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Information and Communication Technology ICT 201 AutoCAD Handout

AutoCAD commands are normally in either italics or boldface, but those in boldface are commands you are being instructed to carry out as part of the tutorial; so the commands should be typed exactly as shown. Those in italics are suggestions or other references to commands. Lines beginning with an asterisk contain instructions to carry out a process of some kind. We are probably not entirely consistent in these matters, but . . . As the tutorial progresses, some of the instructions will become less complete, on the assumption that you have learned a good deal about the system and can figure out more on your own. If you find an incomplete description of a command, please check to see if a fuller description was provided earlier. We recommend that you work with the tutorial and otherwise work with AutoCAD for more than an hour at a time during your first week and that you try to work with the system daily for the first week. You will find that your comfort level increases and you will relax with the system more readily if you work with the system frequently and for longer stretches of time during the learning period. Please note that we are instructing you to use keyboard commands exclusively. Virtually every one could be initiated with a menu selection instead. Feel free to experiment with other ways to activate the commands we've chosen; they should work the same whether started from the keyboard or a pull-down menu. We did choose to have you type commands, though, because we think that is quicker in the long run - and because the keyboard commands are consistent from one version of AutoCAD to another, while the pull-down menus are not always consistent in terms of on-screen location. (You will note that the commands are visible in the three-line command window below the drawing window. The size of the command window is adjustable via standard Windows procedures.) IMPORTANT NOTE: Some newer versions of AutoCAD include a feature called Dynamic Entry that changes the way entries typed at the keyboard are echoed on the monitor screen. This feature can be toggled on and off via a button at the bottom of the AutoCAD screen (next to "OTRACK") called "DYN." You should be sure that this feature is toggled off. While it will not invalidate any of the procedures used here, it will seriously complicate data entry by making typed numbers hard to find. (For an image of this feature and work and some further comments, see the CSA Newsletter, Vol. XIX, No. 1, "AutoCAD 2006: A Review, by Harrison Eiteljorg, II. That review of AutoCAD 2006 also points up another problem concerning AutoCAD layers. Since that concept will be introduced later in the tutorial, the problem will be discussed at that time.)

Finally, we have found through experimentation that you should read all of each command procedure before beginning to carry out the instructions. Sometimes things seem unclear but are quite obvious if you know the full sequence at the beginning; at other times, the first steps will be puzzling if you aren't aware of the ones to follow. In any case, the point is not to do the exercises; it is to understand how to use the commands.

Session One:
Basic Drawing commands - units, limits, redraw, regen, control-c (escape key), help, line, zoom, id, endpoint, F2, erase, undo, pline, qsave, 3dpoly, distance, move, copy, point specifying processes, text, editing objects, mslide, end First begin AutoCAD. * When the system is ready, type new and a carriage return or enter (hereafter <cr>) and give your file a name. (AutoCAD 2006 will start with a new blank document and does not require the new command. A name will be required when the document is saved. - AutoCAD 2000 requires that you select the new file icon in the start-up menu and will not require a name until you are ready to save the file. When you start a new file, AutoCAD 2000 will ask you to select whether you want to work in English or metric dimensions. Please choose metric. Before you start working with your file, please type save and <cr> and give the file a name.) The name you choose is up to you, but we recommend a six-character name that will leave two characters (in a DOS, eightcharacter naming system) to identify different versions of the file. Thus, you can save each successive iteration of the file under a new but related name, differing only by the numbers in the last two characters of the file name (e.g., myfile00, myfile01, myfile02, etc.) and preserve the file from each session separately. AutoCAD automatically appends the .dwg extension to the file name. Please note that there is now an icon with arrows in the lower left corner of the drawing window. The arrows indicate the directions for the x and y axes. There may also be a W in it, indicating that you are working in the world coordinate system. Don't worry about that for now, but do note that the direction of the arrows will change as you manipulate the drawing, always indicating the x and y axes. UNITS Before starting a drawing, you must determine the units with which the drawing will be made, the ways numbers are displayed, and some other drawing procedures. (If you are using AutoCAD 2000, the choices are similar, but there are now Windows-style dialog boxes for you to make your choices; the AutoCAD 2006 version is shown in the Illustration. It should be clear how to match the suggestions that follow for R14.)

Fig. 1 - An empty AutoCAD drawing, with the dialog box for units showing. Note arrows for the x and y axes in the lower left corner. (This and the following two images will be presented at full size unless your browser automatically reduces them. That may make viewing a bit more problematic, and it will certainly make printing more difficult, but it should make the screen shots more clear while you are still in the beginning stages of this exercise.) * Type units and <cr>. You will then be presented with a dialog box or asked, in sequence, to choose the following: If you have a dialog box instead of the list of questions, use it to make the same choices. * the measuring system (choose decimals - the system does not care what the base unit is, only whether it will be divided into decimals or 12ths or whatever - for our purposes the base unit is the meter), * the number of decimal points to be displayed (choose 3 so that we are dealing with millimeters as the smallest unit displayed), * the way angles will be measured (choose decimal degrees), * the number of fractional places to be displayed for angles (choose 4), * where the zero angle will be (choose North- the default is East - you will need to go to the next dialog box - Directions - in AutoCAD 2006), * and whether you will measure positive angles as clockwise (choose yes). Note that the latest versions of AutoCAD will require you to call up a sub-window for some of these selections.

After the last choice, you should see your drawing window again. But, on some DOS systems, that won't happen, and you will still be looking at the text screen. If so, press the F1 key to return to the drawing screen. Current versions of AutoCAD use the F1 key to call up help. F2 is used to view or hide the text window with past commands shown. That window can be scrolled to let you see the commands you have entered since the beginning of your drawing session. Looking back through your commands to diagnose a problem can be very helpful. (It is possible to save the entire sequence of prompts, commands, and responses in a log file. This can be useful in some circumstances. The process can be found in an AtudoCAD manual.) LIMITS Another set-up process is setting the drawing limits. You don't have to set limits, but if you do set them, you can protect yourself from erroneously drawing things outside those limits. Setting limits also makes it easy to call up in your viewing window only that area defined by the stated limits. * Type limits and <cr> and then give two sets of coordinates (x and y only) for the limits. * Type -10,-10 and <cr> for the lower left corner. * Type 15,15 and <cr> for the upper right corner. * To make the limits active, type limits and <cr> again and choose on and <cr>. (With limits set but turned off, you can draw outside the limits, something you may want to do on occasion.) Now you will be unable to draw anything with an x or y value greater than 15 or smaller than -10. REDRAW, REGEN, Control-C (escape key) Note that the commands redraw and regen (regenerate) can be used at any time to refresh the screen; these commands remove the marks left from various editing processes; the escape key generally accomplishes the same task. Redraw simply draws the same image again; regen requires the system to start from the database and reconstruct all parts of the model from scratch. As a result, if you have changed a system variable that alters the appearance of the display, Redraw will draw the same image and not reflect the change of the system variable; regen will reflect the change in the system variable. Feel free to use these commands at any time. Also note that controlc will interrupt most processes. If you find yourself in the midst of something you want to stop, just type control-c - but in Release 13 and later, use the escape key instead. (It's easy to type control-x instead of control-c; if you do type control-x the word delete may appear - depending on the version you're using. That does not mean that a part of the drawing has been deleted; control-x should just cancel a command that has been partially typed.) Please note the use of the term model in the foregoing. A CAD model is more than a drawing, since you can zoom in and change viewing angles; so we will try always to use the term model to refer to the computer version of your work.

HELP

but it zooms in on the center of the screen. Endpoint * Type z<cr> (for zoom). the system will assume that you mean to define the corners of a window for the new view.6<cr> to define a zoom window with two diagonally opposite points (you could do that with the mouse. continue by typing 3. Thus.6<cr> and then 3. Now you have two lines that meet. (If you make a mistake and cannot figure out how to correct it.6. we will continue to use a convention of command and <cr> or command<cr> to indicate that you should type first the command and then the <cr>. we could use the <cr> key to start the line drawing process again. with no space between.4.5.4.) (AutoCAD treats a space as equivalent to a <cr>. so from here on. * The Line command was started. * Then type <cr> to end the command. move the mouse. if you do type the space.If. Or do you? ZOOM.4. and click again with the mouse or type two sets of coordinates (x and y only). that AutoCAD will treat a <cr> or a space at the command prompt as a restatement of the last command. look below at the <Undo> command. but if you just click.3. but I want you to have zoomed in very close for this).perish the thought -. That can be very useful. so it can be confusing if there is little showing on screen. for any reason. in addition. You have a series of options available. Obviously. (There is an AutoCAD system variable that will change the window selection process to click-and-drag. type line (or just l) followed by a space or <cr>. but this is not the time to worry about changing system variables. * Type line<cr> (or l<cr>) and use the mouse to select the starting point of a new line. again. either a mouse click or another set of coordinates. just look at the coordinate window at the top of the drawing . The F1 key also takes you to the Help system on later versions. this tutorial is not crystal clear -. now enter the coordinates 2.) More recent version of AutoCAD will also zoom in if you simply use the scroll wheel on your mouse.) Since the space is equivalent to the <cr>. You may be able to move the crosshairs from one point to the other to see where the two points are. * Having entered z<cr>. Start it just at the beginning of the last line. The first point needs a diagonally opposite one to define the window. * Enter the ending point 6. to omit the <cr>. ID.you can type help (or ?) and <cr> to get AutoCAD's help menu. you must be sure not to type a space by habit or. LINE * To begin our drawing. Let's make another line that starts from the the same point as the first line. when we complete this command.0<cr>.0<cr> to specify the starting point of the line. Use the mouse to select the point for the end of the line (wherever you like) and type <cr> to terminate the command. we will use <cr> to indicate either. Note. You have now zoomed in very close to the origin points of your two lines and can see that you may not really have the second line beginning precisely where the first one did.

but you won't be able to see both sets of numbers at once with the small text area at the bottom of the drawing screen. You may be able to use your mouse to indicate that you will pick an endpoint of a line. Experimentation will show how close you need to be to an existing endpoint to select it. not the end of the line. * After you've compared them. Move your mouse to put the box around the end of one of the lines and click to select it. clicking on the button may turn it off. The cursor will become the shape of a small box. even when using coordinates from the keyboard.using endpoint tells the system that you want it to find the end of a line. not just the point where the cursor lies. but you should understand that to mean either the F2 key or the F1 key. clicking on osnap at the bottom of the AutoCAD window will turn it on or pop up the dialog box if no tracking modes have been selected. If that works. Otherwise. The system will display the coordinates of the end of the line . though with AutoCAD 2000/2006 you may have had unseen . but all Windows programs are supposed to use F1 for help. (The right-click procedure does not work with AutoCAD 2000 or 2006. etc. Then choose Endpoint from the list of object tracking modes. the system will automatically select the endpoint near the cursor.. and then pick the point you want. let the computer tell you precisely where the end of each line is located.window to see your location.and often unwanted . (You may have to use the F1 key if you are using a DOS version of AutoCAD.) The full text screen will show much more text.help from the system to attach your second line to the first one. and select the end of the line.or no key at all if the text window pops up by itself. try it the next time you need to use endpoint. depending on the system you are using . When you're ready to choose the point. From this point on. Or you can specify the use of an existing point in the model with a command such as endpoint. Better yet. Now any time you are near an endpoint and trying to select a point. check to be sure on your version of AutoCAD. type F2 again to return to the model. A dialog box will appear giving you too many choices.) The simplest was to select an endpoint is to click the osnap button at the bottom of the AutoCAD 2000/2006 window. F2 in Windows versions (or F1 in DOS versions) * You have chosen to examine two sets of coordinates. to have the object snap feature over-ride an attempt to place a point very close to an existing point. with endpoint being one of the first words shown.type id<cr>. Note that asking for the identification of a point requires that you specify that you want the endpoint of the line (you could also specify midpoint or center). including the numbers you asked for. endpoint<cr>. The F1 key was the standard until Windows. (A warning: it is not uncommon. If object snap mode is on. Check the difference. It may cause a pop-up menu to appear. not just a point in space. type endpoint<cr> or select the right mouse key. If object snap mode is off. This exercise should have demonstrated that you can't rely on your hands and eyes for precision. the corner of a rectangle. you can just click in the drawing window if you're using AutoCAD 2000/2006. * Type id<cr> and then type endpoint<cr>. you would simply receive the coordinates of the point where the cursor lay. Put a check mark in the box for Object Snap On. the tutorial will instruct you to use the F2 key on occasion. (Now do the same for the other line . be sure to turn off the object . but not for Object Snap Tracking On. It is safest to use the keyboard to enter point coordinates in your model directly. Try using the right button on your mouse. If you need to place a point very close to another. so you may need to type the F2 key to call up the full-text screen.

