This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
ON “WORKSHOP PRACTICES & RELATED MECHANICAL ACTIVITIES IN CENTRAL WORKSHOPS, JAYANT”
By-: kundan giri MIET ,meerut
My acknowledgement deeply thanks the co-operation received from all the employees of Northern Coalfields Limited, Singrauli as a whole for providing me the opportunity to learn from them their systematic approach of accomplishing the work. I also convey my gratitude to the employees specially the Central workshop for intending all the help I needed and the congenial working environment they provided me during my project, they were so helpful that I never felt that I am working with the persons senior to me age wise as well as experience wise. With their guidance cooperation and best wishes it would have been possible for me to complete my training and report satisfactorily. I express my deep sense of gratitude of Mr. Poorna Kolagani of NCL for his constant supervision during the entire project work. I am truly grateful to all the shop Managers who gave me vital information related to my project work. I would also like to thank to my all family members whose morale support helped me to complete my project successfully. Lastly, a big thanks to all those who helped me sparing time even through their busy schedule and for being kind enough to help me whenever needed them.
Regards, Kundan Giri Mechanical engg. MIET, Meerut
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ON “WORKSHOP PRACTICES & RELATED MECHANICAL ACTIVITIES IN CENTRAL WORKSHOPS,JAYANT” ........................................................................................................................................................ 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .......................................................................................................................................................... 2 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4 Machine shop ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6 Welding shop........................................................................................................................................................................... 11 Transmission shop ................................................................................................................................................................ 22 Engine shop.............................................................................................................................................................................. 26
THE MISSION OF COAL INDIA IS TO PRODUCE AND MARKET THE PLANNED QUANTITY OF COAL AND COAL PRODUCTS EFFECIENTLY AND ECONOMICALLY WITH DUE REGARDS TO SAFETY, CONSERVATION QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENT
Northern Coalfields Limited was formed in April 1986 as a subsidiary company of Coal India Limited. Its headquarter is located at Singrauli, Distt. Sidhi (M.P.). Singrauli is connected by road with Varanasi (220 Km.) – a holy city on the banks of river Ganga, and Rewa (206 Km.) – the state of white tigers and Sidhi (100 Km.) – district headquarter town of Madhya Pradesh. The nearest railway station is Singrauli located on the Katni-Chopan branch line running parallel to the northern boundary of the Coalfield. The nearest railway station for reaching directly to Delhi and Kolkata is Renukoot that is located on the Garhwa-Chopan rail-line. Nearest (private) airstrip is at Muirpur (60 Km.).
The area of Singrauli Coalfields is about 2202 Sq.Km. The coalfield can be divided into two basins, viz. Moher sub-basin (312 Sq.Km.) and Singrauli Main basin (1890 Sq.Km.). Major part of the Moher sub-basin lies in the Sidhi district of Madhya Pradesh and a small part lies in the Sonebhadra district of Uttar Pradesh. Singrauli main basin lies in the western part of the coalfield and is largely unexplored. The present coal mining activities and future blocks are concentrated in Moher sub-basin.
The exploration carried out by GSI/NCDC/CMPDI has proved abundant resource of power grade coal in the area. This in conjunction with easy water resource from Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar makes this region an ideal location for high capacity pithead power plants. The coal supplies from NCL has made it possible to produce about 10515 MW of electricity from pithead power plants of National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), Uttar Pradesh Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Ltd (UPRVUNL) and Renupower division of M/s. Hindalco Industries. The region is now called the "power capital of India". The ultimate capacity of power generation of these power plants is 13295 MW and NCL is fully prepared to meet the increased demand of coal for the purpose. In addition, NCL is also supplying coal to power plants of Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Ltd, Delhi Vidyut Board (DVB) and Hariyana State Electricity Board. NCL produces coal through mechanised opencast mines but its commitments towards environmental protection is total. It is one of very few companies engaged in mining activities, which has got ISO –14001 Certification for its environmental systems.
NCL, through its community development programmes, has significantly contributed towards improvement and development of the area. It is helping local tribal, non-tribal and project-affected persons in overall improvement of quality of their life through selfemployments schemes, imparting education and providing health care.
TOTAL AREA AREA OF MOHER BASIN AREA OF MAIN BASIN ESTIMATED RESERVES OF MOHER BASIN As on 31.03.07 BALANCE MINEABLE RESERVES OF MOHER BASIN (up to 300 meter depth) As on 31.03.07 LIFE OF COALFIELD AT SCHEDULED RATE OF PRODUCTION. COAL SEAMS IN MOHER BASIN, THICKNESS & GRADE GRADIENT Note: Jhingurda seam is the Thickest Coal Seam of India 2202 Sq.Km. 312 Sq.Km. 1890 Sq.Km. 8.31 Billion Tonnes 2.68 Billion Tonnes 37 YRS. JHINGURDA 130-138 m D-E PUREWA TOP 9 m D-E PUREWA BOTTOM 12 m C-D TURRA 20 m C-E 2 to 5 DEGREES
-UNDER MR. G.S VISWAKARMA, MR. S.P DWIVEDI MR. SAMIM M R . S A TR U D HA N JUNE 2011 TO 27TH JUNE 2011)
THINGS COVERED DURING WELDING SHOP TRAINING PERIOD: Safety while welding Types of safeties Types of welding Welding equipments Welding techniques Welding defects and distortions Prevention of defects Types of welding starts Different types of welding machines Electric arc welding Submerged arc welding Gas welding and gas cutting Flux(metallurgy) Shielding gas Welding joints
FIGURE 1: WELDING SAFTEY EQUIPMENTS BEING PROVIDED AT CWS JAYANT, NCL
