardware was installed on
the deck of the Chung Hoon in 30 minutes. Bringing
TEWM up to full operation took less than 2 hours.
Directional transmit and receive antennas limited the
interference between TEWM and onboard emitters.
The RIMPAC at-sea experiment demonstrated
TEWM’s capability to generate advanced EA waveform
concepts for area defense and self-protection against
maritime patrol aircraft, multirole fghters, and cap-
tive-carry ASM simulators. Additional experiments are
planned for 2009 aimed at controlling TEWM across
an existing military network, as well as coordinating
the operation of two networked TEWM systems.

FIGURE 6

Distributed EW control demonstrated by JCS.

Summary: Traditional EW development has fol-
lowed a platform-centric approach leading to costly
and lengthy planning and integration. The TEWD at
NRL is actively pursuing a compact, low-cost, capabil-
ity-centric EW payload in order to support the rapid
transfer of sophisticated capabilities between platforms
and domains. This platform-agnostic approach will
facilitate the integration of distributed and coordinated
EW concepts into military operations currently not
found in the Fleet.
[Sponsored by ONR]

Reference

1

D. Tremper and J. Heyer, “Unmanned Sea Surface Vehicle
Electronic Warfare,” 2007 NRL Review, p. 159–161.

FIGURE 7

TEWM installed on the
DDG 93 Chung Hoon.

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2009 NRL REVIEW

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Laser Decoy System for Small
Ground Platforms

R. Evans and S. Moroz

Tactical Electronic Warfare Division

Introduction: Increasingly, U.S. Navy ships are
operating in the littorals, where they may be exposed
to a variety of threat weapons including laser-directed
threats. These laser-guided threats are also of very high
concern to the Marines as they operate lightly armored
vehicles in hostile areas. A laser decoy concept was
developed demonstrating a capability to counter these
types of threats. With relatively small-sized vehicles, the
laser decoy needs to be compact and affordable. Short
threat alert times dictate a very rapid response from
the laser decoy. These constraints were met in the laser
decoy that was developed and demonstrated as part of
the EWISSP (Electronic Warfare Integrated System for
Small Platforms) project.
One of the Offce of Naval Research (ONR)
Future Naval Capability (FNC) programs, EWISSP
was developed as a low-cost integrated system to
improve the survivability of small surface platforms
against precision guided threats. The EWISSP design
included sensors to detect the threat, processing to
classify the threat type, and countermeasure responses
to negate the effectiveness of the threat. The small
platforms with small crew size can be protected with
the automated operation of EWISSP. Although the
Marines’ Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) was
the initial transition target for the EWISSP technology,
the system was designed to work with the full array of
small surface platforms including the Light Armored
Vehicle (LAV), the Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC),
and the Landing Craft Utility (LCU) ships. EWISSP
was jointly developed by a team including ONR, NRL,
and Northrop Grumman. The NRL focus was in the
development and demonstration of the Laser Coun-

termeasure (LaCM) to detect, identify, and counter
laser-guided threats to the small surface platforms.

LaCM Description: Laser-guided weapons are
precisely directed by an operator who illuminates the
intended impact point with a laser beam. Guidance
logic in the weapon detects this pointing laser refection
from the intended target and corrects the weapon’s
trajectory to impact the illumination point. A frst step
to countering these threats is to detect that the pointing
laser designator energy is illuminating the defended
platform. For this demonstration, the Goodrich Com-
pany’s laser detection sensor was combined with signal
processing logic to alert the EWISSP system to an
attack.

Major LaCM components included a counter-
measure laser to confuse the threat weapon, an optic
combination to direct the LaCM laser energy toward
the threat, and an erectable 2-meter mast to provide
an improved defensive geometry. On alert of an attack,
the LaCM mast is deployed from a stowed position
that maintains the platform’s relatively low profle.
Next, the LaCM beam is confgured by optics at the
top of the mast to direct the countermeasure energy.
This is followed by transmission of the energy from
the LaCM laser to jam the threat sensor, preventing
the threat weapon from hitting the targeted platform.
Figure 8 illustrates the LaCM countermeasure concept
that presents both omnidirectional and spot ground
jamming beams that can counter the full range of laser-
guided threats.

LaCM Testing: As part of the testing, the LaCM
defended platform was attacked by threat seekers
carried on a helicopter. The helicopter few a full range
of trajectories representative of those typically fol-
lowed by threats. Figure 9 shows the LaCM hardware
with the mast erected on a surrogate HMMWV (High
Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle) test platform

FIGURE 8

Laser Countermeasure (LaCM) concept.

Omni - Jam Beam

Ground
Projection

Low
Angle
Threat

High
Angle Threat

2009 NRL REVIEW 163

ELECTRONICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS

along with instrumented threat seekers installed on
a test helicopter. This testing covered a wide range of
backgrounds and attack geometries. A representative
scene presented to the threat seekers is presented in
the infrared image of Fig. 10. The center of the LaCM
omni-jammer is seen as the small dot. The ground spot
from the laser decoy lures the threat away from the
HMMWV that is being illuminated by the threat’s laser
designator. During the testing, the LaCM was highly

effective in countering the threat seekers over a full set
of engagement geometries.

Summary: The helicopter testing followed an
extensive test series that was conducted at multiple test
sites with many climatic and background conditions.
In all of the tests, the concept was demonstrated to
effectively counter the precision laser-guided threats.
[Sponsored by ONR]

FIGURE 9

LaCM testing with captive seekers
on helicopter.

LaCM Mast

Captive Threat Seekers

LaCM Optics

FIGURE 10

Reference infrared image of
LaCM testing.

LaCM
Omni-jammer

LaCM Ground
Spot

Threat
Designator
Spot

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