* Oops. not in absolute terms as you've done thus far. UNDO * Type u<cr> now to undo the last choice. Note that the variable you saw when setting the units will determine how the 270-degree entry is treated by AutoCAD. We only drew them to make the point that your model may not necessarily be as precise as it appears on screen.8. * For point two. but you can use a similar notation system to indicate an angle of elevation or an absolute elevation of the new point.0. the < character indicates to the system that you are using polar coordinates in the same sense that the @ character tells the system you are entering coordinates relative to the prior point. * Type l<cr> to start a line. y-.8. Type @0.) Let's now get back to the original view and delete the lines we just drew. (In a sequence like this. ERASE * Erase the two lines by typing erase<cr> and selecting both lines with the mouse. Type @3<270<cr> to indicate that the new point is 3 units distant and at a 270-degree angle from the third point. and z-coordinates relative to the prior point. you should have typed 6. type 5. Now we'll start our model again. you will use what are called polar coordinates to specify the position of the point.-. . type 3. but relative to the second (last) point. 7. This problem has been less in evidence in recent versions. y-. and z-coordinates of the first point of the line. i.75. 7.) Since 270 degrees will make the line go to our left.8..0<cr>.0<cr>.8.25.0<cr> . -1. You can always enter coordinates directly from the keyboard like this.) * Now.e. type 6. the z-coordinate is omitted and the new point is placed at the same elevation as the previous one. * For the third point. -1. (When using polar coordinates. but you may see the markers on the screen indicating the points you chose.25.8. the coordinates for the second point. the new point will be at 3. * For the fourth point. you can keep typing u<cr> to undo all but the very first point in the sequence.75 units smaller than that of point two.8.these are the x-. a y-value .75. the same x-value as point two. * Type z<cr> and p<cr> to zoom to your previous view. Typing redraw<cr> after you finish with the line will remove them.8. and a z-value 1 unit smaller.8. for point two. * Then type c<cr> to indicate that the figure should close onto its first point. We won't try to deal with those notation systems yet.snap feature and then check your results to be sure the new point is where you intend it to be.8. This type of specification is also based on the previous point. Then type <cr> to complete the command. you are going to tell the system where the point is to be.-1<cr> to indicate that the new point has those x-. * For point one. So point three lies at 6.

or z space-key e space-key) to indicate that the drawing window should include all of the pieces of the model. (If we asked for the system to zoom to all of the drawing. If you drew the same figure with the line command. we will call it Rect. type 3. type pline<cr>.. * For the fourth point.-6<cr>. You can make a window with your mouse to indicate the zoom window or give it coordinates. the window would include all the area within the drawing limits.0<cr>. as we did before. The apostrophe tells the system that you are invoking a command transparently. so type zoom<cr> extents<cr> (or z<cr> e<cr> . since I will be trying to keep track of your drawing progress. If you want to move or copy a line with many individual segments.e. So you can do what AutoCAD calls a transparent zoom. You can see that there is a problem here. * Use the coordinates 3. PLINE * To draw a similar figure with a different process. please return to the previous image size after you zoom in. Return to the previous image size by typing zoom<cr> previous<cr> . The new figure does not show in the drawing window. The process is not much different from the process you used to draw a line. each line segment would be treated as a distinct entity. B. Feel free to do that at any time.9<cr> for the upper left corner and 7. You should note that the third and fourth points have elevations different from the elevation of the first two points. type @0. That does not show in a plan view. This will make what AutoCAD calls a polyline (LW polyline or light-weight polyline in later versions). a light-weight polyline is a 2D figure. However. Two. but it will be obvious in a 3D view. But. a zoom in the middle of a command without interrupting the command. All points must lie at the same elevation.Now you have drawn a simple rectangle.8. type @. First. * Type zoom<cr> or z<cr> to zoom in on the figure. and we have another rectangle that we will call Rect.2x<cr> to indicate that you want the new display to reduce the size of the drawing to one fifth the current size. Type 'z<cr> and then type . it should be drawn as a polyline so that it can be treated as a single item.6<cr> for the lower right corner. AutoCAD will treat all the pieces of a lightweight polyline as parts of a single entity in the model.75<270<cr>. * For the second point. Now you can see enough to continue. * For the third point. * For the first point. type @.75.0<cr>. There are two differences. The model will be fitted tightly to the lower left corner of your window.) During the course of these exercises you may need to zoom in to make your image larger. regardless of how much or how little had been drawn. i. * Then type c<cr> to close the figure. Now your drawing is a bit small. A.3. within another command. if we asked it to zoom to "extents" (abbreviated e) it would show only the parts of the drawing actually containing drawing entities.

Note: The pull-down menu commands are different here. * For the first point.saving the file under its current name. At this point. Note that you have three rectangles. * For the third point. the extra marks will disappear. However. If you want to save the file under a different name.You will see that this figure is another rectangle.1<cr>. standard AutoCAD polylines must have the same elevation throughout. but better to . * For the fourth point. because. (If you had tried to provide a z-value. one of a single polyline. type @-2. * Type qsave<cr>. but a polyline with variable z-coordinates. as mentioned above. Depending on your version of AutoCAD. It is possible. AutoCAD will permit you to do either.0. simply type @2. Use save as from the pull-down menu to save a file under a new name. the system would have rejected the input. is to use the command 3dpoly. and one of a single 3d polyline. save from the pull-down menu works as qsave from the keyboard does . you should hear about the difference between choosing an object and then saying what to do to it (noun-verb) and the reverse process. it's a good idea to save often to make sure you don't lose your work. you should now stop to save your work.5. for the first point. C. You have now drawn Rect.) QSAVE Since you have drawn a couple of figures. Generally speaking. 3DPOLY Another way to make a polyline. just type save and then enter the new file name. This command creates a 3D polyline (not to be confused with a standard or light-weight polyline.8. we entered a z-value only once.0<cr>. of course. you have to remind the system of the file name. * Type 3dpoly<cr>. type @. there are differences we will talk about later). the last corner of the figure may show some extra marks.0<cr>. * Then type c<cr> to close the figure. though. one consisting of lines. As with any program. nor is it possible to convert a 3d polyline into lines.75<180<cr>. if you just type save. If you type redraw<cr>. but that's from the point choosing process. * So for the second point. all successive z-values were determined. to convert lines into a polyine if and only if the lines all lie in the same horizontal plane. type 3.0. * The system will prompt you for "Close/Undo/<Endpoint of line>:" The brackets indicate the system's default expectation. stating the action and then picking the object to act on (verb-noun). Once we supplied a z-value with the first point. It is not possible automatically to convert the polyline into lines or a 3d polyline. it's probably easier to select the item and then name the action if you are only working on one item. for the second rectangle we gave all the points the same value for z. Using qsave eliminates the need to type the file name.

C. C. C. not points in space. the last rectangle looks a little too low. the difference in y-coordinates is . That is.627. but the designers assume you would rather use the object snap feature. * Now let's move the last rectangle we drew so that the three rectangles form a letter F. But that's not really the right distance for us to move Rect. You may. we just want to move Rect. in later versions.05. you may end your drawing session by accident when you type end. We must first know how far we are going to move it. so we need to move it up. A is 0. As it is. if you look closely. but. we really want to know what the distance is from the middle of the side of Rect. to align them for our purposes.state the action first if you are working on many items at once.50. then select the right side of Rect. C. That's more difficult to do if you name the objects first. DISTANCE To use the distance command. As you saw earlier. We can use midpoint or mid instead of endpoint to find out more simply than by starting with endpoints. use either procedure with equal results. The distance reported includes the distance the two points are apart in all three axes . MOVE . But where is the middle? To find out. it is not possible to identify such object points precisely with the mouse alone. and select the left side of Rect. then midpoint<cr>. You should find that the middle of the side of Rect. blue squares to indicate the crucial points of the entity). Please note that. If you state the action first. type endpoint<cr> again and select the other end of the line with the mouse.627 units from the middle of Rect. We would like the rectangle to be in the middle of the vertical rectangle on the left. however. you can keep adding (or removing) objects to act on until you are satisfied. you would type dist<cr> and then endpoint<cr> (end will also work.375. In AutoCAD 2000 you will find that using endpoint works. if you mistype dist so that the system does not understand that to be a command. A to the middle of the facing end of Rect. The three-dimensional distance between the points is 0. and it will remain highlighted until you do something to it or type control-C twice (escape key with Release 13 and AutoCAD 2000/2006) to deselect all objects. C up by 0. because we want the middles to be in line horizontally but not to be in the same place. so AutoCAD must be told to seek points on the objects. we need to change the ycoordinates but not the x. * In this case. Type dist<cr>. to ask AutoCAD to supply distances between the points in the model. and the difference in z-coordinates is 0. AutoCAD would interpret that as the end command described below . then type midpoint<cr> again.but remember that the mouse probably lets you avoid typing altogether). The distance between the two points should then be displayed by AutoCAD.375. A. but we are only concerned with the y-coordinate difference. You must be sure.that is. So. it will be highlighted (with a broken line and. if you have chosen an object. however.or z-coordinates. you will see that the difference in xcoordinates is 0. you can query AutoCAD with the command distance ( or dist)<cr>. When you would select the endpoint of a line with the mouse.