ARC WELDING Gas metal arc welding Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can use either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current, and consumable or non-consumable electrodes. The welding region is usually protected by some type of shielding gas, vapor, and/or slag. Power supplies Engine driven welder capable of AC/DC welding. To supply the electrical energy necessary for arc welding processes, a number of different power supplies can be used. The most common classification is constant current power supplies and constant voltage power supplies. In arc welding, the voltage is directly related to the length of the arc, and the current is related to the amount of heat input. Constant current power supplies are most often used for manual welding processes such as gas tungsten arc welding and shielded metal arc welding, because they maintain a relatively constant current even as the voltage varies. This is important because in manual
welding, it can be difficult to hold the electrode perfectly steady, and as a result, the arc length and thus voltage tend to fluctuate. Constant voltage power supplies hold the voltage constant and vary the current, and as a result, are most often used for automated welding processes such as gas metal arc welding, flux cored arc welding, and submerged arc welding. In these processes, arc length is kept constant, since any fluctuation in the distance between the wire and the base material is quickly rectified by a large change in current. For example, if the wire and the base material get too close, the current will rapidly increase, which in turn causes the heat to increase and the tip of the wire to melt, returning it to its original separation distance. The direction of current used in arc welding also plays an important role in welding. Consumable electrode processes such as shielded metal arc welding and gas metal arc welding generally use direct current, but the electrode can be charged either positively or negatively. In welding, the positively charged anode will have a greater heat concentration and, as a result, changing the polarity of the electrode has an impact on weld properties. If the electrode is positively charged, it will melt more quickly, increasing weld penetration and welding speed. Alternatively, FIGURE 2:ENGINE DRIVEN WELDER a negatively charged electrode results in more shallow welds. CAPABLE OF AC/DC WELDING. Non-consumable electrode processes, such as gas tungsten arc welding, can use either type of direct current (DC), as well as alternating current (AC). With direct current however, because the electrode only creates the arc and does not provide filler material, a positively charged electrode causes shallow welds, while a negatively charged electrode makes deeper welds. Alternating current rapidly moves between these two, resulting in medium-penetration welds. One disadvantage of AC, the fact that the arc must be re-ignited after every zero crossing, has been addressed with the invention of special power units that produce a square wave pattern instead of the normal sine wave, eliminating low-voltage time after the zero crossings and minimizing the effects of the problem. Home and hobby power supplies Home and hobby arc welders for occasional light duty (under 0.25 FIGURE 3: A DIESEL POWERED WELDING in/unknown operator: u'strong' mm plate) GENERATOR (THE ELECTRIC GENERATOR IS ON repair and construction are available from $100 THE LEFT) and up as of 2011. In the $100 to $200 range, many choices are available in welding power supplies such as output current at a given duty cycle, 120 volts (domestic) or 220 V AC, and differing input currents. At these low prices, any positive factor typically weakens another important factor. One seller offers this specification: "Duty Cycle: 45% @ 60 amps, 25% @ 80 amps," for their 120 volts, 20 A input, "90 Amp Flux Wire Welder". Duty cycle is a welding equipment specification which defines the number of minutes, within a 10 minute period, during which a given arc welder can safely be used. For example, an 80 A welder with a 60%
duty cycle must be "rested" for at least 4 minutes after 6 minutes of continuous welding. Failure to observe duty cycle limitations could damage the welder. Commercial- or professional-grade welders typically have a 100% duty cycle. SAFETY ISSUES Welding can be a dangerous and unhealthy practice without the proper precautions; however, with the use of new technology and proper protection the risks of injury or death associated with welding can be greatly reduced. Heat and sparks Because many common welding procedures involve an open electric arc or flame, the risk of burns from heat and sparks is significant. To prevent them, welders wear protective clothing in the form of heavy leather gloves and protective long sleeve jackets to avoid exposure to extreme heat, flames, and sparks. Eye damage Exposure to the brightness of the weld area leads to a condition called arc eye in which ultraviolet light causes inflammation of the cornea and can burn the retinas of the eyes. Welding goggles and helmets with dark face plates - much darker than those in sunglasses or oxy-fuel goggles - are worn to prevent this exposure. In recent years, new helmet models have been produced featuring a face plate that automatically self-darkens FIGURE 4: AUTO DARKENING WELDING HOOD WITH 90×110 MM CARTRIDGE AND electronically. To protect bystanders, transparent welding curtains often surround the welding area. These 3.78×1.85 IN VIEWING AREA curtains, made of a polyvinyl chloride plastic film, shield nearby workers from exposure to the UV light from the electric arc. Inhaled matter Welders are also often exposed to dangerous gases and particulate matter. Processes like flux-cored arc welding and shielded metal arc welding produce smoke containing particles of various types of oxides. The size of the particles in question tends to influence the toxicity of the fumes, with smaller particles presenting a greater danger. Additionally, many processes produce various gases (most commonly carbon dioxide and ozone, but others as well) that can prove dangerous if ventilation is inadequate. Furthermore, the use of compressed gases and flames in many welding processes pose an explosion and fire risk;some common precautions include limiting the amount of oxygen in the air and keeping combustible materials awayfrom the workplace. Interference with pacemakers Certain welding machines which use a high frequency AC current component have been found to affect pacemaker operation when within 2 meters of the power unit and 1 meter of the weld site.