initiate the command if you have not already done so. as follows: type . as the base point. (The period before the x in that sequence indicates that you are supplying only the x-coordinate for the new location.using Control-C or the escape key twice . or vectors (the @-style locations we used before). when prompted for the new location of that point. then endpoint<cr>. and then. * We can specify those coordinates in two steps. (Be certain to type endpoint first. . you will define the new location for the base point (the "second point of displacement").C by clicking on any part of it. Another way to look at that is to realize that the lower left corner of the new rectangle should have the x-value of the lower left corner of Rect. when prompted for "<Base point or displacement>/ Multiple:. . B.with its corner aligned with the bottom of Rect. then pick the appropriate corner of Rect. B. depending on your point of view. That would accomplish the same result.) The system will indicate that you still need a y-coordinate and a z-coordinate.) You will need to be sure you have each line of Rect. For instance. A and the left side of Rect. A or C." just type <cr> to complete the command. B with the mouse. when prompted for "Second point of displacement:. (Be sure not to include any of Rect. indicate the new location of that point with the mouse.. you may select a base point at the first prompt (with coordinates from the keyboard or with the mouse or with endpoint<cr> and the mouse) and then. you will first select the item to copy.0<cr>.375. and that's not easy. type @0. The whole rectangle should be highlighted. you could first select.375 units up (. select Rect. B and the y-value of the lower right corner of Rect.in some versions of AutoCAD.* To move Rect. To copy it and put it in the correct place. and nothing at the second. You would have entered the displacement at the first prompt.and start again. COPY To place another rectangle along the bottom and to make our F into an E.. either by enclosing it in a window or by just clicking on each line making the rectangle. so you could type 0. A. Note: if you had responded with m<cr> that would have indicated that you wanted to make multiple copies . when prompted for the "Base point or displacement:. then you must deselect . * Alternatively. a corner of the figure." ("Multiple" will not be included in AutoCAD 2006) you should choose the lower left corner of Rect. * Begin by selecting Rect." you have two different options. that's the point you will position accurately.) * You know that the figure is to be moved . new points from the keyboard. and then indicate which point on the item should be used to determine its position (the "base point").x<cr>. (That's what makes using AutoCAD either interesting or infuriating. and nothing in the z direction.) * You will then be asked for the second point of displacement.375.375 units in the y direction). * Then type move<cr> and. A has also been selected. you can copy the horizontal rectangle at the top (Rect. at the second prompt. * Then type copy<cr> and. Finally. 375 unit in the y direction. since it was drawn using the line command instead of the polyline command. B. B). That would tell the system to move the object nothing in the x direction. C. B. and you want to place that new rectangle so that it fits the pattern .0<cr> and then. If you select too much so that Rect.

the system will use 90 degrees as the default. Now you could just drag to a new point. Do that. * Label the other rectangles in the same fashion. (What would have happened if you had only selected the line on the .e. (In AutoCAD 2000 you will need another carriage return. you can move them easily. and then pick the appropriate corner of Rect A. i. it will turn solid red.8x<cr> (to make the new image only 80% the size of the current image). and then do the same for the bottom right point. prompted you for the missing third coordinate.0. Now select the lines that make the top. (If you had typed . B<cr>. the system would have used those. * You will probably find that the text is too far to the right. since we have specified 0 degrees as north. When you label Rect. The system will then indicate that you still need a z-coordinate. Accept the default. Instead of typing move. But we can't quite reach all the edges of the rectangle currently.3<cr>.y<cr>. and you have a Rect. * Pick a point in the middle of rectangle B (the horizontal one at the top) with the mouse or type the coordinates. in AutoCAD parlance). and bottom of Rect. So you can also type @. D. you will want to rotate the text so that the label fits.and z-coordinates of the point then selected. since multi-line text is permitted.xy or . you can just click on the handle and drag the text to the left so that it falls entirely inside the rectangle. Type 0<cr>. The command for this is text and you will have to choose the location for the text with your mouse or with coordinates typed at the keyboard.4. Click on it and note the blue square at the left end (the handle. you should respond with the height of the text . Pick the box in the upper right corner. You should see the lines highlighted and a blue box in each corner. * You will then be prompted for height. AutoCAD calls the blue boxes handles.4 unit longer.xz. It would look better as the leg of an E if it were about . and then placed your object. D.0<cr> to move the point. We recommend . EDITING OBJECTS * The lowest horizontal rectangle should be Rect. right. D (just click on the lines with the mouse). The new figure should now be in the correct place. A. but you know that using the mouse alone for location can be dangerous. then endpoint<cr>.in drawing units. * The next prompt asks for rotation angle.and y-coordinates or the x. but it seems too short.) TEXT * The rectangles should be labeled on screen so that we can refer to them more easily.* Type . Rect. What should the rotation angle be? Type qsave<cr> to save your work. Let's change it using one of AutoCAD's easiest editing features.. * Type the text. the x. so type zoom<cr>. * Type text<cr>.

But it's only an image. END .") AutoCAD automatically appends . Other than showing you how to make a screen image.right of the rectangle? The move would only have affected that line.and then retrieved for viewing.) MSLIDE * Now save a screen image as a file for retrieval.) Fig. by typing mslide<cr> and giving the slide the same name you have used for your model file plus the character "1.The completed model after session 1. you need not save additional screen images." (For example. this is built into the tutorial in case an instructor wants to be able to check your progress easily by seeing what the screen looked like at the end of the session. If you are using the tutorial alone.sld to the file name. if your model file is named "jsmith. 2 .as an image only . (This command allows any screen image to be saved . and the rectangle would have been pulled apart." the slide file will be named "jsmith1.

* Now you need to save the file and quit. type vpoint<cr> and then type 1. B and Rect.) AutoCAD 2000/2006 does not recognize the end command. If you view them three-dimensionally. chprop.-1. vslide. they will look quite a bit different. In plan view. we put its lower left corner at the elevation (zvalue) of 0. Type end<cr>. but AutoCAD will prompt you to be sure that's what you intend. oops Begin by opening your model. under preset. . B (a 3d polyline with each corner at a different elevation). osnap. list. They are. this isometric view makes the rectangles appear to be very irregular. Later releases also have a view command that will provide access to preset views. vports. pan. and select.1<cr>. so use quit<cr> instead. zoom. undo. in the sense that the corners have different elevations. with a viewing position that will give you a 45-degree angle looking downward. but when we drew the original rectangle. Can you figure out why? When we copied Rect. You will also see that the Rect. southeast isometric. VPOINT * To obtain a view from the southeast (assuming the x axis to be the east-west axis). (Alternatively. hide. 3dface. End of Session One ******* Session Two: vpoint. of course. we put the upper left corner at 0 elevation. erase.) As you can see. you will be prompted to save the drawing file if there have been changes since the last save. pedit. D are not at the same elevation. transparent commands. using the open<cr> command or the pull-down menu. however. (If you just say quit. your work since the last save will be lost. using Release 13 or later you could use the VIEW pull-down menu. the four rectangles you have drawn seem to present simple figures.

Then type <cr>. C looks very strange because its corners are at different elevations. so some of them look as though they are in the wrong place here.and y-values when we picked the point for the text.The model seen in an isometric view . then select the lines in Rect. You will find a new window or the text screen showing the beginning and ending points of the two lines. D. Note that elevations of the points show how we changed them when we copied Rect. 3 . the area enclosed. if it is a closed polyline. it will tell you the total length of the polyline and. but correct. you can change that default . Rect. . (There is a default value for elevation.) LIST * Type list<cr>.ridiculous looking. If you type elev or elevation. (If you use list on a polyline.) To return to the drawing window. Users of AutoCAD 2000 or later will find that nearly all the same information can be found in the Properties window. B. since we could only indicate the x.Fig. and it determined the elevation of the text. that is 0 now. B and Rect. among other things. type F2. Where are the labels? They are all drawn at an elevation of 0.but please don't do that now.to let you be reassured that what you have drawn is correct .

the properties of any selected entity or entities will be shown. so you should type t<cr> and then set the new thickness to 1. you can click with the mouse in the inactive one. (If you click in the active viewport. For this set of changes . depending on your version of AutoCAD) will appear. you should now type chprop<cr> to change one or more properties of the rectangle. you will need to type vports<cr> and then 2<cr> and just <cr> (to accept splitting the screen on a vertical line). in plan view. (Note: Thickness does not mean what you would expect. type plan<cr><cr> again to return to the basic plan view. you can accomplish the same changes by using the pull-down Modify command and selecting Properties. the rectangles are still positioned as they were. and then type plan<cr><cr>. Just type pan<cr> and then (older versions) pick a point and a second point to indicate the distance and direction of the pan or (newer versions) use the hand icon to move the model around until you are happy with its location and then just <cr>.) . Experiment with this command to see how it can help you get the right part of the drawing where you want it. let's divide the drawing window into two halves . Don't worry about that variable for now. * You are going to change the thickness of the lines. if it's not the active one. A. It does not refer to the width of the line as drawn but to the height or depth of the line.VPORTS * To see that. Type vports<cr> in later versions of AutoCAD and then select two vertical view ports. A new window (which may be "docked. CHPROP * Use the viewport containing the plan view. which is shown in brackets. the system will assume that you are trying to select an object. In older versions. They can be changed in this window or with the command sequence described in the following. When you have finished. The command will always show you the complete drawing. and it is more efficient for most purposes. The active viewport (some commands will affect only the active viewport) is the one with the heavy border and the only one in which the mouse cursor is indicated by a crosshair.and any following uses of the chprop command. or you can type control-c or the escape key to interrupt the process. Then you must type another <cr> to complete the command. It should be clear how to work in this window to accomplish the changes described. * Having selected Rect. If you want to change the active viewport. (The second <cr> tells the system to accept the default UCS. you may need to click again to finish making a selection window. and select Rect.) PAN You will probably find that the figures are too close to the corner of the viewport." restricted to the right side of the AutoCAD window. so you may want to use the pan command to shift your image so that the part you are interested in lies more nearly in the center of your drawing window. users of AutoCAD 2000 or later may prefer to use the Properties window.AutoCAD calls them viewports. If you are using AutoCAD 2000 or later. A by clicking on it with the mouse. with only its width adjustable.) * Select the viewport on the right. In that case.

(But the box should hide the text.) That command shows how the model should really look with surfaces (here only thick lines). There is also a hidden command in the View. but it only works on the active viewport. 3D Wireframe command. depending on your version. Shade pull-down and fly-out menu. it is. A now have thickness (in AutoCAD's terminology). For all practical purposes. It's quicker to generate and easier to move about in than a true perspective view. Shade.) . "Rect. The lines for Rect. furthermore. a change which is visible only in the viewport with the 3D view. It now looks as if Rect. (An isometric view is a 3D view without foreshortening. so you may have to change viewports and try again. A is a box with no top or bottom. these thick lines are treated as surfaces. HIDE * To see that these thick lines are treated as surfaces. A.Observe the change in Rect. Note that the hide command can be invoked from the View pulldown menu in recent versions of AutoCAD. We will not bother with perspective views for a good while. That version of the command will make all views of the model hidden-line views until the command is countermanded by the View. switch to the isometric viewport and type hide<cr> in the command line. I don't know why." and may not. A. Notice what is hidden.

just use the toggle button. starting with any corner and working counter-clockwise. you will need to follow the command with endpoint<cr>. * Type osnap<cr> in later versions of AutoCAD or. You can't select the top corners. you must make an explicit surface. If you have made a choice and want to change it.) 3DFACE * To make the new top surface. using the 3dface command. But the text may still show in some versions! If your figure does not look correct. look in the View pull-down menu for the hide command.) In older versions. type 3dface<cr> and then pick the four top corners of the box with the mouse.endpoint. Look in the manual to see what the other possibilities are and to see how else to turn the object-snap function on and off. but the use of more than four points is tricky. midpoint. (The button is an on/off toggle unless you have made no choices for what kind of point should be selected. 4 . If it does not work for you. the system may choose the existing point rather than making a new one even if you're typing the coordinates of a new one. difficulties can arise. * Type hide<cr> again to see the results. * Since we've finished drawing the 3D face. do not select the first point as first and last point. when you're going to do so several times). If you have made no choice. did you use endpoint when you made the top of the box? If not. you can tell the system that all mouse clicks are intended to find the end of the nearest line (easier than typing endpoint before selecting the point. as opposed to the bottom ones. as we did before. (A 3dface may have more than four corners.Fig. If a new point is to be very close to an existing one. You can turn the object snap off by typing osnap<cr> and then off<cr>. OSNAP The only surfaces we have made so far are on the sides of a hollow box. Since you are going to use only existing points in the model to make this surface. To give the box a top. if we don't.and have the cursor snap to it.The split viewport with hidden-line isometric view on the left and plan view on the right. and the hidden line drawing looks a bit different.) Hit the <cr> after selecting the fourth point and again to finish the figure. as mentioned above. (Be sure to work on the 3D view. (Using the object snap can cause problems when you're trying to pick a point close to another. (Some people have reported problems with this command. right-click the osnap button and the dialog box can be invoked by choosing settings. we need to turn off the requirement that the system find the ends of lines. with later versions. So type osnap<cr> and then off<cr> or use the toggle button. in the plan view. This seems to have been remedied in recent versions of AutoCAD. select the button at the bottom of the screen and then check the endpoint choice. etc. a dialog box will pop up for you to make one.) Now the hollow box has a lid.) Now AutoCAD will try to find the nearest end of a line any time you specify a point with the mouse. . Rect. the corners will not be in the right place. A. but experience suggests caution nevertheless. So it can be dangerous to work with the object snap on all the time. . this command simply allows you to select a standard part of an object . (Osnap stands for object snap. easier still. Check your manual.

If layer 0 has been frozen. each line is independent and must be given a new thickness independently. you would find that. let's make the lines for Rect.* This is a good time to save your work. B and the top edge of Rect. If layer 0 is turned off but not frozen. after typing endpoint<cr>. They can have a different elevation for each vertex. there would still be two viewports. was made of a polyline.1. . * Type hide<cr> again to see the results of adding these new surfaces. on the other hand. Using that information. y=5. type id<cr> and then. Rect. CHPROP (again) * Since we've seen that thick lines make good surfaces. but it can be confusing with a shape like this.5. Now change the thickness to 1 (the command is chprop. So there are now 3D polylines that are different. Why? Because each rectangle was constructed of lines. That would not work. there should be no problem.but this is the place to use the Properties window if you are using AutoCAD 2000). Polylines can be moved. and the entire polyline is one entity. in AutoCAD 2006. (If you were to quit now. D thick as well. The first corner will be at 3. The system should respond with x=3. they have not been tested. * Using either viewport (the 3D viewport is often best with complex shapes. select the northwest corner of Rect. However. You will need to work in the 3D viewport to make the 3dface. select the top edge of Rect. however. To do that. C. z=0. Only part of each rectangle has thick lines. C. Type qsave<cr>. the program will not find the endpoint. there is a serious potential problem of which you should be aware. add explicit surfaces (3D faces) to the basic rectangle with the 3dface command. One of the advantages of using a polyline is that it can be treated as a single entity. That's why you weren't asked to give thickness to Rect. C. we can define where the corners of our 3D face must be in order to make another box with sides one unit high. rotated. using osnap<cr> to attach to any point on a 3dface or a polyface mesh will not work.000. A.000 (1 unit above the corner we just located). I cannot be sure about other versions since AutoCAD 2000.800. We can. find the coordinates of the northwest corner of Rect.800. not a window). if you are working with a 3dface or a polyface mesh and wish to use the osnap<cr> feature (either implicitly by toggling the feature on or explicitly by typing endpoint<cr>). so the entire polyline was made thicker when we selected one side of the rectangle.375. remember? -. But "normal" polylines (now officially called light-weight polylines or lwpolylines) cannot have different elevations at different vertices. Using the plan view viewport. PROBLEM WITH AUTOCAD 2006. D (using the direct click method. are multiple entities. when you start up again. Now select the other sides of the two rectangles and make them 1 unit thick. lines with multiple segments. one that has different elevations at the corners so I recommend the plan view here). colored. 3D polylines cannot have thickness. and altered in other ways with a single selection. B and Rect.375. * Now click on the other viewport and type redraw<cr>. However. though. so be sure you understand the figure and then select the 3D viewport. lines cannot.

so you needn't keep typing 3dface again and again. C. (With older versions of AutoCAD. remember to type z<cr>p<cr> (for zoom previous) when you finish. * Now change to the plan viewport and draw another polyline ( pline command) * From point 9. If so. This is one of those figures that will cause problems. * Then. The coordinates of the vertices.5. if you start with the correct corner. you used the command 'z to zoom in the midst of a pline creation.5x<cr> to make it smaller. but they can also be crucial ways of letting you see the appropriate part of a model while you are making a new figure. and then <cr> again to finish choosing objects. Now. don't try to use the osnap command to avoid having to type endpoint over and over again. You may need to use the command more than once. type @0. * For the fourth point.0. Transparent Commands The pan and zoom commands are valuable viewing aids. you can be in the middle of making the entity when you realize that you need to pan or zoom. and here type arc<cr> (a<cr> would do) * and then 9. That's called a transparent zoom (I don't know why they call it that either). for the end of the arc.375.) But be sure to use endpoint!) You may want to zoom in on the figure before trying to draw all these faces. * Then enter the coordinates of the first point of the new surface. for last object drawn. you should be able to make another 3D face for each of the other sides of Rect. Note. * For the third point. for the second point. type 3dface<cr>.* So. type endpoint<cr> and pick the southwest corner.0. PAN.9. * Type close<cr> (or cl<cr>) to close the polyline. LIST * Now use the list command. and the size of the area enclosed by the polyline will be displayed. of course. the others have only sides.0 * To 1. 3.1<cr>. Sometimes. and you will see no real differences between the thick lines and the 3D faces. You will need another <cr> to complete the command.0 * To 1. In an earlier lesson.9. that only rectangle A has a top. so type zoom<cr> . type endpoint<cr> and pick the northwest corner of Rect. type list<cr> and then l<cr>. C without knowing any coordinates but knowing that the last point will always be 1 unit above the third one.1<cr> (to place the last point is 1 unit above the third one). You could also use the zoom<cr>e<cr> command to zoom to the extents of the current model. (Remember that typing <cr> will invoke the last command. however. you can also . then type pan<cr> and use the mouse to get the model where you want it.8. though. * Type hide<cr> again. ZOOM & PAN * In the plan view you may not be able to see the entire new polyline. ZOOM. the perimeter.

D.1<cr>. Type x<cr> twice and you will have finished the command. type mid<cr> (for middle) and select the line that makes the bottom of Rect. The vertex should move up one unit. So type a <cr> to undo the editing of the polyline. the prompt stretch to point .the point.) PEDIT * You can edit a polyline in two ways. * Type e<cr> (edit vertex) * and then type i<cr> (for insert). The handles are the little blue boxes at the vertices. * To move the southwest vertex of the last-drawn polyline. Now type p<cr> (for previous point) and keep doing that until you get back to the first point.stretch . ERASE. OOPS *Since we don't want the point you just inserted to remain in the model. . * To locate the point. typing 'help<cr> or '?<cr> will not only bring up the help screen. You typed the coordinates to indicate how far to move . The number you type will be taken to be the number of command operations to undo. it will be the point after the first one in the polyline (assuming you did not move to another point before starting to insert the new point). make sure osnap is off if you are using an older version of AutoCAD. Note that you can use the help command in this way. The easiest way is to click on it so that the "handles" show. *You can also add a new vertex to a polyline with the pedit command. (The polyline will not be highlighted.) * Type e<cr> (edit vertex) * and then keep typing n<cr> (for next point) until you have reached the last point in the polyline. you can select any point to change. There were some other possibilities that we will ignore for now. (If it does not. panning in the midst of another process. . You should now select the location of the point you want to insert.many commands but not all . showed in the command prompt area. Now type @0. You will be prompted for a response. but the editing possibilities will show at the command line.1<cr>. type undo<cr>. in fact. Typing <cr> will be taken to indicate the last command only (equivalent to 1). it will display the section pertaining to the command in progress. Check the manual to see what other commands can be used in this way. UNDO.use 'p to do a transparent pan. Your new point will be in the middle of that line.) When you first clicked on the handle to make it solid. (The apostrophe before a command .indicates to the system that it can interrupt the current process to perform the command and then return to finish the current process. * Type m<cr> (for move) and type@0. with number being the default. Using this system. Type pedit<cr> and then select the polyline with the mouse. . click on the handle so that it is solidfilled. * The other way to edit a polyline is to type pedit<cr> and then select the polyline with the mouse. * Type x<cr> twice and you will have finished the command.

* To erase the polyline. Time to stop. and it applies only to a small group of commands. The resulting slides can only be seen within AutoCAD. including erase. then give your slide a name. You may not want to make a slide of your current work. because each viewport must be treated independently. because it is intended only to change the last command. Now return to a single viewport using the vports command. either type erase<cr> and select the polyline. type mslide<cr>. but they could provide useful markers for a work in progress. Select one viewport. or select the polyline and type erase<cr>. Erase the polyline using one of the methods just described. . you have changed your mind * so type oops<cr>. however. Make sure you have a plan view showing. Undo is a far more flexible command. Save your work by typing qsave<cr>. You will need two slides. Oops differs from undo. Then switch viewports and repeat the process. Having done that.

the images will be reduced in size. End of Session Two ******* Session Three: 3dface (again). layer.Fig. B.) Type end<cr> or quit<cr>. union. extend. (From this point on.The model at the end of the second session. Use the hide command to be sure you have the top in the correct spot. extrude. . shade. rotate. ddlmodes. Be sure to use the endpoint command to put the corners in the correct spots. trim Open your model again. subtract. copy (again). 5 . 3DFACE (again) * Make a 3dface on the top of Rect. zoom. (solmesh). perp.