ELECTRODE An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a non-metallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte or a vacuum). The word was coined by the scientist Michael Faraday from the Greek words elektron (meaning amber, from which the word electricity is derived) and hodos, away. Anode and cathode in electrochemical cells An electrode in an electrochemical cell is referred to as either an anode or a cathode (words that were also coined by Faraday).The anode is now defined as the electrode at which electrons leave the cell and oxidation occurs, and FIGURE 5: ELECTRODES USED IN ARC the cathode as the electrode at which electrons enter the WELDING cell and reduction occurs. Each electrode may become either the anode or the cathode depending on the direction of current through the cell. A bipolar electrode is an electrode that functions as the anode of one cell and the cathode of another cell. Primary cell A primary cell is a special type of electrochemical cell in which the reaction cannot be reversed, and the identities of the anode and cathode are therefore fixed. The anode is always the negative electrode. The cell can be discharged but not recharged. Secondary cell A secondary cell, for example a rechargeable battery, is one in which the chemical reactions are reversible. When the cell is being charged, the anode becomes the positive (+) and the cathode the negative (−) electrode. This is also the case in an electrolytic cell. When the cell is being discharged, it behaves like a primary cell, with the anode as the negative and the cathode as the positive electrode. Other anodes and cathodes In a vacuum tube or a semiconductor having polarity (diodes, electrolytic capacitors) the anode is the positive (+) electrode and the cathode the negative (−). The electrons enter the device through the cathode and exit the device through the anode. Many devices have other electrodes to control operation, e.g., base, gate, control grid. In a three-electrode cell, a counter electrode, also called an auxiliary electrode, is used only to make a connection to the electrolyte so that a current can be applied to the working electrode. The counter electrode is usually made of an inert material, such as a noble metal or graphite, to keep it from dissolving. Welding electrodes In arc welding an electrode is used to conduct current through a workpiece to fuse two pieces together. Depending upon the process, the electrode is either consumable, in the case of gas metal arc welding or shielded metal arc welding, or non-consumable, such as in gas tungsten arc welding. For a direct current system the weld rod or stick may be a cathode for a filling type weld or an
anode for other welding processes. For an alternating current arc welder the welding electrode would not be considered an anode or cathode. Alternating current electrodes For electrical systems which use alternating current the electrodes are the connections from the circuitry to the object to be acted upon by the electric current but are not designated anode or cathode since the direction of flow of the electrons changes periodically, usually many times per second. Uses Electrodes are used to provide current through nonmetal objects to alter them in numerous ways and to measure conductivity for numerous purposes. Examples include: • Electrodes for medical purposes, such as EEG, ECG, ECT, defibrillator • Electrodes for electrophysiology techniques in biomedical research • Electrodes for execution by the electric chair • Electrodes for electroplating • Electrodes for arc welding • Electrodes for cathodic protection • Electrodes for grounding • Electrodes for chemical analysis using electrochemical methods • Inert electrodes for electrolysis (made of platinum) • Membrane electrode assembly Chemically modified electrodes Chemically modified electrodes are electrodes that have their surfaces chemically modified to change the electrode's physical, chemical, electrochemical, optical, electrical, and transport properties. These electrodes are used for advanced purposes in research and investigation. SUBMERGED ARC WELDING Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a common arc welding process. Originally developed by the Linde - Union Carbide Company. It requires a non-continuously fed consumable solid or tubular (flux cored) electrode. The molten weld and the arc zone are protected from atmospheric contamination by being “submerged” under a blanket of granular fusible flux consisting of lime, silica, manganese oxide, calcium fluoride, and other compounds. When molten, the flux becomes conductive, and provides a current path between the electrode and the work. This thick layer of flux completely covers the molten metal thus preventing spatter and sparks as well as suppressing the intense ultraviolet radiation and fumes that are a part of the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process.
SAW is normally operated in the automatic or mechanized mode, however, semi-automatic (handheld) SAW guns with pressurized or gravity flux feed delivery are available. The process is normally limited to the flat or horizontal-fillet welding positions (although horizontal groove position welds have been done with a special arrangement to support the flux). Deposition rates approaching 100 lb/h (45 kg/h) have been reported — this compares to ~10 lb/h (5 kg/h) (max) for shielded metal arc welding. Although Currents ranging from 300 to 2000 A are commonly utilized, currents of up to 5000 A have also been used (multiple arcs). Single or multiple (2 to 5) electrode wire variations of the process exist. SAW strip-cladding utilizes a flat strip electrode (e.g. 60 mm wide x 0.5 mm thick). DC or AC power can be used, and combinations of DC and AC are common on multiple electrode systems. Constant voltage welding power supplies are most commonly used; however, constant current systems in combination with a voltage sensing wire-feeder are available.
FIGURE 6: SUBMERGED ARC WELDING. THE WELDING HEAD MOVES FROM RIGHT TO LEFT. THE FLUX POWDER IS SUPPLIED BY THE HOPPER ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE, THEN FOLLOW THREE FILLER WIRE GUNS AND FINALLY A VACUUM CLEANER.
OXY-FUEL WELDING AND CUTTING Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or gas welding in the U.S.) and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively. French engineers Edmond Fouché and Charles Picard became the first to develop oxygen-acetylene welding in 1903. Pure oxygen, instead of air (20% oxygen/80% nitrogen), is used to increase the flame temperature to allow localized melting of the workpiece material (e.g. steel) in a room environment. A common propane/air flame burns at about 3,630 °F (2,000 °C), a propane/oxygen flame burns at about 4,530 °F (2,500 °C), and an acetylene/oxygen flame burns at about 6,330 °F (3,500 °C). Oxy-fuel is one of the oldest welding processes. Still used in industry, in recent decades it has been less widely utilized in industrial applications as other specifically devised
technologies have been adopted. It is still widely used for welding pipes and tubes, as well as repair work. It is also frequently well-suited, and favored, for fabricating some types of metal-based artwork. In oxy-fuel welding, a welding torch is used to weld metals. Welding metal results when two pieces are heated to a temperature that produces a shared pool of molten metal. The molten pool is generally supplied with additional metal called filler. Filler material depends upon the metals to be welded. In oxy-fuel cutting, a torch is used to heat metal to its kindling temperature. A stream of oxygen is then trained on the metal, burning it into a metal oxide that flows out of the kerf as slag. Torches that do not mix fuel with oxygen (combining, instead, atmospheric air) are not considered oxy-fuel torches and can typically be identified by a single tank (Oxy-fuel cutting requires two isolated supplies, fuel and oxygen). Most metals cannot be melted with a single-tank torch. As such, single-tank torches are typically used only for soldering and brazing, rather than welding.