A layer that is frozen. though a simple model need not be. No layer need be above or below another. All the pieces together make up the model.LAYERS CAD models become very complex. each is simply a portion of the model. To deal with such complexity. A layer that is off (but thawed) does not show on screen (or in a printout). . and the way we construct our names will turn out to be very important. and type <cr> <cr> to exit the command. You need to be able to show the parts you want when you want to see them. locked/unlocked. so be sure to type correctly. we'll add a VR later). called layers in AutoCAD and many other CAD programs. on the other hand. A complex model really must be divided into multiple layers in order to be effectively used. but not all have to be used -. So the pieces that make up a particular phase of a building can be used at one time.lines. . it becomes the current one. As you can imagine. Each item we have drawn thus far will stay on layer 0 until we explicitly move it to another layer. the only layer is the one called layer 0. You will see that the box in the upper left now has VL in it. there are many other reasons to separate pieces of a model from one another. the result would be very confusing. for instance. Left.) Even though our model is not really that complex. or conceptual.at the same time. and the pieces that make another phase can be used at another time. CAD programs permit you to divide the model into pieces. layers have no necessary physical relationship to one another. chronological. others not. so frozen layers help models to be dealt with more quickly. surfaces. Imagine. and plot styles assigned to the entities placed on them. If you show all the parts. lintetypes. but it is held in the RAM dataset for the model while you work on it. a model of a building with a complicated history of additions and alterations. Some of the pieces will be common to both phases. is not held in RAM. Others must be explicitly made. When you make a new layer with that process. more than one of which existed in the same place at different times. They can also have specific colors. The pieces. (You will see a 0 displayed in the appropriate place to indicate the current layer.which have something in common. Make the name of the new layer VL (for Vertical rectangle. can be frozen/thawed. (You can find out what layer anything is on with the List command or by looking in the properties window. the place differs with different versions of AutoCAD. We will name them. Although these different pieces of CAD models are called layers. let's create some other layers so that we can begin to divide up the entities in the model. Each layer contains drawing entities . When a new AutoCAD file is opened.shown on screen or on paper -. We can create any number of layers. and they can be named or numbered. on/off. meaning that any new model entities will be placed on that layer. circles. So we have been drawing everything on layer 0. VL is the current layer now instead of layer 0. lineweights. etc. They may be physical.) Type layer<cr> (-layer<cr> if you are using Release 14 or AutoCAD 2000/2006) and then m<cr> to make a new layer.

You should also note that some work with layers can be done via the layer pull-down tool bar if you are using a recent version of AutoCAD.EXP<cr> to make eight new layers at once. Or use one of the other methods for later versions of AutoCAD. Type HT. and HB for horizontal rectangle at the bottom. type vports<cr> and then si<cr> or choose single viewport in the AutoCAD 2000/2006 dialog box (for single viewport. Although we may use upper. * Select Rect. but I would recommend that you make yourself familiar with the command line approach.If you are using AutoCAD R14 or later. you may use either command. you should type layer<cr> if you are using a version of AutoCAD prior to Release 14. Fortunately. type plan<cr><cr>. You should check to see see what you can change there. the new layer will not be the current one. * Now type layer<cr> (-layer<cr> if you are using Release 14 or AutoCAD 2000/2006) again. Note that if you had the 3D view in the active viewport.HB. As you can tell. you now have a 3D view only. AutoCAD's handling of layer names is not case-sensitive. you can learn what the commands do by letting your mouse hover over an icon until its function shows. then type chprop<cr>. Just select an entity and then choose its new layer from the drop-down list.HBT. not theirs) is the icon for making a new layer. AutoCAD 2000/2006 users may accomplish the same task via the Modify -> Properties window. though I've certainly tried it often enough). in my view. "1" won't work in the command line. The dialog box brought up by the layer command is now full of icons that. The odd "star over the manger" (my description. using the names in this way will make it relatively easy to know what is on each layer. A layer named VR can be found with VR.HM. * Now let's put the model entities on different layers rather than leaving them on layer 0 where they are.) One last general comment about layer names. HT for horizontal rectangle at the top of the drawing.and lower-case letters. * Type la<cr> to indicate that you want to change the layer for everything selected. * Then give the system the new layer name. Vr. You will see a dialog box that permits you to do the things we have been doing. Using this process. AutoCAD 2006 has some important differences in the layer dialog box. but this time follow with n<cr> to make new layers. try the layer command without the beginning hyphen. are quite obscure. the changes will be lost. when the instructions ask you to type -layer<cr>. oddly enough. (Note that you could not put any spaces in that sequence. please understand that. From this point on. just closing it will not suffice.) You can add several new layers at once with the new command but not the make command. Other tasks are easier to do by typing at the command line. From here on. Since it will be easier if you work in the plan view. Some of these tasks are easier with the dialog box. vr. A.VLT. HM for horizontal rectangle in the middle. or vR. Follow the same process for the other rectangles. . Layer 0 will remain (note the check mark.HTT. the Layers drop-down list works for AutoCAD 2000/2006 as well. If so. VL<cr> and then another <cr> to complete the task.HMT. using the appropriate layer name for each. but you must be sure to click ok to exit the dialog box. Otherwise. because it can be much more efficient for turning layers on and off in groups. You need to use the chprop command again.

that will not work in older versions. however. Any selections you make then . Let's start with the basics. In the newer versions. and the command will be carried out. B on the correct layer with the rest of the figure. you start on the right and move left. typing r<cr> (for remove) will tell the system that your new selections are to be removed from the selection set. For any command that needs a selection set. You also know that you can select something by using a window. copying. you can state the process and then select the items to be processed (verb-noun) or do the reverse. and that will remove the item (or windowed group) from the selection set if it has been selected in error . etc. though. If. you can automatically choose the items in your last selection set . can still be added to or reduced before the command is initiated. so it's time to talk more seriously about how to select entities for editing. If you make a selection window by starting on the left and moving to the right. and the selection set can be augmented or reduced rather easily until you have everything you want . and the removal process will continue until you type a<cr> (for add) to return to the process of adding items to the selection set. One last comment while we're on this subject. only objects entirely contained in the window will be selected.) Earlier we talked about the difference between noun-verb commands and verb-noun commands. as noted above. That makes it possible for you to select objects much more effectively. But the window is more powerful and flexible than you probably realize. You can simply use the shift key as you select to add something new or remove something already in the set. The advantage of using the verb-noun system is that AutoCAD has offered a number of ways to create a selection set. (Make sure you get the top of Rect. If you recall. you just type <cr>. This process will work with any version of AutoCAD. The items selected are called a selection set. If you start with the object selection. on the other hand. select the items and then name the process (noun-verb). just as if the items had been selected with a window or direct selection method. There is also a selection system called a fence.and are ready to initiate the process. You can also use a free-form polygon to select all objects inside it or a free-form crossing polygon to select all objects even partially within it. you can hold down the shift key while making a selection. These ways of dealing with selection sets work in all versions of the program.and nothing more than you want . If you are selecting after stating the command (verb-noun process). though. You may need to read the following to be sure.if you are using the verb-noun system by typing p<cr> (for previous) when prompted to select an object. You know how to select something.or add it if it is not yet in the selection set . When you are satisfied that you have the correct items in your selection set. .a familiar practice today. You can remove objects from the selection set as easily as you add them. a free-form polygon that selects all objects the edge of the polygon passes through. you can't use all these helpful tools in older versions of AutoCAD.Now you will find some difficulty selecting the rectangle you want. any object even partially included in the window will be selected.will be removed from the selection set. Just click on it. once you have selected some objects. That selection set. moving.with a direct choice or with a window .

"Rect. which is still highlighted? * Type r<cr> (for remove) and select the edge of the top surface again. Otherwise. The layer name is the same as the name for the rectangle. because I don't know how you drew the selection window when you were changing layers for the rectangles.) * Now let's type chprop<cr> and try to select the north side of the box we made out of Rect. (If you don't know what layer the polyline is on. moving the surface to layer EXP. and so on. (You could also hold down the shift key while picking the top surface. but also prepare the system for finding others that share the line.-1. you can type z<cr> (for zoom) and l<cr> (for last) to go to your last view. not the side surface.holding down the control key when picking the first item will make AutoCAD choose one object. it should still be on layer 0. The easy window would be one made from right to left. A (the vertical surface on the north side of the box).) When you have finished moving the polyline to layer EXP. What layer is the polyline that we drew last time on now? I can't tell you. That would also remove it from the selection set. too. * So now you can click on the other edge of the side of the box to select it as well.1 to define an isometric view provides the angle defined by a line from the point 1.1<cr> to recreate the 3D view. type vpoint<cr> and then 1. If you used the system we just discussed. just touching a piece of the polyline and nothing else. the top of the box is a 3D face.) It is often a . but we see them both as surfaces) include the edge you selected. you can't see the surfaces. * Use the chprop command to change the layer to EXP.0. with the T appended. A" and change its layer to VLT. and continuing the process will get the system to cycle through all the objects there so that you can select the one you need. Once again. the list command can be used.) * Now you can continue the command. Change the label. users of AutoCAD 20002006 may use the Modify -> Properties dialog box or the Layers drop-down list instead of the chprop command.0. B by clicking on its upper edge. * Let's put the polyline on layer EXP. so select the text "Rect. * If your last view in this viewport was the 3D view. in this case the top of the box. In the current plan view. AutoCAD will choose the last one drawn. We will put it on layer EXP. the last one drawn. You can select it by clicking on it with the mouse or by using a window. B" to HTT. What is highlighted? It should be the top surface of the box. When you pick such an edge or line that exists in two entities.-1.1 to 0. That will remove the top surface from your selection set.-1.* We want the text items to be on separate layers. Picking again will make AutoCAD select the next oldest object sharing the line. and you will have only the side surface selected. It's probably easier to do. try to change the layer for the north side of Rect. Why? Both surfaces (actually the side is a thick line. (Using the coordinates 1. it's a newer feature. (From Release 13 on there is a new way to deal with the problem of always picking the last item drawn . But what do you do about the top. so you must return to a 3D view.

* Type -la<cr>. That will thaw all layers. and HB as the layer name. La will be used from here on in place of layer. including none. the last of which is a T (the ? is a wild-card character. so both HB and HBT will be frozen.good idea to use a different color for each layer (until you run out of colors) so that you can tell the items on different layers apart. is one of those tasks for which you will find the -layer command-line approach is much quicker than using the dialog box. Note that the Layers drop-down list can also be used to turn layers on/off or to thaw/freeze them. then b<cr> for blue. and HB as the layer name. Note that Rect. The rectangle and the label will be gone. *<cr>.) * Type -la<cr>. and <cr> to end the command. and <cr> to end the command. so two question marks indicate any two characters). and then ??T as the layer name.either as la or as -la will stand/in for the whole word layer. even in the space occupied by Rect. w for white. select that box. Then press the <cr> to end the command. so it will make white the color for all entities on layers with two characters followed by a T. Then exit the command. t<cr> (thaw). * Before you exit the command. so the north side of our box on Rect. Now each layer has its own color. then VL<cr> as the name of the layer to make blue. D. giving each of our layers a different color (use r [red] for HT. y [yellow] for HB. * Type chprop<cr>. AutoCAD will understand that the command should be applied to all layers with three characters. and finish the command. Indeed.) It should have been mentioned earlier that la . and Rect. * Type -la<cr>. and m [magenta] for EXP). So type -la<cr>. Now let's suppress the material on layer HB. then you can either exit the command or. f<cr> (freeze). That will freeze all layers beginning with HB. change the color for all the layers that have text on them to white (which will display as white on a black screen or black on a white one) by typing c<cr> for changing color. HB*<cr>. "Rect. . (This last command. then c<cr> (for color). D would not be affected. f<cr> (for freeze). indicating to the system that any character in that spot will do. D is now gone . You're back where you were. the rectangle will reappear. (The asterisk is another wild-card character. since the asterisk indicates that any characters fit the pattern. D. Then press the <cr> to end the command. repeat the color changes. better yet. having layer HB not showing while the label.or at least it should be! You could use the hide command or draw more objects. When you thaw the layer again. g [green] for HM. t<cr> (thaw). but it indicates any number of unspecified characters. B is the wrong color. * So type -layer<cr> again." was still showing seemed silly. We should put it back on the correct layer. changing the colors of several layers at once.

and put it on the right side of Rect. A .) . I put the copy at the right edge of Rect. and used the text command to make the label. E. but most of the rectangle is well above that elevation. C still shows. COPY (again) * I want you to make a copy of the box called Rect. VR and VRT. data in Release 13. Then I used the distance command to find out how far apart rectangles A and D are and moved the new rectangle that much to the right .1<cr> to get our isometric view back again. unlike DOS or UNIX. and we'll put it on a new layer called VR. SHADE You have used the hide command. I started by copying Rect. just as far to the right of Rect. and to make cyan the color of layer VR.moving it only in the x-direction. By comparison. If your current view is not our isometric one. but. with a label on layer VRT. the layer command alone in Release 14 or AutoCAD 2000 will bring up the dialog box in those versions of AutoCAD. return to our isometric view and shade the drawing.the basic rectangle without its top . so it does not hide the text. It's time to save your work. You can click on the layer push-button to get a dialog box that will let you make the same adjustments to layers (Release 13 only). That dialog box can also be brought up with the command ddlmodes or by using the pull-down menu called settings in Release 12. I placed the rectangle using the corners of Rect. Notice that only the text for Rect. We will call it Rect. A and D to determine the x. You should be able to do all that without instructions. D. but it won't be easy.) * Type shade<cr>. set the current layer to VRT.) As already mentioned. Now try shade instead. (vpoint <cr>1. Using all the possibilities for specifying layers in groups makes it very easy to manipulate layers using typed commands. The surfaces are now solid-filled with the colors of the outlines. I used the layer command to make two new layers. I returned to plan view. A in the isometric view where I could distinguish between the rectangle and the top. using only the distance between objects in the x-direction. A is to its left. Then I used the Layers drop-down list to put the new rectangle on layer VR. AutoCAD will also let you search for characters after an asterisk. rotating it as we did with the label for Rect. for instance. DDLMODES Ignore this and move on to SHADE unless you are working with a really old version of AutoCAD. D as Rect. So.Using wild cards in layer names is very much like a DOS or UNIX search. the character string *P would work to indicate our layer EXP (any number of unspecified characters followed by a P). Finally. D. A.-1.and y-coordinates. (Commands with dd at the beginning all open dialog boxes. It shows because the text is at an elevation of 0. it takes several steps to accomplish the same processes if you use the dialog box that is next on our list of topics. This is a good way to see that you really have surfaces where you need them. (Here's how I did it. Make the color of layer VR cyan.

but it isn't. * Select Rect. but both were actually correct. AutoCAD does not produce a line where two surfaces intersect. return to the isometric view. and the system understands that it is a solid object. (Use chprop. You may need to regen first.EXTRUDE * If you did what I did and changed to the plan view. and many calculations can be performed to determine properties of a solid object with the shape of this figure. See what happens if you use shade instead. not simply a collection of surfaces. * Type extrude<cr>. the new figure will be on the current layer. Try hide and shade to see how it looks. E again. but please do it now if you are using Release 12. (Be sure to use the endpoint sub-command to pick the points and to close the polyline. * Let's put a truncated pyramid atop the box you just made. . It can be given mass and volume.org to let us know that. Change the thickness to 0. Note the effect of the lid we put on Rect. B.) * Type extrude<cr> and then type l<cr> (last) to select the polyline.) Now give a height of 1 and a taper angle of 0. Rect. remember?) It is now only a rectangle again. E now looks as it did before. but it is more complex. rotate<cr> and select the point about which it will be rotated.) * Type hide<cr> to see how this looks. Before you make this figure. in the hidden line drawing. E. Issue the command. * Let's undo the rotation. * Select it. And if you are using Release 12 to learn now. When you extrude a figure. You must issue the command solmesh and select the solid in order to add surfaces to the solid block if you are using Release 12. First make a polyline around the top of the box. (Unfortunately.) Then rotate it again using an angle of -60 degrees. (You can probably use zoom-previous. (Use the solmesh command on this figure if you are using Release 12. (It is the last entity drawn. choose the nw corner of the base of the pyramid. That is not necessary if you are using Release 13 or later. Now you will see that your 3D view seems wrong. Note also that. The new figure has a top and a bottom. the solid object has no surfaces if you are working with Release 12. and select Rect.) ROTATE * Now let's move the the truncated pyramid by rotating it. be sure you are on layer VR. please send an email to nicke@csanet. this figure is quite different from a series of surfaces. That looks better. That is an important distinction. (This command does not work as a noun-verb command. Then enter the rotation angle of -45 degrees (counter-clockwise).) Extrude it for 1 unit with a taper of -15 degrees. (Don't forget to regenerate the image if your view is a shaded or hidden-line one. even though the figure already exists on a specific layer.

Then <cr> again to complete the command. The appearance is not different. change them to layer Solids. and put the truncated pyramid on that layer.1 (SE viewpoint).0. each copy will be on the same layer as the original. Since these are digital copies and are truly identical. we want both the new solids to be on a layer named Solids.625. The same items on different layers and in the same locations. SUBTRACT *Subtract the resulting cylinder from the larger solid surrounding it. (Use one layer command to set Solids as the current layer and to freeze all layers.) Then use a 3D view with coordinates 1. which will not actually freeze Solids because it is the current layer. you can't copy directly to a new layer. This should be very simple. but we can still copy both of them with one command. so freeze all layers except Solids. we have the effect we want. Now issue the chprop<cr> command and the p<cr> to select the previous selection set (the two solids that we copied). as it's just a 2D command. They will become one.) Now rotate the pyramid so that it is properly aligned with the rectangle. We are now going to do some additional experimentation with the solids.3). So first create a new layer named Solids (and make it blue). CIRCLE * Now we will make a circle at 7. Rect. This process actually moved the originals to the Solids layer and left the copies on the starting layers. Instead. Let's try it for the two solids we have drawn. Trash. The subcommand asking for radius or diameter can seem confusing. however. Enter 0. Simply enter union<cr> and select the two entities. Type circle<cr> (c is actually sufficient) and then provide the location for the center of the circle and the radius (. as above. When we do so. They are on different layers (VR and Trash). Now extrude the circle 3 units. COPY an entity to a new layer Copying an entity and putting it onto a new layer is a two-step process.-1. That will create copies in the same place as the originals. You will be prompted for the base point or displacement.5. but they are now a single item in the model and will be treated as one. (Rotate and use the diagonal as your reference points. Finally. it permits you to enter the radius or to type a d<cr> to indicate that you will enter the diameter instead. the box and the pyramid. You should be able to do that without further instruction.Now create a new layer. UNION *Let's make one entity of the two.0.0<cr>. . E and the pyramid. Now select both the entities and issue the command copy<cr>.

To make a hole in the solid. for solid subtract on some earlier versions of AutoCAD) and select the entity from which another will be subtracted.as a text file . solids are difficult to edit when they have been finished. which are not terribly clear in line drawings. Doing so will test both your patience and your understanding of three-dimensional geometry.) We will not return to the modeling of solid objects. Furthermore. Making solids can therefore be very time-consuming and frustrating. Solids are constructed via this process of adding and subtracting solid entities to/from one another. Then type <cr> and select the cylinder so that it will be subtracted from the larger solid. You should have some sense of a hole through the object. Finish the command to see the results. a record of the process . Try shade<cr> and things are only a little better. Type subtract<cr> (the command was solsub. Note that the cylinder was taller than the solid. it is recommended that.Almost" at http://csanet. approach the work systematically.-1. we constructed the cylinder. As a result.be retained so that it can be edited and re-used to correct errors.html. for complex solids. When you find it necessary to make solid objects.org/newsletter/winter05/nlw0506. but it is difficult to model complex solids. but that had no impact on our results. (See "Parametric Modeling in AutoCAD -. and make sure you understand the real-world object before you try to make a model of it. .2. So change the viewpoint (vpoint) to 1. and we will now remove the cylinder with the subtract command.

especially the feature called dynamic zoom. that is. previous. and Freeze the layer Solids.extents. you can specify the window corners with the mouse or with typed coordinates. Your line only extended to the first crossing point on the polyline. EXTEND * Make a new line from 10. allows you to pick a window showing the area to be enlarged. vmax gives you the largest magnification possible without a regeneration of the image. with the center of the window remaining in the middle as the image gets larger or smaller. Note that both line segments are perpendicular to the earlier polyline. up to the limits. Return to the plan view. ZOOM . Sometimes you need to make a line perpendicular to another but can't know the exact numbers to make it work.2 and again type perp<cr> and select the polyline on layer EXP. Finish the command. but if you do the process again. There are several choices in the zoom submenu. Xscale Your lines may not show fully. including empty space. In the latest version of AutoCAD.0 to 10. * Type <cr> to indicate that you have no more boundary lines to locate. type z<cr> (zoom) and then . The perp command makes it easy. Then type perp<cr> and select the polyline we drew earlier on layer EXP. the line will extend to the next crossing point. extents gives you all the drawn objects and no unnecessary empty space.The solid just constructed at an angle showing the hole passing through it. With later versions of AutoCAD there are other options. Make sure you try the right-click to switch between dynamic zoom and pan and that you understand how to terminate the command. the scroll wheel will also zoom for you.Fig. Don't exit the command but select the line to be extended again.2. a number gives you a magnification relative to the zoom-all view. 6 .5. Type extend<cr> and then select the polyline as the boundary. . * You can extend the new line to meet the polyline you just drew. of course. Zoom-window. (That should be a white or black line.). * Draw a polyline starting at 12. a number with an x (as we just did) gives you a magnification relative to the current view. Make the next point 12. then select the last line you drew as the one to be extended. and your line will make it to the last crossing point.5. set the current layer to EXP.0 on layer EXP (and keep using that layer throughout this section). we did not give the layer an explicit color. You should experiment with them. PERP Thaw all layers except Trash. without going back to the file and starting afresh. vmax.5x<cr> to indicate that you want to zoom to half the scale of your current view.0. all gives you the entire model.8. previous gives you the last view.2. all.

Then end the command with the two ends of the line still in place but the middle section gone. Time to save again. Make a slide of your model again. Next select the line to be trimmed . select the line and make the new copy pass through the first point of the polyline. * Put the polyline and your two parallel lines on the layer Trash. Keep undoing and reselecting until you are comfortable that you know what to expect when you select a part of a line.) .but where? Try the end that you extended. Then quit. * Type copy<cr>. Then type u<cr> and try the middle section of the line. because that layer is frozen. so we don't need to save again. You will note that they disappear. Then select the polyline as the trimming or cutting line and hit <cr> (gently!) to indicate that you've finished selecting trimming lines. TRIM * Trim the original line you extended by typing trim<cr>. (Making the slide did not change the model. Then make the second point of displacement at the first point of the polyline. make the "base point" of your copy at the first intersection of the line and the polyline (use intersection as you have been using endpoint.Now make a line that is parallel to the line you've extended. To do that.

an isometric. it is possible to specify the grid spacing. GRID * Type grid<cr> and on<cr> or select the appropriate box at the bottom of the screen (more recent versions). snap. You should see small dots indicating the corners of one-unit squares. . Note that layer Solids has been frozon. 3D wireframe view in the left viewport and a plan. so the solid entity does not shows here. shaded view in the right viewport. 7 . using two viewports. ortho. End of Session Three ******* Session Four: grid. but one-unit squares is the default. plot.The model at the end of the third session. Make sure you have a plan view. move and rotate with reference angle Open your model again.Fig. tablet.