-UNDER SURINDER SINGH ( F R O M 2 8 T H J U N E 2 0 1 1 TO 4 T H J U N E 2 0 1 1 )
MACHINES AVAILABLE IN THE MACHINE SHOP 1. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. To 23. Lathes in different sizes SB CNC NH CNC BVS 25/50 Milling (total 6 machines,m1 to m6) Horizontal boring machines Radial drill (3) Slotters (2) Shapers (3) Power grinders (4) Surface grinders Center less grinder Tool post grinder Power hacksaw Band saw Gear hobbins Circular saw EOT cranes (10 ton and 5 ton capacities) Planomiller LATHE One of the most important machine tools in the metalworking industry is the lathe. A lathe operates on the principle of a rotating workpiece and a fixed cutting tool. The cutting tool is feed into the workpiece, which rotates about its own Z-axis, causing the workpiece to be formed to the desired shape. The lathes in the Student Shop are commonly referred to as “engine lathes”. Thisis the most popular type of lathe in industry because of its versatility and ease ofoperation. Some of the more frequently performed operations on the engine lathe are: turning cylindrical surfaces, facing flat surfaces, drilling and boring holes, and cutting internal or external threads. Although relatively simple, these few operations provide a wide range of manufacturing ability. Lathes are classified according to the maximum diameter, (know as the “swing”), and the maximum length of the workpiece that can be handled by the lathe. Another important characteristic of any lathe is the maximum horsepower that can be supplied to rotate the workpiece. A new way lathes are being classified today is by their controls, manual, computer-numerically-
controlled, (commonly called CNC), and the latest referred to as hybrid lathes. Hybrid lathes are a cross between the standard manually operated lathe and the computer operated lathe, CNC. Lathe Construction There are four main groups of components that comprise the basis for all engine lathes. These consist of the: bed, headstock, tailstock, and the carriage. Please refer to figure for clarity. The bed is the foundation of the engine lathe. The bed is a heavy, rugged casting made to support the working parts of the lathe. The size and mass of the bed gives the rigidity necessary for accurate engineering tolerances required in manufacturing today. On top of the bed are machined ways that guide and align the carriage and tailstock, as they are move from one end of the lathe to the other. The headstock is clamped atop the bed at the left-hand end of the lathe. The headstock contains the motor that drives the spindle through a series of gears. The workpiece is mounted to the spindle through means of a chuck, faceplate, or collet. Since the headstock contains the motor and drive gears, the speed or RPM at which the spindle rotates is also controlled here. The headstock also contains the power feed adjustments, which are the controls for the rate at which the carriage moves when the power feed lever in engaged. The carriage assembly moves lengthwise, (longitudinally), along the ways between the headstock and the tailstock. The carriage is composed of the cross slide, compound rest, saddle, and apron. The saddle is an H shaped casting mounted on top of the ways, and supports the cross slide and compound rest. The apron is fastened to the saddle, and houses the automatic feed mechanisms. The cross slide is mounted on top of the saddle, and can be moved either manually or automatically across the longitudinal axis (Z-axis) of the spindle. This provides the lathe’s X-axis, which is the diameter the workpiece is machined to. The compound rest holds the tool post, which supports the cutting tool. Mounted on top of the cross slide, the compound rest can be swiveled to any angle in the horizontal plane. This is useful when cutting angles and short tapers on the workpiece. Procedures Proficiency in lathe operations involves more than simply “turning” metal. Quality work can be produced on the lathe if the job is planned in advance. There are two main categories of procedures to be followed when machining parts on a lathe: the preliminary operations, and the machining operations. Preliminary OperationsCleaning- The first, (and last), procedure in any machining operation. Without clean equipment and tools, the accuracy of the finished product diminishes quickly. The accuracy, durability, and longevity of the equipment and tools depend on being kept clean. In today’s high tolerances in engineering, cleanliness is critical. Holding the workpiece- There are several types of holding devices used on the engine lathe. The most common is the three-jaw chuck (see figure). This chuck permits all three jaws to work simultaneously, automatically centering round or hexagonal shaped pieces. Each jaw only fits with the particular groove in the exact chuck it was made for, so the jaws are not interchangeable between chucks. The advantages of this type of chuck are that it is very versatile, quick set-up, large range of sizes, and uniform holding pressure on the workpiece. The disadvantage is that is the least accurate of the holding devices in the Student Shop. The three-jaw chuck only has an accuracy of
between +0.005” to +0.010”, depending upon its condition. The second type of chuck is the four-jaw chuck, (see figure). This is also called the independent chuck because each of its jaws operates independent of the other three. This permits odd shaped work to be held and centered about a feature. The advantages are that it is versatile, provides a secure hold o the workpiece, large range of sizes, and has extremely accurate centering method. The four-jaw chuck is accurate to +0.0005”. The main disadvantage is the long process necessary to center the workpiece, requiring a high level of in the use of a dial indicator. A third important holding device is the spring collet. This is a popular style due to its ease of use and good accuracy. The spring collet will usually repeat within +0.001”. Disadvantages to the spring collet are limitations to the size of each collet, (+0.005”), restrictive to only round workpieces, and a maximum diameter of 1-1/16”. 3-Jaw Chuck 4-Jaw Chuck Spring Collet Tooling- Tools must be clamped securely to the tool post regardless of what type of tool is being used. It is also recommended to have the cutting tool extended the least amount possible to reduce torque and vibrations induced in the tool when cutting. The tools must be adjusted so that their cutting edge is at the height of the exact center of the workpiece. This Defined as a line running between the center of the headstock and tailstock spindles. Each lathe has a turning, facing and parting tool as part of its tooling accessories. Machine Controls- Many factors must be considered when determining the correct speed, (RPM), and feed rates. Some of these are: 1. Type of material being machined. 2. Desired finish to the workpiece. 3. Condition of the lathe. 4. Rigidity of the workpiece. Smaller diameters are less rigid. 5. Shape and size of the workpiece. 6. Size and type of tooling being used. Machining Operations Once the set-up is complete, a quick check should be made of the machine settings. Next, the work should be checked that it is in the holding device correctly. This is done with the machine OFF, FIGURE 7: A STEADY REST manually rotate the chuck, seeing if there are any interference points or possible inference points. Once this is complete, the machining operations can being. There are usually two phase to machining, roughing and finishing. The roughing operation is the process of removing the unwanted material to within about 1/32”, (about 0.030”), of the finished dimension. Roughing speeds are approximately 80% of the finishing speeds. Roughing feed rates are from 0.005” to 0.010”/revolution. Sizes and lengths should be check after the roughing operation before going on to the finish operation. Finish operations are used to bring the workpiece to the required size, length, shape, and surface finish. Depending upon the surface
finish desired, feed rates are generally between 0.001” to 0.005”/revolution. The main difference between roughing and finishing cuts is the depth of cut. Depth of cut refers to the distance the cutter has been fed, or advanced, into the workpiece surface. The depth of cut, like feed rates, varies greatly with the machining conditions. Material, hardness, speed, and total material needed to be removed all play a part in figuring the depth of cut amount. Roughing depth of cuts are greater, or deeper than finishing depth of cuts, which are finer or shallower. All cuts, whether roughing or finishing, should be made from right to left. Traveling towards the chuck as oppose to away from it offers the greatest rigidity and therefore the greatest safety. Safety; The lathe can be a safe machine, but only if the student is aware of the hazards involved. In the machine shop you must always keep your mind on your work in order toavoid accidents. Distractions should be taken care of before machining is begun. Develop safe working habits in the use of safety glasses, set-ups, and tools. The following rules must be observed when working on the lathes in the Student Shop: 1. No attempt should be made to operate the lathe until you understand the proper procedures for its use and have been checked out on it. 2. Dress appropriately. Remove all watches and jewelry. Safety glasses or goggles are a must. 3. Plan out your work thoroughly before starting. 4. Know where the location of the OFF switch is. 5. Be sure the work and holding device are firmly attached. 6. Turn the chuck by hand, with the lathe turned OFF, to be sure there is no danger of striking any part of the lathe. 7. Always remove the chuck key from the chuck immediately after use, and before operating the lathe. Make it a habit to never let go of the chuck key until it is out of the chuck and back in its holder. 8. Keep the machine clear of tools. Tools must not be placed on the ways of the lathe. 9. Stop the lathe before making any measurements, adjustments, or cleaning. 10. Support all work solidly. Do not permit small diameter work to project too far from the chuck, (over 3X’s the work’s diameter), without support. 12. If the work must be repositioned or removed from the lathe. Move the cutting tool clear of the work to prevent any accidental injuries. 13. You should always be aware of the direction of travel and speed of the carriage before you engage the automatic feed. 14. Chips are sharp. Do not attempt to remove them with your hand when they become “stringy” and build up on the tool post or workpiece. Stop the machine and remove them with plies.
15. Stop the lathe immediately if any odd noise or vibration develops while you are operating it. If you cannot locate the source of the trouble, get help from the instructor. Under no circumstance should the lathe be operated until the problem has been corrected. 16. Remove sharp edges and burrs from the work before removing it from the lathe. 17. Use care when cleaning the lathe. Chips sometimes get caught in recesses. Remove them with a brush or short stick. Never use a floor brush to clean the machine. Use only a brush, compressed air, or a rag. SHAPER Shaper with boring bar setup to allow cutting of internal features, such as keyways, or even shapes that might otherwise be cut with wire EDM. A shaper is a type of machine tool that uses linear relative motion between the workpiece and a single-point cutting tool to machine a linear toolpath. Its cut is analogous to that of a lathe, except that it is (archetypally) linear instead of helical. (Adding axes of motion can yield helical toolpaths, as also done in helical planing.) A shaper is analogous to a planer, but smaller, and with the cutter riding a ram that moves above a stationary workpiece, rather than the entire workpiece moving beneath the cutter. The ram is moved back and forth typically by a crank inside the column; hydraulically actuated shapers also exist. Types Shapers are mainly classified as higher, draw-cut, horizontal, universal, vertical, geared, crank, hydraulic, contour and traveling head. The horizontal arrangement is the most common. Vertical shapers are generally fitted with a rotary table to enable curved surfaces to be machined (same idea as in helical planing). The vertical shaper is essentially the same thing as a slotter (slotting machine), although technically a distinction can be made if one defines a true vertical shaper as a machine whose slide can be moved from the vertical. A slotter is fixed in the vertical plane. Small shapers have been successfully made to operate by hand power. As size increases, the mass of the machine and its power requirements increase, and it becomes necessary to use a motor or other supply of mechanical power. This motor drives a mechanical arrangement (using a pinion gear, bull gear, and crank, or a chain over sprockets) or a hydraulic motor that supplies the necessary movement via hydraulic cylinders. PLANER (METALWORKING) A planer is a type of metalworking machine tool that uses linear relative motion between the workpiece and a single-point cutting tool to machine a linear toolpath. Its cut is analogous to that of a lathe, except that it is (archetypally) linear instead of helical. (Adding axes of motion can yield helical toolpaths; see "Helical planing" below.) A planer is analogous to a shaper, but larger, and with the entire workpiece moving on a table beneath the cutter, instead of the cutter riding a ram that moves above a stationary workpiece. The table is moved back and forth on the bed beneath the cutting head either by mechanical means, such as a rack and pinion drive or a leadscrew, or by a hydraulic cylinder. Linear planing The most common applications of planers and shapers are linear-toolpath ones, such as:
• Generating accurate flat surfaces. (While not as precise as grinding, a planer can remove a tremendous amount of material in one pass with high accuracy.) • Cutting slots (such as keyways). • It is even possible to obviate wire EDM work in some cases. Starting from a drilled or cored hole, a planer with a boring-bar type tool can cut internal features that don't lend themselves to milling or boring (such as irregularly shaped holes with tight corners). Helical planing Although the archetypal toolpath of a planer is linear, helical toolpaths can be accomplished via features that correlate the tool's linear advancement to simultaneous workpiece rotation (for example, an indexing head with linkage to the main motion of the planer). To use today's terminology, one can give the machine other axes in addition to the main axis. The helical planing idea shares close analogy with both helical milling and single-point screw cutting. Although this capability existed from almost the very beginning of planers (circa 1820), the machining of helical features (other than screw threads themselves) remained a hand-filing affair in most machine shops until the 1860s, and such hand-filing did not become rare until another several decades had passed. HORIZONTAL BORING MACHINE A horizontal boring machine or horizontal boring mill is a machine tool which bores holes in a horizontal direction. There are three main types — table, planer and floor. The table type is the most common and, as it is the most versatile, it is also known as the universal type. A horizontal boring machine has its work spindle parallel to the ground and work table. Typically there are 3 linear axes in which the tool head and part move. Convention dictates that the main axis that drives the part towards the work spindle is the Z axis, with a cross-traversing X axis and a verticallytraversing Y axis. The work spindle is referred to as the C axis and, if a rotary table is incorporated, its centre line is the B axis. Horizontal boring machines are often heavy-duty industrial machines used for roughing out large components but there are high-precision models too. Modern machines use advanced CNC control systems and techniques. Charles DeVlieg entered the Machine Tool Hall of Fame for his work upon a highly precise model which he called a JIGMIL. The accuracy of this machine convinced the USAF to accept John Parson's idea for numerically controlled machine tools. MILLING MACHINE A milling machine is a machine tool used to machine solid materials. Milling machines are often classed in two basic forms, horizontal and vertical, which refers to the orientation of the main spindle. Both types range in size from small, bench-mounted devices to room-sized machines. Unlike a drill press, which holds the workpiece stationary as the drill moves axially to penetrate the material, milling machines also move the workpiece radially against the rotating milling cutter, which cuts on its sides as well as its tip. Work piece and cutter movement are precisely controlled to less than 0.001 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm), usually by means of precision ground slides and leadscrews or analogous technology. Milling machines may be manually operated, mechanically automated, or digitally automated via computer numerical control.Milling machines can perform a vast number of operations, from simple (e.g., slot and keyway cutting, planing, drilling) to complex (e.g., contouring, die sinking). Cutting fluid is often pumped to the cutting site to cool and lubricate the cut and to wash away the resulting swarf.