* Now turn off the grid and the snap requirement.) Put the new polyline on the layer Trash. you can force the system to choose only points on the grid.1 to 3.or. here again. To use the grid and snap features. Type ortho<cr> and select on<cr>. so VL will still be on.Note that this grid is an on-screen grid only. LAYERS (again) The importance of layer can't be overstated. and that may seem pointless. but you still can specify a point not on the grid with the keyboard. (Control-O serves as a "toggle" switch. The cursor will now snap to the grid corners. Draw a few lines to see how this works. Type snap<cr> and choose on<cr> . more or less in the center.6. but it's easier to use the ortho command. Let's try a couple of layer manipulations to see how we can use the layers creatively. (If you haven't noticed before. Freeze all others (type -la<cr>f<cr>* <cr> and then <cr> again to complete the command. Thaw layers H? (layers with two letters. They will be the same if you set the grid spacing to 0. if you have set them.) Save your work. Make your current layer VL. Make sure you have a plan view. that tells the system to set the grid spacing to equal the snap spacing. But if you want the grid and snap spacing to be different. ORTHO * This might seem a good way to draw a horizontal or vertical line. but the system will not freeze the current layer. the grid will cover the area defined by the limits. now use the mouse to draw a polyline (staying on layer EXP from 1. You can also choose snap as a choice in the sub-menu after typing grid. and your snap spacing to a different number.4 to 5. You will have instructed the system to freeze all layers. then set the grid spacing to any number except 0.4 to -5. You can determine the size of the grid and the configuration of the snap points independently. the grid will only cover a small portion of the model. If you type it. Type grid<cr> off<cr> and then snap<cr> off<cr>.) SNAP * With the grid turned on. showing the vertical rectangle (A) without the label. all lines drawn with the mouse or a digitizer will be horizontal or vertical. the coordinates of the current cursor location show in the box at the top of the model. (If you have not set the limits. . select the appropriate box at the bottom of the screen if you are using a more recent version. the first of which is an H. it will turn on or off the ortho mode. it will not print out. You have something the shape of an E.

If you need to pan. it causes an error.) If all is set correctly. the Windows system printer will work. (This process will be slightly different with various versions of AutoCAD.check the math to be sure you understand that. you can ignore many of them. make the drawing. If it doesn't. Select mm. . make sure that there is no check mark in the plot-to-file box. so. At least in my version of AutoCAD. There is a place where you can indicate whether your drawing is to be measured in mm. For more information about layers and naming them. PLOT Skip this if you don't have a plotter attached to your system. First. see the CSA Web document.) * Measure the rectangle on your drawing. You may need help from someone to set up your plotter and to make sure the paper and pens are properly installed. (I often get an error message telling me that the drawing won't fit on the paper. may not be measured so accurately. and then type plot<cr> again. stop the plot process. You will see two boxes. You have specified the part of the model to be drawn. Plotting is a difficult area. and calculate the size of the rectangle. on paper (plotted) equals 1 drawing unit in the model. as a result. making the window only as large as necessary to include that rectangle. (Don't use the transparent pan command on your model while trying to specify the window. start over with the window specification. first set the current layer to VL. Apply the scale factor. (The window check-box may automatically be checked.Freeze layer HB. Forget how to get the size of the rectangle in the model? Use dist and endpoint to get the measurements. You should be able to say that 40 mm. Make certain that the area you outlined will fit on the paper. (That may be hard to find if you are using AutoCAD 2000/2006. The system for doing so is odd. but it should be easy to figure out the requirements. then freeze all other layers. that means a scale of 1:25 .) * Now you must specify the scale of the drawing. if you get the same message. do a regular pan. so you will need to spend time with the manual to learn many of the intricacies. Compare that to the model. A. you will get a dialog box with many choices. or inches. I think you will find that the long side came out to be a round number (6 meters) and.or simply a selection button for each. Note that there are two tabs in the dialog box that pops up in AutoCAD 2000 but not 2006. (Assuming that our drawing units are meters. try going ahead with the drawing. * Select full preview and then ask for a preview. If you are using a recent version. You need to fill in the boxes with the appropriate numbers. For now. but the shorter side of the rectangle. but it is usually a spurious message.) * Then select the window push button so that you can specify the window to be plotted by outlining a window on your model with the rodent. * To make your first paper drawing. CSA Layer Naming Convention. and one for drawing units.) Select the pick choice and make a window around Rect. Freeze layer HT and thaw VR.) There are checkboxes for full or partial previews . not being a round number. This process may also be different in various versions. was measured more or less exactly. * Now type plot<cr>. one for plotted mm. you have the shape of an F. you have an H.

To start the process. Then you will be asked for the coordinates of the point. make a scaled drawing of a rectangle that is 6m. clear corner.line or pline or 3dpoly . you can't expect the digitizer to figure out an elevation when it's flat).75m. We'll see how accurately we can use a drawing to enter information. Do the same for the other known point. (If you don't have a drawing to use. Now let's use the drawing we just produced to make a copy of the rectangle. You must be the judge for your own style. But I do usually align them when I have a less clear corner.8. You do that by picking two points on the model and identifying the coordinates of the points in real-world terms (x and y only. you need only issue the command .) * Start the process of calibrating the tablet with the command tablet<cr>. You will be asked for a point on the digitizer. (Make sure snap and osnap are off. however. . You will have to place the crosshairs precisely on the points you're trying to pick. you must get the system to recognize that the digitizer is working at a scale other than oneto-one. wide and use that drawing instead. which you would have entered with the keyboard. so experiment now. called a puck. (If you are using a paper drawing. We will trace it on the digitizer. the system must respond to a specified movement on the digitizer as equivalent to a larger movement in the real world. but I have found that I prefer not to align the crosshairs with the drawing lines when I have a sharp. So you can't enter all three coordinates from the digitizer. That is. you wanted to make a specific elevation for any of the points you selected. Pick one of the corners for which you know the coordinates. Also check the coordinates of each point and compare them to the coordinates for Rect.) * Before tracing the rectangle. Make trace the current layer. but you can use it for two and type the third coordinate. When you traced the rectangle. The digitizer is now scaled to match the scale of the drawing. Type them in. high and . Is it better to align the crosshairs with lines when picking a corner. To trace the rectangle.75. the elevation was assumed to be the default elevation. you could have typed . * First.2 and the upper right to be 3. make a new layer called trace. what did you do about the elevation of each point? If you only entered the point picked with the digitizer.) Close the line to make your rectangle. then type cal<cr> (for calibrate).) If. Now check your new rectangle (with endpoint and either id or dist) to see how close you are to the original size 6 m.xy before picking the point. tape the drawing on the digitizer surface. The system would have accepted the x. and freeze VL.TABLET Skip this if you don't have a digitizer attached to your system. Check your model and use the id command (with endpoint) to get the coordinates of two diagonally opposite corners of the rectangle.and y-coordinates chosen and prompted you for the z-coordinate. (That can be changed with the command elevation<cr>.and pick the four corners with the digitizer puck. that has crosshairs and perhaps some magnification. consider the lower left point to be 3. A.) Note at the beginning that the digitizer has a sighting device.75 m. x . or to try to have all the lines stand clear of one another? It will vary from person to person. (The process may not be the same in more recent versions of AutoCAD.

A to guide you. to -3.021.1. * Now turn back on layer VL so you have Rect. Use the id or list command to check your move. You will have to recalibrate in that case. it will lose the calibration) with Control-T. You may have trouble with the next command. it will be more accurate.) Then make another new layer called trace2.315. Draw the rectangle as before.0 and the second one x. (Get the computer to find the distance. and rotate it to fit. You can turn the calibration off and back on (so long as you don't quit AutoCAD in the interim . First find the distance between the two diagonally opposite points of Rect. now we will move it to the correct location.6. A. and the axes are capriciously oriented.2. meant that we used the longest distance between known points available on the drawing. we could have calibrated with the correct scale but not the actual model coordinates. Using the diagonally opposite corners of the rectangle. A.0 (x being the distance from corner to diagonally opposite corner . It acts as a toggle. Return to the isometric view. This time. so you would want to start digitizing with points at the extremities of your drawing and recalibrate with them if you must quit and restart the program. for instance.6.884. changing the tablet mode back and forth from calibrated to normal. to .6. . to -3.if you do. We want to tell the system to use the angle from corner to corner of our new rectangle as a starting reference and to rotate the rectangle so it matches the angle from corner to corner of Rect.) * Although we calibrated with the actual coordinates from the model. We'll do that now. using the pline command. because the tablet is calibrated. Now recalibrate the tablet by picking the same two points on your drawing. A that you used before. make it the current layer and freeze all others. Put it on layer trace. meant that the same absolute error in our digitizing process was spread over the largest distance possible.0467 . which we can't do with numbers. as we instructed the computer to do). from 0.594. but label the first point 0. making sure that both rectangles have one corner in exactly the same place.1. the error inevitably introduced when we tried to pick specific points was the smallest achievable percentage of the distance.047 when rounded off to three decimal places. please draw one. MOVE AND ROTATE If you do not have a digitizing tablet and therefore do not have the new rectangle to use. since we don't know the rotation required. Don't forget to close the figure.I think it should be 6. * Now type rotate<cr> to start the process of rotation.106. Move the new rectangle with the aid of the endpoint feature so that one corner lies precisely on the appropriate corner of Rect. let's match the angle from corner to corner of the new rectangle to the comparable angle in the original one. 591. it's best to calibrate with the best points you have (the ones you know most certainly) and the two such points farthest apart. The scale is correct but the position is arbitrary. That. in turn.551. use it in the following. Thus.039. rather than one of the sides. (Note that the tablet calibration will not survive if you exit AutoCAD. When digitizing any drawing.We chose to calibrate the tablet in a specific way for a reason.