Types and nomenclature Mill orientation is the primary classification for milling machines. The two basic configurations are vertical and horizontal. However, there are alternate classifications according to method of control, size, purpose and power source. Mill orientation Vertical mill In the vertical mill the spindle axis is vertically oriented. Milling cutters are held in the spindle and rotate on its axis. The spindle can generally be extended (or the table can be raised/lowered, giving the same effect), allowing plunge cuts and drilling. There are two subcategories of vertical mills: the bed mill and the turret mill. • A turret mill has a stationary spindle and the table is moved both perpendicular and parallel to the spindle axis to accomplish cutting. The most common example of this type is the Bridgeport, described below. Turret mills often have a quill which allows the milling cutter to be raised and lowered in amanner similar to a drill press. This type of machine provides two methods of cutting in the vertical (Z) direction: by raising or lowering the quill, and by moving the knee. • In the bed mill, however, the table moves only perpendicular to the spindle's axis, while the spindle itself moves parallel to its own axis. Turret mills are generally considered by some to be more versatile of the two designs. However, turret mills are only practical as long as the machine remains relatively small. As machine size increases, moving the knee up and down requires considerable effort and it also becomes difficult to reach the quill feed handle (if equipped). Therefore, larger milling machines are usually of the bed type. Also of note is a lighter machine, called a mill-drill. It is quite popular with hobbyists, due to its small size and lower price. A mill-drill is similar to a small drill press but equipped with an X-Y table. These are frequently of lower quality than other types of machines. Horizontal mill A horizontal mill has the same sort of x–y table, but the cutters are mounted on a horizontal arbor (see Arbor milling) across the table. Many horizontal mills also feature a built-in rotary table that allows milling at various angles; this feature is called a universal table. While endmills and the other types of tools available to a vertical mill may be used in a horizontal mill, their real advantage lies in arbor-mounted cutters, called side and face mills, which have a cross section rather like a circular saw, but are generally wider and smaller in diameter. Because the cutters have good support from the arbor and have a larger cross-sectional area than an end mill, quite heavy cuts can be taken enabling rapid material removal rates. These are used to mill grooves and slots. Plain mills are used to shape flat surfaces. Several cutters may be ganged together on the arbor to mill a complex shape of slots and planes. Special cutters can also cut grooves, bevels, radii, or indeed any section desired. These specialty cutters tend to be expensive. Simplex mills have one spindle, and duplex mills have two. It is also easier to cut gears on a horizontal mill. Some horizontal milling machines are equipped with a power-take-off provision on the table. This allows the table feed to be synchronized to a rotary fixture, enabling the milling of spiral features such as hypoid gears.
INDEXING HEAD An indexing head, also known as a dividing head or spiral head, is a specialized tool that allows a workpiece to be circularly indexed; that is, easily and precisely rotated to preset an gles or circular divisions. Indexing heads are usually used on the tables of milling machines, but may be used on many other machine tools including drill presses, grinders, and boring machines. Common jobs for a dividing head include machining the flutes of a milling cutter, cutting the teeth of a gear, milling curved slots, or drilling a bolt hole circle around the circumference of a part. The tool is similar to a rotary table except that it is designed to be tilted as well as rotated. Most adjustable designs allow the head to be tilted from 10° below horizontal to 90° vertical, at which point the head is parallel with the machine table. The workpiece is held in the indexing head in the same manner as a metalworking lathe. This is most commonly a chuck but can include a collet fitted directly into the spindle on the indexing head, faceplate, or between centers. If the part is long then it may be supported with the help of an FIGURE 8: INDEXING PLATES accompanying tailstock. Manual indexing heads Cross-section of an indexing head Interchangeable indexing plates Indexing is an operation of dividing a periphery of a cylindrical workpiece into equal number of divisions by the help of index crank and index plate. A manual indexing head includes a hand crank. Rotating the hand crank in turn rotates the spindle and therefore the workpiece. The hand crank uses a worm gear drive to provide precise control of the rotation of the work. The work may be rotated and then locked into place before the cutter is applied, or it may be rotated during cutting depending on the type of machining being done. Most dividing heads operate at a 40:1 ratio; that is 40 turns of the hand crank generates 1 revolution of the spindle or workpiece. In other words, 1 turn of the hand crank rotates the spindle by 9 degrees. Because the operator of the machine may want to rotate the part to an arbitrary angle indexing plates are used to ensure the part is accurately positioned. Direct indexing plate: Most dividing heads have an indexing plate permanently attached to the spindle. This plate is located at the end of the spindle, very close to where the work would be mounted. It is fixed to the spindle and rotates with it. This plate is usually equipped with a series of holes that enables rapid indexing to common angles, such as 30, 45, or 90 degrees. A pin in the base of the dividing head can be extended into the direct indexing plate to lock the head quickly into one of these angles. The advantage of the direct indexing plate is that it is fast and simple and no calculations are required to use it. The disadvantage is that it can only be used for a limited number of angles. A dividing head mounted on the table of a small milling machine. The direct indexing plate and center are visible facing the camera. An interchangeable indexing plate is visible on the left side. Interchangeable indexing plates are used when the work must be rotated to an angle not available on the direct indexing plate. Because the hand crank is fixed to the spindle at a known
ratio (commonly 40:1) then dividing plates mounted at the handwheel can be used to create finer divisions for precise orientation at arbitrary angles. These dividing plates are provided in sets of several plates. Each plate has rings of holes with different divisions. For example, an indexing plate might have three rows of holes with 24, 30, and 36 holes in each row. A pin on the hand crank engages these holes. Index plates with up to 400 holes are available. Only one such plate can be mounted to the dividing head at a time. The plate is selected by the machinist based on exactly what angle he wishes to index to. Brown and Sharpe indexing heads include a set of 3 indexing plates. The plates are marked #1, #2 and #3, or "A", "B" and "C". Each plate contains 6 rows of holes. Plate #1 or "A" has 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20 holes. Plate #2 or "B" has 21, 23, 27, 29, 31, and 33 holes. Plate #3 or "C" has 37, 39, 41, 43, 47, and 49 holes. Some manual indexing heads are equipped with a power drive provision. This allows the rotation of the dividing head to be connected to the table feed of the milling machine instead of using a hand crank. A set of change gears is provided to select the ratio between the table feed and rotation. This setup allows the machining of spiral or helical features such as spiral gears, worms, or screw type parts because the part is simultaneously rotated at the same timeit is moved in the horizontal direction. This setup is called a "PTO dividing head". NUMERICAL CONTROL Numerical control (NC) refers to the automation of machine tools that are operated by abstractly programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to controlled manually via handwheels or levers, or mechanically automated via cams alone. The first NC machines were built in the 1940s and 1950s, based on existing tools that were modified with motors that moved the controls to follow points fed into the system on punched tape. These early servomechanisms were rapidly augmented with analog and digital computers, creating the modern computer numerical control (CNC) machine FIGURE 9: A SIEMENS CNC MACHINE tools that have revolutionized the machining processes. In modern CNC systems, end-to-end component design is highly automated using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) programs. The programs produce a computer file that is interpreted to extract the commands needed to operate a particular machine via a postprocessor (for specific controller), and then loaded into the CNC machines for production. Since any particular component might require the use of a number of different tools-drills, saws, etc., modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single "cell". In other cases, a number of different machines are used with an external controller and human or robotic operators that move the component from machine to machine.
- U N D E R P O O R N A K O L A G A N I ( I I T K HA R A G P U R ) ( 0 5 - 0 7 - 2 0 1 1 TO 1 1 - 0 7 - 2 0 1 1 )
Transmissions available: 1. 2. 3. 4. Model No. HD-785-2 transmission (85 ton dumper) Model No. BD-335X transmission (410 hp dozer) Model No. CLVT-750 transmission (35 ton dumper) Model No. Bh-85-1 transmission (Rear dumper)
Details covered: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Clutch combinations Valve combinations Pressure oils used Fitting, engaging and disengaging of clutches PTO housing Testing parameters for HD-785 Fluid coupling and torque converter
BD355X BULL DOZER SALIENT FEATURES 1. BEML BS6D170-1 diesel engine: Turbo charged engine for superb fuel economy and generous power to weight ratio for powerful dozing. 2. Torqueflow transmission: Smooth and responsive power shift with single-lever control for instant speed and directional changes. 3. Pilot operated hydraulic system: Offers FIGURE 10: OVERHAULING A HD-785 TRANSMISSION effortless fine control of blade through joy stick 4. Operator Comfort: Conveniently located arm chair steering control for enhanced operator comfort. 5. Electronic Monitoring System: Intrdouction of state of the art electronic monitoring system, fitted with cluster gauges. 6. Steering clutch & Brakes: Track-roller frames are made of high tensile steel for maximum rigidity. The blade incorporates high-tensile steel at all key points to improve outstanding resistance to wear
7. Sturdy construction: High tensile steel blades of different configurations available for varying types of working conditions and applications . The work attatchment is sturdy in construction to withstand adverse ground conditions. 8. Sprockets: Bolt-on type segmented sprocket permits quick on site replacement. Special grooved type floating seals and unique dust seals provide extended undercarriage life. 9. Reduced noise levels: Radiator, fuel tank, floor frame and the cabin are mounted on antivibration rubber cushions to isolate vibration and to reduce noise levels. Flywheel power (net): 310kW (416HP) @ 2000 r/min Operating mass (with straight tilt dozer): 43850 kg Torque converter: In modern usage, a torque converter is generally a type of hydrodynamic fluid coupling that is used to transfer rotating power from a prime mover, such as an internal combustion engine or electric motor, to a rotating driven load. The torque converter normally takes the place of a mechanical clutch in a vehicle with an automatic transmission, allowing the load to be separated from the power source. It is usually located between the engine's flexplate and the transmission. The key characteristic of a torque converter is its ability to multiply torque when there is a substantial difference between input and output rotational speed, thus providing the equivalent of a reduction gear. Some of these devices are also equipped with a temporary locking mechanism which rigidly binds the engine to the transmission when their speeds are nearly equal, to avoid slippage and a resulting loss of FIGURE 11: TORQUE CONVERTER CUT-AWAY efficiency. By far the most common form of torque converter in automobile transmissions is the device described here. However, in the 1920s there was also the pendulum-based Constantinesco torque converter. There are also mechanical designs for continuously variable transmissions and these also have the ability to multiply torque, e.g. the Variomatic with expanding pulleys and a belt drive. Usage • Automatic transmissions on automobiles, such as cars, buses, and on/off highway trucks. • Forwarders and other heavy duty vehicles. • Marine propulsion systems.