0<cr>. You may want to experiment with this to be sure how it works if you are using Release 2006. array. select the corner of Rect. A where the corner of your new rectangle belongs." Pick the ends of the diagonal on the new rectangle to define the reference angle. bhatch Open your model.0<cr>. Start with the end at the base point. Then you need to type <cr> to indicate that you have no more objects to select. however.) ******* Session Five: copy multiple. Then the system will prompt you for the new angle. Get a plan view. (Not necessary in Release 2006. @4. Draw a line from -10. The new prompt is "Reference angle <90. mirror. you can just keep adding copies until you hit the <cr> key. End of Session Four (We added so little to the model that there is no new drawing here.10 to -8. * So select the line. you must give the system a staring point and then indicate new points. and make it the current layer.) * Now pick one end of the line (using endpoint) and indicate where the copies will go by typing @2.0<cr>. * Type array<cr> and pick the last of the lines you just made (the rightmost line). Then type another <cr> to end the sequence.* After you've picked the rectangle and located the base corner around which to rotate it. and type copy<cr>. ARRAY An easier way to make multiple copies for a regular grouping of items is to use the array command. * You will be prompted for whether your array is to be rectangular or polar (rotational). Make a layer called Grid. Again using endpoint." Type ref<cr> to indicate that you will provide the reference angle. You can also type copy and make many new lines in several places. Time to save your work again. and make sure that all the layers that are not text layers are displayed. @6. That should complete the rotation. each two units apart.000>:. one at a time. But first you may need to zoom to be able to see the line you just drew. and be sure to use endpoint. you cannot do so with displacements alone. you know that you can type copy and make a new line in another place.0<cr>. * Then type m<cr> to indicate multiple copies. the prompt will be "/Reference:. COPY MULTIPLE * Making multiple versions of something is one of the things a CAD program does very well. and @8.12 To copy that line. choose . You have just made four copies of the line.

and freeze Grid and Trash. So to make the mirror line you need only select the top and bottom of the right side of the polyline. * You will get a very complicated dialog box that varies rather dramatically from version to version of AutoCAD. You may find that a very small scale is required to get an effect that is useful. Escape will return you to the dialog box. * Having picked the pattern. angle.) * In this case. * Type mirror<cr> and select the polyline that surrounds the rectangles. Make a layer named Hatch. you will see that in the hatch options dialog box there are indicators of scale. * Then tell the system that you want the rows and columns to be 3 units apart. The results are similar to those we obtained with the multiple copy command. The easiest way to use the command is to begin by picking a point in the model that has boundaries. Now indicate that the original polyline should not be removed. Done! You may need to zoom out to see your handiwork. since they may be at different elevations. but you now have a mirror image of the original polyline. use the right vertical edge of the polyline as the mirror line. you may need to construct a mirror line to use the command. so the lines that make the boundary in plan view may or may not constitute a true boundary.) * Make layer EXP the current layer. Start by picking a point within the latest polyline (the mirrored version of the earlier one).r<cr> for rectangular. and spacing. but we requested two rows and five columns. So it may be hard to get the results you want. use the mirror command. BHATCH The command bhatch puts cross-hatching of some sort in a bounded area. In practice. If you want to make a mirror image of an object instead of a copy. * Then indicate that you want 2 rows and 5 columns. and you can keep trying until you like the results. Lines that are not in a horizontal plane will be ignored.) * In the dialog box indicate that you are going to pick a point and do so. * Then use the <cr> to indicate that you have picked the point(s) you want. don't try to make your own yet). put the hatching on it.) MIRROR Make your current layer VL. (This is a 2D notion. (The system counts the existing line as part of the completed array. Don't try to change those now. The dialog box will reappear. * Pick one of the existing patterns (trust me on this. (Note that the mirror image is on the same layer as the original. (This line need not be an actual line in the model. * Type bhatch<cr>. but accept the defaults and select preview. * Now you must choose a mirror line . .a line that will mark the half-way point between the original and its mirror image. though the current layer was VL. choosing one or more points that lie inside bounded areas. but may be a line implied by two sets of coordinates.

A separate command called VPLAYER can be used to deal with layers in only one viewport. 2. Use the vpoint command to make views from 1. After generating each viewpoint. * That surface will lie below all the lines and surfaces of the rectangles we've drawn (but not the polylines on layer EXP). thawed/frozen. splframe Open your model. Remember that you will want to use an isometric view and the osnap with endpoint option to make the sides of the box. let's move around the box and see how it looks from various angles. To prove that there are surfaces.5. VR.5. etc. use the hide command to see how the box appears. because I don't want to save when I am only looking at a model rather than editing it. Save and quit. you may or may not need to restate the hide command. Now copy it and put the copy at an elevation of 2.-1. Put sides on the "box" by using the 3dface command. edge. and all that have text. We have been making combinations of lines. (You can always use end instead. to contain all the horizontal and vertical rectangles we've drawn so far. but let's now make a figure that consists entirely of faces. polylines.) You will find that the views from below the level of the . As you may have realized. 1. 7. and 3D faces so far. on all viewports at the same time. and -1. and thaw all layers except Solid. Trash.5. -2. 8. AutoCAD's layers are on/off. Grid.5.1. -2. -2. 3dface and complex surfaces. -2. but not on later versions. 7.Make a slide of the current screen. 8. I prefer to save as a separate process before quitting so that I can be more certain that the model has been saved before I have quit working. (Depending on your versions of AutoCAD.5. -1. ******* Session Six: Another short note about layers. Hatch. Make a layer called FACES. * Use the 3dface command to make a face with the following corners: 2. * Now you have a top and bottom surface. That's good. So let's begin by making a box.-1. * You should now have a six-sided box consisting only surfaces.-1.5.1. Get a plan view. in fact. surfaces. 1. 1.1.5.-1. when constructing 3D models unless we need to make solids. so the quit command is better there. entirely constructed of faces. not shaded.5.1. It also means that I am not in the habit of using the end command. Make sure your view is 3D wire-frame. and make it the current layer.) End of Session Five.5. These are the kinds of figures we should make.

each new figure is based on the last three or four points entered. 8. and six). 1. It has been my experience that this process is so fraught with error that it is far better to build 3dfaces out of joined three. need to use <cr> twice to complete the command.3. using the first four points specified. in each view. but each time we finish a quadrilateral figure. To do that in the case of the pentagon just constructed. one that contains the box we just drew (let's call it Box 1) but not the polyline. We can make them appear to be a single surface by hiding the line of separation.or four-sided faces.7. it is possible to keep adding new points indefinitely.1. quadrilateral shapes. out of points three.) * The results should be quite unsatisfactory. In addition. entering the points in a different order. with a line separating them. Try the hide command to be sure. 3. rather than a single pentagonal surface. When . we could just make two figures. 11. but you will have drawn one quadrilateral face. to get a pentagonal figure. Use the hide command and the list command to see what has happened. but this time they should cover the entire area correctly. First erase your last surfaces (there are two separate ones) and enter the points in this order: 1. make it the current layer. First. since there as a boundary line on each of the surfaces. Do that now by using osnap and choosing the points already in the model in the pentagon already drawn. 11. 3. the rectangles we drew before are hidden and the polylines are not. Parts of the polylines will be hidden in some views because the box will be in front of them. there are still two separate surfaces. * In order to see what we're doing better in what follows.7. 5. (Only the last figure can be a triangle.3. We must enter the points so that the first four points will define a quadrilateral figure and the next point (or two points) will make a second figure.) The ordering of the points is crucial.7.3.5. 8. we can make figures with more than four sides. and the result is not really one entity but two (or more). * As we just learned. and five (or three. a four-side one and a three-sided one. If you were to try to erase the pentagonal surface. always in the order entered. you would need to erase both the quadrilateral and the triangular ones. (You will need to use <cr> twice to complete the command. 3. Now let's make a 3dface using these 5 points: 1.3.) What do you have this time? You should have another quadrilateral figure and another triangular one. 8. 3. even though they appear to be one.box (the ones with -1 as the z-coordinate) to be very deceptive.5.1. four. You will probably have to do that twice. we've only worked on four-sided boxes. * So far. 8. In fact. either a triangular or a quadrilateral figure. in that order.3. freeze all the layers except PENT. using the last three points specified. but we have to be careful about choosing the points in the right order. 8. You will have picked five points. But you should find that. 5. four. 3.3. * However. 3. 1. five. Type EDGE and select the line of separation. 1.5. 8. 1. 8. 8.3.5. make a new layer called PENT.3. and one triangular face. (You will.7. You should see the pentagonal figure from a reasonable viewing angle. because they lie entirely outside the box. 3.3. again. Now let's try to make a box with five sides. * We can try this again. 3. there are still two figures.3. we start a new quadrilateral or triangular figure based on the last two points entered and the next one or two points.

We will not try to minimize the number of 3dface commands used. erase the two faces just made. much quicker and less error-prone than trying to make complex surfaces with a single 3dface command. 7. 16. then the one at the bottom of the window.two 3dfaces without the edge between them. You should now have a figure identical to what was drawn before . Try looking from different viewpoints to see what is hidden. in my view. 10. Let's see how to approach this task. Instead. * Move the last two 3dfaces to an elevation of -3 (6 below its current location).-1.you finish. you can use 'limits<cr> and turn the limits off without stopping your 3dface command. but start with the point at the far right. I think you will find that it would be all but impossible to make a surface with this boundary with a single 3dface command.5. so if you are in the middle of a 3dface process. 12. and again type i<cr> before selecting the third point. then type i<cr> to tell AutoCAD that the next edge (between the third and fourth points) is to be invisible. 13. Start the 3dface command and choose the point to the far left.) Use the hide command to see what happens. 4. using a polyline as the boundary so that we can re-work the surfacing possibilities without typing coordinates again and again.) * First. Then pick the third and fourth points and finish the command. * If you look at this figure. That should not be difficult if you use the osnap setting. and the line between the two surfaces will show as before. zoom in to make the polyline occupy most of your screen area. . First make certain that your viewpoint is 1. Please note that (as pointed out near the beginning of this tutorial) you will be unable to use the osnap command on the 3dfaces already drawn is layer 0 is frozen. Now start the figure again. Now it is up to you to see if you can make the 3dface command sing. 0. once you specified an elevation for the first point.1 so that the instructions will be clear. so you must thaw it." Put a "2" near the second and so on.) * Now thaw again the layers HM. 15. Draw a closed polyline (still on layer PENT) using these coordinates: 11. (You may need to turn limits off . and FACES. but it's not too difficult if you exercise care in selecting the individual surfaces that will compose the larger real-world surface. but do not use that command. The edge command will hide that "seam" as it did before.remember limits from the first session? it's one of the transparent commands. If you aren't ready to do it on your own. (Remember that. 3. Now use 3dface again to make the triangular surface above. you could use H? and V? to get all the rectangles. That will make it easy to refer to the points. 1. Connect them with five 3dfaces by making a face between each corresponding edge. leaving the ones made before. Return to the plan view. Now let's try to make a surface within the boundary of that polygon. 0. you will have the same two figures we made with the single command. 15. (Remember.5. but we will use the invisibility option to be sure the result is as we wish. 5. HT. let's add some text to make the description of the process easier. HB. Near the first point of the polyline use the text command to place a "1. 9. and no z-values could be entered after the first point of the polyline. Then finish up (without a fourth point). Using the combination of multiple 3dface commands and the invisible option is. VR. 13. VL. go to the next point (counter-clockwise). all succeeding elevations were determined. * Making larger surfaces can become a bit complex.

If your result is not correct. it should look like Figure 9. 4. 7. Without the shade command.Fig. the one between points 4 and 7 and the one between points 7 and 2. it should still look like Figure 8. Now make another four-sided surface using points 2. 3. and 7. 8 . This time there will be two invisible edges. Make sure that you make the edge between points 2 and 7 invisible (remembering that the I<cr> must be before the first point of that edge). and 8. 5. and 7 . 2. try again. Finally. make another surface with points 4.with one edge made invisible. 6. Start with a 3dface for the area bounded by points 1. If you use the shade command. .The Polyline to be used for 3dfaces.

Type splframe<cr> again. are now visible. * This may be a good time to check your AutoCAD manual.and making the view a 3D wire-frame. Sometimes we want to see them. Type regen<cr>. change the value back to 0. and type regen<cr> again. more than one explanation may help. Notice now that the invisible lines. The 3dface command is not easy to use. End of Session Six. zooming as necessary so that you can see all the surfaces we just made and the other parts of the model . Type splframe<cr>. ******* . The lines are invisible again. Make the value 1 instead of the default value of 0. * Now.Fig.The Polyline filled with 3dfaces. Time to save and stop. this one controls the visibility of the edges we have declared to be invisible. 9 . the ones in the figures we just constructed and the ones in the pentagon. You have just changed one of the AutoCAD system variables.