• Industrial power transmission such as conveyor drives, almost all modern forklifts, winches, drilling rigs, construction equipment, and railway locomotives. Function Torque converter elements A fluid coupling is a two element drive that is incapable of multiplying torque, while a torque converter has at least one extra element—the stator—which alters the drive's characteristics during periods of high slippage, producing an increase in output torque. In a torque converter there are at least three rotating elements: the impeller, which is mechanically driven by the prime mover; the turbine, which drives the load; and the stator, which is interposed between the impeller and turbine so that it can alter oil flow returning from the turbine to the impeller. The classic torque converter design dictates that the stator be prevented from rotating under any condition, hence the term stator. In practice, however, the stator is mounted on an overrunning clutch, which prevents the stator from counter-rotating with respect to the prime mover but allows forward rotation. Modifications to the basic three element design have been periodically incorporated, especially in applications where higher than normal torque multiplication is required. Most commonly, these have taken the form of multiple turbines and stators, each set being designed to produce differing amounts of torque multiplication. For example, the Buick Dynaflow automatic transmission was a non-shifting design and, under normal conditions, relied solely upon the converter to multiply torque. The Dynaflow used a five element converter to produce the wide range of torque multiplication needed to propel a heavy vehicle. Although not strictly a part of classic torque converter design, many automotive converters include a lock-up clutch to improve cruising power transmission efficiency and reduce heat. The application of the clutch locks the turbine to the impeller, causing all power transmission to be mechanical, thus eliminating losses associated with fluid drive. Operational phases A torque converter has three stages of operation: • Stall. The prime mover is applying power to the impeller but the turbine cannot rotate. For example, in an automobile, this stage of operation would occur when the driver has placed the transmission in gear but is preventing the vehicle from moving by continuing to apply the brakes. At stall, the torque converter can produce maximum torque multiplication if sufficient input power is applied (the resulting multiplication is called the stall ratio). The stall phase actually lasts for a brief period when the load (e.g., vehicle) initially starts to move, as there will be a very large difference between pump and turbine speed. • Acceleration. The load is accelerating but there still is a relatively large difference between impeller and turbine speed. Under this condition, the converter will produce torque multiplication that is less than what could be achieved under stall conditions. The amount of multiplication will depend upon the actual difference between pump and turbine speed, as well as various other design factors.
• Coupling. The turbine has reached approximately 90 percent of the speed of the impeller. Torque multiplication has essentially ceased and the torque converter is behaving in a manner similar to a simple fluid coupling. In modern automotive applications, it is usually at this stage of operation where the lock-up clutch is applied, a procedure that tends to improve fuel efficiency. The key to the torque converter's ability to multiply torque lies in the stator. In the classic fluid coupling design, periods of high slippage cause FIGURE 12: A CUT-AWAY MODEL OF the fluid flow returning from the turbine to the impellor to A TORQUE CONVERTER oppose the direction of impeller rotation, leading to a significant loss of efficiency and the generation of considerable waste heat. Under the same condition in a torque converter, the returning fluid will be redirected by the stator so that it aids the rotation of the impeller, instead of impeding it. The result is that much of the energy in the returning fluid is recovered and added to the energy being applied to the impeller by the prime mover. This action causes a substantial increase in the mass of fluid being directed to the turbine, producing an increase in output torque. Since the returning fluid is initially travelling in a direction opposite to impeller rotation, the stator will likewise attempt to counter-rotate as it forces the fluid to change direction, an effect that is prevented by the one-way stator clutch. Unlike the radially straight blades used in a plain fluid coupling, a torque converter's turbine and stator use angled and curved blades. The blade shape of the stator is what alters the path of the fluid, forcing it to coincide with the impeller rotation. The matching curve of the turbine blades helps to correctly direct the returning fluid to the stator so the latter can do its job. The shape of the blades is important as minor variations can result in significant changes to the converter's performance. During the stall and acceleration phases, in which torque multiplication occurs, the stator remains stationary due to the action of its one-way clutch. However, as the torque converter approaches the coupling phase, the energy and volume of the fluid returning from the turbine will gradually decrease, causing pressure on the stator to likewise decrease. Once in the coupling phase, the returning fluid will reverse direction and now rotate in the direction of the impellor and turbine, an effect which will attempt to forward-rotate the stator. At this point, the stator clutch will release and the impeller, turbine and stator will all (more or less) turn as a unit. Unavoidably, some of the fluid's kinetic energy will be lost due to friction and turbulence, causing the converter to generate waste heat (dissipated in many applications by water cooling). This effect, often referred to as pumping loss, will be most pronounced at or near stall conditions. In modern designs, the blade geometry minimizes oil velocity at low impeller speeds, which allows the turbine to be stalled for long periods with little danger of overheating.
- U N D E R M R . K R I S H N A M O HA N (FROM 12.07.2011 TO 20.07.2011)
Engines available: 1) CUMMINS: a) NT-495 b) NT/A-495 c) NT-855 d) NT/A-855 e) NT-743 f) VT-1710 g) VT/A-1710 h) KT-1150 i) KT/A-1150 j) KT-2300 k) KT/A-2300 l) KT/A-38C m) KT/A-3067 2) BEML: a) 6D-170mm (145hp-4 cylinder)
(280 hp-6 cylinder)
(900 hp-12 cylinder)
(1600hp-16 cylinders) (410hp-6 cylinders)
FIGURE 13: CRANKSHAFT GRINDING MACHINE
b) 6D-140mm (280hp-6 cylinders) 3) DDC (Detra Diesel Corp.) a) S-2000 (1200hp-16 cylinders) 4) CATERPILLER: a) DITA-3406 (400hp-6 cylinders) b) DITA-3506 (870 hp-8 cylinders) c) CAT-3508 (900 hp-8 cylinders)
Topics covered: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Cooling system Air system Lubrication system Fuel system Different manifolds Turbocharger and supercharger in details Construction of an air compressor Construction of a water pump Construction of a fuel injector
COOLING SYSTEMS Cooling system consists of the following major parts: Air/water Pump Cylinder block Oil cooler Cylinder head Water manifold Thermostat housing
AIR SYSTEMS The air system consists of following important components: Air cleaner Turbocharger After cooler Intake manifold Inlet valve Combustion chamber LUBRICATION SYSTEMS The lubrication system consists of the following important components: Oil sump Suction pipe Oil pump Oil regulator Oil filter Oil cooler Main gallery Sub gallery Piston cooling nozzle gallery Cylinder head All moving components Back to sump
FIGURE 14: ENGINES KEPT AT CWS JAYANT WORKSHOP
FUEL SYSTEMS The fuel system consists of the following important parts: Fuel tank Fuel filter Fuel pump o Pressure timing pump o Fuel injection pump Fuel manifold Fuel injector nozzle Combustion chamber